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Am

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im^^SfJt 'i«y^

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LIBRARY Brigham Young University

IN

MEMORY OF

George Fitzroy

_rv>..

\

THE HISTORY OF

AMERICAN MUSIC

E|}c ^istoru of amrriran ^rt lEliitcb

fag

Jofjn (E.

Fan

10gk£

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCULPTURE. RADO Taft, Member

of the National

With 12 photogravures and many

Sculpture

By LoSociety.

text illustrations.

Imp.

8vo.

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC.

By Louis

C.

Elson, Musical Editor of the Boston Advertiser ; author of

"Our many

National Music," text illustrations.

With 12 photogravures and

etc.

Imp. 8vo.

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN PAINTING. ISHAM, Member of the Society of American 12 photogravures

and many

text illustrations.

By Samuel

Artists.

With

Imp. 8vo.

Nearly ready.

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN ILLUSTRATION, ENGRAVING, AND ETCHING. By Joseph Pennell, author of " Pen Drawing and Pen Draughtsmen," " Lithog-

raphy

and

Lithographers,"

"

Modern

Illustrated with origmal materials.

Illustration,"

etc.

Imp. 8vo.

In preparation.

'

c^AMOl-rr

3TAJ^

3H0a03HT

PLATE

I

THEODORE THOMAS

t/lQ Cl^e i^ijstort of American ^tt

THE HISTORY OF

AMERICAN MUSIC no BY

LOUIS C ELSON

WITH TWELVE FULL-PAGE PHOTOGRAVURES AND ONE HUNDRED AND TWO ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT

Neb) lorfe

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY LONDON MACMILLAN & :

1904 All rights resej'ved

CO., Ltd.

Copyright, 1904,

By

the MACMILLAX COMPANY.

Set up, electrotyped, and published

Mnrch,

1904.

Novtoooti X^xtss

J.

S.

Gushing

&

Co.

— Berwick & Smith

Norwood, Man., U.S.A.

HAROLD B. LEE LIBRARY BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY PROVO, UTAH

Co.

EDITOR'S NOTE This

series

of

books brings together

materials for a history of

American

for

the

time

first

the

Heretofore there have

art.

been attempts to narrate some special period or feature of our artistic

development, but the narrative has never been consecutive

or conclusive.

The

present volumes

and carry the record down

begin with colonial times,

They

to the year 1904.

are intended

to cover the graphic, the plastic, the illustrative, the architectural,

the musical, and the dramatic

department historically and

arts,

and

critically.

to recite the results in

each

That the opinions ventured

should be authoritative, the preparation of each volume has been placed in the hands of an expert,

whereof he writes. art written

from the

The

series

artist's

is

— one

who

practises the

therefore a history of

craft

American

point of view, and should have special

value for that reason.

In this

"

History of American Music," the second of the

series,

the author has told of the beginnings, the foreign influences, the

changes, the methods, the personal endeavors, that have gone to the

making

of

Many

our present music.

of the events

here nar-

rated occurred but yesterday or are happening to-day, and hence

have

little

perspective for the historian.

possible to say a final word, even

if

It

has not always been

that were desirable.

In

its

stead the widely scattered facts have been brought together and

arranged sequentially that they might their

own

conclusion.

February, 1904.

tell

their

own

story and point

CONTENTS CHAPTER I.

II.

PAGE

The Religious Beginnings of American Music Early Musical Organizations

....

I

27

III.

Instrumental Music and American Orchestras

41

IV.

Musical Societies and Institutions

11

Opera

95

V.

in

....

America

The Folk-music of America

123

National and Patriotic Music

140

American Tone-masters

165

The Orchestral Composers of America

191

X.

Other Orchestral Composers of America

215

XI.

Operatic, Cantata, and Vocal Composers

229

American Song-composers

243

VI. VII.

VIII.

IX.

XII.

....

XIII.

Organists, Choir and Chorus Leaders

XIV.

The American Composers for Pianoforte

279

American Women

293

XV. XVI. XVII. XVIII.

in

.

Music

Musical Criticism and Authorship

.

259

311

The Musical Education of the Present

339

Qualities and Defects of American Music

361

General Bibliography

367

Index

369

VH

PHOTOGRAVURES PLATE I.

Theodore Thomas

Frontispiece

.

FACING PAGE II.

Park Street Church, Boston

III.

Henry

IV.

William H. Frv

V. VI. VII. VIII.

IX.

X.

XI

Xn.

L.

Higginson

41

95

Edward Alexander MacDowell

165

Horatio Parker

191

Anton Seidl

.... .

George W. Chadwick King's Chapel, Boston

215

.

229

.

-43

Benjamin Johnson Lang Mrs. H. H. A. Beach

259 293

.

John K. Paine

339

IX

I

.

ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT

....

FIGURE

Mary's Tune

PAGE 2

1.

St.

2.

Title-page of "

3.

Page

of "

4.

Page from Dr. Thomas Walter's Singing-book

II

5.

Advertisement from Old Salem Newspaper

13

6.

Billings's " Chester "

7.

The

.....

14 17

8.

Advertisement from Boston Gazette, 1767

19

9.

Advertisement from Massachusetts Magazine

Bay Psalm Book"

Bay Psalm Book

Organ

Brattle

"

.

6

.

7

.

.

.

.

,

1

792

21

10.

Advertisement from Boston Chronicle, 1764

23

1 1

Advertisement from Salem Gazette,

29

12.

Symphony

13.

Home

14.

Carl

15.

Dr. Lowell

16.

Heading of an Early Musical Journal

44

17.

Jonas Chickering

47

18

Georg Henschel

51

19

Wilhelm Gericke

54

20

Arthur Nikisch

57

21

Emil Paur

60

22.

Walter Damrosch

63

23.

Fritz Scheel

72

24.

Theodore Thomas

25.

Dr. Leopold Damrosch

26.

The Germania

27.

The Mason-Thomas

28.

The

.... ..... .... .... .... .... .... ..... .... ..... ....

Hall.

790

Boston

Haydn

of Handel and

Zenahn

1

Society in 1850

Mason

.

Orchestra, 1850

Quintette

Kneisel Quartette

Stage of Metropolitan Opera House

30.

Bispham

31.

Mme.

32.

Emma Eames

33.

Louise

as

Wolfram

in

"Tannhauser"

Nordica

Homer

as Juliet

35

37

74 79 83

86 89

29.

Lillian

y:>

97 lOI

105 .

II

Amneris

115

34. Autograph of Anton Seidl

118

as

1

ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT

XI

PAGE

35-

Suzanne Adams as Marguerite

121

36.

Nineveh Flute

124

37.

March of

127

38.

Omaha Large

39.

Ojibway Drums

40.

Stephen C. Foster

41.

Liberty

42.

"'Yankee Doodle," Old English Setting

/a

43

c.

Flute

Song

140

.

.

"God save the King" American Setting of "God save the King" American Setting of " God save the King " " Washington's

44.

.

American Setting of

43 «.

43

Flute Priests

March

"

and

"

Yankee Doodl

144 145

146 147

149

45(7.

First Edition of " Hail

Columbia"

152

/a

First Edition of " Hail

Columbia"

153

45

Key

Francis Scott

46.

..... —

.56

AfTa.

"Star-spangled Banner"

English Drinking-song

158

\J

"Star-spangled Banner"

— English Drinking-song

159

b.

48.

" Glory Hallelujah "

.

.

49. Manuscript Music by Professor

.

J.

.

K. Paine

162

168

W. Chadwick

50.

Manuscript by George

51.

Josef Rheinberger

52.

Allen A.

53.

New England

54.

Arthur Foote

55.

Henry K. Hadley

56.

Manuscript by Van der Stucke

196

57.

Frederic Grant Gleason

2CO

58.

Louis Adolphe Coerne

204

59.

E. R. Kroeger

208

60.

Arthur Whiting

212

6r.

C.

62.

Louis Maas

63.

John

64.

J.

C. D. Parker

232

65.

H. M. Dunham

235

66.

Dudley Buck

239

M.

.....

Brown Room.

Boston Public Library

Conservatory of Music

184 188

.

.

Loeffler

P.

177 181

193

219 223

Sousa

226

.

C)-]

a.

Letter by Robert Franz

244

67

b.

Letter by Robert Franz

245

W.

Nevin

68.

Ethelbert

69.

Clayton Johns

251

70.

Frederic Field Bullard

253

71.

Augusto Rotoli

255

72.

Music Hall Organ, Boston

263

249

ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT

Xlll PACE

FIGURE

Jordan Hall. Boston

Ti-

Organ

74.

George E. Whiting

75.

J.

76.

Samuel P. Warren

"]•].

Clarence

78.

Dr. William

79.

Louis

80.

William H. Sherwood

81.

Carl

82.

Rafael JosefFy

290

83.

Miss Margaret R. Lang

296

84.

Mrs. Julia Rive-King

299

85.

Miss Leonora Jackson

303

86.

Mine. Camilla Urso

308

87.

John

88.

Henry T. Finck

89.

Henry E. Krehbiel

90.

William

91.

George

92.

W.

93.

Dr. Eben Tourjee

340

94.

Stephen A. Emery

342

95.

Julius

96.

Manuscript by Eichber

346

97.

Antonin Dvorak

.

349

98.

Frank Damrosch

.

99.

Philadelphia

in

268

Wallace Goodrich

270 '2.11

Eddy

275

Mason

278

M. Gottschalk

282 285

Baermann

S.

Dwight

J.

P.

S. B.

266

288

.

313

.

317 321

Henderson

3-4

Upton

329

.

Mathews

j3j

Eichberg

345

Academy

Fund

352 of Music

354

100.

Musical

loi.

Music Hall and College of Music, Cincinnati

360

102.

Frank Van der Stucken

363

Hall. Philadelphia

356

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC CHAPTER

I

THE RELIGIOUS BEGINNINGS OF AMERICAN MUSIC In presenting a history of the development of American music,

one ought, songs

if

of the

following chronological sequence, to speak

Aborigines

;

first of

the

but although these were, as a matter of

course, the earliest melodies that can be traced on this continent,

be found, when the subject

will

is

alluded to in a later chapter, that

the music of the North American Indians of the

The field

rigid,

responsible for very

is

"

no thoroughfare

true

"

as the ancient chants of China.

beginnings of American

— seeds

music

into a harvest of native compositions

— must

be sought itself,

narrow, and often commonplace psalm-singing of

may

It

lishmen

in

in a

— the

New Eng-

be admitted that there was a civilized music on these

shores that antedated even these psalm-tunes.

There were Eng-

Virginia almost a generation before the Pils^rims reached destination

cisatlantic

;

but

these

home-songs with absolutely no attempt their

that finally

almost as unpromising as that of the Indian music

land.

their

little

composition of later times, and seems to have been almost as

absolutely

grew

it

new surroundings

;

they

adventurers

to alter or to

made no

sang

their

modify them to

effort to establish

any new

and although they gave concerts long before the Pilgrims or Puritans (who would have school of music, either vocal or instrumental

deemed

"

concerts

holy strains in

"

New

;

a very heterodox thing) lifted

England, these were merely a reproduction of

similar events as they took place in England.

— abnormal things that took forth

no

The

fruit of

their voices in

no root

in

They were

American

soil

exotics

and brought

any kind.

far less artistic

music that was developed

in Puritan

Boston

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

2

and Pilgrim Plymouth was something that, although it had its origin overseas, soon became indigenous to the soil, and altered gradually from the style of its prototype as, in the Middle Ages, the Gregorian chant altered

France and became the Caiitus

in

Gallicanus.

At the very start, both Pilgrims and on many points of doctrine, united in a views as regards the

"

divine art

distrust of music.

Calvin's

(he had grave doubts about

"

divinity) tinctured the earliest

music

orims would have abolished

all

it

Puritans, although differing

of

New

England.

The

its

Pil-

but for the fact that the ancient

Hebrews had undoubtedly employed psalm-singing in their religious They therefore, while rejecting hymns and other sacred services. music, allowed Psalms to be sung during their devotions.

Fic.

From

It is

Dr.

Thomas

Walter's

What

Mary's Tune.

Windsor," and

Puritans,

and

Boston, 1721.

they used but five tunes for their

first

"

of

them; "York" was another; "Hack-

Martyrs

"

were probably the other

"Hackney" was sometimes called The version used in singing the the

of Musick Explained."

these tunes were has not been clearly proven.

"Old Hundred "was one "

— St.

"Grounds and Rules

recorded that at the

psalmody.

ney,"

I.

in

"St. Mary's "(Fig.

i).

Psalms, both in Boston,

Plymouth, among the

three.

Pilgrims,

among

was that

;

THE RELIGIOUS BEGINNINGS OF AMERICAN MUSIC As was

arranged by Rev. Henry Ainsworth. the old Puritan versions of the Psalms,

The

it

fidelity.

Psalm may

clearly illustrate this " Showt to Jehovah,

:



:

him come with singing-mirth

Know

that

O

Jehovah he God

made

One Hundredth

the earth

all

before

" Its he that

all

followed the original with

Serve ye Jehovah with gladnes

is.

and not wee

us,

and sheep of

his folk

the case with

following example of the

painstaking

3

his feeding.

with confession enter yee

his gates, his cotirtyards with praising.

" Confesse to him, blesse ye his name.

Because Jehovah he good his

and

The book used by which

is

preserved

mercy ever his faith

is

unto

is

the

same

all

ages." 't)^

:

:

the Pilgrims w^as a neat duodecimo, a copy of

in

the Public Library of Boston.

tunes, wretchedly printed in very small

It

notes, but the

has a few

tunes

five

chosen by the early singers were probably sung without reference

Another version

to the notation.

Hopkins, was used

Ipswich, but in Boston

versions were soon

"

printed in the colonies (Fig. "

all

by Sternhold and

Bay Psalm Book,"' published in 1640 at CamMassachusetts, the first book (except a trivial Almanac)

superseded by the bridge,

in

of the Psalms,

The Psalmes

in

Metre

:

and Comfort of the

New

Its

2).

heading ran



Faithfully translated for the Use, Edification, Saints in publick

and

private,

especially in

England."

many

In the translation and setting to metre of these Psalms of the

most scholarly

and Welds

of

of the divines

-Roxbury, Mather of

The "Bay Psalm Book"

of the

colony assisted

Dorchester, and

many

Eliot

;

others

had reached its twenty-seventh American edition altogether it must have passed through more Prince than seventy editions. Many editions were published in England and in Scotland. says, in his preface to the version of 1758 "I found in England it was by some eminent Congregations prefer'd to all Others in their Publick Worship, even down to 1717, when I last left that Part of the British Kingdom." ^

exerted a wide and long-continued influence; by 1750 ;

:

it

4

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

cooperated to

make

to

line (Fig.

3).

may

serve to

pay tribute

Although

to the fidelity to the sacred text in

following version of the Twenty-third

The show

reliable work.

occasionally provoke a smile, one

may

the style of the poetry

compelled

and

this a valuable

this "

The Lord

He

mee

to

a shepheard

is,

in the folds of tender grasse,

To

waters calm

Restore

my

he doth

in

for his

lie.

gently leads :

paths of righteousnes

:

name's sake leade mee. in valley of

walk, none

ill

Because thou

and

mee

to

soule doth hee

Yea though I

Psalm

shall not I

Doth cause me down

"

every



:

want therefore

"

is

staffe

I'll

feare

:

mee, thy rod,

art with

my

deaths shade

comfort are.

" Fore ine a table thou hast spread, in presence of

my

my

thou dost anoynt

my cup

it

foes

:

head with

oyle,

overflowes.

" Goodnes and mercy surely shall all

my

and

dayes follow mee

in the Lord's

house

:

I shall

dwelle

so long as dayes shall bee."

" Spiritual

Songs," that

is,

hymns, were not as yet admitted into

either Pilgrim or Puritan service, but a few appeared in the 1647

Bay Psalm Book." The musical repertoire had now extended far beyond the original " five tunes," and more than

edition of the

fifty

"

melodies were suggested,

Psalms.

The

setting

was the excellent one

published in England in 162 in

in this edition, for the

The

i.

unison, for the harmonization

reach of non-musicians. ^

known

to

Ravenscroft,'

first

tunes were undoubtedly sung

Ravenscroft was out of the

In accordance with the habit of his day

Besides the Ravenscroft settings

Piayford were

in

of

singing of the

it

many Americans

is

probable that the weaker arrangements of John

in the

seventeenth century.



L

THE RELIGIOUS BEGINNINGS OF AMERICAN MUSIC he carried his melody

in the

tenor part, as the following setting,

Old Hundred," by John Dowland, may show "

of

:



$^

Ravenscroft's volume,

in

-4--

^: -iS'-

--i--



:^:

-(5'-

-iS-

-&-

->-

-if

1

A

-I

:t:

ge

^1:2

o

con nioto.

•^^i5a

-I

-

y e-t a-k e-no fl-ge runs "

To-ta-yo-ni "

o

.^EEE= ge

1

-^1-

hon

ge



-I—

S==£ Ye!

yel

ye

ge

hel

ni

b'-

ye

ye

1

ye

I

ye

1

!

\-.

^1:^

-H-

hon

he

ni

r-

ge

I

ge

1

:Er

ge

hon

ni

he

ye!

ye

1

etc.

I

\yye

ye

1

The words

ye

I

are merely "

ye

1

ye

I

I

go " endlessly repeated.

I

Alle>rro violto.



-.-^

4-|

Ho •—



'^

•-

F— F biiF— \va

he

yas

.tz te

-

P=i= f—^^ tX-

ipz^p: ho

e

-

o

na yo

o

nui

i

ka

i

ho

:^:=if

yo

ri

-•

•-

shi

vi

^

:t— tt= tail

no

he

The words

are



:e^

-f

he

he

ye ye

^1

ye

p=p=:i^pc=pi:zj=:1: F F Sj-F r~F he

ye

-

— " Friends — Rocks, — always

e

he

firm.

ye

he ye

— Forward."

:d:

ye

iHig^ij ye

ye

ye

ye.

THE FOLK-MUSIC OF AMERICA Far more advanced

133

grown up around melody, emotion that we

the folk-song that has

is

Here we find can readily understand, and sometimes simple harmony, in fact all the elements that constitute the power of folk-music in the old Southern plantation

life.



world.

The

chief instrument of the plantation, the banjo,

more advanced than any instrument which we Indians.

It

may

not American at

is

it

by the

To

The African

life

his native land never

in

The

from African music, also

Many

of the

speaks

life

many

its

most melancholy is

removed

in different collections,

"Swing Low, Sweet Nobody knows de Trubble I've

"

Seen," as examples of the sorrow and religion combined

these,

camp-meeting songs are

of the

but their improvisational

feverish ecstasy,

and

this

less dignified

than

strong rhythm, their

their

style,

in

There

Barak, or that of Miriam, in the Scriptures.

analogy between the slave music

in

its

Deborah and is

a very close

religious phases

and the

Sometimes we find the sound held superior the sense, by the dusky singers, as when they give the refrain " Jews, screws, defidum " to one of these camp-meeting songs,

music of the of

back to

their strong dramatic action, carry us

a remote past, being strongly akin to the song of

to

gave

to the tenderness of

Chariot," or the plaintiveness of

Some

It

of the measures.

songs are easily accessible

and one need only allude

river, that

ecstatic religious vein, far

heard in

is

the plantation.

numbers, and as music

frequently the child of sorrow, the slave of these songs.

of

and the

of the cotton-field, the cabin,

birth to these expressive musical

some

distinctly a result of

is

brought forth anything akin to the songs

music.

this

reply that although the melodies have been brought forth

American surroundings.

in

find used

but African.

all,

by Africans, or Afro-Americans, the music

was the

much

also

has been charged, however, against the negro music

of the South, that

one

is

Bible.^

utterly unconscious of

crucified him,"

even when

illiterate,

Here, then, sesses

any

at 1

— but is

all.

the

original

these are after

state all

of

the

poetry,



"

Jews

only exceptions, the poetry,

being often earnest and genuine.

the true folk-song of the United States, It is

if

it

pos-

unfortunate that a pseudo-plantation school

See Elson's "Curiosities of Music," Chap.

II

;

"Hebrew Music."

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

134

of composition has far that

been built upon

from the negro music

false vein to be derived " {i.e. "

time

ragged time

syncopation, but

dance as

is

"

of the South.

Rag-

is

the euphonious epithet applied to this

The

plantation music sometimes employs

"

temporary apparition.

and pushed so

Unluckily most people imagine this

has wearied many.

it

this foundation,

)

certainly does not suffer from such a St. Vitus's

it

portrayed in the compo3itions of this

modern

class.

This rubbish must be cleared away before a true use can be made of the plantation

music as a folk-song foundation.

There have, however, been some remarkable applications of the negro music in classical forms. Mr. G. W. Chadwick, in the Scherzo of his

second symphony, has made use of this native material, and

Antonin Dvorak has

chamber music upon

an entire symphony and considerable

built

has been elaborated as folk-song, with

It

it.

by Foster, who

a beautiful simplicity and directness,

folk-song genius of

America

as

Weber

is

as truly the

or Silcher have been of

Germany. Stephen Collins Foster (Fig.

came

to his

40),

although born

in

the North,

Southern instincts by inheritance, for his father emigrated to Lawrenceburg (now a district in the

city

of

Pittsburg,

Virginia.

Pennsylvania) from

In this town the boy

was born on a most appropriate date, July

4,

1826, the fiftieth

American independence, while a band was playing " The Star-spangled Banner" in the wooded anniversary

Fig. 39.

From

— OjiBWAY

" Report of

Drums.

Bureau of Ethnology.'

grounds

The

of

of his father's estate.

had been a prosperous merchant in Virginia, and was the most prominent citizen of the Pennsylvania town in which he father

subsequently

settled.^

His mother was Eliza Clayland Tomlinson,

a descendant of one of the oldest families of Maryland, the Claylands,

and

tastes. ^

The

was from her that Foster inherited There was something of foreign blood also it

his

named

in

honor of Captain Lawrence.

artistic

in Foster's veins,

senior Foster actually laid out Lawrenceburg, which he at

Fosterville, but afterwards

keen

first

intended to

call

THE FOLK-MUSIC OF AMERICA for his great-grandfather

who emigrated

was an Irishman, a

135

Londonderry,

citizen of

America early in the eighteenth century. The father was musical in some degree, playing upon the violin, but only The mother was poetic and of most refined in the family circle. to

and cultured nature. In 1840 Foster was sent to Athens (Pennsylvania) in

1

84 1 to Jefferson College, near his home.

cal taste

from childhood, teaching himself the

the works of such masters as

flageolet,

of his

and studying

He

Mozart and Weber.

untrammelled nature, and much

He

Academy, and He had shown musi-

knowledge was

was

of

an

self-acquired.

taught himself French and German, but he seems never to have

been

in

brilliant

out his

first

At Athens Academy he wrote

the schoolroom.

composition, a work for four

flutes, entitled

Waltz," and had the pleasure of hearing exercise of the school, the

In 1842 he published his

it

performed

composer playing the first

song,

"Open

first

the

"Tioga

at a public

flute himself.

thy Lattice, Love," in

which, contrary to his subsequent custom, the words were not by him-

He made

self.

burg, and this

Henry Kleber, a musician of Pittswithout becoming a regular teacher, helped him

a friend of Mr,

artist,

greatly by advice and by occasional correction of his manuscripts.

Foster had a group of five friends (including his brother), young

men, who met direction,

house twice a week to study singing under his

1845-46 he composed many excellent folk-songs among them "Oh, Susannah" and "Old Uncle Ned,"

and

for this club,

at his in

About this time a minstrel Oh, Susannah " was submitted to

both true types of plantation music. troupe came to Pittsburg, and

them

for

approval.

"

The song was performed

once won such a success that Foster decided to make of

composition his vocation.

and

publicly,

at

this

style

to

study

His friends desired him

composition thoroughly, and his family were willing that he should

do

so,

but he

knew how

and feared that

scientific

little

he had benefited by academic work,

study would only pervert his natural bent

in souCT-creation.

For a

little

while, at this period, he acted as

his brother at Cincinnati,

bookkeeper for

and was not only pursuing

his

work

in

music and languages unaided, but was also teaching himself drawing and painting as well. He attended many negro camp-meetings to

;

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

Ic-6

study the style of singing

already intimated he wrote the words to

As

ested.

and

successful songs, his music,

"

My Old

"

about be

1

"

or

"

in

all.

chief

River," as "

most

of his

all

and spontaneous

as

of his works.

Massa's in de Cold, Cold Ground,"

Nellie Bly," and above

"

Suwannee

the

called

charms

inter-

most beautiful folk-songs we may men-

Kentucky Home,"

60 songs

as natural

is

of the great

of Foster's

Old Uncle Ned,"

Home,"

his poetry

forming one

As examples tion

which he had become deeply

in

is

it

all "

He

often called.

The Old Folks

American

The Old Folks

at

at

wrote

Home," which may

folk-song, sold very close

to

one

million copies, and appeared in dozens of different arrangements

composer received almost nothing

the

yet

Dreamer," published of all his

in

1864,

was Foster's

for

"

it.

The charm The same

work.

last

Beautiful

popular songs was their directness and pathos.

tender melancholy that one finds in the actual songs of the planta-

such as

tion,

"

Swing Low, Sweet

Trubble Fve Seen," in

will

"

My

Nobody knows de "

Massa's

Old Kentucky Home."

in all of these songs, the

is

"

be discovered in such a lament as

de Cold, Cold Ground," or

utmost simplicity

Chariot," or

The

harmonies seldom go

beyond the three chief chords, yet when one tries to imitate this simplicity it is found to be most difficult to acquire. Some of the greatest composers might try for

in vain.

it

more elaborate work Foster was not so successful. Such a love-song as " Come where my Love lies dreaming " shows fluency In

of melody, but

by no means compares

spontaneity which Ritter, in his

"

is

to

Music

in

be found

in

rank with the charming

the composer's other works.

in

America," while paying a touching tribute

memory, falls into the error of stating that Foster's " Ellen Bayne " (he misprints it " Ellen Boyne ") was the original melody of " John Brown's Body," and is, unfortunately, followed in to

Foster's

'

this

misstatement by other writers.

ing the same metrical structure as

same melody, and latter.

One can

" Willie,

"

"

Ellen Bayne," while possess-

Glory Hallelujah,"

is

not the

not nearly as good a marching tune as the

find a

much

closer resemblance

we have missed you

Hazeldean 1

is

"

"

between Foster's

and the old Scottish

"

Jock

than between these two songs.

Ritter also omits

all

mention of Foster's chief song, " The Old Folks

at

Home."

o'

THE FOLK-MUSIC OF AMERICA If

tion,

American folk-song writer had

the chief

and sweetest

of natures

;

He

by

its

intensity,

his

and

in

life,

bordered

memory

the

gentlest

composer he would rush

in

mother,

his

of

upon mania.

were about on a par with those

abilities

of

but he was too convivial and too easily

reverence for the

his

he idolized

was one

he

unhonored

lived

His love for his parents was pathetic

companions.

led

whom

died poor,

musical educa-

little

he possessed glorious poetical instincts.

and unrecognized, he

137

His business

Schubert, and like that

of

his

manuscript to the publisher almost

had

before the ink

Many

dried.

his

of

songs were, therefore, boilers "

nounced

"

pot-

most pro-

the

of

later

some

Yet

type.

publishers paid Foster larger

than greater com-

royalties

posers have received.

&

New

Co., of

him

York, sent

checks

thousands royalties,

Pond

aggregating

of

dollars,

during

one

for

part

of his career.

His

later

years

were,

however, most pathetic and painful.

1854,

Fig. 40.

Miss Jennie McDowell, a lady

The union was

character.

of

unfortunate

were growing upon him, and he was the build up a home.

A

however, not

for

hastened is

to

C. Foster.

total,

He

fine

of

Foster's irregular habits last

man

in the

world to

bound to ensue, which was, correspondence was kept up, and the wife Foster died there.

receiving a picture of his

with the mother.

;

good family and

separation was

New York when

told of his

street,

— Stephen

Foster married, in

little

A

pathetic incident

opened the envelope containing

and burst out weeping,

who

daughter, it,

lived

upon the

bitterly deploring the fate that pre-

vented him from living with those he loved, and

who

The New York days were Bohemian enough,

loved him.

in all conscience.

;

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

138

was not unlike that

Foster's appearance

shabby

of a tramp,

during

much

of

cheap glazed cap, a scar upon his upper

coat, a

this

time

lip,

one would scarcely imagine this to be the chief folk-song com-

a

;

poser on this side of the Atlantic.

He that

had a great love

Poe was

He

his favorite poet.

of this author

and

for poetry,

from memory, and

it

not surprising to learn

is

could recite pages upon pages

his

declamation evinced a keen

He

appreciation of the subtleties of the works.

very different source of inspiration

he was always incited to com-

;

Broadway

position by a trip in one of the

up and down the great thoroughfare

ride

new melodies

vehicles, thinking of

amount

money

of

had another and

and would often

stages, in

one

as he journeyed.

received during these

that he

these

of

public

Spite of the

years, his

was a

hand-to-mouth existence, and he and his friend George Cooper, the poet, would often concoct a song in the morning,

sell

it

at noon,

and not be a penny the richer by night.

The end came House, one

He was

most inexpensive

of the

one night he

An

suddenly.

(while

fell

his

in

staying at the American

of

lodging-places, and there

room) and cut himself severely.

was severed, and he was too faint to summon assistance. By the time he was discovered he had lost so much blood that there was no hope of recovery. In the common ward of a New artery

York

hospital

was taken vented

days

to the

January

later,

was buried

buried 10,

he being at

had loved so

Unidentified

died.

at

morgue, but the speedy advent

being

its

occurred

genius

this

in

1864,

at that

the

potter's

field.

At

of

his

body

friends pre-

The

accident

and Foster's death took place three

He

time only thirty-three years old.

Pittsburg, beside the father and

dearly.

first,

his grave a

band played

mother "

whom

he

Come where my



dreaming" and "The Old Folks at Home," a most fitting requiem. His daughter was his only descendant. One cannot deny that Foster could have attained to higher paths in art, and that dissipation obscured his genius somewhat, in later years and yet one cannot help feeling the deepest sympathy with this

Love

lies

wild-brier rose of music,

growing

all

by

itself,

a product of the

soil,

not of the hot-house.

The

personality of Foster

was

attractive,

but not impressive

;

he

THE FOLK-MUSIC OF AMERICA was

of slight

form and under the middle height

the expression of his countenance was soft

and most expressive dark eyes

and a high forehead.

Had he been

been of a distinctly Southern type.

and kind-hearted of

;

his

39

manner and

shy and difiident

;

he had

most characteristic feature)

of taller stature,

He was

he would have

courageous, yet gentle,

in a superlative degree.

In thus raising the curtain

most typical

(his

1

all

will perceive that

upon the unhappy

American song-composers, we

life

of Foster, the

feel that

the reader

one may not here apply an ordinary standard

of

must be mute. It was said of Burns that " the light that led astray was light from Heaven," and surely this gentle, sensitive, and dif^dent nature caught something of the celestial gleam. The busy American life was not a pleasant environjudgment

ment

for

of the

;

that censure

such a poet.

He

Southern plantation,

pictures.

Foster's

is

the

should have lived the dreamy, lazy of

life

which he has given us such graphic

most pathetic story

of

American music,

the tale of a tortured and troubled career, extinguished in misery.

CHAPTER

VII

NATIONAL AND PATRIOTIC MUSIC

The "

patriotic

songs

of a nation,

those which are generally called

national anthems," are often closely intertwined with history, and

most frequently spring up spontaneously, in response to some urgent Very seldom is a national song deliberately thought out and need. created according to a preconceived plan, and

some other

the melodies borrowed from

r

In

.

FREEDOM we're rvr, n>r

r. r» r, r.

.

Bom.

^^^^^

Ep2€±p±

tune as Bull

that the

composed

of

JULY.

time various changes,

such as popular

wrote the words matter

not

so

and



^-._«.

Come

al!

ye Tons of fong, Pourthe

full

found along

simiiiElmiriil rSLlSLllZZT^-ZZ

E:IH-;l "'ftii:i"'zi:ii:~iE~^"-rJEi:'2:'~8[~

zzz4:£:

\



I

-II

Wf-

that

it

is

not certain

it

is

capable of exact

_«e..ft

^

!.-(*.-

.

.6.^»-.^.«,

Accord-

settlement.

Cum-

Dr.

mings's

!ll»_x

S3i=Ei

_

easily discovered,

to



^_j

airs

meet with.

are likely to

i^_

un-

has

it

dergone from time to

ing

to

There seems

words.

a

is

have performed upon a

air

Royal with the Latin

is

composed

of those

the composer

posed for the Chapel

Who

one

banquet given by the Merchant Tailors' Company

for the I,

is

145

book,

it

assuredly was not Ben In joyful ftrains;

some

Jonson, as

Beneath thefe weflern

fkies,

per-

sons have argued. " '

The

first

performance

song tioned

was for

public the

of

not

men-

nearly

a

Fig. 43(7.

Early American THE

century and a half after

Setting of

"God save

KiNc;."

Drury Lane Theatre A few weeks later a version of the song on September 30, 1745 in the form of a trio by Dr. Arne was sung at Covent Garden, and it was referred to as " An old anthem that was sung at St. James's Chapel for James II, when the Prince of Orange was landed." it

was written by

Bull.

This took place

at the

I

3

;

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

146

'"That the tune belongs

The

pute by this writer.

Lully

tune from

born until

by the

shown beyond

is

not

The Dutch

ver-

Bull. "

MUSICAL MISCELLANY.

LuUy was

that

fact

years after the death of Dr.

five

'

iji

sion

in

1

— tp.yZI

j

J-^_T^^y r

:_ez:iE-:gSi-^^^-

:_3

j^.:^

There

new empire

rifCjBurfting withglad furprife

—J^-

763

is

the

to

anthem.

English were

several

versions

Jacobite See a

1

traced

plainly



hymn

the

of

printed ^S.E.^Z^—1

dis-

Bull merely took the

old charge that

disproved

is

England

to

of

the words, and in this fact

found

is

the

all

-

ground

tE\

ment of

for

the state-

that the tune

Scotch

origin.' "

is

^

As early as 1779 the melody was

iiiiiJE —

Z

adapted to American



use, a set of patriotic

-

verses

I

to

it

in

the

;s:

'^MMMWAi Ty

3

-

ran-nic chains.

IPili

iife^liegi

being

and

written

published

Penitsylvania

-

Packet of Philadelphia,

I

in that year.

-

later

:

Fourth

an

"

of

A

Ode

little

for the

July" was

Liberty with keen eye,

same tune, and became very pop-

Pierc'd the blue vaulted (ky,

ular

Fig. 431^.

set

to the

throughout

We

the

Rcfolv'd us free

country.

— Early

facsimile of this from

American Setting of "God save THE King."

give

a

the A7nerican Musical

Miscellany of tings to the

1798 (Figs. 43

same melody

^^^-

Fig. 52.

— The

Allen A. Brown Room, Boston Puulic Library.

The

The organ

largest musical collection in America.

named

upon the above hst, is an interOrgan concertos esting work, but not as practical as it might be. are rare, but the Frenchmen, Widor, St. Saens, and Guilmant, have managed to unite orchestra and organ without making a mesalliance. concerto,

last

Mr. Parker follows the Rheinberger solidity rather than the Gallic grace in this work.

He

banishes the woodwind as being too near the

become the The second movement shows much foils to his chief instrument. ingenuity, particularly in the introduction of some bizarre kettledrum organ

color,

and causes the harp and the solo

and the

effects,

Much

of

finale

is

violin to

again the display of the skilful contrapuntist.

Mr. Parker's work

is

music for musicians

;

his rather

somewhat undramatic, style can scarcely appeal strongly to the masses, which is a failing that leans to virtue's side. At his best he is a really great composer (least so, perhaps, in songs or piano ascetic,



pieces), loftier

but the copiousness of his writing hardly does justice to the

numbers

of his repertoire.

He

has received a most remarkable

1

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

82

compliment for an American musician, the honorary degree Doc. from Cambridge University, England. Earnest, dramatic, passionate, and romantic,

MacDowell (PL V)

The

least strong.

is

most powerful

training of

of

Mus.

Edward Alexander

in just the field

MacDowell served

where Parker

is

to nourish just

those qualities which were to a certain degree innate, with the most

He was

fortunate results.

and

his best

reno.

many

To

born

in

New

and chief teacher was the

York, December

tropical

and

fiery

i8, 1861,

Teresa Car-

her he has dedicated his Second Piano Concerto.

other teachers contributed

He went

to

But

equip this most dashing of

and enrolled him^ self in the conservatory there, studying theory with Savard, and In 1879 he went to Wiesbaden, where he piano under Marmontel. Then to Frankfort, where Karl studied with Ehlert for a time. Heymann taught him piano and, best of all, Joachim Raff guided

American composers.

to Paris in 1876,

him in composition. This was the chief influence in the career of MacDowell, for Raff taught him routine work as no other could have done, and

it

was too

effeminacy into the

late for the elegant

vein of Raff to import

virile style of his pupil.

Possibly because the two were opposites in their natures they

became friends, and, through the influence of Raff, MacDowell became a prominent piano teacher in the conservatory at Darmstadt, when he was but twenty years of age. Liszt soon recognized the genius of the young American, and obtained a hearing for his first piano suite before the leading society of Germany. There followed three years of concert touring, and then, in 1884, MacDowell settled down to teaching in Wiesbaden. In 1888 he came to Boston, where he taught and composed, giving concerts occasionally, with great success. Princeton University soon conferred upon him the degree of Mus. Doc. and, in 1896, MacDowell was called to the chair of music in Columbia University, New York. Here he followed in the path which Paine had originated at Harvard and which Parker was treading at Yale. His work has been attended by the same success that we have described in connection with the two older universities. MacDowell is more radical than many of his contemporaries, but he is so well endowed with vigorous ideas that this becomes decidedly more of a virtue than a fault. Naturally the continental

AMERICAN TONE-MASTERS countries

Europe appreciate

of

EngHsh, the

which

of musical conservatism

On May

out.

works more keenly than the

his

having been educated

latter

is

183

in a rather precise school

only at present beginning to thaw

he made his appearance before the London

14, 1903,

Philharmonic Society, by invitation, playing his Second Concerto.

This work, dedicated

to

Teresa Carrefio, was played by her

at the

Crystal Palace popular concerts, three years before the composer

performed

some

familiar with "

London.^

in

it

The

Indian Suite."

of the

won

of

Before this England had become fairly

MacDowell's songs, and with his beautiful concerto, which

we value

as one of the best

composer's works (yet do not rank with the First Concerto),

a popular triumph under Dr. F. H. Cowen's direction, but

by the ears

set the critics

To

at once.

cause heated discussion

generally the proof of individuality in music, and the English

viewers could not grasp the boldness of

MacDowell

as they

it

is

re-

had

comprehended the counterpoint of Parker. Some found traces of Brahms in the concerto They might better have discovered indica!

tions of of

MacDowell's Scottish ancestry

Parsifal "

"

in

Others found touches

it.

others discovered Tschaikowsky.

;

The

utter lack of

unanimity of judgment showed that the reviewers were face

whom

with a modern

Yet MacDowell

to face

they could not fully comprehend. is

He

not iconoclastic.

has been trained too

thoroughly by Raff to become formless, but he applies the old forms with a

The

new

spirit

;

reviewers of

playing, and he

is

As

in this field.

he modernizes, and

is

far

removed from pedantry.

London were unanimous

in praise of

certainly in the very front rank of

his piano

American

a teacher, too, he has been an inspiration to

students, and this part of his

work has been

of great

artists

many

importance to

the development of piano playing in America.

But

it is

as one of the tone-masters of

America

that

stands forth most prominent in our musical history,

American composers who of classical

form

judgment

full

in

first

Europe.

of the value of

won It

MacDowell

— one

of those

recognition for American music is

no doubt too early

MacDowell's work.

Some

to give a

excellent

reviewers have gone, perhaps, to extreme lengths in their praise MacDowell's First Concerto has been heard in Amsterdam, Dresden, and a number of other European cities in fact, all of his large works have been heard in Europe. ^

;

1

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

84

Henry T. Finck, in his "Songs and SongMacDowell with the very greatest of the world in

of his compositions. writers," places

his Lieder.

One may,

however, dissent from this opinion because,

even when the musical thought expressed

is

noble, the songs are

often instrumental rather than vocal in their spirit.



Contemporary American Composers," states An almost unanimous vote would grant him rank

in his " "

Rupert Hughes, :

Fig. 53.

greatest

of

— The

New England

as

the

Conservatory of Music.

American composers, while not

a few ballots

would

him as the best of living music writers." The French have a saying, " // liest plus lourci fardeau quun grand nom acquis trop tot!'' One must not forget Chadwick's Second Symphony and his fine overtures, Paine's " CEdipus " and "Azara," and Parker's " Hora Novissima," in passing judgment on the value of Mac Do well's works. Yet one can grow enthusiastic easily enough over the juiciness, the romance, the originality of this indicate

great composer.

He

is,

thank Heaven, not a cacophonist.

In the

AMERICAN TONE-MASTERS midst of

all

his

moods he necessary adjunct of modern

freedom of development and

does not turn to musical ugliness as a

composition

185

his

most

fiery

he does not strain for uncouth progressions, nor pur-

;

chase his originality at the expense of sanity.

To

He

us his

"

Indian Suite

" is

one

examples

of the best

of his art.

has built this orchestral work on actual Indian themes, but we

do not value

used are utterly un-

this proceeding, since the figures

famihar to ahuost every auditor, and do

suggest

not, of themselves,

anything national; the composer could evolve a hundred original figures, equally effective,

ment and

he wished

if

do

to

the treatment of these figures

is

We

another story.

here a poetic presentation of phases of Indian

anything ever evolved from

But the develop-

so.

life

that

is

equal to

this subject; and, as this life exists (or

has existed) nowhere but in America, this work becomes our

The composition

a double sense.

from the exquisite tenderness panoply

sition of the

of

One

warriors.

of

find

own

in

presents a wide scope of emotion,

of a " love-song

"

to the fierce expo-

war, with galloping of

horses and cries

can also pay tribute to MacDowell's scoring,

although he does not try to attain modern extremes here either

;

he

achieves the fitness that characterizes Tschaikowsky rather than the

extreme

difficulties

orchestral web.

and complexities which too often mar the modern

The

expressive tone-coloring of the dirge and the

powerful use of the woodwind

may

be referred to

in

movement of the suite our meaning. The welding to-

in the third

illustrating

gether of the piano with the orchestral forces, in the two concertos, is

further evidence of the ability of the composer in this direction.

One sometimes

finds

poems by Burns.

vocal works "

Were

I

^ :

MacDowell's Scottish

and he has won, perhaps,

fathers in his songs,

setting

evidence of



his best results in

Mr. Finck thus speaks of some of the

asked to name the two greatest living song- writers,

should say Edvard Grieg and Edward MacDowell. affinity

fore-

between these two composers,

Wagner

traceable,

There

is

no doubt,

I

a certain to

their

whose influence can be distinctly traced here and there in MacDowell's songs, but it is no more than a harmonic atmosphere which he Scotch ancestry.

Grieg and

1

are the only composers

"Songs and Song-writers,"

p. 238.

1

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

86

breathes in spheres.

them.

.

.

.

common

with them

when he

gets into certain emotional

His ideas are always his own, and there are plenty MacDowell is undoubtedly a genius."

of

MacDowell is first among his contempoNot only has he composed some very graceful works in the

In piano composition raries.

smaller forms, but he has also written sonatas which have indicated

what the twentieth-century composers must do with the old form they wish to perpetuate

it.

