Гистология = Histology 9789852100847

Содержит обучающие и контролирующие схемы, таблицы и задания для зарисовки микропрепаратов. Первое издание вышло в 2014

344 103 16MB

Russian Pages [129] Year 2018

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD PDF FILE

Recommend Papers

Гистология = Histology
 9789852100847

  • 0 0 0
  • Like this paper and download? You can publish your own PDF file online for free in a few minutes! Sign Up
File loading please wait...
Citation preview

HISTOLOGY Laboratory Work for Dental Students

Student____________________________________ group ____

Minsk BSMU 2018

МИНИСТЕРСТВО ЗДРАВООХРАНЕНИЯ РЕСПУБЛИКИ БЕЛАРУСЬ БЕЛОРУССКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ МЕДИЦИНСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ КАФЕДРА МОРФОЛОГИИ ЧЕЛОВЕКА

ГИСТОЛОГИЯ HISTOLOGY Лабораторный практикум для студентов-стоматологов 5-е издание, исправленное

Минск БГМУ 2018

УДК 611-018(076.5)(075.8)-054.6 ББК 28.06я73 Г51 Рекомендовано Научно-методическим советом университета в качестве практикума 16.05.2018 г., протокол № 9 А в т о р ы: Е. И. Большова, А. А. Артишевский, Н. А. Жарикова, В. В. Китель, Ю. М. Мельниченко, В. В. Заточная Р е ц е н з е н т ы: доц. Т. М. Студеникина; доц. Д. В. Хандогий

Гистология = Histology : лабораторный практикум для студенГ51 тов-стоматологов / Е. И. Большова [и др.]. – 5-е изд., испр. – Минск : БГМУ, 2018. – 128 с. ISBN 978-985-21-0084-7. Содержит обучающие и контролирующие схемы, таблицы и задания для зарисовки микропрепаратов. Первое издание вышло в 2014 году. Предназначен для студентов 1–2-го курсов медицинского факультета иностранных учащихся по специальности «Стоматология», обучающихся на английском языке. УДК 611-018(076.5)(075.8)-054.6 ББК 28.06я73

ISBN 978-985-21-0084-7

© УО «Белорусский государственный медицинский университет», 2018

2

Topic: OBJEСTS AND METHODS OF MODERN HISTOLOGY

LITERATURE 1. Ross, M. H. Histology : a text and atlas : with correlated cell and

1. Tasks, objects and methods of modern histology. molecular biology / M. H. Ross, P. Wojciech. 6th ed. P. 1–21. 2. Applied value of histology for medical and biological sciences. The connection between them. 3. Basic stages in the preparation of histology slides: a) tissue fixation, processing, embedding and sectioning b) histological staining methods 4. Instruments and research methods in light microscopy. The resolution of the light microscope. 5. Instruments and research methods in electron microscopy. Correct tasks №№ ___________________________ The resolution of the electron microscope.

THE LESSON IS COMPLETED

Hystology is_______________________________________________ __________________________________________________________

Teacher ________________________________

__________________________________________________________

«____» ______________________

__________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________

3

Task 1. HISTOLOGY MICROSCOPE

HOW TO USE A HISTOLOGY MICROSCOPE

Task 2. LIVER AXOLOTL

1. Place a clean histology slide on the stage. The histology slide should be centered with specimen side up. Secure Stain: H&E the histology slide in place using the mechanical stage clips. Magnification: 80×, 400× The microscope should be started with the lowest power objective in place. 2. Lower the objective to the closest point without crunching the histology slide against the objective lens. The objective lens should not touch the slide. Look through the oculars and bring the histology slide into focus with the coarse focus adjustment. 3. Adjust the eyepieces for your interpupillary distance. While looking at the histology slide, move the eyepieces together and apart until the histology image appears as one image. 4. Rotate the revolving nosepiece in order to change the magnification. When switching to a higher power magnification, only the fine focus knob should be used to focus. H&E. This is a standard histology stain. «H&E» stand for hematoxylin and eosin.

Indicate: 1. Eyepieces / Oculars 2. Arm 3. Objective lenses 4. Illuminator 5. Fine focus knob 6. Coarse focus knob 7. Revolving nosepiece 8. Stage

Basophilic is a technical term relating to tissue components that stain readily with basic dyes. Hematoxylin can be thought of as a basic dye. It binds to acidic structures, staining them blue to purple. Therefore, the nucleus stains blue.

Indicate:

Oxyphilic refers to the tissue components stainable with 1. Nucleus (basophilic) an acid dye; thus, the structure being stained is basic. Eosin is 2. Cytoplasm (oxyphilic) an acidic dye. It stains basic structures pink to pink/orange/red. 4

LITERATURE

Topic: BASICS OF CYTOLOGY. CELL MORPHOLOGY

1. Kuznetsov, S. L. Histology, Cytology and Embryology (a course of lectures) / S. Kuznetsov, T. Boronikina, N. Gorychkina. Moscow : 1. Definition of a «сell». Cell theory. Medical Informational Agency, 2004. P. 5–23. 2. Cytoplasm: general morphofunctional characteristics, 2. Erlandsen, S. L. Color Atlas of Histology / S. L. Erlandsen, J. E. Magney. St. Louis : Мosby Year Book, 1992. 196 p. physicochemical properties of hyaloplasm. 3. Ross, M. H. Histology : a text and atlas : with correlated cell and 3. Nucleus and its components. Nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio. molecular biology / M. H. Ross, P. Wojciech. 6th ed. P. 22–97. 4. Material of lectures. 4. Biological membranes, general composition, chemical

components. 5. Cell organelles: their classification, structure and functions. 6. Cell inclusions: classification, structure and functions. 7. Classification and structure of cell junctions. Correct tasks №№ ___________________________ 8. Cell cycle. Cell reproduction. The reactive properties of the cells and their medical and biological properties.

THE LESSON IS COMPLETED Teacher _____________________________ «____» ______________________

5

Task 3. THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF CELL ORGANELLES Indicate: 1. Cell Membrane 2. Nucleus a) nuclear envelope b) nuclear pore c) nucleolus 3. Mitochondria a) outer membrane b) inner membrane 4. Synthesis of proteins 5. Endoplasmic reticulum a) rough b) smooth 6. Transport vacuole 7. Golgy apparatus 8. Peroxisomes 9. Exocytosis 10. Lysosome 11. Endocytosis a) phagosome b) рhagolysosome

6

Task 4. CELL PLASMA MEMBRANE

Task 5. CELL JUNCTIONS

Indicate: 1. Phospholipid molecule a) hydrophilic phosphate head group of phospholipid b) fatty acid tail (×2) of phospholipid 2. Glycolipid (a phospholipid with a carbohydrate chain attached to it) 3. Glycoprotein (a protein with a carbohydrate chain attached to it) a) carbohydrate chain of glycoprotein 4. Cholesterol 5. Protein 6. Protein channel (pore)

Indicate: 1. Tight junctions (tight junctions are a pair of transmembrane protein fused on outer plasma membrane) 2. Desmosome (molecular complexes of cell adhesion proteins and linking proteins that attach the cell surface adhesion proteins to intracellular keratin cytoskeletal filaments) 3. Gap junction or nexus (connects the cytoplasm of two cells and are made up of proteins called connexins. It directly connects the cytoplasm of two cells, which allows various molecules and ions to pass freely between cells

7

Task 6. INCLUSIONS OF GLYCOGEN IN THE LIVER CELLS

Task 7. SKIN PIGMENT CELLS OF AXOLOTL

Task 8. FAT INCLUSIONS IN THE LIVER CELLS

Stain: Best’s carmine Magnification: 400×

Stain: nuclei stained with hematoxylin Magnification: 400×

Stain: osmic acid-safranine Magnification: 400×

Indicate: 1. Nucleus 2. Granules of glycogen

Indicate: 1. Nucleus 2. Granules of the pigment melanin in the cytoplasm

Indicate: 1. Nucleus 2. Fat drops in the cytoplasm of cells

8

LITERATURE

TOPIC: BASES OF HUMAN EMBRYOLOGY

1. Kuznetsov, S. L. Histology, Cytology and Embriology (a course of lectures) / S. Kuznetsov, T. Boronikina, N. Gorychkina. Moscow : Medical Informational Agency, 2004. P. 223–239. 2. Erlandsen, S. L. Color Atlas of Histology / S. L. Erlandsen, J. E. Magney. St. Louis: Мosby Year Book, 1992. 196 p. 3. Singh, I. Textbook of Human Histology (with Colour Atlas and Practical Guide) / I. Singh. 6th ed. P. 24–31. 4. Material of lectures.

