Historical Collections of the State of Pennsylvania

  • 0 0 0
  • Like this paper and download? You can publish your own PDF file online for free in a few minutes! Sign Up
File loading please wait...
Citation preview


c 5



er of families came into the fort from the neighborhood of Johnstown. Amongst them were Samuel Adams, a man named Thornton, and one Bridges. A party After their alarm had somewhat subsided, they agreed to return for their property. Started with pack-horses, reached the place, and not seeing any Indians, collected their property







and commenced their return. After proceeding some distance, a dog belonging to one of the party showed signs of uneasiness, and ran back. Bridges and Thornton desired the others to wait whilst they would go back for him. They went back, and had proceeded but 200 or 300 yards, when a body of Indians, who had been lying in wait on each side of tlu; way, but who had been afraid to fire on account of the numbers of the whites, suddenly rose up and surrounded them and took them prisoners. The others, not knowing what detained their companions, went back after them when they arrived near the spot, the Indians fired on them, but without doing any injury. The whites instantly turned and fled, excepting Samuel Adams, who took a tree and began to tight in the Indian style. In a few minutes, however, he was killed, but not without doing the same fearful service for his adversary. He and one of the Indians shot at and killed each other at the same moment. When the news reached the fort, a party volunteered to When they reached it, although the snow had fallen ankle deep, they readily visit the ground. found the bodies of Adams and the Indian the face of the latter having been covered by his companions with Adams's hunting shirt. singular circumstance also occurred about that time in the neighborhood of the Allegheny mountain. man named Wells had made a very considerable improvement, and was esteemed rather wealthy for that region. He, like others, had been forced with his family from his home, and had gone for protection to the fort. In the fall of the year, he concluded to return to his and his For that purpose he took with him six or seven men, an place dig crop of potatoes. Irish servant girl to cook, and an old plough-horse. After they had finished their job, they made to return to the fort next preparations day. During the night Wells dreamed that on his way to his family he had been attacked and gored by a bull and so strong an impression did the dream make, that he mentioned it to his companions, and told them that he was sure some danger awaited them. He slept again, and dreamed that he was about to shoot a deer, and when cocking his gun the main-spring broke. In his dream he thought he heard distinctly the crack of the spring when it broke. He again awoke, and his fears were confirmed and he immediately lu-ged his friends to rise and get ready to start. Directly after he arose he went to his gun to ;






if it was all This circumstance right, and in cocking it the main-spring snapped ofT. alarmed them, and they soon had breakfast and were ready to leave. To prevent delay, the girl was put on the horse and started off", and as soon as it was light enough, the rest followed. Before they had gone far, a yomig dog belongmg to Wells manifested much alarm, and ran back to the house. Wells called him but after coming a short distance, he invariably ran back. Not wishing to leave him, as he was valuable, he went after him, but had gone but a short distance towards the house, when five Indians rose from behind a large tree that had fallen, and approached him with extended hands. The men who were with him fled mstantly, and he would have As they approached him, however, followed, but the Indians were so close he thought it useless. he fancied the looks of a very powerful Indian who was nearest him boded no good and being " a very swift runner, and thinking it neck or nothing" at any rate, determined to attempt an escape. As the Indian approached, he threw at him his useless rifle, and dashed off towards the woods in the direction his companions had gone. Instead of firing, the Indians commenced a After running some dispursuit for the purpose of making him a prisoner, but he outran them. tance, and when they thought he would escape, they all stopped and fired at once, and every bullet struck him, but without doing him much injury or retarding his flight. Soon after this he saw where his companions had concealed themselves and as he passed, begged them to fire on the Indians and save him but they were afraid and kept quiet. He continued his flight, and after a short time overtook the girl with the horse. She quiefely understood his danger and dismounted instantly, urging him to take her place, while she would save herself by concealment. He mounted, but without a whip, and for want of one could not get the old horse out of a trot. This delay brought the Indians upon him again directly, and as soon as they were near enough they fired and this time with more effect, as one of the balls struck him in the hip and lodged in his But this saved his life it frightened the horse into a gallop, and he escaped, although he groin.







months afterwards. The Indians were afterwards pursued and surprised at their morning meal and when fired on four of them were killed, but the other, though wounded, made his escape. Bridges, who was taken prisoner near Johnstown when Adams was murdered, saw him come in to his people, and describes him as having been shot through the chest, with leaves stuffed in the bullet holes to Buffered severely for several


stop the bleeding.


Indians were most troublesome during their predatory ineurslons, which were frequent commencement of the revolution. They cut off a party of whites under command of " Capt. Dorsey, at the Harbor," a deep cove formed by Ray's hill, and a spur from it. John Lane, to whom I have before referred, was out at one time as a spy and scout, under the command of a Capt. Philips. He left the scout once for two days, on a visit home, and when he returned to the fort the scout had been out some time. Fears were entertained for their safety. party went in search and within a mile or two of the fort, found Capt. Philips and the whole When found they were all tied to sapUngs and, to of his men, 15 in number, killed and scalped. after the






" their bodies were use the language of the narrator, who was an eye-witness, completely riddled with arrows." The oldest native of the county living [in 1843] is Wm. Fraser. His father left Fort Cumberland about 1758, and came to the fort at Bedford. He built the first house outside the fort, and Wm. was the first white child born outside the fort. He was born in 1759, and is now about 84 He had come about 14 miles that mornyears of age. He was in my office a few days since. this he frequently does. ing, and intended returning home the same day ;

Several distinguished men of the olden time have been mentioned byMr. Burd above. Hon. Mr. Walker, lately a U. S. Senator from MissisThe following is abridged from sippi, was a native of Bedford county. a Connecticut newspaper, under the head of " Letters from Luzerne." Yankee talent and virtue are appreciated and rewarded in Pennsylvania. John Todd, some Connecticut. Having finished his law studies, he years since deceased, was a native of Suffield, close took his pack, literally, on his back, and came out to Bedford co., seeking his fortune. Of middle size, he seemed student, he was pale but a bright eye animated his countenance. entered the he first When than for formed rather Pennsylvania senate, then strength. activity " at Lancaster, at about 27 or 28 years of age. Senator Palmer remarked, My life on't that fellow mark my word you will hear I suspect the latter is a fool, or possesses uncommon talents did. Awkward beyond conception, he would grasp a pen in his liand, bite and from him." twist and chew it, as he rose to speak his head a little on one side but presently the house would be startled by some bold proposition. He would shake the bitten quill, and pour forth a but of correct principles and sound argument, with a spirit and power torrent not of words most effective. In two or three sessions behold him speaker of the house, presiding with great and just popularity. On the floor of Congress next, chairman of the committee on manufacAttacked by Gov. Hamilton of S. Carolina, that ttires, he sustains a judicious protective tariff. " You'll get it, Hamilton Todd won't spare you." hotspur of the south, he prepared to reply. " he meant nothing personal, no ofWilling to escape, Mr. H. said, in the lobby, next morning, " I took it as a fence," &,c. political attack, not a personal affront, although extremely personal " Can't do in its bearing but say on the floor what you say here, and I will omit my reply." And Todd gave him one of the cleverest retorts known in that." " Then you shall have it." congressional story. An associate on the bench of the supreme court of Pennsylvania, Mr. Todd next holds a seat, and no one commanded more confidence and respect. But disease brought him to a too early grave 27th March, 1830, aged 51 years in the midst of honor and He was in his day the Brougham of Pennsylvania. Long wiU she cherish, with usefulness. the memory of the pale Yankee. pride and affection,






It would appear from Rev. Mr. Doddridge's statement that Bedford, as compared with the more remote settlements, had during the revolution become in a degree civilized. His description of the primeval furniture of a cabin related to the new settlements in the Monongahela country, but, as the almanac-makers say, will answer nearly as well for other places in the same latitude :


furniture for the table, for several years after the settlement of this country, consisted of a few pewter dishes, plates, and spoons ; but mostly of wooden bowls, trenchers, and noggins. The iron If these last were scarce, gourds and hard-shelled squashes made up the deficiency.

and forks, were brought from the east side of the mountains, along with the salt and iron, on pack-horses. These articles of furniture corresponded very well with the articles of diet on which they were " Hog and hominy" were proverbial for the dish of which they were the component employed. Jonny cake and pone were, at the outset of the settlements of the country, the only forms parts. At supper, milk and mush were the standard dish. for breakfast and dinner. in use of bread In our whole display of fmniture, the delft, cliina, and silver were unknown. It did not then,

pots, knives,

as now, require contributions from the four quarters of the globe to furnish the breakfast table viz., the silver from Mexico, the coffee from the West Indies, the tea from China, and the delft and porcelain from Europe or Asia yet our homely fare, and unsightly cabins, and furniture, produced a hardy veteran race, who planted the first footsteps of society and civilization in the immense regions of the west. I well recollect the first time I ever saw a tea-cup and saucer, and tasted coffee. My mother died when I was about six or seven years of age. My father then sent me to Maryland with a Mr. Alexander to school. brother of my grandfather, Wells, At Col. Brown's in the mountains, at Stoney creek glades, I for the first time saw tame geese ; and by bantering a pet gander, I got a severe biting by his bill and beating by his win;js. 1 ;



wondered very much that birds so large and strong should be so much tamer than the wild keys



at this place, however, all was right, excepting the large birds wliich they called geese. cabin and its furniture were such as I had been accustomed to see in the backwoods, as my ;

country was then called. At Bedford every thing was changed.

The tavern at which my uncle put up was a stone house, and to make the change still more complete, it was plastered on the inside, both as to the On going into the dining room, I was struck with astonishment at the ap. walls and ceiling. pearance of the house. I had no idea that there was any house in the world wliich was not built of logs but here I looked round the house and could see no logs, and above I could see no Whether such a thing had been made by the hands of man, or had grown so of itself, I joists. I had not the courage to inquire any thing about it. When supper came could not conjecture. " little cup stood in a bigger one with some brownon, my confusion was worse confounded. what to do with these little ish looking stuff in it, which was neither milk, hominy, nor broth cups, and the little spoon belonging to them, I could not tell ; and I was afraid to ask any thing concerning the use of them. It was in the time of the war, and the company were giving accounts of catching, wiiipping, and hanging the tories. The word jail frequently occurred this word I had never heard before, but I soon discovered, and was much terrified at its meaning, and supposed that we were in much danger of the fate of the tories for I thought, as we had come from the backwoods, it was For fear of being discovered, I durst not utter a altogether likely that we must be tories too. 1 therefore watched attentively to see what the big folks would do with their little single word. cups and spoons. I imitated them, and found the taste of the coffee nauseous beyond any thing I continued to drink, as the rest of the company did, with the tears I ever had tasted in my life. streaming from my eyes but when it was to end I was at a loss to know, as the little cups were This circumstance distressed me very much, as I durst filled immediately after being emptied. not say I had enough. Looking attentively at the grown persons, I saw one man turn his little cup bottom upwards and put his little spoon across it. I observed that after this his cup was not filled again. I followed his example, and to my great satisfaction, the result as to my cup was the same. The introduction of delft ware, was considered by many of the backwoods people as a culpable It was too easily broken, and the plates of that ware dulled their scalping and clasp innovation. Tea ware was too small for 7nen ; it might do for women and children. Tea and cofknives. " did not stick fee were only slops which, in the adage of the day, by the ribs." The idea was, of quality, who do not labor, or the sick. genuine backthey were designed only for people woodsman would have thought himself disgraced by showing a fondness for those slops. Indeed, ;









them have

to this

day very


respect for them.

There are three incorporated boroughs in Bedford co. besides the counMartinsburg, McConnellstown, and Schellsbttrg, each taking ty seat, Besides these, its name from the person who laid it out and sold the lots. there are Warfordsburg, Rainsburg, St. Clair, and Bloody Run. The Some tradilatter takes its name from a run which flows through it. tions state that the Indians had here murdered a party of whites, with their cattle, and the mingling of the blood with the water had suggested the name but see a different version in Capt. Smith's adventure, above. McConnellstown is pleasantly situated in a luxuriant limestone valley, between Cove mountain and Scrub ridge, on the turnpike, 28 miles east of Bedford, and 19 west of Chambersburg. turnpike also runs from here to Mercersburg. There are at this place two Presbyterian churches. Population in 1840, 486. It was incorporated 26th March, 1814. Martinsburg is a large flourishing borough, about 23 miles north of Bedford. It is situated in a broad and fertile limestone valley, called Morrison's Cove, bounded by Dunning's and Lock mountains on the wes.3, a petition in behalf of the "members of the Church of England in Cumberland county," representing that they had " in part erected a church in Carlisle, wherein to worship Almighty God but from the smallness of their number, and distressed state of the country consequent upon the Indian wars," they were unable to finish it and praying the house " to consider their condition, and grant them such relief as they in their wisdom" should deem meet. The same year an act was passed authorizing them to raise a sufficient sum for the de;


but whether they availed themselves of it, does not appear. The one was built near the same spot. An itinerant mis. " sionary for the counties of York and Cumberland, was maintained by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts," for several years after these counties were founded. This office, as late as 1766, was held by the Rev. William Thompson, son of the first Presbyterian pastor at the " Meeting-house .Springs." The present rector is the Rev. P. H. Grcenleaf. The German Reformed and Evangelical Lutheran congregations were organized about 1765 the latter under the pastoral care of the Rev. Mr. Butler. They worshipped on alternate Sabbaths in the same church, which stood on the present German Reformed burying-ground, until The Lutheran chiU'ch 1807, when each congregation erected a house of worship for its own use. was incorporated in 1811, and is now under the care of the Rev. John Ulrich. The German Reformed church was located on the lot now occupied by the Preparatory schoolbuilding of Dickinson College. Having sold it, they built, in 1827, a church at the corner of High and Pitt streets, which they afterwards sold to the Methodists, and in 1835 erected the one wtiicli they now occupy in Louther-street. They were incorporated in 1811. Their pastor is the sired

purpose by lottery church then erected stood


until the present


Rev. Henry Aurand.


Methodist ministers commenced their labors in Carlisle, worship, the market-place, then in the courthouse, and subsequently in a small frame-building in Pomfret-street, in which last place they formed a class of about 12 members, in 1792 or 1793. Their number increased, and in a few years afterwards they built a small stone house in Pitt-street, in which they worshipped a short time, and then erected a brick edifice in Church alley. Having sold this in 1835, they purchased from the German Reformed congre. gation the stone church on the corner of Pitt and High streets, which they have much improved ping

after the revolution, the

first in

and beautified. In this they now worship, under the pastoral charge of the Rev. Henry Slicer. The congregation was incorporated in 1838. The Catholic chapel is built in the figure of a cross. It was erected in 1807, and enlarged in The lot was at an early day owned by the Jesuits of Conewago, who had upon it a small 1823. log church, in

which the Catholic congregation worshipped Rev Patrick Maher.

until the present

one was



officiating priest is the

The Associate

Presbyterian congregation of Carlisle was organized in 1798. The lot on Westis built, was conveyed, in consideration of jC6, by the Messrs. Penn, Blair, Wm. Moore, John Smith, and John McCoy, trustees of the Associate Presbyterian congregation, adhering to the subordination of the Associate Presbytery of PennThe sylvania, of which the Rev. John Marshall and James Clarkson" were then members. building was put up in 1802, and the Rev. Francis Pringle, their first pastor, called the same They have now no stationed minister, but the pulpit is occasionally filled by suppUes. year. There are also three African churches in the borough. street,

upon which the church

in 1796, to "


" The United States barracks are located about half a mile from the town, but within the borough limits. They were built in 1777. The workmen employed were Hessians captured at Trenton. The barracks will garrison 2,000 men. A school of cavalry practice has recently been established at them, by the government, and the buildings handsomely fitted up under the direction of Captain E. V. Sumner, commanding the po.st."

a remarkable limestone cave 11-2 miles from town. The is on the banks of the Conodoguinet, is a semi-circular archway, about 7 feet high, wrought by nature's own hand. It contains a number of curious passages and antechambers, and several pools of water, supposed by some to be springs, but probably formed by the drippings from the roof, or by the occasional overflowing of its subterranean waters. " It is supposed by some that the Indians formerly used this cave



entrance, Avhich



as a place of refuge from danger, a deposit for their spoils, and a place of interment for the dead. Human bones have been found in it, but none of those articles usually buried with the Indians." About four miles north of Carlisle, on a branch of the Conodoguinet, are the Sulphur Springs, in a very health^-, retired spot, surround(;d with

Carlisle Springs.

The grounds are ornamented in the fine scenery of the Blue mountain. good taste, and the accommodations for strangers are ample. It was formerly a place of great resort. The water bubbles up from the slate formation, from which it derives its strong impregnation of sulphur. Shippensburg, the most ancient town in the co., is situated near the western boundar}', on the turnpike and the railroad. It is in the heart of a fertile limestone country, cultivated principally by German farmers, with a few descendants of the ancient Scotch-Irish pioneers. It was formerly rendered very brisk by the wagoners' business, which has been broken up by the railroad. Means' run, a branch of the Conodoguinet, The borough was incorporated turns a number of mills at the town. This place, in 1750, was for a time the seat of justice 21st Jan. 1819. of the county. Population in 1810, 1,159 ; in 1820, 1,410; in 1830, 1,808 ; The region around Shippensburg was settled at a very in 1840, 1,473. early day. The old Presbyterian church at Middle Spring, (2 miles out,) was one of the first established in the valley, under the old presbytery of Donnegal. The venerable Mr. Moody, the present pastor, has been in charge about forty years. He was preceded by the Rev. Dr. Robert Cooper, who remained in charge about thirty-five years, and before him was the Rev. Mr. Blair, who had been in charge but a short time. The Presbyterian church in town is of more recent origin, the records extending no further back than the last war, (1812-14.) Rev. James Walker, who retired in 1820, was the first clergyman Rev. Thomas M. Strong, Henry R. Wilson, and James Harper still there have since succeeded each other. The Seceders appear to have founded the earliest church in town, and have recently ejected the others in a suit at law for the church property on an ancient title deed. The earlier settlers here were Messrs. Bard, M'Ewen, M'Connell, Reynolds, and McClay, about 100 years since.





John Brady, the father of Capt. Samuel Brady, was bom in the state of Delaware, A. D Hugh Brady, the father of John, had emigrated from Ireland. At a very early period, Hugh Brady settled within five miles of where Shippensburg now stands. The country was then a wilderness, thinly settled by Irish emigrants, simple, sincere, and religious. Many anecdotes are collected, evincive of this, but they would be out of place here. During the French and Indian wars, that part of the country was much harassed by the Indians. John Brady and several other young men had been active against them, and as a mark and reward of merit, he was appointed captain in the provincial line, which at that time was no small distinction. He married Mary Quigly, and Samuel, their first child, was born in tiie town of Shippensburg, A. D. 1758. After the war, and a purciiase had been made from the Indians in 1768, John Brady moved with his family to the West branch of the Susquehanna, where Samuel resided with him till June, 1775. Capt. John Lowden, a widower, raised a company of volunteer riflemen, seventy in numSamuel Brady was one of this band, and the ber, and all unmarried, and marched to Boston. " Let him first captain intended that he should be an officer but his father objected, saying, learn the duty of a soldier, and then he will know how to act as an officer." 1733.


Newville is a pleasant borough with 654 inhabitants, on the railroad and on Big Spring creek, 14 miles west of Carlisle. It contains Presbyterian and Seceders' churches. The borough was incorporated 26th Feb. 1817. Died, on Sunday, the 19th Dec. 1830, at his residence in Mifflin township, Cumberland co., William Denning, in the 94th year of his age. The deceased was an artificer in the army of the revolution. He it was, who, in the days of his country's need, made the only successful attempt ever made in the world to manufacture wrought iron cannon two of which he completed, at Middlesex in this county, and commenced another and larger one at Mount Holly, but could get no one to assist him who could stand the heat, which is said to have been so great as to melt the lead buttons on his clothes. This unfinished piece, it is said, lies as he left it, at either Holly Forge or the Carlisle Barracks. One of those completed was taken by the British at the battle of Brandywine, and is now in the tower of London. The British government offered a large sum, and a stated annuity, to the person who would instruct them in the manufacture of that article ; but the patriotic blacksmith preferred obscurity and poverty in his own beloved country, to wealth and affluence in that of her oppressors although that country for which he did so much, kept her purse closed from the veteran soldier till near the close of his long life and it often required the whole weight of his well-known characWhen such characters as the ter for honesty, to save him from the severest pangs of poverty. deceased are neglected by a rich government, it is no wonder that some folks think Republics Pa.,




The strength of his good constitution continued till near his last ; and he was able to walk to the village of Newville, (two miles from his residence,) until about six months before his decease. Hazard''s Register, vol. 7.

Mechanicsburg is a flourishing borough, incorporated 12th April, 1828, on the railroad, 9 miles east of Carlisle. Population in 1830, 554 in ;

1840, 670.