MacDowell has succeeded

thus be seen that

It will

— orchestral

ferent directions,

if

in three dif-

composition, piano works, and songs.

Yet the future only can reveal what place this most individual of American composers is to occupy permanently. That it is to be a that much has been hio-h one there can be no manner of doubt ;

demonstrated already.

above spoken

criticisms

won

has fairly

music.

his

against the very contradictory English

of,

may

it

be stated that

Massenet, in

MacDowell's concerto with great enthusiasm.

Paris, speaks of

to

As

all

the important

An

European

He

and musicians

critics

First Concerto

anecdote connected with his

show how a great pianist and brother-composer appreEugen d' Albert, the noted pianist, had taken Macciated him. Dowell to one of Liszt's afternoon receptions in Weimar, at which the modest young American musician began, as the French

may

serve to

say, to " efface himself,"

according to his wont.

other things in view than

begged

MacDowell's self-effacement.

to perform to the assembled

at the pianoforte,

announced

that he

certo,

movement

of

would play something entirely

He

then proceeded

MacDowell's First Pianoforte Con-

which was received with enthusiastic acclamations, everybody

present

naturally

thinking

Liszt was especially delighted.

had

He was

company, and, seating himself

new, that existed as yet only in manuscript. to play the first

But d'Albert had

in a

the

composition must

When

composer

his

own.

the expressions of admiration

measure subsided, d'Albert quietly pointed

as the real

be

to

MacDowell

of the novelty.

minor one) on which one may disagree with MacDowell: he writes almost all of his expression and tempomarks in English. It is no affectation that causes most musicians There

is

one point

(a

(Wagner, Schumann, and Berlioz excepted) to use

Italian terms.

AMERICAN TONE-MASTERS

87

1

Music has become almost a universal language its written form (notation) is more wide-spread than any other. We must not localize ;

such a universal tongue by writing

its

By

signs in the vernacular.

priority of usage Italian should be the language attached to music.

Beethoven himself gave up the German language, year in this connection, and returned to the use of

A

sion and tempo-marks.

Mac Do well piano

after trying

it

one

Italian for expres-

work, for example,

could be understood in every European country

;



but his mark



would mean nothing to a dozen Slow and with much feeling" nations which would have comprehended ''Lento e con molto espres"

sione !

"

In his

"

Indian Suite

"

this is obviated

man, English, and French (with

Italian also

by the use

of Ger-

used for expression

marks), but his shorter works are not thus supplied. Inspiration

work.

"

poem.

Lancelot and Elaine "

Hamlet

and

"

direct from Shakespeare.

ent

is

not lacking in MacDowell's

Indeed, at one time he thought of taking up poetry instead

of music.

son's

drawn from the poets

— a species

of

"

" is

an orchestral outcome

Ophelia

Although

"

of

are two orchestral

Tenny-

poems

separate, they are interdepend-

Indeed, they remind one

Faust and Marguerite.

somewhat of this last-named pair as pictured in Liszt's symphony, for Hamlet has military passages contrasted with his moments of revery and sorrow, and Ophelia (like Gretchen she is chiefly pictured by muted violins) has much of foreboding and premonition. There is

also a transference of thematic material

of these

them a Indian Suite " and

movements

that gives

from one to the other

beautiful

unity.

It

is

a

work that, like the " the two piano concertos, grows stronger by repeated hearing. In selecting five names as the chief composers of this country, we must acknowledge the verdict but a temporary one, for there are other composers who have rivalled their work in this or that separate performance and there are important symphonies, operas, and chamber-music to be mentioned later in connection with other men and women. Our reasons for the selection are many. These five were the first to write worthy compositions in the classical ;

forms

in

America.

reputation. fields of

They were

They were

the

musical creation,

first

as,

the to

first to

achieve a transatlantic

win successes

in all the different

with the exception of Chopin,

all

the

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

i88

And

names (up to the present time) have appeared far more frequently upon the programmes of our symphonic concerts than any others. Four of the

great masters of music have done.

five

have also been important factors

these five

in public

musical education,

Paine being the head of musical training at Harvard, Chadwick at the

Yale,

New England Conservatory of Music (Fig. 53), Parker at and Mac Do well at Columbia. The fifth man, Mr. Arthur

Foote, has employed his excellent abilities as a teacher only in a private capacity thus

Arthur Foote 5,

1853.

He

far.

(Fig. 54)

first

was born

Salem, Massachusetts, March

at

studied composition with Stephen A. Emery, in

Entering Harvard, he took

Boston. the

and graduated

course

classical

with the class of 1874, but remained to study

music

(before

the

A.M.

After

and obtained the degree

of

the leading

1875.

organ with

studied

American musicians, Foote became be seen later.

Church

the

of in

that

teaches

Foote.

here, in

Lang, who has educated many

J.

oro-anist

— Arthur

he

this

as will

Fig. 54.

work

for his

B.

held

was

chair

professorial

established), of

department

in Paine's

Boston,

and

piano

in

ever

post

Unitarian

First

1878, and has

He

since.

composition

in

Boston.

Foote has

little

dramatic force which one finds in the

of that

Chadwick and MacDowell; he charms rather by grace and ease and by his easy leading of voices in contrapuntal pasNaturally therefore, in such a work as " The Wreck of sages.

works

of

the Hesperus," he his suite for

orchestra, in ful,

must

D

— even not

On

short of one's ideal.

orchestra in

poser of this form

This suite

falls

D

be

major (Op.

minor (Op.

36) he

Franz Lachner,

its

confounded with 21).

The

symmetrical, and well-constructed,

last is

the contrary, in

equals any com-

modern progenitor.

his

suite

for

string

named, although grace-

not to be compared with

AMERICAN TONE-MASTERS the greater suite, which

D

minor

for full

is

suite, piccolo,

— very

full

189

— orchestra.

In the

English horn, trombones, tuba, triangle,

and harp appear, over and above the regular forces, and the large orchestra is handled with an ease and beauty that is very attractive.

The work has been given more than once by

the Boston

Symphony

Orchestra, and ought to take high rank in the standard repertoire of native orchestral compositions.

The dramatic

cantatas are less inspired.

Wreck

"

In the

of the

Hesperus," for example, the chorus repeat the unimportant words, "

The Hesperus,"

in contrapuntal

manner

dramatic effect

until the

In another similarly vigorous topic, the " Skeleton

is

entirely lost.

in

Armor," we find the same

terse directness

The

required.

is

display of counterpoint where

fault, a

sentiments of the viking

once

(at

suggesting a baritone or tenor robusto solo) are given to chorus and

There

quartette.

phant

"

is

not an iota of difference between the trium-

Skoal to the Northland

the Tale

Ended

The

!

"

"

!

Skoal

"

and the prosaic

!

Crew "

Corsair's

are too suave and well

bred for actual sea-rovers, and the hero himself

The

and gentlemanly viking.

Thus

"

is

a contrapuntal

other excellent contrapuntist, Horatio

met with similar musical shipwreck upon the Arctic seas his orchestral " Northern Song." Foote's string quartette (Op. 4) and his piano quintette (Op. 36)

Parker, in

have both Quartette

been performed with

and

other

folk-song element that

Rimini," held

string

great

success

The

organizations.

by some to be

greatest work,

his

vincing to us as the above-mentioned suite

it

;

the anguished tale which Tschaikowsky and well.

His overture,

pianoforte trio in in

England,

this

Monday popular

"

In

His

especially effective.

is

the Mountains,"

C minor

and other

has

won

of his

is

is

Kneisel has

a

Francesca

di

latter " is

not as

con-

too reserved for

Liszt

have

a fine work,

told

and

so his

success both in America and

works having been played

concerts in London.

success with his songs, and such

by the

He

has also

at the

won decided

Shakespearian settings as

" It

was a Lover and his Lass," and " When Icicles hang by the Wall," are most singable and interpret the poems perfectly. His Irish Folk-song " is a gem in its way, and deserves its great *'

popularity.

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

190

Among

Foote's larger works of especial

a sonata for violin and piano (Op. 20,

played

(Op.

successfully in

25),

societies.

England, a serenade for string orchestra

and a remarkably

nostra plena

Bellis,"

G

power we may mention minor) which has been

skilful

motet for mixed chorus, "Vita

which has been sung by our chief choral

All together Mr. Foote

is

a conservative

composer who never has written anything

trivial

and

classical

or unworthy.

PLATE

VI

HORATIO PARKER

IV

aTAJ'=l

f

;

CHAPTER

IX

THE ORCHESTRAL COMPOSERS OF AMERICA

many well-known names which

In classifying the

follow, there

has been an endeavor to give prominence to the chief feature of

work of each composer. Thus, for examples, although Dudley Buck has won laurels in organ composition, and has written an orchestral overture, yet his fame rests chiefly upon his cantatas, the

and he

will

be spoken of in the chapter devoted to such forms

Walter Damrosch has composed

in

almost every branch of music,

yet his most prominent composition has been an operatic one, and

we

shall

speak of his other works in connection with that school of

Almost

creation.

more or

all

American composers

of the

work, but the

less orchestral

men now

review have achieved their chief laurels in this

Henry K. Hadley chusetts,

in

1

(Fig.

87 1, and

is

was born

55)

one

of

most

in

Somerville and

studied

after

is

to

W.

be passed in

field.

Massa-

His father was a present one of

at

instruction of

music from

the

of that city.

his

father,

Boston, counterpoint

Chadwick, and

violin with Charles

Under Mr. Chad wick's guidance he advanced

N. Allen.

enough

some

harmony with Stephen A. Emery,

and composition with George

to

the youngest of the American

efficient of instructors in the public school

The younger Hadley,

rank have done

Somerville,

in

composers who are attempting the large forms.

prominent musician

of

far

complete an orchestral overture and a string quartette,

before he was twenty-one years of age.

At

twenty-three he went to

Vienna and studied further with Mandyczewski, and here he wrote several orchestral works, including an excellent suite his third work



Garden City, Long Island, teaching in the same school (St. Paul's) in which that other famous young American musician, Horatio Parker, had begun in this form.

In 1896 he was again in America, at

his class-teaching career. 191

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

192

He now

entered

phonies which are

the symphonic

into

and powerful

virile

field,

The

high degree.

a

in

writing two sym-

means a great deal, and that conductor produced a Hadley symphony a year before his death. His Third Suite also had the honor of performance by the Ameristamp

of Seidl's approval

Symphony

can

certainly

Orchestra,

number

heroic overture, a cantata, and a

young composer

is

music

discords that

an over-swollen orchestra

much The name of Van

can,

have

and the wearer

mother's

songs indicate that the

One may pay

side),

freedom from morbidness

of

is

Wagner all

the

capable of producing.

Hadley's First Symphony, this com-

to say in

America's music in the near future.

der Stucken scarcely indicates an Ameri-

of

it

is

of

Belgian descent (German on his

yet Frank van der Stucken (Fig. 102) was born in

Fredericksburg, Gillespie County, Texas, October of the fact that in this

the sin-

the rules of Richter and using

Judging by the heartiness to

a

Roi, and do not express the slightest emo-

le

tion without breaking all

is

its

march,

our music nowadays, and some of the imitators of

are phis royaliste que

poser

in

festival

There are too many Mrs. Gummidges

and excessive dissonances. in

of

at present very active.

cerest tribute to Hadley's

abroad

A

under Franko.

much

country to

15,

In spite

1858.

was spent abroad, he has worked such good purpose that he certainly ought to be of his life

classed with Americans, according to his birthright.

was a captain of Texas the Civil War, who went

cavalry, in the to

Europe

The

father

Confederate army during

after the defeat of the

Southern

Antwerp the son studied under Peter Benoit, and he lived in Europe from 1866 until 1884. The thoroughness of his compositions may be judged by some of the honors that were paid him during his European career. He became Kapellmeister of the Stadt Theatre of Breslau in Antwerp his music was sung in the

cause.

In

;

churches and a ballet performed siastically

of his songs;

gave a concert

of

his

in the theatre

Liszt, in

1883,

own compositions

he was invited to give a similar concert

;

Grieg wrote enthu-

was

his sponsor

in

Weimar, and

in

when he in

1891

Antwerp.

was in 1884 that Van der Stucken became conductor of the Arion Male Chorus of New York. In 1892 he took this society on a tour through Europe, showing the foreign critics something of the It

THE ORCHESTRAL COMPOSERS OF AMERICA among

standard of vocal execution

193

organizations in this country.

He conducted novelty concerts and other symphonic concerts in New York, 1885-88, and was the first orchestral conductor to give made up

a concert entirely

most judicious thing

of "

in the

American compositions

world to do, with

the world from which to choose.

all

What was

"

— not

the

the repertoire of

far better

than

this,

he frequently placed American compositions on his regular pro-

grammes, when our composers stood the the masters of the old world. theless

it

must stand

he gave a concert

of

test of

comparison with

Never-

to his credit that

American compo-

sitions at the Paris Exposition of 1889,

and several other exclusively American concerts in different

From work

1

89 1

for the

cities.

1894 he did good

to

German male choruses

America, establishing

festivals

and

training large masses of

singers.

In

in

1895 he became conductor of the Cin-

Symphony

cinnati

Orchestra, and

in

1897 dean of the Cincinnati College of Music, retiring in

from the

Therefore

1903.

composer

that

Van

it

is

latter post

not only as

Fig. 55.

— Henry

K. Hadley.

der Stucken de-

serves notice, but as conductor, teacher, and propagandist as well.

As

orchestral writer

Van

der Stucken

is

decidedly modern.

deals with an orchestra of the largest proportions, and

scores (the revision of the for

symphonic prologue,

prologue entitled

"

His

Ratcliffe,"

only one composer

highly spiced

effects

M.

of

Loeffler,

Van

who can from

whom

equal the

On American skill

in

Han-

soil

there

Ratcliffe," a

with which he draws

the ultra-modern orchestra,

— Charles

hereafter.

der Stucken's breadth of treatment

William O



work, a symphonic

latest

Pax Triumphans," has been performed

over and Brunswick with great success.

"

William

of his

example) are as complex and as highly colored as even the

Richard Strauss phantasmagoria.

is

"

some

He

is

well

shown

in his

symphonic prologue, which represents the

"

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

1^4

composer is

most modern guise. Heine's tragedy, on which this lugubrious enough to require a Tschaikowsky in its

in his

founded,

is

In the play

darker moods. Betty dies of

McGregor

grief, Ratcliffe kills

Edward

kills

Ratcliffe, Fair

hand of Maria, McGregor, Maria,

two suitors

for the

and winds up the cheerful proceedings by killing and himself. Two ghosts also appear at intervals to add to the Here is the orchestra employed by the comblitheness of the plot. poser: piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, two English horns, two clarinets, a bass clarinet, two bassoons, a double bassoon, four horns, two two trumpets, three trombones, a bass

cornets,

tuba, a pair of kettle-

drums, triangle, a snare-drum, cymbals, a bass drum, gong, two

bells,

two harps, a pianoforte, and the usual forces of stringed instruments. Add to this that the composer blends cornets and trumpets, a la Berlioz, that

does this

he employs a bass-drum

Wagner,

la

Verdi (and Berlioz

many

that "fff " occurs

once, and the reader will readily

we

a

that there are guiding motives as definite

also),

freely used as in

ern

trill,

comprehend

that

and as

times and it

is

"ffff

with a mod-

are here dealing.

Van

der Stucken has not attempted Scottish local color in this

Only one to the manner born can achieve the Scottish lilt; perhaps MacDowell, of all American Even composers, does it best, because of his Scottish ancestry. the German composers, Beethoven, Schumann, Bruch, and Franz,

work, and here he has been wise.

have

failed

to catch

stumbled over

it,

the Scottish style, and the lesser

although Mendelssohn proved that a foreigner

could succeed in attaining

Van

men have

it.

der Stucken gives a dignified picture of tragedy rather than

a local sketch

;

especial dialect.

ghosts are ghosts the world over, and speak no

Although the work

is

continuous, he has at least

outlined the character of the four-movement symphony, each division,

however, being very freely treated.

It

is

programme music

(instrumental music telling a definite story) from

has

its

printed

synopsis.

Love

idyl,

destroyed

first

to last,

and

happiness, catas-

trophe, lament, William's sorrows, the ghosts, another catastrophe, retrospects,

and general lamentations,

tions depicted in this

sombre

tale.

— these are a few

Not every one

will

of the

emo-

sympathize

either with the subject or the ultra-modern treatment, but all will

THE ORCHESTRAL COMPOSERS OF AMERICA

195

unite in tribute to the composer's orchestral skill and to the grandeur of his climaxes.

We

Van

have spoken of

der Stucken as the pupil of Benoit

he had some guidance from Reinecke, Grieg, and Langer.

;

but

It

was

not from these, however, that he gained his brilliancy of scoring

employment of guiding motives it was probably from Liszt, whose works he studied and with whom he was thrown in contact Before this time he is somewhat more conservfor a short period. ative, and, to our thinking, more beautiful. His music to Shakespeare's " Tempest," for example, which he wrote in Breslau before the Liszt-Grieg epoch, is a fine work of which any composer might and

his

;

be proud. In his songs (Fig. 56)

Van

der Stucken

working up great climaxes with much conservative rules.

ence

of Cincinnati,

which

it

composer

lost

is

at present the

and

is

restoring to the city

West, and one

But Chicago has also had

we

find a

thorough

New

dominating musical

some

of the foremost in

its

all

influ-

of the prestige

He

Chicago.

to

modern,

also very

yet in defiance of

He

when Thomas went

in the

skill,

is

is

the chief

America.

orchestral composer, and again

Englander achieving high rank

in

com-

Frederic Grant Gleason (Fig. 57) was born in Middle-

position.

town, Connecticut,

December

18,

1848,

and

his first studies

were

made with Dudley Buck, in Hartford, Connecticut, to which city his parents moved when Gleason was five years old. In 1869 he went to Germany to study in the higher branches of music. He studied in Berlin (not at the Hoch-Schiile, as

sometimes stated)

is

with Oscar Raif, C. F. Weitzmann, Albert Loeschhorn, and August

Haupt, being a private pupil at the

Lobe.

He

of these celebrities.

also studied

Leipsic Conservatory under Moscheles, Plaidy, Richter, and

Returning

to

America, Gleason became organist

of differ-

was appointed teacher the Hershey School in

ent churches in Connecticut until, in 1877, he of piano, composition,

Chicago.

From

and orchestration

that time on he

at

was a prominent pioneer

in the

cause of good music in the West.

With Mr. Gleason we again of the

American

in music.

find an

example

He became famous

he also did yeoman service as a musical

critic,

of the versatility

as a composer, but

being musical editor

;

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

196

He

Chicago Tribune from 1884 to 1889.

of the

fluence as a teacher from 1877,

when he was

exerted great

in the

in-

Hershey School,

and he was the director of a Chicago conservatory until nearly the day of his death. He was a member of the New York Manuscript Society, almost from

organization

its

;

he was

first

president of the

Chicago Manuscript Society (these are societies for the encouragement of the American composer), and at the time of his death was again

president, having been elected by a

its

Gleason died

in

Chicago,

The compositions

of

December

6,

unanimous

Mr.

vote.

1903.

Gleason are many

of

them

in the largest

iUm&Jt^j Cjy^Jw^i^^

U^ -

w

aX-

o^'yfit ^j^dti^

-zvo-v

^m

I

I

Ko-c

r

.i-

1)?

(^^

J r

f

^t

r

i^^^ — Manuscript

Fig. 56.

forms

:

a grand opera,

been performed

The The Song of

a cantata, "

"

is

Leipsic

in

Fay

Culprit Life

for the instrument,

He

Otho

"

"

;

by

Van per Stucken.

Visconti," of which the overture has

another grand opera,

;

"

;

"

Montezuma "

two symphonic poems,

"

Edris

"

and

important organ works, including a sonata

and many other choral and instrumental works.

also the author of the text of his

two operas.

In addition,

he composed a symphonic cantata for the opening of the Auditorium in Chicago.

The

quality of his

work can

Theodore Thomas, who composer, has directed

is

best be judged by the fact that

not given to flattering the American

many

of Gleason's compositions.

Thus,

at

"

;

THE ORCHESTRAL COMPOSERS OF AMERICA the World's Fair at Chicago, the prelude to

197

Otho Visconti

"

"

was

the procession of the " Holy by the Thomas Orchestra a richly scored work, and the symphonic poem " Edris

given

;

Grail,"

have also been performed by the same organization

The Song

"

concerts.

upon

dwells

burne)



:

"

of

the dark

They have

of

the night,

bears

life,

who

Chicago

composition which

Life," rather a tragic

side

in its

motto (from Swin-

the

had, Hke us, the day

We, whom the day binds, shall have night as they; We, from the fetters of the light unbound. Healed of our wound of living, shall sleep sound."

This work was given by Thomas, November Mr. Gleason was decidedly a modern

30, 1900, in

Chicago.

he used the leit-motif

;

operas and in his cantatas, was fond of the most extensive

in his

orchestral effects, and cared

He was

more

not very strict in his part-writing,

without always getting a powerful his orchestration

and

mere melody. and broke harmonic laws but he was often noble in

for breadth than for

result,

poetic, rather

than dramatic,

in

his operatic

work.

There

is

another American

who may be mentioned

an

as

composer

orchestral

in

Chicago,

Henry

important contemporary.

Schoenefeld was born in Milwaukee, October

1857.

4,

His father

was a musician and taught the boy until his seventeenth year, when he went to Leipsic and became the pupil of Reinecke, Papand

peritz,

He won

others.

a composition prize there, for a choral

and orchestral work, which was brought out

at the

young Schoenefeld Lassen at Weimar.

to

in

directing.

Germania), and a

he

is

Subsequently a year was spent with

In 1879 he

came back

now a conductor of teacher. At the moment

Chicago, where he

GewandJiaus, the

is

America and

settled

a large male chorus (the of this writing,

however,

resident in Berlin, where several of his works are being pro-

duced.

The and

his hearty

definite this

chief claim of Schoenefeld

Americanism.

American melody

He

is

his clear

and unaffected

has from the

into classical music,

he has used exactly the means

that

first tried to

and

style

bring

to accomplish

Dvorak suggested, a

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

198

development

discovery.

This use

color

a

itself.

music, but, like Chadwick, he did this

made the movement that is

Dvoi-ak

before

has

of plantation

of

local

Schoenefeld's suite (Op. 15) distinctly plantation as the banjo

as

was increased

after the

Bohemian

composer had set our concert audiences hunting negro melodies, and in an overture entitled " The Sunny South," Schoenefeld became very frankly American. Dvorak was strongly attracted toward this young composer, and complimented him highly when

his " Rural

Symphony " won

$500 offered by the National Conservatory, of which Nor was this the only prize that Dvorak was then director. In 1899 he won Marteau's award for the Schoenefeld captured.

the prize of

and piano, with some of the first In this work again our musicians of France serving on the jury. American took his cue from the banjo and sent a new music to

American sonata

best

Notwithstanding the foreign performances

Europe. feld's

for violin

of

Schoene-

num-

works, notwithstanding the prizes won, the orchestral

bers have not yet been printed.

demand

for large

There

unfortunately, no public

is,

works among us that can impel a publisher

take the risk of adding to the scanty printed repertoire of

to

American

orchestral music.

Turning again composers

New

in

East we find a colony of young American

to the

York, and some of them dauntlessly writing

Henry Holden Huss

orchestral works.

is

one

of the leaders of this

band, and one of those Americans whose compositions have an

He was

international repute. Jersey.

His

father,

studies.

Otis

B. Boise

and composition.

an

In

born June

esteemed

was 1883

21, 1862, in

musician,

directed

his

early

harmony, counterpoint,

his teacher of

Huss went

New

Newark,

to

Munich where

at

the

Royal Music School he was a fellow-student with Horatio Parker and Arthur Whiting, under Rheinberger. He has inherited some of that

the

composer's love of form, and he does not break away from

highway

nance.

of

Several

Munich during

music and scratch through the brambles of dissoof

his

compositions were performed publicly in

his stay at the school, and, at his graduation, he

played the solo part in his rhapsody in orchestra.

This work

at

C

major, for piano and

once achieved success, and immediately

THE ORCHESTRAL COMPOSERS OF AMERICA Huss's return to America

199

was brought out by the Boston Symphony Orchestra. With this same orchestra he played his " Piano Concerto," in 1894, under Mr. Emil Paur. The work was played again at these concerts by Adele Aus der Ohe (to whom it is dedicated), in 1903, and has been performed in many other cities

after

with great success. the cadenza of the

It

first

is

it

well within the lines of form, although

movement does not come

the centre, and the development

is

very

skilful.

"Ave Maria "for

Mr. Huss has written an

at the end, but in

female chorus,

soli,

and harp, which has been performed under Thomas, Lang, and other famous leaders. A trio

string orchestra, organ,

the direction of in

D

minor

Andante and Polonaise

at the of

"

at

many

Kneisel quartette.

His

and piano) has been given

concerts, including those of the

classical "

(violin, violoncello,

for violin

and orchestra has been heard

Trocadero, in Paris, and Raoul Pugno has performed several

Again

Mr. Huss's piano compositions abroad.

it

possible to

is

young American composer for the avoidance of radical Mr. Huss is sometimes too extended in developing extremes. figures, but he is always in good form, melodic even in his It is probable Diirchfuhrung, and he works up his climaxes well. praise a

that with greater simplicity, with less ingenuity of figure treatment,

composer would be yet more attractive, are sometimes hidden by his learning.

for his

this

Another Shelley,

He

who was

studied at

New York born at New

the

of

of the

fourteen years of age.

Center Church,

in Paris

in

Max

New

Haven, when only

Vogrich, and Dvorak.

and London, but the larger part

education was achieved on American

cal

Harry Rowe

is

New

Subsequently, he was for a long time in

York, under Dudley Buck,

some

gifts

Haven, Connecticut, June 8, 1858. Yale University, under Professor Gustav J. Stoeckel,

and was organist

studied

composers

set of

melodic

New

soil.

He

of his

also

musi-

At twenty he was

Haven, and three years

later

he became musical director of Dr. Storrs's Church in Brooklyn.

He

organist of the First Church, in

has since then been organist at the Fifth

Avenue

Shelley has written two symphonies, the

been performed also

in

New York

in

first,

Baptist Church. in

E

1897, a violin concerto

flat,

having

which has

been heard in various concerts, a cantata, and an opera.

He

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

200 has

essayed

orchestra

is

about

one

his

of

in

the

He

piano and

for

His

works.

atmosphere

the

in

room.

concert

His fantasia

forms.

most successful

more

however, been passed than

the

all

has,

life

church music

of

very graceful in the smaller

is

forms, and his organ music deserves special mention.

Another classicist

and

New York composer who radical,

who

classical form, is Silas

Vermont, August pursuits, but he

4,

is

seeks to reconcile extreme popularity and

He was

Gamaliel Pratt.

born in Addison,

His youth was devoted

1846.

employed

a quaint combination of

all

of his spare

moments

to

commercial

in musical study.

His boyhood and youth were spent as a clerk with different musical

His musical career practically began

firms in Chicago. two,

when he gave

diately thereafter,

he was

in Berlin,

at twenty-

a series of piano recitals, in Chicago, and,

went abroad

for further musical study.

imme-

In 1868

studying piano with Bendel and Kullak, and com-

Wuerst and

position with

Like

Kiehl.

Schumann, he studied too assiduously at the piano and achieved the same result,

—a

lame

with the

wrist,

performed in to his

native heath.

place for

him

But Chicago,

Fig. 57.

— Frederic

Grant

Gleason.

return

home

it

was by no means the a musician to thrive, and Mr.

was forced back into the to a

just

fire,

selling of

music, and obliged to leave the of

into

Some of his works were Germany before he returned

after the great

Pratt

Germ.an, sent

great

composition.

which, as was the case

more favorable

he was again

in

reading with

Heinrich

time.

making In 1875

Berlin, studying

Dorn.

score-

On

his

he stopped in London, and was able to direct two of

his compositions

in the

Alexandra Palace, in London.

After his

work on his opera, " Zenobia." There never was a better example of the irrepressible Yankee in music than Mr. Pratt at this time. A hundred schemes seemed to form in his mind simultaneously. Large musical events and great musical compositions, many of them intensely patriotic and

return he began

1

THE ORCHESTRAL COMPOSERS OF AMERICA of the " spread-eagle " order,

even

Had

were planned.

20

Mr. Pratt not

had the advantage of a good European musical training, he might have been a second Gilmore, but, fortunately, his classical studies kept his aggressive Americanism somewhat in check, and his work ofrew better

and

When

better. "

the bombast

eliminated from

is

good technique and worthy music, and in the less magniloquent works Mr. Pratt is He has achieved something in all of the large often very effective.

some

of his " patriotic

A

musical forms.

works, there

is

a residue of

partial list of his compositions presents operas,

The Last Inca " and " The Triumph of Columbus," although the latter may be called a patriotic opera three symphonies, one of which is entitled " The Prodigal "

Zenobia

"

and

"

Lucille

"

;

cantatas, "

;

Son

"

a

;

grand centennial overture

Revere's ride;

"The

;

an orchestral work on Paul

Manila"; an anniversary overture

Battle of

on the centennial of American Independence called tra

Homage

"

to

Chicago

"

;

which have been successful

most

of

;

a brilliant

march

several shorter pieces for the orches;

and over

fifty

which are practical and pleasing.

energy has caused him to direct several

pieces for the piano,

Mr.

of these

Pratt's

works

in

restless

London,

Amsterdam, Berlin. He is at present director of the West End School of Music in New York. Had this composer been less ambitious, he would have achieved more yet he has won his triumphs, and stands as an example of American energy and pluck. And now we come to the opposite type, the quiet musician who composes without any effort to astonish the world, a faithful slave to the tyrant Frau Musica, asking no reward but the privilege of laying his offerings upon her altar. Too few musical readers, in the earliest years of the twentieth century, have heard of Louis Adolphe Coerne (Fig. 58). This is an oversight that later years must rectify. He has written a host of works in almost every musical form, and is a poetic as well as a prolific writer. He was born in Newark, New Jersey (the city which also claims Henry Holden Huss as its citizen), February 27, 1870, and therefore is among the youngest of the American composers in the large musical forms. Like Pratt, he ;

has also written a

"

Zenobia," a grand opera, which serves to suggest

that the story of the for the

Queen

of

Palmyra has considerable

American operatic composer.

attraction

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

202

The

father of Coerne

and Swedish ancestry.

was an American citizen, though of Dutch His mother was an American woman and

a descendant of English settlers.

Germany and France, and the violin.

Returning

to

at the

He

spent his early childhood in

age of six he began the study of

America, he entered the Boston Latin

had a thorough training in the Upon graduating, he was admitted to Harvard University, classics. where, together with other subjects, he studied harmony and comSchool, where for six years he

position

under

violin studies

K.

J.

under Franz Kneisel, then

While

Orchestra.

Simultaneously he

Paine.

of the

continued

Boston Symphony

Coerne wrote as musical

at college,

his

critic for

the

Cambridge Tribune. In 1890 he went to Munich, where he studied organ and composition

under Rheinberger at the

Royal

Academy

of

Music.

Upon graduating with honors in 1893, ^^ directed his symphonic poem " Hiawatha," a work which he afterwards directed in 1894 with the Boston Symphony Orchestra in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Munich he also played his organ concerto, which he later Before played at the Columbian Exposition and again at Buffalo. returning to this country he made several protracted tours through In

Italy,

He

France, and England.

tation to visit the Exposition at

Bureau

his arrival there the

of

presently received an

official

invi-

Chicago as solo organist, and

after

Music made request

for the composi-

tion of a festival overture, to be played at the closing exercises of

the

Exposition.

In the

home, and accepted,

first,

fall

he went back to Boston, his former

the position of organist and choir-master of

a boy choir in Roxbury, and afterward a position at the Shepard

Memorial Church

employed

in

in publishing earlier

In 1894 Coerne

During the winter he was works and in teaching.

Cambridge.

was

called to Buffalo,

New

actively

York, as director of

the Buffalo Liedertafel and Buffalo Vocal Society, and subsequently

took the position of director and organist of the Church of the Mes-

During these years he composed his first opera, entitled " A Woman of Marblehead." He went to Columbus, Ohio, in 1897, to fill the position of organist and choir-master of Trinity Church, and subsequently assumed the directorship of the Arion Club and the Columbus Maennerchor. From 1899 to 1902 he

siah there.

THE ORCHESTRAL COMPOSERS OF AMERICA

203

and teach-

lived abroad, devoting himself to composing, publishing,

An

ing.

order to finish an uncompleted mass of his former master,

Rheinberger, was given him, and he also composed

second

his

work has been accepted for performance at the Berlin Royal Opera House. At the close of the year 1902, Coerne returned to Boston, and again accepted a position as organist and choir-master. He was called to take charge of the department of music at Harvard University for the Summer School of 1903, and he is now musical professor at Smith College. Like most of the American composers of the present, Coerne His first has been in search of American subjects for his muse. opera,

"

opera,

"

Floyd

(or

that

A Woman

is

it

This

Zenobia."

Flood)

latter

Marblehead,"

of

Ireson

a pity that

episode.

poor Floyd

deals

We

Ireson

scorn by the good poet Whittier, and the lead, as a hard-hearted

man.

of the

punished him.

The opera

in its first act,

second opera, be a work of

"

who

follows his

has been abundantly shown that

and a sufficiency its

be held up to

should

women

a worthy work, has

is

Zenobia," from

add, parenthetically,

librettist,

crime for which the

he was innocent

maxes

It

may

somewhat with the

of

Marblehead

of

some broad

melody throughout.

cli-

The

acceptance abroad, would seem to

much importance.

Mr. Coerne has done his best orchestral work

in "

something not so highly colored as the great cantata

Hiawatha,"

of

Coleridge

Taylor (the only negro composer of classical music), nor yet so directly derived

from the aboriginal music as MacDowell's

Suite," but clear

and well-developed music nevertheless.

Coerne yields too much to

means

his skill in elaboration, but he

which too often covers a paucity

He

little

cianly

is

to be classed with the dissonance-mongers, nor has

sane, healthy, a

and

Indian

Sometimes

consecutive-fifth habit, is

"

of

by no he the ideas.

too diffuse at times, but always musi-

earnest.

Every branch

of

composer's writings

music

is

— concert

represented in the overtures,

list

of this

young

symphonic poems, operas,

a string quartette, organ compositions, canons, songs, piano pieces.

Most

of

having accepted many

of

them.



German publishers Europe The organ works are of excellent

them have been published

in

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

204

worth, thanks to the evident contrapuntal abihty of the composer.

Altogether

may

take

its

place on the

accepted tone-masters which

of the

list

America has produced. Another name that may some day of our

music

born at Newton, Massachusetts

January

He was

5,

find place

that of Frederick S, Converse.

is

1871,

name

very possible that in a few years Coerne's

is

it

and

educated

(a

therefore

is

This composer was Boston),

at the early part of his career.

Newton, and studied piano under

He went

local teachers.

to

Harvard Col-

1889 and, of course, came under

lege in

the influence of

graduated

Op.

I,

its

He

musical director.

1893 with the highest honors

in

music and,

his

the leaders

fashionable suburb of

still

in the schools of

in

among

at that time, a violin sonata,

was publicly performed.

not every composer

who

It

is

begins his career

with a large classical composition.

A

few months of commercial career

convinced the young Converse that he

was unsuited decided Fig. 58.

— Louis

He Adolphe

to

to

make music

his

he then

profession.

thereupon studied pianoforte for two

years with Carl

COERNE.

business, and

speak

of

Baermann (whom we

again) and composition

shall

at

the

same time with Chad wick. After this he went to that Mecca of so many American composers, the Royal School of Music, at Munich, from which he graduated in 1898, with honors in composition. His symphony in D minor (Op. 7) was first produced at this time. The following winter the

Boston

movement

work.

first

back

to

of this

America, and

two years a teacher

He music.

is

now

in the

Symphony Orchestra performed

After graduation Mr. Converse came resident in Boston, where he was for

New England

Conservatory of Music.

has written several large orchestral works and

Among

the

much chamber-

the works that have been performed in

America

are

two symphonic poems, inspired by Keats, one entitled the " Festival of Pan" and the other "Endymion's Narrative," which the composer calls

"Romances

for Orchestra,"

—a

term quite as applicable as

THE ORCHESTRAL COMPOSERS OF AMERICA

He

205

*'

Poemes Symphoniques."

"

Euphrosyne," a string quartette, a sonata for violin and piano, a

and a ballad for baritone voice and orchestra,

suite for piano,

Dame

Belle

has also written a concert overture,

sans Merci,"



all

"

La

which have been performed or

of

published.

Of the works mentioned above we tive,"

which

the present.

endeavor

to

most worthy addition

a

is

There invent

is

no straining

"

prefer

Endymion's Narra-

to the orchestral repertoire of

romance, no

for effect in this

new and impossible

progressions,

yet

is

it

thoroughly modern withal, and deals with the largest orchestral

Nor does Converse is a march theme in

score without attempting unnecessary tumult.

when

disdain melody the

work which

music.

and

is

the happy

is

Best of

all,

work

the

and there

requisite,

it is

medium between

It

is

more

same poem, but

One can

skilful.

such as occurs

poem

a good illustration of

The

is

"

Endymion

"

the saying that "

was

less romantic, less melodic,

and

music begins where language ends. inspired by the

and popular

the dreamy, sylvan style of Keats,

is in

a noble translation of the spirit of the

into the tonal form.

classical

"

Festival of

Pan

scarcely imagine Keats inspiring a fugato,

work.

in a portion of this

positions are to be regarded as

Neither of the two com-

"programme music,"

for the

com-

poser does not schedule his meanings, but leaves the auditor free to

make his own application. The first movement symphony (all we have heard of the work in America, as yet)

read his Keats and of the is

in strict sonata-allegro form, as

tory composition,

one would expect

but shows good

in a conserva-

climaxes and a commendable

control of the orchestral forces.

There

is

another Converse

orchestral forms. in

This

is

who has

Charles Crozat Converse,

Warren, Massachusetts, October

drifted

also written in the largest

7,

1832.

This

who was born

earlier

composer

from music into law, and his larger works are mostly

manuscript.

We

confess a lack of familiarity with them, yet the

in list

There are two symphonies, ten orchestral suites and overtures, three symphonic poems, an oratorio, six string quartettes, and a very popular hymn, " What a Friend we have in is

formidable enough.

which we know and do not find very musical. Theodore Thomas, Walter Damrosch, and Anton Seidl have produced some

Jesus,"

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

2o6 of his

Mr. Converse was a student at Leipsic Conservatory,

works.

have been published in Europe.

of his compositions

and several

Yet another young American symphonist may Howard Brockway was born in Brooklyn, November youth he studied with Kortheuer,

his

New

in

the

list.

1870.

In

swell 22,

At twenty

York.

he went to Berlin, and studied piano with Barth and composition



with the American teacher there, O. B, Boise

The

in-law.

and

his fellow-countryman

latter trained

own

his

father-

relative so

had written a symphony, a symphonic ballad, a violin sonata, a romanza for violin and orchestra, and many Many of his compositions were published abroad, and other works. well that by twenty-four he

he conducted a concert of his own works

where he received much Brockway's "Sylvan Suite"

Berlin,

Gericke at the Boston cleverly written,

is

Sing Akademie

at the

in

praise.

for orchestra

Symphony

was performed under This suite

concerts.

very

is

quite genial and agreeable throughout, yet intro-

duces some counterpoint in a tricksy fugue given to the Will

Wisps, which shows that these

fairies are

more

o'

classical than

the

has

There are semi-popular touches in the " Dance the Sylphs," a neat waltz, and a march theme in the fourth

been supposed. of

movement, while the

"

finale,

A

to a pleasant sylvan suavity.

who

will

At Daybreak,"

is

strong climax

a

graceful composer

He

no doubt grow broader.

is

is

Brockway,

present engaged as

at

Peabody Institute, in Baltimore, where O. has recently become professor of composition. instructor at the

In speaking of the

we have up

West

in connection with musical progress,

to this point confined ourselves to

and Cincinnati

;

and these two

cities

of

them.

stances,

the art

cities,

Chicago

festivals, in operatic

Yet a few orchestral writers have appeared outside

Cleveland,

one orchestral

two

have certainly been the most

important in the orchestral advance, in music performances.

B. Boise

writer,

home

good composers, has Beck, who, under more encouraging circum-

the

of

several

might have become, may yet become, a great influence in that is growing stronger each day in communities which but

a short time since were entirely commercial.

Johann H. Beck was born 1856.

He

studied

violin,

in Cleveland,

first

in

Ohio, September

Cleveland,

afterwards

in

12,

the

THE ORCHESTRAL COMPOSERS OF AMERICA Returning

Leipsic Conservatory.

207

Cleveland from Germany, he

to

at once devoted himself to the large forms of composition.

needless to say that there was

encouragement

little

It

is

for this in his

Beck kept bravely on, His writing overtures, a cantata, chamber-music, and a few songs. teachers in Germany (in composition) had been Reinecke and Jadassohn, and of course they taught him expression without subverting the rules of form and harmonic progression. Beck's large works are, unfortunately, not accessible, being in manuscript. Yet they have been played both in America and in Europe. We can only judge of them by the little that has been heard at concerts of the Music Teachers' National Association, but it would seem as though Beck with his manuscripts, in Cleveland, and practically native

city

unknown

in the

in a closet.

Nevertheless

time.

that

at

Eastern

But he

cities

with large orchestras,

no longer a solitary

is

is

like a giant

classicist in Cleveland.

Wilson G. Smith, James H. Rogers, and others have brought that

modern school

city into line with the

some degree a musical

composition and made

it

in

centre.

St. Louis, large metropolis as

Even

in the musical field.

1904) promises

of

its

it

is,

has lagged behind somewhat

great International Exhibition (of

the field of music (save organ recitals) that

little in

can compare with the new compositions, the symphonic concerts, the musical congress, that

Chicago, in 1893.



its

musical leader

Ernest

^^^

St.

— and

marked the Columbian Exhibition at Louis, too, has its orchestral composer this artist is a native-born citizen.

Kroeger

Richard

(Fig.

59)

was born

in

St.

Louis,

August 10, 1862. His father was a native of Schleswig-Holstein, his mother was of English birth. The young Kroeger was at first obliged to enter a business career, and from fifteen to twenty-three the only musical study that he had was gained in left free

At

from commercial pursuits.

decided to

make music

his profession.

pursued in America, and chiefly

in

His

list

phonic overture on Seidl in

New

of "

moments

twenty-three, however, he

All his studies have been

the West, wherefore he

stand as a typically Western composer. writings.

the

He

may

has aimed high in his

compositions includes a symphony, a sym-

Sardanapalus

"

which has been performed by

York, and another overture entitled

"

Hiawatha," in

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

208

which he used actual

Omaha by

the

Indian

Thomas

This work was given at

themes.

The American theme has

Orchestra.

drawn him. Not only his "Hiawatha" shows this, but in "Ten American Sketches" (Op. 53), he portrays Negro, Indian, mountain, and prairie life, and sounds a characteristic note founded rather

upon the idea

Victor Herbert's Pittsburg Orches-

of the folk-tone.

produced his

tra

Like F.

ture.

"

Thanatopsis

"

over-

Converse, he

S.

has

been inspired by Keats's poetry, and has written an overture entitled

He

dymion."

has composed in

veins of chamber-music, and his

works

&

kopf

A

and orchestra

many of

have been pub-

in this field

Hartel.

En-

some

by the German firm of

lished

"

Breit-

concerto for piano

remains in manu-

still

script.

A

whole host

compositions

Kroeger

Mr.

by

and vocal

of piano

have

been published, and among these are Fig. 59.