1. Concept of embryogenesis. Connections between phylogeny and ontogeny. 2. Basic periods of human embryogenesis. 3. Progenesis. Morphological and functional characteristic of mature human gametes. 4. Fertilization and zygote formation. 5. Cleavage. Structure of the blastocyst. 6. Gastrulation: early stage (7–14 days). Implantation. Transformations in embryoblast and trophoblast. 7. Gastrulation: late stage (14–17 days). Transfer from histotrophic to hemotrophic nutrition. 8. Histogenesis and organogenesis. The differentiation of germinal layers and their derivatives. 9. Extraembryonic organs: sources of development and functions. 10. Placenta. Structure and function. 11. Critical periods in human development.

Correct tasks №№____________________________

THE LESSON IS COMPLETED Teacher ____________________________ «____» ______________________

9

Task 9. THE STRUCTURE OF THE SPERM

Indicate: A. Head. B. Neck. C. Mid piece. D. Tail. E. End-piece 1. Acrosome. 2. Nucleus. 3. Centrosome. 4. Mitochondria

Task 10. THE STRUCTURE OF THE SECONDARY OOCYTE

Indicate: 1. Nucleus 2. Zona pellucida 3. Cortical granules 4. Yolk granules 5. Plasma membrane 6. Follicular cells 7. Membrane receptors

Task 11. FERTILIZATION

Indicate: 1. Capacitation 2. Acrosome reaction 3. Penetration of the egg (secondary oocyte) by a single spermatozoon 4. In the cytoplasm of the oocyte 10

Task 12. CELL DIVISIONS (CLEAVAGE) (the first week of development)

Task 13. GASTRULATION (early stage). IMPLANTATION (the second week of development)

(8 days)

Indicate: 1. Blastomeres 2. Polar bodies 3. Zona pellucida 4. Morula 5. Blastocyst a) blastocoel b) embryoblast c) trophoblast

(11 days)

Indicate: 1. Сytotrophoblast (yellow) 2. Syncytiotrophoblast (yellow) 3. Intervillous space with maternal blood 4. Amniotic sac 5. Yolk sac 6. Embryonic disk: hypoblast (red) and epiblast (green) 7. Extraembryonic mesoderm (blue) 8. Endometrium: a) epithelium; b) connective tissue; c) blood vessels

11

Task 14. GASTRULATION (late stage) Gastrulation is a phase early in the embryonic development, during which the single-layered blastula is reorganized into a trilaminar (“three-layered”) structure known as the gastrula. These three germ layers are known as the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.

B. Chorionic villi Indicate: 1. Cytotrophoblast 2. Syncytiotrophoblast 3. Extraembryonic mesoderm 4. Blood vessel

A. The germ of 15 days Indicate: 1. Embryonic disk 2. Yolk sac 3. Amniotic sac 4. Chorion: a) primary villus; b) secondary villus; c) tertiary villus 12

C. Trilaminar embryonic disc 1. Primitive streak 2. Hensen’s node Color: ectoderm — green; mesoderm — blue; endoderm — red; primitive streak and Hensen’s node — black; notochord — brown; neural plate — yellow

Task 15. NEURULATION. MESODERM DIFFERENTIATION (a 3rd week of development) MESODERM A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

B

Neural groove Ectoderm Amnion Notochord Somite Lateral plate mesoderm Intermediate mesoderm (nephrotome) 8. Celom

С

B 9. Neural folds 10. Somite 11. Lateral plate mesoderm: a) somatic layer b) splanchnic layer 12. Celom

А

C 13. Neural crest 14. Somite 15. Intermediate mesoderm (nephrotome)

13

1. SOMITES are masses of mesoderm distributed along the two sides of the neural tube and that will eventually become dermis (dermatome), skeletal muscle (myotome), and vertebrae (sclerotome). 2. INTERMEDIATE MESODERM is a type of embryological tissue called mesoderm that is located between the paraxial mesoderm (somite) and the lateral plate.It develops into the part of the urogenital system (kidneys and gonads), as well as the reproductive system. 3. LATERAL PLATE MESODERM (lateral mesoderm) is a type of mesoderm that is found at the periphery of the embryo. It forms the somatic and splanchnic mesoderm between which develops the intraembryonic celom. Lateral plate mesoderm gives rise to the serosal mesoderms.

Task 16. EXTRAEMBRYONIC ORGANS (a third-eighth weeks of development)

The germ of 3 weeks

The germ of 5–6 weeks

The germ of 8 weeks

Indicate: 1. Amniotic cavity; 2. Yolk sac; 3. Allantois; 4. Chorion; 4. Placenta; 5. Umbilical cord Color: ectoderm — green, mesoderm — blue, endoderm — red and trophoblast — yellow Task 17. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF EXTRAEMBRYONIC ORGANS Fill in the table Organ Amnion Yolk sac Allantois Chorion Placenta

Structural components

Function

14

Task 18. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMBRYONIC ORGANS AND UTERUS

Task 19. HEMOCHORIAL PLACENTA

Indicate: 1. Endometrium a. decidua basalis b. decidua capsularis c. decidua parietalis 2. Myometrium 3. Perymetrium

Indicate: 1. Amniotic epithelium 2. Chorionic plate 3. Fibrinoid material 4. Villus 5. Myometrium

4. Amniotic cavity 5. Yolk sac 6. Allantois 7. Chorionic villi 8. Umbilical cord 9. Uterine cavity 10. Extraembryonic celom 15

6. Endometrium (basal layer) 7. Yolk sac 8. Umbilical cord 9. Placental setum 10. Maternal blood 11. Spiral artery

Topic: EPITHELIAL TISSUES. MORPHOLOGY OF GLANDULAR EPITHELIUM

LITERATURE 1. Kuznetsov, S. L. Histology, Cytology and Embriology (a course of lectures) / S. Kuznetsov, T. Boronikina, N. Gorychkina. Moscow : Medical Informational Agency, 2004. P. 33–39. 2. Erlandsen, S. L. Color Atlas of Histology / S. L. Erlandsen, J. E. Magney. St. Louis : Mosby Year Book, 1992. 196 p. 3. Ross, M. H. Histology : a text and atlas : with correlated cell and molecular biology / M. H. Ross, P. Wojciech. 6th ed. P. 105–157. 4. Singh, I. Textbook of Human Histology (with Colour Atlas and Practical Guide) / I. Singh. 6th ed. P. 45–56. 5. Material of lectures

1. Definition of the term “tissue”. Classification of tissues. Regeneration possibilities and limits of variability of tissues. 2. Morphofunctional characteristic of epithelial tissues. Capacity for regeneration of epithelial tissues. 3. The development of epithelial tissues during ontogeny. Phylogenetic classification of epithelia. 4. Morphofunctional characteristic of the epithelia. 5. Micro-and ultramicroscopic characteristics of the simple epithelium. The intercellular contacts. 6. Stratified epithelia. The limits of variation and the regeneration possibilities. 7. Histophysiology of glandular epithelium. Characteristics of Correct tasks №№____________________________ glandulocytes. 8. Glandulocytes secretory cycle, its phases. Types of glandular secretion. 9. Classification of exocrine glands. The regeneration of THE LESSON IS COMPLETED glandular epithelium. TYPES OF THE TISSUES: _______________________________________________ | | | |

Teacher ___________________________ «____» ______________________

16

Task 20. JUNCTIONS OF EPITHELIAL CELLS

Task 21 A — SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM (mesothelium)

Task 22. SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM OF THE SMALL INTESTINE Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

B — SIMPLE CUBOIDAL (low columnar) EPITHELIUM (renal tubules) Indicate: I. Desmosome 1. Keratin cytoskeletal filaments 2. Desmoplakin 3. Intercellular space II. Tight junctions 4. Zonula occludens 5. Intercellular space III. Gap junction 6. Intercellular space 7. Plasma membranes 8. Intercellular channels

Indicate: 1. Nucleus 2. Cytoplasm 3. Basement membrane 17

Indicate and draw: 1. Brush border 2. Goblet сells 3. Enterocytes

Task 23. CILIATED PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM OF THE TRACHEA