Cumberland, borough, incorporated 21st March, 1831,



mouth of Yellow Breeches creek, on the right bank of the Susquehanna, 3 miles below Harrisburg. Population in 1840, 284. WoRMLEYSBURG and Fairview are two villages opposite Harrisburg, the former at the end of the bridge, and the latter two miles above, at the mouth of the Conodoguinet. There are several other small villages in the county, among which are Kingstown, Stoughstown, Springfield, &.c. at the

DAUPHIN COUNTY. DaijTiiin county was separated from Lancaster by the act of 4th March, 1785 by the establishment of Lebanon county, in 1813, it was reduced to its present limits. Length 33 miles, breadth 16 area, 533 ;




Population in 1790, 18,177 in 1800, 22,270 in 1810, 31,883 Lebanon off;) 21,653 in 1830, 25,243 in 1840, 30,118. That part of the co. below the Kittatinny mountain, and forming a of undulating slate and limestone part of the Kittatinny valley, consists The other part of the co. lands, beautiful, fertile, and highly cultivated. is very mountainous, but contains a few narrow and pleasant red-shale the Susquehanna. The mountainvalleys, and several fertile flats along ous region abounds with anthracite coal, especially Lyken's valley, at the southwestern termination of the great southern coal field of Pottsville and Mauch Chunk. This coal field, in the vicinity of Pine grove, " divides into two branches, the northern one, under the name of Wiconisco mountain, extending westwardly several miles beyond the county line of Schuylkill and Dauphin counties, to Lyken's valley and the other, embraced between the Stony mountain and a continuation of the Sharp mountain, reaching nearly to the Susquehanna river." Commencing with the Kittatinny mountain and traversing the co. in a northwestern direction, the principal ranges crossed are the Second and Third, Peters', Between Peters' and Berry's are Berry's, and Mahantango mountains. Short mountain, and several minor ridges and broken spurs and several of a similar character between Berry's and the Mahantango mountains. In the southern In these minor elevations the coal beds generally occur. part of the co. are Round-top, near Middletown, and other isolated sq. miles.


in 1820, (part of






knobs, apparently belonging to the Conewago range. The Susquehanna runs a distance of 48 miles along the western edge of the CO., its western bank being the boundary line. The scenery along its banks is grand and picturesque, especially where the river breaks through the great mountain ranges at Harrisburg and Duncan's Island, the grandeur and beauty of nature are enhanced by magnificent strucThe other prominent streams are, the Swatara river or tures of art. creek, entering the Susquehanna at Middletown, Conewago cr., the southern boundary, Paxton cr.. Fishing cr.. Stony cr., Clark's cr., Powell's :

cr., Armstrong cr.. Big and Little Wiconisco crs., and Mahantango creek, the northern boundary. The public improvements within the co. are the Union canal, along the Swatara, the Pennsylvania canal, along the Susquehanna, as far up as the mouth of the Juniata, and the Wiconisco canal, above the mouth of the Juniata, connecting with the coal mines, the Harrisburg and Lancaster railroad, the Lykens Valley railroad, to the Susquehanna,

Harrisburg and Duncan's Island. On one of those at Harrisburg, which is one mile long, crosses the Cumberland Valley railroad. Several excellent stone turnpikes pass through the CO., to Lancaster, Lebanon, Duncan's Island, &c. The population of the agricultural portion of the co. is principally of German descent, retaining the language, manners, and patient industry of that race. Of the descendants of the original Irish settlers, but few remain. At Harrisburg, and in the coal districts, the population is of

and the three magnificent

"bridges, at

various races. Coal and agricultural products are the chief exports. very extensive lumber trade is carried on at Middletown and Harrisburg. Some iron is also made in the county. Dauphin co. was originally Paxton township, (or Pextang, as some





in the olden time,) of Lancaster co. in honor of the son of Louis XVI.,

The name of

the county king of France. It was an enterprising originally settled by emigrants from the north of Ireland and daring race, who for many years defended the frontier against the Indians, and were conspicuous in many of the sanguinary scenes of border warfare. The first settlers appear to have been John Harris, who came to the mouth of Paxton cr., near Harrisburg, about the year 1726 called


was given


and James, Robert, Joseph, and Benjamin Chambers, who emigrated from Antrim co., in Ireland, between the years 1726 and 1730, and took up land and built a mill shortly afterwards, at the mouth of Fishing cr., (M'AlesAll the brothers except Joseph removed a few years afterwards to ter's.) the Conococheague settlements. (See Franklin co.) The names of the subsequent settlers for several years do not appear, yet there appears to have been quite an extensive body of settlers in this region during the old French vi^ar of 1755 to 1758. Fort Halifax, one of the line of forts built by the provincial government, was erected at the mouth of Armstrong's cr. early in 1756. Gov. Morris in person visited the Susquehanna about that time, to inspect the defences of the frontier. was situated at the mouth of Fishing cr. During the autumn of 1755, after Braddock's defeat, hostile savages came down in Many murders were committed by them parties upon the whole frontier.

Fort Hunter


Paxton township.

—Accounts from Bethlehem and Nazareth, that about 200 Indians had broke into beyond the Blue mountains, murdering and burning. —This country in a dismal condition. It can't From Conrad Weiser, Reading, Dec. hold out long. Consternation, poverty, confusion, everywhere. Harris's that he had gone up Dec. 25. — Accounts from C. Weiser, who had been sent Dec. 16.







the West branch of the' Susquehanna and the Delawares at Nescopec had given that place to That the Paxton people had taken an Indian and shot and scalped the French for a rendezvous. him in the midst of them, and threw his body into the river. Oct. 18. party of the Indians fell upon the inhabitants of Mahanahy cr., that runs into the river Susquehanna, about five miles lower than the Great Fork made by the junction of the two main branches of that river; and carried off 25 persons, and burnt and destroyed their buildings and improvements, and the whole settlement was deserted. Oct. 23. Forty-six of the inliabitants on Paxton cr., led by John Harris, went to Shamokin to inquire of the Indians there who they were who had so cruelly fallen upon and ruined the settlements on Mahanahy cr. but as they were repassing Mahanahy cr., on their return from Shamokin, they were fired upon by some Indians who lay in ambush, and four were killed, four drowned, and the rest put to flight on which all the settlements between Shamokin and Hunter's mill, for Provincial Records. the space of 50 miles along the river Susquehanna, were deserted. ;



The people from the north of Ireland, or the Scotch-Irish as they are usually termed, were Presbyterians and the venerable churches of Donnegal, Paxton, Derr}% and Hanover, were among the earliest in Pennsylvania. That of Paxton, about three miles east of Harrisburg, is said to have been erected about the year 1740. Rev. Mr. Elder was the first pastor of that and the Derry church, and continued to officiate for 60 He was also colonel of the Paxton Rangers, whose duty it was years. to protect the settlement against the incursions of the Indians. David Brainerd, the devoted missionary, was one of the earliest travNotwithellers through this region who has left any record of his tour. standing the early establishment of the Presbyterian church, the growth in^race of such as he met with appears to have been very feeble. Some, however, might perhaps think David Brainerd's too rigid a standard by which to try rude pioneers. His first journey was made in May, 1745, ;


when he




the river from a visit to the Indians,

" wese probably,) on Juneauta island" now Duncan's. at Shamokin in Sept. 1745, and "travelled down the



He was


river southwest-


Visited an Indian town, called Juneauta, situate on an island in the SusqueSept. 19, 1745. hanna. Was much discouraged with the temper and behavior of the Indians here altliough they last spring, and then gave me encouragement to appeared friendly when I was with them the come and see them again. But they now seemed resolved to retain their pagan notions, and per;

sist in their idolatrous practices.

Visited the Indians again at Juneauta island, and found them almost universally Sept. 20. Had no opportunity to get sacrifice and dance. very busy in making preparations for a great them toirether, in order to discourse with tliem about Christianity, by reason of their being so much engaged about their sacrifice. My spirits were much sunk with a prospect so very disbut a pagan, who was as much couraging and especially seeing I had this day no interpreter attached to idolatry as any of them, and who could neither speak nor understand the language of these Indians so that I was under the greatest disadvantages imaginable. However, I atnottempted to discourse privately with some of them, but without any appearance of success withstanding, I still tarried with them. In the evening they met together, nearly 100 of them, and danced around a large fire, having fat of the inwards they burnt in the fire while they prepared ten fat deer for the sacrifice. The were dancing, which sometimes raised the flame to a prodigious height ; at the same time yelling and shouting in such a manner that they might easily iiave been heard two miles or more. They continued their sacred dance nearly all night, after which they ate the flesh of the sacrifice, and 60 retired each one to his own lodging. ;



alone on the i-sland, as to any Christian company, enjoyed Uttle satisfaction being entirely and having walked to and fro till body and mind were in the midst of this idolatrous revel at length crept into a little crib made for corn, and there slept on pained and much oppressed, I the poles. Lord's day, Sept. 21. Spent the day with the Indians on the island. As soon as they were well up in the morning I attempted to instruct them, and labored for that purpose to get them tofor near noon they gathered together all else to do gether but soon found they had something their powaws, or conjurers, and set about half a dozen of them playing their juggling tricks, and to rind out why they were then so sickly upon acting their frantic, distracted postures, in order In this the island, numbers of them being at that time disordered with a fever and bloody flux. I






exercise they were engaged for several hours, making all the wild, ridiculous, and distracted motions imaginable, sometimes singing, sometimes howling, sometimes extending their hands to all their fingers tlie utmost stretch, and they seemed to push with them as if they de-

spreading it oft' at arm's end ; sometimes stroking their signed to push something away, or at least keep faces with their hands, then spurting water as fine as mist sometimes sitting flat on the earth, then bowing down their faces to the ground then wringing their sides as if in pain and anguish, ;



&lc. twisting their faces, turning up their eyes, grunting, puffing, Their monstrous actions tended to excite ideas of horror, and seemed to have something in if he could be raised by any thing odd, raise the to devil, them, as I thought, peculiarly suited Some of them, I could observe, were much more fervent and devout ridiculous, and frightful. in the business than others, and seemed to chant, peep, and mutter with a great degree of warmth and vigor, as if determined to awaken and engage the powers below. I sat at a small distance, feet from them, though undiscovered, with my Bible in my hand, resolving, not more than


and prevent their receiving any answers from the infernal world, and there viewed the whole scene. They continued their hideous charms and incantations for more than three hours, until they had all wearied themselves out; although tiiey had in that space of time taken several intervals of rest and at length broke up, I apprehended, without receiving if possible, to spoil their sport,


any answer



After tiiey had done powawing, I attempted to discourse with them about Christianity but for any thing of that nature. view of these they soon scattered, and gave me no opportunity alone in the wilderness, destitute of the society of any one who so things, wliile I was entirely ;


named the name of Christ," greatly sunk mv spirits, and gave me the most gloomy mind imaginable, almost stripped me of all resolution and hope respecting further attempts for propagating the gospel and converting the pagans, and rendered this the most burdensome and disagreeable Sabbath which I ever saw. But nothing, I can truly say, sunk and distressed


as "

turn of

hope respecting their conversion. This concern appeared so great, and that I seemed to have nothing to do on earth if this failed. in the saving conversion of souls under gospel light would have prospect of the greatest success done little or nothing towards compensating for the loss of my hope in this respect and my spirits now were so damped and depressed, that I had no heart nor power to make any furtiier at-


like the loss of


to be so



much my own,




among them for that purpose, and could not possibly recover my hope, resolution, and courage, by the utmost of my endeavors. The Indians of this island can, many of them, understand the English language considerably but are well, having formerly lived in some part of Maryland, among or near the white people very drunken, vicious, and profane, although not so savage as those who have less acquaintance differ of the in from those the other Their various Indians with customs, respects, English. upon this river. They do not bury their dead in a common form, but let their flesh consume above At the end of a year, or sometimes a longer the ground, in close cribs made for that purpose. space of time, they take the bones, when the flesh is all consumed, and wash and scrape them, and afterwards bury them with some ceremony. Their method of charming or conjuring over the sick, seems somewhat different from that of the other Indians, though in substance the same. The whole of it among these and others, perhaps, is an imitation of what seems, by Naaman's It seems expression, (2 Kings v. 11,) to have been the custom of the ancient heathen. chiefly to consist in their " striking their hands over the diseased," repeatedly stroking them, "and calling upon their god ;" except the spurting of water like a mist, and some other frantic ceremonies common to the other conjurations which I have already mentioned. When I was in this region in May last, I had an opportunity of learning many of the notions and customs of the Indians, as well as observing many of their practices. I then travelled more than 130 miles upon the river, above the English settlements and in that journey met with inBut of all the dividuals of seven or eight distinct tribes, speaking as many different langiJages. Bights I ever saw among them, or indeed anywhere else, none appeared so frightful, or so near akin to what is usually imagined of infernal jmwers, none ever excited such images of terror in my mind, as the appearance of one who was a devout and zealous reformer, or rather restorer of what he supposed was the ancient religion of the Indians. He made his appearance in his -pontifical garb, which was a coat of bearskins, dressed with the hair on, and hanging down to his toes a pair of bear-skin stockings, and a great wooden face painted, the one half black, the other half tawny, about ttic, color of an Indian's skin, with an extravagant mouth, cut very much awry the face fastened to a bear-skin cap, which was drawn over his head. He advanced towards me with the instrument in his hand which he used for music in his idolatrous worship which was a dry tortoise-shell with some corn in it, and the neck of it drawn on to a piece of wood, which made a very convenieiit handle. As he came forward he beat his tune with the rattle, and danced with all his might, but did not suffer any part of his body, not so much as his No one would have imagined from his appearance or actions, that he could fingers, to be seen. have been a human creaUure, if they had not had some intimation of it otherwise. When he came near me I could not but shrink away from him, although it was then noonday, and I knew who it was his appearance and gestures were so prodigiously frightful. He had a house consecrated to religious uses, with divers images cut upon the several parts of it. I went in, and found I discoursed with the ground beat almost as hard as a rock, with their frequent dancing upon it. him about Christianity. Some of my discourse he ?^emed to like, but some of it he dishked exHe told me that God had taught him his religion, and that he never would turn from tremely. for the Indians, he said, were it, but wanted to find some who would join heartily with him in it grown very degenerate and corrupt. He had thoughts, he said, of leaving all his friends, and for he believed that God travelling abroad, in order to find some who would join with him had some good people somewhere, who felt as he did. He had not always, he said, felt as he now did but had formerly been like the rest of the Indians, until about four or five years before that time. Then, he said, his heart was very much distressed, so that he could not live among the Indians, but got away into the woods, and lived alone for some months. At length, he said, God comforted his heart, and showed him what he should do and since that time he had known God, and tried to serve him and loved all men, be they who they would, so as he never did before. He treated me with uncommon courtesy, and seemed to be hearty in it. I was told by the Indians, that he opposed their drinking strong liquor with all his power; and that, if at any time he could not dissuade them from it by all he could say, he would leave them, and go crying It was manifest that he had a set of religious notions which he had examined into the woods. and he relished or disrelished whatfor himself, and not taken for granted upon bare tradition ever was spoken of a religious nature, as it either agreed or disagreed with his standard. While I was discoursing, he would sometimes say, "Now that I like so God has taught me," &c. and some of his sentiments seemed very just. Yet he utterly denied the existence of a devil, and declared there was no such creature known among the Indians of old times, whose religion he supposed he was attempting to revive. He Ukewise told me that departed souls went southward, and that the difference between the good and the bad was this that the former were admitted into a beautiful town vi'ith spiritual walls, and that the latter would for ever hover around these walls in vain attempts to get in. He seemed to be sincere, honest, and conscientious in his own way, and according to his own religious notions which was more than I ever saw in any other pagan. I perceived that he was looked upon and derided among most of the Indians as a precise zealot, who made a needless noise about religious matters ; but I must say that there was tempts

















DAUPHIN COUNTY. Bomethlng In his temper and disposition which looked more ever observed

277 like true


among other heathens. how deplorable is the state

than any thing I

of the Indians upon this river The brief representahave here given of their notions and manners is sufficient to show that they are "led captive by Satan at his will," in the most eminent marmer and methinks might likewise be sufficient to excite the compassion and engage the pravers of God's children for these their

But, alas







" sit in the fellow-men, who region of the shadow of death." Made some further attempts to instruct and Christianize the Indians on Sept. 22. but all to no purpose. They live so near the white people that they are always in

strong liquor, as well as of the difficult to treat

speakably Family Library.


examples of nominal Christians

with them about Christianity.

— summer Brainerd again passed up the

In the ensuing


kin. Aug.


—Lodged by the side of the


the preceding day, godly people.

Aug. 21

and found



this island,




which renders

—Brainerd^s Journal, ;

it so unin Evangelical

river to


Was weak and disordered both this and considerably damped, meeting with none that I thought


— Rode up the

river about 15 miles and there lodged, in a family which appeared quite Labored to discourse with the man about the life of religion, but found him evading such conversation. O what a death it is to some, to hear of the things of

destitute of God.

very artful in


but was not so dejected as at some times. river, my people now being with me who before were parted from me. Travelled above all the English settlements at night lodged in the open woods, and slept with more comfort than while among an ungodly company of white people. Enjoyed some liberty in secret prayer this evening and was helped to remember dear friends, as well as my dear flock, and the church of God in general.





out of

my element, — Continued my course up the



His health, previously feeble, soon failed him amid the exposures of the wilderness, and he returned down the river in Sept. and went home, laboring under a confirmed consumption, scarcely at times able to ride. He died in New England, Oct. 9, 1747. On his return he says Rode down the river near 30 miles. Was extremely weak, much fatigued, and wet Sept. 9. with a thunder-storm. Discoursed with some warmth and closeness to some poor ignorant souls, on the life and power of religion : what were, and what were not the evidences of it. They seemed much astonished when they saw my Indians ask a blessing and give thanks at dinner, concluding that a very high evidence of grace in them but were equally astonished when I in-


was any sure evidence of grace. O the ignorance some empty outward forms, that may all be entirely selfish, mistaken The Lord pity a deluded world for true religion, infallible evidences of it Rode homeward but was very weak, and sometimes scarce able to ride. Had a Sept. 11. very importunate invitation to preach at a meeting-house I came by, the people being then gathWas resigned and composed under my weakness ; ered but could not by reason of weakness. but was much exercised with concern for my companions in travel, whom I had left with much regret, some lame, and some sick.* sisted that neither that, nor yet secret prayer,

of the world









scenes of the French war, and the border wars of 1763, infused a military and adventurous spirit into the young men of Paxton, incompatand we find them, in time ible with the quiet habits of agricultural life of peace, roaming through the mountain wilds as traders, or seeking out rich lands yet unpurchased from the Indians and in time of war, or of frontier disturbance, they were ranging the border, watching the movements of the Indians, cutting off occasional parties, and breaking up their haunts. Being beyond the reach often of the laws of the province, as well as beyond the protection and sympathy of the lower counties, whose influence predominated in the assembly, the Paxton men were under the necessity of protecting themselves, and were governed by usages they could scarcely be termed laws of their own. Many of their fami;


* See further particulars in Brainerd's Life, in Evangelical edition; pp. 286, 292, 293, &c.

Family Library, Am. Tract Soc.



lies had suffered by the Indian tomahawk, and it was suspected by them that the hostile Indians were harbored, if not encouraged, by the friendly Indians at Conestoga and among the Moravians. deadly animosity was thus raised among the Paxton men against all of Indian blood, and against the peaceful and benevolent Moravians and Quakers, who were disposed to conciliate and protect the Indians frequently, as the Paxton men thought, at the expense of the lives of the settlers. It was during the height of this feeling that the bloody and utterly unjustifiable outrage was perpetrated by the Paxton men upon the Conestoga Indians. As this affair is fully described under the head of Lancaster co., it will not be enlarged upon here. This act was probably committed by the younger and more hot-blooded members of the Rev. Col. Elder's corps of Rangers, led on by Lazarus Stewart, a daring partisan, and a man of considerable influence and standing in the Paxton settlement. He soon afterwards joined the Connecticut men, and became very conspicuous in the civil wars of Wyoming. He was once taken prisoner there, and delivered to the sheriff of York co. for safe-keeping ; but his


Rangers rescued him, and he suddenly appeared with them again



oming. He was slain there during the revolution, in the disastrous battle of 3d July, 1778. The following extracts are from a series of historical numbers in the Lancaster Intelligencer and Journal, 1843, by Redmond Conyngham, Esq. Many of the numbers consist of extracts from ancient pamphlets and documents. Imagination cannot conceive the perils with which the settlement of Paxton was surrounded from 1754 to 1765. To portray each scene of horror would be impossible the heart shrinks from the attempt. The, settlers were goaded on to desperation murder followed murder scouts brought in the intelligence that the murderers were traced to Conestogue. Rifles were loaded, horses were in readiness. They mounted they called on their pastor to lead them. He was then in the 57th year of his age. Had you seen him then, you would have beheld a superior beHe had mounted, not to lead them on to the destruction of Conestogue, but to deter them ing. from the attempt he implored them to return, he urged them to reflect " pause, pause, before " the blood of the murdered cries aloud for you proceed." It was in vain vengeance we have waited long enough on government the murderers are within our reach, and they must not es" Mr. Elder reminded them and could not be distinguished." that the the innocent cape." guilty " Innocent can they be called innocent who foster murderers 1" Mr. Elder rode up in front, " " and said, As your pastor, I command you to relinquish your design." Give way, then," said " or Smith, your horse dies," presenting his rifle to save his horse, to which he was much attached, Mr. E. drew him aside, and the rangers were off" on their fatal errand. A palliating letter was written by the Rev. Mr. Elder to Gov. Penn, in which the character of Stewart is represented as humane, liberal, and religious. The Rev. Mr. Elder died at the advanced age of 86 years, in 1792, on his farm adjoining Har-











He frequently visited the Indians at Conestogue, risburg, beloved in life, and in death lamented. Pequehan, and the Big Island, and was much respected by them. He had frequently represented to the Christian Indians the were doing to the whites by admitting stranger Indians wrong they conduct which made them suspected of treachery. R. C. Extract from a letter of the Rev. Mr. Elder, to Governor Hamilton, dated Sept. 13th, 1763 " I suggest to you the propriety of an immediate removal of the Indians from Conestogue, and placing a garrison in tlieir room. In case tliis is done, I pledge myself for the future security of

among them




the frontier."