— E.

R.

anthems, quartettes, choruses, and the

Kroeger.

He

like.

and

tions of substantial worth,

by

his prelude

and fugue

Kroeger's labors in

his contrapuntal skill

for piano, a skilful

music have been

America must needs be

has written organ composi-

and serious work.

many

He

versatile).

may be judged

(for

Mr.

the musician in

has been organist, choir-

master, conductor, founder, and leader of clubs, head of a college of

music, and has been most prominent in teaching and

music

in

his

native city.

are not always ungrateful). of

Music

of the St.

He He

United States, are due It is

city

;

doubtful

if

but the term

has received his reward has been

Louis Exhibition,

tant organ recitals, to be given

by

made

of 1904, artists

(for cities

Bureau

chief of the

and the many impor-

from every part

of the

to his efforts.

Pittsburg would accept the

may

developing

be applied to dissociate

and Boston, the Eastern musical Southern musical city. Pittsburg

centres, has,

Western" from New York

title of

and

it

New

a

"

Orleans, the

thanks chiefly to

Andrew

THE ORCHESTRAL COMPOSERS OF AMERICA become a musical centre as we shall see in a later

in recent years,

Carnegie, playing,

chapter,

it

209

and

organ

in

has had advantages

beyond many an Eastern city. It has its own symphony concerts, and it has its little group of composers. Of these one stands forth as a representative American composer.

Adolph Martin Foerster was born

He

1854.

save as an

For a time he had no intention

he achieve success.

and

1872,

who was

came to the conclusion that The serious study of the

in

art

and Wenzel and Coccius

America he became a teacher

Leipsic a

in

where he has since remained. in

He

musical matters.

Symphonic

the

Fort

Wayne

Schimon return to

his

(Indiana) Con-

but after a year in this post he returned to Pittsburg,

servatory,

front

at the

On

piano.

in

com-

began with him

pupil of Richter and Papperitz in composition. Grill and in voice,

his

music only could

in

from that time he was

for three years

2,

music

of following;

accomplishment, but, after three years spent

mercial pursuits, he

in

February

Pittsburg,

inherited his musical gifts from his mother,

teacher.

first

in

Society, and in

and the Choral Society.

Germany, upon

this

influence of Robert Franz, in Halle,

American composer, has not been

Foerster's six songs (Op.

who was his Many of

The

Here he at once pushed to the was very soon made conductor of 1883 he directed the Musical Union

6),

are dedicated to the

a slight one.

German

master,

close friend.

the orchestral works of Foerster remain in manuscript,

although most of them have been performed.

So long

we have

as

a public not fully acquainted with the orchestral works of the great

masters this must necessarily be the fate of the mass of American

But that acquaintance

composers.

we may hope

that, in the

is

being speedily made, and

near future, instead of unnecessary repe-

titions of standard works, or interpretations of the efforts of untried

European

fledglings, there will be a constant

demand

for

worthy

compositions of American musicians, leading to their publication as

well

as

to

their

performance.

characteristic orchestral piece has,

Thusnelda," by

of

print.

Wagner), a march-fantasia, a

by Seidl) and some

others,

Foerster,

a

founded upon a poem by Schaefer,

however, attained the dignity

(in spite of

"

A

festival

"

Faust

"

overture

march (performed

yet await their publisher.

In

songs

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

2IO

is

and he

what he wishes

clear in

is

romantic, without becoming mawkish,

melodic and

sufficiently

to say.

Perhaps nothing can show the growth

more

of

music in America

vividly than the fact that one can find great artists

composers even

in the cities

and good

most remote from what we have called

San Francisco possesses

"musical centres."

He

been very successful.

in piano compositions Foerster has

and

its pianists,

organists,

composers, and conservatories, and in far Colorado there has been not only a good conservatory, but a composer, an orchestral com-

poser of native birth, Goldmark,

who

be heard from

likely to

is

frequently in the near future.

Rubin Goldmark

same name, College

City

the

of

New

studies in

wards went teen,

education

his

received

He was

Vienna.

in

in

the

New

of

of

New

born in

schools

public

He

York.

further with

On

his return to

New York

and Dvorak.

Joseffy

the

York, in 1872, and there,

took his

and first

whom

Arrived in the Austrian capital

he began earnest study with Door,

composition.

great composer of

the

York, with Alfred Livonius, with

Vienna.

to

nephew

a

is

in piano,

in

the

musical

he

after-

at seven-

and Fuchs,

in

he studied both branches

His health sent him

to Colo-

rado Springs, where he established a college of music, and where

when he again returned to New York. At nineteen Goldmark composed a theme and variations,

he resided

until 1903,

orchestra,

which was performed by

success.

At twenty

to say,

"There

ture (that

are

Indian

Seidl, in

New

York, with

for

much

came a piano trio, which caused Dvorak now two Goldmarks " A "Hiawatha" overthere

!

as

rises

constantly as

Banquo's ghost, at the

American musical banquet) has been played by the Boston Symphony Orchestra a violin sonata, a host of songs, and a liberal list ;

of other compositions

poser to our

art.

form the contributions of

What

this

young com-

has been heard and seen of these works

proves the young Goldmark to be a remarkably scientific musician, graceful in his thoughts, and fine in his orchestral coloring.

Another composer from the middle West is Carl V. Lachmund, who was born in Booneville, Missouri, in 1854, and went abroad at a very early age to study music.

under Heller and Seiss

;

a

At

thirteen he

little later at

was

at

Cologne,

Berlin with the two Schar-

THE ORCHESTRAL COMPOSERS OF AMERICA

211

wenkas and Moszkowski finally with Liszt at Weimar, where he Lachmund was active in the opera at stayed for some years. Cologne, and became known to the German concert-rooms through a trio for harp, violin, and violoncello, and also a concert prelude ;

that

Since his return to America his

was quite popular.

"

Japanese

Overture" has received performance by Thomas and Seidl, and he has become prominent in New York, where he has taken up his residence.

This chapter

may

be fittingly brought to a close with one of the

composer who, by some, is considthe very few Americans to be called a master. Arthur

more important names, ered one of

that of a

Whiting (Fig. 60) has written in almost all the musical forms, both great and small, and has won success in many of them. His works have been played by all of the great orchestras of America, and many of them have had interpretations abroad. And in this B.

connection a clear statement

ance

large

a

of

of

the

of

be made.

The

single perform-

work does not always prove much.

wires are pulled, there

works

may

so

is

much

So many

playing of musical politics, that

an inferior order sometimes appear upon a programme

highest

class.

Some

conductors,

and notably Thomas,

Gericke, Paur, and Seidl, have sought to stem this

tide,

and their

The works of some native composers, however, are in actual demand and are played over and over again. The concertos of MacDowell, the overtures of Chad wick, the suite indorsement means much.

D

minor by Foote, and numbers by Paine, Horatio Parker (chiefly vocal), and Arthur Whiting, are played purely because they are worthy compositions, just the same as a work by Brahms, in

or R. Strauss, or Grieg.

Whiting (who is a nephew of the organist and composer G. E. Whiting) was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, June 20, 1861, and is a member of a remarkablv musical familv. His father was a musician of some prominence, and the young Whiting was given instruction of the best character from the very beginning. William H. Sherwood was his teacher in piano, Parker in harmony, and George W. Chad wick taught J. C. D. him the higher grades of composition. Then came the trip to Munich, where he formed one of the excellent band of Americans Arthur

Battelle

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

212

which Rheinberger instructed, and

of

which Chadwick was one

of

the earHest members.

On

America he settled in Boston, marrying into one of the oldest New England families. Within the last few He is not a years, however, he has made New York his home. composer who gives forth a large list of compositions, for he works Almost all slowly and seems to prize finish as much as inspiration. Recently, howof his early works were instrumental or orchestral. his return to

ever, he has

won

a striking success in a vocal setting of Oliver

Herford's cycle of poems entitled

Floriana," in which he has dis-

"

played a charming delicacy and a thorough comprehension of the

needs of the vocalist.

dainty and graceful

in the

It is

moods

that

find

him lacking when

vigor and fiery dramatic expression are required.

Yet he has been

we

find this

composer

his best,

at

and we

some which

of

"

certainly are

Barrack-room Ballads,"

not

Yet

over-delicate.

doubted that ent

"

time, his

work

Floriana

"

is,

the pres-

to

Mr. Whiting

direction.

of

his

Yet some

of his

vanced manner that

it

minor (Op.

6),

that

in

piano works are in

such

an

ad-

gives the composer

the right to appear in this chapter.

D

clever

of the in-

works tend

combined with orchestra

written a piano concerto, in

artistic

a

is

and a prominent teacher

strument, most

Whiting.

up

be

to

in the vocal field.

pianist

— Arthur

not

is

it

most successful and

Naturally, as

Fig. 60.

Kipling's

fairly successful in setting

He

has

which has been heard

American symphony concerts as long ago as 1888. The orchestration of this work is quite advanced, and there are bold modulations in it that are beyond the suavity of some of Mr. Whiting's later works. Even before the composition of this concerto the composer had brought forth classical pieces. A piano trio, performed in Munich, we have never heard, but a concert overture, in

performed by the Boston Symphony Orchestra,

in

1886,

made

a

very favorable impression, although not of the power of the Chad-

wick overtures, which had preceded

it.

In

1891 a

suite,

in

G

THE ORCHESTRAL COMPOSERS OF AMERICA minor, for string orchestra and

The combination

appearance. one, yet that he

it

horn quartette (Op. of

was very successful.

was a master

were well exhibited.

concerts presented a violin

made

8)

its

musical forces was an unusual

Whiting showed grace and elegance

In this suite Mr.

of sonata form,

About

213

and

his

same time the Kneisel quartette sonata by the young composer, the perthe

formers being Mr. Kneisel and Mr. Whiting.

But the most ambitious and orchestra,

for piano

in

poser not only has more of

B

a pastorale, nominally

virile

by a condensed return before, yet

it

a form

is

is

minor (Op.

power than

11).

of

In this the com-

to innovate in musical form, giving

first

movement

which we do not

recall

effective

is

it

the

followed

the finale

ever having met

symmetrical and decidedly useful in classical it

of

treat-

any

of

As might have been expected from a instrument is made rather prominent, having long

contrasts.

pianist, the chief

stretches of absolute solo free a

really as

before

ment, shortening the composition, yet not depriving its

com-

in his other large

movement, but the first movement, for

the

the fantasia

is

as a second

contrasted second portion of

This

fiat

even manages

positions, but he

begins.

Mr. Whiting's works

of

;

but this can be readily condoned in so

form as a fantasia.

All together, then, Mr. Whiting, beginning in too suave and Chesterfieldian a manner, has

grown

constantly,

the prominent composers in the larger forms.

and

is

now one

of

His compositions

become more and more powerful with each successive number, and his piano works are among the most useful in the entire American repertoire.

PLATE

VII

ANTON SEIDL (Copyright by

Aime

Dupont.

New

Yorki

IIV

3TAJ^

jai32 MOTHA

CHAPTER X OTHER ORCHESTRAL COMPOSERS OF AMERICA After Europe

narrating

now becomes

it

advent

the

necessary to

— those

have expatriated themselves

end

studying abroad, at the

and possibly believing that success

foreign climes,

branches of the profession was

This

almost permanently. these

first of

many

Berlin for

who

musical course, tempted by the musical atmosphere of

of their

The

American compositions in speak of some Americans who

of

settled in

August

Europe

who taught music

Boise was born in Oberlin, Ohio

years.

higher

happily a short one.

list is

Otis Bardwell Boise,

is

active musical town),

home,

difificult at

in the

13,

He was

1844.

(a

in

very

educated at the

public schools in Cleveland, Ohio, and was an organist at fourteen

years of age.

1861 he studied in Leipsic, under Hauptmann,

In

further study porarily) to

in

playing

1876 Boise was in

New York

the

1864 there came

in

under Kullak.

Then he returned

and from 1865

land,

New

and

organ,

in

to

still

(tem-

1870 engaged in

Cleveland.

From 1870

York, as a teacher of composition

to

in the

Conservatory and organist in the Fifth Avenue Presby-

terian Church. ;

others;

Berlin,

his native

teaching, and

studying

and

Moscheles,

Richter,

He was

in

Europe again

and now he won the friendship

in

of

1877, Liszt,

composing and who helped him

work and undoubtedly aided him in his recognition abroad. Another attempt in New York followed, from 1878 to 1881, and Finally, then came seven years of business affairs instead of music. in 1888, there began the period of his expatriation, and from that There has time (until very recently) Boise remained in Berlin. been a good reflection of his work in America, for Howard Brockway (his son-in-law) studied with him in Berlin, and Huss was his in his

pupil before he

left

America.

Boise has written symphonies, over215

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

2i6

concertos, and other large works, but these are better

tiires,

abroad than in his native land.

Harmony made

entitled "

work

ern in

tendencies.

its

In

He

known

has also written an educational

Practical,"

which

decidedly mod-

is

1902 he returned to America and

is

at

present (1904) in Baltimore.

Arthur

was born

in

American group

the second of the

Bird,

Cambridge, Massachusetts, July

1

88 1

male chorus

first

in

Nova

Scotia.

he went back to Berlin for more extended study, under

Heinrich Urban, at Kullak's school.

drawn

Berlin for two

Halifax (Nova Scotia) as organist and

and founded there the

teacher,

In

in

in

Returning to America

years under Haupt, Loeschhorn, and Rohde.

he settled for four years

He went

23, 1856.

abroad before he was twenty-one, and studied

Europe,

in

to his work,

and the summer

The of

attention of Liszt was

1885 was spent with that

master at Weimar, as also part of the following year, cert given in

Berlin in

1886 served to introduce some

works to Germany, and so successfully that

his path

A

con-

of his

own

became easy

in

that musical centre.

Another

visit

was made to America

in

1886, but eventually

same time that Boise settled abroad) Bird became a regular teacher and composer of Berlin. He has composed in almost all forms and is an excellent contrapuntist, yet uses his skill in this direction as a means rather than as an end, seldom making a display of his knowledge. His works include a symphony, in A, three orchestral suites, some excellent piano compositions (including two fugues), a ballet, and an opera comique entitled " Daphne." A third American composer abroad is Templeton Strong. He (about

is

the

the son of the late G. T. Strong, once president of the

Philharmonic Society. ley,

are

and Horatio hosts

of

W.

Henry K. Hadtheir names (there

Just as Arthur B. Whiting,

Parker have dropped part of

instances

New York

of

this

in

musical

biography, outside

of

William Richard Wagner), so George Templeton Strong has cur-

Templeton Strong. Born in New York in 1855, of a distinguished and wealthy family, his musical education was fostered from the very beginning, and after some study in his native city he was sent to Leipsic, where, in the great conservatory, he tailed his

name

to

studied composition and piano for

some

years.

In

1891 he

came

OTHER ORCHESTRAL COMPOSERS OF AMERICA America

to

to take a position in the

New

217

England Conservatory

as

harmony and counterpoint. He became very popular with all who came in contact with him, pupils and faculty alike, but was soon obliged to return to Europe on account of his health, which suffered from the rigorous New England climate. He at present makes his home in Vevay, Switzerland, composing amidst teacher of

the most picturesque surroundings.

He

Strong has written much orchestral and cantata music. possesses a grace in delicate romance that

modern orchestra he

and

in his control of the

the

American composers.

He

altogether charming,

is

is

the equal of any of

has written two symphonies, of which

one, "Sintram," has been given in the United States,

performing Strong's

magnum

opus.

It is

Seidl

may be taken as has much power and

This work

Brooklyn, in 1892.

in

it

Anton

too prolix, but

it

More artistic and poetic to our thinking is " The Haunted Mill," a work for chorus, baritone solo, and orchestra, which is as successful a work as anything of its kind in the reperbrilliantly scored.

is

toire,

being

symphonic poem,

"

Undine," has not yet been heard

Strong's piano works are

with

German

from beginning to end.

inspiration

true

of

full

text) are

all

poetry, and

of

full

worthy

America.

his cantatas (mostly

translation

of

in

A

and performance

America.

in

If

we have loaned

to

Germany

that country has returned the

American composers,

three good

compliment

tenfold,

by sending us a

host of creative musicians who, having taken up their residence

among

us,

ment which

have become part and parcel is

now

so strongly

side of the Atlantic.

we

marked

In such a

in

the

of

musical matters on this

as that

list

shall not include sporadic visitors,

advance move-

which

is

who have been

to

follow,

sojourning

here from the time of Jullien to that of Richard Strauss, but only those

who have

definitely

Americanized themselves and have given

their

permanent

efforts to

compositions of an American character.

Among these modern

one

man

stands preeminent for mastery of the most

orchestra, for originality of thought, as well as for remarkable

devices in combinations of instrumentation. is

Charles Martin Loeffler (Fig.

Alsatia, in January, 1861.

A

61).

few

He was

of his early

This modern Berlioz born

in

Mlihlhausen,

works were published

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

2lS as by

Loeffler-Tornov, the

latter

being part of his family name,

which, however, has been omitted from later works. teenth year

In his four-

studied violin with Leonard in Paris, with Massart, in the

and with Joachim,

He

rank.

Berlin,

in

becoming a

then

same

city,

of

violinist

the highest

studied composition with Friedrich Kiel, in Berlin, and Loeffler himself doubts, how-

orchestration with Guiraud, in Paris.

whether he ought

ever,

He

he decided to make music his profession.

be called a pupil of Kiel, as his studies

to

with him were interrupted and very

His chief studies

brief.

of

made from the orchestra itself, or with men who His work with the Pasdeloup (he says) are quite unknown to fame. Orchestra, in Paris, and with other European orchestras, gave him a orchestration were

practical training that has

More than years in

of the greatest value to him.

half of Loeffler's life has

New York

been passed

and twenty-one years

he has been one

city

been

Symphony Orchestra and

Boston.^

in

most prominent

of the

although about

New

York.

all

of

Most

Boston

At

present

a teacher of the highest rank.

Few

of Loeffler's

in order to

have more

works have been published,

them have been performed

of the

In the latter

violinists of the

he has dissociated himself from the orchestra time for composition.

America, three

in

either in Boston or

published scores have appeared in Paris,

and include a few songs and a berceuse for violin and piano. Recently he has produced four remarkable songs with French text (the poetry by Gustave Kahn), which have been published in New

They prove

York.

that even without the

glow

of orchestral color,

composer can present impressive music.

this

work has been largely orchestral. His chamber-music is very effective and practical, as might be expected from so thorough a violinist. In some of it he has develIn the main, however, Loeffler's

oped Russian themes very brilliantly. His tendency toward Russian and French subjects has been marked, as also a decided morbidness that

is

a characteristic of the ultra-modern school.

tinctly

Russian flavor

more attractively employed) in his string Such a subject as Maeterlinck's " Death ^The

portrait of Loeffler

is

a dis-

in Loeffler's violin concerto, as also (and here

it is

Sargent, presented to Mrs.

There

which

John

L.

is

reproduced herewith

Gardner of Boston, and

sextette. of

is

is

Tintagiles" would

a recent painting by

John

S.

at present in her Italian palace.

FIG. 6i.

— C.

M. LOEFFLER.

After the painting by John S. Sargent. (Copyright by

Thomas

E. Marr.)

1

OTHER ORCHESTRAL COMPOSERS OF AMERICA

22

we have spoken made into a large

naturally appeal strongly to the morbidezza which of as

prominent

in this

composer's work.

It

is

symphonic poem, and the composer's individuality in scoring is shown by his resuscitating the obsolescent viol d' amore, and employing two of them to picture the pathetic hero and his sister, a thoroughly adequate tone-color which speaks the orchestral mind.

The

may perhaps

present writer

work written by him

extract from a review of the

hearing.

Now

"

will

It

by C. M.

be pardoned for introducing here an after

followed a very talented, but very radical, composition, Loeffler, entitled

He

pessimism.

'

La Mort de

Mr. Loeffler

Tintagiles.'

thoroughly imbued with ultra-modern

is

has given us a carnaval des morts, and has rev-

elled in the verjuice of Verlaine,

and now he plunges

deeper gloom

It

art;

Maeterlinck.

of

music

is

hopeless wailing,

a

first

serve to point out Loeffler's merits and defects.

has already proved that he

modern

the

a

no longer

into the

but the tendency

is

to be beautiful, but

thrice-intensified

acknowledge that shadows are needed

most

of

to

is

still

become

One may

Weltschmerz.

to give the best effect to lights

must contrast against good in literature, that dissonance must enhance consonance in music; but to present in painting, that evil

shadows

sonances and unrest, is

hysteria, the "

and misery,

only, to portray only crime

bad

is

In the Maeterlinck cult the religion

art.

so steeped, soaked, and sodden in horrors that,

mind, some of his tricks become comical.

and palaces are always

in

bad

His

castles

repair, built in a malarial district,

bad drainage, and perfumed with blood. passages

dis-

temple a morgue.

Maeterlinck

to a healthy

is

sound only

to

Heavy

with

iron doors, dark

with horror, mysterious presences, melancholy chil-

filled

tales

gloom and terthe characters never speak but always stammer their gruesome to each other; there is murder in the air, there is death at the

end

of every play.

dren abound. ror

;

Andronicus

'

Everybody goes about

is

Shakespeare's

of

'

I

with

it

be Shakespeare's)

its

Titus

and what '

?

And now we

are to have this perni-

only ambition that of the fat boy in

wants to make your

;

'

Shakespeare had he brought forth one Titus

Andronicus' after the other art,

(if

sunshine compared to these tragedies

would one have said cious

in the deepest

flesh creep

!

'

— exerting

its

'

Pickwick,'



funereal influence

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

222

Mr. Loeffler does not beat about the bush he plunges He begins with a disbodily into the brambles of the modern path. sonance that makes the first chord of the finale of Beethoven's Ninth in music.

;

and, once launched, there are

Symphony seem sweet by comparison, no stopping-places, no cadences

of repose



all

is

restless,

agonized,

sorrowing.

good taste, however, to use a couple of viols d'amore to represent the two children, Tintagiles and Ygraine, although their wretchedness was pushed to such great length that it became monotonous at last. The two viols d'amore were not the only " It

was

in

wonderful score, for a pedal

instrumental novelty of the

clarinet,

the deepest of the single reed instruments, was heard in America, in

And

for the first time.

this work,

in the application of

novelties

there were

still

older instruments

cymbals the composer showed himself a master Setting

binations.

all

modern

"

The odd

the

erally,

short

among

of orchestral

com-

the most famous masters

effects

produced upon the cymbals (not unlike WagVenus-scene

in

'

Tannhauser'), the impressive

midnight upon the harps (Berlioz and

sponsors for

from harps to

orchestra.

ner's rattling in the

tolling of

striking

the lugubrious ideas aside, Mr. Loefifler has

suddenly shown himself as ranking of the

;

more

this),

the bold use of bass

muted

horns,

trumpet-blasts,

the

the

'

St.

drum and

ponticello

'

work

Saens may stand

of percussion genof the strings, the

mournful organ-point against the

viols

d'amore, these, and a host of other striking touches might be men-

we have in Mr. Loefiier." rescored this work and has eliminated

tioned to prove what a master of scoring

Mr. Loefiler has recently

one

of

the viols d' amore, giving the single obbligato instrument

more prominence.

new form the work show^s even more masmodern orchestra. If the extremely sombre and In

terful control of the

its

radical school be accepted,

it

may

be cordially admitted that Loeffler

modern exponents. Other orchestral works by LoeiBer show the same qualities. A divertimento for violin and orchestra presents a charming eclogue, is

a master of

it,

a rival to

any

of its

with just the tender pastoral feeling that ought to dominate such a

movement.

The

finale,

however, rushes into the extreme of frenzy

with a carnaval des morts in which

all

the diablerie in which the

OTHER ORCHESTRAL COMPOSERS OF AMERICA

223

In the eclogue the violins are composer revels is introduced. omitted from the orchestra, a point which gives especial prominence

Other ingenious touches

to the solo instrument.

muted trumpets

occur, even

(a

very rare effect

of orchestration in

orchestration)

being employed. morbidity bursts forth

All Loeffler's "

La

It

the rickets.

"

their

tones, piccolos

baleful

and

Carmagnole,"

stained

Led by

has created a Till-EulenspicgelV\wA of a

prancing through a most complicated forth

symphonic poem

not a Miltonian Lucifer that here appears, but a

is

very restless gentleman with Loefifler

his

du Diable," founded upon an eccentric poem by

Villanelle

Rollinat.

in

Terror blend in

shriek,

the

devil,

and sent him

Muted horns give " (^a

Ira" and

the

blood-

the

Reign

the

tunes of

score.

the poet, Mr.

of

confusion

fierce

in this picture of Satan.

In exquisite contrast to such

orgies

founded on

one

of

laine.

"

poem

symphonic

a

is

La Bonne Chanson,"

the finest works of VerIt is

poem

a tender

deal-

ing with the glory of daybreak

and the message

of

love, a pas-

the

morning-

this Loeffler

has turned

sionate appeal star;

and

into

music

in

to

a noble manner,

dreamy and yearning. has shown himself great tone-colorist

LoefHer to

— the

be

a

best in

Fu;. 62.

— Louis

Maas.

America.

A

great musician, Louis

Maas

(Fig. 62), took

up his residence

America in 1880, and, but for his early death, would have become a leader in the musical advance. He was born in WiesPupil and subsequently teacher baden, Germany, June 21, 1852. at the conservatory in Leipsic, he came to Boston, one of the in

most learned musicians

of the

Boston coterie

conducted the Philharmonic Orchestra

;

at that time.

He

sought out American sub-

224

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

jects in music,

and

"

ern tours) entitled

and

wrote a symphony (inspired by his West-

finally

classical music,

On

was

the Prairies."

He

wrote

much

orchestral

a pianist of foremost rank, a very successful

and stood very high in his work at the New England Conservatory of Music. A most prosperous career seemed opening

teacher,

him in America, but September i8, 1889.

to

Richard Burmeister

it

is

was cut short by

his death in

another of the foreigners

who

Boston,

has identi-

American musical progress. He was born in Hamburg, December 7, i860. He was a teacher in the Hamburg Conservatory and also a pupil of Liszt, in the general sense in That is, Liszt advised him, heard which this term is applied. him play, admitted him to the coterie at Weimar, and guided He his performance and his compositions in a large degree. an exceptional was also with Liszt in Buda-Pesth and in Rome himself with

fied



He

privilege.

has written a piano concerto,

has

rescored

the

Chopin F minor concerto, and has added an orchestral part to Liszt's own "Concerto Pathetique." Li 1885 he came to America, and for twelve years was the head of the piano department of the

Peabody Institute in Baltimore. After that he settled in New York, where he became head of the Scharwenka Conservatory and whence he made concert tours present residence

is

all

over this country and Europe.

Europe, where he has

many American

His

pupils.

Hamerik (born in Copenhagen, April 8, 1843) was director of the same Peabody Institute Conservatory, from 187 1. He has composed an enormous list of large works, including five Asgar

symphonies

;

but none of these are especially American, so far as

they are generally known.

many

and

of

his

He

has written

compositions are

Danish

much in

sacred music,

their

trend

and

inspiration.

Otto Singer was more thoroughly Americanized than Hamerik.

Born

at Sora, in

Saxony, July

26, 1833,

he studied in Dresden, in the

Leipsic Conservatory, and with Liszt (the usual reservation

made came

is

to be

and was a teacher in the two cities named above. He to America in 1867, and taught here for more than a quarter of a century. Such foreigners have had a more important role in American musical history than some of our native-born composers, here),

OTHER ORCHESTRAL COMPOSERS OF AMERICA and

quite in line with the purpose of this

it is

At

influence.

Singer was a teacher

first

In that year he was called

1873.

conductor of the

May

first

vokime

in

to trace their

New York — until

Cincinnati to

to

225

be assistant

After this musical

Festival in that city.

occasion he accepted the post of teacher of piano and composition in

Music

College of

the

almost the rest of his

life.

where he

3,

in

January

died,

Cincinnati

due

is

to

May

choruses for the

Cincinnati,

in

Much

1894.

much

had

York,

For years he trained the

1876 he wrote an American

In

The Landing

"

Besides

success.

the Pilgrim

of

this

com-

he has

many

posed symphonies, a symphonic fantasia, concertos, and

other

His "Symphonic Fantasia" was performed by Gericke

works.

with

for

chorus singing

of the best

Otto Singer.

cantata for one of these festivals, Fathers," which

New

1893 he returned to

In

festivals.

and remained there

the

Boston Symphony

Orchestra and with

good

success.

Singer stood on the neutral ground between the conservative and

Even

the radical.

his

"Symphonic Fantasia" followed

symphonic shape, giving the

of the

the outline

effect of four distinct but con-

tinuous movements. It

would scarcely be composers

cians,

porary

to

our purpose to speak of the

in

America.

Scharwenka, and other birds in

nor influenced

who have merely had a temSuch men as Busoni, Vogrich,

it

its

of passage,

On

musical career.

us for a generation or longer,

who have

had

their

all

their

honors belong

Loeffler,

written works on first in

part of the warp and woof of the to this

its

history

the other hand, such foreign

who have

works brought out

have honored our country

have not added to

for a time, but they

composers as Eichberg, Singer, and can pupils,

musi-

of orchestral forms,

residence

by remaining

many

who have

lived

among

taught hundreds of Ameri-

American subjects or have America,

— these

American musical

men

fabric,

are

and

country as Handel's glory belongs to

England, the country of his adoption. It is

perhaps

essentially

fitting that this

chapter should close with a figure

American, and one which

our readers.

It is

is

entirely familiar to

not the figure of a great orchestral conductor,

not a composer of the classical forms, yet the to follow has Q

most

had more performances

of his

it is

man whose name

works

in France,

of

is

Ger-

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

226

many, and England than

One may recall the The birds declined like a

mouse

to associate with

the mice declined

;

classification of

his

among

fable of the bat

63).

tunes

Wagner monument

familiar to

are

classes,

all

knows

they play

that

example, the In

in Berlin.

festivi-

America

and many a musician who

Sousa does not belong among

that

masters might be obliged to

great

the

too

Germany they hold

In

as, for

it

confronts one in the

America

of

marches on international occasions,

his

was too much

it

companionship because

its

music so typically representative connected with the

the birds and the mice.

because

it

John Philip Sousa (Fig.

ties

far cited put togethei.

Some such dilemma

closely resembled a bird.

his

names thus

the

all

confess greater familiarity with the melodies of the former than with

themes

in

Washington, No-

His mother was Ger-

1856.

6,

man, his father a Spain,

of the

of the latter.

Sousa was born

vember

some

refugee from

political

who became

a

trombone

player.

Sousa's youth was decidedly variegated.

His musical teachers were John Esputa

At

and George Felix Benkert. Fig. 63.

— John

was

a dancing-school, at six-

fiddler in

Sousa.

P.

teen

(Copyright by E. Chickering, Boston.)

he led an orchestra in a variety

theatre,

director of a travelling theatrical for their play.

A

a negro minstrel

little later

company;

at

at

eighteen

troop,

musical

he blacked his face and appeared with nineteen he had

of the orchestra with

the United States.

Then he became

finally,

was

he

and had composed music

and was a member

company; and

eight he

moved

a

little

higher,

which Offenbach toured

director of a

"

Pinafore

"

opera

1880, at twenty-four years of age,

in

was

appointed leader of the United States Marine Band.

some good and some unscientific work. Our meaning may be made clear by examining the " National, PaIn this position he did

triotic

and Typical Airs

of all

Countries," which he collated with

the power of the United States administration back of him.

All our

consuls abroad were ordered to send to Sousa the chief airs of the

OTHER ORCHESTRAL COMPOSERS OF AMERICA One might have

countries in which they resided. that

would have been one

ture.

It

of the

might have been

so,

most valuable

or semi-civilized

barbaric

the

As

best.

of the

melodies

in

Apaches has an

band Sousa was not so

August

zation fairly famous.

and formed peculiar

its

his

own

unscientific, i,

the

any

of

Japan

collection.

Richter's exercises,

effect as

if

But

each of these

in the training

and he made the organi-

1892, he resigned the leadership,

band, which has since become celebrated in

field.

Although Sousa has written operas and

litera-

manner he

a result one cannot trust

wild Indians were armed with a grand piano. of his

musical

in all

the tunes in the

eives us harmonies which mio^ht be found in

and the war-song

expected a work

had not Mr. Sousa, with a deplorable

excess of zeal, harmonized most of

thought would sound

227

sonsfs, his chief

claim to fame

lies

of the lighter kind, waltzes in his

marches.

It

said

is

that over twenty thousand bands in the United States alone play,

England and Germany, at present, one cannot escape hearing the well-remembered rhythm of the " Washington Post " or the " Liberty Bell " march. The prices received for these two marches varied somewhat. The composer sold the first for $35, the second has thus far netted him $35,000. This ^5 far more than any sum received for any composition menor play

at,

his marches, while in

tioned .elsewhere in this volume.

Sousa's comic office

point of view, and

more earnest work. form.

The

the waltz

is

have won much success from the box-

operas it

Two

is

pleasant to note that he

marches, however, are the fame of Sousa, exactly as the success of Johann or

To

Eduard

Strauss.

Nor need

write stirring rhythms, melodies

that one cannot shake out of one's

is

essaying

recent suites of his are quite graceful in

one disdain such a success. tired soldier

is

memory, tunes

that

make

walk and the popular concert audience tap their

not given to every one.

able capture of

the feet,

America may accept Sousa's remark-

Europe with

pleasure, without unduly exalting

it.

People abroad, as a whole, prefer Johann Strauss to Richard, but that does not

mean

can be enjoyed

that the former

in their

is

proper seasons.

the greater of the two.

Both

PLATE

VIII

GEORGE W. CHADWICK

IIIV

3TAJ^

>ioiwaAno .w aonoHo

CHAPTER

AND VOCAL COMPOSERS

OPERATIC, CANTATA,

may be examined

In this chapter

XI

the works of those composers

may have

who, whatever other compositions they

of

James Cutler Dunn Parker

of

intrinsic

composers

worth, but

to study

much importance Not only

(Fig. 64).

Parker was the earliest of

music thoroughly

in

He was Harvard

American school

born

in

any American

Boston, June

in

1848.

of

At

of social

music as a profession.

time

that

1828,

all

the native

As his era of one may call him

and graduated from

was deemed impossible

for

to take

up

consequence, Parker studied law for

three years.

At

mind

would not develop into a great

that he

works

are his

prominence and ample means In

the person

musical pedagogues. 2,

it

in

Germany.

teaching activity antedates that of John K. Paine, the father of the

won

In the domain of sacred

their chief successes in the vocal field.

music, America has a writer of

written, have

the end of

made up

his

legal luminary,

and

that time, however, he

that there was a career before

him

in the

realm of tones.

Three

years of study in Leipsic followed, under such teachers as Haupt-

mann, Richter, and

much

Rietz,

and

especially

Moscheles,

with

who

young American student in the days Returning when few Americans studied music in Germany. to America in 1854, Mr. Parker entered upon a musical career took

that

is

still

interest

in

the

(1904) continuing.

He

early organized a vocal club

became the organist at Trinity Church, was the organist also of the Handel and Haydn Society, and entered In the New England Conservatory as piano and harmony teacher. for part-singing,

this last capacity

Mr. Parker's influence has been extensive.

The

pupils that he has graduated during his long era of activity would

form a good-sized regiment.

Among 229

those

who

studied under him

THE HISrORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

2 30

may

A. Preston, Fred. H. Lewis, Alfred D.

be mentioned John

Turner, Henry M. Charles H. Morse,

At

farther.

Dunham

— the

(Fig. 65), Allen

list

W. Swan,

H. Howe,

J.

might be extended much examiner at the New England

of celebrities

present Mr. Parker

is

Conservatory, in Boston.

Boston began as early as 1854, it was not until 1877 that he brought out a large composition. In that year the Handel and Haydn Society gave his " Redemption

Although Parker's teaching

Hymn,"

a cantata that has held

Nine years

ever since.

came

finally there

The

"

oratorio,

D. Parker does not attempt the

C,

J.

place in the standard repertoire

Parker (not a

The

"

was the next important work, and

"

small

a

its

he wrote a secular cantata,

later

John

" St.

King."

Blind

in

Man."

Life of

intricate

style

Mr.

Horatio

of

but combines graceful melody with sufficient

relative),

counterpoint to lend dignity to his work

— the juste milieu between

The last-named work was produced Handel and Haydn Society, April 14, 1895. "The Life of may be called Parker's best work. Although quite melodic,

the classical and the popular.

by the

Man "

work

fugal

not wanting in

is

its

numbers, the

chorus being a

first

Subsequently

well-developed fugue with a fine stretto as climax.

portrayal of effect '•

won

Resurrection the composer has

the

by soprano solo against chorus, as Rossini did

There

Inflammatus."

the

and excellent canonic writing occur.

expositions

fugal

portrayal

enter

voices

beautiful

in

ness, a desire

also

seven

the

of

is

to

the

In

a powerful

famous

in his

some masterly canonic writing

churches of

A

in^iitation.

Asia, in

in

which seven

tendency to oversweet-

be melodic and singable at

all

hazards,

is

the

only weak spot in this composer's work.

among

one

as

Just

the

D.

that

J.

C.

teachers,

as

well

feels

great

as

Parker should

among

be

classed

the composers

of

America, so Dudley Buck (Fig, 66) impresses one as a celebrity

among

organists and a famous instructor.

positions,

and

chiefly

He was

can readers. 1S39,

no

the

son

musical

when

by

of

a

his cantatas, that he

is

it

is

by

known

his

to

com-

Ameri-

born in Hartford, Connecticut, March

prominent merchant

instruction whatever

'he began, he

Yet

until

of

his

that city.

sixteenth

took up the study with so

much

10,

He had year;

but

ardor that

OPERATIC, CANTATA, AND VOCAL COMPOSERS

was obliged

his father

mercial

possible equipment

There he

in 1858.

When

Rietz.

him

followed

the there

young man all in his chosen profession, sent him to Leipsic studied under Plaid)', Richter, Hauptmann, and last-named professor went to Dresden, Buck to continue his work and now added organ year in

followed

Paris

this,

1862 he was a well-trained young musician, engaged as

in

organist at

Park Church,

the

became organist he came

at

Church

burned

Chicago, where he had

in

great

the

in

In

fire.

1872

Boston, where he was organist at St. Paul's, and in

to

1874 he went to

New

York, where he became Thomas's assistant

conductor and the musical director 1877, he

Subsequently Buck

Hartford.

in

St. James's

compositions

early

his

all

the

give

to

A

study with Friedrich Schneider.

and

regarding his com-

plans

his

determining

and,

career,

change

to

231

was appointed organist

position he retained

until

at

1902,

at

Holy

Ann's.

St.

Still

later,

Trinity, in Brooklyn,

when he became

in

which

organist at the

Brooklyn Tabernacle.

some of Buck's most important works are organ compositions, and his two sonatas, his " Triumphal March," and his pedal studies are known to most musicians in America, and Naturally

are sure to

remain

he wielded

much

extended

over America at a time

to

all

in

the

influence

standard

through

guide the taste of the multitude.

tion

"

also

came

at a

field

concert

his

when His

it

organist

which

tours,

was very important

first

"

Motette

Collec-

time when a better influence was required in

the vocal music of the church

passed in this

As an

repertoire.

and

in

in

Buck has been

America.

some points

sur-

composition by our

of

modern native tone-masters, but he has been a very healthful influence in music in America at just the right time, and it may be borne in mind that if he had been too radical in his forward steps he would have been beyond his public he would have had no influence at all. We have said that Buck's most ambitious work was done in the cantata forms. As long ago as 1876 this composer gave a choral ;

contribution to the Centennial Exhibition

in

Philadelphia, which

was sung by one thousand voices under Theodore Thomas's tion.

Even

before this he had published (in 1874) the

"

direc-

Legend

of

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

23:

Don

Columbus," of

"

Asia

male voices,

for

(founded upon Sir

elaborate of

and

The Voyage of deserves mention, and " The Light Edwin Arnold's poem) is the most "

Munio," a very successful secular cantata.

All of these works are popular

Buck's cantatas.

all

are melodious.

all

Among

the most effective of his compositions for the church are

"The Coming

the series of four short cantatas, "

Story of the Cross,"

The

David."

Christ the Victor," and

three are historically

first

of the

King," "The

The Triumph

"

of

and thematically connected;

them the composer has consecuthe main events tively depicted in

relating to the prophecy, the birth,

the death, the resurrection, and the

ascension of Christ, presenting some-

what dramaticallv, within a suitable and with moderate musi-

time-limit, cal

the chief episodes of

difficulty,

of

David"

The Triumph

"

the Christian year.

happening

treats of a

and separate from the other

tinct

And

three.

the

in

same

class with "

the cantatas also belongs the

night Service for Fig. 64.



C. D.

J.

In

Parker.

Many daros,"

of his compositions, "

from Shelley's

"

Ride," besides a long

Apollo Club

list

of

On

"

Prometheus,"

"

Chorus

"

Sleeping,"

Love-song,"

Song," taste.

Munio,"

numbers

Crossing the "

Many

The of

Frequently "

as

for

"The Nun

of Spirits

many thirty,

"Sunset,"

"

Columbus

"

Ni-

of

and Hours

"

Paul Revere's

His

years director).

and among them are

"The

Silent

World

is

The Tempest," " The Bedouin Blacksmith," " The Creole Lover's

these songs are too saccharine for the

Mr.

mu-

"

Bar,"

Village

male-voice

the Sea," and

songs and ballads number upward of such well-known

Year's Eve."

male quartettes, were written for the

which he has been

(of

Mid-

Buck has achieved fame.

notably "Twilight,"

King Olaf s Christmas,"

New

the field of

Mr.

sic

dis-

Buck

is

(English

his

and

own

librettist.

German),

"

The

In

purest "

Don

Festival

OPERATIC, CANTATA, AND VOCAL COMPOSERS

Hymn

and

,"

"

On

the

words are original with

the

Sea,"

233 the

composer. Buck's setting of the Forty-sixth Psahn, for soH, chorus, and orchestra,

Boston

produced by the

first

Handel and

"Marmion"

Society of

symphonic overture

1873, requires mention, as also the

in

Haydn

work which Thomas first produced with the Philharmonic Society of Brooklyn. His works have won quite as much success in England as in America, his " Light of Asia " having been given in London with such artists as Nordica, to Scott's

Lloyd, and

(1880), a

Santley in

pupils as Harry

Rowe

reviewers consider

W. H. Buck

too suave and too popular to rank

condemned

"

to

Because thou !

be no more cakes and

there

John Hyatt Brewer,

Neidlinger.

with the best American composers. shall

a teacher he has had such

Shelley, C. B. Hawley,

Frederic Grant Gleason, and

Some

As

the cast.

ale

art

Must we be

"

the dramatic dissonances of Loeffler and

virtuous eternally

Van

der

modern school which countenances them ? In literature one may enjoy Browning and yet not discard Tennyson a taste for Wordsworth is not considered incompatible with a delight in Swinburne. Let us have some of this toleration Stucken because there

is

a

;

in

music

too,

In the

and enjoy the suave as well as the

domain

of

opera America has as yet done but

are hosts of light operas which,

charms

of the

cities.

Of these musical

earnest

field,

heroic.

chorus

girls,

combined

little.

witli a lavish display of the

have won box-office success

in the large

In the

more

which yields the composer no reward except the

faint

history need take no note.

hope that posterity may appreciate him, there have been,

no

There

startling successes.

Chadwick has made

as yet,

the experiment of a

sacred opera, "Judith," Paine has completed his romantic "Azara,"

and Coerne has written two operas already spoken lot of a

composer

of foreign birth,

and operatic leadership, was born

1862 (Fig. rosch.