Task 24. NON-KERATINIZED STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM OF CORNEA

Task 25. KERATINIZED STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM OF THE SKIN

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Indicate: 1. Surface layer 2. Spinosum layer 3. Stratum germinativum 4. Basal layer 5. Basement membrane 6. Connective tissue

Indicate: 1. Basal layer 2. Spinosum layer 3. Granulosum layer 4. Lucidum layer 5. Corneum layer

Indicate and draw: 1. Ciliated cells 2. Cilia 3. Basal cells 4. Goblet cells 5. Basement membrane 6. Connective tissue

18

Task 26. TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM (urothelium)

Task 27. EXOCRINE GLANDS

Task 28. THE SCHEME OF THE SECRETORY PORTION OF EXOCRINIC GLANDS

Magnification: 80×, 400× А Relaxed

B Streched

1 ____________________________________ 2 ____________________________________ 3 ____________________________________ Indicate: 1. Superficial cells 2. Basal cells 3. Basement membrane

4 ____________________________________ 5 ____________________________________ 6 ____________________________________ 19

Indicate: A. Proteinaceous (serous) secretory portion B. Mucous secretory portion C. Muco-proteinaceous (mixed) secretory portion 1. Serocytes 2. Mucocytes 3. Myoepithelial (basket) cells 4. Basement membrane

Task 29. THIN SKIN WITH HAIR FOLLICLES AND SEBACEOUS GLAND

Task 30. SECRETORY CYCLE

Task 31. TYPES OF SECRETION

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Indicate: 1. Blood vessel Indicate: 2. The original products 1. Excretory duct 2. Periphery of gland: germinative (basal) cells 3. Synthesis of secretory product within endoplasmic reticulum 3. Center of gland: larger cells filled with lipid 4. Modifying, sorting, and packaging of vacuoles macromolecules for cell secretion 4. Disintegrating sebum containing secretory within Golgi apparatus cells 5. Secretory vesicles 5. Basement membrane 6. Exocytosis 6. Connective tissue 20

Indicate: 1. Merocrine 2. Macro-apocrine 3. Micro-apocrine 4. Holocrine

LITERATURE

Topic: GENERAL MORPHOLOGY OF BLOOD AND LYMPH. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF BLOOD CELLS. EMBRYONIC AND POSTEMBRYONIC HAEMATOPOIESIS 1. 2. 3. 4.

1. Kuznetsov, S. L. Histology, Cytology and Embriology (a course of lectures) / S. Kuznetsov, T. Boronikina, N. Gorychkina. Moscow : Medical Informational Agency, 2004. P. 40–48. 2. Erlandsen, S. L. Color Atlas of Histology / S. L. Erlandsen, Blood and lymph as types of inner tissues. J. E. Magney. St. Louis : Mosby Year Book, 1992. 196 p. 3. Ross, M. H. Histology : a text and atlas : with correlated cell and Function of the blood. molecular biology / M. H. Ross, P. Wojciech. 6th ed. P. 268–309. The blood plasma as a variety of intercellular substance. 4. Singh, I. Textbook of Human Histology (with Colour Atlas and Practical Guide) / I. Singh. 6th ed. P. 74–92. Blood cells: size, structural features, functions, duration 5. Material of lectures.

of life. 5. Haemogram explanation. 6. Leukogram, age peculiarities, shifts in blood counts. 7. Stem hematopoietic cell. 8. Embryonic hematopoiesis: in the yolk sac, in the liver, in the red bone marrow, in the spleen. 9. Erythropoiesis. 10. Granulopoiesis. 11. Monocytopoiesis. Mononuclear phagocyte system. 12. Thrombopoiesis. 13. Lymphopoiesis in the central and the peripheral lymphoid organs. T- and B-lymphocytes. 14. Cellular and humoral immunity. 15. Cooperative interactions between macrophages, Tand B-lymphocytes.

Correct tasks №№ ____________________________

THE LESSON IS COMPLETED Teacher ___________________________________ «____» ______________________

21

Task 32. PERIPHERAL BLOOD SMEAR

ORGANIZATION OF PLATELET

Stain: H&E Magnification: 400×

Indicate: 1. Erythrocyte 2. Segmented neutrophil 3. Banded neutrophil 4. Basophil 5. Eosinophil 6. Lymphocyte 7. Monocyte 8. Platelets (thrombocytes) 22

Task 33. ULTRASTRUCTURE OF LEUKOCYTES

A – Neutrophil B – Eosinophil C – Basophil D – Monocyte E – Lymphocyte 1. Nucleus 2. Azurophilic granules 3. Specific granules 4. Vacuoles 5. Centrioles 6. Ribosomes

23

Task 34. FORMED ELEMENTS OF BLOOD Fill in the table The number Size of cells in blood Formed elements (microns) (blood count) per liter 1. Erythrocyte

The number of leukocytes in blood (%) (leukogram)

Life expectancy of blood cells Morphology of cells

2. Leukocyte: 2.1 Neutrophil a. neutrophilic metamyelocyte b. banded neutrophil c. segmented neutrophil 2.2 Eosinophil 2.3 Basophil 2.4 Lymphocyte 2.5 Monocyte 3. Platelets

24

Main functions

in the blood

in the connective tissue

Task 35. HEMATOPOIESIS IN HUMANS (SCHEME)

Tissue macrophages

neutrophilic

eosinophilic

basophilic

25

Indicate: 1. Stem cell 2. Common myeloid progenitor 3. Proerythroblast 4. Basophilic erythroblast 5. Polychromatic erythroblast 6. Orthochromatic erythroblast 7. Reticulocyte 8. Erythrocyte 9. Myeloblast 10. Promyelocytes 11. Myelocytes 12. Metamyelocytes 13. Banded granulocytes 14. Segmented granulocytes 15. Monoblast 16. Promonocyte 17. Monocyte 18. Megakaryoblast 19. Promegakaryocyte 20. Megakaryocyte 21. Platelets (thrombocytes)

Task 36. LYMPHOPOIESIS

Indicate: 1. Multipotential hematopoietic stem cell 2. Common lymphoid progenitor 3. Antigens 4. Macrophage 5. B-Lymphocyte 6. T -Lymphocyte 7. Memory cells 8. Plasma cells 9. Cytotoxic (killer) T-cells

26

LITERATURE

Topic: STRUCTURE OF CONNECTIVE TISSUES 1. Classification, origin, general morphofunctional characteristics of connective tissues. 2. Histogenesis, structure and functions of loose connective tissue. 3. Interaction between blood and cells of loose connective tissue. 4. Structure and functions of specialized connective tissues. 5. Structure and functions of dense connective tissues. 6. Reaction of connective tissue to injury (inflammation, regeneration).

1. Kuznetsov, S. L. Histology, Cytology and Embriology (a course of lectures) / S. Kuznetsov, T. Boronikina, N. Gorychkina. Moscow : Medical Informational Agency, 2004. P. 49–59. 2. Erlandsen, S. L. Color Atlas of Histology / S. L. Erlandsen, J. E. Magney. St. Louis : Mosby Year Book, 1992. 196 p. 3. Ross, M. H. Histology : a text and atlas : with correlated cell and molecular biology / M. H. Ross, P. Wojciech. 6th ed. P. 158–197, 254–267. 4. Singh, I. Textbook of Human Histology (with Colour Atlas and Practical Guide) / I. Singh. 6th ed. P. 57–73. 5. Material of lectures.