Extract from a letter of the Rev. Mr. Elder to Gov. Penn, January 27th, 1764 : " Tlie storm which had been Had government reso long gathering, has at length exploded. moved the Indians from Conestogue, which had frequently been urged, without success, this have men heated to madness ? been avoided. What could I do with painful catastrophe might All that I could do, was done I expostulated ; but life and reason were set at defiance. And yet the men in private life are virtuous and respectable ; not cruel, but mild and merciful. " The time will arrive when each This deed, palliating circumstance will be calmly weighed. magnified into the blackest of crimes, shall be considered as one of those youthful ebullitions of wrath caused by momentary excitement, to which human infirmity is subjected." ;



Complaints of the people of Lancaster co. Feb. 27th, 1764. Extract from a remonstrance presented to John Fcnn, governor, from inhabitants of Lancaster co., by their ajjents. " consider it a grievance, that we are restrained from electing more than ten representatives Lancaster four; York two; Cumberland two; Berks one Northampin the frontier counties ton one while the city and county of Philadelphia, and counties of Chester and Bucks, elect to be passed into a law, that any person accused of taking about 26. bill is now away the life of an Indian, shall not be tried in the county where the deed was committed, but in the city can hardly believe the legislature would be guilty of such injustice as to of Philadelphia. of one of most the their valuable and this bill, people pass deprive rights. protest against the passage of such a law, as depriving us of a sacred privilege. letters that the laid before General without the governor Assembly complain signatures, giving exaggerated and false accounts of the destruction of the Indians at Conestogue, and at Lancaster That he paid but little attention to the communications received from our representaThat certain persons in Philadelphia are endeavoriug to rouse the fury tives and Mr. Shippen of the people against the magistrates, the principal inhabitants of the borough of Lancaster, and the Presbyterians of Paxton and Donegal, by gross misrepresentations of facts That we are not allowed a hearing at the Bar of the House, or by the governor That our rangers have never experienced any favors from government, either by remuneration of their services, or by any act of kindness That although there is every reason to believe that the Indians who struck the blow at the Great Cove, received their arms and ammunition from the Bethlehem Indians, government protects the murderers at Philadelphia That six of the Indians now in Philadelphia, known to have been concerned in recent murders, and demanded by us that they may be tried in the county of Northampton, are still at liberty That Renatus, an Indian, who was legally arrested and committed on the charge of murder, is under the protection of government, in Bucks county, when he was to be brought to trial in the county of Northampton, or the county of Cumberland. Shall these things be














SmitVs Narrative. I was an early settler in Paxton, a member of the congregation of the Rev. Mr. Elder. I was one of the chief actors in the destruction of Conestogue, and in stormNo man, unless he I have been stigmatized as a murderer. ing the workhouse in Lancaster. were living at that time in Paxton, could have an idea of the sufferings ai |d anxieties of the peoFor years the Indians had been on the most friendly terms but some of the traders were ple. bought by the French these corrupted the Indians. The savages unexpectedly destroyed our dwelhngs and murdered the unsuspicious. When we visited the wigwams in the neighborhood, we found the Indians occupied in harmless sports, or domestic work. There appeared no evidence that they were any way instrumental in the bloody acts perpetrated on the frontiers. Well do I remember the evening when stopt at my door judge my surprise when I heard his tale " Tom followed the Indians to the Big Island from thence they went to Conesrode off for the village. togue as soon as we heard it, five of us, I saw InI left my horse under their care, and cautiously crawled where I could get a view dians armed they were strangers they outnumbered us by dozens. I returned without being discovered we meet to-night at we shall expect you, with gun, knife, and ammunition." We met, and our party, under cover of the night, rode off for Conestogue. Our plan was well laid the scout who had traced the Indians was with us the village was stormed and reduced to ashes. The moment we were perceived an Indian fired at us, and rushed forward, " mark ran him," and he fell by more than one ball brandishing his tomahawk. Tom cried, " up and cried out, it is the villain who murdered my mother." This speech roused to vengeance, and Conestogue lay harmless before us. Our worst fears had been realized these Indians, who had been housed and fed as the pets of the province, were now proved to be our secret foes necessity compelled us to do as we did. We mounted our horses and returned. Soon we were informed that a number of Indians were in the workhouse at Lancaster. was sent to Lancaster to get all the news he could. He reported that one of the Indians concerned in recent murders was there in safety. Also, that they talked of rebuilding Conestogue, and placing these Indians in the new buildings. A few of us met to deliberate Stewart proposed to go to Lancaster, storm their castle, and It was agreed to the whole plan was arranged. Our clergyman did not carry off the assassin. ;























approve of our proceeding further. He thought every thing was accomplished by the destruction of Conestogue, and advised us to try what we could do with the governor and council. I with the rest was opposed to the measure proposed by our good pastor. It was painful to us to act in opposition to his will, but the Indian in Lancaster was known to have murdered the parent of of our party. , one The plan was made. Three were chosen to break in the doors, five to keep the keepers, &c., from meddling Capt. Stewart to remain outside, with about twelve men, to protect those within, ;



to prevent surprise, and keep charge of the horses. The three were to secure the Indian, tie him with strong cords, and deliver him to Stewart. If the three were resisted, a shot was to be fired as a signal. I was one of them who entered you know the rest we fired the Indians were left without life and we rode hastily from Lancaster. Two of the Indians killed in Lancaster were recognized as murderers. This gave quiet to the frontiers, for no murder of our defenceless inhabitants has since hap. pened. The foregoing was communicated by a father to his son, in Carlisle, and by that gentleman to the writer. R. C. [Note. Mr. Smith of Carlisle, was not the son of Matthew Smith of Paxton. Matthew his son, Wilson Smith, Smith, after the revolution, went to Milton, Northumberland county removed to Erie, and represented that district in the Senate of Pennsylvania in 1812-13, &c.] ;




— —


" Declaration. Let all hear. Were the counties of Lancaster, York, Cumberland, Berks, and Northampton, protected by government ? Did not John Harris of Paxton ask advice of Col. and not him to did the colonel advise raise a Croghan, company of scouters, and was not this

confirmed by Benjamin Franklin ? And yet when Harris asked the Assembly to pay the scout" that he ing party, he was told, might pay them himself." Did not the comities of Lancaster, York, Cumberland, Berks, and Northampton, the frontier settlements, keep up rangers to watch the motions of the Indians ; and when a murder was committed by an Indian, a runner with the intelligence was sent to each scouting party, that the murderer or murderers might be punished ? Did we not brave the summer's heat and the winter's cold, and the savage tomahawk, while the inhabitants of Philadelphia, Philadelphia county, Bucks,

and Chester,



drank, and were

merry V

" If a white man kill an Indian, it is a murder far exceeding any crime upon record he must not be tried in the county where he lives, or where the offence was committed, but in PhiladelIf an Indian kill a phia, that he may be tried, convicted, sentenced and hung without delay. white man, it was the act of an ignorant heathen, perhaps in liquor alas, poor innocent he is sent to the friendly Indians, that he may be made a Christian. Is it not a notorious fact, that an Indian who treacherously murdered a family in Northampton county, was given up to the and was not this Indian conveyed into Bucks magistrates, that he might have a regular trial comity, and is he not p rovided with every necessary, and kept secured from punishment by Israel Pemberton ? Ha^l'e we not repeatedly represented that Conestogue was a harbor for prowling savages, and that we were at a loss to tell friend or foe, and all we asked was the removal of the Christian Indians ? Was not this promised by Gov. Penn, yet delayed ? Have we forgot ten Renatus, that Christian Indian ? murder of more than savage barbarity was committed on the Susquehanna the murderer was traced by the scouts to Conestogue he was demanded, but the Indians assumed a warlike attitude, tomahawks were raised, and the firearms glistened in the sun shots were fired upon the scouts, who went back for additional force. They returned, and you know the event Conestogue was reduced to ashes. But the murderer escaped. The friendly and unfriendly were placed in the workhouse at Lancaster. What could secure them from the vengeance of an exasperated people ? The doors were forced, and the hapless Indians Were we tamely to look on and see our brethren murdered, and see our fairest prosperished. pects blasted, while the inhabitants of Philadelpliia, Philadelphia county, Bucks, and Chester, ;








and reaped their grain in safety ? " These hands never shed hmnan blood. Why am I singled out as an object of persecution 7 Why are the bloodhounds let loose upon me ? Let liim who wished to take my life let him come and take it I shall not fly. All I ask is that the men accused of murder be tried in Lancaster county. All I ask is a trial in my own county. If these requests are refused, then not a hair of those men's heads shall be molested. Whilst I have life you shall not either have me or them on any other terms. It is true, I submitted to the sheriff of York county, but you know too well that I was to be conveyed to Philadelphia like a wild felon, manacled, to die a felon's death. I would have scorned to from York. I could not bear that my name should be markfly ed by ignominy. What I have done, was done for the security of hundreds of settlers on the frontiers. The blood of a thousand of my fellow-creatures called for vengeance. I shed no Indian's blood. As a ranger, I sought the post of danger, and now you ask my life. Let me be tried where prejudice has not prejudged my case. Let my brave rangers, who have stemmed the blast nobly, and never flinched let them have an equitable trial they were my friends in the hour of danger to desert them now were cowardice ! What remains is to leave our cause with our God, and our guns." slept



The sad

affair at

Conestoga and Lancaster was one on which




might be, and much ivas said at the time on both sides and diverse and exaggerated representations were made by the Irish and Presbyterian party on the one hand, and by the Quakers, Moravians, and those in the proprietary interest on the other. The foregoing extracts have been given with a view of letting the Paxton men be heard in their own deBut no historian ought to excuse or justify the murders at Lanfence. Let who will describe those scenes, they must caster and Conestoga. ever remain, with the murder of Logan's family, and the massacre of the Moravian Indians on the Muskingum, as dark and bloody spots in our Perhaps no better judge of the transaction is now provincial history. living than a venerable Presbyterian clergyman of this region, whose head is now white with the snows of some eighty winters, who in early life had known many of the Paxton men, and had some of them under his pastoral charge. On applying to him to furnish some documents, if possible, or traditionary evidence, to justify the Paxton men engaged in " I fear, sir, that would be a that transaction, the aged patriarch replied I cannot perceive how that transaction could be justified." difficult task It should be noticed in this connection, that only some 15, 20, or 30 of the rangers were engaged in the affair. After it was done they returned to their homes, where they remained unmolested, and mingled with their fellow-citizens of Paxton in the ordinary pursuits of life. At the opening of the revolution most of the Paxton men sought the ranks of the army, from which but few of them returned to settle again in Paxton. Many of the survivors probably settled on the new lands of the West branch of the Susquehanna, and others around Pittsburg, and, after Wayne's treaty, beyond the Allegheny. In those regions but he who seeks for Ithe descendants their descendants may be found of the Scotch-Irish in Dauphin co., finds but here and there a solitary, isolated family, surrounded everywhere by an entirely difl'erent race, that of the German emigrants, who came about the close of the last century, and whose descendants inherit the language, the farms, and the plodding industry and thrift of their forefathers. The ancient churches and graveyards of the Irish still remain as monuments of their former occupants and occasionally may be found, as at Hanover, some venerable pastor, " pleasantly passing the evening of a useful life, and waiting to be gath;




ered to his fathers."

The country above the Kittatinny mountain was but sparsely settled previous to the opening of the coal mines within a few years past. The Duke de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, a French traveller, who passed up the Susquehanna in 1796, speaks of stopping only at three settlements in the county, above Harrisburg. The first was at McAlester's, who had then been settled at the mouth of Fishing cr. about 1 1 years, and had a very thriving establishment. The duke says, [in substance we abridge

his language] McAlestcr owns about 300 acres about 120 cultivated. Price of lands near him is $8 for woodland $50 for cleared. The houses, all of wood except the inn, stand on the Susquehanna went on. In this and in the precincts of Fort Hunter, erected many years ago. * * * * from each long journey through forests, we found few straggling houses one or two miles distant Taverns had been closed unwilling to pay for a license, pass. other, most of them unfinished. ed one about 12 miles from McAlester's, the only one in 22 miles. At length wc arrived at an DeblerfF's who after having served in Canada in 1758, in an English regiment, old German's The state gave him his land the Indians drove him oft' during the settled here after the peace. He can neither write nor read he presents to revolution ; he returned again after the peace.






every traveller a slate and pencil to write down his bills as he dictates to them, for there is not a single person in the house able to distinguish one letter from another. He complains of being cheated frequently by travellers, in their summing up. Twelve miles to White's an Irish farmer has resided here about 17 years, and now owns an island he has been twice a member of the legislature keeps tavern to oblige travellers has no sign but charges high. ;



Harrisburg, the capital of the state, and seat of justice of Dauphin occupies a commanding site on the left bank of the Susquehanna, a It is 97 miles from short distance above the mouth of Paxton creek. and 200 from Pittsburg. Philadelphia, Situated in the midst of the fertile Kittatinny valley, and looking out upon some of the most magnificent scenery in the world, with splendid bridges spanning the broad river, and shaded walks along its banks, with canals, railroads, and turnpikes radiating from it in all directions, with a highly intelligent resident population, and the annual presence of a transient population, comprising the highest talent in the state, Harrisburg has great and varied attractions to tempt the resident, the politician, the trader, and the stranger who comes only to observe and admire. CO.,

— —

State Capitol at Harrisburg.

The capitol, with the public offices on either side of it, occupies a fine eminence on the northern border of the town, fronting towards the river, from which it is a few squares distant. From the cupola may be seen one of the finest landscapes in the state, comprising the river, studded with lovely islands and spanned by splendid bridges, the undulating fields of the valley, and the lofty barrier of the Kittatinny mountain. The main building is 180 feet front by 80 feet deep. The hall of the house of representatives is on the lovi^er floor, at the right end, as seen in the

view, the senate chamber being at the left end. The library is over the senate chamber. The governor's apartments, and secretary of state's and treasurer's offices, are in the building on the left of the capitol, the land offices, &c., in that on the right. The other public edifices in the town are, the courthouse, formerly used as a state-house, the new prison, a noble, massive structure of stone, in the style of a Norman castle, the state arsenal, a Masonic lodge, an academy, the Harrisburg bank, and a branch of the Bank of Pennsylvania and of churches, there are Lutheran, Presbyterian, Episcopal, German Reformed, Catholic, Methodist, Unitarian, Baptist, and African.




Near the capitol is a reservoir, filled from the river by steam power, for supplying the town with" water. In the centre of the town, which is diamond," or public square, upon which stands regularly laid out, is a the market-house. Harrisburg was incorporated as a borough on the 1st Feb. 1808. The population in 1830, of the borough, was 4,307, and including M'Claysand in 1840, 6,020. burg, 4,526 The bridge at the end of Market-street, across the Susquehanna in two parts, which are separated by an island was erected in 1817, by Mr. Burr, the distinguished bridge architect. It is 2,876 feet long, 40 ft. wide cost $155,000, of which the state subscribed ii90,000. It belongs to a company. A short distance below it, opposite Mulberry-st., is the magnificent bridge of the Cumberland Valley railroad, one mile in length, erected within three or four years past. It awakens interesting associations to stand by the grave of John Harris and look forth upon the river, contrasting, in imagination, the appearance of the solitary trader, and his " Harris's ferry" some pack-horse loaded with furs, crossing in a flat at hundred years since with the swift " iron horse" puffing and rattling with his long train across that beautiful bridge on an iron road elevated 50 feet above the water, almost literally a fiery steed flying through the air. The annexed extracts are copied by permission from the introduction



Mr. H. Napey's Harrisburg Directory.

is said to have been a native of Yorkshire, in England, He was a midhe emigrated to America, and he first settled in Philadelpliia. He was there married to Esther Say, an EngHsh lady, and who was a woman of rather extraordinary energy and capacity. They first moved to Chester comity, thence to (or near !o) the mouth of Conoy and creek, on the Susquehanna, about the present site of Bainbridge, in Jijancaster county, At this place was born, about' the year 1726, his son finally to the present site of Harrisburg. " John Harris, the founder of Harrisburg, and who is said to have been the first white child bom in Pennsylvania, west of the Conewago hills." About die time of the settlement of John Harris at Harrisburg, Indian towns were existing on the flat near to Squire Wills' stone house, opposite Harrisburg, and at the mouth of tlie Conedoguinnett and Yellow Breeches creeks. There had been one on the low ground on the river, about the lower line of Harrisburg, and another at the mouth of Paxton creek. These two last are supposed to have been abandoned at the time of his making his settlement. The Indians who resided in this neighborhood, were of tlio Six Nations and it is said that at one time, by firing a gun, several hundred warriors could be assembled at the present site of Harrisburg. John Harris fixed his habitation on the bank of the river, below the grave-yard, and he dug tiiQ well now existing there. About twenty years ago the cellar of one of his buildings was visible^ He traded extensively with the Indians, and had connected with his house a large range of slieds, which were sometimes literally filled with skins and fiu-s, mostly obtained by him in traffic with the Indians, and stored there by the Indian traders, wlio brought them from the western country. These skins and furs were carried, at an early day, on pack-horses to Philadelphia. John Harris experienced much difficulty at his first settlement, as his supplies could not be had nearer than His atPhiladelphia, and had thence to be transported on pack-horses to his place of residence. lie tention, however, was not confined to trading with the Indians engaged extensively in agriculture, and from the statement of old Parson Elder to Wm. Maclay, " he was tlie first person who introduced the plough on the Susquehanna." An incident in his life has excited considerable interest, and been the subject of much inquiry : On one occasion a band of Indians came to his house. Some, or most of them, were intoxiGated. They asked for lum, (rum,) as the modem whiskey was not then manufactured in Pennsylvania. Seeing they were already intoxicated, he feared mischief, and refused. They became enraged, and seized and tied hun to the mulberry tree to burn him. Whilst they were proceeding to execute their purpose, he was released, after a struggle, by other Indians of the neighborhood, who generally came across the river. How the alarm was given to them, whether by firing a or or is not now certainly known. In remembrance of this event, he otherwise, gun by whom, afterwards directed that on his death he should be buried under the mulberry tree which had been tlie scene of this adventure. He died in 1748, and his remains still repose, with those of some




John Harris

man when






of his children, under the shade of his memorable tree. In the words of Parson Elder. " he as honest a man as ever broke bread." Part of the trunk of this tree is stUl standm/, at tlic same



This is attime, each other's feet, agreeably to his command and example. John xiii. 14, Ifj. tended to on the evening after the close of the Sabbath, (the Suobath terminating at sunsf-t of the seventh day,) thus making the supper an imitation of that in- tituted by Christ, and resembling also the meeting of the Apostles on the first day to break bread consider a virtue, but never require it, nor do tjey take any vows in reference to ,

Celibacy they They never prohibited marriage, and lawful intercourse between the sexes, as is staled by some writers ; but when two concluded to be joined in wedlock, they were aided by the society. more conducive to a holy hfe fo;, Paul saith, " They that are after Celibacy was urged as being but they that are tfter the Spirit, th(^ things of the the flesh, do mind the things of the flesh This was a fond, cherished subject, and was constantly inculcated. It may be conSpirit."




sidered the ground of the Institution at Ephrata, whose prosperity and advancement was dependent on its being properly appreciated. It was sedulously kept before tiiem by their ministers, in It was a prolific subject for many of their hymns, wliich seemed to hallow its brightest colors.

and sanctify


the gospel was They do not approve of paying their ministers a salary, thinking their ministers. money and without price but tiiey share their own supplies with

sent without


this is more It is not one of theu: customs to wear long beards, as is frequently said of them the case with the Dunkers and Mennonists. They are often represented as living on vegetables, the rules of the society forbidding meats, for the purpose of mortifying the natural appetite, and also as lying on wooden benches, with billets of wood for pillows, as an act of penance. The of this matter is, that both were done from considerations of econotrue reason and :


Their circumstances were very restricted, and their undertaking great. They studied the wooden flagons, wooden goblets, strictest simplicity and economy in all their arrangements turned wooden trays, were used in administering the communion and the same goblets are still Even the plates ofl" of which in use, though they have been presented with more costly ones. their forks and candlesticks were of of thin poplar boards, they ate were octangular pieces wood,— and also every other article that could be made of that material, was used by the whole After they were relieved from the pressure of then- expensive enterprise in providing




community. such extensive accommodations, they enjoyed the cot for repose, and many other of the good in eating and drinking was scrupulously regarded. things of life though temperance their houses cheerfully to succor and comfort Although opposed to bearing arms, they opened war— for which the the distressed inhabitants of Paxton and Tulpehocken during the old French and Gov. Penn offered them a whole manor of government rendered them its acknowledgments, After the During the revolution, they were decided whigs. land, but they would not receive it. the wounded Americans ; battle of Brandywine, the whole estaWishment was open to receive transgreat numbers of the sick were their Sabbath-school house was converted into an hospital the camp fever broke out among them, and one hundred and fifty were ported here in wagons the 4th July, 1843, a movement was made to erect a of Momit Zion. buried on the ;





to these soldiers.] in July,



1768 ; and although his successor, Peter Miller, is spoken of as a Int. man of much greater powers of mind, yet the establishment began to decline about the year 1 th cenThe institution was more in accordance with the German manners and notions of the new ideas in regard to religion, pohtics, and social hfe introduced by therevotury, than with the " the second GerAt"an early period they built a paper-mill, and established a printing-oflice— man press in the state— where they printed many books, tracts, and hymns. In the revolution, seized the prmted sheets, sent to the mill for paper for cartridges, but finding none, they the

Conrad Beissel died



and they were fired off" against the British at the battle of Germantown. r ^ has been there forty-six There are several single sisters remaining in the convent, one of whom another government now exBut life, in a lives another years. and sixty cottage, solitary years, to the smgle brethren In former days, the whole property and income belonged exclusively ists. at the instance of the smand sisters but now, by a charter obtained from the state legislature, and married. is invested in all the members, single ele members then remaining, the property of the common stock, and tlieir comSince then, the sisters m the convent are not supported out to who reqmre mon labor, but each has house room, which all the married members are entitled the farm, (140 acres,) it—as well as fire-wood, flour, and milk—from the society, who still possess own use, or dispose of it as and a grist-mill, and a saw-miU.-and their labor they apply to their ,



on Bermudian creek, in York county, of As^eL-fyTs n58, there was a branch of this society Bedford co, which sdl flounshwhich a few stai remam. Another was established in 1763, in scattered m the mtenor counes another at SnowhiU, in Franklin co. ; and many members are ;

ties of

the state.







a view of the

Sisters' houses at


and of what was forSisters' chapel, but is occupied by brethren and sisters in The similar, but much larger house, and chapel, formerly ocSisters' house, (Saron,)


merly the


cupied by the brothers, are still standing, but in a dilapidated condition. The other houses of the society's village are occupied by separate families. The sisters' house is on the left of the view. Only a few a"-ed ° brethren and sisters remain here.