22).

The son

the

Walter Damrosch found

Hawthorne,

Walter Damrosch, already spoken tral

It fell to

however, to find a subject well

suited to the people of the United States. inspiration in the noble novel of

of.

of in

"

The

Scarlet Letter."

connection with orches-

in Breslau, Silesia,

January

30,

His father was the celebrated Dr. Leopold Damstudied music

first

with his father and afterwards

2

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

34

Although born abroad, he has so thoroughly identified himself with music in America, particularly with the Wagner propaganda here, that it is difilicult to think of him in

Dresden with Draeseke.

Coming

other than as an American composer.

conducting German opera

his early childhood,

New York

to

in

Metropolitan

at the

Opera House, leading symphony orchestras and the Oratorio Society, marrying the daughter of so prominent an American as James G.

Damrosch has been steeped

Blaine,

years that

"The the

it

was natural

to find

Scarlet Letter

error

of

treating a plot

The

decidedly German.

his first great work.

It

thoroughly American

in

Few

Lathrop, the son-in-law of Hawthorne.

done

death before the

to

A

"

manner

a

liberties

were taken

was very curtly the Rev. John Wilson

Pearl, however,

Little

rise of the curtain,



finishing her story in these lines

committed

was made by George Parsons

libretto

with the powerful novel.

many

for so

life

seeking expression in his music.

it

was

"

American

in

child to thee was born,

Bringing disgrace and scorn.

Heaven's wise decree

Hath taken

thy daughter away,

Wafted on wings of Death

which makes short work ters.

of

More important than

one this,

of

kill

Hester

its

"

upon the

Romeo and

Juliet

For

all

"

pillory,

has

it

however, one

that,

finishing off so grand a character as

rebel at the idea of

As

finally dies

one lover and save the other; they must go

together like a brace of ducks.

Prynne by



Hawthorne's charming charac-

with Dimmesdale, because ever since

been impossible to

"

suicide, in the conventional

manner

may

Hester

of operatic heroines.

regards the music of this most important operatic work of

Damrosch

time in America, one cannot grow very enthusiastic.

has been steeped in the Achilles,

and there

vulnerable. ried out

Wagner

cauldron, but not to the depth of

good deal beyond the heel which remains The Wagnerian idea in "The Scarlet Letter " is caris

a

by leit-motiven (but not very many

ous flow of music

(a

of these),

very few exceptions were

heavy and dramatic scoring, and by the use {melos) rather than

direct

melody.

by

made

its

continu-

to

this),

of dramatic

All this

is

by

recitative

well enough, but

OPERATIC, CANTATA,

Wagner this is

AND VOCAL COMPOSERS

235

revelled in sharp musical delineation of character,

Damrosch

introduced,

A

scarcely exhibited a trace.

little

— rather too contrapuntally, — and

is

and

of

psalm-singing

a proper touch;

but to have a band of Puritans marching about, in Massachusetts, "

Time we go a-Maying," is stretching probOnly Morton's roisterers at Merrymount would

circa 1650, singing

somewhat.

ability

'Tis

have done anything

like that.

Nevertheless this madrigal, the forest music, and the prayer of

Hester are the

finest

though the opera dies death.

The

of the

finale

un-Puritan displaying

opera the

natural

contrapuntal

chorus

the opera

of

much

gods

the

too soaring, and

heavy enough Wallialla

in

than a simple pair

A

The whole

skill.

is

to

rather

Puritans.

of

further proof of Walter

Americanism

rosch's

most

is

although

character,

in

orchestra

suit

a

soaring,

is

the opera, and deserve to live even

bits of

was

when he devoutlv wrote a Te Deum," giving thanks

"

Damgiven

Manila for

the

beginning of our national worries in the

Philippine Islands.

At

the

Fig. 65.

— H.

M. Dunham.

present time he has turned to a less national topic and one

made an opera out

whose

intensity

may

of four acts of Rostand's "

the text being, by that well-known writer,

has also become conductor of the

which

him well. He has Cyrano de Bergerac,"

suit

W.

J.

Henderson.

New York Symphony

He

Society,

his father founded.

work as "The Scarlet Letter" to the light operas of America. A great number have been written of which a few stand forth as worthy. One of the best composers in the less ambitious school is Edgar Stillman Kelley. His largest work is called " Puritania." Kelley was born in Sparta, Wisconsin, It is

April

a long step from such a

14,

1857.

He

is

of old

and maternal ancestors having

American

stock, both his

paternal

settled in this country before 1650.

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

236

His collegiate education was interrupted by

Tom,

dental hearing of Blind

negro

a half-witted

An

health.

ill

acci-

turned

pianist,

though he inherited some musical gifts from his mother (Mary C. Bingham- Kelley), who was his He went abroad and studied in Stuttgart, graduearliest teacher. He had become someating from the conservatory there in 1880. his attention seriously to music,

Eddy

thing of an organist before that, thanks to Clarence

whom

he studied

in

came from Max

sition

On musical

His

West.

first

the

first

in

well-equipped musical

critic

in the

and played by

McKee

modern

Strange, bold, and

Macbeth."

"

Yet backed

was, but scarcely of a popular cast. Parrott,

at Stuttgart.

important work here was a setting of dramatic

to Shakespeare's

music

Royal Court Conductor

Seifriz,

San Francisco, strong and beneficent influence upon California

He was

life.

but his chief knowledge of compo-

;

from Germany Kelley settled

his return

where he exerted a far

Chicago

with

financially

Rankin, the tragedy with

it

by John inci-

its

San Francisco. Local pride may have helped this somewhat, for the same music But this was only the has never gained a foothold in the East. beginning. C. M. S. McLellan offered him a libretto to set to

dental music ran successfully for three weeks in

music, and the result was his opera of in

Boston

summer

in the

One may speak let

Letter," for

Puritania,"

of " Puritania " as a light

pendant

life,

The

to "

Scar-

but in a playful vein.

be heartily praised as being as good as anything

achieved by an American in comic opera up to libretto has

produced

first

1892.

of

also deals with Puritan

it

The music may

"

an indelible

Salem witchcraft

craze.

fault;

A

it

its

time, but the

deals with witch-hunters

thinking auditor will always regret see-

ing so awful a subject used as a comic libretto.

The

century can never furnish the laughter of another. reads history, the

and the

martyrdom

of Giles

tears of

To

one

one who

Corey and Rebecca Nourse

would forbid ever jesting about Salem witch-finders. Kelley

and "

may be

his comical

called the

symphony,

"

most graceful

class

his of

Chinese

work

of

song,

"

our musical humorists,

Gulliver in Lilliput," his Chinese suite,

Aladdin," which has been played in

and

of

Germany very

Lady picking

successfully,

Mulberries,"

which he may be recognized as the

indicate

a

originator.

AND VOCAL COMPOSERS

OPERATIC, CANTATA,

He makes most own

237

ingenious use of the Chinese five-toned scale (our

diatonic scale with the fourth and seventh notes

left out),

and

Oriental critics have admitted the genuineness of his treatment of

kingdom.

topics relating to the celestial

Kelley must be characterized

But, although

by

his delicate fun in

music

(a

and foremost

first

Bret Harte perhaps), his

musical

Macbeth " music may be extreme and too radical, but it is apt and sincere and the incidental music which he added to the dramatization of General Lew Wallace's "Ben Hur" is not only most dignified but speaks of much erudition, since the composer has evidently studied the Arabian modes and the commentaries (not always trustworthy) on the ancient Greek music. Mr. Kelley has recently done excellent service to music by his lectures in university extension, and he is at present instructor in composition in the New York College of Music. Much more popular, although also much more conventional in serious works are also musicianly.

His

"

;

his music,

is

Reginald de Koven, who has composed several light

His works are not those which create a

operas and a host of songs.

new school fluency, his

make musical history, yet his melodic charm, his tact and grace, may not be doubted. He was born in or

Middletown, Connecticut, April his father



his final literary

at St. John's College, Oxford,

He had and

being made

England, where he took his degree

Frankfort, Vienna,

in

Florence,

Vanuccini, Genee, and Delibes

On

exceptional advantages

classical studies

Before this he had studied music

he went to study.

1859, of a distinguished family,

being an eminent divine.

in his education,

1879.

3,

may

in

Stuttgart, afterwards

and

Paris,

further

for

among

be mentioned as

America success soon came to him, and has continued with him ever since. Such operas as " Robin Hood," " Don Quixote," " The Begum," and such tremendously popular songs as " Oh, Promise me," show that this composer is at least in close touch with his public. " Robin Hood " has been sung over three thousand his teachers.

his return to

times in the last ten years, and of "

Oh, Promise

me

"

it

is

said that a full million of copies

have been sold

them

!

De Koven and

has composed a

dozen light operas.

All of

them can one marked success

find

anything cheap or meretricious.

in a

manner which does not depreciate

of

are graceful

fluent,

and

in

To win

none

such a

art or public

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

238 taste

is

worth

its

meed

even

of praise,

if

his

works bear a strong

family resemblance to each other, and are not epoch-making.

We have stated that a quarter-century of may

musical affairs

composer

active

work

America's

in

be considered sufficient naturalization for any Victor Herbert has nearly completed a

of foreign birth.

He

score of years in America.

a famous

of

is

Irish

family, his

grandfather being Samuel Lover, the celebrated novelist and poet,

and was born

many, a

in

seven years

at

famous

He was

sent to Ger-

be educated in music.

He became

Dublin, February of age, to

i,

1859.

and while a mere youth was the principal

violoncellist,

player of this instrument in the Court Orchestra at Stuttgart.

He

came to the United States as solo violoncellist with the Metropolitan Opera Company in 1886. Since that time he has been connected with the Thomas, Seidl, and other orchestras, sometimes as violonIn 1894 he became bandmaster of cellist, sometimes as conductor. From 1898 Herbert was the the Twenty-second Regiment Band. conductor of the Pittsburg Symphony Orchestra, succeeding Archer and resigning

in that position,

it

in 1903.

Although Herbert's American reputation rests chiefly upon his light operas, he has done nobler work. He has written a short oratorio, " The Captive," for the Worcester Festival Association, two excellent concertos orchestral works. banalities that finds, to

too

much

in his light

and orchestra,^ and other

man would

Naturally such a

mark

be sure,

for violoncello

light opera

of

operas the

trivial "

not descend to the in

One

America.

Topical Song," the

conventional waltzes, as set as the stage smiles of a soubrette, and the inevitable marches that parade cohorts of pretty chorus girls,

but one also finds clever and musicianly finales and very practical orchestration.

Characteristic

American

topics one does not find in

Herbert's music, either orchestral or operatic, yet his fluency and

brightness have had their effect upon the American stage, and his orchestral

programmes

musical taste of that It

have worked an advance

in the

city.

should be mentioned here that a young American musician, Mr.

Homer Moore, ^

in Pittsburg

of St. Louis, is at present writing

Herbert's Second Concerto for violoncello

best existing works of this school.

is

probably his

finest

nothing work, and

less is

than

one of the

OPERATIC, CANTATA, AND VOCAL COMPOSERS

239

an American trilogy; three operas founded upon American themes.

He

says of

them

:



In these works

"

I

am

trying to so use our national history, tradi-

manners, customs, superstitions, and beliefs as to bring

tions, legends,

out thoroughly their dramatic significance, and to reveal, not so history and historic characters, as social atmosphere that prevailed at the time and characterized the of

who

those

structure,

and the forces

minds and opinions

did things and were the

upon which

foundation

much

temperament,

our etc.,

national

have been

built."

The

three operas are to be entitled

"The New World," "The and " The Puritans." Of

Pilgrims,"

these

the

present writer has been able to examine a portion of one opera only, but in that

own

both the plot (Mr. Moore's

and

its

fairly

libretto)

treatment promised something

worth

The scheme

while.

somewhat

however,

Guiding

motives

are

Wagnerian.

too

copiously

ployed and definite melody

nent enough.

It is

is,

is

doubtful

em-

Fig. 66.

— Dudley

Blck.

not promiif

in a

country where single operas by

native composers (unless they are "comic") are looked at askance, a native trilogy will have

any chance

of success.

Yet we mention

Moore's work as an example of the amount of striving of

our country, east and west, to bring forth something

in

music

in "

every part

American

"

— and something gigantic!

Another operatic composer, who, like Herbert, has won his title of American by years of work in this countr\-, is Bruno Oscar Klein, who was born in Osnabruck, Hanover, June 6, 1858. He has been here since 1878, although occasionally he has

Germany,

as

been chiefly

organist, pianist,

in

New York,

made concert

and composer.

tours in

His teaching has

where he has been connected with several His

schools including the National Conservatorv of Mrs. Thurber. single grand opera

is

not of especial import to American history,

being founded on Scott's novel and entitled

"

Kenilworth."

It

was

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

240 performed

Hamburg

in

their place in the standard repertoire.

and have taken

Returning poser,

we

to the cantata field

and

an excellent example

find

which has only recently begun cal centres,

had an American

Klein's shorter compositions are of a high order of

performance. merit,

1895), but has never

(in

— Philadelphia.

Jersey City, January

musicianship

in a city

ranks of musi-

William Wallace Gilchrist was born

good music from

Gilchrist heard

of sturdy

American com-

to take its place in the

1846,

8,

to the strictly

Both

his parents

in

were musical, and

His musical

his earliest childhood.

education was gained entirely in America, chiefly at the University of Pennsylvania,

under Dr.

Hugh

A. Clarke.

He was

gifted with a

good baritone voice and sang in public for some years. His setting of the Forty-sixth Psalm won the $1000 prize offered by the Cincinnati

In addition to this, he has

Festival Association.

won

prizes

from the Abt Male Chorus of Philadelphia, and the Mendelssohn Glee Club of Gilchrist's

music, and

it

New

York.

teacher.

Professor Clarke,

must be said that

with obedience.

One

is

a devout formalist

in

his pupil follows in his footsteps

constantly sees in Gilchrist's compositions a

strong composer fettered by contrapuntal rule and by an evident desire not to stray from the highroad of art.

There

thing astonishing, but rather a constant display of

and always

sometimes longs

correct, ingenious,

and ease

skill

it

in is

and commendable; but one

for an outburst of ferocity, for a touch of Loeffler's

dissonance and freedom.

In sono^s Mr. Gilchrist has achieved

genuine successes, especially

some

never any-

Whenever counterpoint can be used

the leading of voices. present,

is

in the gentler

He

moods.

excellent Episcopal music, for in this his dignity

trapuntal interweavings are perfectly in place. orchestral composers, and has written a

and much chamber-music.

He

is

has written

and

his con-

also one of our

symphony, an orchestral

All together, he

is

some

suite,

a thorough musician, a

well-equipped composer, with melodic, contrapuntal, and rather formal In his school he

tastes.

he

is,

is

the equal of any of our composers, and

as already intimated, an unquestionable

We

now come

to

home

product.

an American composer (and not a Catholic)

whose chief work is neither a cantata nor an opera, but a mass. Benjamin Cutter is the composer who has won this unique distinc-

OPERATIC, CANTATA, AND VOCAL COMPOSERS

He was

tion.

father

his

born in Woburn, Massachusetts, September

He

studied vioHn with JuHus Eichberg, in Boston,

and harmony with Emery,

New England

in the

Then

Conservatory.

Germany, Seifriz being his teacher Mr. Cutter became a good violinist, and was for a

further study in Stuttgart,

of composition.

time a life

1857,

6,

being a physician of high repute with an inclination

toward music.

came

241

member

of the

Boston Symphony Orchestra.

has been passed wholly in Boston, where he

and analysis

in the

New England

now

teaches

As

Conservatory.

His musical

harmony

a teacher his

work averages very high, and he has graduated hundreds of pupils. But his mass in D entitles him to rank with those who have added something permanent to the American repertoire. It is lofty and majestic in thought and sufficiently free to be classed with the modern Cutter's setting of

school.

orchestra,

is

of sufficient

chamber-music

is

"

Patrick Spens," for chorus and

Sir

dimensions to be called a cantata.

voluminous.

has pushed aside the muse.

His

In recent years his pedagogical

He

work

has written some standard works,

notably a text-book on harmonic analysis and a series of exercises in

harmony

And

work on violin playing, " How to Study Kreutzer." we may speak of one of the younger American com-

also a

;

finally

posers of cantata, who, contrary to the usual custom, studied abroad,

Homer

not in Germany, but in France.

Albert Norris was born in

Wayne, Kennebec County, Maine, in i860. After a course of musical study at the New England Conservatory in Boston, he went to Paris,

where he studied under Dubois, Guilmant, and others on returning from

Norris,

years.

where he published a

He

method.

v.-ork

for four

Paris, settled as a teacher in Boston,

on practical harmony based on the French

has written some romantic songs, but his chief works

are two cantatas.

The

first, "

Nain," would scarcely entitle him to

rank with our chief cantata composers, but the second, while not be classed as a masterwork,

is

at least

an

it

can-

effort to contribute

American stock. Norris has turned to Walt Whitman for his inspiration in this latter composition, and surely a more American poet would be hard

something;; oriorinal to the

"

to find. is

The

Flight of the Eagle

" is

bold, not to say blood-curdling, in

then

Whitman R

is

the

some

name

of the cantata.

It

of its progressions, but

as unconventional as shirt-sleeves.

Much

play

is

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

242

a series of diatonic major seconds rising in a continuous

made with scale. is

This device

is

used enough to

not certain that eagles

fly in this

Of

the device cannot be denied.

with

well-developed

its

violin

call

rather

one

among

is

the

inclined to

Norris's songs

obbligato,

believe

song-composers

a guiding motive.

that

than

as all will

do good work

acknowledge

if

in the

much this

Protestations,"

is

the

best,

grace and origi-

composer belongs

among

smaller forms,

"

perhaps

is

those larger works which require sustained effort. cleverly, to

It

manner, but the originality of

although some of his later songs show so nality that

it

the

creators

To

write songs

of

not to be despised,

they study the song-albums of Schumann,

Schubert, or Robert Franz.

I

PLATE

IX

KING'S CHAPEL,

BOSTON

CHAPTER

XII

AMERICAN SONG-COMPOSERS In 1892, just before his death, Robert Franz, one of the greatest of song-composers, said to the present writer regarding the smaller

vocal forms in music: "



In this country they looked quite condescendingly upon these

small forms, taking the dentally in music.

foundations

of

silly

notion that these forms arise only

Yet the song-form

our

art

;

know

I

one

really

is

you share

that

with me." In another letter (dated "

Until

March

now they have looked upon

shoulders, and yet there rests

music.

moment

As

regards

that

I

myself,

I

upon

it

this

he says:

my

honor"

conviction



form with a shrug

of the

one of the chief factors

of

have never regretted for a single

have devoted myself exclusively

music, and with position of

23, 1889)

the chief

of

this

inci-

have

predecessors

lifted

branch

to this it

into

its

of

proper

(Fig. 67).

These words serve as a fitting introduction to those American composers who have won their chief reputation in the domain of songs. What the orchestral and cantata composers have done in this direction

we have already seen

;

but there have been some com-

posers who, attaining only mediocrity in the orchestral

field,

have

reached almost to genius in the production of smaller sketches.

His cantata Such a composer was Ethelbert Nevin (Fig, 68). entitled " The Quest " is anything but satisfactory, and yet this same composer has brought forth songs that are as dainty, as inspired, as any that have been composed in this country. Ethelbert Woodbridge Nevin was born at Edgeworth, Pennsylvania, near Pittsburg, November 25, 1862. His father was a literary

man and

editor of a

newspaper

in the 243

last-named

city.

He

inherited

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

244

his musical tendencies

the

first

from his mother, who

grand piano that ever was seen

country.

The boy showed an

infancy.

His father took him abroad

p-r

years' study in

— Letter

Dresden.

lowed further study under

owned

section of the

inchnation toward music even in his in 1877,

and he had the benefit

/fh^ c^;i. ULruf^c /rnt^k

Fic. 67 a.

two

in that

o^tn sfiLc^Jpu^k li^^i^Sd/^Qi-L

pUAi.i'i^j'

of

said to have

is

Juj-^ru^

()aj;e^

^^

by Robert Franz.

Returning to America, there

fol-

Lang and Stephen A. Emery, in Boston. After that there were some years of music-teaching on his own account, in Pittsburg, until enough money was saved up to take B.

J.

a thorough musical course in Berlin.

Three

years, 1884-86,

were

AMERICAN SONG-COMPOSERS spent in the Billow,

Bial,

German

capital,

during which Nevin studied with

To

and Klindworth.

ascribed nearly

all

245

the last-named pedagogue he

of his musical abilities.

Klindworth as a great inspiration

to all

He

constantly spoke of

who came

near him.

Klind-

-^'

Q

X

0%

Fig. 67

h.

worth's aim was not only to

and he held that one

— Letter

by Robert Franz.

make good

result could not

musicians, but cultured men,

be reached without the other.

Billow seems also to have appreciated the talent possessed by Nevin,

and the American student was admitted into that master's class."

" artist s

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

246

America again, this time settling in But his was a restless career, and a few years afterward he Boston. went to Paris, achieving good success there as a teacher. A year later he reappeared in Berlin, working so hard that his health broke down, and he was ordered to Algiers. After that came concert tours, In 1887 Nevin returned to

piano

His attack

country.

recitals, in this

of

nervous prostration

caused the postponement of some of these concerts, but in 1894

Those who heard him play at these while he had not a technique comparable

he was able to appear again. concerts realized that to

the

Rosenthals,

D'Alberts, or Paderewskis of piano work, he

had a most poetic conception,

In these concerts both his piano works and

delightful interpreter. his songs

made

to give a

list

himself

of

from mawkishness, and was a

free

the best possible impression.

Nevin's songs.'

Suffice

it

is

not necessary

to say that

he devoted

(with the exception above noted) to the smaller forms of

music and with the most decided success.

Schumann;

the poetry of

German

It

He was

writers.

His roving

life

his

His piano works have

all

songs are like the Lieder oi the best

a master of

went on;

\-\\'s>

genre.

Florence, Venice, then Paris again,

America once more, followed in quick succession. Some work in New Haven seemed to promise a permanent position in America when suddenly there came death! The constant study, the fever of composition, the ceaseless travel, had done their work, and in 1901 Nevin's short career ended. One can pay tribute to him as being one of the most poetic of American composers and to him might be applied the epitaph which Grillparzer wrote for

and

finally



;

Schubert

:



" Fate buried here a rich possession, " But yet greater

promise

The If

lesson of Nevin's

work might

!

profitably be taken to heart.

only there were less of striving to create symphonies that no one

wishes to play or hear, of operas that show straining and labor in

every part,

forms

!

and more

The

of

chief trouble with

an ambition that o'erleaps ^A good Composers."

genuine unforced music

analytical

list

most

itself.

may be found

of the

In justice in

in

the

smaller

American composers is to the memory of Nevin

Rupert Hughes's "Contemporary American

AMERICAN SONG-COMPOSERS it

ou^ht to be added that he

Even

were misplaced.

It

is

that his efforts in the larorer forms

felt

the cantata mentioned at the beginning of

was not published or performed during the composers

this sketch life.

247

a posthumous work.

Close to Nevin, perhaps his equal in some ways,

Clayton

is

whose smaller works are known not only through America, but are popular in Germany and England as well. He was born in Newcastle, Delaware, November 24, 1857, and as a boy he taught himself to play the piano, with the usual weak result. Study at the Newcastle schools and at Rugby Academy in Wilmington, Johns (Fig.

69),

were preliminary to an intended entrance into Princeton University.

The boy wished

McCallmont

study music, the father (James

to

A

Johns) wished him to study law.

compromise was effected by

which both plans were given up and architecture substituted, and

young man entered an

the

He then came

he spent three years. of

Technology,

in

architect's office in

pursuance of

awakened

Boston

to

Philadelphia, where to enter the Institute

profession,

this

but the musical

dormant passion for that art. Architecture has been described as "frozen music," and with Johns it had already begun to thaw. This was in 1879, and being now of age and free to choose, the young man went to William H. Sherwood for piano lessons, and to influence of Boston

William

F.

Apthorp

experience with the

instruction

for

new

his

all

in

in

under John K. Paine.

In

where he studied piano under Grabow, position under Kiel.

He

recommend

and (continuing with Sher1882 Johns went to

Raif,

Berlin,,

and Rummel, and com-

returned to Boston in the autumn of 1884,

and has resided there ever

since.

present Mr. Johns busies himself with teaching, composing,

and occasionally with a concert tour here and recitals of

his compositions in

and many other

and some works will

months'

piano study) he went to Harvard where he took the musi-

cal course

At

Two

pupil led both these teachers to

his devoting himself entirely to music,

wood

harmony.

be judged.

cities.

is

He

has given

Boston, Philadelphia, W^ashington,

Although he has written a few choruses

for string orchestra, It

there.

it

is

true that the Boston

not by these that

he

Symphony Orchestra

once performed two movements for string orchestra

(a

berceuse

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

248

and

with

scherzo

a

touches with muted violins, but at least

much

not too

was

in the

carillon-like

of

made no

these

The berceuse had

impression.

decided

by Johns, but

trio)

usual

the

very-

saccharine

had direct melody and

it

The

complex development.

scherzo with trio

accepted song-form, dainty and delicate enough, and a returning passage was ingenious.

after Liszt's discordant

"

Mephistopheles

"

Coming, as

movement

phony), the work was welcome, but taken by

it

Faust

("

"

did,

sym-

only a mag-

itself it is

nified song-form,

Mr. Johns's piano works are practical, melodic, and interesting, but his songs ful,

in

elegant,

overtop them, and with few exceptions are grace-

He

and unforced.

has written over a hundred of these,

He

English, French, and German.

sion, but is

something

He knows how

to

does not voice intense pas-

an American Mendelssohn

of

choose his subjects

well,

and

spite of

that "

Du

it

some day

try his

hand

at

Herford's

Arthur Whiting's excellent treatment

was made for Clayton Johns.

bist

wie eine Blume

"

— who

It is

"

?

Dobson,

to be

Floriana,"

of the

hoped for,

in

theme, one feels

Of course he has

has not

this field.

in setting

Herford, or Arlo Bates he has reached perfection. that he will

in

set

Heine's

This poem has been

more frequently set to music than any other. There are nearly three hundred settings known, and more are constantly arriving. But Johns's setting has a raison cfetrc, for it is very refined and fitting to the poem. It may be mentioned also that Johns's compositions are known in England, where some of his part-songs and a chorus for female voices and a string orchestra have been sung and played with much The reprints of his songs also find a good market in Gersuccess.

far

many.

All together, he, like Ethelbert Nevin,

by not attempting more accomplish.

At

times

than

he

could

he reminds one of

also delicate rather than intense.

has

won

and artistically Robert Franz, who is

easily

The accompaniments

songs are especially praiseworthy, for he does not become this part of the song, nor,

success

of Johns's trivial in

on the other hand, does he ever write

piano compositions with vocal attachment, as Jensen and even

Richard Strauss have sometimes done. Since we have spoken of the great song-composer Franz, in

FIG.

68.

— ETHELBERT

W. NEVIN.

AMERICAN SONG-COMPOSERS

251

we may speak of a man who exerted much influence days when Boston's classical taste was forming, and who was

this chapter, in the

the strongest representative of Robert Franz in this country.

Dresel was a foreigner, for he was born in Andernach, but he lived

America nearly

in

Massachusetts, July

He

1890.

26,

forty

years,

not only

dying taught

upheld the standard of classical music

but he

in

in

Otto 1826;

Beverly,

at in

Boston,

America,

at

a

time when Dwight, Thayer, and a small band of pioneers were

New England away

striving to lead

from

eternal psalmody.

its

wrote a book

though

little

of

Lieder

duced

up

Bach's

made ment

"

a to

was one

to its time,

al-

of the

work

in vocal

been pro-

He

America.

in

that,

known, was one

most sterling things that had,

Dresel

edited

Well-tempered Clavichord," piano

great

Handel's of the

"

accompani-

Messiah," and

moving

musical

growth

America

a

little

forces in the

began

that

in

over a half-century

ago.

Although,

George

L.

speaking,

strictly

Osgood

should

be

Fig. 69.

— Clayton

Johns.

classed with the prominent teachers of America, yet his

song compositions are

sufficiently

important

work has not been recognized by those who have heretofore written of American compositions. Osgood is one of the finest melodists that America has ever possessed, and the accompaniments of his songs and the harmonies of his part-songs, are among the most fluent and singable in our repertory. His part-song, " In Picardie," his "Wake to be treated of here, particularly as that portion of his

not, but hear

me. Love,"

which does not

cloy,

Few composers have

may

be cited as examples of the sweetness

and which

is

not akin to musical vulgarity.

so tastefully united the popular and the classi-

cal as this excellent musician.

George Laurie Osgood was born

in

Chelsea,

Massachusetts,

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

252 April

1844

3,

—a

who landed

tan,

Harvard

Salem

at

1866.

in

descendant

lineal

of

1632.

in

In college he was conductor of the Glee Club

of the orchestra, with inclinations

and

John Osgood, the PuriHe was graduated from

indicating a musical career.

and

from the

faculties

start

1867 he went to Berlin for the

In

study of composition under Haupt, and vocal expression under SieIn Halle he formed an intimate friendship with Robert Franz.

ber.

He went

to Italy in 1869,

and

for three years studied the art of sing-

In 1871 he repaired to

ing with Lamperti, in Milan.

gave a series of concerts other

in

Germany, and

Vienna, Leipsic, Dresden, Berlin, and

Returning to America, he soon made an engage-

cities.

ment with Theodore Thomas, and connection with the

Thomas

traveled through the country in

Finally he settled in Boston,

orchestra.

where he has become celebrated as a teacher, composer, and conductor.

In 1875 he

assumed the directorship

a promising choral organization then in refined of the

its

singing, aroused

its

most noteworthy clubs

Among

third year,

and soon

enthusiasm, and gave to Boston one in its

Osgood's direction the perfection throughout America.

its

of the Boylston Club,

Under Mr. performances became known

musical history.

of its

many works

his

are a

"

Guide

in

the Art of Singing," a volume of two hundred pages, already passed

through eight editions, and numerous choral works

for concert

and

church.

Boston has been peculiarly rich Frederic Field Bullard (Fig. 70)

in

is

song-composers,

not the

Boston, September 21, 1864, and was at of chemistry,

first

least.

among whom

He was

born

in

destined for the science

studying in this branch at the Massachusetts Institute

Technology when twenty-three years of age. But finally he turned to music as his life-work, and, at twenty-four years of age, he began a four-years' course in composition and organ playing, at the Munich Royal School, under Rheinberger. This Ger-

of

man

teacher (Fig. 51) almost deserves a chapter to himself in an

American

when Charles D. Carter, of Pittsburg, and George W. Chadwick studied with him (they were, we think, the first of the American band), an endless procession, including H. W. Parker, Arthur Whiting, Henry H. Huss, history of music, for, since 1878-79,

F. F. Bullard,

Wallace Goodrich, and others, has passed through

AMERICAN SONG-COMPOSERS Munich and come back tion

through his influence.

The

in

composi-

recent death of Rheinberger will be

upon American composition of any other European teacher. Bullard his public reputation rests chiefly upon

has exceeded that

To

return to

:

songs and part-songs.

his

which

harmony, marvel

when

is

tion

He

holds well to the laws of form and

a

days

these

in

many compos-

so

ers feel that every

But

United States perfected

as a distinct loss, since his influence

felt

six

to the

253

emo-

must break at least rules of harmony. does

Bullard

not

become weak through harmony indeed, his strongest charm is his ;

virility

and

straightfor-

His drink-

wardness.

ing-songs suggest wine rather

than

lemonade,

and when he deals with warlike

themes he has

a vikinjj vio^or that has

often been felt

Apollo

at

the

concerts

in

Boston.

has

Bullard w^orked in

some

larger forms.

also of the

He

written a series of

Schirmer,

New

Fk;. 70.

— Frederic

Field Bullard.

has

Christmas and

Easter cantatas (published by

York), and has edited several collections of songs,

particularly a college song-book for his tute of Technology.

There

is

own Alma

also a large cantata

Mater, the Insti-

and even a sym-

phony in manuscript, but of these we cannot speak, as they have not yet emerged from the composer's desk. But as it stands, Bullard is a fine type of the American in music, sounding an individual and attractive note.

— THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

254

Frank Lynes

He was

is

another of the Boston group of song-composers.

born in Cambridge, Massachusetts,

at first at the

some study

of

New

May

England Conservatory.

1858,

and studied

Subsequently there was

organ and piano with Mr. B,

J.

Then came

with Professor John K. Paine.

16,

Lang, and harmony

the Leipsic Conserva-

tory with Reinecke, Richter, and Jadassohn as teachers.

followed the highway of music, not seeking any

He

has

new and dangerous

and choruses are well constructed and very singable. He is a good worker in the small forms, which, as we have already seen, are by no means to be passed over in judgpaths, but his songs, piano works,

One

ing of the music of a country. to

upon

As

aesthetic principles.

American composers

:

"



may

be objected

the words have been set by other

manner, the impeachment here

in a similar

may be considered as against The poem is by Kingsley

songs

of his

a school rather than an individual.

When all the world is young, lad, And all the trees are green, And every goose a swan, lad, And every lass a queen,



Then hey for boot and horse, lad, And round the world away Young blood must have its course, !

And "

When

lad,

every dog his day.

all

the world

is

old, lad,

And all the trees are brown, And all the sport is stale, lad. And all the wheels run down, Creep home, and take your place

The spent and maimed among

God

;

grant you find one face there

You loved when

If

there,

all

was young !"

ever major and minor were represented in poetry,

two

stanzas.

a crime.

Yet

To

set

them both

to the

just this matter of the

tation of the verse

by the tone,

is

same music

proper

is

it

is

little

in these

short of

illustration, the interpre-

what song-writers both

in

America

England have failed to study suflficiently. Balfe set " The Sands o' Dee," four contrasted word-pictures, to the same music;

and

AMERICAN SONG-COMPOSERS Hullah

set

"The Three

ence love

Ask me no

"

Fishers" (security, anxiety, and disaster) to

and American composers have given Tenny-

the same melody; son's

More,"

— which

second stanza, sympathy

;



musical

pictures

stanza, indiffer-

first

third stanza, the utter yielding of

;

Germany

beyond us in England and America must needs study

one tune thrice

to

255

interpretation.

repeated.

Wagner's theories regarding the wedding

is

of poetry

and music.

Before leaving the Boston colony of composers

speak of a

man

extensive

in

adopted than

at

the

1847.

His

Italian

founded a great choral

society and directed to

7,

America, for he was a choir-boy

Peter's,

St.

country.

native

more Augusto

far

high enough before he

reputation was to

his

in

Rome, January

Rotoli (Fig. 71) was born in

came

whose influence has been

of foreign birth,

his

we must again

was vocal teacher

it,

and was

Margherita,

Princess

maestro of the Cappella Reale del Suda-

For

rio.

this

all

his

twenty years of

American work represent the maturer portion of his life, and certainly show the more far-reaching influence. He has composed a Roman festival mass and a host of songs in the passionate Italian In

school.

faculty of

tory of

Many

1885

the

he was

one

New England

of

the Img. 71.

Music, and he has continued

of his

American pupils

— Augusto

Roioli.

Conservain

that position ever since.

are prominent

on the operatic and

concert stage at present. Jules Jordan, living in Providence

(Rhode

Island),

and leading

the Arion Club there, has considerable reputation as a com]:)oser of

He was

songs. 1850,

born

in

Willimantic (Connecticut), November

and has been the chief vocal conductor

nearly a quarter of a century. Sbriglia,

and Shakespeare.

orchestral

works stand

He

An

is

Providence for

a pupil of George L. Osgood,

opera, a

to his credit,

of

10,

large cantata,

and some

but his songs and his vocal

conductorship form his chief services in the cause of American music.

;

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

256

A both

list

in

who have

of others

and

instrumental

its

up the song-form

built

vocal

Neidlinger (born

William Harold

Brooklyn,

America,

would include

application,

in

in

July

20,

1863),

Homer Newton Bartlett (born in Dudley Buck Olive, New York, December 28, 1845), whose work embraces many sterling compositions Harvey W. Loomis (born in Brooklyn, February 5, 1865), who won Dvorak's hearty commendation a

pupil

of

;

;

was teaching in New York, and who has written large works, but whose best expression is found in his songs James H. Rogers (born in Fair Haven, Connecticut, in 1857), who studied in Berlin and Paris, and whose songs and short piano

when many

that master

W. Marston

(born in Sand-

wich, Massachusetts, in 1840), whose songs deserve

more attention

much

pieces are of

excellence

than has been paid to them April 29, i860),

who

New

and

York, April

songs

artistic

27, 1869),

who

living except Marston,

much may

are at

work

;

William Victor Harris

All of

men

these

are

still

died in 1901, and as most of them are

yet be expected from them.

West, Robyn being

in the

(born in St. Louis,

whose songs again are better

than his cantata and operatic works.

young,

Robyn

Alfred G.

;

has composed in the large forms, but whose

best works are his poetic

(born in

George

;

in

Of

this

St. Louis,

band two

and Rogers

in Cleveland.

Even

in the far

West one begins

to find earnest

are no longer isolated from the musical world.

example, has at present

its

own

composers who

San Francisco,

for

orchestral concerts, directed by Fritz

Scheel, and musical conservatories of

good rank.

leaders are, however, of foreign birth.

Its chief

Most

of its musical

organist

an Eng-

is

lishman, but his service of nearly a score of years in this country

causes his work to be of greater import to America than to England.

Humphrey John Stewart was born country in 1886.

organist of

to this

as the organist of leading churches.

one year, 1901-02, he was organist he

London, but came

Since that time he has been almost constantly

San Francisco, engaged present

in

of Trinity

Church, Boston.

in

For

At

San Francisco. He was solo the Buffalo Exposition of 1901, and has received the is

at St.

Dominic's

honorary degree of Mus. Doc. former, Dr. Stewart

is

of

chief

in

In spite of his prominence as per-

importance to the

far

West

as a

AMERICAN SONG-COMPOSERS composer.

He

has written three operas, which

Yet

music

(vocal) are, to

California has

his

have been per-

Many organ

formed, and has composed an oratorio.

been given by him.

257

songs, part-songs, and

our thinking, the important factors

many musicians

few worthy composers.

within

its

recitals

his

have

church

in his

work.

borders, but, as yet, very

PLATE X

BENJAMIN JOHNSON LANG

X 3TAJS .1A1

\AnP\A\\D\

I/lMAI,M3a

CHAPTER

XIII

ORGANISTS, CHOIR AND CHORUS LEADERS

may

It

be accepted as an axiom that, while vocaHsts are

fre-

quently not thorough musicians, organists are the most versatile,

Among

the best musically trained of

all.

America, we find many of the

men who have made

the leading organists of the brief musical

John K. Paine was an organ virtuoso, and a good player; Chadwick, Parker, Dudley Buck, and a host

history of the country. is still

names have already been passed

those whose

of

who have won

musicians

composition,

it

won

they have

their

fame upon the organ or by organ

should be remembered

that in almost every case

equal fame by chorus direction, by piano playing,

or by other achievements in the musical

He

field.

Benjamin

better example of this can be cited than

has been a prominent organist of

the organist of the Handel and

generation of

review, are

In this chapter, therefore, while speaking of celebrated

organists.

No

in

;

Boston

Haydn

for years,

Lang.

J,

and was

Society for more than a

but he has also been one of the foremost piano teachers

the country, has been conductor of

clubs of America, and has introduced

some

many

of

the chief musical

of the

musical works of the world into this country.

most important

In short, he

thoroughly interwoven with musical progress of every kind,

United States, that there

is

is

so

in the

scarcely any classification of musicians

name would not

work

in

which

in

Boston began as an organist, and as he has published none of

his

his compositions,

whose

we may speak

favorite instrument

is

Benjamin Johnson Lang

American

man

fitly

of

find

place

;

yet,

as

him among those composers

the organ, (PI.

X)

is

one

of

the most typically

figures that w^e can find in our musical history.

of enterprise

his

beyond any European comprehension 259

He

—a

is

a

man

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

26o

who is a perfect organizer. He was born December 28, 1837. He studied music at

in

Salem, Massachusetts,

first

with his father,

who

was a good organist and piano teacher. After this the lad took lessons in Boston, to such good purpose that he became a church There was some study abroad organist and choir leader at fifteen. from 1855 to 1858, and Satter, Jaell, and Liszt himself aided in Studies in forming the piano playing of the young musician. composition were not neglected. On his return to America, Lang

became organist

the

of

South Congregational Church, and held His service

that position for twenty years.

Old South and years. He was one first

and

Zerrahn

in

of the

movers

many

in the matter of bringing

Society was only second

in

the

importance to that of

the evolution of that organization.

Still

It

more impor-

and interpreter

tant than this has been his career as conductor

great works.

at

organ to America, and his work with the Handel

really great

Haydn

same capacity

King's Chapel also extended over

at

the

in the

man

not an exaggeration to state that no one

is

of

has done more for the educational advance of America in music

than B.

J.

As

Lang.

a pianist he has

won some

laurels,

although

we cannot rank him with the great

virtuosi of

Nevertheless, his certainty in ensemble

work

is

something to grow

chamber-music or

in

playing an accom-

enthusiastic over,

paniment none

of

and

in

instrument.

the

our native musicians can hope to excel him.

Lang's conducting has been

upon the instrumental

side.

Gericke, Paur, Nikisch, or or excel any of these

men

much

stronger on the vocal than

He cannot play upon an orchestra as Thomas have done, but he can equal in

conducting or

in

training a chorus.

work led him into that path. The Apollo Club, a male chorus, was formed in 1868. From that time, until 90 1, Lang was its director, and he made it for a time the best club of its class in America. In 1874 the Cecilia Club was founded, a mixed chorus, and from its foundation to the present time Lang has been its conductor. Of his year of conductorship of the Handel and Haydn Society, we need say little, for he took the Fortunately, his chief

1

society as

when

it

was

at a

conductor of the

impossible

to overrate

low ebb and torn with dissensions

Apollo and the Cecilia clubs his

labors.

Just as

Liszt in

it

is

;

but

simply

Weimar

did

1

ORGANISTS, CHOIR AND CHORUS LEADERS missionary work

teaching,

in

presenting

in

might otherwise remain unknown, the public,

before

a less promising field (and therefore in

a less

too difficult

for

him

in

art.

undertake

to

and through Boston for No work was too great or

for Boston,

East, in developing

entire

bringing great

works which artists

Lang work

Mr.

degree), did

the

in

so,

great

26

rehearsal with

its

the forces

Damnation de Faust," and his Requiem, Bach's B minor mass, Brahms's Requiem, Wagner's " Parsifal," the list might be greatly extended beyond this, were all introduced to our concert audiences by this great worker. As a composer we cannot speak of this remarkable musician, for although he has written much, he has not printed anything, and very seldom allows any of his work to be heard. The present writer has, long since, had a few^ auditions of some of the smaller compositions of Mr. Lang, and they were fluent, graceful, and muBerlioz's "

under his control.





But

sicianly.

is

it

evident that this veteran conductor does not

Both he and Mr. Thomas

wish to be considered as a composer. have, in letters, declined the composer's

music

America has gone

in

beyond the creation

far

or an opera, for they have taught the public best music, and have

made

it

their

yet

title,

how

familiar with the

of a

work for symphony

to appreciate the

modern masterpieces.

Mr. Lang's influence as a teacher has been far-reaching. has gathered around him a circle of distinguished pupils

become

a degree

in

Among

disciples.