Correct tasks №№ _______________

THE LESSON IS COMPLETED Teacher _______________________ «____» ______________________

27

Task 37. LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE

Task 38. CELLS OF LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE AND ADIPOSE TISSUES

Stain: Iron hematoxylin Magnification: 400×

Indicate: 1. Collagen fiber 2. Elastic fiber 3. Ground substance 4. Fibroblast 5. Macrophage 6. Lymphocyte 7. Mast cell 8. Plasma cell

Indicate: A. Fibroblast. B. Macrophage. C. Plasma cell. D. Mast cell. E. Endothelial cell, perycyte, adventitial cell of blood capillary. F. Adipocyte of white adipose tissue. G. Adipocyte of brown adipose tissue 1. Nucleus. 2. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (A-D). 3. Mitochondria. 4. Centrioles (A, B, C). 5. Lysosomes. 6. Golgy apparatus. 7. Phagosome (B). 8. Basophilic granules (D). 9. Perycyte. 10. Endothelial cell. 11. Adventitial cell (E). 12. Fat drops (F, G). 28

Task 39. DENSE REGULAR CONNECTIVE Task 40. CONNECTIVE TISSUES TISSUE. TENDON Fill in the table Stain: H&E Tissue Localization Magnification: 400× 1. Loose connective tissue

2. Dense connective tissue a) regular the cross-section

b) irregular

3. Adipose tissue a) white the longitudinal section

Indicate: 1. Fibrocyte 2. I level fascicles 3. II level fascicles 4. Endotendineum 5. Peritendineum 6. Blood vessels

b) brown

4. Reticular tissue

29

Structure

Functions

LITERATURE

Topic: STRUCTURE OF CARTILAGE AND BONE TISSUES

1. Kuznetsov, S. L. Histology, Cytology and Embriology (a course of lectures) / S. Kuznetsov, T. Boronikina, N. Gorychkina. Moscow : Medical Informational Agency, 2004. P. 60–67. 2. Erlandsen, S. L. Color Atlas of Histology / S. L. Erlandsen, J. E. Magney. St. Louis : Mosby Year Book, 1992. 196 p. 3. Ross, M. H. Histology : a text and atlas: with correlated cell and molecular biology / M. H. Ross, P. Wojciech. 6th ed. P. 208–253. 4. Singh, I. Textbook of Human Histology (with Colour Atlas and Practical Guide) / I. Singh. 6th ed. P. 93–121. 5. Material of lectures.

1. General morphofunctional characteristics and classification of skeletal tissues. 2. Structure of cartilaginous tissues (cells, intercellular substance and their histochemical characteristics). 3. Sources of development, growth, regeneration and agerelated changes of cartilage. Perichondrium: structure and functions. 4. Structure reticulofibrous (immature) bone tissue — cells, intercellular substance. Correct tasks №№_______________ 5. Structure of lamellar (mature) bone tissue. 6. Compact and spongy (cancellous) bone. Periosteum: structure and functions. 7. Development of bone tissue. Intramembranous ossification. THE LESSON IS COMPLETED 8. Endochondral ossification. The growth of tubular bones. Teacher _______________________ 9. Bone remodeling and repair. «____» ______________________

30

Task 41. HYALINE CARTILAGE

Task 42. ELASTIC CARTILAGE

Task 43. FIBROCARTILAGE

Stain: H&E Magnification: 400×

Stain: Orsein and Haematoxylin Magnification: 400×

Stain: H&E Magnification: 400×

Indicate: 1. Perichondrium 2. Intercellular cartilage matrix 3. Chondroblasts 4. Chondrocytes 5. Isogenic groups

Indicate: 1. Perichondrium 2. Chondroblasts 3. Isogenic groups 4. Elastic fibers

Indicate: 1. Chondrocytes 2. Collagen fibers 3. Isogenic groups 31

Task 44. IMMATURE BONE (Endochondral ossification)

Task 45. IMMATURE BONE (Intramembranous ossification)

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×

Stain: H&E Magnification: 400×

Indicate: 1. Perichondrium 2. Periosteum 3. Blood vessels 4. Mesenchyme 5. Periosteal collar 6. Endochondral bone 7. The zone of reserve cartilage 8. The zone of proliferation (columns of chondrocytes) 9. Zone of hypertropy 10. Zone of calcification

Indicate: 1. Intercellular bone matrix 2. Osteocytes 3. Osteoblasts 4. Osteoclasts 5. Blood vessels 6. Mesenchyme

Draw: 10 – dark blue 3 – yellow 5,6 – red 7,8,9 – blue 32

Task 46. THE STRUCTURE OF LONG BONE

Task 47. LAMELLAR (MATURE) BONE Indicate: 1. Outer circumferential lamellae 2. Inner circumferential lamellae 3. Volkmann’s canal 4. Osteons 5. Interstitial system 6. Periosteum 7. Haversian canals 8. Endosteum 9. Outputs of Volkmann’s canals to marrow cavity

Stain: Schmorl’s Stain Magnification: 400×

Indicate: 1. Haversian canal 2. Lamellae of osteons 3. Lacunae 4. Canaliculi 5. Interstitial system (older, partially resorbed Haversian systems)

33

LITERATURE

Topic: STRUCTURE OF MUSCLE TISSUES 1. Classification of muscle tissues, origin, general morphofunctional characteristics. 2. Smooth muscle tissue: morphological and functional characteristics of structural elements. Histophysiology of muscle contraction, regeneration. 3. Striated cardiac muscular tissue. Contractile (typical) and conductive (atypical) cardiomyocytes. The possibility of regeneration. 4. Striated skeletal muscle tissue: histogenesis, morphofunctional characteristics of the structural elements, histophysiology of contraction, regeneration. 5. Structure of skeletal muscle as an organ.

1. Kuznetsov, S. L. Histology, Cytology and Embriology (a course of lectures) / S. Kuznetsov, T. Boronikina, N. Gorychkina. Moscow : Medical Informational Agency, 2004. P. 68–75. 2. Erlandsen, S. L. Color Atlas of Histology / S. L. Erlandsen, J. E. Magney. St. Louis : Mosby Year Book, 1992. 196 p. 3. Ross, M. H. Histology : a text and atlas : with correlated cell and molecular biology / M. H. Ross, P. Wojciech. 6th ed. P. 310–351. 4. Singh, I. Textbook of Human Histology (with Colour Atlas and Practical Guide) / I. Singh. 6th ed. P. 122–139. 5. Material of lectures.

Correct tasks №№ _______________

THE LESSON IS COMPLETED Teacher _______________________ «____» ______________________

34

Task 48. SMOOTH MUSCLE OF URINARY BLADDER

Task 49. DIAGRAM OF SMOOTH MUSCLE CELL

Stain: H&E Magnification: 400×

Indicate: 1. Gap junction. 2. Plasmalemma. 3. Basement membrane. 4. Nucleus. 5. Cytoplasmic dense bodies. 6. Membrane-associated dense bodies. 7. Pinocytic vesicles (caveolae). 8. Golgi apparatus. 9. Mitochondria. 10. Thin filaments. SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF CONTRACTION OF SMOOTH MYOCYTE Relaxed smooth muscle cell Indicate: 1. Smooth muscle cells in longitudinal section 2. Smooth muscle cells in transverse section 3. Connective tissue

Contracted smooth muscle cell

35

Task 50 Section: CARDIAC MUSCLE TISSUE

Task 51. ULTRASTRUCTURE OF INTERCALATED DISK

Stain: Iron hematoxylin Magnification: 400×

Indicate: 1. Cardiomyocyte 2. Nucleus 3. Myofibrils 4. Anastomosis 5. Intercalated disk 6. Capillary 7. Cross-section of cardiomyocytes

Task 52. Section: SKELETAL MUSCLE OF THE TONGUE Stain: Iron hematoxylin Magnification: 400×

Indicate: 1. Muscle fibers in longitudinal Indicate: section 1. Desmosome 2. Muscle fibers cells in 2. Fascia adherens (adherent-type junction anchor transverse section the actin filaments of myofibrils to the end of the 3. Sarcolemma cell) 4. Nucleus 3. Gap junction (nexus) 5. Endomysium 6. Perimysium 36

Task 53. DIAGRAM OF SCELETAL MUSCLE FIBER

Indicate: 1. Nucleus 2. Sarcolemma 3. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (L-tubules) 4. Mitochondria 5. Myofibril 6. Collagen fibers (tendon) 7. Basement membrane 8. Satellite cells

Task 54.DIAGRAM OF STRUCTURE OF SKELETAL MUSCLE AS AN ORGAN

9. T-tubule 10. Z disk 11. M line 12. Actin myofilament 13. Myosin myofilament 14. H zone 15. A band 16. I band 37

Indicate: 1. Epimysium 2. Perimysium 3. Endomysium 4. Sarcolemma 5. Muscle fibers 6. Nucleus of muscle fiber 7. Blood vessel 8. Blood capillaries 9. Adipocyte

Task 55. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MUSCLE TISSUES Fill in the table: Muscle tissue

Localization

Structure

Smooth muscle tissue

Skeletal muscle tissue

Cardiac muscle tissue

38

Regeneration ability

LITERATURE

Topic: STRUCTURE OF NERVOUS TISSUE 1. Nervous tissue: general morphofunctional characteristics, sources of development. 2. Neurons: classification, structural and functional characteristics. 3. Neuroglia: classification, origin, morphofunctional characteristics. 4. Nerve fibers: classification, structure of unmyelinated and myelinated nerve fibers. Degeneration and regeneration of nerve fibers. 5. Nerve endings: classification, general morphofunctional characteristics: a) receptor and effector nerve endings, b) neural synapses: transmission of the nerve impulse.