LEBANON COUNTY. Lebanon county was taken from Lancaster and Dauphin by the act of 1816. Length and breadth 17 miles; area, 288 sq. miles Population in 1820, 16,988 in 1830, 20,557 and in 1840, 21,872. 16th Feb.


To say




included in the great Kittatinny valley, is tantamount to saying that its surface is composed of undulating slate and limestone lands, abounding in every element of fertility. " Large and commodious houses of stone, in delightful situations, with ornamental trees and smiling gardens stone barns of immense size pure water flowmg from adjoining hills through verdant fields, or gushing from artificial fountains for convenient use— combine elements of substantial comco. is



and improvement that cannot be surpassed in any country." It would follow, too, almost as a matter of course in Pennsylvania, that such a region would be occupied by a population of industrious, persevering, and thrifty German farmers for where are the limestone valleys m the state which they have not found out, and, in rich most cases, purchased from the original settlers, of a different race? It is a remarkable fact, fort


that the broad belt of slate lands of the Kittatinny valley, all the way from Easton to Mercersburg, was originally settled by Scotch-Irish—


41 7

whose descendants have nearly

all disappeared, and given place to the population. present On either side of the valley rise the lofty mountains of sandstone which enclose the co. on the northv^est and southeast. The Kittatinny mountain crosses the northwestern end of the co., the Second mountain, paralOn the southeastern boundary are the lel to it, being the boundary. Conewago hills. These mountains, too rugged and precipitous for agricultural purposes generally, are lined with dense forests, which serve to reduce the excellent iron ores found among their strata. The county is well watered by the Swatara, Little Swatara, Quitopahilla, and Tulpehocken creeks, with their branches, and several smaller streams of less note. The Reading and Harrisburg macadamized turnpike passes through the centre, and the Ephrata and Harrisburg turnpike The latter road was made crosses the southern corner of the county. many years since, and was once a great thoroughfare over the mountains. It is furnished with mile-stones, marked so many miles to P., and so many to T. ; the latter signifying to Tuscarora mountain, west of the Susquehanna. Judge Franckes used to tell a story of his inquiring of a brother


judge what the T. stood


and he

replied, quite in earnest, in Chester co.]

miles to Towningtoivn" — [Downingtown, ;


So many

The Union canal passes along near the Swatara and Tulpehocken The navigable feeder up the creeks, touching the town of Lebanon. Swatara affords access to the coal-mines of the Sharp mountain, at Pine Grove, in Schuylkill co. There are several iron furnaces in the southern part of the county, some of which have been established many years. There are also a number of woollen ftxctories. But agriculture is the at great business of the county. Its products are shipped principally Lebanon.

German is the common language ; but the introduction of the new that English shall be taught school-system of the state, which requires in common with German, in the German districts, will soon introduce the eradicate the other. English language into every family, and eventually At present the boys of Lebanon co., though they recite their English lessons inside of the schoolhouse, play marbles outside in German. In East Hanover township, between the Blue mountain and Second mountain, is a noted cold spring; an agreeable watering-place, much freMr. Samuel Winter has erected there a in the heat of summer. quented

commodious house of entertainment. The history of the origin and construction of the Union canal



the history of the early efforts esting in itself; but it likewise involves of distinguished citizens of the state, in the cause of internal improvements. These early efforts doubtless formed the moving spring of that which subsequently gave such great spirit of internal improvements,

Pennsylvania glory to New York, and afterwards in the following is abridged from a very able article ard's Register, by George W. Smith, Esq. to


and Maryland. The first volume of Haz-

William Ponn, in his proposals for a second settlement in the province of Pennsylvania, pubwater between the lished in 1690, alludes to the practicability of c'^ attack them in this situation, miprovided with arms, Ihe uorK^ng tune. attacks their nearly at the same commenced which several detachments




parlies were immediately dispersed in every direction, and many of them were taken prisoners and sent under an escort to Easton jail the greater number succeeded in reaching the fort, where they immediately prepared for their defence. Night was approaching, and Ogden did not think He accordingly removed his troops with their booty to their proper to attack the fort. ment at Solomon's-gap. A consultation was held in Fort Durkce, and it was concluded,encampas they had provision and ammunition to last some time, to send messengers to Coshutunk on the Delafor assistance. ware, Accordingly about midnight the messengers departed, and thinking that Ogden and his party would be likely to guard the direct road to Coshutunk, they concluded to go out through Solomon's-gap. Ogden's party for their better security had encamped witliout fires, and took the messengers prisoners in the gap they learned from them the confused situation of the fort, filled with men, women, and children. Upon receiving this intelligence they concluded to maku an immediate attack upon the fort. Accordingly Ogden's whole force was immediately put in motion, and a detachment commanded by Capt. Craig suddenly entered the fort under cover of the night, knocked down the sentinel, and arrived at the door of the blockhouse before the garrison received notice of the attack. Several of the latter were killed in attempting to make resistance in the blockhouse, and Capt. Craig's men having forced a number into a small room where they were trampling upon the women and children, knocked down Capt. Butler, and were about to pierce him with their bayonets, when Capt. Craig himself entered the apartment, drove the soldiers back, and prevented further bloodshed. The fort being thus taken, the principal portion of the garrison were again sent to prison at Easton, but Capt. Butler and a few others were conducted to Philadelphia, where they were confined. Ogden and his party then plundered the settlement of whatever moveable property they could find, and having formed a garrison in the fort, withdrew with his booty to the settlements below the mountains, where most of his men resided. The Connecticut party having disappeared, the garrison considered themselves as secure, the fort being in a good state of defence but on' the 18th of December, about three o'clock in the morning, while the garrison were asleep, a body of armed men, consisting of twenty-three persons, from Hanover in Lancaster county, and six from New England, under the command of Capt. Lazarus Stewart, suddenly entered the fort and gave the alarm to the garrison by a general huzza for King George. The garrison at this time consisted of only eighteen men, besides a considerable number of women and children, who occupied ;



several houses erected within the ramparts of the fort. Six of the men made their escape by leaping from the parapet, and flying naked to the woods the remaining twelve were taken prisoners, who, with the women and children, after being deprived of tlieir moveable property, were dnven from the valley, and Stewart and his party garrisoned the fort. ;

Nathan Ogden, a brother of Capt. Ogden, was killed in one of the subsequent sieges. Capt. Ogden at the same time being closely besieged, and unable by any other mode to convey intelligence to Philadelphia, adopted a most ingenious stratagem to pass the enemy's lines. Having tied a portion of his clothes in a bmidle, with his hat upon the top of them, and having connected them to his body by a cord of several feet in length, he committed himself to the nver, and floated gently down the current, with the bundle following him at the end of the cord. Three of the redoubts commanded the river for a considerable distance above and below, and the sentinels by means of the star-light observing some object floating upon the river which excited suspicion, commenced a fire upon it, which was continued from two of the redoubts for some time, until observing that its motion was very uniform and no faster than the current their sus picions and their firing ceased. Ogden escaped unhurt, but his clothes and hat were ^pierced with _

several balls.

There had settled on the West branch of the Susquehanna, and around the Forks of the two branches, a race of men quite as resolute and pugnacious as the Wyoming boys but, deriving their titles from Pennsylvania, they viewed with jealousy any attempt to occupy lands under Connecticut title. They had already routed an infant Connecticut settlement on the West branch, and imprisoned the settlers at Sunbury. Col. Plunkett, one of the West branch men, not satisfied with this, was for carrying the war into the enemy's country; and accordingly in 1775, about the 20th Dec, in the double character of magistrate and colonel, with a force of 700 armed men, and a large boat to carry provisions, he started up the North branch, ostensibly on the " to restore peace and peaceful errand good order in the county." The Wyoming boys knew all the strong points of their beautiful valley, itself a fortress, and intrenched them;

LUZERNE COUNTY. narrow rocky

selves at the

men must


defile at

437 falls, throujj^h

which Plun-


assailants were welcomed with a volley of musketry on their first entrance into the defile, from the rarnr);irt on the western side. They fell back and deliberated. Pullill;^' their small boat above the falls, they determined to pass their troops over in small parties to the eastern side, and pass up into the valley under the beetling precipice that frowns upon the river there. The first boat load, which kett's

necessarily pass.

Plunkett accompanied, were attempting to land, when they were start h-d fire from Lieut. Stewart and a small party there concealed ia the bushes. One man was killed they tumbled into the boat and floated down the river as fast as the rapids would carry them. Another council was held to force the breastwork on the western side was deemed impracticable the amount of the force on the opposite shore was unknown ; to ascend the steep rocky mountains in the face of a foe that could reach the summit before them, and tumble down rocks upon their heads, was equally impracticable and as in a few days the river might close, and leave them no means of exit by water, they concluded to abandon the This was the last effort against Wyoming of the provincial enterprise. government, which expired the next year, amid the flames of revolution. For a time after the commencement of the revolution, the valley of Wyoming was allowed a season of comparative repose. Both Connecticut and Pennsylvania had more important demands upon their attention. The census of the valley at this time is estimated by Mr. Miner, from auAt the opening of the revoluthentic data, at about 2,500 inhabitants. " the pulsations of patriotic hearts throbbed with unfaltering energy tion, throughout Wyoming. The fires of liberty glowed with an ardor intense and fervent." At a town meeting held Aug. 1, 1775, it was voted, "• That we will unanimously join our brethren of America in the common cause of defending our liberty." Aug. 28, '76, " Voted, that the people be called upon to work on ye forts without either fee or reward from ye said town." The same year, Lieut. Obadiah Gore enlisted' part of a company and joined the continental army. Two other companies, each of 86 men, under Capt. Robert Durkee and Capt. Samuel Ptansom, were raised under a resolution of congress the same year, and joined the continental army as part of the Connecticut line. These men were in the glorious affair at Mill Stone they were in the battles of Brandywine and Germantown, and in the terrible cannonade at Mud Fort, (below Philadelphia.) where the gallant Spalding commanded the detachment, and where the brave Matthewson was cut in two by a cannon ball. In Dec. 1777, the town meeting voted, poor as they were, and almost all their ablobodied men " that the committee of inspectors be in the service nobly voted,

by a heavy

— —





to supply the sogers'

families with the necessaries of

wives and the sogers' widows and



on the country of the Six From Tioto war. fierce, ga Point, where they would rendezvous, in twenty-four hours they could descend the Susquehanna in boats to Wyoming. Nearly all the ablebodied men of Wyoming fit to bear arms, had been called away into the continental army. It was to be expected that the savages, and their British employers, should breathe vengeance against a settlement that had shown such spirit in the cause of liberty. They were also, beyond

Wyoming was an


exposed —a people numerous,

frontier bordering

and accustomed



doubt, stimulated by the absconding tories, who were burning with a stronger desire to avenge what they conceived to be their own wrongs, than with ardor to serve their king. The defenceless situation of the settlement could not be concealed from the enemy, and would naturally invite aggression, in the hope of weakening Washington's army by the diversion of the Wyoming troops for the defence of their own frontier. All these circumstances together marked Wyoming as a devoted victim. The following sketch of the memorable battle of 1778 is condensed from the plea of the Wyoming delegation, drawn up by the Hon. Charles Miner, and intended to be delivered before the legislature of Connecticut with some additional facts from " the Hazleton Travellers," and other sources.


in Jime, 1778, there descended the Susquehanna Col. John Butler, with his own tory randetachment of Sir John Johnson's Royal Greens, and a large body of Indians, chiefly Senecas. The British and Tories numbered about 400 the Indians about 700. Jenkins's fort was at the head of the valley, just below the gorge. This fort capitulated on the 2d July, to a detachment under Capt. Caldwell. Wintermoot's fort had been built near Jenkins's, by a Low Dutch family of that name, with a view, as afterwards appeared, to aid the incursions of the As suspected, Wintermoot's fort at once threw open its gates to the enemy. Here the tories. British and Indian force was assembled at dinner just before the battle. To defend the settlement against this force was a half-raised company of Capt. Deathic [Doeterick] Hewitt, consisting of 40 or 50 men, and the militia, the remains merely, out of which the three companies above mentioned had been enlisted for the continental army. There were several forts at Wyoming, not regular fortifications, with walls, and embrazures, and great guns but stockades, built by setting logs on end in ditches, close together, surrounding a space for the retreat of the women and children, with no other means of defence than the small-arms of the men, firing through loopIn all Wyoming valley there was but one cannon, a four-pounder, without ball, kept at holes. the Wilkcsbarre fort as an alarm gun. Against such a force as the enemy mustered, not one of these forts could have held out an hour, or kept the foe from reducing them to ashes. Some of the aged men out of the train-bands formed themselves into companies to garrison the forts and to the such as could. at Pittston from its posihelpless protection which, yield they Except no company of the Wyoming regiment was retained for partial tion, was imminently exposed All the rest assembled at Forty Fort, on the Kingston side, prepared in the best mandefence. ner they could to meet the enemy^ They numbered about 400 men and boys, including many not in the train-band. Old, gray-headed men, and grandfathers, tiuTied out to the muster. Col. Zebulon Butler happened to be at Wyoming at the time, and though he had no proper command, by invitation of the people he placed himself at their head, and led them to battle. There never was more courage displayed in the various scenes of war. History does not porThere was no other alternative but to fight and contray an instance of more gallant devotion. for retreat with their families was impossible. Like brave men, they took counsel quer, or die of their courage. On the 3d of July they marched out to meet the enemy. Col. Zebulon Butler commanded the right wing, aided by Maj. Garret. Col. Dennison commanded the left, assisted by Lieut. Col. George Dorrance. The field of fight was a plain, partly cleared and partly covered with scrub-oak and yellow-pine. The right of the Wyonung men rested on a steep bank, which descends to the low river-flats the left extended to a marsh, thickly covered with timber and brush. Opposed to Col. Zebulon Butler, of Wyoming, was Col. John Butler, with his tory ranThe enemy's right wing, opposed to Col. Dennison, was chiefly gers, in their green uniform. composed of Indians, [led on, says Col. Stone, by a celebrated Seneca chief, named Gi-en-gwahor toh; He-who-goes-in-the-smoke.]* It was between four and five o'clock in the afternoon when


gers, a



* Until the publication, year before last, of the Life of Brant, [by W. L. Stone,] it had been asserted in all history that that celebrated Mohawk chieftain wa.s the Indian leader at W3'oming. He himself always denied any participation in this bloody expedition, and his assertions were corroborated by the British officers, when questioned the But these denials, not

upon subject. appearing in history, relieved him not from the odium ; and the " monster Brant" has been denounced, the woHd over, as the author of the massacre. In the work referred to above, the author took upon himself the vindication of the savage warrior from the accusation, and, as he thought at the time, with success. A reviewer of that work, however, in the Democratic Magawho is understood to be the Hon. Caleb zine, of Massachusetts, the


maintaining that the vindication was not satisfactory.


point, in-

The author thereupon made a journey



the engagement began, and for some time it was kept up with great On the light, in oprn spirit. field, our men fired and advanced a step, and the enemy was driven back. Hut their rmmbors them to outflank enabled our three to one, men, on tiie left, where the nearly especially irround' a swamp, was exactly fitted for savage warfare. Our men fell rapidly before the Iii(li:in rilU-s the rear as well as the flank was gained, and it became impossible to niaint:iiti the An |)OMitir)n. order to fall back, given by Col. Dennison, so as to present a better front to the enerny, could not be executed without confusion, [and some misunderstood it as a signal for retreat.)" 'I'lie practised enemy, not more brave, but, besides being more numerous, familiarized to war in fifty battles, sprang forward, raised their horrid yell from one end of the line to the other, rn.>'"i'"'7 //As he was rounding a I-'" furniture. household his secure to boat kc turned »^ove I^^r^..




* For

an^unt of the capture of Freeland's


see Northumberloiid county.





on mcl, »idc of


river to



tl ,f



"" "'"'"'"t eame down

in sin.

^^'' ^"'^'"" ''"^ i" his haste neglected to strike her iSrsurvive^d^Lef "i 'T^^'^ ^«^' ""''' "^ the fort,ind Uved near Warrior-r un '"'^'^ ^^^"^ t^^ti aboutlhfvear fsl' "h '^./'" "^"'' ^ '''^' ^^'^Durham, Shortly after the big runaway Col Broadh7-,H w. J a ''f ''''''' °' l'^'^ °^ ^'^O "^ men to rebuild Fort Muncy, and g^^^a;d tL s StrS.ile' r^J ^'f'-'"" ^heir crops. After this service he left for Fort^Pkt and Co Hart ev J^ h performing ^,^7.'"?



ing from Stroudsburg, also cam; dotntit" a ing built the barracks at Fort Muncy they went ,m on T,

t^dtent bvt^ "T^t^


^^^P*" ^P^''^"

Hay. J rT°^ '^! Wyoming yalley. Wyalusing, Sheshequm, and Tioga'^ Th J ^a" ^"'"•^" ^''""^ '' afte theteTl .r^/fc at fore the British and Indians had Wyommg, and be. fidshed letW tteir nL? ^^^''^i^attle ""'''' Indian ^^e the |u

towns, detachment had a bank of the Susquelianna at the narrows



norUi of

distinguished hiinself in that afta^ ?;rsTer a tree on the steep precipice, when an India^^ Mr. C, in reply, presented his gun and




onL brayS^



on the left ^^°-"hoyen

Wyommg, ^^I"

uaJ T

^^ ^^'' '"""^^ «^ approache7him L^ . '° "^^ *° ^"^^'^"'"• shot"theTcSanthroughThe bowl WiLLiAMspoRT, the Seat of justice, is very pleasanflv ^^tu-.t^A ^» ^ i vated plain, on the left bank of th;

WeJ llT:TlTe1^i':Z:^

between Lycoming and Pine

creeks. The town is buiU,andm many ^stances the architecture of the reLarkaWv welt Uvate" buUdmgs bears testimony to the and taste of ?he eft zens The public square, on which standsintelligence the courthouse, is shaded with tree and enclosed with an iron railing and the courthouse and several of the churches are surmounted graceful spires and cupolas wMchforr^ vyith conspicuous objects amid the rich scenery surrounding the b^roth Th^ hotels are spacious, and abound in the luxuries and comforts, be encumbered with the enormous charges of those of our llrge cities There are and School







here^Old Presbyterian, Episconal Method' and German Reformed churches, and an academy? There are '"" '""^^"^^' "^ ^^^^^ the operat ons ar^ carried ar?fed on b^'te tI"""" steam The numerous stores are well stocked by and the place has altogether that appearance of thrift and bustle! wWchSisti^


mtemal trade. r£rTi::i%TV/%i^''' l,Jod. Ihe U. b. court for the western district of

alternately here and at Pittsburg.

IT Far lar


Population Pennsvlvania

The West Branch

iort. »^'"^;'"= clothed Ir, a cabin soothed her ^^ ^^J^^^ ook^^^^^^^^ people of the ''f^ess, and a with p.ous worthy where she was lodged Connet the rhiv;


was In the mean time, public md.gnation






:^;\V'ui Jb; fwere sc and the West Branch was aroused, one had seen airy of ^7"^. /"^j^^^"^'',? '^^^ .''^^S for no and however, st^irt, news was He liad twenty-four homrs; ji'^^^^^J'^Jj^^^SXa elapsed, and no his description. answering no had any discoveries b5'i per acre, with a credit of from five to ten years, payable by instalments. Smethport, the county seat, a pleasant town, is situated on the left bank of Potato cr., where the c,Teat east and west road crosses, and at the


confluence of Marvin cr. It contains the courthouse, subsLmtially huilt of brick, an academy, a Methodist church, and two Congroj^ational societies who attend service in the public buildinf?s; two printinjj;^ oliiccs, 7 Tlie following stores, 3 taverns, grist-mill, saw-mill, and clothiiig-miil. facts relating to the early settlement of this place, and of others in the in Hazard's Register for 183--i, county, are derived from a communication

by O.


Hamlin, Esq.

under the superintendence of .Tolin Bell, Thos. Smith, and .Tohn C. Brcvost, anotiier built in 181- ; 1811 house was erected by Capt. Arnold Ifunter, About this until 18:22. but both abandoned in 1814. No permanent settlement was connnciiccd and held their office m a small buildinir, erected time, the first county commissioners were elected, The first commissioners were Rensselaer by Dr. Eastman, at the lower part of the town plot. John TujrRart, for Potter county Joseph Wright and Jonathan Colc^rove, for McKean, and hr.st county This county was organized for judicial purposes in 182b and the Otto, treasurer. The courthouse, a respectable brick buildinfr. was coui-t was held in September of that year. A printing At this time there were but about half a dozen dwelling-houses. erected this year. A weekly mail arrives here from the north, the east, the southpress was established in 1832. commenced running to Coudcrsport, thence o Jersey ,,ast,the south, and west; and a stage was rnadc lor an of J|;2,()0 Shore, or to Wellsborough. By the legislature, an ai)i)ropnation and loO acres of John Es.j., gave Several Keating, at ago, years Smethport. academy i^M\, an such institution, and individuals of McKean towards donation as a the land adjoining village, These amounts have been vested in of 8300 for that purpose. county have subscribed rising funds. productive ,, . 1, „^ a Afr commenced in the county began. A Mr. Several years previous to 1810, the first settlement on with several friends o ns Irom England, settled an gentleman, English enterprising King, There is now a flourishing the Oswaya creek, in Ceres township, 25 miles from Smethport. set^ Ih.s neighborhood is in that neighborhood. tlemenrhere; and some of the oldest orchards are

Smethport was

in 1807.


laid out







usually called King's settlement. . .1 ,1., ,„ „f so much greater than tlio.e of The first settlers of this comity suffered great inconveniences a dense wdderness without here found a scaixe is comparison. They the present day, that there " some of -h-^> ---y a road or an mhabitant, save the beasts of the forest, Jf-^j?^"^; -'^ ;. to those ^^'a slender as served others support character, while 1;^;;;=, ^^^^^^^^^^ , "f ;,t,\^;4"J was made by correct a account, I have of which settlement, 1^"^^ '^'"' ./-^^^^ '\V^^fj';;*,;^ 1





canoes or on pack-horses.