Arthur Foote, Ethelbert Nevin William ,

Margaret R. Lang, and a host

ter,

that

Yale

University,

in

1903,

degree of M.A. to Mr. Lang. in a sensible

and

while acknowledging lished

some

achieve

all

is

It

which

tempted to

fitting

have given an honorary

a talent of high order,

One may

working

recognize limitations

the great results achieved.

that he has done.

recognize

was very

of his

Had own

he pubcreation

would never have had the time to The time will come when America

in manuscript), he

among the very foremost of those who created among us; and when one views the many directions

him

a musical taste in

His

may mention Apthorp, his own daugh-

and performed symphonies and oratorios

(he has

will

all

should

who have

these one

of others.

manner.

practical

F.

He

this call

as

beneficent

influence

Mr. Lang a musical

"

has

been

exerted,

one

Admirable Crichton."

feels

THE HISTORY OF AMKRICAN MUSIC

262

In a chapter devoted to organists

the advent of the in

first

it

may

not be amiss to speak of

We

great organ in this country.

have ah'eady,

speaking of Pilgrims and Puritans, shown the slowness with which

the organ was accepted in

New

Boston, in 1810, that

held the organ as a godless instrument.

To

same

this

city,

still

however, there came, in 1863, the

concert organ of this country (Fig. F.

&

Walcker

72).

Son, of Ludwigsburg, in

corporation, chiefly through the efforts first

There were churches

England.

in

thorough

first

The organ was built by E. Germany. The Music Hall of Dr. George B. Upham, at

appropriated $10,000 toward the organ which (as they stated

in their prospectus)

When

would stand

in

Boston "for centuries

the instrument finally came, after

the troubles of the Civil

play upon

it,

when

War,

it

some delay because

The

cost about $70,000.

was erected

it

Music

in

of years."

Hall, were B.

first J.

of

to

Lang,

John H. Wilcox, John K. Paine, Eugene Thayer, Dr. S. P. Tuckerman, and G. W. Morgan. This was probably the most famous gathering of organists that had ever assembled in America.

It

occurred

November 2, 1863. The history of the great instrument may be very briefly recited. Some of its stops were beautiful beyond compare its mechanism ;

was

less excellent.

keep well ahead the Boston

spoke rather slowly, and the organist had to

It

of the conductor's beat

Symphony

when accompanying.

concerts began to crowd Music Hall,

found that the organ took up too much room, and

it

was

When it

was

sold, in 1884,

Hon. William Grover, who presented it to the New England Conservatory of Music, hoping that that institution could build a hall for to

it.

Before

it

was taken down

proved the instrument to be •ever,

a white elephant

ibuild a hall as vast as

Archer gave a concert that marvellous one. It became, how-

P""rederick

still

a

the conservatory found

;

lumber!

it

impracticable to

such an instrument would require, and

the great organ that was to stand for years after

it

had been

set up, for the

"

centuries

sum

"

was

sold, thirty-four

of $1500, as old metal

Since that time, however, America has built

organs (Fig. 73) (there them), and Cincinnati,

is

boast of instruments that,

named instrument

no longer the necessity

New if

finally

of

many

and

great

going abroad for cities

now

they do not equal every stop of the

first-

York, Chicago, and other

in tone-quality, greatly surpass

it

in

mechanism.

FIG.

72.

— MUSIC

HALL ORGAN, BOSTON.

ORGANISTS, CHOIR AND CHORUS LEADERS

The

chief

names

in the older

265

generation of concert organists in

America, the men who were pioneers

modern musical movement, are John H. Wilcox, George W. Morgan, and Samuel P. Tuckerman. Dr. Tuckerman was born in Boston, in 18 19, and He became organist of St. Paul's studied here with Carl Zeuner. in the

Church, and afterwards went to England, where he carried on exten-

On

America he gave many recitals and lectures, and wrote much good church music. George W. Morgan was born in England (1822), and had an excellent musical training His influence was exerted in New York before he came to America. after 1853. John Henry Wilcox was a Southerner, having been born in Savannah, Georgia, in 1827. His work was chiefly done in Boston, where he gave many popular concerts. Wilcox was fond of sugar-coating the classical pill, and his programmes would scarcely stand severe criticism, but he was full of good taste in registration, and he generally managed to smuggle in a little of Bach among his more "catchy" pieces. Eugene Thayer, born in Mendon, Massachusetts, in 1838, became another of the early virtuosi upon the organ in this country. He was a good composer of sacred music, and one of his cantatas gained for him the degree of Mus. Doc. from Oxford sive studies.

his return to

University.

To come

to the

men

most practical writers produced in

One

is

George Elbridge Whiting

Holliston, Massachusetts,

when succeeded Dudley Buck at Hartford.

of the

for the instrument that this country has yet

the organ publicly

Church

our best composers

of

music are to be found among the organists.

of sacred

born

some

of the present,

He

(Fig. 74).

September

14, 1842.

thirteen years of age, as organist of

Mr. Whiting was

and

He

played

at sixteen

he

the North Congregational

studied with George

W. Morgan

in

New

York, but soon went to England, where he became one of the most talented pupils of the

renowned

the place of that master.

On

Best, of Liverpool, frequently taking

his return to

America Whiting became

organist at St. Joseph's, in Albany, where the celebrated Albani (then

Emma

la

moved

to

Jeunesse) was the soprano of his choir.

After this he

Boston (where he had been organist for a short time

becoming leader at King's Chapel and concert organist at Music Hall. Another trip abroad followed, this time to Berlin,

before),

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

266

where Whiting studied harmony with Haupt, and orchestration with Radecke. On his return to America he became teacher of the organ at the

New England

Conservatory, holding that position (with the

exception of three years spent as a teacher at the Cincinnati College He has been for many years the organist and of Music) until 1898.

musical director of the Church of the Immaculate Conception, in

Fkj. 73.

As

Boston,

— Organ

in

Jordan Hali, Boston.

a teacher, he has educated

many

of the leading

young

organists of America.

composer that Mr. Whiting takes rank above the organists thus far mentioned. He is the best organ composer of But

it

America.

is

as a

His organ sonata and

organ, are well fitted to

He

world.

only

is

in

become

has also written

good form and

his

pieces and studies for the

a model in the organ music of the

much

vocal church music which not

singable, but gives all necessary dramatic

ORGANISTS, CHOIR breaking

effect without

tones,

— tones

AND CHORUS LEADERS

He

rules.

267

a master of the Gregorian

is

used and understood by modern writ-

far too little

and he has written four masses, a great Te Deum, and some worthy cantatas, of which " The Tale of the Viking," " Henry of ers

;

March

"

Navarre," and the

of the

Monks

of

Bangor

"

are the best.

His orchestral works include a symphony, an overture, a piano concerto.

He

entitled

"

has also recently completed an Italian opera in one

Mr. Whiting has a charming

Lenore."

gift of

act,

melody and

removed from the ultra-modern noise-makers. Regarded as an organ virtuoso, as a teacher and as a composer (and particularly as an organ composer), George E. Whiting must be accorded a prominent place among the workers in the field of American music. Probably the most talented pupil of Mr. Whiting is Henry M. Dunham, who has himself become a prominent virtuoso and comHenry Morton Dunham (Fig. 65) was poser for the instrument. is

far

born in Brockton, Massachusetts, July

many

musical family,

of his relatives

of rank.

His chief studies were

of Music,

under Mr. Whiting, and

in large

member

on his return to

still

of the faculty of the

many

work

Ruggles Street Church

in

New England

A

this country,

at the

Boston's recent music.

accomplished

not

a

As

little.

Conservatory

in

came

he was appointed

Conservatory and

Mr.

churches

of the leading

a

short trip abroad followed

teacher of the organ in that institution. in

of

being professional musicians

New England

an organist

He comes

1853.

his contrapuntal training

degree from John K. Paine.

his student life and,

a

at the

27,

of

is

Dunham has been New England, his

Boston being very prominent

a composer for the organ he has

His compositions include an Organ

School, two organ sonatas, fantasia and fugue in

D

minor, a festival

march, theme, and variations for piano and organ, and some thirty other works for the latter instrument.

One

can trace out musical descent as one would follow any

other genealogy.

Speaking

after the

Biblical

say that Best begat Whiting, Whiting begat

begat Goodrich of all the

Dunham 75)

;

for

Wallace Goodrich, one

manner, one might

Dunham, and Dunham of the

most promising

younger organists and conductors, studied the organ with and composition with Chadwick. Wallace Goodrich (Fig.

was born

in

Newton, Massachusetts,

May

27,

1871.

At nine

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

268

years old he began studying piano; at fourteen he was giving organ

and had a public position as organist went to Europe when twenty-three years

He

Newton church.

in a

recitals

of

age (1894) and

lowed that great American procession already spoken

where he became a pupil

Ludwig Abel.

He won

(of

of,

fol-

Munich,

to

course) of Rheinberger, and also of

com-

a silver medal at this school by his position and organ playing. fall

In the

1895 he went to Paris, where

of

he studied with Widor. It

may

Charles M.

be

said

Widor

passing,

in

that

an organist and

is

composer whose greatness has not as

More power-

yet been fully recognized. ful

and

solid than the suave

and

facile

Guilmant, the style of the organist of St.

Sulpice does not win so speedy an

appreciation as that of his competitor

and contemporary, but Widor ing to

last,

immense Fig. 74.

— George

E.

Whiting.

;

play Bach, for the

followed in

young

Germany and

organist.

came back

to this

now

he

of

German

fetters in

Study

added

of operatic

conducting

song and

1897, Goodrich

so that when, in

country and began teaching

Gallic

which the Germans

close acquaintance with plain

ancient church music in Italy;

was

It

in Paris, for to the solidity of

and the Frenchmen broke the

build-

benefit for Goodrich to study

attainments

grace

nevertheless.

is

in the

New England

Conservatory, he was one of the most broadly educated musicians imaginable.

Goodrich has not composed or published much as

hymn, an overture

for orchestra, an "

orchestra, an operetta,

He

script.

and

is

has,

and a requiem

Ave Maria

(in

Latin

and manu-

still

in

however, written valuable essays upon organ playing

He

has done, and

work in conducting different societies, the chief the Choral Art Society, an organization composed almost artists, which gives the rarest of old church works a

is

doing, important

of

which

entirely of

A

for chorus

English) are

exerting a wide influence by his teaching.

is

"

yet.

ORGANISTS, CHOIR

As an organ

capella.

AND CHORUS LEADERS

Mr. Goodrich has appeared

soloist

269 in the

sym-

phony concerts of different cities, and is one of the surest ensemble He is at present the organist of Trinity players that we possess. Church, Boston. The work of this man extends in so many directions (we must not forget to add that he has lectured on church music), that we can confidently predict that if the mantle of Mr. Lang is ever to descend to any one, it will fall upon the shoulders of Mr. Goodrich. Everett E. Truette

is

given some four hundred

organ

for organ playing

These have been many

has been his writings upon that theme.

and

has

throughout the United

recitals

and yet perhaps the best work he has done

States,

He

another of Mr. Dunham's pupils.

interesting.

Probably one of the chief figures in connection with the music of

Samuel Brenton Whitney. This vethigh-class church music w^as born in Woodstock, Vermont, Although he studied at first with local teachers, and 1842.

the Anglican church

eran of

June

4,

is

afterward with Charles Wels, of

New

York, yet his chief musical

education came from John K. Paine, whose substitute in organ work

Soon

he frequently became.

after this period of study

was appointed organist and choir-master

the

at

Mr. Whitney

Church

of

the

Advent, where he soon introduced the beautiful English Cathedral service in

been into

all

its

musical glory.

At

in this post. it,

For

Whitney has

the twenty-fifth anniversary of his entrance

several of his old choir-boys,

in the service,

thirty years Mr.

now grown

to

famous men, sang

and Dr. H. H. A. Beach and the celebrated

tenor,

Charles R. Adams, were in that chorus. Naturally the boy choir

is

an important factor in such a church.

Mr. Whitney stands as the chief conductor

in this field in

His boy choir has been the musical model

of

Phillips

Brooks longed

director as well, but

for

other churches.

such a choir and hoped to have the

Mr. Whitney held

famous clerg}^man was too high-minded his expressed wish) to

many

America.

to

to

his old post,

make any

efforts

draw him away from the Church

and the (beyond of

the

Advent. Mr. Whitney established another valuable English custom

New

England

;

he

brought

about

parish

choir

festivals,

in

and

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

270 directed

many

and

of them,

New England

at the

Conservatory of

Music he established what was probably the first " Church Music As a performer he is one of the best organists Class " in America. of the country, yet

he seldom displays his

His Bach playing

of his church.

The compositions

A

piano

remarkably dignified, and with-

is

German

out that rigidity with which

of this

many American cities. as famous in London

A

organists too often invest

modest musician are

by him has been heard

trio

abilities in this field outside

in

high quality.

many American

in

processional by Mr.

as

of

it.

concerts in

Whitney has become

America, and has been republished abroad.

been

has

It

rearranged

for piano, for orchestra, is

even an edition,

tion, for the

canon

G

in

God goes come

in raised

A

has become nearly as of

War," has be-

forth to

into

The Son

"

being

even

Portuguese.

The

world-famous,

translated

nota-

use of the blind.

His hymn,

popular.

and there

church services (Anglican) that Mr.

Whitney has composed and

ous,

home of

of

even

in

are numer-

England,

such numbers, the worth

American master

the

the

is

quite

that

New

generally recognized. Fig. 75.



J.

It

Wallace Goodrich.

may be claimed

York had such church music Boston, and quite as good

composers

in

New York

nent American in this is

one

man whose

Mr. Whitney

in

the same level. 17,

Church,

for ten in

is

that the chief Episcopal

The most promi-

have been Englishmen. belongs to

field

in

New

England.

New York may

Yet there

parallel

that

of

Boston, although his musicianship was not upon

Mr. George

had a broad education

He was

but the fact

career

was almost

1828,

;

before

W.

Warren, born

entirely self-taught in

in

other directions at

in

Albany, August

music, although

he

Racine University.

years the organist and director of

Holy Trinity

Brooklyn, and for thirty years the organist and director

1

AND CHORUS LEADERS

ORGANISTS, CHOIR

Thomas's Church

at St.

in

New

On

York.

27

his twenty-fifth anni-

commemorative festival was held, as for He has left some effective church music Mr. Whitney in Boston. and a son, Richard Henry Warren, who is musical director at St. versary of service a great

Bartholomew's Church.

But a greater Warren

may

stand with

is

to be

found

in

NewYork

— a man who

the church organists of

relegated to an inferior position.

And

any country and not be this man, although born in

Canada, belongs to the United States, for his father was a Rhode Island organ-builder,

manufacture

who had moved

in that city.

to

Montreal to carry on his

In Montreal, therefore, on February 18,

His childhood 84 1, Samuel Prowse Warren was born (Fig. 76). was spent amid the surroundings of organ manufacture, and he 1

was familiar with the instrument even before he began its study. Wliile a mere lad, he became the organist at the American Church After finishing his general studies at college,

in Montreal.

he started for Berlin to complete his musical education. it

G.

was Haupt

Schumann

for the

New

York, where he has been ever since.

He is one of the given many recitals.

alone he has played hundreds of times in public.

added of

Church have had

at different times as a leader.

organists of America, and has

to our store of

and

Mon-

In 1864 he came back to

All Souls' Church, Trinity Church, and Grace

him

In his case

organ, Wieprecht in instrumentation,

as piano teacher.

but soon went to

treal,

in 1861,

great concert In

New York

Mr. Warren has

church music, yet by no means

in the

degree

Whiting or Whitney. In

Edward Morris Bowman we again

find

an organist whose

work in music is not to be bounded by his instrument. Mr. Bowman's influence has been exerted as a teacher and most prominently as an organizer of associations to protect the American composer. He was born in Barnard, Vermont, July 18, 1848. After considerable desultory training in music he came under the influence of Dr. William Mason (whose work we shall describe in the succeeding chapter), and finally went to Berlin, where Bendel,

Haupt, and Weitzmann were his instructors. Batiste,

studies

and London, helped his musical Mr. Bowman, as the originator and first presi-

and Macfarren still

further.

Afterwards Guilmant,

in

Paris

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

272

dent of the American College of Musicians, and as a very active president of the Music Teachers' National Association, has done

much

As

for the native composer.

the head of the musical depart-

Vassar College from 1891 to 1895, he worked faithfully in the cause of college education in music, and as a director he has He organized the also done permanent service to American music.

ment

of

famous

Temple Choir

"

and

Brooklyn,

of

ducts

"

con-

and many

that

He

other societies.

has

been organist and director in

many

leading churches.

Two

other

American

eminent

organists

are

descendants

musical

Samuel

of

Warren, and

P.

have claims to be

both

recorded

a

in

historical

account of America's mu-

in

Smith, born

Gerrit

sic.

Hagerstown, Maryland,

December

1859,

11,

in

addition to his important

work

as

church and con-

cert organist, holds a con-

spicuous Fig. 76.



composer; SAMtrF.i. P.

of

March 2, 1865, the American Guild of Jersey,

organist,

He

is

whose

also a

recitals

church

societies in that city. ren,

in

is

to be

born

ranked as one

Organists, and

William in

a C.

ors^anist in

Bloomfield,

of the founders

a very active concert

have extended throughout

New York and

this

country.

a conductor of vocal

In addition to their organ study with

Smith studied with Haupt,

Paris.

as

Warrf.n.

Carl,

New

position

in

Berlin,

War-

and Carl with Guilmant,

In connection with organ playing

it

may

be mentioned

Haupt and Guilmant have had as direct an influence upon American organ work as Rheinberger upon American composition.

that

ORGANISTS, CHOIR

AND CHORUS LEADERS

273

Haupt has taught more than one hundred and fifty American organists, among them being Thayer, Whiting, Warren, Bowman, Morgan, Eddy, Paine, and Arthur Bird. Before leaving the

New York

Arthur Russell (another Warren music and musical

literature

;

colony we must mention Louis

pupil),

who

has written

much good

Charles H. Morse, who, although more

constantly engaged in college work, and no longer resident in

York, has done prominent work

an

indefatigable

worker

in

in

New

Plymouth Church, and has been

organizing

societies

for

the

benefit

American musicians John Hyatt Brewer, who has been very active along the same lines, conducting societies, organizing associations, and composing worthy music and, finally, Raymond Huntington Woodman, who has the exceptional honor of having been a pupil of Cesar Franck, the French Schumann. Woodman, who was born in Brooklyn, January 18, 1861, has added many compositions to the American stock, and has been a teacher of the organ in New York for many years past. Charles H. Morse's influence, apart from his service in Plymouth of

;

;

Church, has been extended over

was born

in

cal studies

many

Bradford, Massachusetts, January

were pursued

in

He

parts of the country. 5,

1853,

and

his musi-

America, chiefly under John K. Paine,

George E. Whiting, and Carl Baermann. For a time he was a teacher at the New England Conservatory, then director of the musical department of Wellesley College, and then director and founder of the Northwestern Conservatory at MinneJ.

C. D. Parker,

apolis.

After that came his work at Plymouth Church, and

organizing of musical associations in

England.

In

1901

New York

state

and

much

New

he was made musical director of Dartmouth

College.

The West

has also begun to advance rapidly in organ music.

San Francisco we find Dr. H. J. Stewart (already spoken of as a composer), and in Chicago a larger number of prominent organists headed by Harrison M. Wild, a good concert organist and a sterling conductor. Every large city of the West now boasts its coterie In

of

educated organists.

Probably, however, no city of

its

size,

in

America, has been so well provided with organ music of a high class as Pittsburg.

Thanks

to Mr.

Andrew

Carnegie, a large hall

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

2 74

and an excellent organ have been provided, and regular organ

Sunday afternoon. One can scarcely imagine a better employment of part of the Sabbath than listening to the excellent programmes that have been given concerts are given to the public every

in

Frederick Archer

Pittsburg.

organ virtuoso, was the organizer until the year of his

838-1901), the eminent English

(i

of these educational concerts,

and

death he gave programme after programme of

which

excellent music to audiences

filled

every part of the great

hall.

Never, in America, has there been such an impetus given to public

organ music

taste in

have been one

music

in the

On

of the

the Pittsburg concerts (which

;

most important factors

continue)

in the history of

organ

United States.

the occasion of great public festivals in America, the organ

has almost always played a prominent in

still

part.

At

the World's Fair

Chicago, in 1893, for example, there were sixty-two organ recitals

given by the following

artists

:



Clarence Eddy, twenty-one recitals;

Woodman,

Guilmant, of Paris, four;

Samuel A. Baldwin (Dudley Buck's successor at Holy Trinity, New York), William C. Carl, Walter E. Hall, William Middleschulte, Frank Taft, George E. Whiting, and Harrison M. Wild, three each J. Fred. Wolle, whose direction of Bach music in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, has already been chronicled, gave two recitals G. Andrews, Louis A. Coerne, N. J. Corey, C. A. Howland, B. J. Lang, Otto Pfefferkorn, W. Radcliffe, W. S. Sterling, Henry G. Thunder, a talented Irishman, pupil of ThalR. Huntington

four

;

;

;

berg,

who

died in

New York

in

1891,

and A.

S. Vogt,

one

recital

each.

During 1897 ^^^^l 1898 the Twentieth Century Club of Boston, impelled by the lack of public appreciation of organ recitals characteristic of that city,

in Boston.

The

Edgar A. five;

G.

W.

gave a series

of free concerts in various

following were the performers

Barrell,

two

;

P.

B.

:



Brown, two

;

G.

churches

A.

Burdett,

Chadwick, two; E. Cutter, two; Ernest Douglas, one;

Henry M. Dunham, two; Arthur Foote, one Wallace Goodrich, four; Philip H'ale, one; Warren A. Locke (the organist of Appleton Chapel, Harvard), two Hamilton C. Mac Dougall, three Charles ;

;

H. Morse, one; Homer A.

;

Norris, one;

John O'Shea, one; Horatio

ORGANISTS, CHOIR

W.

Parker, two;

(assistant professor of

William Stanfield, one

Allen

;

music

W. Swan, two

Benjamin L. Whelpley, three

;

275

Charles P. Scott, two; Charles A. Safford, one;

Walter R. Spalding five

AND CHORUS LEADERS

;

and

S.

at Harvard), three;

Everett E. Truette,

;

Brenton Whitney, two.

The effort was a praiseworthy one, although it much as the array of organ virtuosi deserved.

did not accomplish as

Regarded from the standpoint of virtuosity, there is one American organist, Mr. Eddy, who has won a remarkable reputation both in

America and

latter

of

country being the land

great

brilliancy

Clarence

playing. 77)

France, the

was born June

organ

in

Eddy

(Fig.

23, 185

Greenfield, Massachusetts,

began

1,

in

and

his musical education at

In 1867 he

the age of eleven.

studied under Dudley Buck, at

from 1868 ist

to

1

87 1 was organ-

Bethany Church, Mont-

of

Then

Vermont,

pelier,

went

and

Connecticut,

Hartford,

Berlin,

to

he

and studied

August Haupt and Albert Loeschhorn. This under

was followed by a concert tour

Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Holland, dur-

through

ing which

he played

Vienna Exposition

became organist and

after

of

at

First

two years went

— Clarence

Eddy.

the

1873.

of the

Fig. 77.

America Congregational Church Returning

to

to the First Presbyterian

in

1874, he

in

Chicago,

Church, where

he was organist and choir-master for seventeen years.

In 1876 he

became general director of the Hershey School of Musical Art in Chicago, and gave there his famous series of one hundred organ recitals

without a repetition of any composition.

Besides the Vienna

Centennial

Exposition,

Exposition,

Mr.

Eddy

Philadelphia,

in

1876;

has played at the the

International

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

276 Exposition,

Paris,

(twenty-one

recitals)

1

the

1889;

in

the

;

Pan-American

901, and has given recitals in

cities.

he

During the season

made

a tour of the

one hundred

World's Fair, Chicago, in

of

all

the chief

Exposition,

1893

Buffalo,

in

American and European

1900-01, from October 16 to

May

i,

United States and Canada, and played over

recitals.

Mr. Eddy has lived chiefly

won many European

in Paris

during recent years, and has

American organ works, which he has often brought to foreign notice. Regarding his own performance, Haupt, in Germany, Guilmant, in France, and Sgambati, in Italy, have ranked him with the greatest virtuosi on the instrument. As a composer Mr. Eddy is not regarded as the equal of Whiting or Whitney among our organists, yet he has published a worthy series

been more it is

tributes for

of fugues, canons,

of a specialist

gratifying to find an

in his speciality.

and other organ works.

He

has

than the two composers just named, and

American

in

music so eminently successful

FIG.

78.

— DR.

WILLIAM MASON.

CHAPTER XIV THE AMERICAN COMPOSERS FOR PIANOFORTE

Among chief work,

instrument, as is

who have made piano composition their we find many who are also celebrated as teachers of the and who have influenced the course of music in America the composers

much by

probably no country

There

by their musical productions.

their pupils as in the

world where piano playing

so wide-

is

Almost every home, even among instrument and some amount of piano

spread as in the United States. the humble, possesses

Although

music.

might

desire, the

its

this latter is not

universal

always of the quality that one habit of

gift or

playing at piano music, in America,

undeniable.

is

Even the mechanical attachments automata, have contributed to

making more and

to-day

the

to

musical

piano, the

further piano music, and most of

Add

these appliances are of American origin. is

playing the piano, or

America

to this that

better pianos than any other country,

and we can readily see that piano composition must be, for good The or for evil, one of the most important factors of our music.

amount is

of

piano teaching that

carried on in the United States

is

something stupendous, and the leaders

important task

in

forming a national taste

in this field

have a most

music, and in checking

in

grown up only too rapidly. New York ought to be given

certain pernicious influences that have

Dr. William

precedence

in

Mason

(Fig.

yS) of

treating of this topic, for he

24, 1829, the third

figure in

recorded.

March

7,

born

in

among Boston,

son of Dr. Lowell Mason, that important

American musical

history,

whose work we have already

Naturally his father was his

his first public

the pioneer

He was

our native piano composers and teachers.

January

is

appearance as a pianist

1846, he played at an

first

in

teacher.

Boston.

Mason made

As long ago

as

orchestral concert of the Boston

279

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

28o

Academy city,

like

when Beethoven was

of Music, in clays

a novelty in that

and Music, heavenly maid, was decidedly young. Mason's life, that of Moscheles, is a chain leading from the old to the new.

In his youth he saw the beginnings of secular music in a country

which had been steeped

America give

lived to see

Europe.

He

orchestral

and his own work has formed an important part

;

which he has watched

in the fabric

concerts equal to those of

has seen a race of native composers in the classical

forms grow up In 1849

psalmody and sacred concerts; he has

in

Mason went

Leipsic, thanks

to

in

the weaving.

Europe to complete his musical studies. Mendelssohn (who had passed away but two to

years before), was then a musical centre, and this pilgrim from the

new world was taken as a pupil by such men Hauptmann, and Richter. Then there came study Dreyschock, and

the

finally

years

five

rounded out with nearly two years

of

as

Moscheles,

at

Prague with

apprenticeship

were

of Liszt.

American student abroa'd, in the middle of the nineteenth century, from what it is to-day. There was no great band of cisatlantic enthusiasts to be found in the It

was very

conservatories

Richardson

different with the

at

(who

method and

sold

that

time

;

J.

C.

subsequently wrote

D. a

Parker,

over a million copies of

it),

and

American Jasons. And with Liszt, also, in 1853, from what it became in There was no cosmopolitan crowd of worshippers its

superficial

poorly arranged

three of the earliest of the

shrine, but in

the

it

piano

Mason were was different

his later years. at

the

Weimar

place a small, highly appreciative artistic coterie.

The young Mason became

the

companion and

friend, as well

as

the pupil, of the great pianist.

During the European sojourn Mason played in public, twice in London, and several times in Weimar, even at the court of the Grand Duke. This was probably the first time that American musical talent had attracted attention in Germany. In 1854 his

American career began. It was to be a long and an extremely important one. New York at once had a classical impetus given it by a series of excellent chamber concerts, which were instituted by Mason, with the assistance

composed of TheoMosenthal, and George Matzka

of a string quartette

dore Thomas, Carl Bergmann,

J.

1

THE AMERICAN COMPOSERS FOR PIANOFORTE

28

For about thirteen years these classical chamber concerts were continued, and America first became acquainted with Brahms and many of Schumann's noble inspirations through this (Fig. 27).

medium. states

There was

also a long concert tour through the different

made by Mason, but he

and distracting work.

did not care

for this

arduous

In 1872 Yale University conferred the de-

gree of Mus. Doc. upon Mason,

How

much



a well-deserved tribute.

American musician for his chosen art has been, may be best understood by that Httle band of auditors who have been privileged to hear him give daily recitals sincere and intense the love of this

during his summer vacations

at the Isles of Shoals, at the

Celia Thaxter, the eminent poetess.

manner speak

home

of

His geniality and unstrained

These are almost wholly pianoforte works, although a few part-songs and an early serenade for violoncello also exist. There are about fifty works for his favorite instrument, and (with Mr. W. S. B. Mathews) Dr. Mason arranged a piano method that has become famous. In this latter he advocates an especial touch, a drawing of the finger (further used in his later instruction books and essays) in certain passages, which has "become

in his

known

Many

of

Germany,

compositions.

"

as the

Dr. Mason's

"

touch."

compositions have been republished

Danse Rustique

"

when Dr. Mason was over seventy-one), are among his best w^orks. None of his

compositions attempts the large classical forms. or concerto to his credit tive

in

His "Silver Spring," "Reverie Poetique," "Improvisa-

tion" (Op. 51, composed

and

Mason

;

There

is

no sonata

but in the domain of pleasing and instruc-

drawing-room music he has had great success.

Many

technical

points are introduced in his piano pieces in such a deft manner that the

pill of

study

is

sugar-coated.

It

is,

however, rather as teacher,

Schumann and Brahms music in America, as eduHe has had public, that Dr. Mason is to be honored.

as introducer of

cator of the

some famous

pupils, including

William H. Sherwood, E. M. Bow-

man, and others.

Another American composer, born in the same year with Dr. Mason, seems far more remote from the present epoch, and his foreign descent, his constant European tours, and his French predilections, all

combine

to

make

us think of

him

as cosmopolitan rather

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

282

than distinctly American. born in his

New

Orleans,

mother a Creole.

Louis Moreau Gottschalk (Fig. 79) was 8, 1829, his father being an Englishman,

May He was

he showed his musical taste

organ on one occasion,

emphatically an infant prodigy, for

in church, at six

in

the

was sent to became a great

thirteen he

He

complete his musical education.

to

favorite

Piano, organ, and violin

!

At

constituted his early musical studies. Paris

age of four, and played the

at the early

French metropolis, being idolized by impressible

female auditors after the fashion that Liszt had been and Paderewski was to be.

him play

Chopin heard

at a concert at the Salle

Erard, in 1845, and predicted that

he would

become

pianists.

He

king

of

gave a series

of

the

concerts with Hector Berlioz, and that celebrated

him

that he

that he

composer said

had sovereign power,

was a consummate

Tours were

of

made

all

pianist.

over the

world and honors were won everywhere.

In

Spain

a

celebrated

him with his sword and the Infanta made a cake for him with her own royal hands in almost every European country he received orders and bull-fighter

presented

;

decorations from royalty. P'iG.

79.

— Loris

Occasionally Gottschalk would

M. Gottschalk.

stoop to meretricious effects, and

more than once he arranged

work for a whole battalion of pianos together. Yet, over and beyond this, he was a poet of his instrument. His own compositions show this. One can find few works more expressive than the couple of sketches entitled " Ossian," which were among

his early works.

and passion, and

Among

his

a couple of

a

His

tropical

dances are

his reveries are filled with the

full of

fervor

languor of the South.

works are two operas, which never were performed, symphonies, marches for the orchestra, and a dozen

THE AMERICAN COMPOSERS FOR PIAiNOFORTE

283

songs, but his influence as a composer rests with his piano composi-

None

tions.

of these

win his triumphs

was

in salon composition,

drawing-room morceau

is

forms

in the largest

he was satisfied to

;

which was

well, since a poetic

worth a dozen uninspired sonata forms.

American to achieve European fame by performance or composition, for he was playing publicly in Paris while Mason was yet occupied with Boston concerts. But Gottschalk was far less distinctively American than Mason, and his work by no means exerted such direct influence upon American musical Gottschalk was the

He

development. States,



New

in

country in

it

gave, to be sure,

said as

is

York,

first

many

— appearing

many

concerts in the United

as eighty concerts in a single season

more than

a thousand times

this

but he came as an exotic and was a foreigner in the land

;

He

which he was born.

was French by

maternal descent, and his compositions are

taste,

in

New

born, by chance, in

other climes. the world

It

artist,

was a

He

was a great

Orleans, but in art belonging to

Bohemian

wild,

language, and

no sense American,

but lean heavily to the Spanish or French school. artist,

in

the typical career of

life,

that Gottschalk led, yet with

all its

excitement, the

constant tours, and the green-room atmosphere, the earnest side of the composer's nature would often assert is

temporary and some that

is

unworthy,

positions are characteristic and powerful

much

itself;

and, amid

many

of Gottschalk's

enough

to

that

com-

hold their

own

in the standard repertory of to-day.

The long.

excited and irregular

He was

an exhausted

a musical festival at year, as he latest

composition,

"

man

Rio Janeiro,

was seated

"),

he

Gottschalk could not

On November

Brazil. (it is

fell

last

very

In 1869, he was giving

at forty.

piano

at the

Morte

of

life

said that he

was playing

He had

senseless.

26, of that

his

been stricken

with yellow fever during the year, and was in an enfeebled condition

He was

that precluded recovery.

about three miles away,

in the

might recover; but he died

taken to the suburb of Tijuca,

hope that

there,

in

December

its

higher altitude he

18, 1869.

It

fying to state (yet strictly true) that Gottschalk was far

is

morti-

more ap-

preciated abroad than in his native land, America.

Leaving these two dissimilar exponents ica,

we come

to the native

of

piano music in Amer-

composers who are

at present

adding

to

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

284

As we have

American music.

the library of

seen the orchestral and

composing for the piano, so we shall find our piano composers (those who have won their chief triumphs in this field) sometimes winning successes in song or operatic com-

operatic composers occasionally

One of the most versatile of composers who have won success in various styles

those American

position as well.

is

of musical

Wilson George Smith, who, with Mr. Beck and Mr. Rogers, aids importance to Cleveland, Ohio.

in giving musical

Mr. Smith was born in Elyria, Ohio, August

was

a pupil of

work

in his

to

work

Otto Singer, at Cincinnati, and was so promising

that the veteran teacher urged

complete his musical education.

work

In

others.

him

go

to

Germany

to

Therefore, in 1880, he set to

under Kiel, Scharwenka, Moszkowski, Raff, and

Berlin,

in

He

1855.

19,

1882 he came back to Cleveland, and has remained

there ever since as a teacher of piano, voice,

and composition, and

a concert pianist.

He

has composed a large

number

among which

of works,

about half a hundred songs, but his chief reputation piano works. of

Some

of these, entitled "

European masters.

line

of

toward

works

A

"

Homage

Homages," arc

Schumann

the novelettes of that composer;

whom Smith in

seems specially

a

He

"

upon

his

in the style

runs along the

"Homage

to

Grieg,"

attracted, consists of five piano

the Norwegian vein, and these brought

from the Northern master.

tion

to

rests

are

warm commenda-

has written other piano works

Norwegian and Swedish style, for which he has an evident penchant. In two other piano homages Smith has laid wreaths upon the altar of Schubert and Chopin. His more individual com-

in the

positions are not vast but always fluent,

He

is

upon

not an iconoclast by any

means (although not

occasion), but a very agreeable

highway.

His transcriptions

pianos, are very broad

commendable.

and

of

traveller

graceful.

afraid of fifths

along the musical

works by Grieg and

effective.

Every teacher

and

attractive,

Raff, for

two

His pedagogic works are

finds Smith's octave studies

studies for especial finger development useful

and

and the

practical.

chromatic studies and his set of studies in transposition have

His

won

approval from Grieg, Godowsky, Xaver Scharwenka, Mason, and other authorities.

THE AMERICAN COMPOSERS FOR PIANOFORTE

285

Less prominent as a composer, but exerting a great influence as a teacher and performer,

sphere of action, at

New

was

his

York, January teacher

first

Mason was another

birth,

by descent, and by

He was

his

His

father, a

born in

good musician,

William

Dr.

;

of

31, 1854.

whose

Chicago, has been

labors for the native composer.

his aggressive

Lyons,

American by

is

80),

in

Boston, then

in

first

He

remarkably wide.

William Hall Sherwood (Fig.

is

instructors,

and took great interest in him. A very thorough European training followed,

Sherwood studied with Weitzmann, Deppe, Richter,

during which

KuUak,

Dappler, Scotson Clark, and Liszt.

He

gave a series

Germany, and then,

in

certs

of successful con-

in

1876,

returned to his native land, where he at

once started upon a large and

brilliant

After this he settled in

concert tour.

Boston, and began teaching.

Sherwood

soon went to Chicago, where he started Since

a conservatory.

work has been Liebling and

in the

W.

— William

H. Sherwood.

West, where his teaching (with that

B.

S.

Fig. 80.

1889 his chief of

Emil

Mathews) has made Chicago a centre

for

Yet his work in Boston also left its mark, as witness such pupils as Arthur Wliiting, Clayton Johns, and many others. piano music.

His published works a scherzo, and

Caprice

"

certainly

But spurs. east,

(Op. is

his

it is

for the piano) contain a couple of suites,

some other compositions. 9),

Perhaps the

although one of his early works,

most

difficult

as a performer

is

"

Scherzo

his best, as

it

composition.

and teacher that Sherwood has won

his

His concert tours have extended everywhere, north, south-

and west.

United States.

had

(all

Canada and Mexico have heard him, as well as the Every great symphonic orchestra in the country has

his services in concerts at

one time or another.

All together,

much to say that the first American piano virtuoso is (and has been for many years) William H. Sherwood. More prolific than the composers we have mentioned is a Boston it

is

not too

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

286

and teacher, Charles Dennee, who was born in Oswego, New He studied music chiefly in Boston, York, September i, 1863. taking his harmony lessons of Stephen A. Emery, and his piano of

pianist

Alfred D. Turner.

made Dennee

It

was Turner's guidance and friendship that

He

a musician.

has written some successful light

operas of the vaudeville type, a large greater is

number

of

piano works

3,

composed some

A

He

and a

still

piano method

has toured the United States

Frank Addison Porter (born at Dixmont, 1859) is a pupil of the same teachers, and has

as a concert pianist.

also

of songs,

in the small forms.

also to be placed to his credit.

Maine, September

number

useful pedagogical works, as well as songs

and

piano morceaux.

To

such a

list

piano composers Albert Ross Parsons also

of

somewhat more ambitious school. Parsons was born at Sandusky, Ohio, September 16, 1847. He studied at first with F. L. Ritter, the famous litterateur and conductor, and afterwards with Reinecke, Papperitz, and Richter, in Leipsic, with Parsons's translations Taussig, Kullak, and Weitzmann, in Berlin. belongs, although of a

of important foreign musical works, his careful editing of classical

and

reprints,

his

own compositions

entitle

him

very honorable

to

mention.

New York

has an American piano composer,

other flights, in John Nelson Pattison. a

symphony

his piano

for the orchestra

works

in print,

and he has added much

13,

has attempted

has written a

and military band.

able class of drawing-room music.

Cross (born there April

He

who

"

Niagara,"

There are many to the

of

more agree-

In Philadelphia, Michael Hurley

1833, died there

September

and Charles H. Jarvis (born there December

20,

1837,

26,

1897)

and died

there February 25, 1895) were standard-bearers in the best school of

piano work.

Of the youngest workers predict the ranks. pieces,

works.

full result

studies,

Redman

is

it

might be dangerous

Boston has two

as yet.

Harry N. Redman

and

in the field

is

to

of these in its musical

writing not only

many

songs, piano

but also violin sonatas and larger concerted distinctly

modern

in his vein,

and has studied

deeply in the works of the neo-Russians Tschaikowsky, Balakireff,

and others.

Alvah Glover Salmon has drunk

at the

same

fountain,

THE AMERICAN COMPOSERS FOR PIANOFORTE

287

and has even gone to St, Petersburg and Moscow for musical study. He has composed much briUiant and difficult piano music and has appeared

in public,

both as a pianist and lecturer.

His chief teacher

America was John D. Buckingham, of Boston. In speaking of piano composition we must again turn to foreign influences that have had their effect upon American musical eduIn no direction have these influences been more marked cation. than in the development of our piano playing and its repertoire. Attracted to a country where the piano fever was assuming the proportions of an epidemic, some of the best artists and teachers from abroad settled here, and became virtually leaders in the onward movement of that kind of music. The mere accident of birth must be ignored in such a case. Such men as Joseffy, Baermann, Hoffmann, Mills, who have spent the riper years of their lives among us, and have trained many of the best of the present in

generation of our pianists, are certainly not to be ignored in any

work

The

that speaks of the development of music in America.

native

band

advanced pianists and piano composers, was, as we

of

The European

have seen, a very small one, twenty years ago. came, and

it

stayed in the

Baermann, who was born

loaf.

in

Such

leaven

a man, for example, as Carl

Munich, has had

far

more

do with

to

American music than Gottschalk, wlio was born in New Orleans. Carl Baermann (Fig. 81) belongs to one of those families where music seems to run in the blood and is transmitted from generation His grandfather, Heinrich Joseph Baermann, was to generation. one of the most brilliant clarinettists of the world, and was a close friend of Weber and Mendelssohn, both of whom wrote compositions for him.

were the earliest

how much

may be

It

in the true

recalled that both of these masters

usage

of the clarinet,

and who can say

they were influenced in their scores by personal contact

with the famous clarinettist,

Baermann

!

A

granduncle was a

brated bassoon player, and the father, Carl Baermann, celebrated for his clarinet work. Sr.,

wrote

esteem

many works

method which

is still

From such

Both were held

Bavaria, and the father has

one of the most famous

ancestry came

was

also

Both Heinrich and Carl Baermann,

for their instrument.

at the court of

Sr.,

cele-

Carl

left

in

high

a clarinet

in existence.

Baermann, the

pianist.

In

;

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

288

Munich, among other teachers, he had as instructor the thorough and conservative Franz Lachner, Subsequently he was one of the pupils of Liszt, not merely in name, but in

most laudatory favorites.

well

letters

Soon

known

he possesses the

fact, for

from that master, and was

and was appointed piano Munich, that academy where so

for his concert performances,

many American composers have came under the influence

studied

;

and here many Americans

Soon

of the excellent musician.

King Ludwig the

1

ceived

two

he might

visit

years

piano music

the

in

the large

der

all

but

his

in

have become famous Professor

in

their

the

A

and

in classical

the

own

His

all.

every state of

them

right.

a large

list

but his few works are of a high order.

may

of

and many

republic,

has

teacher

as

almost

un-

conductors

celebrated

represent

A

of

piano compo-

series of twelve

be spoken of as belonging to lliey do not pale, as so

the finest piano literature of the present,

many

for almost

symphony concerts

influence

Baermann has not written

studies (Andre, at Offenbach)

resi-

has given recitals and appeared

pupils

Baermann.

in

United States.

been the most important

— Cari,

re-

America.

teacher

this

been a leader

pianist has

at

and

in this country,

twenty-five

He

him

years,

permanent

visit resulted in a

dence

to

Baermann

of

furlough

order that

The

gave

of Bavaria

88 1, Professor

a

after this.