1. Kuznetsov, S. L. Histology, Cytology and Embriology (a course of lectures) / S. Kuznetsov, T. Boronikina, N. Gorychkina. Moscow : Medical Informational Agency, 2004. P. 186–193. 2. Erlandsen, S. L. Color Atlas of Histology / S. L. Erlandsen, J. E. Magney. St. Louis : Mosby Year Book, 1992. 196 p. 3. Ross, M. H. Histology : a text and atlas : with correlated cell and molecular biology / M. H. Ross, P. Wojciech. 6th ed. P. 352–375. 4. Singh, I. Textbook of Human Histology (with Colour Atlas and Practical Guide) / I. Singh. 6th ed. P. 140–176. 5. Material of lectures.

Correct tasks №№ _______________

THE LESSON IS COMPLETED Teacher _______________________ «____» ______________________

39

Task 56. MORPHOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL TYPES OF NEURONS

Task 57. DIAGRAM OF NEURON

Task 58. BASOPHILIC SUBSTANCE IN SPINAL CORD NEURONS Stain: Toluidine blue Magnification: 400×

А 1. 2. В 1. 2. С 1. 2. Indicate: 1. Сell body. 2. Dendrites. 3. Sensory nerve ending. 4. Axons. 5. Synapses. 6. Effector nerve ending. 7. Muscle fiber

Indicate: 1. Nucleus. 2. Dendrites. 3. Rough endoplasmic reticulum. 4. Axon. 5. Nucleolus. 6. Golgy apparatus. 7. Mitochondria. 8. Axon sheath. 9. Lysosome. 10. Microfilaments and microtubules 40

Indicate: 1. Nucleus of neuron 2. Dendrites 3. Basophilic Nissl substance 4. Axon 5. Glial cells nuclei

Task 59. SUPPORTING CELLS (NEUROGLIA or GLIAL CELLS) IN NERVOUS SYSTEM

Task 60. ASTROCYTE Stain: Silver impregnation Magnification: 400× Indicate: 1. The body of astrocyte 2. Astrocytic foot processes on the brain capillaries

I. Gray matter of the central nervous system. II. White matter of the central nervous system.

Task 61. MICROGLIA

III. Peripheral nervous system.

Stain: Silver impregnation Magnification: 400×

Indicate: 1. Ependymal cells 2. Blood vessel 3. Protoplasmic astrocyte 4. Neurons bodies 5. Microglia 6. Oligodendrocytes in central nervous system 7. Schwann cells (oligodendrocytes in peripheral nervous system) 8. Satellite cells within ganglia 9. Fibrous astrocyte

41

Task 62. SATELLITE CELLS OF SPINAL GANGLIA Stain: H&E Magnification: 400× Indicate: 1. Cell body of neuron 2. Oligodendrocytes (satellite cells)

Task 63. NON-MYELINATED NERVE FIBERS

Task 64. MYELINATED NERVE FIBERS

Stain: H&E Magnification: 400×

Stain: Osmic acid Magnification: 400×

A

A

B

B

Label scheme (A) and draw picture (B): 1. Non-myelinated nerve fibers 2. Lemmocyte nuclei 3. Axial cylinders 4. Mesaxon

Label scheme (A) and draw picture (B): 1. Myelinated nerve fibers 2. Lemmocyte nuclei 3. Axial cylinder 4. Neurolemma 5. Node of Ranvier 6. Myelin layer 42

Task 64. RECEPTORS

Task 65. INTERNEURONAL SYNAPSE Indicate: 1. Axon terminal 2. Axon mitochondria 3. Synaptic vesicles 4. Presynaptic membrane 5. Synaptic cleft 6. Postsynaptic membrane 7. Dendritic thorns 8. Dendrite

Task 66. NEUROMUSCULAR SYNAPSE Indicate: 1. Axon terminal 2. Axon mitochondria 3. Synaptic vesicles 4. Presynaptic membrane 5. Synaptic cleft 6. Postsynaptic membrane Indicate: (sarcolemma) A — free nerve ending in the epidermis of the skin; 7. Myofibril B — encapsulated nerve ending in the skin 8. Olygodendrocyte epidermis (Vater-Pacini corpuscles): 1. Connective tissue capsule; 2. Glial bulb; 3. Dendrite (a), body (b), axon (c) of sensory neuron of spinal ganglion; 4. Spinal cord. 43

LITERATURE

Topic: CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM 1. General morphofunctional description of the cardiovascular system. 2. Classification of blood vessels. General plan of structure their walls. 3. Arteries, their development. Dependence of the artery wall structure on haemodynamic conditions. 4. Veins. Classification. Influence of haemodynamic conditions on the vein wall structure. 5. Microcirculation. The structure and functional description of the arterioles, venules and capillaries. 6. Lymphatic vessels. Classification. Structure. 7. The heart. Sources of development. The structure of shells. 8. Conduction system of heart. Comparative characteristics of typical, conductive and secretory cardiomyocytes. 9. Vascularization, innervation and regeneration of blood vessels and the heart. Age-related changes.

To repeat: structure of muscle tissues.

1. Kuznetsov, S. L. Histology, Cytology and Embriology (a course of lectures) / S. Kuznetsov, T. Boronikina, N. Gorychkina. Moscow : Medical Informational Agency, 2004. P. 113–125. 2. Erlandsen, S. L. Color Atlas of Histology / S. L. Erlandsen, J. E. Magney. St. Louis : Mosby Year Book, 1992. 196 p. 3. Ross, M. H. Histology : a text and atlas : with correlated cell and molecular biology / M. H. Ross, P. Wojciech. 6th ed. P. 400–439. 4. Singh, I. Textbook of Human Histology (with Colour Atlas and Practical Guide) / I. Singh. 6th ed. P. 175–187. 5. Material of lectures.

Correct tasks №№ _______________

THE LESSON IS COMPLETED Teacher _______________________ «____» ______________________

44

Task 67. ULTRAMICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE OF THE BLOOD AND LYMPHATIC CAPILLARY WALL

Task 68. ARTERIOLES, VENULES, CAPILLARIES OF THE PIA MATER Stain: hematoxylin-eosin. Magnification:80×, 400×

Indicate: A – lymphatic capillary B – fenestrated capillary C – somatic capillary D – discontinuous capillary (sinusoid)

Indicate: I — arteriole; II — venule; III — capillary: 1. Myocytes; 2. Endoteliocytic nuclei; 1. Endothelial cell; 2. Endothelial cell nucleus; 3. Basement membrane; 3. Adventitial cells; 4. Erythrocytes; 4. Pericyte; 5. Fenestrae; 6. Intercellular gaps (pores); 7. Adventitial cell. 5. Connective tissue cells. 45

Task 69. MUSCULAR ARTERY

Task 70. SMALL VEIN

Task 71. DEVELOPMENT OF THE HEART

Stain: H&E Magnification:80×, 400×

Stain: H&E Magnification:80×, 400×

Fill in the table: Lining of the heart

Tissue composition 1.

2. Endocardium 3.

Indicate: I. Tunica intima 1. Endothelium 2. Subendothelial layer 3. Internal elastic lamina II. Tunica media 4. Smooth muscle cells 5. Elastic fibers III. Tunica adventitia 6. External elastic lamina 7. Collagen fibers 8. Elastic fibers 9. Nuclei of connective tissue cells

1. Indicate: I. Tunica intima 1. Endoothelium 2. Subendothelial layer II. Tunica media 3. Smooth muscle cells 4. Elastic fibers III. Tunica adventitia 5. Collagen fibers 6. Elastic fibers 7. Nuclei of connective tissue cells 46

Myocardium

2.

1. Epicardium

2.