All All



oi nitahles r.("

were very dear, even at ine neartsi htiiiLnitiuB. 'Ylers arc now well compensated, for they


creek, 00..™^^^ ^rw-l^l^t^Ltbtrri-rt'So commenced m that stream,

Smethport, .nd extending up


1^J.^ »l~ n


Je ,ey Shore, . distance of more than


«»™ J;'!^


m,l«, on I7«'';l'"~i,,,,^,»


's in€ror^sS';rr.tLr,r„i- i^:^^^\.^':::r:^^:^''tSl!fn:r:a"d-hee» commenced



in 182 or Short time previous to the latter; and Esq., under the to Jacob


been In active



associate judges,















"^^ ^^ ^-P;'':"; of Ins countj furthering the nnprovement ^'^^^^ Since tho.e .atlcacnl. the first settler at that place. l',,





who has always now one of our


j.^„„,d, others



have been commenced and carried on in different The townships of Bradparts of the county. ford and Corydon, have withm the last three years been rapidly increasing. In 1831, the manufacture of salt was commenced Messrs. Allen Rice by Co., at a salt SDrin? in the southeastern part of Sergeant township. The operations were found quite favorable: and ''' ^""^ ""^^^ °^ ^° excellent and the water found to bear quahty, i""" ood°'er"Lnt



Port Allegheny is on the Allegheny, 10 miles east of Smethport, near the confluence of the Portage branch. The Canoe-place is about two miles above. It was here that the early settlers of Warren co came about the year 1795 constructed a canoe, and floated down to the mouth oi the Gonewango. ;

Bradford is a small village recently started in the forks of Tuneno-uant on land purchased from the United States Land Co., better known as the Boston Co. Ceres, formerly King's settlement, is a smart and flourishing village inhabited by New York and Yankee lumbermen, on Oswaya cr in 'the northeastern corner of the county. It contains a Methodist church, several stores, mills, &c. Teutonia is the name of the new German town, situated on the right bank of Stanton cr., 5 miles southwest of Smethport. This town is the of


property Society of Industry." It was started in March, 1843 on the plan and by the enterprise of Mr. Henry Ginal, a German novJ residing in Philadelphia, and agent of the .society. It contains at present about 450 inhabitants. A schoolhouse is built, but no church. Some or seventy eighty log-houses have been erected, besides a steam saw-mill, a large tannery, and a store furni.shed with every article necessary for food and clothing. The society is in of acres

of land, a possession 40,000 considerable part of which is already cleared, and they keep from forty to fifty hands at chopping, all of them members of the society. Excellent bituminous coal, iron ore, limestone, brick-clay, &c., abound on the lands 1 he soil is generally of good quality. The society is founded on the principle of community of property, money and furniture excepted, and is sustained by the cooperation of its members an equal distribution of the profits being made In its fundamental half-yearly. principles it differs from Fourier s system. The society has about $40,000 capital; some ^10,000 ol which is invested in land. This stock is divided into 660 shares, of which 300 are already sold. When the balance is sold the number will be limited, and shareholders will be admitted only by buying out others. The shares are now worth about $200 originally they were worth but have risen $100, with the improvements, the land is only divided into several districts in the centre of each there is to be a town, with houses built uniform style, and the stables and barns will be outside ot the village. Marriage is not only allowed but encouraged, and each tamily resides in its separate house, possessing its own furniture and money. Clothing of a plain and uniform kind, provisions, fuel, &c., are regularly distributed by rations from the society's common stores. An individual becomes a member by purchasing a share of stock, going on the ground, and working with the rest. The society will build him a house if married or lurnish him or her with a Chillodging, if single. dren, when they grow up, become members by conforming to the rules of the society. Married women are not obliged to work for the communitj^ but devote their attention to the care of their own families. All ;







here ; (but it would perhaps be bettor if the societyreligions are tolerated had commenced with selecting some one in particular.) Whenever '.UH) shareholders vote to maintain a minister they may do so, the minister a share ; the society will furnish him with a house, and himself


will consider him entitled to the maintenance belonging to his share in return for his spiritual labors; but if any less number than :}()() sh(nild of physical labor, desire a minister, he must perform his regular share

unless his friends choose privately to support him. of cattle are the prominent objects Although agriculture and the raising skilful mechanics, they intend to estabof the society, yet having many The members of each trade choose their own lish several manufactories. the amount of work which shall be done by inspector, and determine were learned each individual, or company of persons. The above facts himself. Ginal Mr. from the , compiler by , about 100 mhabitants. Gtnalsburg, four miles east of Teutonia, contains steam a a stone schoolhouse, It is built with frame houses, and contains .


about to be erected, and a boarding This village also pertams to the

saw-mill, and a pottery a furnace is school will be opened there next year. Society of Industry. ;

MERCER COUNTY. to the western boundary is one of the range contiguous co. by the act of 12th March, from taken was Allegheny It state. the of area 765 sq ms Population in 1800, 1800. Length 32 ms., breadth 26 1840, 32,873. 1830, 19,729; in 11,681 1820, 8.277; in 1810, 2283 which rises or Shenango, the are Pymatuning The principal streams directions through Mercer into Crawford co. and meanders in various which rises in the Neshannock, the is it joined by Reaver CO where the of one form two pnncipal branches northern endlf Mercer co. These the southeastern, and French touches cr. Rock of Beaver river. Slipperv the A small l-^e

Mercer county








ler :l^thri"rtheasternc^neroftheco^ northe^^^^^^^^ Ihe soil is generaiij cr. narf of the CO pours its waters into Sandy not as much but broken, some in places SI the surfec'e undulating and

and Ohio rivers. so as in the counties on the Allegheny the northern well is adapted for gram The southern part of the co. and kidney species, has the of bog Iron ore, for grass and pasturage. two furnaces were wrought formerly, been found ha several localities, and and hmeCoal, of the finest quality, since been abandoned. ;


been found near Mercer in abundance, stone are abundant. Copperas has In found on trial to be unproh able. but prepa at-on for market was s a ,uo>t excanal Erie and the Pittsburg the V cL^ky of Sharon, on between anthracite and bitummvalulble bed of coal of peculiar quality,


wrought it siphur. The finest steel, ^ i^^-^^^-'J.^e without coking. It has been tried ^^^^^^^^f '^l "\.;' ,1^;^^ Hve

^u ?withoi:fthe witU





of the height or quantity of the water, as from the wild, ru-o-ed and romantic boldness with which the place abounds. The ou?d of ^he water, descending from rock to rock, the steep perpendicular bfuff, the th^e Vfdness of uncultiv'ated natm^'" atuie. Ibon't About ^.^7""'-^"^"' three miles from '.V^^"^ Mercer are several curious caves " «• The entrance is horizontal, a^.d suffi.' ci^nnvT ^'"T""' for an ^^i.«^r°f ciently large individual to enter

comfortably. After goino- about SIX or eight leet, there is a perpendicular descent for a few fee°t then the passage increases and diminishes alternately, and finally opens into day on the opposite side of the hill. cool ciirrent of air consta U v from the mouth, and ice is found there during the whole of ^sues f^r-famed Neshannock or Mercer potatoes are natives of the ^il1 of nf this CO. There are so twelve churches in the county, ^ and special attention is paid to common-school education. was a wilderness until several years after the passage of the celebrated T'f^^ land law of April, 1792, providing for the survey and settlemen of all the lands "north and west of the Ohio and Alleghenv rivers and Conewango creek." Soon after peace was restored to the frontier in 1795, settlements were made extensively about the souAern end of Mercer co., in the forks of Mahoning, Shenango, and Neshannock creeks and the census of 1800 showed a of ;













^^"^^ "'*^ t*^^ ^^"tr^l part of the c'ounty Z V' f the county Fmdley who is surveyor, came here firs^ about 1801 18of\." but no general settlement was made around Mercer i'nT7Qfi






All.l ^^'^' Allegheny, and



until the

several families



came in from Westmoreland! and made an opening. For want

of provisions they were compelled to return during the winter, only Mr P indley and one other family remaining on the ground. In he sprinc: they returned here with their families, and commenced a permanenrset"tlement Mr. Fmdley's neighbors at that early day we^e John Pugh, ' "' '^^'^"^ Alexander, Mr. Hawthorn; Mr.


The adventures

of these worthy pioneers were few, and of little general The county was for many years retarded in its growth, and the actual settlers were greatly harassed, by the various and confli;ting titles to land growing out of the acts of 1785, and 1792. (See Crawford ^


Mercer, the county seat, is situated near the Neshannock or., on elevated ground, 57 miles N. W. from Tt was Pittsburg by the turnpike laid out 111 1803 by John Findley, William^ iv/ortimore, and Will Im "^ ''' t° the county by John Ho^e of W^T'"'; r''' «f>"^'^^^'^" Washington co., who owned large tracts of land in the vicinity. 1 he hill on which It IS situated was formerly a dense hazle thicket. The first courts were held in an old log courthouse which stood where Mrs. Shannon now lives The court and county officers are now accommoP^^bl^^ buildings of brick, surrounded by a verdant lawn ^1. ? 'a with trees and planted enclosed by a neat white fence. In 1807 there ""' '"" ^°"''' "' ^^^ I" 1840 it had a population P^^^^' TA'^r^r?.dwellings Ir are neat and and display a pleasing substantial, vL;! ; f variety of architectural embellishment. Besides the county buildings" there are the town an academy, Methodist, Union, Seceder, Old and






Public Square and Courthouse at Mercer. New School Presbyterian churches a foundry, and the usual stores and on the Pittsburg and Erie taverns. Daily lines of stages pass through turnpike. Newcastle is located on the southern boundary of the co., at the juncand Neshannock creeks, 16 miles 8. W. from Mercer, tion of ;


Shenango and 24 miles from the confluence of the Beaver and Ohio




Its in 1806 it contained about 20 houses. laid out about the year 1800 is well adapted The 611. was country 1840 in surrounding population Its healthy and picturesque situation for the growth of wheat and wool. visiters. admired much been has by i, nuUhio The Pennsylvania canal, which is to connect Lake Erie with the another will when open and the completed, town, river, passes through Iron ore is lound channel for the rich productions of the neighborhood. a lurnace is benear town, run the on around miles 15 for abundance in coal, Bituminous town. in nail factory ing built, and a rolling-mill and in the ;



and quartz suitable for making glass exist in abumUiiice The water-power of the Neshannock and Chenango is neio-hborino- hills. a large nianulacturing if all immense and, brought into use, must create with a sutliciency created be town. At three different points, powers may is passing the second town The fall. feet 28 16 to from and of water, here frame buildings to brick. 1 here are stage in improvement, from Mea Protestant and and Methodist churches, Presbyterian, Seceder, thodist" church is organized. the




of the co. on Greenville is situated in the northwestern part hne of bodies Shenango river, and is surrounded by large l^'^^^^« afiording e^erv iacihty the town, canal through Extension Erie passes beds ot extensive immediate the vicinity are in There to commerce. which will torm an iron ore, and mines of very superior coal, the taste and/"JPO^f'^"' of lake. The


rapid growth article of export to the the^town, the exhibited in its embellishments, indicate and

beauty Seven years since, the population location.








^ er a ^/^^j^a.^m) numbered in 1840, 626. The Shenango river affords all occupied. still not ^"^P^t^^^^^J is and several mills, drives large power, which



There is a foundry in the place, and an oil-mill in the vicinity. The place contains five churches, Presbyterian, Methodist, Congregationalist " gd-tionaiisc, Associate, and Reformed Presbyterian." Sharon is a flourishing village on the Shenango, 14 miles west of Mercer, ihe tjTie Extension canal passes near the village. luLASKi is about 14 miles from Mercer, and 9 miles from New Castle ' on the Erie Extension canal. Georgetown is a new and neat village, on a small branch of Sandy of Mercer by the It contains turnpike. Methodist, p;. .?!."'''? and iJaptist, Presbyterian churches. New Bedford is between the Shenango and Mahoning creeks, about 10 miles N. W. from New Castle.

MIFFLIN COUNTY. Mifflin county counties by


was formed from Cumberland and Northumberland

act of 19th September, 1789.

Length 39 miles, breadth 15 ; area about 360 sq. miles. Population in 1790,7,562: in 1800 13 8091810, 12 132; in 1820, 16,618; in 1830, 21,690 in 1840, (afte'r the se^ paration of Jumata co.) 13,092. The county forms a long irregular figure stretching in a southwest and northeast direction, traversed longitudinally a series of by rugged mountain ranges, of nearly uniform height These niountains are separated by soft undulating valleys of slate and limestone of exceeding beauty and The lovely vale of Wyoming has been fertility. more distingmshed in history and song; and yet it is only a specimen— a rare one, it must be conceded— of many similar valleys that adorn the apparently rugged Apalachian formation, both in Pennsylvania and VirIhe valley in which Lewistown is situated bears a ginia. striking resemblance to that of Wyoming, and if in some points inferior, it has the in the advantage possession of limestone, that inexhaustible element of 1 he mountain lertUity. ranges, commencing on the S. E., are Blue ridge, and Shade, Jack s. Stone, and Path Valley mountains. The latter is sometimes called the Seven Mountains. Between these there are the narrow of Licking cr. Lewisto^vn va ey, which is subdivided into several valley smaller ones and Kishicoquillas The Juniata, breaking through the wild valley. gap of Jack's mountain, enters at the S. W. end of the co., meanders leisurely through the Lewistown valley, and again enters the mountains at the romantic gorge called the long narrows, which is a trough four miles long, between the Black Log and Shade mountains, barely wide enough for the river to pass at the end of this pass the river breaks through Shade mountain. Kishicoqmllas cr IS a fed by the mountains surbe^autiful never-failing stream, rounding the Kishicoquillas valley, out of which it breaks by a deep gorge Jack s mountain, and enters the Juniata at Lewistown. 'jack's cr. and cr. are smaller Licking tributaries of the Juniata. Iron ore of the best quality abounds in the co., such as is used in making the famous Juniata iron. In the limestone there











Alexander's cave in Kisliicoq's valley abounds in several curious caves. the finest stalactites and stalagmites it is also a natural icehouse, pro Henawall's cave, near iM'\'eyt(j\\ii, serving it in the midst of summer. calcareous concretions crudr siiltis of vast dimensions, abounding with Bevin's cave is on the summit of it at times. from taken been has petre The Pennsylvania canal and the ITuntiiiijdon tiirii|iil O a^ S o -a.2







o o E






cs^ g 1—




c a








O o


£ aT

c P3

a o c s

o 1^;






c C o

•"3 2 •£

|Sc •"CS .



^^ >:



'S .2


2 bo oT

2 bi-B c •C J3 ts



C 4) 3 S c "



and many others less remarkable ; but imparting an air of neatness and comfort not often seen in towns of such rapid growth. In the lower part of the town, we have Thomas Ridgeof what is usually called MorrisviUe, which, with way's, and several others, comprising part Mount Carbon, forms a striking entrance to the town from the south. B. M. must not omit to mention Buckley's beautiful addition to Potts ville, distinguished by the name of Greenwood occupying a point remarkable for its beauty, and tlie varied scenery which it commands. Among the improvements, we remark a large stone hotel, and a row of handsome stone houses. In the rear, on the river-road to Port Carbon, there is a large brewery, in full operation, established by A. Y. Moore, enabUng us to boast of beer fully equal to that of St.,




Adjoining MorrisviUe, as we remarked above, stands Mount Carbon, wliich, under the fosterof the town in appearance. During the past ing care of John White, now fully equals any part season, many valuable additions have been completed particularly a liotel, which would do The Norwegian railroad terminates here. credit to a city, and a row of stores. Momit Carbon comprises the southern extremity of Pottsville. It stands on the Schuylkill, at the foot of the Sharp mountain, lying in the valley between that and Second mountain. the abrupt hills, rising almost perpendicularly around, are strikingly Its situation is romantic grand while the Schuylkill, winding through the gorges of the mountain, completes a scene of picturesque beauty unsurpassed by the points in whose praise our northern tourists are so fluent. Sharp mountain itself is a remarkable natural curiosity resembling a rampart-boundary to the ;




coal region on the south. The original town of Mount Carbon received considerable additions during the last year. Since the closing of navigation, the lock at the mouth of the canal has been renewed, under the superintendence of Mr. Mills, the agent for the Canal Co. In the pool above are the docks of Messrs. EUmaker, Audenreid, and White and Coombe, who have two docks at the rear of their storehouses, each 28 feet wide ; and in length one is 100 and the other 150 feet. Beyond are Mr. Eldridge's landings, adjoining the range now constructing for Messrs. Thouron and MacOn the opposite side lie the boat-yards of Mr. Shelly, and the extensive landings of the grcgor. North American Co. Again on the left are Mr. S. J. Pott's wharves ; those of Messrs. Morris ;

and Mr. C.

Storer's boat-yard,

on which we perceive he


erecting a screw-dock.


latter lie

at the foot of MorrisviUe.

The pool below the bridge affords wharves to the storehouses of Messrs. Moore and Graham, Nathans, Thurston, and others. Several new landings are here constructing, the margin of the The principal buildings lately erected river presenting every facility for works of this nature. and on Market-st. six are a range of stone stores and dwelling-houses, the hotel on Centre-st. The hotel is a beautiful edifice of stone, 45 feet wide by 82, stone and twelve frame buildings. to each exclusive of the piazza, which presents a promenade story, embracing a view of the mountainous scenery around. These improvements are owing to the enterprising spirit of Messrs. ;

White and Coombe. The Mount Carbon gian creek valleys,

railroad, projected as an outlet for the rich coal formations of the Norwein Oct. 1829, under the superintendence of William R. Hop-

was commenced

and John White, president. At the termination the road is elevated upon 31 piers of masonry, erected upon the landings ; thence it passes through the gap of Sharp moimtain, across the landings before mentioned, following the valley of the Schuylkill to MorrisAt this point we have, on the left, Messrs. Morris's mines, and on the opposite side of the viUe. the mines now worked by Mr. Baraclough. The river, on the Lippincott and Richards tract,

kins, chief-engineer,

road here leaves the Schuylkill, at its junction with the Norwegian creek, stretching up the valley of the latter, parallel with the Greenwood improvements, directly through Pottsville, to the forks a distance of 6,208 feet from the piers. Below this are the mines now working by Mr. M'Kechand several openings on land belonging to D. J. Rhoads, Esq. :


On the last branch, which is 14,200 feet in length, the first lateral above the forks belongs to the North American Co., and leads to their Centreville collieries, where they have twelve openLewis and Spohn veins. This coal is in high estimation, and has ings, upon the celebrated the reputation of Schuylkill county coal, in the eastern markets. greatly aided in establishing Pott's lands, and again strikes the Spohn vein at Beyond this, the road passes through Benjamin The Hillsborough tract comes next, on the right, on the east mines of the North American Co. which are several openings. Here we diverge to the left, through the celebrated Peach mountain made by him. Next the Rose hill tract, tract, belonging to J. White, and pass five openings owned by L. Ellmaker on these lands are several mines, leased by the Messrs. Warner, Wade, little and others, near the town of Wadesville a thriving place, laid out by Mr. Ellmaker. Above The east branch terminates the town, the lateral road from Capt. Wade's mine comes down. and Cummings. This land upon the Flowery field tract, belonging to Messrs. Bonsall, Wetherill, has been extensively worked by various individuals. The West Branch commences at Marysville, on the Oak hill tract, and is 16,400 feet in length. Messrs. Smith, Hart, Maxwell, Wade, Hall, Dennis, GalOn this estate are the mines leased :




and Martin.


those are the celebrated


Diamond and Oak

hill veins.





not omit the hotel kept here, by Mr. B. Gallaglicr, at a convenient distance from Pottsvillc for an Below Oak hill are the Green park and Clinton tracts the former belonging to John excursion. White, and the latter to Mrs. Spohn. At Green park there is one opening under the superintendence of Mr. James Dill. Adjoining this is the Belmont estate also John Wliite's. Next the Thouron tract, a portion of which has been purchased by Benj. Pott the Spohn vein passing and Duncan estates. The railroad here passes through it. Contiguous are the Spohn, Lewis, B. Pott's saw-mill, and extends in a perfectly straight line, a mile in length, nearly to the junc;


tion with the



Since the above extract was published, now twelve years, many imOld mines have been exhausted or portant changes have taken place. abandoned, and new ones opened a great number of new railroads have been constructed; several mines have been explored, and profitably worked, below the water level. The geology of the region has been the Pottsville, Reading, and Philadelphia railroad has fully explored been opened, in 1842, affording daily communication in seven hours to Philadelphia, and promising to effect a complete revolution in the transof 1836 have expanded and exploded. portation of coal ; the speculations Pottsville has increased its population from 2,424 in 1830, and 3,117 in Its trade, 1835, to 4,345 in 1840 and is now a compact, bustling place. no longer driven back and forth by the tide of speculation, has settled, or is settling, into a steady channel, well understood, and well managed by The town now contains a handsome capitalists, merchants, and miners. Episcopal church, and a splendid new Catholic cathedral, both in the Gothic style ; a German Catholic church, and neat edifices for the Pres;



byterian, Baptist, and Methodist denominations an academy ; a spacious town hall a splendid hotel, called Pennsylvania Hall, and several other spacious hotels ; a furnace, at which iron has been successfully made with anthracite coal a forge and rolling-mill ; a large foundry a ;




steam-engine factory and machine shop a boat-yard, brewery, &c. The Danville and Pottsville railroad, designed to connect the Schuylkill Navigation, at Pottsville, with the Susquehanna at Danville and Sunbury, was projected in 1826, and was completed in 1834 as far as Girardville, a small hamlet of three or four houses, ten miles north of Pottsville. Sixteen miles are also completed on the Sunbury end. The death of its chief patrons, the late Stephen Girard, and Gen. Daniel Montgomery, of Danville, with whom the project originated, has retarded the progress of the work. On the ten miles near Pottsville, a tunnel of 700 feet long, and four inclined planes, have been constructed at an enormous expense but the tunnel 2,500 feet long, into the Girard coal-mines, on Mahanoy, is but partially completed. Until this is done, this part of the road cannot be profitably used, and the superstructure is now rotting in the sun. (A notice of the opening of the Reading railroad will be found on page ;



As the mines exhausted,



in favorable situations, above the water level, become necessary either to seek new ones at a greater dis-

tance, and an increased cost of transportation, or to dive deeper into the bowels of the earth. The latter course has been adopted in several valuable mines, about Pottsville, by Mr. Charles Lawton, Messrs. Potts and Bannan, Mr. Charles Ellet, the Delaware Coal Co., Milne and Haywood, and Mr. George H. Potts, and others. Mr. Lawton is undermining the very town of Pottsville itself. These veins are inclined at an inclination of about 40°. A wide shaft, or descending passage, is first sunk, at the



inclination of the vein, wide enough for a double-track which the loaded cars are hauled to the top of the mine.