Royal Professor.

title of

In

sitions,

of his

were completed Baermann became

after his studies

teacher at the Royal Music School of

Fig. 8i.

one

literally

similar compositions do, even before the studies of Chopin.

piano

suite, also of the

just completed.

We

highest order,

know

of but

is

yet in manuscript, being

one orchestral work by Professor

Baermann, and that has not yet been heard

in

America.

a festival march, which was performed recently in

This

Munich on

is

the

occasion of the celebration of the centennial of the Bavarian State

THE AMERICAN COMPOSERS FOR PIANOFORTE The work won

Museum.

289

the highest praise, even the Prince Regent

growing enthusiastic over it. The march is in a more developed form than the ordinary " Song-form with Trio," and leans somewhat toward a sonata shape with varied recapitulation.

It

is

typical of

Professor Baermann, this clinging to the classical style, for he

musical conservative and

has been a barrier against

extravagances of the ultra-modern school in America,



is

a

the foolish his

extreme

boundaries being from Bach to Liszt. In speaking of foreign teachers of piano in Boston a prominent

place should be given to Ernst Perabo, who, although born abroad (in

Wiesbaden,

He

old.

came

in 1845),

returned

to this country

Leipsic

to

for

man

Since that time his

of twenty.

spent

Boston

in

Beach (who

studied with Carl

also

direct result of his teaching.

and

brief,

in

Boston

young

in 1865, a

has been almost wholly

life

As one

teaching.

in

musical education, which

his

was especially thorough, but was again

when but seven years

of

his

pupils

was Mrs.

Baermann), one can see the

Mr. Perabo's compositions are few

although he has made some remarkable transcriptions

He

of great difficulty.

could be wished

not as frequently heard in public as

is

for.

America has won to herself a remarkBorn in Miskolcz, in Hungary, July 3,

In Rafael Joseffy (Fig. 82) able genius of the piano.

1853, his childish efforts at the piano were so noteworthy, that he

was early sent

A

Tausig.

as a pupil to Moscheles,

marked success attended

osity.

in 1879,

It is

and

this in later years.

He came

once made a sensation by his great

honor that he rose

He

and a

his debut in Vienna, "

at

to Joseffy 's

to the greater

around the world followed.

series of concert tours

America

and from him

lost

to

to

virtu-

something higher than

nothing of his brilliancy but gained

decidedly in musicianship in his riper manhood.

For over

five years

he disappeared from the concert platform, studying most zealously during that time; then a new Joseffy came back, powerful musician

He

success.

who

strove for the best in

art,

has given his best work to America.

the National Conservatory of

piano playing with

us.

As

New

— an earnest and

not for immediate

As

a teacher (in

York), Joseffy has done

much

a composer, one cannot accord

him

for

as

high a rank as his concert reputation would imply; his works are u

thp: history

290

of American music

almost entirely drawing-room music, graceful and pleasant, but not important.

Much more prominent Americanized

was born

in

of

as a composer,

our foreign contingent,

Manchester, England,

May

and the most thoroughly-

is

as a

mere

lad of sixteen,



at a

time

and was taught by

24, 1831,

Rubinstein, Thalberg, Moscheles, and Liszt.

He

Richard Hoffman.

He came

when such

to

America

pianists as he were

most

rare,

— and, as he

became a resident

of

New

York, his

influ-

ence

was

great

with

the

very

few musical

societies existent there in

He made

1847.

musical tours through

America, Burke,

with

first

the

violinist,

then with Jenny Lind.

He

often played duets

(on

two pianos) with

Gottschalk, great

who had

predilection

a

for

concerted music of this character,

when

orchestra was tainable.

duets Fjc. 82.

— Rafaei,

Joskfkv.

fifty

years,

good

not ob-

played

with

Von

when that piancame to America.

Billow, ist

For more than

also

He

a

Richard Hoffman has been a notable

American music, as concert performer, as teacher, and as composer. Nor does his work fall wholly in the earlier times of New York's musical activity. Even in the last days of Seidl, this pianist appeared in a concerto directed by the great conductor. As a composer Mr. Hoffman has a list of compositions which extends to more than 125 works. Songs and some excellent Episcopal church numbers are among these, but his most successful figure in

1

THE AMERICAN COMPOSERS FOR PIANOFORTE Most

pieces are for the piano. of

of

29

these are of the higher order

drawing-room music, and such works as

"

Le Crepuscule," "Im-

promptu " (Op. 6), and " Venice " were much better than the average American piano composition at the time they were pubhshed. In short, in Richard Hoffman we have a modest musical worker whose quiet life has witnessed the growth of our art in New York from Jenny Lind concerts to " Parsifal " performances, and if he has not done the work of a William Mason, he has at least followed bravely that excellent lead.

Scarcely less of an American record in length of time, and more brilliant

the matter of public work,

in

Englishman who

another

Mills,

musical history

nearly

if

can constitute a claim.

March

belongs to

certainly

Bach

American

forty years of active service in the cause

Mills

was born

in Cirencester,

England,

His name may indicate that his father was a musi-

1838.

i,

that of Sebastian

is

Cipriani Potter and Sterndale Bennett were his early teachers,

cian.

and he played before Queen Victoria when he was seven years

old.

After that came a Leipsic Conservatory education and public per-

formances even in Germany, Finally, a settled

made

debut in

in

York,

in

America.

By

so successful that Mills

few tours

of

Germany were

New York

He

appeared

his

teaching, his composing, and his concert playing.

in

the cause of

died in Wiesbaden, Germany, tions, so far as

them

A

concerts.

but most of Mills's concert appearances were in

Mills greatly assisted

of

was

1859,

that city permanently.

in later years,

1877.

New

Gewandhaus

at the celebrated

in

every season from 1859 to

good music

December

we know them, were

all

21,

in

all

He

His composi-

1898.

for the piano,

large or classical forms, but

that city.

and were none

graceful and attractive

works.

Mr. Perry

is

an American

— a concert pianist who one end to the other.

artist

who

stands in a class by himself

totally blind, yet tours the

country from

Edward Baxter Perry was born

in Haverhill,

Massachusetts, February

is

14,

1855.

Some

He

was not born

blind, but lost

was given at the Perkins Institution for the Blind, at South Boston. A European education in piano playing began with Kullak in Berlin and was continued under Pruckner in Stuttgart. Then came assistance and his

sight in

childhood.

of

his

training

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

292

from Liszt and from Clara Schumann. During his stay Germany he gave a recital before the Emperor. On his return

in

number

of

tuition

America, he began teaching

engagements

for recitals

pedagogics.

He

Boston, but the large

in

to

and lectures forced him away from musical

has given more recitals than any other American,

American mu-

and, as already stated, enjoys a unique position in sical art.

Hundreds

of other

musicians who, by teaching or composition, or

public performances, have added something to

might be passed

in review,

American piano music,

but to do so would turn musical history

Yet some of these have also done yeoman service. Hanchett has lectured and taught in New York and elsewhere through the country; Boekelman has done good work at Miss into a musical directory.

Porter's

famous school

scheme of analysis mously valuable to

of all

at

Farmington, and has invented a color

Bach's fugues and inventions that

musicians;

enor-

is

Constantin von Sternberg, the

celebrated Russian, has helped musical education both in Atlanta,

Georgia, and in Philadelphia; sted have

and East.

done

in

the

W.

C.

Seeboeck and August Hylle-

West what Sternberg

Frederick Brandeis gave the larger part of his

composition, organ playing, and teaching in forth large

has achieved South

and

classical

of these pianists,

works

in

New

many branches

and many others, have helped

most piano-playing nation

of the world.

life

to

York, bringing of

to

music.

make

All

us the

PLATE MRS.

H.

H. A.

XI

BEACH

IX 3TAJ'=^ HnA:=ia

A .H .H .8HM

:

CHAPTER XV AMERICAN WOMEN

Can

a

woman become

MUSIC

IN

a great composer

female Beethoven or a Mozart

decided the question quickly and

Will there ever be a

Europe most

authorities have

in the negative.

Carl Reinecke,

In

?

?

long the director of the Leipsic Conservatory, once gave his views

on

He

this subject to the present writer.

point where

woman

stopped in music.

believed that there was a

His experience was,

that,

up

to a well-advanced point in the interpretation of the ideas of others,

the female student often outstripped the male

;

but

the highest

in

realms of musical performance, where individuality needed to be

blended with the text of the composer, there was a timidity that In the purely creative field he found

militated against progress.

scarcely any progress comparable to that of the intelligent and poetic

Svendsen,

male student. of

in

Norway, and Gade,

Copenhagen, long ago expressed almost But, in Europe, prejudice alone

woman from

in the

Conservatory

identical views

"to

us.

might well hold back many a

Fanny Mendelssohn composed several of the songs without words, and some of the vocal songs, which went under her brother's name but that brother firmly repressed any thought of her entering the field upon her own Once, when Queen Victoria, at the English court, told account. him how much she enjoyed singing his song " Italy," he was obliged entering the

field.

;

to reply that this particular

Fanny "

I

!

song was the composition

of his sister

Rubinstein warningly said to the sister-in-law of Chaminade

She ought

hear your relative publishes compositions of her own.

not to do that

" !

Nevertheless, this

ceeded

in painting,

is

a

woman's epoch

George Eliot

covers radium and sets a

Rosa Bonheur has

in literature,

new pace 293

;

in science,

Madame and

in

Curie

sucdis-

music, too, a

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

294

Chaminade, a Clara Schumann, an Augusta Holmes, have broken down many barriers. We venture to believe that it has been insufficient musical education

and male prejudice that have prevented

female composers from competing with their male brethren in

art.

In the United States, where this prejudice has not existed, the female

composer was in the field contemporaneously with our Chadwicks, Parkers, and MacDowells and America can boast at least one female ;

composer who can compare favorably with any woman who has yet entered creative musical

art.

XI) was born (Amy Marcy Cheney) Henniker, Merrimac County, New Hampshire, on

Mrs. H. H. A. Beach in

the town of

September

1867.

5,

She

(PI.

is

American parentage, a descendant From the same ancestry came

of

of the earliest colonial settlers.

William Larned Marcy, who was successively governor United States senator. Secretary

of

New

of

War, and Secretary

York, State;

of

Randolph Barnes Marcy, the explorer of the Red River; Charlotte Cushman, the eminent tragedienne; and Major-General Dearborn of

Revolutionary fame.

to

have been a natural sequence

Mrs. Beach's musical inheritance appears of the devotion to

mother, and her maternal ancestry

;

music

of

her

while her strong taste for the

scholastic and mathematical side of her art seems like a reflex of

His family had never shown any

her father's mental qualities. active interest collegiate,

in

music, but had

and other educational

devoted

attention

to political,

affairs.

Gifted with absolute pitch and an accurate memory, the child constantly surprised her family and their friends with startling feats

from the time when she was a year

old.

It

is

said that at that

period she had unmistakably memorized forty separate tunes which

were always accurately sung by her. At times she would upon their being sung to her, until her mother was exhausted. of her favorite

mand and

all

anthems was,

the stars obey."

"

The moon

shines

Of the songs sung

full

at

insist

One

His com-

to her, she

always

remembered the way in which they were first rendered, and never permitted any variation from the original version. All substitutions and cadenzas were met with the stern reproof, "Sing it clean."

When

two years old she was taken to a photographer for a sitting, and when all was ready for the picture she suddenly surprised her

AMERICAN WOMEN IN MUSIC

295

audience by singing at the top of her voice, "See, the Conquering

The photographer, who had been

Hero Comes." one of

of the

chorus of the

Handel, exclaimed

:

Peace Jubilee) the celebrated chorus

first

Why,

"

practising (as

that

baby

is

really singing

it

That

!

more wonderful than anything we shall see at the jubilee." The picture was a success. No other punishment was ever needed than a little minor music is

for

the

little

hands that occasionally were mischievous, for

would make her disconsolate and she would

pleasure,

She

keenest enjoyment.

and memory

ciation

sit

this

Violin music gave her great

at once.

quietly for hours listening to

phenomenal

also exhibited

at a very early age,

it

with

literary appre-

but the musical side of her

nature rather outran the literary.

At

this

time the child was accustomed to show preference for

certain pieces of music that her as the blue, pink, or purple music. to this manifestation of

mother played, by designating Little attention

musical feeling, because

it

was

it

at first paid

was supposed

to

be connected with the color of the outside paper, with which musical publications were covered. that the

Afterwards

it

was

clearly demonstrated

music played was not satisfactory to the

child,

because

it

did not correspond with a scheme of color that she had in her mind,

and had no correspondence with colored wrappers. questioned,

it

For instance Key Key Key Key Key

of of

C F

:

When

carefully

was found that she associated colors with certain keys.



White sharp minor ) '

of

G

sharp minor

of

E

major

Yellow

of

G

major

Red

)

This association to the present time

of ;

Key Key Key Key

of

of of of

A major A flat major D flat major E flat major

Green

.... .... ....

Blue Violet

Pink

keys and colors continues with Mrs. Beach

but

we must add

that,

while

many composers

share this association of tone and color, their color-schemes are by

no means unanimous.

When

four years old this precocious child

much begging and piarjG

to

was allowed,

her great joy, to stand on a hassock

and play an improvised secondo

to a

at

after

the

primo played by her

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

296 aunt.

From

played

correctly in

hymn-tunes

original

their

she

that

had daily access

time she

that

had

and with

keys,

heard

in

the piano, and

to

church and

full

harmony,

Sunday-school,

improvised melodies and accompaniments to children's poems, and played without fault chorales of "St. Paul," operatic duets, Beethoven's

"

Spirit

Waltz," and

many

of the Strauss waltzes.

composed

'1

which she named

Waltz," "

"

also

pieces

Golden Robin

"Marlboro

Waltz,"

"

Snowfiake

Mama's

Waltz,"

The

Waltz."

piano

few

a

She

com-

was

latter

posed while on a three months' visit

the country where there

in

She played

it

with

great spirit and precision the

first

was no piano.

time she touched the piano after

She had no

reaching home. culty in

making

transpositions at

Even

her pleasure.

difB-

before

she

had taken any theoretical instrucFig. 83.

— Miss

tion,

her writing was found to be

Makgaket Ruihven Lang.

musically correct.

she must have always

understood

the

It

relations of

seems

intervals,

as

if

for,

before she studied harmony, a glance at the page of music she

was playing, enabled her correct

At

key.

notes or keys, but

years.

harmony and not know the names

four-part

time she did

when she was

instruction In that time

and played were

use

six years old

in

the

of the

nothing would satisfy

These were begun by her mother giving her

her but lessons. regular

that

to

:



times

three

among

a

week

for

the

following

the large variety of pieces she studied

Hellers Etudes, Op, 47, Czerny's Etudes de Velocite (Book No.

i).

Harmonious Blacksmith," Mozart's Andante and Variations in G major. Handel's

"

Mendelssohn's

"

two

Songs," arranged by Dresel.

Chopin's Valse, Op.

18,

and others

in order.

AMERICAN WOMEN IN MUSIC Beethoven's Sonatas, Op. 49, Nos.

No.

2

;

with

all

the slow

and

i

2,

297

Op.

2,

movements and minuets

Op. 49. These were played with accuracy and much

No.

i

Op.

;

14,

of the sonatas as

far as

Best of

feeling.

all,

the child loved Beethoven's music, which she would play until com-

Her

pelled by force to leave the piano. that her

hand could not reach a

full

now was

greatest sorrow

chord, and was occasionally

obliged to omit the lower notes that she easily read, but could not touch.

When

made

seven years old she

number

a limited

of

public

appearances, playing works by Beethoven, Chopin, and others, and

own composition. At her warm interest, which

introducing a waltz of her writings of Bach attracted

this

time the

later

developed

into the greatest enthusiasm, especially for fugal compositions.

At

eight years of age, her parents settled in Boston, and here, while

her school studies occupied a large share of her time, the course in

pianoforte

instruction

begun by her mother was con-

so well

tinued by Mr. Ernst Perabo, and later by Professor Junius

At

and Professor Carl Baermann. sibly educating her

judgment and

the

same time she was

and rehearsals she was able

clarinet was,

and

is,

Her reverence and

deeper than for love for

its

Hill

insen-

feeling for orchestral music by

carefully studying the scores of standard certs

W.

works

to attend. all

at the

Her

many

con-

feeling for the

other orchestral instruments.

timbre has an interesting connection

with the fact that her maternal grandfather was a good performer

and great admirer

of the instrument.

While studying with Professor Hill in the winter of 1881-82, This the young lady's instruction included a course in harmony. course was afterwards supplemented by systematic studies in counterpoint, fugue, musical form, and instrumentation pursued alone for several years. She made translations of the treatises by Berlioz and Gevaert in

the

to aid her in the last-named

study of fugue she was

study.

accustomed

to

As an

committing Bach

fugues to memory, and then writing out their voices on staves.

Her

interest in choral

separate

works was very strong, and she was

a close student of the diversified productions of our societies.

exercise

many

choral

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

298

The present writer recalls made with Teresa Liebe, the

a test of the fourteen-year-old prodigy, violinist, "

only played fugues from Bach's

wherein the young miss not

Well-tempered Clavichord," but

Her memory, her

transposed them into any required key. sion in playing, her

expres-

enthusiasm, her exhibitions of the sense of

Her

absolute pitch, were wonderful.

teachers considered her, at

that time, the greatest musical prodigy of America.

Her subsequent marriage Dr.

physicians.

one

to

December, 1885, eliminated There was no German career.

H. H. A. Beach,

in

the element of struggle from her art

aftermath of study, and Mrs. Beach

education has been completed too,

in

from the professional career

most eminent

Boston's

of

is

a composer whose entire

She was withdrawn,

America.

— her

a pianist being almost invariably to aid

subsequent appearances as

some

Whether

charity.

When

was an unmixed advantage we may not judge.

this

one considers

more luxurious road of ease that was opened, it is sufificient to be thankful that Mrs. Beach did not become in any degree sybaritical, but went bravely on, encouraged by her cultured husband, All of her best works followed her in the work of composition. the

marriage.

Her October

first

1883,

24,

On

Cheney.

public

appearance in she

Boston

being then sixteen and

that occasion she played

certo (Op. 60) with orchestra,

Mendelssohn in

minor

Since then

Orchestra. recitals

D

Boston,

New

concerto she

G

several

F minor

Symphony Orchestra under Mr.

Boston

still

Amy

Miss

minor con-

and as a solo Chopin's rondo

the age of seventeen she played Chopin's the

was on

pianist

Moscheles's

During the ensuing winder she gave

flat.

a

as

has

York,

appeared

At

recitals.

concerto with

Gericke,

and

the

Thomas's

at concerts

and given

Chicago,

Brooklyn,

Philadelphia,

and various other places almost every season, the programmes

some

of

her concerts and recitals being

own works.

With

the Boston

E

Theodore

Mr.

with

in

made up wholly

Symphony Orchestra

of

of

her

she has played

concertos by Beethoven, Mozart, Chopin, St. Saens, and herself.

work was a grand mass in E flat major, brought out by the Handel and Haydn Society in February, 1892, under

Her

first

large

the direction of Carl Zerrahn.

On

the

same evening Mrs. Beach

fW FIG.

84.

— MRS.

JULIA RIVE-KING.

¥.'"

f

AMERICAN WOMEN

IN MUSIC

301

afterwards appeared and played with the society and orchestra the

Upon

piano part of Beethoven's Choral Fantasy, she

scena and "

the

Following the mass, she composed a

an ovation.

received

aria

Wolken

Eilende

and orchestra, taking

contralto

for

from

"

her appearance

"

Schiller's

Mary

her text

for

Stuart."

was

It

same year as the mass, by Mrs, Carl Alves at a concert of the New York Symphony Society, under the direction of Mr. Walter Damrosch, and was the first work written sung

for the first time in the

by a

woman produced

Mary's

Behind her

Elizabeth. free

to

from

release

first

open

prison,

before

just

that of

is

her meeting

with

the dungeon, about and above her the

beautiful

the

air,

is

The scene

these concerts.

at

and the

foliage

which she intrusts messages

the music, to give the scene

"

wandering clouds,"

Through

of love to her native land.

more

local

coloring,

heard an old

is

familiar Scotch air.

In the following year Mrs. Beach

Board

to write a

was invited by the Executive

composition for the dedication

of

Building of the Columbian Exposition at Chicago.

covery of the

fifteenth,

Mrs. Beach

felt

should in some way represent the

She therefore

Woman's

As

the occa-

century the enterprise in

nineteenth

sion celebrated in the

the

that her share of the

selected themes characteristic of Gregorian writing, in

modern

the

produced the Festival Jubilate, for chorus and orchestra, weeks.

It

Mr. Theodore

Thomas and

again later in

New York

Soon

after

this

Maud

Miss first

time in

Mrs. Beach began the Gaelic symphony

number

finished in the spring of 1896

Symphony Orchestra under Later performances

of

and

genuine Gaelic themes. first

— so

It

was

performed by the Boston

the direction of Mr.

were given

of

During

of the concerts of the musical congress.

called from the use of a

ber.

and

in exactly

City.

Columbian Exposition Mrs. Beach played with Powell her romance for piano and violin, for the one

style,

was successfully performed under the direction

the

public, at

music

union of the two centuries.

augmented, harmonized, and orchestrated

six

dis-

in

Emil Paur

New

York,

in

Octo-

Brooklyn,

San Francisco, and Chicago, the latter under Mr. Theodore Thomas. A sonata in A minor for piano and violin Buffalo,

Kansas

was written

in

City,

the six weeks following the completion of the sym-

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

302

Mrs. Beach played the work with Mr. Franz Kneisel at one

phony.

January (1897). The same Boston, New York, and in Cambridge

of his quartette concerts in the following

played

artists

at

again in

it

Beach has performed

Mrs.

of the university concerts.

one

it

on numerous occasions with other violinists. It was given in Berlin by Carreno and Halir, in Paris by Pugno and Ysaye, and in London by Henry Bird and Sigmund Beel. Regarding these two works, one can say that they are the most important ever written in America by a woman. Yet one would have preferred a

less epic

Better a fluent suite than a labored

best expression.

Yet

would be unjust

it

to say that

by Mendelssohn

The

parison.

;

and the

movement

first

mastery of the form

As

evident.

made

scherzo

is

necessity provoke a com-

of

"

Scotch

this

in

movement) is pleasingly symphony, there is much

the sonata

(at least, of

clarinets

symphony is dull. symphony in A minor

betrays a lack of ease, although the

Mendelssohn's

the

being

clarinet

The

of

in

must

title

symphony.

Gaelic

this

not nearly so Scottish, however, as the

It is

use

form than a symphony for the composer's

"

work, even the unusual

employed

bass

movement. an orchestral gem, and the slow movement, which very

here comes third,

boldly

in

the

also beautiful, although

is

lento

perhaps carried out

at too great length.

The

violin sonata

(the third

is

best in

movement) being

and

last

movements, the largo

spontaneous.

Mrs. Beach in her

its first

less

classical productions holds loyally to the sonata form,

vague or meaningless

in

her development-work.

and thematic treatment are present in both the sonata. She seeks the largest forms by choice. has an extra

movement

in

its

largo,

April is

7,

1900, the scherzo

powerful enough to

never

Good counterpoint symphony and the The violin sonata in

C

In this concerto, played by

Symphony Orchestra is

is

and the piano concerto,

sharp minor, has also an interpolation. Mrs. Beach with the Boston

and

for the first time

altogether charming, and the finale

make any

critic,

who does

not believe that

woman

can create music, become rather doubtful about his position. Strangely enough, in a piano concerto written by a pianist, the

orchestra

The

dominates matters throughout almost the whole work.

finale presents

some

excellent figure development.

FIG.

85.

— MISS

LEONORA JACKSON.

— AMERICAN WOMEN

IN MUSIC

305

must not be imagined that this composer has only aimed at symphony, mass, concerto, and sonata she has gone beyond the fiftieth opus number, and some of these opera are made up of There are many piano compositions in several numbers each. It

;

the small forms, from easy pieces for children to transcriptions of

Richard Strauss, and a furiously cadenza to the

movement

first

of Beethoven's

properly developed)

C minor

piano con-

In her songs Mrs. Beach shows a tendency to complexity,

certo.

the ingenuity that

born of

is

her simplest moods she "

difficult (yet

The

and

Blackbird,"

examples

To

of direct

those

who

Wilt

thou

be

But

development.

in figure

The

very charming.

is

"

skill

my

"

in

Western Wind,"

Dearie

.f*

are

"

good

and unaffected musical utterance. believe

that

women who

achieve greatness in

mind and manner, unsexed phenomena, we may say that Mrs. Beach is most womanly in all Art does not recognize sex, and, if we have spoken her ways. of Mrs. Beach at some length and apart from her brother compos-

any

art or science

ers,

it

time

must be masculine

in

has been done to point a moral, which express

to

unbelief

is,

that

woman's musical powers only

in

chances have been given to both sexes and

equal

be

will

it

after

trace of

all

prejudice has disappeared.

Boston presents the name of of composers.

who

another

has

won

the daughter of Benjamin

is

his great successes in

all

His daughter

teaching and has published nothing.

November

in her musical tastes

;

but

It

was

it

but

in

violin

at

well, for

Lang, the

conducting and is

rapidly restor-

Mrs. B.

J.

an excellent amateur singer.

Lang

is

Miss

composition before she was twelve years

at this juvenile period that she wrote

piano quintette.

J.

There was paternal influence shown may be added that something may have

predilections and

Lang began her attempts old.

host

27, 1867.

been inherited from the maternal side as of musical

its

Miss Lang (Fig. ^^^ was born

ing an average and publishing much. in Boston,

woman among

Miss Margaret Ruthven Lang comes by her talent

quite legitimately, for she

musician,

still

She studied

violin in

one movement

of a

Boston under Louis Schmidt,

1886 went to Munich, studied with Drechsler and Abel in

and Victor Gluth

in

composition.

lected on her return, for she

X

became

Nor were her

a pupil of

George

studies neg-

W. Chadwick

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

3o6

in orchestration, E.

A. MacDowell

in composition,

and worked

also

with other teachers in Boston.

Miss Lang has aimed

at the large

forms

;

not at

if

symphony or

concerto, at least at classical overtures for orchestra, of which she has

written three, and also an orchestral ballade and songs with orches-

Yet we

tra.

Some "

Ghosts

Her

it

seeks the smaller forms.

her songs have a keen poetic instinct and originality as

of

Her

grace.

as

well

work best when

like her

"

Irish

overture,

Thomas and

"

Lullaby,"

"

Lament," and

masterly efforts in the vocal direction.

are instances of

"

Mother's

Witichis," was performed in Chicago by

Max

again under

Theodore

This work we have not

Bendix.

Her "Dramatic Overture" (Op. Boston Symphony Orchestra under

heard yet in the East.

been given by the

has

12)

Nikisch.

has some strong contrasts, especially between the chief theme

It

The

and the subordinate.

To

tender and human.

first

is

grim and mediaeval, the second

place these two in juxtaposition in

itself

gives something of dramatic power, and the development of both is

singularly unconventional.

The concert aria for soprano and orchestra, is made from a version that deals rather too The setting is by no means as dramatic as its the

composer seems

great

death-scene.

freely

Armida,"

with Tasso.

poetic subject, and

have missed the majestic power

to

But

forms especially, Miss

entitled "

work, and

in less intense

Lang has won

a

of

the

the

smaller

leading position

among

in

song-writers.

From

the host of

women composers

gone beyond dilettantism

in their

America who have not numerous works, a few may be in

singled out as having achieved real success in the smaller forms of vocal or piano music. in

Chelsea

(a

Miss Helen

Hood

suburb of Boston), June

piano studies under

Benjamin

J.

is

28,

the

first

of these.

Born

1863, she pursued her

Lang, and subsequently under

Moszkowski in Berlin. Her teacher of composition was George W. Chadwick. Miss Hood has occasionally composed in the larger forms, and a piano trio, a Te Deum, and a string quartette are to be placed to her credit

;

but her fame rests chiefly on her very

graceful songs and piano sketches.

and

violin

is

the

first

that

Her

trio for piano, violoncello,

was composed by an American woman,

AMERICAN WOMEN and her

sets of violin

IN MUSIC

307

She received

and piano pieces deserve record.

a diploma and medal from the Columbian Exposition for her meritorious In

work

in

composition.

a smaller field again, but especially successful in

is

it,

an

American lady who was born in St. Louis. Mrs. Jessie L. Gaynor has written piano works and vocal quartettes, but her 7itetier is the In this juvenile vein she has no

production of songs for children. equal

among American women.

She was

and Frederic Grant Gleason, and she composer. Dr. Louis Maas.

Some

a pupil of A.

Goodrich

J.

also studied with the

of her

eminent

songs are more developed

than one would expect to find in juvenile compositions, and readily be used

by children

of a larger

growth.

They

are

all

may

poetic,

we have seen them, and unite w^ords and music closely. Some other American women-composers should be mentioned Mrs. Edith Noyes Porter has written orchestral works here. and chamber-music, and has published some graceful songs and instrumental works. She is a pupil of Chadwick and others, and has had the assistance of Emil Paur, who has spoken of her work as very promising. She is of an old American family, and her mother, Jeannette Noyes (Mrs. George B. Rice), is a prominent alto singer. Miss Mabel Daniels also comes of a musical family, her father, George F. Daniels, being president of the Handel and so far as

Haydn Society. Miss Daniels has written a pretty operetta and many shorter compositions. She went to Germany in 1903 to finish her musical studies.

Among

women-composers who have settled in the United States, Mrs. Clara Kathleen Rogers ('' Clara Doria ") holds high rank. She is English by birth, and comes of very musical lineage. She has had the best of training in Germany and Italy in

foreign

harmony, counterpoint, piano, and

of those rare people (of

whom

She

voice.

Sembrich

is

is,

therefore,

one

an excellent type) who

Her compositions comprise a string quartette, a violin sonata, a violoncello sonata, a large number of songs, and a few piano works. She has made her home in Bos-

are musicians as well as vocalists.

ton for the last quarter of a century.

Helen Hopekirk (Wilson)

is

resided in Boston for a long time.

a

Scottish

She

is

artist

who

has

also

a brilliant concert pianist

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

3o8

who

has,

however, not rested upon her platform fame alone.

has composed

many

number

One

of Mrs.

tish folk-songs.

of

in

Hopkirk's most valuable works

Almost every editor

may

— Mme.

some degree with the

poser has kept both the It

a concert-stuck,

in

Fig. 86.

tampered

among them

Edinburgh under Henschel, in 1894, and powerful songs and advanced piano morceaux.

which was performed a large

orchestral works,

She

spirit

and

is

a

volume

in this school of

of Scot-

music has

Camilla Urso.

old Gaelic tonality

;

but this com-

letter of the ancient scales intact.

be recorded, therefore, that one of the most important contri-

butions to the most varied and expressive repertory of foreign folkmusic, was

made

in

America, by

this talented

composer.

American pianist who must be mentioned here as a composer. Mrs. Julia Rive-King (Fig. 84) was born in Cincinnati, October 31, 1859. She studied in America with William Mason and S. B. Mills, finishing in Europe under Reinecke There

is

also a purely

AMERICAN WOMEN IN MUSIC and

and has played

Liszt,

She has composed

many

in

several brilliant

309

concerts with Seidl and Thomas.

works

for piano,

and made some

concert transcriptions of Liszt's and Scarlatti's w^orks.

The United

States has produced or adopted artists in every field

of

musical execution.

of

American music

It

may

not be the purpose of a history

speak of them in

to

have undoubtedly aided the development

detail,

for,

while

of musical taste

they

in

our

country, they can hardly be regarded as leading factors in the devel-

American music. They are interpreters rather than creators of music. Yet a list of the chief of these is appended. In piano playing, America has one of the greatest artists of the

opment

of

present in Mrs. Fannie Bloomfield-Zeisler, who, although born in

Austria (July

was two years

since she

European

Chicago almost continuously

1866), has dwelt in

16,

from

tours

old,

that

making her extensive American and centre. She has composed little,

however.

American women have been numerous and notable, as, for example, Arma Senkrah-Harkness (New York, 1864), whose career was so sadly terminated a short time ago; Nettie CarIn violin playing the

(New York,

penter

Maud

1865);

Leonora Jackson (Boston, 1879) daughter

of

the

American lady

due

in

Possibly the large

some degree

to a lady

as long

much

tion derived

of

who was Nantes,

in

ago as 1852 made a strong

many

of

Other American

our young musicians, particularly

female sex, to take up the instrument, and ascribe

list

But she came to America when only ten years

and a concert tour

caused

1868);

and Geraldine Morgan,

impression on the violin playing of America. tours

Illinois,

Camilla Urso (Fig. 86) was born

not an American.

of age,

(Fig. 85);

New^ York organist.

violinists is

France, in 1842.

Powell (Aurora,

of the success of

from Camilla Urso.

it

is

not too

of

much

the to

our female violinists to the inspira-

She died

in

New

York, January

20, 1902.

The name of the great American vocalists, of both sexes, is legion. One can begin the list in the early days of American musical performances, with the great basso, Myron W. Whitney (Ashby,

Massachusetts,

1836),

and

continue with

Clara

Kellogg (Sumterville, South Carolina, 1842); Charles

R.

Louise

Adams

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

3IO

(Charlestown, Massachusetts, 1845?); Annie Louise Cary, noblest

(Wayne, Maine, 1846); Emma Abbott (Peoria, Illinois, 1850); Emma Thursby (Brooklyn, 1857); Marie van Zandt (New York, 1861); David Bispham (Fig. 30) (Philadelphia, 1857); the

of contraltos

most triumphant

of

AmQucdin prime

(Fig. 31)

— (Farmington,

(Nevada

City, i860);

(Fig. 32),

Maine, 1856);

who, although born

but as

it

(Fig.

stands

it

The

2)2))-

will

show

Ambroise Thomas once

home

of

Emma Fames be

to

is

American parentage Sybil San1865); Suzanne Adams (Fig. 35);

of

;

list

could be extended even farther,

that the preponderance of America's

vocal contribution to the world

be the natural

Norton

Shanghai, China (1867),

in

derson (Sacramento, California,

Homer

Lillian

Ella Russell (Cleveland, 1862);

ranked as an American, being Louise

— Nordica Emma Wixom — Nevada —

doJt7te,

said

is

in great sopranos.

to

the soprano

us, !

"

"

Your country seems

No

scientist

has yet

vestigated the cause of national characteristics of voice.

It

to in-

may

be climate, or food, or heredity, that causes north Spain to bring forth tenors

contraltos

;

;

Switzerland, male falsetto singers

Russia, basses

;

("

jodlers

and America, sopranos.

")

;

England,

But the

fact

remains, that as regards great musical executants and interpreters

America has given more prominent operatic sopranos to the world than it has of pianists, organists, or violinists. Yet in these fields, too, we have not been without worthy and world-famous representatives.

CHAPTER XVI MUSICAL CRITICISM AND AUTHORSHIP

We

have already outlined the beginnings of musical criticism

The

America.

in

description,

earliest musical

combining music and

ous manner, and worshipping

journals were of a very mild a rather incongru-

belles-lettres in

at the shrines of

Handel and Haydn,

The

with a very limited knowledge of even these two masters.

An

reviews were almost entirely rhapsodical.

"criticism" meant in 1820

may

example

of

what

be given in the following citations

(we include their misprints and grammatical errors), not better or

worse than dozens

of other essays of the "

"

The

same epoch

:



MR. OSTINELLl's CONCERT

exertions of this truly scientific and accomplished musician,

were never more conspicuously exhibited, than on Thursday evening, at

Boylston Hall.

The

selections for performance, were chaste

and

well arranged, the applause resounding from every part of the Hall,

was

reiterated in thundering peals.

We

have not room,

at

this late

hour, to particularize the several masterly scintillations of genius, fancy,

and

taste, " '

and can only add,

He wak'd the He showed his "

"

soul

by tender strokes of

genius,

and he's won a heart.'"

MISS DAVIS'S

The sudden and unexpected

art,

CONCERT

departure of this young lady from

our City, and particularly from her numerous pupils,

is

a source of

considerable regret, the more so from the evident and rapid improve-

ment they have acquired, during the very short term of her stay. At the instigation of her most immediate acquaintances. Miss Davis was induced to sfive a Concert of vocal music, on which occasion the 311

"

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

312

Handel and Haydn Society generously tendered Boylston Hall, and Doct. G. K. Jackson, with several ama-

Government the use of

of the

teurs volunteered their services. " It is

of St.

on

we

a circumstance of notoriety,

notice that the

Church Choir (who alone volunteered

Paul's

their services

have manifested a sensible regret, at the sudden

this occasion)

departure of this interesting and truly classic vocalist,

and assistance as

essentially contributed her aid

performance

Gentleman

first

who

has so

Soprano, in the

Handel's Music in a style of superiority, to which we

of

are in a degree unaccustomed, to hear in this country.

Nor can we

omit to add our reluctance, in the acknowledgement, that a public loss will "

be incurred by her absence.

Miss Davis made a very happy selection

received by an admiring audience, " '

At

this

Her

last

who were

of

Songs, which were

fully persuaded, that,

notes were the sweetest.'

time the daily press had nothing that could, even by the

wildest stretch of the imagination, be called musical criticism.

New

great concert was given in Boston or it

the affair was critical

"

fact that the hall

The

very successful."

a

York, a brief mention of

was sometimes made two or three days

merely chronicling the

If

after

the event, often

was crowded, or stating that

first

attempt at anything like

reviews of music and musical performances was

made by

Dwight's Journal of Music (established in 1852), which became a powerful factor in moulding musical opinion, although it had but a limited circulation.

John Sullivan Dwight

may cism.

Z']),

the founder of this periodical,

therefore be justly called the father of

He was

born in Boston,

Harvard College logical School, field

(Fig.

for six

for literary

in

1832.

He

May

181

3,

He

studied in the Cambridge Theo-

in the ministry, but

have had a predilection for music. taste, his

at a time

at

in that

wrote some excellent essays and reviews

magazines while

very conservative)

criti-

and graduated

and then entered the ministry, continuing

years.

and trebly so

13,

American musical

As he had

seems always

to

a refined (although

work, intrinsically valuable, was doubly

when

for public opinion in this art.

there were no well-equipped guides It

is

amusing

to

note that some-

!

MUSICAL CRITICISM AND AUTHORSHIP

313

times his musical essays were held as somewhat more valuable than

The eminent Theodore Parker once

the works they chronicled.

exclaimed,

after

reading one

Mr. Dwight's eloquent reviews,

of

"Fancy making all that out of a musical work!" ning Dwight worked with great zeal to acquaint the beauties of Handel,

music.

classics

in

musical

festivals,

men

of such

years he fought against monster

In his later

and was

public with the

Beethoven, and the accepted

Mozart,

Bach,

In the begin-

opposed

bitterly

to the

more

radical

works

and Wagner.

as Berlioz

In these days of Richard Strauss and

Vincent d'Indy, we have gone

far be-

yond what Dwight would have

called

The

musical blasphemy.

vance in music

may

garded

ad-

be illustrated by

Dwight was

statement that

the

rapid

re-

in his early years of journalism

as too radical, yet long before the of his days his views

were held

end

to be

entirely too conservative

Dwight

had

the

advantage

of

associating with the brightest Ameri-

can

men

of

and science, the

letters

broadest thinkers of his day.

In 1842

Fk;. 87.

— John

S.

Dwight.

he joined the Brook Farm Association, a

gathering of the chief idealists of the time.

It

would be

aside from our purpose herein to speak of this association, but one

obtains the clew to his friends.

him

some

He had

of this early critic's

enthusiasm

a long and successful career,

in his declining years in

many

ways.

He was

of other

studying

and Boston honored for a long time

presiding officer of the Harvard Musical Association

and Hugo Leonhard, and a host

in

;

Otto Dresel

advanced musicians

of

became his close friends and advisers finally a great benehim by the leading musicians of the city. fit concert was given But the tide had swept past him, when, for a short time, he reentered criticism and became musical reviewer of the Boston Trmtscript. Many skilled reviewers had gone beyond him, and his poetic views and conservative standard no longer attracted much attenthat day,

;

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

314

He

tion.

died, full of years,

September

1893.

5,

gone out of existence a dozen years before. Dwight was the pioneer of our musical ing the

years of

first fifteen

America.

W.

existence,

were

Its contributors

in

His paper, dur-

the history of music in

is

themselves a band of notable

American biographer of Dresel was another, and

Thayer, the famous

reviewers.

A.

Beethoven,

was one

of

Leonhard, Mathews, and to

its

critics.

His journal had

Otto

these,

many

other celebrities often contributed

columns.

its

name

In the musical literature of America, the

of

Alexander

Wheelock Thayer must

certainly be accorded a foremost place

by a strange irony

fate,

of

his

best

work

is

;

known

scarcely

yet,

at

American readers. Thayer was born at South Natick, MasHe graduated from Harvard Unisachusetts, October 22, 181 7. versity in 1843, and was then appointed assistant librarian at the During six years of service in the library Thayer became college. imbued with a fixed purpose, which was nothing less than to devote his life to writing a biography of Beethoven. It was a bold undertaking for a young American and a man none too well off in all

to

this world's goods, but

He went

tion.

he set about his task with grim determina-

abroad for two years (1849-51) and collected

much

ence.

Germany, supporting himself by newspaper correspondIn 1852 he was in New York as one of the editorial staff

of the

Tribune, but this was only a temporary makeshift,

material in

years afterward (1854), he was back in

monumental work.

He was

again

who entered into his who assisted him toward

in

Germany arranging Boston

in

project

those

achieving results one

Mason.

with

Mrs. Mehitable

for his

Among

enthusiasm.

Adams

two

1856 and found

friends

especially Lowell

for,

may mention

also

gave mate-

and 1859 found Thayer hard at work at his chosen task. The first volume appeared, in German, in 1866. Thayer had de-

rial aid,

of the great

German

in their vernacular.

There-

termined to give the original edition of the

composer

to his

own countrymen, and

fore the manuscript, written in English,

by Dr.

Herman

life

was translated

into

German

Deiters, himself a musical biographer of note.

By this time, fortunately, Thayer's circumstances had somewhat for the better. In 1862 he had been attached

altered to the

MUSICAL CRITICISM AND AUTHORSHIP American embassy short

time

States

before

consul

Three years

of

first

in

he held until his death.

biography with a thematic

of his

The second and

the kind in existence.

biography appeared

United

Beethoven's works, the most thorough

of

list

volume

Thayer

appointed

a post which

Trieste,

Thayer preceded the

President Lincohi (but a

later

assassination)

his

at

and chronological

Vienna, with every opportunity for prosecut-

in

ing his researches.

315

third

volumes

of

list

the

1872 and 1878, and several contributions to

Beethoven iana had been published by the indefatigable researcher in

the meantime.

English publishing houses offered Mr. Thayer tempting sums

volumes

for the privilege of translating the

of this biography, but,

although the consul was quite poor, he could never be induced to

His plan was,

accept these offers. pleted in

German,

to give forth a complete revision of

This was, however, not health gave

efforts, his

before the fourth

and

to be

;

volume

vast literary enterprises, such as

and

("Geschichte der Musik"),

at Trieste,

July

German

the

of

"

Fetis's

Histoire edifice.

many of

written,

when one

ability into

But

account

— possibly

Generale," and

Nevertheless

takes minuteness,

size,

reli-

biography Americans have also

found for themselves a place beside the

books on

general interest, and

— was achieved by an American author.

The American works upon

same theme.

life of

the greatest musical biography ever

in other fields of musical

laurels.

other

Music"

with pride that the bibliographer records that the chief

the great musician

1897,

15,

version was

Ambros's great "History

remains an unapproachable but unfinished

won

in English.

exhausted with his unceasing

for,

way and he died final

it

Thayer's great work has suffered the fate of

finished.

it is

work had been com-

after the

Wagner topic have German essays upon the the

Finck, Kobbe, and Krehbiel have written remarkable

this subject.