Source of development

Task 72. CARDIOMYOCYTE

Task 73. HEART WALL Indicate: I. ENDOCARDIUM 1. Endothelium 2. Subendothelial layer of connective tissue 3. Middle layer of connective tissue and smooth muscle 4. Subendocardial layer of connective tissue II. MYOCARDIUM 5. Nuclei of contractile cardiomyocytes 6. Intercalated disks 7. Connective tissue with capillaries 8. Conducting cardiomyocytes (Purkinjer’s fibres) 9. Anastomoses between cardiomyocytes III. EPICARDIUM 10. Subseroses basis 11. Lamina propria of serosa 12. Mesothelium

Indicate: 1 — sarcolemma: a — cytolemma, b — basement membrane; 2 — sarcoplasm; 3 — intercalated disk; 4 — nexus; 5 — desmosome; 6 — communication of intercellular gap with the extracellular space; 7 — ribosome; 8 — sarcosoma (mitochondria); 9 — sarcoplasmatic reticulum; 10 — T-tubule; 11 — myofibrils (a — actin, b — myosin); 12 — A-disk; 13 — I-disk; 14 — ending of myofibrils on plasmalemma 47

LITERATURE

Topic: HEMOPOIETIC AND IMMUNOGENETIC ORGANS

1. Kuznetsov, S. L. Histology, Cytology and Embriology (a course of lectures) / S. Kuznetsov, T. Boronikina, N. Gorychkina. Moscow : 1. General morphofunctional characteristics of the hemopoietic Medical Informational Agency, 2004. P. 126–141. 2. Erlandsen, S. L. Color Atlas of Histology / S. L. Erlandsen, and immunogenetic organs. J. E. Magney. St. Louis : Mosby Year Book, 1992. 196 p. 2. The primary and secondary organs of the immune system. 3. Ross, M. H. Histology : a text and atlas : with correlated cell and 3. Red bone marrow: development, structure, function. Agemolecular biology / M. H. Ross, P. Wojciech. 6th ed. P. 440–487. 4. Singh, I. Textbook of Human Histology (with Colour Atlas and related changes. Interaction of stromal and hemapoietic Practical Guide) / I. Singh. 6th ed. P. 188–202. elements. 5. Material of lectures.

4. Thymus: development, structure, function. Hemato-thymic barrier. Conception of age-related and accidental involution. 5. Lymph nodes: development, structure, function. T- and B-areas, their dynamics in immune response. 6. Spleen: development, structure, function. Blood supply Correct tasks №№ _______________ features. T- and B-areas, their dynamics in immune response. Age-related changes of the spleen. 7. Lymphoid apparatus of the digestive and respiratory systems: development, structure and function of the tonsils. THE LESSON IS COMPLETED Teacher _______________________ To repeat: morphology of blood and lymph.

«____» ______________________

48

Task 74. ULTRAMICROSCOPIC Task 75. STRUCTURE OF THE THYMUS STRUCTURE OF THE BONE MARROW no lymphocytes

Indicate: 1. Lumen of sinusoid capillary 2. Capillary basal lamina 3. Endothelial cell 4. Fibroblast 5. Collagen fibers 6. Macrophage 7. Osteocyte 8. Erythroblast 9. Erythrocyte 10. Neutrophil 11. B-lymphocyte

Task 76. THYMUS Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Indicate: 1. Cortex Indicate: 2. Medulla 1. Capsule; 2. Blood capillary; 3. Secretory 3. Interlobular connective tissue epithelial cell; 4. Thymic corpuscle; 4. Thymic corpuscle 5. Macrophage; 6. Lymphocytes. 5. Macrophages Colour: blood capillaries — red, 6. Epithelial stromal cells macrophages — blue, lymphocytes — yellow 7. Blood vessels 49

Task 77. LYMPH NODE (scheme)

Task 78. LYMPH NODE

Task 79. PALATINE TONSIL

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Indicate: I. Outer cortex II. Deep cortex III. Medulla 1. Capsule 2. Trabeculae 3. Subcapsular sinus Indicate: 4. Trabecular sinus 1. Capsule. 2. Trabecule. 3. Afferent lymphatic 5. Medullary sinus vessels. 4. Efferent lymphatic vessel. 6. Lymphatic nodule 5. Lymphatic nodules. 6. Lymph node artery 7. Macrophages and (7) vein. 8. Subcapsular sinus. 9. Trabecular 8. Lymphocytes sinus. 10. Medullary sinus. 9. Germinal center 50

Indicate: I — B-area II — T-area 1. Stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium 2. Crypt 3. Lymphatic follicles 4. Interfollicular areas 5. Subepithelial area 6. Capsule 7. Epithelium, infiltrated by lymphocytes

Task 80. STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION OF SPLENIC BLOOD SUPPLY

Task 81. SPLEEN Stain: hematoxylin-eosin. Magnification: 80×, 400×

Indicate: Indicate: I — T-area II — B-area. 1. Trabecule; 2. Trabecular arteries; 3. Trabecular veins; 4. Pulp 1. Capsule; 2. Trabecules; 3. Trabecular artery; arteries; 5. Pulp veins; 6. Central artery; 7. Penicilliform arterioles; 4. Trabecular vein; 5. Central artery; 6. Lymphoid 8. Arteriolar sphincter; 9. Venous sinuses; 10. Venous sphincter; nodules: a — center of reproduction, b — mantle layer, 11. Capillaries of lymphoid nodules; 12. Red pulp. c — marginal area, d — periarterial area; 7. Red pulp; 8. Lymphocytes; 9. Erythrocytes. Colour: arteries — red, veins — blue, venous sinuses — violet. 51

LITERATURE

Topic: ENDOCRINE SYSTEM 1. The principe of organization of endocrine regulation. Target organs. 2. Hypothalamus-Anterior Pituitary Axis and HypothalamusPosterior Pituitary Axis. Structure and functions. 3. Hypophysis. Sources of development. Structure, blood circulation. The connection between the pituitary gland with other endocrine glands (the principle of military communication). 4. Epiphysis: development, structure and function. 5. Thyroid and parathyroid glands: development, structure, histophysiology. Molecular mechanisms of secretory process. 6. Adrenal glands. Sources of development, structure, histophysiology of cortex and medulla. Age-related features (embryonic and postembryonic periods). 7. Diffuse endocrine system. Types of hormone producing cells.

1. Kuznetsov, S. L. Histology, Cytology and Embriology (a course of lectures) / S. Kuznetsov, T. Boronikina, N. Gorychkina. Moscow : Medical Informational Agency, 2004. P. 142–155. 2. Erlandsen, S. L. Color Atlas of Histology / S. L. Erlandsen, J. E. Magney. St. Louis: Mosby Year Book, 1992. 196 p. 3. Ross, M. H. Histology : a text and atlas : with correlated cell and molecular biology / M. H. Ross, P. Wojciech. 6th ed. P. 740–783. 4. Singh, I. Textbook of Human Histology (with Colour Atlas and Practical Guide) / I. Singh. 6th ed. P. 317-333. 5. Material of lectures.

Correct tasks №№ _______________

THE LESSON IS COMPLETED Teacher _______________________ «____» ______________________

To repeat: 1. Glandular epithelium. 2. Classification of glands. 52

Task 82. HYPOPHYSIS

Task 83. PINEAL GLAND (scheme)

Task 84. ADRENAL GLAND (scheme)

Indicate: 1. Connective tissue capsule 2. Trabecule 3. Blood vessels 4. Pinealocytes 5. Glial cell (astrocyte)

Find on histological slide and mark on the scheme: 1. Capsule. 2. Cortex. 3. Medulla. 4. Glomerular zone. 5. Fascicular zone. 6. Reticular zone. 7. Medullar vein. 8. Nerve

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×

Indicate: 1. Anterior lobe 2. Intermediate part of the anterior lobe 3. Posterior lobe (neurohypophysis)

53

Task 85. DIAGRAM OF THYROID FOLLICULAR WALL

Indicate: 1. Follicular cells 2. Parafollicular cells (C-cells) 3. Connective tissue 4. Interfollicular epithelium 5. Blood vessels

SCHEME OF HORMONOGENESIS IN THE THYROID GLAND

Task 86. THYROID AND PARATHYROID GLANDS Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400× Indicate: 1. Follicular epithelium 2. Interfollicular epithelium 3. Colloid 4. Resorption vacuoles 54