Journal says,





The Miners'

of the most interesting of the kind in the region ; and colliery of Potts and Barman is one The colliery is better will well repay the trouble, and we might add the fatigues, of a visit. known as the Guinea hill, or Black mine, and is one of the deepest in our coal basin. The depth


of the slope is 400 feet, which, at an inclination of 40 degrees, would give a perpendicular depth of 252 feet into the very bowels of the earth. The pitch of the vein, as soon as it loses the influence of the hill, is very regular and the coal becomes of a purer and better quality, and is found in greater masses between the slates. The colliery is worked with two steam-engines one of fifty-horse power, and the other of twenty. The former is used in pumping the water which accumulates in the mines, and the latter in hoisting the coal in cars to the mouth of the The pump used in the colliery is of cast-iron, 12 inches in diameter, and extends the enslope. 400 feet. The column of water brought up by the engine, at each lift tire depth of the slope


of the pump, is equal in weight to about 8i tons. At the depth of 200 feet of this slope, a tunnel has been driven 90 yards south to the Tunnel both through solid rock which enables the provein, and 70 yards north to the Lawton vein As the visitor leaves the slope, the present engines and fixtures. prietors to work three veins, with and finds himself, lantern in hand, groping his way through the gangway into the heart of the mine, he is half bewildered and startled, as the almost indistinct masses of coal, slate, dirt, &c., It fashion themselves into something bordering upon a dark, dusky, and even forbidding outline. seems as if you had fallen upon a subterranean city, buried by some great convulsion of nature ;


illusion is still further heightened by observing workmen busily engaged, apparently in imaginative, and have read the Odyssey, you might excavating the ruins. Or, if you are highly " godlike and much-enduring man," when he paid a readily fancy the feelings of Ulysses, that visit to the infernal shades, for the purpose of ascertaining the shortest and most direct cut to his beloved Ithaca. Homer, however, does not inform us whether or not the shades carried lamps in their caps, without which the pick would be of little use to our miners.

and the

Port Carbon, (which must not be confounded by our readers with is a very busy and thriving village on the main branch of the Schuylkill, two miles northeast of Pottsville, and at the head of

Mount Carbon,)

This place is happily located, surrounded almost by lofty mountains, well stored with the mineral wealth of the rewith great facility. The gion, which can be conveyed to the landings town was laid out in 1828 by several enterprising individuals the lots and Jacob W. Seitzinger Lawadjoining the landings by Abraham Pott ton ville, adjoining to the westward, was laid out by Wm. Lawton, Esq. and Rhoadsville, on the continuation of the river Schuylkill, by Daniel J. the whole of which constitute Port Carbon. Mill creek Rhoades, Esq. enters the Schuylkill here, and a railroad along its valley brings down the produce of the mines in the vicinity of St. Clairsville and New CasThe Schuylkill valley railroad, with its numerous lateral intersectle. tions from the various openings in Mine hill, brings in a vast amount of This road passes through the small villages of Patterson, Middlecoal. These villages were laid out port, New Philadelphia, and Tuscarora. about the year 1828, and have increased more or less according to the mining business near them. Minersville is beautifully situated, 4 miles N. W. of Pottsville, in the bosom of a valley through which meanders the western branch of the It conIt is the most important town on the West Branch. Schuylkill. tains a flouring-mill, steam skw-mill, foundry, car-manufactory, two or three neat churches, and 1,2G5 inhabitants. The West Branch railroad co. were laid passes through the place. Nearly all the towns in Schuylkill out by several different speculators, each preferring their own hill or valas the case might be, and each starting with a little ley, or landing-place, cluster of frame houses. Consequently all such towns are like Washing the Schuylkill navigation.







" of ton city in one respect, cities magnificent distances." Minersville Ibrms no exception to the remark it consists of three or four once disIt was laid out in 1829, tinct settlements, now nearly merged in one. and in 1831 was incorporated as a borough. Its early growth was remarkably rapid, as will appear by the following from the Miner's Jour-

nal of Dec. 1830:


little more than a twelvemonth ago, the present site of the town dwelt in all the loneliness of uncultivated nature, since whicn its aspect has undergone a wonderful change in improvements and population. Along the margin of the stream the West Branch railroad extends, and terminates at Schuylkill Haven, distance seven and a half miles from Minersville, affording an The principal street bears the name of Sunbury. easy and expeditious mode of transportation. on which are situated all the stores and public buildings. It was formerly the old Sunbury road, connnunicating with the rich valleys in the direction of the Susquehanna. The northern i)ortion of the village is of firm, dry soil, gradually rising, and affording a southern exposure of favoraSeven large houses have already been erected during tho ble character for private dwellings. Bennett Gilmore, together with a number of small present season on this spot by Messrs. Last spring there were but six dwellings in all, since which there buildings in the same quarter. has been an increase of forty-nine substantial houses. The place contains six taverns, in any one of which are to be found respectable accommodations, eight stores, well supplied with every


country consumption, six blacksmith shops, one saddlery, one bakery, two tailors' all seeming to be in a thriving way. The population is estimated at shops, and two butchers 500 inhabitants. On Thursday evening, the 9th inst., a concert was given at Minersville by the diminutive songstress, Miss Clark, at which a numerous audience attended. Her warbliiigs, a year ago, would have found an accompaniment in the uninterrupted solitude of a wilderness, instead of being listened to with marked pleasure by an animated and numerous assembly. article for

On the West Branch, about two miles west of Minersville, is the little village of Llewellyn, which obtained its name from the Welsh miners employed in the vicinity. Two and a half miles northwest from LlewelYork company now in progress, lyn is the immense tunnel of the under the superintendence of Mr. Deforest, the company's agent. This


which is wide enough for a double track railroad, and has already been driven about 900 feet directly into Broad mountain, is opened for the purpose of cutting the coal veins at right angles to their range. From the tunnel drifts are made at right angles to it into each vein of coal, and by means of these drifts the miners work out the breast of coal. But perhaps the reader who is a stranger to the anthracite region may not comprehend these terms. A tunnel among the miners is what has been described above. A drift is a passage barely wide enough for a tunnel,

horse and car, or man and car, to pass, entering generally at the edge or end of a coal vein, and following its range nearly on a level. The coal veins in the anthracite region are generally inclined at angles varying from 30 to 60 degrees with the horizon, and usually crop out, or reach the surface of the hill, at a greater or less height. Sometimes they bend over the hill or saddle over, as the term is without coming to the surface at all. The height between the water level and the place where the vein reaches the upper surface of the hill, is called a breast and a vein is said to have more or less breast according to its height in the hill. The first practice in mining coal was by quarrying, as at Mauch Chunk or by opening vast caverns, with columns of coal, as at Carbondale and Wilkesbarre ; or by sinking shafts from the top of the hill, and hauling up the coal, as at first in Schuylkill co., and as still in use for mines below the water level but all these modes have yielded to the easier and cheaper mode of drifting. The gorges of the small streams through Mine hill and Broad mountain offered the best sites for drifts. But many






as far as the of these veins have been exhausted above the water level, have no acwho Those work. to a have right owners on the streams their land for them, are therefore cut to stream through commodating of tunnelling. The lateral drifts are generally obliged to adopt the mode in each, at so much per ton. These let out to clubs of three or four miners One of them with his pick digs drift. the in along men drive their car broad chimney, lettmg his out the breast above the car in the shape of a of the breast ; when a foot the at rails placed lumps fall against some one of the rails—the load is thus accumulated, the miner below draws world. The miner the into out trundled is and coal falls into the car, To prevent the thus keeps working upward till he reaches the out-crop. stout props and taken been has out, coal the where in mountain falling the drift and the breast. Ihis cross-pieces are placed at intervals along of timber, and the hills around immense an quantity propping requires of their original forests. PottsviUe have been consequently despoiled these props decay, and abandoned, exhausted been When a mine has long to appear and the earth caves in. Lines of these unsightly holes begm lor halt a them of some PottsviUe— about the in many parts of region mile continuously. a little On the West Branch, about three miles above Minersville, is at the this of west little place, miner's hamlet called Coal Castle. A " a coal mine took fire in the winter ot iugular vein" in Broad mountain, It has even to extinguish it. 1838-39, and has since defied all attempts trace above every mountain it, of the destroying strata roasted the rocky vast and yawning causing of vegetation along the line of the breast, which issue hot and sulphurchasms, where the earth has fallen in, from a careless miner, ous fumes, as from a volcano. The mine was ignited by at the mouth a grate hanging the temperature, placed who, to moderate to the railthen and the to props, of the drift. The fire communicated it must have cracked oft that caused soon was a heat such road, and seems scarcely possible that the lumps of coal to feed the flames. It 1 wo case. vein itself can be on fire, although such may be the


unfortunate miners perished in the mine. after trying various expedients to extinguish

The it,



Mr. Dougherty, it, with a heavy

out on the opening of Castle, on the Sunbury turnpike, was laid are has as it substantially built of stone ; the coal trade, and such houses increased has it but very slowly. n , „ , -i four miles Schuylkill Haven is situated on the left bank of the river, Branch. West below PottsviUe, and immediately below the junction of the surround the town, and the Fertile farms and very picturesque scenery the broad meadows as if delighted meanders here river among bright This with being unrestrained by the rocky precipices of the coal region. Ihe in 1829, by Mr. Daniel J. Rhodes and others. out laid was place the with Navigation, here communicates Schuylkill West Branch railroad which the and the transhipment of the coal has created a business, upon schools, a churches, three or two contains now It town has thrived. two and bridges across weigh lock for canal boats, a grist and saw mill, Ihe at about 700. estimated be The the Schuylkill. population may brick a is of Schuylkill Haven, spacious county almshouse, one mile east with a fine farm attached, which does great credit to the county.






At Scollop hill, three miles below Schuylkill Haven, the canal passes through a long and expensive tunnel. The West Branch railroad brings in the product of many rich mines. It has been constructed in a substantial manner, and of such dimensions that the heavy cars of the Reading railroad, with which it here intersects, may run upon it. What effect this circumstance may have upon the welfare of Schuylkill Haven, by dispensing with the necessity of transhipment, remains to be determined. In the annexed view, part of one of the churches is seen on the left iri

Schuylkill Haven.

the foreground

the river and basin, with its numerous boats and railroad tracks, and a little beyond, on the right, is the bridge of the Reading is


TAMAauA was

laid out in 1829, by the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Co., Little Schuylkill river, 17 miles above its junction with the main stream, and 15 miles east of Pottsville. It lies in a shut in

on the


valley, by the Sharp and Locust mountains. It is now quite a smart village, with some half dozen stores, several taverns, two churches, a car and coach manuflxctory, and 405 inhabitants. It depends for its support upon the mmes that surround it. Like the other coal towns, it is built on a scale of magnificent distances. There are several detachments, or regiments of houses, on the main road, up the river, down the river, and on ^^^ village, on a high eminence, stands the Catholic T^^ I u-^l^°^^ church, bidding defiance, as it were, to the Lutheran or Presbyterian church, which looks down from another eminence. The annexed view

was taken




at the western entrance of the street, on the Pottsville road. east of the the mansion

Patterson, and



village, erected by Mr. Burd large occupied by Mr. Franklin, makes quite a conspicuous ^

The Lehigh Co. own large tracts of coal-lands in this vicinity. tinuation of the Little Schuylkill road, to connect with the Catawissa railroad, was projected made. A stage-road connects

A con-

Quakake and


but the Catawissa road has not been

Tamaqua with


Mauch Chunk




Tamaqua. road, five miles east,

and with the Schuylkill Valley

railroad, four miles


Port Clinton is a thriving place, laid out in 1829, at the mouth of Little It has grown up by the shipment here of the product Schuylkill river. of the mines around Tamaqua. Pine Grove is situated on the right bank of the Swatara creek, in the and Second mountains, about 14 miles valley between the Kittatinny branch of the Union canal has been extended to west of Pottsville. and a railroad extends up the Swatara, four or five miles, to this place the coal-mines on Lorberry creek, and the main branch of Swatara, above Sharp mountain. About 20,000 tons of coal were shipped from this region in 1841. forge has been established here since 1828. This the coal-trade before commenced, was settled by a few scattered region,




German farmers and lumbermen, from Lebanon



SOMERSET COUNTY. Somerset county was taken from Bedford, by the act of 17th April, 1795. Length 38 miles, breadth 28 area 1,066 sq. miles. Population in 1800, and in 1840, 10,188; in 1810, 11,284; in 1820, 13,890 in 1830, 17,741 The county is composed of a high and rather level table-land, 19,050. between the Great Allegheny mountain and Laurel hill. It abounds in what are called glades level wet lands, about the head- waters of the numerous streams that rise in this county. The climate of this elevated region is too cold, and the summers too short, for raising corn and the land is generally too wet for wheat. Oats, rye, hay, and potatoes are the the numerous principal crops, for which a ready market is found "among drovers and wagoners crossing the mountains by the glades road." This road, not being macadamized, affords a softer path to the tender feet ;






of the fat cattle of the west. The glades, when properly managed, form productive dairy farms. The well-known glades butter bears the palm in Baltimore and Washington. Besides the Allegheny and Laurel Hill mountains, the Negro mountain, a bold ridge, runs up from Maryland, nearly to the centre of the county ; the Little Allegheny mountain forms' the southeastern boundary and Savage mountain crosses the southern ;

boundary from Maryland, and unites with the Little Allegheny near Wills' creek. Laurel Hill creek and Castleman's river water the southern end of the county, uniting with the Yough'ogheny. Wills' creek drains the valley between the Great and Little Allegheny mountains and the Quemahoning. Stony, and Shade creeks water the northern end, flowing into the Conemaugh, in Cambria co. Seams of coal, from three to five feet in thickness, are opened in various townships. In some of the shales between the coal-seams occur thin flaggy bands of iron-ore, of considerable There likewise exists a bed of limestone, purity. nearly three feet in thickness. Iron-ore prevails about Elk Lick creek, near Castleman's river, and in many places along the western declivity of the Allegheny mountain. ;

Bog-ore is also found, but the deposits rarely give evidence of a large supply. The citizens of this county are chiefly of German descent, and German IS the In 1830 this population was divided into the prevailing language. the Lutheran, having 17 churches, German followmg religious sects Reformed 12, Methodists 8, Mennonists 5, Baptists 4, Omish 4, Presby:

2, and Roman Catholic 1. principal business of the county is grazing. The raising of sheep, with a view to wool-growing, for the last few years, has claimed the attention of the farmers. furnace and forge were established by Messrs. Mark Richards Co., on Shade creek the forge only is in operation. Another forge was owned by D. Livingston, but is not in operation. The national road passes through the southwestern part of the county. Glade turnpike, from Washington to Bedford, the centre ; passes a clay turnpike runs seven miles south of the Glade through road. The Chambersburg and Pittsbm-g turnpike passes ten miles north of Somerset,






through Stoystown. The Somerset and Cumberland turnpike opens a communication with the Baltimore railroad, at Cumberland. About two miles north of the Glade turnpike, 14 miles east of Somerset, is the lowest depression in the Allegheny mountain. In the southwestern part of the county, about 20 miles from Somerset, there are three ancient fortifications, within sight of each other, near Uastlemans river, erected long before the memory of the oldest settlers. Ihey are ca led M'Clintock's, Jennings's, and Skinner's forts, after the farmers on whose lands they are. M'Clintock's is on the left bank of Uastleman s river, on a rising ground, which has been cultivated for

On the side of the hill issues a from the site of the fort, there is said walled up with stone. In a part of the



fine spring, and to that spring, to be a subterranean

M Olintocks had, for




near the


one of the

successive years, perceived the point of his a stone, at a At last curiosity induced particular spot. him to examine the place, when he found a large, flat, hewn stone, of about SIX feet in diameter, covering a round hole, about fifteen feet deep, in which were a great quantity of bones. These forts are in Turkey's


to strike



Foot and Addison townships. It is matter of curious speculation by whom they were built. The first opening through the wilderness of what is now Somerset cc, was made by no less a personage than Lieut, Col. George Washington, in 1754. (See page 331.) This road crossed the southwestern corner of the county, passing the Yough'ogheny about two miles north of where the present national road crosses. Mr. Sparks, in his Life of Washington, says

So many obstacles intervened, that the progress was slow. Trees were to be felled, bridges made, marshes filled up, and rocks removed. In the midst of these difficulties the provisions and there was great disthe commissaries having neglected to fulfil their engagements failed At the Yough'ogheny, where they were detained in constructing a tress for want of bread. traders and Indians, that, except at one place, a pasbridge, Col. Washington was told by the extremely advantasage might be had by water down that river. To ascertain this pomt a toiu" of discovery, leaving the army geous, if true he embarked in a canoe, with five men, on under the command of a subordinate officer. His hopes were disappointed. After navigating the river in his canoe near thirty miles, encountering rocks and shoals, he passed between two mountains, and came to a fall that arrested his course. He returned, and the project of a conveyance by water was given up.

The following year, Gen. Braddock accompanied by Washington, then marched his unfortunate army over this same road. It was for colonel many years thereafter known as Braddock's road. (See Fayette and Al-

legheny counties.)