Henry Theophilus Finck in Bethel, Missouri, not far

brought up

in

Oregon.

(Fig. 88)

was born September

22, 1854,

from Mark Twain's birthplace, and was

In 1872 he entered Harvard College with

the intention of becoming a physician philosophy, under Professors

;

but he found the study of

Bowen and Palmer,

so attractive that

he changed his mind and decided to become a professor of psy-

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

3i6

In 1876 he graduated with high honors in philosophy,

chology.

and two years later Harvard gave him the Harris fellowship, which enabled him to continue his studies in psychology and sociology At Harvard he at the universities of Germany for three years. had taken Professor John K. Paine's courses in music, and while in Europe he frequently wrote on musical and other topics for New

York

periodicals.

This led

an invitation to join

to his receiving

Evening Post, at the time when Carl Schurz, Lawrence Godkin, and Horace White Nation and

the editorial staff of the

also of the

ruled their destinies.

Mr. Finck began his biography

of

musical festival at Bayreuth, in 1876. of the great

composer there and

his biographical work.

for

at

Wagner soon after the first He made the acquaintance

once began gathering material

The completion

of

the

two volumes

many years, and it was not until 1893 that the first edition Since that time it has gone of " Wagner and his Works " appeared. through many editions, and while it is written from the standpoint occupied

of a

most pronounced admirer,

books

the field of

in

Wagner

Other musical works

of

it

is

one

of

the most influential

literature.

Mr. Finck's are a volume of essays

on Chopin and other composers, " Paderewski and his Art," and "Songs and Song- writers." The most recent work of Mr. Finck is also his most important. It is a complete American edition of the four operas of the Nibelungen Ring (Cincinnati, 1903). The work is probably the largest single one ever issued from the American press as a musical score, and the labor of editing, translating, and correcting to the

it

must have been stupendous.

Wagner

very decided ground, and he attacking

newer school.

a great contribution

cause in America, bringing the gigantic work within

reach of the music student.

matters,

It is

He

the

old

In is

all

of his

books Mr. Finck takes

a bold iconoclast in

many

musical

forms and fighting valiantly for the

sympathy with the sonata and symphony writers. He has been an ardent champion of Liszt and Grieg, and an opponent of Brahms. His writings on other than musical topics are also most poetic and interesting. Although is,

unfortunately,

not in

aside from our topic, one cannot refrain from mentioning his

time in Japan" and "Romantic

"

Lotos-

Love and Personal Beauty"

as

FIG.

88.

— HENRY

T.

FINCK.

MUSICAL CRITICISM AND AUTHORSHIP books of excellent

But

caliber.

it

is

in the field of

319 musical biog-

raphy and criticism that Mr. Finck has become a power, and his

make him one

strong likes and dislikes

most militant war-

of the

riors in the cause of progress.

The second Kobbe, was born late

Wagnerian writers above named, Gustav New York, March 4, 1857. His father, the

the

of in

William A. Kobbe, was

being a native of the

for

Duchy

many

of

years in the consular service,

His mother was Sarah

Nassau.

New

England woman of Spanish descent, her first ancestor in this country having been a Spanish sea-captain, who, early in the eighteenth century, was wrecked off New London and Lord

Sistare, a

Kobbe (1867-72) with Adolf Hagen afterward settled there.

New

Mosenthal in in 1877,

and from

studied pianoforte and composition in

Wiesbaden;

He graduated Columbia Law School in York.

later

with Joseph

from Columbia College 1879.

He

is

the author

"Wagner's Life and Works," with the leading motives in notation (two volumes), which has passed through several editions, especially that part relating to the " Ring of the Nibelung," which has been of

Opera Singers," " Signora," " A Child of the Opera House," " My Rosary and other Poems," " Miriam, a Story of the Lightship," are among his works, and he is one of the bestknown American magazine writers on musical and dramatic matters "

printed separately.

as well as

on miscellaneous subjects.

Kobbe's for

its

"

Wagner's Life and Works

" is

valuable to the student

analytical character, the succinctness

and clearness

of

its

statements, and for the care with which the author avoids polemics in

his

presentation

of

the

composer,

of

Mr.

his

Kobbe

makes him almost neutral better

subject.

in

writes

Although a great admirer with

some

judicial

the midst of conflict.

avoided the fjiror biogi^aphicus.

topics for

a

poise

No man

that

has

His work on musical

of the leading encyclopaedias has

been remarkably

exact and painstaking.

Mr. Henry Edward Krehbiel, the third of the above-mentioned writers (Fig. 89), has for

many

years been the musical reviewer of

Tribune and has won an enviable position among American musical essayists by his works. He was born in Ann He was for a time a journalist Arbor, Michigan, March 10, 1854.

the

New York

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

220

music beginning

in Cincinnati, his studies in

he had attained

after

an excellent reputation as a general writer. He studied law for a time in the West, but became musical critic of the Cincinnati

He

Gazette in 1874 and held that position for nearly six years.

afterwards became musical critic of the

and

New York Musical

also editor of the

career

beginning

literature has

Philharmonic

books, records of the laity entitled

work

historical

"

How "

entitled

Krehbiel's

and as a

musical year-

an important book

Music," an interesting

Manners

in

the

Classical

been widespread and some

works have become very popular.

verselle),

many

and edited innumerable other works.

influence has

the International Jury of

Wagnerian the Wagnerian

Studies in

Listen to

to

New York

the

to

Society,

Music and

Period," and has translated

Mr.

"

been a volume entitled

Besides this work he has written

Drama." for the

Review, his

His contribution

1880.

in

Tribune as above stated,

Awards

1900 he was a

In in

his

of

member

of

Paris (at the Exposition Uni-

result of his services received the decoration of

Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. It will

readily be seen that the chief musical authors of

have been the principal musical

New York

and

critics

America

In the cities of

as well.

Boston musical criticism has already reached a

higher plane than in some of the European centres of music, only

Germany equalling America in this important adjunct of the The influence of William H. Fry (already spoken of) was widespread than that of John S. Dwight, since New York was as active in musical matters (save in

Italian opera) as

the middle of the nineteenth century. for Italian

music did much for America

appreciation was in process of

York has evolved a number of three Wagnerian authors already and vigorous

art.

less

not

Boston, in

Yet Mr. Fry's enthusiasm in the

formation.

days when musical

Since that time

New

able reviewers in addition to the cited.

One

of the

most trenchant

James Gibbons Huneker, whose work in the columns of the Musical Courier has been valuable in a high degree. Mr. Huneker is very modern in taste, and his writing is perhaps the best example of pungency in musical criticism that

we have

in

of

these

America.

lowed the sprightly

is

Musical comment with us has generally style of the Yrench. /euilleton.

This

is

fol-

not to

MUSICAL CRITICISM AND AUTHORSHIP be regretted, and has the warrant

The heavy

such able reviewers as Hector

of

Edward Hanslick, two

Berlioz and

of the leading critics of the world.

vein of reviewing that obtained in England until recent

times has never taken root in America.

been active are

somewhat

is

"

Mr. Huneker has

Mezzotints in Modern

Music

"

bizarre,

morbid,

times

at

life

Chopin

of

an excellent work. detailed than

It is less

the

"

critic,

Melomaniacs"

his

but his

His

in authorship.

and and

In accordance with the

tendency of the average American

literary

321

by Niecks, but

life

advance

far in

of

that

by Karasowski or the essay

by

brief,

the



Liszt,

single

best

volume upon

in

this sub-

ject that exists.

Most can

Ameri-

of the

critics are practical

musicians and Mr. Huneker is not an exception to this

He was

born

sic

Phila-

in

January

delphia,

i860,

rule.

31,

and studied mu-

there with Michael Fig. 89.

— Henry

E. Krehbiel.

Cross, subsequently continuing his work in Paris. the

At

New York present he

has been teacher of piano in

National Conservatory of Music for is

engaged upon a

Another musical

among

He

critic

of

life

(Fig. 90),

who was born

at

Newark,

have been chiefly educational

is

New

and graduated from Princeton College

years.

of Liszt.

New York

the writers of musical literature

many

whose name stands high William James Henderson Jersey,

in 1876.

in character,

December

4,

1855,

His books on music

but are very bright and

;

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

322

He

readable as well as reliable.

possesses a style of writing that

makes him one of the most popular of art critics. He is able to speak upon musical topics without becoming either technical or dull and he has the happy faculty of leading his readers into the realms of higher musical appreciation without making them too self-conHis terseness and his dry humor are scious during the process. great factors in achieving this result, and his " Story of Music " can be comprehended and appreciated by

that legion

all of

who

"

don't

Even in such abstruse topics as his explanation orchestra he has managed to convey his message to the public

understand music." of the in "

an easily grasped series

What

Good Music,"

is

"

How

Orchestra and Orchestral Music

He has been New York Sun

cations.

and the

"

of descriptions.

"

The Story

Music Developed," and

some

are

of his

connected with both the ;

of Music," "

The

best-known publi-

New York

Times

and aside from music, he has written books

on navigation, yachting, and other themes.

we have mentioned have written magazine articles, essays, programme annotations, and have given lectures as well. The American musical reviewer is a decidedly active and manifold influence in American musical matters. One prominent New York critic, however, has not entered the field of book-making, Mr. August Spanuth, who has written criticisms for the German press, and has won rank as composer and pianist as well as journalist. All of the writers



In Boston, during the latter days of Mr.

D wight's

regime, there

suddenly sprang up a number of able musical writers.

It is

good

evidence of the rapidity of musical growth, that during the palmy days of its

D wight's

Journal of

Mtisic, every

newspaper

in

Boston allowed

musical reviews to be written by any reporter, while at present

almost every newspaper of the city has opinion.

work on

critic is

"

Musical Education":

not a reporter; he

cator and a professor; his pupil

is

is

York.

One

of



an initiator and guide, an edu-

the public."

Such guides were soon forthcoming

New

expert to guide musical

Albert Lavignac, of the Paris Conservatoire, has wisely

written in his

"A

its

in

the earliest, after

Boston as they had been

D wight

Benjamin Edward Woolf, an Englishman, born

in

in

and Thayer, was London, February

MUSICAL CRITICISM AND AUTHORSHIP

He came

16, 1836.

from a family

music practically with

of operatic

323

conductors and studied

He

his father's theatrical orchestra.

conducted

many American cities, and finally at the Boston He brought forth many compositions of his own, and his

theatre orchestras in

Museum.

drama was

influence in light opera and in

He

contributions to musical criticism.

"Westward Ho," two works

wrote

Pounce

&

Co." and

"comic opera" vein which does American music but it is only just to ;

He

add that these were better than their school.

Doctor

"

in the

not represent the best taste in

for Eichberg's "

important as his

fully as

work

of Alcantara," a

wrote the libretto

of excellent character,

and he composed madrigals, overtures, string quartettes, and even symphonies, although the

and are yet

in manuscript.

who

He began

musical

critic of

some

Woolf was easily entered American

had, up to 1870,

in that

year on the Boston Globe, but

staff of the

Saturday Evening Gazette,

social influence.

In his later years he was

soon attached himself to the a weekly paper of

publicly performed

All together, then, Mr.

the most thorough musician

musical journalism.

named were not

last

the Boston Hei^ald.

From Mr. Woolf's English and

rather conservative training

it

was but natural that he should be out of sympathy with the radical modern school. He was at one time one of the fiercest opponents of the

Wagnerian music, and

his bitter

him feared by many who held musical ability

with.

He

He was

different opinions.

sublimely savage in his reviews. his great

sarcasm and invective made often

But, in spite of these limitations,

made him an

influence to be reckoned

died in Boston in 1901.

Almost contemporaneous with Mr. Woolf was William Foster Apthorp, who was thoroughly trained for a musical career, but comMr. Apthorp was born in Boston, October posed little or nothing. 24, 1848,

and graduated from Harvard

in

with Professor John K. Paine and Mr. B.

time teacher of theory in the in Boston.

He began

1869. J.

New England

He

studied music

Lang, and was for some Conservatory of Music

his career as a musical critic

on the Atlantic

Monthly in 1872, after which he occupied the same position on the Sunday Courier, the Boston Traveller, and finally (1881) he became The latter musical and dramatic editor of the Boston Transcript. position he held until 1903, in which year he departed for Europe,

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

324

where he now

resides.

Mr. Apthorp's volumes are

Musicians and

"

Music Lovers," " The Opera, Past and Present," and several transHe has done excellent work as the lations, chiefly from the French.

Symphony

compiler of the analytical programme books of the Boston Orchestral concerts, and as critical editor of the

Music and Musicians."

Cyclopaedia of

"

His influence was chiefly exerted

after

he

became the critic of the Transcript. It was much later than the time of Messrs. Woolf and Apthorp He was born in that Mr. Philip Hale began his career in Boston. Norwich, Vermont, March

and graduated from Yale

He was

early occupied

music and with

Church

in

1854,

1876.

both with

literature,

had played the organ tarian

5,

in

for

he

the Uni-

Northampton,

at

Massachusetts, before entering college,

and

the

college

in

Yale he edited one His

papers.

studies, however,

were

in

of

chief

the law,

New

and he was admitted

to

York bar

His musical

in

1880.

the

education w^ent on with considerable vioor O I'u;.

90.

— William

period, J.

in

throusrh O

this

formative

and subsequently he went

Henderson.

abroad, studying with Rheinberger,

Guilmant, and other French and

Boston

all

1889 as organist

at

German Dr.

teachers.

De Normandie's

He came

to

(Unitarian)

He soon became the critic successively and successfully of the Home Journal of Boston, the Boston Post, and the Boston Journal, finally joining the Boston Herald. He has been church

in

Roxbury.

Musical Record and the Musical World, and has written articles in many musical magazines, notably in the Musical Courier, of which periodical he was for a long time the Boston corthe editor of the

respondent.

and readable.

His musical writings have always been bright, His chief work

witty,

book form has been the editing, in collaboration with the present writer, of a set of three volumes on " Famous Composers " (new series), which deal largely with the most in

;

MUSICAL CRITICISM AND AUTHORSHIP

325

modern developments in music. This work had been preceded by three volumes upon the older standard composers, edited by John K. Paine and Theodore Thomas, the six books forming one of the largest series in American musical literature. [Louis C. Elson, the author of this " History of American Music," also belongs with those who have worked for the advancement of American music. He was born in Boston, April 17, 1848. August

Hamann was

In voice he received instruction

his teacher of piano.

from August Kreissmann, the friend

of

Franz and one

Composition was afterward taken up

singers of Lieder of his time.

In 1880 Mr. Elson entered

with Carl Gloggner-Castelli, of Leipsic. the

New England

The department

of the best

Conservatory as teacher of voice and lecturer.

of musical theory

was assigned

to him, and, after the

death of Stephen A. Emery, he became the head of this department in

His lectureship was devoted

the institution.

the orchestra and

its

to explanations of

instruments and to a course upon the history

His journalistic work began on the Vox Humana, a paper

of music.

In 1880 this was merged in the

devoted chiefly to organ music.

Ahisical Herald, of which Mr. Elson became editor.

At about

the

same time he was appointed musical editor of the Boston Courier, and when abroad was an occasional correspondent of the New York Tribune, the New York Evening Post, the Boston Transcript, and other papers. In 1888 he became musical editor of the Boston Advertiser, a position which he still holds. Mr. Elson has directed large choruses in Trinity Church, Boston, in the

New England

took place

in

Boston

Conservatory, and in a musical festival which in 1886, in

which music was given representing

composers from mediaeval times down

much

composition he has written lished a of songs, of

Music

volume

of "

Songs

;

lated in the

a

"

History of

German

press

;

present epoch.

In

the small forms and has pub-

for Children," three operettas, a

and a few piano sketches. "

in

to the

His books are

"

The

number

Curiosities

German Song," which was partially trans" The Realm of Music," a series of essays

The Theory of Music," a technical work " Great Composers " " Famous Composers and " Our National Music and its Sources " " European their Works," new series Reminiscences," a book " Shakespeare in Music." of travel As lecturer on music he "

;

;

;

;

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

326

has been twice called to the Lowell

prominent

America), and has lectured

in

Brown, Vassar, University the Drexel Institute,

country.

— Editor.]

of

Course (the most

Institute

repeatedly at

Cornell,

Pennsylvania, the Brooklyn Institute,

and many other educational

institutions of the

In speaking of the growth of musical literature in the Eastern the

states,

name

Howard Malcom Ticknor must

of

tioned.

A

Harvard graduate,

Monthly

in

the days

when Lowell brought

highest standard. United States consul

and instructor

Harvard and Brown

in

editor

assistant

in

also be

the

of

that

Atlajitic

magazine

to its

many

years,

for

Italy

men-

Mr. Ticknor

universities,

brought to musical journalism a refinement and suavity which

had noticeably lacked

the

after

influence

Dwight had spent

of

Mr. Ticknor's writings have been chiefly

itself.

it

in

Boston

the

Advertiser, the Boston Globe, the Boston Herald, and the Boston

Journal ; he has written no musical works or books. In the Eastern states

advance

in orchestral taste

gramme

books.

a supplementary factor

in

the

general

has been the writing of analytical pro-

These musical essays have been found in evidence Mr. George H. Wilson was the at almost every great concert. pioneer in this work in Boston, and Messrs. Apthorp and Hale, in Boston, Mr. Philip

and Spanuth,

in

H. Goepp,

New

in

Philadelphia,

Messrs.

Krehbiel

York, and others, have done great educa-

tional service in this direction.

Mr. Goepp has,

in addition, written

Symphonies and their Meaning " (in two volumes), which is worthy of honorable mention among American musical Mr. Goepp was born in New York, June 23, 1864, and books. studied in Germany. He graduated from Harvard in 1884, and a

work

entitled

received

He

"

a degree from the

University of

Pennsylvania in

1888.

has been a composer as well as an author, yet his chief influence

upon American

art

has been exerted from the literary

side.

Philadelphia has been less active in the field of criticism than

New

York, Chicago, or Boston, yet two names

as prominent in her musico-literary annals. zell

has written

many

may

be mentioned

Mr. Willard

J.

excellent educational essays and has

Balt-

made

an astonishing success with a semi-pedagogical musical journal, the

Etude.

Mr.

Baltzell,

like

many

of

the



American musical

MUSICAL CRITICISM AND AUTHORSHIP

327

composed much music, even in the larger forms v/ith Mr. Arthur L. Manchester has done orchestral accompaniment. similar work on a similar journal, the Musician, and has been closely identified with teachers' associations and musical societies writers, has

for

many

years.

Among

the brightest of the younger writers on musical topics

in America, yet not is

permanently attached

He

Rupert Hughes.

caster,

is

Educated

in

the

public

of the great dailies,

He

has been somewhat of a

have been many and valuable.

his gatherings

yet

any

a Westerner, having been born in Lan-

Missouri, January 31, 1872.

rolling stone,

to

schools

Keokuk, Iowa, he afterward

at

He

graduated from the Western Reserve University. assistant

editor

of

the

Criterion,

large publishing house sent

He

has written

him

in

to

fiction, verse, essays,

New

London

then became

York, after which a

do research work.

to

and criticisms

for

such leading

magazines as Scribners, the Cosmopolitan, and the Century, but his claim to record here lies in his bright musical reviews in the

Criterion, his musical

Godeys, his popular

sketches in

"

Musical

Love Affairs of the Great Composers," and his " Contemporary American Composers," which, with the exception of Mathews's " Hundred Years of Music in America," was the first book upon this topic. Mr. Hughes is an indefatigable student of facts, yet one of the liveliest and wittiest of American musical "

Guide," his

authors. Li the

Western

states musical

rather slow growth. rule, to find

Even now

most progress

who

Mr. George

is

has been a plant of

the exception, rather than the

an intelligent analytical description

the columns of the press in

writers

it

literature

in this

Western

cities.

of

musical events

in

Chicago has made the

important matter, and has had

at least four

are comparable to the best of the Eastern musical critics. P.

Upton

(Fig. 91) holds such rank, not because of his

being a composer or a profound musician, but because he was a pathfinder in the West, and, like

D wight

in Boston,

ard of good taste and culture in music at a time influence was peculiarly valuable. 25,

1834,

came

He was

born

1855,

when such an

in Boston,

and graduated from Brown University

a journalist in Chicago in

upheld a stand-

in 1854.

and was on the

October

He

be-

staff of the

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

328

Chicago Journal for

At

six years.

the end of that period he joined

the forces of the Chicago Tribune and has been actively engaged

He

there ever since.

wrote the

musical criticisms ever pub-

first

lished in the western metropolis, possibly the

that were ever written in

To

any part

illustrate the state of

we quote from

advent,

of the

West.

Chicago's music before Mr. Upton's

the Chicago Tribune, which thus

the musical progress of that city from "

any importance

of

first

Music antedates the drama

its earliest

stages

:

in

No programme

Chicago.

served, and

was that

Prior to

music

in the city

fiddle,

and the Congregational Church singing

which was used

of the Indian's

common by

in

first

church

concert has been pre-

of the

the singers are gone.

of

all

was

in this city, for the first concert

given in 1835, in the First Presbyterian Church, the built



sums up

1835 the only

tom-toms, old Beaubien's in a

frame tenement,

Presbyterians, Baptists, and Metho-

dists, the

Rev. Messrs. Porter, Whitehead, and Freeman being the

ministers,

and Sergeant

Burtis, of the fort, leading the singing.

./'Music was not well grounded in Chicago until 1850.

In that

year Mr. Dyrenfurth presented an orchestra composed almost exclu-

German revolutionists whom he had employed upon his but who proved to be better musicians than farm laborers.

sively of

farm,

This was the

first

Chicago heard

orchestra Chicago ever heard.

its first

'

was only half an hour Sonnambula,' and at the close of the

was dismissed because the theatre was on three spasmodic

efforts

to

establish

called

the

concert years of

Teresa Parodi, Catherine Hayes,

Adelina Patti

One would

in

in length. first

fire.

The

its first

The opera

act the audience

There were two or

opera, but

1859 that Maurice Strakosch succeeded. be

same year

opera at Rice's Theatre, or a part of

opera, for the season

was

In that

it

was not

next three years

Anna Bishop in 185 1, and Anna Thillon in 1852, and

1853, were the concert pioneers."

wish to add to the above condensed account a word

Moravia, March

5,

1827, he

came

founded the Milwaukee Musikverein

to

in 185

America 1.

in

eminent conductor.

Born

1849.

He

Chicago had founded

a Philharmonic Society in 1852, and in i860 Balatka first

may

Chicago.

about the work of Hans Balatka in Chicago's early days. in

until

became

its

In developing chorus music in the West,

MUSICAL CRITICISM AND AUTHORSHIP Chicago

particularly in

He

importance.

of

and

lived

329

Milwaukee, Balatka was a pioneer

to

Chicago advance

see

beyond

far

the primitive beginnings described above, for he died there April 17,

1899.

At

time Mr. George P. Upton was most active in diffus-

this

ing not only a musical taste in Chicago, but also in inspiring musi-

He was

cal practice.

Club fire

1872,

chorus.

and now a flourishing mixed

may

It

music

of

in

suggest the recent growth

West when

the

that Mr. Upton,

is

stated

heard the

living,

still

it

orchestra that ever played, and the

opera and Chicago.

When

first first

ever given

oratorio

first

this fact is

may show more

it

Apollo Musical

president of the

first

Chicago, founded as a male chorus directly after the great

of

of

the

in

remembered,

vividly the herculean

Thomas, who,

task of one man, Theodore

almost alone, has built a firm foundation for the best

led

music

in that city,

and has

Chicago to a foremost rank among

our western centres,

— George

FiG. 91.

P.

Upton.

Upton did his work for good music at a time when the poorest was in vogue, and he has Mr.

to

He

see,

triumph as

not a complete

but incredible advances.

has written some small but useful volumes of musical essays

under the following

titles:

The Standard

Oratorios,"

ard Symphonies," and lated Nohl's lives of

volume on the literary essays

"

in

"

Music"

The Standard

The Standard

(written in 1880,

"

Operas,"

into being),

The Stand-

He

Cantatas."

Haydn, Wagner, and

light operas,

and

"Woman

women composers had come

before America's band of "

yet,

lived

has trans-

Liszt, has published a

and has added a host

of

more purely

criticisms.

Another prominent figure in western musical writing is William Smythe Babcock Mathews (Fig. 92), who was born in Loudon, New Hampshire,

May

8,

1837.

Mr. Mathews studied music at

native town, but afterward facilities.

He was

came

to

first in his

Boston for better educational

soon appointed adjunct professor

in

the

Wes-

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

330

leyan Female College at Macon, Georgia, and was one of the regular

Music under the pseudonym of "Der Freischijtz." His most active work in music began after he Here his influence extended in many settled in Chicago, in 1867. contributors to Dvvight's Journal of

He was

directions.

pianist

the organist in one of the leading churches, a

and a teacher

of

high repute, and a writer of both reviews

and books of training and knowledge. facile

and most rapidly done,

His writing, although very

and

instructive,

is reliable,

interesting.

His musical criticisms are among the best that the West has ever

They have appeared

had.

Tribune.

Besides

this

in

the Chicago Herald, Record, and

he established

magazine

a

of

excellent

character, entitled Music, of

which he

most valuable contributor.

Mr. Mathews's musical books have been

of the

most

of Music,"

many

be seen that America

musical books.

other nation except Germany.

Popular History

Understand Music,"

other volumes. well supplied with pedagogical

and some

Musical readers form a very large

American musical journals unknown elsewhere. Mr. Mathews has appealed

class in our country,

to

"How to

"

has more of this kind of literature than any

It

reach a circulation

is

not only the editor but the

has written a

two very bright volumes on

a primer of musical forms, and It will

He

practical character.

is

of the

He

vast multitudes through this musical press.

is

constantly

writing essays and articles in such musical journals as the Etude

and the Musician,

He

in addition

to the

work

in his

own magazine.

has probably been as great an influence in the moulding of

West as Mr. Dwight has been in the East, and he has always been much the better musician. One must add the name of Emil Liebling to the list of formers

musical taste in the

American taste by means of essays and musical articles. His name would lead Western musical literature but for the fact that

of

his influence has of the

been chiefly exerted

most prominent teachers

in the class

in the country,

room.

and

He

is

one

his application

work prevents him from being as active in the literary field as his contemporaries. Yet his articles on musical topics are always the well-considered work of a thorough musician, and he has an enviable vein of humor and piquancy as well. He is an Austrian, to this

having been born

in

Pless,

Silesia,

April

12,

1851.

He

has been

MUSICAL CRITICISM AND AUTHORSHIP Chicago since 1872, when he

came

331

Western metropohs, and he has also composed some brilHant piano and vocal music. The fourth on the list of Chicago critics was Frederic Grant Gleason, whose chief work has been done in composition, and who active in

first

to the

has been spoken of elsewhere in this volume. Cincinnati has never been as well equipped with musical writers

and

as Chicago,

musical criticisms have been too largely repor-

its

torial until recent days.

however, possessed one notable ex-

It has,

Van

who was born Although Mr. Van Cleve

ception to this in the person of John Smith

Kentucky, October

in Maysville, is

totally blind (having

30, 1851.

Cleve,

been so from his ninth

year), this

handicap

has not prevented him from being very active in almost every depart-

ment

of practical

cal studies

music authorship and lectureship.

were made

in

Boston.

For

a time he

His work

between music and theology.

became musical

His chief musi-

was undecided

Cincinnati began in

in

CommerHe was subsequently employed upon cial under Murat Halstead. the Nezvs Journal of the same city, and did much work in CinHis strong literary tendencies made him not cinnati in teaching. only a good writer, but an excellent lecturer on musical topics. The lecture seems to be a peculiarly American institution. While in Europe it is possible, occasionally, to hear a good series of lectures on musical history in some college or conservatory, America has a constant running fire of public lectures and lecturers on musical topics. Possibly this form of teaching owes its vogue, if not its inception, to the great number of women's clubs which are 1879, and he soon

found

in the

woman

United States.

critic of

One phase

the Cincinnati

the emancipation of

of

has been the establishment of lecture courses and the read-

ing of "papers," and a goodly proportion of these papers or lectures is

devoted to music.

Van

Mr.

Cleve

left

Cincinnati in 1897 and removed to Chicago,

where he was as active as

in the

he was the chief musical writer

He now

several.-^

lecturer ^

Mr.

one of

and

Van

;

in

former

city.

But, in Cincinnati

Chicago he was but one among

resides in Troy, Ohio,

and

is

still

heard, both as

writer, in Cincinnati.

Cleve

is

his lectures are

also a

soon

composer and a poet, and a volume of

to appear.

his

poems and another

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

332

Cleveland, although not exactly a musical centre thirty-five years ago, left

had a musical journal even then, and its editor was a writer who Karl Merz was his mark on the musical culture of that city.

born

at

He came

to

in Lancaster, Pennsylvania,

in

Bensheim, Germany, September

America

in

1854,

and taught music

Oxford, Ohio, and in Wooster, Ohio.

Musical World

editor of the

lo,

1836.

In 1873 he was appointed

of Cleveland.

His essays have been

volume entitled " Music and Culture," and show a well-balanced mind and indicate a thoughtful analyst. He died in collected in a

Wooster, Ohio, January

30, 1890.

In California one finds musical critics and authors forming that

public taste which culminates in classical concerts and sometimes

even

in native

who

In Los Angeles there resides a musical

composers.

American musical books. Mr. W. Francis Gates (born in Zanesville, Ohio, March 18, 1865) has written and compiled several volumes of musical essays, and has also been very active in musical journalism. In San Francisco, from 1893 to 1895, there was an excellent critic upon The Examiner, Edgar S. Kelley, of whom we have spoken in a preceding reviewer

has

added

also

to

chapter.

Many

other writers

may be named who have added

can musical bibliography without

Among

reviewers.

these

is

having been

to

critics or

Edward Dickinson, A.M.,

Amerimusical

professor of

musical history at the Oberlin (Ohio) Conservatory of Music, whose "

History

of

Music

in the

Western Church

" is

tribution to the sacred side of musical study, chief

work on

most scholarly con-

and

is

probably the

America has yet produced. Theodore York, was the first musician to thoroughly sift North America, and his work (published in

this topic that

Baker, Ph.D., of

New

the Indian music of

Germany) on

a

this topic has

been quoted

freely in this

He

volume.

has also compiled a biographical dictionary of musicians, which

is

the

work on this subject in America. Arthur Elson, of Boston, has added a history of opera, a guide to the orchestra, and a volume on women composers, to the standard list of American musical books. John Comfort Fillmore, already quoted in connection with Indian music, has published a practical history of pianoforte music and some lessons on general musical history. chief

FIG,

92.

— W.

S.

B.

MATHEWS.

s

MUSICAL CRITICISM AND AUTHORSHIP

Women

335

among our

have appeared not too frequently

musical

book by a woman writer on music in this Fay's " Music Study in Germany," which has various tongues and republished in Europe.

authors, the most popular

Amy

country being

been translated into It

is

by the feminine

a record of the fetich-worship accorded

stu-

dents to Liszt, not an important historical matter, but so naively

and charmingly

told that

it

holds the attention from

to last.

first

Making due allowances for the character of the topic, we do not know of any woman among the musical authors who has won a more popular success than Miss Fay. She has also written a pedagogic work, an exposition of the Deppe method of piano playing. Miss Helen M. Sparmann has written an essay entitled "An Attempt

an Analysis

at

short, pamphlet,

— a very commendable, though

and Mrs. Helen D. Tretbar has given forth some

useful analytical works

One

of Music,"

and many musical

translations.

American writers on music, E. Irenaeus Stevenson, was drawn away from his subject by other pursuits. He made an excellent reputation as an essayist on musical topics, by articles in the New York Independent and in Harper Weekly, and had written some musical novels, and also a collection most promising

of the

of musical sketches,

ture, for art,

to his

to live.

His gain was a

to

American musical literaupon the modern phases of

loss to

he was an intelligent writer

at the present time.

sketch of American musical authors would be very faulty

if

did not mention the learning and wide influence of Dr. Frederic

Louis

As will many other

be seen directly. Dr. Ritter's influence was

Ritter.

exerted in

fields besides

born in Strassburg, June in

he received an addition

and an influence much needed

Any it

in 1899,

name (becoming Mr. Prime-Stevenson), and went

fortune and his

Vienna

when,

of the

Germany.

He came

22, 1834,

musical authorship.

and studied both

to this country in 1856

and

in

He was

France and

settled in Cin-

That city owes a great debt to him for what Mr. George P. Upton was to Chicago in its musical childhood, that Dr. Ritter became to Cincinnati in the early days. The latter city, to be sure, was an older one than Chicago, and had the advantage of a German element in its population which founded the Maennerchor, cinnati.

the embodiment of

;

all

that

is

genial in music, even in the earliest

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

336

days of the settlement; but Dr. Ritter built a classical edifice upon



harmonic,

orchestral,

— were

the

however, stay long enough

not,

same

the

in

result

line

of

in

the Phil-

He

labors.

his

did

New

York, where he con-

The Sacred

conductor, while, as leader of the

its

Arion, he had control of one of the best

Both

of

public musical service.

Harmonic Society made him the world.

— and

choral,

the city to develop what he so

in

In 1861 he settled in

ably inaugurated.

tinued



and the Cecilia Society,

this foundation,

Cincinnati and in

German male choruses in New York he introduced

new and important works to the American public, and his name may be mentioned in the same breath with those of Theodore Thomas and Dr. Leopold Damrosch for the number

a large

of

pioneer work which he accomplished.

far-reaching

He

arranged

and conducted the first really great musical festival held in New York, in 1867, and at about the same time was appointed professor of

up

music

to his death,

University of of

Vassar College, a position which he held almost

Antwerp, July 22, 1891. The 1874, conferred upon him the degree

which took place

New

York, in

in

Mus. Doc. It

so

at

is

difficult

much, and

in

to

so

form

man who

a just estimate of a

many

did

different directions, as

achieves

Dr. Ritter.

In musical conductorship he had superiors, and, although his peda-

gogic influence at Vassar was of the best, other teachers in similar fields

literature

deserve equal recognition

;

but in the domain of musical

he was as important a figure as any

in

America, after

Dwight and Thayer. He was constantly writing musical essays, not only in the American journals, but in France and in Germany, and was instrumental in causing Europe to become familiar with the musical strivings of this country, which before his time

had been deemed semi-barbaric.

His most important work was a

history of music, which was for a long time the best brief

on

this subject in the

on music

in

English language.

England, which

is still

Another volume on music ^

Or

rather two volumes, for at

in

first

it

He

also wrote a

^

volume

regarded as an authority abroad.

America had was

student's history of music, in a single volume. " Geschichte der Musik " is in German.

book

It

in this is

in

shape.

less

It

is

English very

of success,

for

now published as a much what Brendel's

— MUSICAL CRITICISM AND AUTHORSHIP Dr. Ritter approached his subject with the

Billings,

native

first

his false progressions

;

little

337

sympathy.

composer, shocked

this

William with

classicist

our national music did not appeal to him

American composers he had not a word to say. The work is mainly devoted to opera and to orchestral societies in New York, but is most thorough in these fields.

deeply, and of the

Dr. Ritter was a profound musician, and composed

many works

These were, however, the compositions of a German in America, rather than of a native composer or of a man influenced by American surroundings. Massenet, the French composer, once spoke enthusiastically to the present writer regarding the inspiration that ought to come to the American comeven

in the

poser.

symphonic forms.

Were

"

glories of

I

in

America," said

he, "

I

should be exalted by the

your scenery, your Niagara, your prairies;

should be

I

Western and Southern life I should be intoxicated by the beauty of your American women national surroundings must always inspire national music " Dr. Ritter, however much he labored for us, worked from without, not from within he was among us, but not of us. He could not realize what a group of good American composers was growing up around him. In spite of inspired by the

;

;

!

;

these limitations his will always be a respected

name

in our musical

annals.

The work 23,

1822, and

of

Richard Grant White (born

died there April

8,

1885),

in

somethino; of a contrast to that of the writers Ritter, Finck,

tioned.

musical

literary field

Dwight, was an essayist who had added music

topics.

But White had none

criticism,

of the gentleness

is

men-

far

of the others,

White,

;

May

York,

we have thus

Huneker, Mathews, and many

were musicians who had entered the S.

New

in

to

like

his

John

literary

and suavity

of the

elder writer; he was keen and bitter in controversy, pronounced in opinions, relentless in polemics. vitriol.

turning

He

wrote some of his diatribes with

His writhing victims made an epigram out "

Richard Grant White" into

"

mind

that

saw both sides

was but a single view upon any own.

of

any question

topic,

name,

Richard Can't Write,"

he could write far better than he could judge. judicial

of his

— but

His was not the ;

with him there

musical or otherwise,

— his

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

338

White's versatility

Shakespearian

is

commentator, a brilHant

ing magazine writers, a chief clerk

in

dangerous, for

one

field.

music and

the it

Had White

light

literary

That

his reviewing

musical progress in

that

greater

it is

field.

of the leadcritic,

and

Such versatility is man from becoming a leader in any

given

of its literature,

one

philologist, a musical

learned

prevents a

chief

journalist,

New York Custom House

the chief author in this

said.

suggested by the fact that he was a great

!

attention

to

the

study of

probable that he would have been

As

entered

it

is,

he

musical

may

be considered the

criticism

in

America.

moulded any national taste, or influenced our any permanent manner, cannot be truthfully

PLATE

JOHN

K.

XII

PAINE

I

IIX

3H1A^

HTAJ-^ .M

MHOU

CHAPTER

XVII

THE MUSICAL EDUCATION OF THE PRESENT

While America endowed school

does not

possess,

and does not

require,

music under government protection, such

of

the Conservatoire at Paris or some of the conservatories in

gium, or Germany,

yet,

an as

Italy, Bel-

through the philanthropy and the love

of art

have been founded that have

of private individuals, large schools

movement inaugurated in the Boston Academy Music and by Lowell Mason over sixty years ago. There is

nobly carried on the of

possibly no country on the are so widely diffused

globe where the rudiments of music

among

city gives its public school children

and

at

the ability to read

least

Every

the masses as in America.

some knowledge

notation

of part-singing

conservatories in each

;

large city offer not only well-equipped courses in every branch of

music, but free scholarships to pupils of pronounced talent. this

musical activity something yet remains to be desired.

in recent years that the large conservatories

With It is

all

only

have become more than

piano and vocal training-schools, that operatic performances have

been established and orchestras founded within their

walls.

Before the conservatories began, before even the Boston Musical

Academy and of,

there

the Philadelphia Musical

was a thorough education

vian settlements in Pennsylvania.

even

in

Fund Society were dreamed

music dispensed

at the

Mora-

In Bethlehem and at Ephrata,

in the eighteenth century, there

was constant study, and Phila-

delphia was at times glad to borrow musicians from the Moravians for its early festivals. effect

The Moravian music undoubtedly had an

even beyond the Alleghanies, and

influenced the

German

first

New England

school can in

For a record

itself

it

composers

is ;

not impossible that

it

but this Pennsylvania-

scarcely be classed as

American music.

of recent discoveries in this field the reader is referred 339

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

340

ter,

"Music

Ephrata Cloister" (LancasThe Moravians undoubtedly had the first regular music

to Dr. Julius F. Sachse's

1903).

of the

schools of this country.

Three large conservatories at Boston, Cincinnati,

Conservatory

due

New England

Of the three the

and Chicago.

— those

Boston has a curriculum most nearly approaching

of

European

that of the great largely

America,

exist at present in

and

schools,

W.

Mr. George

to the efforts of

man who,

a

93),

present

its

con-

of this

due to Dr. Eben Tourjee

servatory was

great

Chadwick,

But the founding

director.

(Fig.

broad course has been

this

musician

without

himself, wielded

being a

a

great

influence on musical education in America.

Dr.

Tourjee

degree

(the

Mus.

of

Doc.

came from Wesleyan University) was born in Warwick, Rhode Island, June i, 1834, and died

in

Boston

taught in music, his the art

— Dr.

Eben Tourjee.

self-

connection with

was upon the commercial

at Fall River, Fig. 93.

first

seventeen he was clerk

at

Largely

in 1890.

in a

Massachusetts

side, for

music store

subsequently

;

he became organist and choir director at

Newport, Rhode Island. ence of the East Greenwich Musical Institute

At

studied the conservatory system there.

During the existhe visited Europe and

this

time he also took

lessons from Haupt, in Berlin, and from other prominent teachers.

On

his return to

dence,

Rhode

America he established

Island.

As

a conservatory in Provi-

early as 1859 he obtained a charter for a

musical institute in connection with the academy at East Greenwich,

Rhode

Island.

had been too

The Boston Academy

idealistic

of Music, already described,

and had attempted

far too

much

;

Dr. Tourjee

upon a practical basis in America. In 1867 he founded the New England Conservatory of Music. He was a superb organizer, and soon saw that America needed some modifications of the European system, was the

first

to establish the class system of musical training

especially in

the matter of

coming from

a distance to a strange city.

careful

protection

of

female students

THE MUSICAL EDUCATION OF THE PRESENT

He

incorporated the

the institution had

Conservatory in 1870, and

quarters in Music Hall Building for about a

its

After

dozen years.

New England

following out the idea suggested above,

this, in

he secured the great St James Hotel Building altered

home

for students

institution,

long

from distant

among whom may

president, the

its

hall for its recitals

difficulties

it

Many

cities.

its

Boston, and

in

both a conservatory and a persons

helped

the

be mentioned the Hon. Rufus Frost,

Hon. Richard H. Dana,

the organizer of a fund for

gave a

making

to suit his needs,

it

341

also a president

and

perpetuation, and Jacob Sleeper,

who

There were many pecuniary

and concerts.

attending the school in

its

enlarged quarters, but Dr.

Tourjee bravely fought on and steered successfully through troubled waters, until his health

began to

and

tion incapacitated him,

An

fail.

attack of nervous prostra-

for a year before

his death his

keen

was clouded.

intellect

Mr. Carl Faelten, who had been one of the most prominent piano teachers of the institution,

few years resigned

in

favor of

had come

that the time

A

perfect for

servatory

George W. Chadwick, who found

He began

for yet further innovations.

his

in

purpose of any

its

for teaching;

took the helm, but after a

some degree the home and the connew building (Fig. 53) was erected, probably the most

regime by separating servatory.

now

in

America, which

new dormitories were

itself,

yet under

its

is

used exclusively

established, apart from the con-

direction

and supervision

and two

;

halls

were built for lectures and concerts.

The new

conservatory found more powerful

ever before, Mr. Charles P. Gardiner becoming

Eben D.

its

protectors

than

president.

Mr.

Jordan, a wealthy merchant of Boston, was one of the chief

The

of its benefactors.

great organ of the institution

his gift,

is

and

the large hall of the conservatory, one of the finest music halls in

Boston, is

is

named

at present

country.

in his honor.

of

in

teachers of the past

contains

many

conservatory

distinguished names, which have

their various fields of work, yet a

may

few

of the

be here mentioned.

Mr. Carl Faelten was born

He

of the

probably the most severe of any musical school in this

Its faculty

been spoken

The curriculum

in

Thuringia,

December

21,

1846,

derived the greater part of his musical proficiency from Raff,

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

34^

whom

with

he was intimately associated

His earher

tory.

studies,

Weimar and

in

the F'rankfort Conserva-

however, had been under Montag and

His work was interrupted by Franco-Prussian War, wlien military law compelled a term of

Schoch, the

in

service, but

Frankfort.

through the influence

some

of

officers

who

accidentally

became acquainted with his musical abilities, he was spared severe tasks and largely employed in clerical duties. When his term of service had ended, he again began his musical studies, and carried them on so successfully that he was soon able to make several concert appearances in Germany. He was one of the piano teachers in

Conservatory, and

Raff's

from 1882 he was active as a teacher

Peabody

in the

Institute in Baltimore.