5. Cords of parathyrocytes Task 87. HYPOTHALAMIC-ADENOHYPOPHYSIAL AND HYPOTHALAMIC-NEUROHYPOPHYSIAL SYSTEMS (scheme)

Indicate: 1. Neurosecretory cells of anterior hypothalamus 2. Neurosecretory cells medio-basal hypothalamus 3. Primary capillary plexus 4. Axovasal synapses 5. Secondary capillary plexus 6. Oxytocin 7. Antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin, ADH) 8. Somatotropin 9. Thyrotropin 10. Adrenocorticotropin 11. Follitropin (FSH) 12. Lutropin (LH) 13. Prolactin 14. Thyroxine (T4) 15. Corticosteroids 16. Estrogens 17. Androgens 18. Progesterone 19. Melanotropin Colour: arteries — red, veins — blue, nervous tissue — yellow, adenohypophysis — green 55

LITERATURE

Topic: NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. General morphofunctional characteristic of nervous system, its departments. Sources of development. 2. Reflex arch, its structural unit. Types of reflex arches. 3. Peripheral nervous system. Nerve, its structure and regeneration. Cerebrospinal ganglia: sources of development, structure, function. 4. Spinal cord. Morphofunctional characteristics. The structure of gray and white matter. 5. Brain. General morphofunctional characteristic of its departments. Cyto- and myeloarchitectonics. 6. Cerebellum. Structure and functional characteristics. Neuronic ensebles of the cerebellar cortex. 7. Autonomous (vegetative) nervous system. General functional description, departments.

To repeat: nervous tissue.

1. Kuznetsov, S. L. Histology, Cytology and Embriology (a course of lectures) / S. Kuznetsov, T. Boronikina, N. Gorychkina. Moscow : Medical Informational Agency, 2004. P. 76–93. 2. Erlandsen, S. L. Color Atlas of Histology / S. L. Erlandsen, J. E. Magney. St. Louis : Mosby Year Book, 1992. 196 p. 3. Ross, M. H. Histology : a text and atlas : with correlated cell and molecular biology / M. H. Ross, P. Wojciech. 6th ed. P. 375–399. 4. Singh, I. Textbook of Human Histology (with Colour Atlas and Practical Guide) / I. Singh. 6th ed. P. 140–176. 5. Material of lectures.

Correct tasks №№ _______________

THE LESSON IS COMPLETED Teacher _______________________ «____» ______________________

56

Task 88. REFLEX ARCS A

A – spinal ganglion B – autonomic ganglion C – spinal cord 1. Receptor 2. Dendrite of sensory neuron 3. Axon of sensory neuron 4. Somatic motor neuron 5. Axon of motor neuron (motor axon) 6. Effector (motor end plate) 7. Sceletal muscle fiber 8. Interneuron of the lateral horn 9. Preganglionic fiber 10. Autonomic motor neuron 11. Postganglionic fiber 12. Smooth muscle cell 13. Dendrite of autonomic sensory neuron 14. Autonomic sensory neuron

C

B

Note the position of the reflex arcs: 1. Somatic – red 2. Autonomic (central) – yellow 3. Autonomic (peripheral) – green

57

Task 89. SPINAL GANGLION

Task 90. HISTOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF SPINAL CORD

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Indicate: 1. Cell body of pseudounipolar neuron. 2. Satellite cell. 3. Nerve fibers. 4. Blood capillaries. 5. Connective tissue Task 91. PERIPHERAL NERVE Stain: H&E Magnification: 400×

Indicate: 1. Epineurium. 2. Perineurium. 3. Endoneurium. 4. Nerve fibers. 5. Blood vessels 58

Indicate: 1. Gray matter: a) ventral horns; b) dorsal horns; c) lateral horns 2. Gray commissure 3. White matter 4. Neuron 5. Neuroglia 6. Central canal 7. Ependymal cells 8. Nerve fibers 9. Pia mater

Task 92. CEREBELLUM (diagram)

Task 93. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN NEURONS AND AFFERENT FIBERS IN CEREBELLAR CORTEX Indicate: 1. Cerebellar cortex 2. Deep cerebellar nuclei 3. Cerebellar peduncles

I. Molecular layer. II. Purkinje cell layer. III. Granular layer. Indicate: 1. Pseudounipolar neuron of spinal ganglion 2. Mossy fiber 3. Granule cell 4. Golgi cells 5. Granule cell axon 6. Purkinje cell dendrite 7. Purkinje cell body 8. Purkinje cell axon 9. Motor neuron of spinal cord 10. Sceletal muscle fiber 11. Vestibular afferent neuron 12. Climbing fiber 13. Basket cell axon 14. Basket cell 15. Stellate cell

Task 94. CEREBELLAR CORTEX Stain: Impregnation with silver Magnification: 400× Indicate: I. Molecular layer. 1. Purkinje cell dendrite II. Purkinje cell layer. 2. Purkinje cell bodies 3. Baskets of nerve fibers III. Granular layer. 4. Nuclei of granule cells and Golgi cells 59

Task 95. STRUCTURE OF THE BRAIN

Task 96. CEREBRAL CORTEX Indicate: 1. Cortex 2. White matter 3. Hemispheres 4. Nuclei 5. Brainstem 6. Corpus callosum

Task 97. BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER

Indicate: 1. Astrocytic foot process on the brain capillary 2. Endothelial cell 3. Basement membrane 4. Tight junction 5. Pericyte 60

Indicate: 1. Molecular layer. 2. External granular layer. 3. External pyramidal layer. 4. Internal granular layer. 5. Internal pyramidal layer. 6. Multiform layer. 7. White matter

LITERATURE

Topic: SENSORY ORGANS

1. Kuznetsov, S. L. Histology, Cytology and Embriology (a course of lectures) / S. Kuznetsov, T. Boronikina, N. Gorychkina. Moscow : Medical Informational Agency, 2004. P. 94–112. 2. Erlandsen, S. L. Color Atlas of Histology / S. L. Erlandsen, J. E. Magney. St. Louis : Mosby Year Book, 1992. 196 p. 3. Ross, M. H. Histology : a text and atlas : with correlated cell and molecular biology / M. H. Ross, P. Wojciech. 6th ed. P. 667–670, 896–949. 4. Singh, I. Textbook of Human Histology (with Colour Atlas and Practical Guide) / I. Singh. 6th ed. P. 334–366. 5. Material of lectures

1. Sensory organs. General morphofunctional characteristic. Conception of analyzer, its structure. 2. Morphofunctional characteristics of receptor cells. 3. The organ of vision: structure, sources of development. 4. Dioptric eye structures: cornea, lens, vitreous body. 5. The accommodation apparatus of the eye: the structure of the ciliary body and iris. 6. Structure and functional significance of the retina. 7. The organ of smell, cytophysiology of the reception. 8. The organ of equilibrium. Structure, sources of development, functions. 9. The organ of hearing. Structure and functional role of the cochlear canal. Spiral (kortiev) organ. Histophysiology hearing.

Correct tasks №№ _______________

THE LESSON IS COMPLETED Teacher _______________________ «____» ______________________

61

Task 98. RECEPTORS CELLS

Task 99. CORNEA

Task 100. POSTERIOR WALL OF EYE

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400× Draw eye wall section in the darkness

I. Neurosensory cell II. Sensoepithelial cell Indicate their location: 1. 2. 1. II. 2. 3. I.

Indicate: 1. Non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium 2. Anterior limiting membrane (Bowman’s membrane) 3. Substantia propria of the cornea 4. Posterior limiting membrane (Descemet’s membrane) 5. Corneal endothelium 62

Indicate: I. Sclera: 1. Fibrocyte. 2. Collagen fibers II. Choroid: 3. Blood vessels. 4. Pigmentary tissue III. Retina: 5. Pigment epithelium; 6. Layer of rods and cones; 7. External limiting membrane; 8. Outer nuclear layer; 9. Outer plexiform layer; 10. Inner nuclear layer; 11. Inner plexiform layer; 12. Layer of ganglion cells; 13. Nerve fiber layer; 14. Internal limiting membrane.