In 1758, the wilderness in the northern part of the co. was penetrated a similar manner by Col. Bouquet, and several companies. They constructed a fort' at Stony cr., where Stoystown now is and it is probable that Miller's breastworks, at the forks of the road on the Allegheny mountain, were thrown up at the same time. Late in October, Gen. Forbes, with an army of six thousand men, marched over the road. (See Washington also held an important station in this expedition. in


Westmoreland co.) During the memorable invasion by Pontiac

in 1763, the little garrison called in to strengthen that at Bedford. Bouquet's road continued for years to be the only means of communiIt is probable that, not long cation between Philadelphia and Pittsburg. after both these roads were opened, traders and pioneers found their way but their names and adventures, to this county, and made settlements

at Stoystown



any, have not been recorded. During the revolutionary war, and the Indian wars that succeeded it, Indians occasionally came down and drove the scattered parties of hostile settlers on the outskirts of the co. into the more populous region about This is one of the oldest places in the co., Berlin, in Brothers' valley. The settled originally by Germans, many of whom were Dunkards. name of Brothers' valley was derived from the affectionate appellation bestowed upon each other by the Dunkards. (See page 413.) The town is situated in a fertile region on the sources of Stony cr., 9 miles southif

It contains a Lutheran and a German Reformed east of the county seat. 100 about church, dwellings, and, by the census of 1840, 524 inhabitants. Somerset, the county seat, is a neatly-built town, situated on the summit of a hill, near the dentre of the co. It was laid out in the year 1795, inby Mr. Bruner, and for some time was called Brunerstown. It was act of and a act of the as a 1804, supplemental^ borough by corporated




German Reformed, Lutheran, and It contains three churches 1807. Methodist,— an academy, the usual county buildings, and 638 inhabitThe place is eminently healthy, and enjoys the advantages of pure ants. mountain air and water. Cox's creek passes the town at the foot of the The turnpike between Bedford and Washington passes through the hill. centre of the place. The view here annexed shows the entrance into the



on the turnpike from the east. turnpike is also located, and partly completed, from Somerset to the national road at Cumberland. The and to Johnstown, the nearest point distance to Cumberland is 30 miles, on the Pennsylvania improvements, 26 miles to Bedford, 37 miles. The first settlers about Somerset were Mr. Bruner, (the founder of the town,) Mr. Philson, and Mr. Husband, whose descendants still reside in the vicinity. During the great whiskey rebellion the citizens of this village


county took no very active part, though they were generally secretly opposed to the excise. Mr. Philson and Mr. Husband were more bold in the expression of their sentiments, and were, in consequence, arrested, sent to Philadelphia, and imprisoned. Mr. Husband died in Philadelphia, Mr. Philson was after enduring an imprisonment of about eight months. Hoji. Judge Black, presiding judge of the district, resides in Somerset. His grandfather was one of the early settlers of the co., about At his father's place was quite an extensive eight miles east of the town. trading establishment. It is said that the distinguished Philip Doddridge, for many years the pride of the western bar, was born in this co. The following account of a destructive fire which desolated Somerset in 1833, is from the Somerset Whig the catalogue of names and occupations may be interesting for reference at some future day




half-past 2 o'clock on Wednesday morning, (Oct. 16, 1833,) the cry of fire was heard in our streets. It was discovered to be in a house owned by J. F. Cox and James Armstrong, and occupied in part as a dwelling, and hi part by several mechanics as shops. Where the fire first originated cannot be correctly ascertained further than it was either m a cabinetmaker's or a In a few moments we had prcsente•"«'" direction-O ^D Take care of your powers m in the th name nnm! and .n f "\'^'' f'^'^' power., fear of God our protector-if not, leave the wSi^k. There is a '


this in the sa


YORK COUNTY. treasure, 4,000

pounds chantment, which you German doctors has it.


the doctor


Don't trust the black one. Obey orders. Break the enapiece for you. will not do until you get an ounce of mineral dulcimer cliximer; some It is near, and dear, and scarce. arc about he is wicked."

know what you

Let the committee get

—but don't


The above is but a small part of this precious communication. In consequence of these ghostly directions, a young man named Abraham Kepliart waited, by order of the committee, The Dr. preserved his elixinicr in a bottle sealed with a large red seal, and buried

on Dr. Dady. in a heap of

oats, and demanded fifteen dollars for an ounce of it. Young Kephart could not afford to give so much, but gave him thirty-six dollars and three bushels of oats for three ounces of it. Yost Liner, another of these wise committee-men, gave the doctor 121 dollars for eleven

ounces of the


The company was soon increased to 39 persons, many of whom were wealthy. Among those who were most miserably duped may be mentioned (Clayton Chamberlain, Yost Liner, Thomas Bigham, William Bigham, Samuel Togert, John M'Kinriey, James Agnew, (the eider,) James M'Cleary, Robert Thompson, David Kissinger, George Sliecklcy, Peter Wikeart, and John PhilAll these and many other men were, in the words of the indictment, " cheated and dnfrauded by means of certain false tokens and pretences to wit, by means of pretended spirits, certain circles, certain brown powder, and certain compositions called mineral dulcimer elixir, and Dederick's mineral elixir." But the wiles of these impostors were soon exerted in other parts. The following is an account of their proceedings in and about Shrewsbury township, in tliis county. Williams intimated that he had received a call from a ghost, resident in those parts, at the distance of 40 miles from DaJacob Wister, one of the conspirators, was the agent of Williams on this occasion. He dy's. instituted a company of 21 persons, all of whom were, of course, most ignorant people. The and the communicasame, and even more absurd ceremonies were performed by these jjcople tions of the ghost were obtained in a still more ridiculous maimer than before. The communications mentioned Dr. Dady as the person from whom they should obtain the dulcimer elixir, as " Asiatic the a kind of sand which called the and likewise which was necessary in sand," ghost order to give efficacy to the " powers." Ulrieh Neaff, a committee-man, of this company, paid to Dr. Dady ^90 for 7i ounces of the elixir. The elixir was put into vials, and each person, who had one of them, held it in his hand and shook it, as he pranced around the circle. On cerand afterwards, by order of the spirit, the vial was tain occasions he anointed his head with it buried in the ground. Paul Baliter, another of the committee-men, took with him to Dr. Dady's $100, to purchase " Asiatic sand," at !$3 per ounce. Dady being absent, Williams procured from the doctor's shop In this instance Williams cheated the doctor, for as much sand as the money would purchase. he kept the spoil to himself; and thence arose an overthrow of the good fraternity. for Williams himself. Each of them now set up procured directions from his ghost, that each " Dederick's of the companies should dispatch a committee-man to Lancaster, to buy mineral In the mean time AVilliams and his wife went to Lancaselixir" of a physician in that place. but a of the which was and where elixir, composition ter, nothing copperas they prepared cayenne Mrs. Williams, as the wife of John Huber, a German doctor, went to Dr. Rose, with a pepper. " 13 miles from letter dated Newcastle, Delaware," which directed him how to sell the article, &c. The enormity of the price aroused the suspicion of Dr. Rose. In a few days the delegates




from the committee arrived, and purchased elixir to the amount of {$740.33. When the lady came for the money she was arrested, and the secret became known. Her husband, Williams, escaped.

The Lancaster expedition having led to the discovery of the tricks of the impostors, a few days after the disclosures made by Mrs. Williams an indictment was presented, in the criminal court of York county, against Dr. John Dady, Rice \Villiams, Jesse Miller, Jacob Wister the elThe trial took place der, and Jacob Wister the younger, for a conspiracy to cheat and defraud. the forin June following, and resulted in the conviction of Wister the elder, and of Dr. Dady mer of whom was fined $10, and imprisoned one month in the county jail the latter fined $90, and sentenced to two years' confinement in the penitentiary of Philadelphia. Dady had just been convicted of participating in the conspiracy at Shrewsbury, when he and Hall were found guilty of a like crime in Adams county whereupon Hall was fiticd $100, and and Dady was fined $160, and sentenced to undergo an sent to the penitentiary for two years additional servitude of two years in the penitentiary, to commence in June, 1800, when his first term would expire. Thus ended the history of a man in this county, who certainly was not devoid of talent ; who correct discernment possessed a most winning address, and was a thorough master in quick and He reigned, for a season, with undisputed sway, in what was then the western of character. His cunning, for a long time, lulled suspicion to sleep. The history of part ot York county. his exorcisms should teach the credulous that the ghosts which appear now-a-days are aa material as our own flesh.






York, the seat of justice, is situated on the banks of Codorus creek, 1 1 miles from the Susquehanna. It is a rich and thriving borough, surrounded by a lertile and well-cultivated limestone region. The private dwellings are very substantially built, and several of the public buildings are splendid. Among the latter is the new courthouse, a magnificent edifice of was erected in 1841-42, granite, in the form of a Grecian temple, which The other public edifices are a county at a cost of about $150,000. an academy, and ten churches, namely 2 Lutheran, prison, of stone German Reformed, Moravian, Episcopal, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Methodist, Quaker, and African Methodist. Several of these churches display great architectural elegance, and are adorned with tall spires. In the cemetery of the German Reformed church is the grave of Hon. He died June Philip Livingston, a member of congress from New York. 11, 1778, while congress was in session here. splendid pyramid of white marble, surmounted with an urn, is erected over the grave. Congress retired to this place, from Philadelphia, at the time of the battle of Brandy wine, in Sept. 1777; and held their sessions for nine months in the old courthouse, which stood on the centre of the public square, but was demolished in 1841. York was incorporated, as a borough, 24tb.



Population in 1790, 2,076; in 1800, 2,503; in 1820, 3,545; 1830,4,216; in 1840,4,779. The town is supplied with wholesome The Codorus creek spring-water, by a company incorporated in 1806. is made navigable by a series of slackwater pools and locks, completed by a company, in 1833, from this place to the Susquehanna. A railroad, completed about the year 1838, affords easy and daily access to Baltimore and another at Columbia, completed about the year 1839, connects York is distant from Harthere with the state railroad to Philadelphia. risburg 25 miles, from Columbia 11, from Philadelphia 83, and from Baltimore 56. The principal trade of the town, as well as the county, is done with Baltimore. Turnpikes radiate from York to Baltimore, to GetThe society of the place is tysburg, to Columbia, and to Harrisburg. excellent and the intelligent citizens of the borough exercise a comSept. 1787. in



manding influence throughout the county. The following notes, relating to the history of the borough, are selected and abridged from Messrs. Carter and Glossbrenner's History of the county


The borough of York was by no means the earliest settlement of the county. Although there were many habitations in its neighborhood, yet so late as the year 1740 there was not one build" tract of land on both sides of Codorus ing within the present limits of the borough. The creek," within the manor of Springettsbury, upon which the town was to be laid out, was, by the special order of the proprietaries, surveyed by Thomas Cookson, then deputy-surveyor of Lancaster county, in Oct. 1741. The part east of Codorus was immediately laid out into squares, after the manner of Philadelphia. The proprietors gave " tickets" to each person who wished to These tickets were transferable the owner of them might sell them, assign them, lot. what he pleased with them. The possession of a ticket was by no means the same as owning a lot. It only gave a right to build, to obtain a patent for the lots were granted upon One of the usual conditions was this, viz. " that particular conditions, strenuously enforced. the applicant build upon the lot, at his own proper cost, one substantial dwelling-house, of the dimensions of 16 feet square, at least, with a good chimney of brick or stone, to be laid in, or built with lime and sand, within the space of one year from the time of his entry for the same." A perpetual rent of seven shillings sterling per lot was to be paid to the proprietors, Thomas and take up a


or do



Richard Penn.

When the applicant had built, or in some cases had begun to build, he received, if he so wished, a patent. But this patent most explicitly stated the conditions and if these conditions were not fulfilled, he was deprived of his lot, and it was granted to some one else. The building ;



took up

; for, though many lots, few were enabled fully to comply with the conThe consequt^uce was, the lots were forfeited, and thirehy honest industry discouraged. that time, the conveniences for house-huilding were few. It appcurs, from a stati:mcnt made by George Stevenson, on 10th April, ITfjl, that at that time there were fjO lots huilt on, agreeably to the tickets. Three of these lots were then occupied by churches, viz.: two by the (German Hence thcTc could not have been, ut that time, Lutheran, and one by the (Jerman Hcforincd. more than 47 dwelling-houses in the town ; and many of them must have been truly miserable. The early settling of York town was one continual scene of disturbance and contention there were warring rights, and clashing interests. It often happened that ditTerenl men wanted the same lot and when the lot was granted to one. the others were watchful to bring alxjul a forfeiture. The loss of lots, by not fulfilling conditions, was for a long time a serious evil, concerning whicli clamors were loud. On the 24th Se[)t. 1787, was erected the " Borough of York." The first burgesses were Henry Miller, Esq., and David Cantler, whereof the former was chief burgess. The first assistant, burgesses were Baltzer Spengler, Michael Doudel, Christian Ijaunian, Peter Mundorf, David The first high-constable was Christian Stoer, and the first Grier, Esq., and James Smith, Esq.

proceeded slowly ditions.




town-clerk was George Lewis Lcotfler. About the year 1814 a considerable addition was made, by the heirs of John Hay, deceased, " in the northern part of the borough, known by the name of Hay's Addition." There is no part of Peimsylvania where the love of liberty displayed itself earlier, or more Military companies were fornu-d in York, while the people strongly, than in the county of York. In those days there were men here, of broad breast and firm of the neighboring counties slept. The first company that marched from step, who feared no power, and bowed to no dominion. Pennsylvania to the fields of war, was a company of riflemen, from the town of York they left this place on the first of July, 1775. York comity sent out more soldiers during the revolution than any one of her neighboring sisters. Fairs were held in York in olden time, [such as are described on page 397.] There were many In negroes owned here, by the early inhabitants, before the abolition of slavery in this state. 1803, the negroes in and near York conspired to set fire to the town, and had well-nigh effected fires broke out every day for three weeks. At length one of them carried an open their purpose pan of coals, at noonday, and threw it on the hay in her master's barn. She was seen, and confessed that she had done it, in concert with others, to fire the whole town, " at 12 o'clock ;" but she had mistaken 12 o'clock at noon for the same hour at midnight. Lutheran congregation was formed in the Codorus valley as early as 1733, by emigrants :



from Wurtemburg, although they had no settled minister. Twenty-four families enrolled their names on the baptismal record-book, which is still preserved. " Among these venerable 24 founders of the congregation, all of whom have long since mould, ered in the grave, we find many whose descendants at the present day may be traced by their names. Such are Christian Groll, Philip Ziegler, Heinrich Shultz, (ieorge Schwaab, John Adam Diehl, Jacob Sherer, Mathias Schmeiscr, George Schmeiser, Martin Bauer, George Adam Zimmerman, George Ziegler, Joseph Beyer, Jacob Ziegler, Valentine Schultz, itc. &.c. Other names, less familiar at the present day, are Michael Walch, Carl Eisen, Paul Burkhardt, Henrich Zauck, Gotfried Manch, Christian Kraut, &c. &c." The first church in York was built by this congregation, in 1744, of wood. Rev. Mr. Schaum was their pastor and his successors were, for some years, Messrs. Hoehheimer, Bager, Raus, Rev. Dr. John George Schniuckcr has ministered to the congregaHornell, Kurtz, and Gcering. tion for 34 years. The Episcopal congregation was formed about the year 17G.5, under Rev. Thomas Minshall, and a church was built by lottery during the revolution. One of the clergymen who occasionally officiated at this church. Rev. Mr. Batwell, of Adams co., was ducked by the people of York in Codorus creek for being a tory, and was further abused and imprisoned by the people of his own He was an accomplished scholar and a good man. He returned to England, neighborhood. where he died. Queen Caroline of England presented a bell to this church in 1774 but by some means it got into the cupola of the old courthouse, and, no doubt, served to call together a The Presbyterian congregation had no separate house of worship at York rebel congress in 1778. until 1789, when their present brick church was erected, under the ministry of Rev. Robert Cath;


who also officiated at Hopewell, formerly called the Round The German Reformed congregation was formed in the co.




York, of wood, about the year 174(). an excellent man but he seems to have been dilRcult

their first

Hill church.

at a very early day, Rev. Mr. Lischy was the



to be had,



and erected first

more so

ministo be


The Theological Seminary of the German Reformed church, first started in Carlisle in 1825, was removed to York in 1828, and was here under the charge of Rev. Drs. Mayer and Ranch. It has since been removed to Mercersburg, Dr. Mayer remaining in York. The Roman Cathohc congregation, St. Patrick's, first worshipped in a stone dwelling-house,



Smith about the year 1776, and altered into a church but theyhaC presented to them by Joseph reirular priest until Rev. Lawrence Huber came in 1810. The Moravian congregation was formed in 1750, imder the ministry of Rev. Philip Mauret, and erected their first ciiurch in 1756. The first Methodist preacher who visited York was the celebrated Freeborn Garretson, on the ;


24th Jan. 1781.

Hon. James Smith was one of the signers of the declaration of independence. He was also a of several important state conventions, held a high rank at the bar, and was a man of He came from Ireland very young, and died at York, 11th July, great wit and good humor. 1806, at the age of about 93. but studied law in Col. Thomas Hartley was a native of Berks co., born on 7th Sept. 1748 York, and commenced practice here. He entered the army at the opening of the revolution, and soon became distinguislied. He commanded a corps in the Wyoming and Susquehanna valleys, He was a member of congress in 1788, and conafter the descent of Butler and the Indians. tinued to hold the office during 12 years, and held several distinguished offices in the commonHe died 2 1st Dec. 1800, aged 52 years. wealth. Gen. Hknuy Miller was born near Lancaster, 13tli Feb. 1751. " The high school of Miller, He studied law, and commenced as of Washington and Franklin, was the world of active life." They practice but the war of the revolution breaking out, he joined a company as lieutenant. marched first to Boston and the second day after this march of 500 miles, he proposed to his of men to the British refused but him a handful The to surprise captain guard. captain give He made the attack, but Miller persisted, and said he would go to the general for permission. was not successful. He was engaged in most of the battles in the Middle states, and was seAt the battle of Monmouth two horses were shot unlected as one of the best partisan officers. he mounted a third, and was soon in the thickest of the fight. Gen. Washington had der him a high opinion of him, and appointed him Inspector of one of the districts of Pennsylvania while He was afterwards a merchant at Baltimore, where, during the the Excise law was in force. last war, he again buckled on the sword in defence of Fort McHenry. He afterwards removed to Perry co., and eventually to Carlisle, where he died, 5th April, 1824. Gen. James Ewing, a native of Lancaster co., and long a resident of York co., was a hero of two wars, commencing his military career in Braddock's unfortunate expedition. He was a He was also brigadier-general during the revolution, and was present at the battle of Trenton. vice-president of the commonwealth under President Dickinson, and was several times a member of the legislature. He died at his country-seat in Hellam townsliip, in March, 1806, aged about 70 years.






Among the other citizens of York co. who were distinguished during the revolution, were Gen. Jr)HN Clark, Gen. Jacob Dritt, and Col. Michael SCHMEISER. Hanover borough is situated in the southwest part of the co., on the headlands between the sources of Conewago and Codorus creeks, and near the Adams co. line. This is the second borough in size and importance in the co. The Baltimore and Carlisle turnpike, and the road from Frederickstown to York, intersect each other in the centre of the town. Along these roads the greater part of the houses are built, and each street derives its name from the direction of its road. The place contains German Reformed and German Lutheran churches. A few Roman Catholics worship at a chapel in Adams co., about four miles distant. The population is almo.st exclusively of German descent, and that language is spoken by all, yet the English is beginning to be used by the young. very large proportion of the citizens are wealthy, or in comfortable circumstances. The borough was incorporated 4th March, 1815. Population in 1840, 1,070. This place was laid out by Richard McAlester, Esq., about the year 1763 or '64, in the midst of a hickory forest and so little expectation had his neighbors that it would ever become a town, that an old lady called it Hickorytown. It was known for some years as McAlester's town. The two-story log house, originally built by Mr. McAlestef was standing in 1818, on Baltimore-street, and perhaps is there still. It was then occupied by Mr. Henry Albright, jun. The land around Hanover, to the ex





3. a.




-I 2.W g S •M


-I -5

O 5 3 5 ~


a* •-1

O 3



o 3


H O ^





o S o 3


O S3



tent of nearly 7,000 acres, including its site, was originally taken up by John Digges, a petty nobleman, under a title from the piopiidor of Maryland. Being so near the boundary, it was quite doubtful luitil Mason and Dixon's line was run in 1768, and the proprietary proclamations confirmed it in 1774 whether "Digges' choice" or "Digges' manor," was in Maryland or Pennsylvania. It became consequently for some years a sort of rogues' resort, where they could defy the jurisdiction of .slicriifs. McAlester once seized a number of robbers, who had broken into his store, and took them to York jail, but the sheriff there refused to admit them, saying to him, " You of Hanover wish to be independent therefore punish your


villains yourselves."

Wrightsville is situated on the right bank of the Susquehanna, at the western end of the Columbia bridge. It occupies an elevated site gently sloping towards the river, and commanding a view of the most magnificent scenery. The borough was incorporated with its present name on the 14th April, 1834. It had previously been known as Wright's ferry, but the construction of the bridge, like the marriage of a lady, changed the latter part of the name. Population in 1840, 072. "It was at one time in contemplation to make this place the site of the capitol of the United vStates. Gen. Washington earnestly advocated its selection, urging its beauty, its security, &c., but a small majority prevailed against him. Several incidents connected with the early history of this vicinity will be found on page 407. Lewisbury is agreeably situated among the pleasant " Red Lands," on a small tributary of the Conewago, 14 miles northwest from York, and 10 miles south of Harrisburg. It was incorporated as a borough 2d It contains a Methodist church, and there is one in the viApril, 1832. There are several cinity for Lutherans and Reformed Presbyterians. mills in the place, one of which is for boring and grinding gun-barrels. The place took its name from Ellis Lewis, by whom it was founded. DiLLSBURG is near the base of South mountain, 20 miles northwest from York, and 12 from Harrisburg. It was incorporated as a borough on the 9th April, 1833. Population in 1833, 244. Shrewsbury, formerly called Strasburg, was incorporated as a borough on the 9th April, 1834. It is situated on the Baltimore turnpike, 13 miles south of York. Population in 1840, 340. York Haven is situated on the right bank of the Susquehanna, at the foot of the Conewago falls, 10 miles north of York, and 14 from HarA canal of about a mile in length, around the falls, terminates risburg. here, and permits the descending trade to avoid the dangers of the rapids. Great expectations were formed of the prosperity of this place large mills were built, and the capitalists of Baltimore made extensive preparations for sustaining a wheat-market here but when the Pennsylvania canal on the other side, and the Tidewater canal below, were constructed, the glory of York Haven departed. The other villages of York co. are, Dover, Freystown, Franklin, Jefferson, Liverpool, Logansville, Newberry, New Holland, New Market, RossTowN, SiDDONSBURG, Stewartstown, or Mechanicsburg, Strinestovvn, and Weigelstown. These are, many of them, pleasant villages, some of an ancient date, and are adapted to the trade and wants of the agricultural regions around them. ;




ELK COUNTY. The new county of Elk was separated from Clearfield, Jefferson, and McKean, by the act of April, 1843. It comprises the region watered by the sources of Bennet's Branch of the Sinnemahoning, formerly in Clearand that on the head branches of Clarion river, formerly the northeastern part of Jefferson co. and the southern part of McKean co. The county derives its name from Elk mountain, an eminence formerly in The greater part of the county is the northwest corner of Clearfield co. still covered with the primitive forest. Large tracts of wild land are to be had here at a moderate rate and the county, with its new organization, offers a fine field for industrious pioneers. description of the surface, soil, and timber, would not vary materially from those already given of McKean, Clearfield, and Jefferson counties. Judge Geddes, who surveyed the Clarion and Sinnemahoning summit" some 12 years or more At the head of Bennet's since, with a view to a canal route, says Branch of the Sinnemahoning is an extensive marsh called Flag Swamp, from which, in wet seasons, the water flows both ways, and where, at such seasons, the summit might easily be passed by a canoe. This point is remarkable as probably the only one in Pennsylvania where the beaver may be found. Everywhere else, they have been driven out by the approach of human footsteps. In the same region a few Elks still remain." road leads from Karthauss, on the West branch of the Susquehanna, At the intersection of this road with Bennet's Branch is to Ridgway. Caledonia, a thriving village, started a few years since by the pioneers from road leads from this place to York and England. iield CO.,








Kersey is another village on the same road, about 12 miles northwest from Caledonia. Kersey's Mill, on one of the sources of the Clarion river, was established here some 20 years since, and is probably the oldest settlement in the co.


few miles north of Kersey, the German Union Bond Society (Roman Catholics) have recently purchased 35,000 acres from the U. S. Land Co., sometimes known as the Boston Co. The settlers are principally from Philadelphia. Thirty-one families went out and commenced the colony in the autumn of 1842, 33 more followed in the spring of 1843, and 33 were to go in the fall and so on until they number 200 families, or posWhen they have sibly 3.'30, which will give 1,000 acres to each family. paid for their land, they can, by a vote of the members, divide the shares ; and this is believed to be their intention. Ridgway is a thriving settlement of York and England people, chiefly lumbermen, made some years since on the Little Mill cr branch of Clarion river, about 12 miles northwest of Kersey. It took its name from the late Jacob Ridgway, who owned large tracts of land in There is a road from this place to Brookville. Ridgway the vicinity. was selected as the seat of justice by the Commissioners who ran out the boundary lines of the new county, in September, 1843.