In 1885 he became one of the faculty

New

the

of

He

that

left

found

England Conservatory.

a

institution

large

own, which

still

piano

of

He was

October

4,

of

Emery

to

his

Boston.

(Fig.

94)

the most popular of the

harmony teachers tory.

school

flourishes in

Mr. Stephen A.

was one

1897

in

the

in

born

in

1841, his

Conserva-

Paris,

Maine,

father being a

distinguished lawyer and judge of that Fig. 94.

— Stephen

After preliminary musical study

state. A.

Emery.

m

j a/t Portland, Mr.

-n



4.1

tr Emery went

4.

i.

t



to Leip-

He where he studied with Richter, Hauptmann, and others. was a teacher of harmony at the New England Conservatory from its very beginning, 1867, until his death, which took place in Boston,

sic,

April

15,

1891.

Mr. Emery's compositions, almost

smaller forms, although

full

of grace

all

of

them

and delicacy, are not

in the

of great

American music, but in his longcontinued pedagogic service he did much for the advancement of the art, and hundreds of his pupils are now working successfully in importance

the musical this

in the

field.

development

Many

volume derived

of

of the

important composers spoken of in

their early inspiration

Stephen Albert Emery.

from the teaching

of

THE MUSICAL EDUCATION OF THE PRESENT Another teacher in

studied with Mr.

attest

important works

among

Mme. Madeleine

Frank A. Porter and Charles

as

the earnestness of Mr. Turner's work.

Emery, he wrote chiefly are

walls,

its

C. D, Parker, and also with

J.

Such musicians

Schiller.

Dennee

St.

was

was Alfred Dudley Turner, Albans, Vermont, August 24, 1854, and

exerted ahnost entirely within

who was born

whose influence

Conservatory,

the

at

343

even

the smaller forms, and

in

in

His octave

these.

F.

Like Mr.

no very

left

studies,

however,

made by Americans to 1888, when only thirty-three

the most valued contributions

He

musical pedagogy.

died

May

7,

years of age.

Emery and Turner, their unostentatious work, their pedagogic success, may serve to point a moral. European teachers of greater celebrity did not always achieve as much practical result The names

of

America as these two men. It was simply the comprehension of the American student, the knowledge of how to reach his heart, how to spur on his ambition, that made their work remarkable. The really successful teacher must have, besides the technique of his art, a full in

comprehension

the character of his pupils

of

obvious advantage to the American teacher

There were other important teachers

Lyman W. Wheeler and in the vocal

his brother

in

;

and

an

this gives

America.

in the

Conservatory.

Mr.

Harry Wheeler were prominent

work, Mr. John O'Neill graduated Lillian Norton (Mme.

Nordica) and other prominent pupils, Mr. Otto Bendix taught piano oroins: to there before es o

servatory,

Carlyle

San Francisco and

Petersilea,

establishinoo another con-

recently deceased, was of the piano-

group, George E. Whiting was for a long time the chief organ teacher, Carl Zerrahn

came from and a

was

its

teacher of conducting.

Italy to join the forces, as did also

niusical brotherhood, "

The

servatory by Ossian E. Mills, and

Sinfonia,"

Martin Roeder

Signor Augusto

was founded

now has branches

in

Rotoli.,

in the

many

con-

cities of

the United States.

A

few additional words regarding Dr. Tourjee

before leaving the conservatory which he founded. active lieutenant

in

the

He was

pertinent

He was

a

most

two peace jubilees given by Gilmore

Boston, and practically constructed the festivals.

may be

immense choruses

in

of these

a strong worker in the cause of music in the

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

344

public schools, and he

American tips and had

religious

in

manner

a

was the originator of the " Praise Service " life. He was also a diplomat to the fingerof getting

almost everybody to work out his

maximum of work with the minimum he was the man for his place and time, just

wishes, to educe the

of friction

in short,

as Billings

had been

Mason

for the

for

had no

in the

of

American music and Lowell

advancing stages.

its

During the it

rudimentary stage

;

early days of the

rival in its general

domain

New England

curriculum,

Conservatory, while

had a keen competitor

it

The Boston Conservatory

of violin music.

of

Music

had been founded by Julius Eichberg, and was, for a long time, the

With

chief violin school of America.

much

however,

of its glory departed,

subsequent director,

The

be chronicled.

the violin music of

Herman

the death of Mr. Eichberg,

although the good work of

Chelius, in the piano department,

influence of Mr. Julius Eichberg (Fig. 95)

America

is

incontestable.

He

was born

is

its

to

upon

in Diis-

June 23, 1824, studied with Rietz, and in his childhood played before Mendelssohn, who put on record his high opinion of the perseldorf,

formance of the juvenile prodigy.

De

Beriot and acquaintance with

Additional study with Fetis and

Schumann made

the youth of this

memorable one. Eichberg came to New York, in search of health, in 1857, but soon settled in Boston, where he began his career in 1859. His first work in that city was as conductor of the little orchestra at the Boston Museum. There he contributed somewhat to the American repertoire, for he wrote a charming opera, " The Doctor of Alcantara," which was the best light opera that had up to that time been written

violinist a

in this country. ful

He

subsequently composed other operas,

and singable, but none

of

work, which was produced "'

The Doctor

of

Alcantara

them in

"

English musical

1862 (Fig.

96).

In spite of

has become obsolete

critic (resident

grace-

of the excellence of the first-named

American work, since the

called an

all

in

libretto

;

nor can

was by

its it

charm

be fairly

B. E. Woolf, the

Boston), and the music was, of

by a German.

Yet Mr. Eichberg became enthusiastically American, as may be seen by his national hymn, " To Thee, Oh Country " of which the words were written by his daughter, a

course,

!

lady of

much

literary ability.

He

wrote some chamber-music and

THE MUSICAL EDUCATION OF THE PRESENT became

He

for a time supervisor of

died in Boston, January

The West

also has

had

music

345

in the public schools of Boston.

13, 1898.

its

musical enthusiasts

who were ready

to

play the part of Maecenas in endowing educational institutions for the development of

the

art.

George Ward Nichols and Reuben

Springer were the chief founders of the Cincinnati College of Music (Fig. loi), the leading musical

institution

for

many

meeting

of

1

West

The

years.

first

of the stockholders

was held on

of this college

the

the

6th

August, 1878,

of

and Theodore Thomas was

become

invited

to

of the

new

Mr.

enterprise.

endowment

gave

Springer

director

upon endowment, and

the

erection of the present large

buildings of the college was

made

possible

through Mr.

chiefly

munificence.

his

Nichols,

as

the

president,

saw the

outgrow

buildinor

building

until

college

after present

its

equipment

large

first

was Fig. 95.

achieved.

After

the

— Julius

Eichberg.

de-

cease of Colonel Nichols, Mr. Peter Rudolph Neff became president.

Mr. Thomas, great as his musical services, sible.

much

There of

musicians

is

is

his musicianship,

Thomas had

have been

probably no position in music w^iich demands so of a

number

of

prominent

are not definitely graded, as in an orchestra.

his high artistic ideal,

which did not

as

was not the most effective musical director pos-

diplomacy as the directorship

who

and vast

and

exist in his vocabulary.

"

compromise

The

result

"

Mr.

was a word

was a

series of

complications for wdiich no one person was responsible, and in two years Mr.

Thomas

left

the post and returned to

New

York.

The

S

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

346 college

went on under other direction

whom we

102) (of

have already spoken) was

when he resigned

until 1903,

and

for Cincinnati

the post.

for the entire

musical festivals of the

city,

the operatic advance, and

it

It

musical director

has done great work

It

West.

its

(Fig.

has been active in the

has patronized opera and assisted

has gathered together a band of excel-

it

who have been

lent musicians

Van der Stucken

Mr.

;

like the leaven in the

meal through-

1

fc

"

I1^6. OJ

\'

.-

I'

^

"^

T

N

^

1

r

J

-N—IT

Z21 jfi^

r

ZTf

fr:S-

V i.> '



n^

4^

y. «'

"

.'

^ f

r

ij

^

^^-r

"^ r

n-j ih.] >x*7Z

Fugue-tunes in old

Eustaphieve, Alexi, a Russian amateur in Boston, 46. Eiiterpeiad, an early musical journal, 44. Euterpean Society, New York, 53.

Evening Post, New York, Finck, music

critic,

316.

women in music, 293. Gantvoort, Arnold J., 346. Garcia, Manuel, his troupe in New York, 99. Gardiner, Charles P. (New England ConGade, on

servatory), 341. W. Francis, 332.

Gates,

Gaynor, Mrs. Jessie L., 307. Geilfert, George, early conductor, 96. Gericke, Willielm, first visit to America, 61 second,

Faelten, Carl, 341, 342. False settings of poems, 254. Faults of American music, 362.

62

Brockway

Gilchrist,

Federalists in 1798, 148.

Gilmore, Patrick

Fewkes,

157 Gleason, ;

Finck, Henry T., 315 et seq. : on Philharmonic Orchestra in 1903-1904, 56; opinion of MacDowell, 184; of his songs, 185.

87-88

S.,

at Fort Warren, introduced by, 163.

hymn

Keller's

Frederic G.,

Visconti,"

histories, 332.

196;

"Thusnelda,"

;

seq.:

et

195

"Song

of

"

Otho

Life,"

197; taught Mrs. Gaynor, 307 as critic. 331. " Glory Hallelujah " (the John Brown song), ;

156.

Glover, E. W., 346. "God save the King," 140

Arms, 348.

Fletcher, Alice, Indian music, 123, 130.

209. Foley. Bushrod

206;

;

Germania Orchestra, 56. William W., 240.

J. Walter, 123. Fillmore, John C, Indian music, 123, 126, 130;

his

;

plays 70 Singer fantasia,

drill-master,

suite,

Amy, 335. Festivals {see Music Festivals).

Adolph M., 209;

as

;

225.

Fay,

Foerster,

music, 12,

;

S. B., 270.

Fisher, William

New England

13, 16.

144; origin

;

American use

of,

of, 145.

Goepp, Philip H., 326. VV.,

as

conductor,

82;

as

teacher, 346.

Folk-music, American, Dvordk uses, 347 Chad wick uses, 123,347. Foote, Arthur, 188 et seq. ; suite in D minor, 188; chamber-music, 189; violin sonata 190; organ concert, 274; taught Surette,

Goetschius, Percy, 357.

Goldmark, Rubin, 210. Goodrich, A. J., 356-357; taught Mrs. Gaynor, 307.

Goodrich, Wallace, 267-268 Choral Art Society conductor, 82 Boston organ concert, ;

;

274.

Gorno, Albino, 346.

355-

Foreign influences in American music, 225. Foreign musicians in old Boston. 52. F'oreign orchestras in America, 69. Foreign performances of American composi-

European hearings). McHenry, bombardment of

tions (see

Fort spangled Banner"), 154. Foster, Stephen C, 134 et seq. cess in war music, 163.

;

(" Star-

had no suc-

Fox, Gilbert, first sang " Hail Columbia," 148. Franz, Robert, accompaniments for Handel and Haydn Society, 32 views on lyric forms, 243 friend of G. L. Osgood, 252 ;

;

Gottschalk, L. M., 282

et seq.

;

duets with R.

Hoffman, 290. Gould, Nathaniel D., 86.

Gow, George C,

354.

Grau, Maurice, 120. Graupner, Gottlieb, 46 in Handel and Haydn Society, 30; his music store, 43, 52. Grieg, Edward, opinion of W. G. Smith, 284; helped Van der Stucken, 195. Guilmant, 268 taught Bowman, 271 Norris, influence on American organ play241 ing, 272 at World's Fair, Chicago, 274. Gungl, in America, 69. ;

;

;

;

;

influence on Foerster, 209. Fries, Wulf, 85.

Frost,

Hon. Rufus (New England Conserva-

tory), 341.

Fry,

Edward

P., 108.

Fry, William H., 109 et seq. ; Jullien plays his works, 69 Fry's influence, 320. Fry, J. R., no. ;

"Hackney"

(Puritan hymn),

2.

Hadley, Henry K., 191-192; symphonies, 192. " Hail Columbia," 147 et seq.; contemporary

comment,

150.

organ concert, 274 programmes, 326.

Hale, Philip, 324 et seq. analytical

Hall,

Walter

E., 274.

:

;

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

374

Henry

Hallgreen, Captain

J.

John Brown

(the

song), 157. Hamerik, Asgar, 224. Hanchett, Dr., 292.

;

collection of church music, 39

et

tri-

;

ennial festivals, 91 performance, Paine's "St. Peter," 166; " Nativity," 167 Chad;

;

wick's ''Rip van Winkle'' overture, 171

Buck's

Psalm, 233

;

Lang's work in, 260; an old critique. 312. See also Zerrahn Chickering Lang. Handel and Haydn Society of New York, Forty-sixth

;

;

;

Harper''s Weekly, Stevenson, music first

critic,

335.

American spinet-maker, 43.

"Hull's Victory," 155. Huneker, James G., 320 ei seq. Hupfeld, Charles P. (early Philadelphia musician), 77. Huss, Henry Holden, 198-199; Rhapsody,

Piano Concerto,

"Ave

Maria," 199.

Hyllested, August, 292.

not in early Puritan music, 4.

critic,

New York, Stevenson, music

335.

Indian music, 130

et seq. ; themes used by MacDowell, 131 by Kroeger. 208. "Indian Suite," by MacDowell, 131, 185. ;

Harvard Musical Association, 81. Harvard University, music course, 352

Thomas,

Julia Ward, 160. Howland, C. A., 274. Hughes, Rupert, 327; on MacDowell, 184; on Nevin (footnote), 246.

Independent. The,

Harris, William V., 256.

Hastings,

J. H., 230.

Hymns

73-74Hanslick, Edward, his style of review, 321. Harkness, Arma, 309. Harris, John,

Hora Novissima," by Horatio Parker, 179. Horn, C. E. (early conductor), 34, loi.

Howe, Howe,

Handel Society of Dartmouth College, 80. Handel and Haydn Society of Boston, 28 seq.

"

^Z seq.

86.

Haupt, taught Bird, 216; G. E. Whiting, 266 S. P. Warren, 271 E. M. Bowman, 271 Eddy, 275 Dr. Tourjee, 340 influence on American organ playing, 272 list of

Instruments in eighteenth century, 41 manufacture, 42.

;

early

;

;

;

;

;

;

American pupils, 273. Henderson, William J.,

321

et

seq.;

his

libretto to "

Cyrano," 235. Henschel, Georg, 60. Herbert, Victor, 238 director New York Philharmonic, 56 director Pittsburg Orchestra, 66 plays Kroeger's " Thana;

;

;

Hershey School, Chicago,

Sympliony Orchestra), 60, 61. Hill, Junius W., taught Mrs. Beach, 297 his work at Wellesley, 354. Hill, Uriah C. (founder New York Philharmonic Society), orchestral work, 54 New first York Sacred Music Society, 74 ;

;

;

349Jarvis, Charles H., 286.

"Jefferson and Liberty," 154. Johansen, Mme. Bertha, 109.

Johns, Clayton, 247-248. Johnstone, Arthur. 147.

Star-spangled Banner," 155

American hymn,

;

American organ-

wrote

Jordan, Eben D., 341. Jordan. Jules, 255. Joseffy, R., 289.

"Judith," by Chadwick, 175. Jullien's orchestral concert in

Keffer, Dr.

Edward

I.

New

York, 69.

(helped Philadelphia

Orchestra), 66. Keffer,

Kelley, to

poem

164.

Holt, H. E., 349. 351.

Mrs.

E.

I.,

established

low-priced

Edgar Stillman, 235 et seq. Macbeth " music, 236 " Puritania,"

Kelley, "

236; Chinese music, 236; Kellogg. Clara L., 309. Key, Francis Scott, 150, 154.

;

critic,

Kimball, Jacob, Jr., 21. Klauser, Karl, 354.

13, 22.

Homer, Louise, 310. Hone. Philip, on early New York Hood, Helen, 306. Hopekirk, Helen (Wilson), 307.

first

classical concerts in Philadelphia, 71. Keller, Matthias. 163.

string quartette, 85.

Hoffman, Richard, 290. Holden, Oliver, 19. Holmes, Dr. Oliver Wendell, added verse

Holyoke. Samuel,

;

builder, 43.

195, 275.

Hewitt, James, early conductor, 80, 96. Hiawatha, Indian song, 126, 129. Higginson, Henry L. (founder Boston

to Keller's

Jadassohn, taught Chad wick, 171 Beck, 207. Japan uses American public school music,

Johnstone, Thomas,

topsis," 208.

-'

Jackson, Dr. G. K. (early musician), 30, 312. Jack.son. Leonora, 309.

operas, 102.

Klein,

Bruno O., 239.

Klindworth, taught Nevin. 245. Knabe Hall, New York, 75.

332.

"

;

INDEX Kneisel Quartette, 85 plays Huss pianoforte trio, 199; A. Whiting, violin sonata, 213; Mrs. Beach's violin sonata, 302. ;

Kobbt^, Gustav, 319.

Henry E., 319 programme writer, 326 in

New

Maas, Dr. Louis, 223

" ;

York," 73

;

analytical

seq.;

et

Notes on Choral on Indian music,

:

MacDougall, Hamilton 274;

Krehbiel,

Music

375 taught Mrs. Gaynor,

C, organ

concert,

at Wellesley, 354.

MacDowell, Edward

"Indian

A., 182 et seq.;

songs, 185; pianoforte con183, 186; use of English musical

Suite," 185; certo.s,

186; "Hamlet" and "Ophelia," 187; professor at Columbia, 354. MacDowell, Jennie, wife of S. C. Foster, 137. Malibran, Mme., in New York, 99, 100. terms,

123, 126.

Kreissman, August, 81. Kroeger, Ernest K., 207

;

" Sardanapalus

"Hiawatha" overture on

overture, 207;

Manchester, A.

Indian themes, 208.

L., 327.

Mancinelli, 120.

Lachmund, Carl

V., 210;

Japanese overture,

211.

Manufacture of musical instruments

in

Amer-

ica, 361.

Lamperti, taught Osgood, 252. Lang. B. J., 259 et seq.; conducted Handel and Haydn Society, 35 Apollo Club, 81 taught Foote. 189 general influence, 165 ;

;

;

;

Lynes, 254; at Chicago World's Fair, 274 general list of pupils, 261 played Music Hall organ, Boston, 262; taught Helen Hood, 306; Apthorp, Nevin,

244;

;

;

322.

Manuscript Society, Chicago, Gleason, president, 196.

Manuscript Society, New York, 196. Mapleson, Colonel J. H., 115. "Marching through Georgia," 163. Maretzek, Max, 108, 114. Marshall, Leonard, 351. Marston, George W., 256. Marty opera troupe, 107. "Maryland, my Maryland," 156.

Lang. Miss Margaret Ruthven, 305 ei seq. Lavignac, defines criticism, 322. Lavigne, great oboist, in America, 69. Law, Andrew, 20. Lectures, first music in America, 99. Legion of Honor. Krehbiel Chevalier of, 320. Lemare, Edwin H., 92. Leonhard, Hugo, 313 with Dwight's /(?«r;/rt/ of Music, 314.

Mason-Thomas chamber

Lewis, Leo R., 355.

Mason, Dr. William, 279

;

"Liberty Song"

(first

American composition),

Mason, Dr. Lowell, 36 et seq. ; president of Handel and Haydn Society, Boston, 34 in

Academy

school

of Music, 78

music,

New

of William Mason, 279 assisted Thayer, 314. Mason, Luther W. (public school music), 349.

music,

;

58,

Van

and

assisted

der Stucken. 192,

chamber;

;

ner," 157.

MacDowell, 182; Lachmund, 195 ;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

Bowman, 271;

Massachusetts

211; Boise, 215; Bird, 216; Burmeister, Singer, 224 Lang, 260 William 224 Mason, 280 Sherwood, 285 Baermann, HofTman. 290 Perry, 292 Rive288 King, 309; Huneker's life of, 321. Locke, Warren A., 274. Loeffler, Charles M., 217 et seq.; compared " Death of with Van der Stucken, 193 " Tintagiles," 221 Villanelle du Diable," " La Bonne Chanson," 223 his 223 dissonance and freedom, 240. Longy, Georges, 82. Loomis, Harvey W., 256. Loring Club, San Francisco, 82. Lynes, Frank, 254. ;

et seq.

taught

280;

Rive-King, 308 more American than Gottschalk, 283. Masonic use of tune of " Star-spangled Ban-

York, 76.

;

concerts, 58.

truly

Lind, Jenny, in America, 108. Liszt, taught

founded public Root, 162;

father

Sherwood, 285

140.

Libraries of music, 365. Liebling, Emil, 330-331.

Liederkranz,

;

taught

79;

;

Institute of Technology, Johns, student, 247 Bullard, 252. Massachusetts Musical Society (footnote), ;

28.

Massachusetts 12th Regiment (John Brown Song), 157, 160. Mather, Cotton. 3. 8, 9.

Mathews, W. S. B., 329 et seq.; on early Western concerts, 62 with William Mason, 281 contributor to Dwight's ;

;

Journal. 314. Mendelssohn, Fanny, as composer, 293. Mendelssohn Glee Club, New York, 76. Mendelssohn Union, New York, 75. Merz, Karl, 332. " Messiah " The, first partial performance in Philadelphia, 25 first complete performance in America, Franz added 33 ;

;

;

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

n^

accompaniment, 32 ment by Dresel, 251.

pianoforte arrange-

;

Metropolitan Orchestra, 68.

Micmac

Negro music, character

of, 133. Neidlinger, William H., 256. Neuendorff, Adolf, 119.

Nevada, Emma, 310. Nevin, Ethelbert, 243

Indians, 130.

Middleschulte, 274.

Ossian E., 343. Mills, Sebastian B., 291 Mills,

taught Rive-King,

;

308.

;

Mollenhauer, Emil, conductor of Handel and Haydn Society, 35 other work, 72 conductor of Apollo Club, Boston, 82. Montressor troupe, in New York, 102. Moore, Homer (composing an American

;

teacher, 229;

;

trilogy), 238.

Moravian music. 88, 339. Morgan, Geraldine, 309. Morgan, G. W., 265 played Music Hall ;

organ, Boston, 262. Morse, Charles H., 273; pupil of J. C. D. Parker, 230; organ concert, 274; at

Wellesley, 355. Moscheles, Ignaz, taught Boise, 215; D. Parker, 229; William Mason,

J.

C.

280;

R. Hoffman, 290.

Joseffy, 289;

Mosenthal, Joseph, 77; taught Kobbe, 319. Music festivals, see Cincinnati, Chicago, Choir, Worcester, Peace Jubilee.

Music Music

libraries, great, 91, 361.

first

;

List of Illustrations)

New

terms. 42.

;

loi, 103. 122; Huneker, contributor, 320 Philip Hale, 324. Musical Fund Society, Philadelphia, 53, 77, ;

95

;

influence, 107

New York an operatic centre, 358. New York Choral Society. 74. New York College of Music (Kelley

Old Kentucky Home,"

136.

New New New New New

York, early music, 25.

York Harmonic Society, 75. York Music Art Society, yy. York Oratorio Society, 75. York Sacred Music Society, 74. Ne^a York Sun, Henderson, music critic, 322. New York Symphony Society, 67. New York Tunes, Henderson, music critic, 322. New York Tribune, William H. Fry, early music

no;

critic,

Krehbiel, music

Ward

Nichols, George

critic,

(Cincinnati College of

Music), 345. Nikisch. Arthur (Boston

Symphony Orches-

tra), 61.

Nordica, Lillian, 310; pupil at Conservatory, 343.

Homer

Norris,

New England organ concert,

A., 241, 242;

Oberlin Conservatory, 347. Oboe, first use in America, 50. " Observations by the Curious in

teacher, 177;

symphony,

offers

198;

Klein,

for

American

teacher,

239; Huneker, piano 289 Mrs. Thurber, founded, 347

teacher,

teacher, 321

;

influence of

DvoMk

National Opera

prize

;

;

as teacher there, 347. Company. 119, 121.

Rudolph (Cincinnati College of

Music), 345.

New Eng-

land," 8. "

Ode

for the Fourth of July," 146. Offenbach in America, 115. "Old Folks at Home," 136.

"Old Hundred." Nation, The, New York, Finck, critic of, 316. National Conservatory of New York, Parker,

NetT, Peter

instructs),

237-

339-

Joseffy,

in America, opera houses, 108.

;

274.

Musical Fund Society, Boston, 56. Musical culture, classes suggested, 349. Musical Institute, New York, 74. Musical societies in 1821, 80. Musician, The, Mathews, contributor, 330; Thomas Tapper, editor, 357. Musikverein, Milwaukee, 82.

My

255; Goodrich,

;

New Haven Orchestra, 66. New Orleans, introduced opera

York, quoted, 53, 69,

96,

"

Rotoli,

319-

Music Teachers' National Association, 92, 353. Music teachers, early advertisements, 42 {^see

241;

;

stores. 43.

Musical Courier^

Cutter,

Whiting, 266 Dunham, 267 268; Gardiner, president, 341.

stores, early, sell miscellaneous wares,

42

et seq.

Newberry Library, Chicago, 91. New England Conservatory of Music, 340 et. seq. ; Chadwick director, 171 receives great Music Hall organ, 262 Parker,

Oldmixon, Mrs.,

2, 5.

96.

O'Neill, John, 166, 343.

Opera troupes, see Bostonians Castle Square National Marty Montressor Garcia Opera Company also Damrosch Mapleson Maretzek Seidl Thomas Ullmann. ;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

Opera, earliest performance, 95. Opera in Boston, 107. Operas, important and first performances, "Azara," 169; "The Archers" (early), 96;

;;

INDEX an American trilogy, 239; "Barber of Seville," by Paisiello, 95; "Beggar's Opera" (earliest performance), 94, 105; "Bohe(in 1846), 107; " Bourville

mian Girl"

Castle" (1797), 96; '-Caliph of Bagdad" " Cenerentola " (in early New York), 100 "Clari," the Maid of Milan (1832), 102; ;

(with "

"Der "Die

Home, Sweet Home,"

Walkiire,"

in 1823)599;

(early versions), 99;

Freischiitz "

attempts

first

114;

at,

" Edwin and " Doctor of Alcantara," 344 Angelina" (earliest?) 96; '-Fidelio" (in ;

English, in German), 103, 109; '• Gazza Ladra," 103; "I Puritani" (Palmo opens

"Jeande Paris," 100 "Judith" (modern sacred opera), 175; "Leonora," first worthy American opera, 109, no; "Notre Dame de Paris" (by Fry), no; "Parsifal" (first American performance), " Rip Van Winkle" (Bristow), 03 121 " Robert the Devil " (arranged and in with), 104;

;

;

;

English), 102

;

"Scarlet Letter"

(first

per-

234 " Tannhiiuser," first Wagnerian opera in America, 1 14, "The Vintage" (supposed first 116;

formance

in Boston),

;

American opera), 96. Operas, modern American, 233. Operatic season,

first in

Oratorio,

first

admis-

;

ica

;

Symphony

Cincinnati

Symphony; chestras

Thomas

Symphony

Peabody;

;

Pittsburg;

Chicago

Amer-

Philhar-

ductors' names.)

of Music

;

Hill

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

Thomas

;

Zerrahn.

151.

;

;

at Yale, 354.

Parker,

C. D., 229-230; "Life of Man,"

J.

C. H. 230; taught A. Whiting, 2n Morse, 273 early arrival in Europe, 280. Parodi, Teresa, 109. Parsons, Albert Ross, 286. ;

;

Patti, Adelina, 114.

Pattison,

John N., 286.

120

;

Peabody

Gaelic

symphony

played, 307.

Institute, Baltimore,

Boise, teachers, 206

Brockway and

orchestra, 66.

;

87, 88.

Peck, Dr. James, 75. Pellisier, Victor (early opera), 96. People's choruses, 87. People's Symphony Orchestra, New York, 71, Perabo, Ernst, 289 taught Mrs. Beach, 297. Perkins, Charles 34, 35. ;

C

Perkins, Dr. H. S., 93. Permanent orchestras, 68.

Edward

B., 291.

Petersilea, Carlyle, 343.

;

;

substitutes for, 29.

Organ music at St. Louis World's Fair, 208. Orpheus Musical Society, 81. Osgood, George L., 251,252; taught Jules Jordan, 255. O'Shea, John, 274. Ostinelli concert (early Boston), 311.

Philadelphia, in eighteenth century, 24 music teachers, 25.

Philadelphia Philadelphia

Organ, Boston Music Hall, 262. Organ concerts (Boston and Chicago), 274. Organ, the first made in America, 43 first one in Boston, 10; Brattle, 10; first in Philadelphia, 25

Thomas),

Palmo, early New York opera manager, 104. Pappenheim, Eugenie, Mme., 117. Parepa-Rosa, Mme., 122. Parker, Horatio William, 176 ^/ seq.; "Hora Novissima," 179; "St. Christopher," 180; organ concerto, 181; "Northern Song," 189 Boston organ concert, 274 professor

PfefTerkorn, Otto, 274.

Academy

Euterpean Society Germania Harvard Musical Fund Philharmonic also Graup-

Orchestras, early, see

ner

;

352Paine, Robert Treat (originally

Perry,

Seidl

{See also under con-

Wetzler.

;

;

Foreign, in

Philadelphia; Permanent Or-

People's

;

monic;

;

New Haven; New York

Jullien;

;

167; "Azara," 169; taught Foote, 189; Coerne, 202; Johns, 247; Lynes, 254; Dunham, 267; S. B. Whitney, 269; C. H. Morse, 273; Finck, 316; Apthorp, 322; Surette, 355; organ virtuoso, 259; Music Hall organ, 262 course at Harvard,

Peace Jubilee,

note), 33.

Orchestral music, earliest, 46. Orchestral season, a great New York, 56 Germania, ends suddenly, 57.

Symphony

St.

;

America, 100

Orchestras, see Boston

165 et seq.:

Peter, 166; symphonies, 166; "CEdipus,"

;

shortest

;

Paine, Professor John K.,

Paur, Emil, conductor of Philharmonic, 55 Boston Symphony, 62 German opera,

on record, 328. performance in America (foot-

sion prices, 100

2>n

Academy of Music, 347. Symphony Orchestra, 66,

;

early

68.

Philharmonic Society Orchestra (old), Boslast concert, 52; (new), Boston, ton, 49 60 New York, ^^ et seq. Philips, Henry, 99. Pianos, first uprights, 43 Behrent, first pianoChickering forte maker in America, 43 ;

;

;

;

invents iron frame, 45. Piano playing, excess of, in America, 365. Piano music, widespread in America, 279. Pitch-pipe

first

used, 16.

Pittsburg Choral Society, 209.

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

378

Robyn, Alfred G., 256.

Pittsburg Musical Union, 209. Pittsburg organ concerts, 274. Pittsburg

Symphonic

Roeder, Martin, 343. Rogers, Clara K., 307. Rogers, James H.,256; influence in Cleveland,

Society, 209.

Symphony Orchestra, 66, 68. Plays as "Moral Lectures," 23. Pittsburg

207.

Farming-

Porter, Miss, celebrated school at ton. 354. Porter, Mrs. Edith Noyes, 307.

Frank

Porter,

286; pupil of Turner, 343.

A.,

Powell, Maud, 301, 309.

C, 201. " President's March," 148. Pratt, Silas

Preston, John A., 230.

new

for

;

Edna Dean,

colleges

(musi-

cal), 351 e^ seq.

Psalmody, the mother of American music, 358. Psalms in Puritan music, 2. Psalm-singing, lining-out, ily

5

;

disasters in,

16; objections to tunes, 8

worship,

;

6,

in fam-

Sachse, Dr. Julius F., on Moravian music, 340. St. Louis exhibition, 1904, 207; organ music at,

208.

Salmon, Alvah G., 286. Sanderson, Sybil, 310.

Public musical education, 339. Public rehearsals, established by

Philharmonic Society, 61. Public schools, music in, 349

music

S. Kelley,

332.

Savage, Henry W., 122, 358.

New York

"Say, Brothers,

will

Brown song), et seq.

Academy

;

Boston

of Music begins, 78 limitations of system, 348, 349, 351, 361. (See also ;

;

Examiner^ E.

Sa/i Francisco critic,

9.

Damrosch, F.

85.

160.

Professorships in American

7, ID,

Russell, Louis A., 273.

Ryan, Thomas,

national song, 156.

Proctor.

;

Russell, Ella, 310.

American opera, 109

Prize, offered for

Root, Fred. W., 161. Root, George F., 161. Roth. Johannes, 148. Rotoli, Augusto, 255 taught in New England Conservatory. 343. Royal Music School, Munich, 288. Rubinstein, on woman in music, 293.

Scheel, Fritz, 66

;

you meet us?" (John

157, i6r.

Philadelphia and San Fran-

cisco, 70, 256.

Schoenefeld,

" Sunny South " Symphony," violin so-

Henry, 197

overture, " Rural

and Mason, Lowell.)

;

nata, 198.

Quartettes, string,

and

quintettes, see

Cham-

Schools of music (j^^ Conservatories).

H.

Schreiner,

ber-music.

L., 162, 163.

Schuckburgh, Dr. ("Yankee Doodle"), 144. RadclifTe,

W., 274. MacDowell,

RatT, friend of

Schumann,

Clara, taught Perry, 292.

Scott, Charles P., 275.

182, 183.

Rag-time, 134. Randall, James R. (words to "Maryland"),

Seeboeck,

W. C,

292.

Seguin, 103.

Anton, 117; conductor Philharmonic, York, 55 orchestra work, 68 general influence, 165 performs Hadley symphony, 192 Converse's compositions, 205 Kroeger's " Sardanapalus " overture, 207; Foerster's festival march, 209 R. Goldmark's theme and variations, 210; Lachmund's Japanese overture, 211; Strong's "Sintram" symphony, 217 R. Hoff'man, plays with, 290; Rive-King, 309.

Seidl,

156.

Ravenscroft psalms,

New

4, 5.

Read, Daniel, 22. Redman, Harry N., 286. Reinecke, teaches Chadwick, 171

;

Van

der Beck,

;

;

;

Richter, teaches Foerster, 209; Boise, 215 J. C. D. Parker, 229 D. Buck, 231 William ;

Mason, 280

;

Ritter, F. L., 335

Rive-King,

;

Parsons, 286 Emery, 342. taught Parsons, 286. ;

;

Julia, 308.

;

;

Stucken, 195; Schoenefeld, 197; 206; Parsons, 286; Rive-King, 308; his views on women in music, 293. Rheinberger, influence, 252, 253 teaches Chadwick, 171; Huss, 198; Parker, 177; Coerne, 201; A. Whiting, 212; Bullard, 252 Wallace Goodrich, 268. Rice, Mrs. George B., 307. Richardson, piano method, 280.

;

;

;

;

;

Seidl Orchestral Society, 68.

Samuel, views on music, 6, 10, 11; mishaps in setting tunes, 16; virginals in his home, 41. Shelley, Harry Rowe, 199 pianoforte fantasia, Sewall,

;

200.

Sherwood, William H., 285 ing, 211

;

taught A. Whit-

Johns, 247. Sinfonia musical brotherhood, 343. ;

INDEX Otto,

Singer,

224;

Cincinnati

91; sympiionic fantasia, 225 taught W. G. Smith, 284. Singing contest, first in America, 28. Singing-schools in New England, 9 Puritan, festival,

;

;

ID,

I

I.

379

W. (biographer of Beethoven), 314 e/ seq. Thayer, Eugene, 262, 265.

Thayer, Alexander

Thomas, Theodore, 58

et seq. ; conducted Philharmonic Orchestra, New York, 55 Chicago Orchestra, 62 Cincinnati festival, 91 Chicago festival, 91 his large library, 65 highest rank as conductor in America, 70; not as great in opera, 120; general influence, 165 not a composer, 261 work in Chicago, 330 director of Cincinnati College, 345 performs Paine's symphony, 166; Gleason's works, first 196; Converse's, 205; Kroeger's "Hiawatha," 208 Lachmund's "Japanese Overture," 211; Buck's Centennial hymn, 231 Mrs. Beach's Gaelic symphony, 301 Miss Lang's " Witichis " overture, 306 G. L. Osgood, soloist with, 252 Mrs. Beach, 298 Rive-King, 309. Thomas's Orchestra in New York, 59. Thunder, H. G., 274. Thurber, Mrs. Jeannette, 347. Thursby, Emma, 310. Ticknor, Howard Malcom, 326. ;

;

Sleeper, Jacob, 341.

;

Smith, Gerrit, 272. Smith, John Stafford,

;

;

"Musica Antiqua,"

150.

;

Smith, Dr. Samuel F. (" America," author of), 147.

;

;

;

Smith, Wilson G., 207, 284. Sousa, John P., 226; marches, 227. Spalding, W. R., organ concert, 275 at Harvard. 353.

Spanuth, August, 322

;

analytical

work

;

;

;

programmes,

326.

;

;

Sparmann, Helen D., 335. Spinet, in New England, 41 spinet made, 43. Springer,

Reuben

;

American

first

;

(Cincinnati

college

of

music), 345. Springfield musical festival, 172. Stanfield, William, 275.

Stanley, A. A., 353. " Star-spangled Banner," 150 et seq.

Timm, Henry C, ;

in

South-

ern Confederacy, 155.

William (composer Song"), 156.

"John

Steffe,

Brown

Sternberg, Constantin von, 292. Stevenson, E. Irenagus (Prime), 335. Stewart, H. J., 256, 257. Stirling, W. S., 274. Stoeckel, Gustav J., 199. Stone, H. L., 353.

Strong, George T., 75. Strong, Templeton, 216;

chorus in

originated praise service, 344.

;

;

in Phila-

New York, early influence on America, 25, j^, 75. Tripler Hall, New York, 75. Trinity Church,

music

in

Truette, E. E., 269, 275.

Tuckerman, Dr.

"Sintram" sym-

phony, 217. 354, 355. in music, 293.

Swan, Allen W., 230, 275. Swan, Timothy, 22. Symphonies (see names of composers).

Symphony

Jubilee, 343

Trajetta, Signor, in Boston, 46, 52 delphia, 96.

269. (first

Strakosch, 109, 115, 328. String quartettes {see Chamber-music).

Thomas W., Svendsen, on woman

74.

Tomlins, William L., 91, 350. Tomlinson, Ralph, 150. Tonic Sol-fa in Chicago schools, 350. Tourjee, Dr. Eben, 340 ei seq. ; in Peace

Tretbar, Mrs. Helen D., 335. Trinity Church, Boston, Goodrich, organist,

Stoughton Musical Society America), 27, 28, 29.

Surette,

;

Hall, Boston, 62.

S. P., 262, 265.

Tuckey, William, 25. Tufts College Course Tufts,

John W.,

in

Music, 355.

350.

Turner, Alfred D., 343.

Ullmann, 109. University extension lectures, 354. University music courses, see Music in Colleges.

Taft, Frank, 274. " Tannhauser " overture (first

Wagner music

America), 119. Tapper, Thomas, 357. in

Ritter, 336.

University of

Taylor, Raynor (early Philadelphia musician),

24

;

Temple

with Musical

Fund

University of Michigan, 353. University of New York, confers degree on

Society, 77.

choir, Brooklyn, 272.

Pennsylvania,

music

course,

351-

Upham, Dr. George 262.

B. (Music Hall organ),

;

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN MUSIC

38o Upton, George

P.,

327

Wheeler, Lyman W., 343. Whelpley, B. L., 275. White, Richard G., 337. Whiting, Arthur B., 211 et seq.; " Floriana,"

et seq.

Urso, Camilla, 309.

Van Van

Cleve,

J. S.,

331.

der Stucken, Frank, 192 et seq.

Western composer, 70

;

;

greatest

American concert,

director of Cincinnati College of 193 Music, 346; " William Ratclilfe," 193. ;

Van

Zandt, Marie, 310.

;

Voice, national characteristics, 310.

Wagner, Richard, Chicago performance precedes European, 62 first American opera ;

performance,

119; trilogy published in 316; Finck, biography, 316;

Kobbe, 319; KrehbiePs essays, 320. Wagner operas begin in New York, 114. Walter, Rev. Thomas, 2, 8, 9, li. Warren, George W., 270, 271. Warren. Mrs. Mercy (writes first American song), 141.

Warren, Richard H., 271. Warren, Samuel P., 271 taught Gerrit Smith, William G. Carl, 272 L. A. 272 ;

;

;

Washington, General, attends opera, 24. " Washington's March," 148. Weaver, Sterrie A., 351. Webb, George J., conductor of Handel and Society, 34

;

piano-

:

;

taught Chadwick,

343;

Dunham, 267 C. H. Morse, Whitney, Myron W., 309. ;

Whitney,

S. B.,

269

seq.

et

170;

273.

Boston organ

;

concert. 275. Widor, C. M.. 268.

Wilcox, John H.. 262, 265. Wild, Harrison M., 273. 274. Wilson, George H., 326. Winchester, Amasa, 31 president of Handel ;

and Haydn, 34;

Mason, 39; in Philharmonic Society, Boston, 49. Winthrop, Hon. R. C, 30. Wolle,

J.

assists L.

Fred., 88, 274.

Woodbridge,

W. C,

public school music, 78.

Woodman,

R. H., 273, 274. Woolf, B. E., 322, 323.

Worcester

music

festivals,

88

;

Chadwick

conducts, 172.

Work, Henry Clay (songs of

Civil

War),

Working

people's choruses, 87.

World's Fair, Chicago, organ music, 274 Mrs. Beach's works performed, 301 diploma to Helen Hood, 307.

;

conductor of Academy

Boston Musical of Music orchestra, 56 Fund Society, 56; efforts for spreading ;

musical education, 78. Webb, Thomas Smith, 30, 31, 34. Webster, Colonel Fletcher (John

ment by Dresel, 251. Western orchestra concerts Wetzler, H. H., 68. Wetzler Orchestra, 68.

confers degree

music course, 178, 354; on William Mason, 281

Philip Hale

324.

Yale

University,

at,

"Yankee Doodle,"

;

143 et seq.

Brown

song), 157, 160. Wellesley College, C. H. Morse, 273; Hill, J. W., 354; H. C. MacDougall, 355. " Well-tempered Clavichord," Bach's, arrange-

Wheeler, Harry, 343.

212;

concerto,

161.

Russell, 273.

Haydn

pianoforte

and orchestral fantasia, 213. Whiting. George E., 265 et seq. at Chicago World's Fair, 274 at New England Conservatory,

Vassar College, E. M. Bowman, music director, 272 George C. Gow, 354. Virginia, early music copied from English, i. Vogt. A. S., 274.

America,

212; forte

Zerrahn, Carl, 35, 36; as flute-player, 58; Harvard Musical Association Orchestra, general his orchestra influence, 70 58 ;

influence. 165

;

;

taught conducting at

England Conservatory, (early), 62.

New

343.

Ziegfeld, Dr. Florence, 347. Zion Church, New York (early music), 74.

Zweckwer, Richard, 347.

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN ART Edited by

JOHN

VAN DYKE

C.

THE HISTORY OF AMERICAN SCULPTURE By Member

LORADO TAFT

of the National Sculpture Society

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'

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History of American Sculpture,' we shall have a monumental and indispensable survey of the whole achievement of American Art." Ne%u York Evening Post.

tory as Mr. Taft's

*



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