Aaronsburg, 206 Ahbolstowii, 61 Ahingdoii, 502

Carbondale, 446 Carlesville, 229 Carlisle, 264

Kvansville, 177 Exetertown, 136

Adaiiisbur^, Union CO., 636

Carlisle Springs, 271


Adams County,

Catawissa, 243

Fairview, Cumber'd Co., 272 Huiiterstown, 61 Huntinodon Co., 362 Fairvicw, Erie Co., 327 Fallsington, 171 Huntingdon borough, 368

55 Adanistowii, 413 Adamsvill.', '259 Adamsbiirg, Westm'd Alexandria, 373

Centre Bridge, 171 CO.,

688 Centreville, Bucks Centreville, Butler

Amity, 670 Andalusia, 151 ArmagI), 370


171 177

Chambersburg, 349

Armstrong County, Astoiiville,


Centreville, Crawford Co., 259 Centreville, North'n co., .522 Centreville, Union co., 636 Centreville, Wayne co., 679 Ceres, 460

Aileghi'iiy city, 65 Allentoivii, 4:i5

Charleston, Chester CO., 224 Charleston, Lancaster co., 413 Charlestowii, 6.35 Cherryville, 520 Chester, 298



Asylum, 148 Athens, 143 Altleborough, 171 Auburn, 624

Chester County,


Christian Spring, 520 Bainbridge, 410

Clarion County, 227

Bakerstown, 92

Clarion borough, 5228 Clarksville, 362

Bath, 520 Beaver borough, 106 102 Beaver, Union co., 636 Beaver Meadow, 198 Bedford County, 114 Bedford borough, 115



Humnielstown, 288

Fallstoii, 109

Falmouth, 413

Ickesburg, 542 Indiana Co., 374

Fninietsburg, 357 Farrandsville, 239 Fayette, 653

Fayette County, 328

Indiana borough, 378 Intercourse, 413 Irvine, 653

Florence, 670 Flourtown, 503

Jackson, 624

Foglesville, 427

.lacksonville, 688

Forks of Wyalusing, 624 Forty Fort, 446 Francisville, 554 Franklord, 543

Darlington, 114


.lennesedaga, 656

Greenville, Bucks CO., 171 Greenville, Clarion co. 229

Deerfield, 653

Gwinned township, 502

Bristol borough, 164 Bristol township, 543

Dillsburg, 701

Donncgal, 410 Dover, 701

Brockway, 382 Brooklyn, 624

Downinglown, 222

Brookville, 381 Brownsburg, 171 Brownsville, 341

Bucks County, 150 Buckingham township,

Doylestown, 161

Harford, 624 Harmony, Butler Harlington, 171

Earleysville, 206

East Liberty, 90 Easton, 511 Ebensburg, 180

Butler borough, 174 Buttermilk Falls, 428, 691 Byberry, 543

Hamiltonville, 472

Duncan's Island, 289, 541 Dundair, 623

Burlington, 148

Bush ville, .597 Butler County, 172

Hamburg, 135 Hanover, 700 Hanstown, 413

Duncannon, 541 Dunnstown, 239 Dutotsburg, 478


Burgetstnwn, 670





Harmony, Susqueh'a


Harnionsburg, 259 Harrisburg, 282 Harrisville, 177

Harileyslown, 636 Hartztown, 259 Hartzville, 164

Hatborough, 502 Haydentown, 345

Eldersville, 670

Hazelton, 199 Herrick, 624 Elizabethtown, Lane. co.,412'Hickorytown, 647 Enunaus, 427 UUIsborough, 670 Ennisville, 374 Kinkletown, 413 Rphrata, 413 Hollidaysburg,370 Erie County, 308 Honesdale, 678 Erie borough, 318 Hookstown, 114

Caledonia, 233, 702 Callensburs, 229 Calhounsville, 387

Elizabethtown, Allegh'y, 91

Cambria County, 178 Cambridge, 259 Campbellstown, 421 Canaan Comers, 679 Canonsburgh, 668 Canton, 148

Cakbon County, 184


Halifax, 288



.lenkiiitoun, .502

Dauphin County, 272 Denipseytown, 647


Frankfort, 114

Bridgepoint, 171 Bridgetown, 171 Bridgewater, 109 Brighton, 108

Delaware County, 290



Franklin County, 347 Franklin, Venango co., 646 Franklin, York co., 701

Frankstown, 372 679 Freehurg, 636 Freedom, 110 Free port, 98 Clearfield County, 230 Clearfield town, 232 Frcnchlown, 148 Clifton, 199 Freyburg, 427 Clinton, 362 Freystown, 701 Clinton County, 234 Bellefonte, 203 Friendsville, 622 Bellevernon, 345 Clintonville, 647 Fruitstown, 249 Belleville. 472 Coal Castle, 613 Furmantowii, 630 Coates ville, 223 Belmont, 679 Benileyville, 670 Cochranville, 226 Gap, the, 200 Berks County, 126 Columbia County, 240 Georgetown, Beaver co., 114 61 Columbia 406 Berlin, borough, Georgetown, Mercer co., 464 Berlin ville, 520 Connelsville, 344 Georgetown, Northumb., 532 259 Berwick, 243 Conniotville, Germantown, Fayette co., 345 Bethany, 679 Conshohocken, 503 Germantown, Pliila. co., 593 Bethlehem, 514 Conynghain, 447 Gettysburg, 57 Beulah, 181 Cookstown, 345 Gibson, 624 Big Island, 235 Cooperstown, 647 Ginalsburs, 460 Birdsborougli, 136 Complanter, (village,) 653 Girard, 327 Birmingham, Allegh'y co., S9 Coudersport, 600 Gnadcnthal, 520 Hunt'n 373 224 Birmingham, Co., Coventry, Goshenhoppen, 488, 503 Blairsville, 378 Covington, 627 Grapevine, 688 Crawford County, 249 Great Bend, 623 Blockley, 543 Cumberland County, 262 Greene County, 358 Bloody Run, 125 Bloomfield, 540 Curwensville, 233 Greencastle, 357 Bloomsburg, 244 Greenfield, 670 Blossburg, 028 Damascus, 679 Greensburg, Greene co., 361 Boalsburg, 206 Danville, 241 Grecnsburg, Westm'd CO., 685 Green village, 357 Bradford, 460 Darby, :M4

Bradford County,




Jersey Shore, 454 Jerseytown, 249 Johnstown, 182 Jonestown, 421


Co., 382

Karthauss, 233 Kennet Square, 226 Kensington, 543, 548

Espyville, Howelstown, 472 Evansburg, Montgom. co., 502 Horsham Square, 503 Evansburg, Crawford co., 259)HoughviIle, 171


Kernsville, 520

Kersey, 702 Kiniberton, 225 Kingsessing, 304, 54.3 Kingston, 446



Kinjua, 054 Kittanning, 94 Klingletown, .503 Kreidersville, 520

Kutztown, 135

Lancaster County, 387 Lancaster City, 395 Landisburg, 542 Laughliiistown, 688 Lausanne, 199 Lawrenceburg, 99 Lawrenceville, Allegh'y, 90 Lawrenceville, Tioga co.,629 Lebanon County, 416 Lebanon borough, 419 Leechburg, 99 Lehioh County, 422 Lehighton, 199 Leonardsville, 679 Lewisberg, 633 Lewisbury, 695, 701 Lewistown, 468 Ligonier, 688 Line Le.xington, 171, 503 Linnville, 427 Litiz,


624 Little Britain, 413 Littlestown, 61 Liverpool, Perry co., .542 Liverpool, York co., 701 Llewellyn, 612 Lock Haven, 237 Logansville, 701 London Grove, 227 Loretto, 184

652 Louden,.157 Lottsville,

Lower Dublin, 543 Lower Merion, 485 Lowrytown, 199 Lumberville, 171 Luthcrsburg, 233

Luzerne County, 427 Lycoming County, 448





Jefff.rson Co., 380 .letTrieslown, 92

Clarksville, or Can'n Cor., Claysville, 670

Beaver County,


HulnKH'ille, 171

Centre County, 200

Aui.KOHKNV County, 63

Howardsville, 92

M'Connelsburg, 374 M'Connelstown, 125


704 M'Cunesville, 536

M'Kean Cous M'Kecspori,




JM'Lfllaiidtftown, 345

Al'Viyloun, 472 Maiiisville, tW9 Wanayiiiik, 593

Newtown, Bucks

Miiiii'iii-sttr, f'J


41 '2



Newlin, 226 Newport, Bucks co., 171 Newport, Perry co., 542 Newry, 373 Newton Hamilton, 472 Newtown, Greene co., 362

Maplt'liiwri,3G2 Marietta, 409

125 Maucli (Jtiiiiik, 102 Meadvjllc, 255 Mectianicsbiiri.', Ciimb., 272 Mtjcliaiiicslmr!;, Vork CO., 701 Mkrckr County, 461 Martiii>l>iir!;,

Jluicer liorougli, 4G2 Mercersbiiig, :!54

Merritsluwn, 345 Wertzlovvii, 136 Mexico, 386 MeyersbJig, 148 Midilloborough, 670 Middleburg, 636 Middk'port, 611 Middleton, 92




Sugar Grove, 652

Pricetown, 136

Sumanytown, 503 Summit, 184

Prospect, 177

Pnghtown, 226

Sunbury, 530

Pulaski, 464

Sunville, 647

Punxatawny, 382

Susquehanna County, 620


Newville, 272 New Alexandria, 688 New Bedlord, 464 New Bi-rlin, 632 New Brighton, 109 New BulTald, 542 New Columbus, 636

Swopestown, 413 Quakertovvn, 171

Sylvania, 597

Radnor, 306

Tamaqua, 614

Rainsburg, 125 Ralston, 456 Reading, 128 Reanistown, 413 Red Lion, 226

'I'atnmanytown, 386 Tarentuni, 92 Taylor's Retreat, 199 Tayiorsville, 171 I'entonia, 460

New Cumberland, 272 New Garden, 226 Reedville, 472 New Geneva, 345 Reesville, 503 New Holland, York co., 701 Richland, 411 New Holland, Lancaster, 412 Richmond, 522 New Ho[)e, 168 Ridgeville, 387 New London, 226 Ridgeway, 382, 702 New Liberty, 240 Robstown, 088 New Market, York co., 701 Rochester, 110 New Market, Lancaster, 413 Rockville, 259 New Milford, 024 Rome, 148 New Philadelphia, 611 Rosstown, 701 New Salem, 345 Roxborough, 543 New Tripoli, 427 Rushville, 624

I'hompsoutown, 386

TiooA County, 624 Tioga, or Willardsburg, 623 Titusville, 259 Towanda, 142 TredyJfrin, 224 Trexlerslown, 427 Troy, Bradford Co., 148 Troy, Luzerne Co., 446 Troy, or Somerville, Jeff., 382 Tunkhannock, 691 Tuscarora, 611

Middletovvn, Dauphin CO., 286 Noblesborough, 92 Safe Harbor, 413 Middletowii, Fayette co., 345 Norristown, 498 Northampton County, 503 Sadsbury, 22(5 MiKFLIN COU.NTY, 464 Northeast, 327 Mifflin, 386 Sagerstown, 259 St. Clair, 125 Northern Liberties, 543 Miffliiiburg, Union co., 636 Mitflinliur^', Columbia CO., 249 Northumberland Co., 524 Salem Cross Roads, 688 532 Salem Corners, 679 205 Milesburg, Northumberland, North Wales, 502 Salisbury, 619 Milford, Pike co., 596 227 Milford, Somerset CO., 619 Salona, 240 Nottingham, Miliicim, 206 Saltzburg, 379 Oakville, 456 Schoenick, 520 Millersburg, Berks co., 136 Millersburg,




co., 288 to., 61

Millerstovvn, Lane, co., 413

Orangeville, 249 Orbisonia, 373 Orwell, 148

Millerstown, Lehigh co., 427 Orwigsburg, 607 Millerstown, Lebanon co., 420 Oxford, 61 Oxford township, 543 Millerstown, Perry co., 541 Mill Hall, 239 Palmyra, 421 Milton, 535 Minersville, Allegheny CO., 91 Paradise, 412 Mincrsville, Schuyl. co., 611 Parksville, 226 Parryville, 200 Mixtown, 630 Patterson, 611 Moiiongahela City, 669 MOJJROK C'OITNTY, 473 Paitonsville, 206 Passyunk, 543 Monroe, Bradford co., 148 Penn Haven, 199 Monroe, Bucks CO., 171 Penn township, 543, 554 Monroe, Fayette CO., 345 M(mtrose, 622 Perritsport, 92

Montgomery Square, 502 MONTOOMERY CoUNTY, 480 Moreland, 543 Morrison's Cove, 125

Ulstfr, 148

Union County, 630 Uniontown, 339 Unionville, Berks co., 136 Unionville, Chester co., 225 Utica, 647

Uwchlan, 224

Venango County, 636 Vincent, 224

Schuylkill County, 602 Schuylkill Haven, 613

Walkersville, 206 Warfordsburg, 125

Segarsville, 427 Selhig's Grove, 635

647 Warren borough, 649 Warren, Armstrong co., 99 Warrensburg, 136 Warwick, 413 Washinoton County, 658 Washington borough, 664 Washington, Colum. Co., 249 Washington, Lanc'r co., 413 Waterford, Erie co., 327 Waierford, Juniata CO., 387 Waterloo, 387 Watsonburg, 536 Wattsburg, 327 Wayne CouNTr, 676 Waynesburg, Chester Co., 226 Waynesburg, Franklin, 357 Waynesburg, Greene co., 361 Weaverslown, 136

Shaefferstown, 420

Shamokin, 532 Sharon, 109 Sharon, 464 Sharpsburgh, 91 Sheshequin, 147 Shippensville, 229 Shirleysburg, 373

Shoemakertown, 501 Shousetown, 92 Shrewsbury, 701 Shugarltown, 226

Siddonsburg, 701 Silver Lake, 622 Sligo, 89 Perrysville, Allegheny CO., 92 Sinethport, 459 386 Juniata Perrysville, Smithlield, Fayette co.,

Perry County, 537

Perry opol is, 345

Petersburg, Adams co., 61 Petersburg, Beaver CO., 114 Petersburg, Lancaster co.. 413 Mount Carbon, 609 Petersburg, Perry co., 541 Mount Jackson, 114 Petersburg, Somerset Co., 619 Mount Joy, 411 Phenixville, 225 Philadelphia co. Mount Morris, 362 city, 542 Mt. Pleasant, Clear'd co., 233 Phillipsburg, Beaver CO., 110 Ml. Pleasant, Wash, co., 670. Phillipsburg, Centre CO., 205 Ml. Pleasant, VVestmor'd, 687 Pike County, 595 Pikeland, 224 Moyanieii.sing, 543

Morrisville, Bucks Co., 169 Morrisville, (Jreene co., 362 Mount Bethel, 510,522




Smithfield, Somerset co., 619 Weigelstowii, 701


357 Snyderstown, 536 Hill,

Somerset County, 615 Somerset, 617 Somerville, or Troy, 382 Soudersburg, 413 South Easton, 511 Soulhwark, 543

Springfield, Crawford CO., 259 Springfield, Delaware CO., 306 Pine Grove, Schuyl. CO., 615 Spring Garden, 543 Pine Grove, Warren co., 652 Spring Valley, 653 Munster, 184 Pittsburg, 64 Springville, 624 Pleasant Unity, 688 Murraysvillc, 688 Stewaristown, Allegheny, 91 Plymouth, or Shawnee'n, 446 Stewartslown. York CO., 701 Murrinsville, 177 Potter County, 599 Myerslown, 421 Stcwartsville, 688 Potter's Bank, 205 Stockport, 679 Potter's Fort, 202 Naglesville, 679 Stoddartsville, 447 Nazareth, 519 Pompton, 679 Stouglistown, 259 Port Allegheny, 460 Nescopeck, 447 Stoystown, 619 Port Carbon, 611 NeMpiihoning, 199 Strasburg, Franklin co., 357 Port Clinton, 615 Neflsville, 413 Strasburg, Lancaster co., 412 Newbury, Lycoming Co., 454 Port Royal, 688 Strattanville, 229 NewbiTry, York Co., 695, 701 Portersville, 177 Strawhntown, 171 Newcastle, Schuylkill co., 613 Pottsgrove, 536 Strinestown, 701 Newcastle, Mercer co., 463 Pottstown, 500 Scroudsburg, 475

Munnnasburg, 61 Muncy, 456


Warren County,

Weissport, 199

Wellsborough, 626 West Alexandria, 670 Westchester, 218 West Greenville, 463


iMiddleborough, 670 Co., 680 Philadelphia, 543

Westmoreland West

VVeymart, 679 Whitehall, 249 Whitemarsh, 494 Wliite's Haven, 447 Wicacoa, 557 Wilkes barre, 445 Wilkinsburg, 91 Williamsburg, Columbia, 249 Williamsburg, Hunt'n co., 373 Williamsburg, North'on, 523 Williamsport, Lycoming, 4.52 Williamsport, Wash, co., 669 Willow Grove, 503 Wilsonville, 597 Wohlbertstown, 136 Womelsdorf, 134 Woodbridge, 345 Woodvillc, 177

GENERAL INDEX. Wormlesybiirg, 272 VVriKhtstown, 171 \Vii«litsvillf, 701

\V«oMiNo County, 688 VVyoiniiig Valley, 430

Wysox, 148 Yardleyville, 171 Yellow Springs, 2'J4

York CouNxy,


York borouiili, 098 York llavni, 7111 York Sprinns, (il

YoungsvillP, 652 YuuMg VVuiiiaimlown, 240

YouiiKstowu, oaa

Zelienople, 177


GENERAL INDEX. Aborisines, history of

of Indian chiff Allentown of Allen family, All«n townshi(i, early settleniem Allison, Dr. Francis Anderson, Rev. Janii*, of Donnegal... Andre, Major,at Philadel|(hia Andre, Major, at Carlisle Annesly, Lord James, a redempiioner. Anlhonyson.on Blockhouse road Aililison, Jiuljii', iiotict!

5 86 .3!M)


Arbon Coal Company

Brown family murdered

at Shirley.^burg

Blown, Judge Win,, pioneer of Hnclianan, James

ki...hikokelas Valley..


Biickaloon, ancient Indian village




410 57.3 'JliH



Biird, Col. J., journal at Redstone Burnt ('abins, origin of name

Burt, Henjaiiiiii, pioneer of Polterco Butler, Col. Zehulon, at Wyoming battle Butler, Col. John, at Wyoming battle

Ayinich Bald Eaele, Indian chief Bailey, Josepli, carried off by ice at Jersey Shore Balil Eagle Valley, history of

Baldwin, Judge Henry Ballooning E.vtraoidiiiary Baptists in Philadelphia Barber fanuly, of Columbia Bard, Richard, taken prisoner by Indians Bamett, Joseph, pioneer of Jefferson co Battle of Braddock's field Battle of Trenton Battle of Brandyvviue Battle of Paoli Battle of Lake Erie Battle of Germanlown Battle of Bushy Run Battle of Wyoming Valley Battle of the Kegs Beany, Rev. Chas., anecdote Beeson, Henry, pioneer of Fayette co B9

311 24. 311. 641

" «

Sniivv Mill, Franklin co


391 2.'13


" " "


I'nncean, office of foreign adairs Dutch, early colony

Dunkards of


Frey, Geo., biography French, Col. John, journey to Conestogo in Cleartield co Freucli inscription on leaden plate French movements in 1750-55 Friends' meetings, early, in Bucks co " " " in Delaware CO " " " inCheslerco

French colony



70. 90.

Glades of Somerset co Glikkikan, Indian chief


Episcopal churches, ancient



4M4 309 483 700 582

Eries, or Irrirnnnons, tribe of Indians

Evans, Cadwallader and brothers, anecdote Ewing, Gen. James, notice of E.xchange, Philadelphia

Fairman's mansion, description Fairmouut Waier-works Fair-play


Fairs, description t)f, at Lancaster Falling-spring Presbyterian church Fanssett, Tom, shntGen. Braildock Fill, Geo. B., carried away by Hood Fellenberg school at Bristol Finances of the slate Finley, Gov. William, born at Mercersburg


Flr)Ods at



Flower's mill


Delaware co

Forbes'.s, (ien., expedilion to Pittsburg

Folks of the Delaware Forts Christina and Kasimir Fori Augusta Foris Mitflin uikI Mercer Fort Sianwix, treaties for land







Fortifications, ancient, in Somerset co Furlificalion, ancient, near Jersey Shore Fortirtcaiion, Spanish, Bradford co Franklin, Benjamin, his grave " his arrival in ,", Philadelphia Franklin, Dr., builds Fort Allen


643 498

Hannastown, burning of Hannah, Old, Indian Hardgraves family saved from a flood Harrises of Harrisburg, father and son

683 208 298

39 141 filil


Hartley, Col. Thomas, notice of Hazleton Travellers Herbeson Massy, narrative


("apt. Dieterick, at



Hicks, Edward, painter Hiester, Gov. J., biography of Hines, Mr., mobbed in Sus(|uehanna co Holland Land Co., notice of Holland Land Co., Warren co Hopkinson, falh