Task 101. OLFACTORY AREA OF THE NASAL CAVITY A

Task 102. TASTE BUD (scheme)

B

Indicate: 1. Olfactory bulb 2. Cribriform plate 3. Olfactory receptor cells

Indicate: 1. Receptor cell 2. Olfactory cilia 3. Olfactory knob 4. Supporrting cell 5. Basal cell 6. Microvilli 7. Developing receptor cell

63

Indicate: 1. Taste pore 2. Microvilli 3. Taste cell 4. Afferent nerve fiber 5. Basal cell 6. Supporrting cell

Task 103. ORGAN OF HEARING

Task 104. ORGAN OF EQUILIBRIUM B

A. Bony (1) and membranous (2) labyrinth (diagram) 3. Cochlea 4. Semicircular canals 5. Cristae ampullares 6. Utricle (a) and saccule (b) maculae 7. Perilymph 8. Tympanic bone A

C

D

B. Crista ampullaris 1. Endolymph 2. Cupula 3. Sensoepithelial cell (“hair cell”) 4. Stereocilia 5. Supporting cell 6. Nerve fibers C. Macula 1. Endolymph 2. Otoconia 3. Sensoepithelial cell (“hair cell”) 4. Stereocilia 5. Supporting cell 6. Nerve fibers

D. Spiral organ (organ of Corti) 1. Outer hair cells. 2. Inner hair cells. 3. Outer phalangeal cells. 4. Inner phalangeal cells. 5. Outer pillar cells. 6. Inner pillar cells. 7. Tunnel. 8. Tectorial membrane. 9. Basilar membrane. 10. Vestibular membrane. 11. Stria vascularis. 12. Capillaries. 13. Spiral ganglion. 64

LITERATURE

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

1. Kuznetsov, S. L. Histology, Cytology and Embriology (a course of lectures) / S. Kuznetsov, T. Boronikina, N. Gorychkina. Moscow : Medical Informational Agency, 2004. P. 156–159. 2. Erlandsen, S. L. Color Atlas ofHistology / S. L. Erlandsen, Oral cavity, the sources of its development. J. E. Magney. St. Louis : Mosby Year Book, 1992. 196 p. General structurе (membranes and layers), functions. 3. Ross, M. H. Histology : a text and atlas : with correlated Lip. Characteristic skin, transition and mucous parts. Lip same-Lesa. cell and molecular biology / M. H. Ross, P. Wojciech. 6th ed. P. 526–534. Gum. Characteristic of the mucosa. Gingival fluid. 4. Singh, I. Textbook of Human Histology (with Colour Atlas Cheek. The structure of the maxillary, intermediate and mandibular and Practical Guide) / I. Singh. 6th ed. P. 227–228, 232–235. zones. 5. Material of lectures.

Topic: ORGANS OF THE ORAL CAVITY: MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. Hard palate. The topographic features of the structure. 7. The soft palate. Structural features of the oropharyngeal mucosa and nasopharyngeal surface. Correct tasks №№ _______________ 8. Tongue: functions, sources of development. 9. Tongue: structure and topographic features of the mucous membrane. Structure of the lingual tonsil. 10. Structure of the taste buds, the mechanism of reception. THE LESSON IS COMPLETED 11. Age-related changes of the oral mucous membrane. Teacher _______________________ To repeat: 1. Structure of stratified epithelium. 2. Structure of fibrous connective tissue. 3. Structure of skeletal muscle tissue.

«____» ______________________

65

Task 105. STOMODEUM (Human embryo about 25 days old)

Task 106. ORAL MUCOSA

Task 107. MORPHOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL FEATURES OF ORAL MUCOSA Fill in the table: Type of oral mucosa Masticatory mucosa

Indicate: 1. Buccopharyngeal membrane 2. Forebrain 3. Heart 4. Rathke’s pouch (gives rise to adenohypophysis) 5. Stomodeum 6. Notochord 7. Thyroid gland 8. Pharynx

Lining mucosa

Indicate: 1. Non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium 2. Lamina propria 3. Submucosa

66

Localization

Type of epithelium

Mechanical strength

Task 108. HUMAN LIP

Task 109. STRUCTURE OF GINGIVA

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Label intraoral labial mucosa (I), vermilion transitional zone (II) and cutaneous lip (III). Indicate: 1. Stratified squamous keratinized epithelium. 2. Dermis. 3. Sebaceous glands. 4. Stratified non-keratinized epithelium. 5. Lamina propria. 6. Submucosa. 7. Labial salivary glands. 8. Blood vessels. 9. Lip muscle

Task 110 HUMAN GINGIVA Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Indicate: 1. Stratified squamous keratinized epithelium 2. Lamina propria 3. Gingival sulcus 4. Unattached gingiva (free gingiva) 5. Attached gingiva 6. Cementum 7. Alveolar bone 8. Junctional epithelium 9. Enamel 10. Gingival fibers: a) dento-gingival; b) dento-periosteal; c) circular 67

Indicate: 1. Stratified squamous keratinized epithelium 2. Lamina propria: a. papillary layer b. reticular layer c. collagen fiber bundles

Task 111. HARD PALATE

Task 112. SOFT PALATE

Indicate: 1. Stratified squamous keratinized epithelium 2. Lamina propria 3. Submucosa 4. Adipose tissue 5. Mucous salivary glands 6. Bundles of collagen fibers 7. Palatine bone

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Soft palate Gingiva Incisive papilla Palatine uvula Fatty zone of hard palate Glandular zone of hard palate

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Indicate: 1. Stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium 2. Lamina propria 3. Submucosa 4. Mucous minor salivary glands 5. Bundles of striated muscle fibers 6. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium 68

Task 113. HUMAN TONGUE

Indicate: 1. Body of tongue 2. Base of tongue 3. Proglossis (tip of the tongue, apex) 4. Median sulcus 5. Filiform (thread-like) papillae 6. Foliate papillae 7. Fungiform papillae 8. Circumvallate papillae 9. Palatine tonsil 10. Cecal forame. 11. Lingual tonsil 12. Epiglottis

Task 114. FILIFORM PAPILLAE

Task 116. FOLIATE PAPILLAE

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Indicate: 1. Stratified squamous keratinized epithelium 2. Lamina propria 3. Blood vessels Task 115. TASTE BUD (scheme) Indicate: 1. Taste pore 2. Taste cell 3. Microvilli 4. Supporrting cell 5. Basal cell 6. Microvilli 7. Afferent nerve fiber 69

Indicate: 1. Non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium 2. Lamina propria 3. Taste buds 4. Minor salivary glands 5. Sceletal muscle fibers

LITERATURE

Topic: STRUCTURE OF THE TOOTH. MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE OF ENAMEL, DENTIN, PULP 1. 2. 3. 4.

Structural organization of the tooth. Functions of the teeth. General characteristics of enamel, its functions. Enamel rods. Optical effects on the longitudinal sections of enamel (HunterSchreger bands, Retzius’ striae), their nature. 5. Enamel lamellae, tufts and spindles. Cementoenamel junction. 6. Age-related changes of enamel. 7. Surface enamel coatings, their composition, functions. 8. Physical properties and chemical composition of the dentin. 9. Microscopic structure of dentin. 10. Topographic peculiarities of dentin: mantle and circumpulpal dentin, predentin. 11. Primary and secondary dentin. Denticles. Pathological changes in the dentin. 12. General characteristics and functions of the pulp. 13. Microscopic structure of pulp, its blood supply and innervation. 14. Regeneration and aging of the pulp. To repeat: 1. Structure and histogenesis of bone tissue. 2. Structure and histogenesis of connective tissue. 70

1. Oral development and histology / ed. J. K. Avery; assoc. ed. P. F. Steele. 3rd ed. P. 153–224. 2. Material of lectures.

Correct tasks №№ _______________

THE LESSON IS COMPLETED Teacher _______________________ «____» ______________________

Task 117. TOOTH STRUCTURE

Indicate: 1. Crown. 2. Enamel. 3. Pulp chamber. 4. Gingiva. 5. Dentin. 6. Dentinal tubules. 7. Cementum. 8. Alveolar bone. 9. Spongy bone. 10. Cortical bone. 11. Periodontal ligament. 12. Apical foramen. 13. Root canal.

Task 118. SECTIONS OF THE TOOTH: OPTICAL EFFECTS

Indicate: 1. Hunter-Schreger bands 2. Striae of Retzius 3. Enamel 4. Dentin 5. Cementum 6. Pulp cavity 71

Task 119. GROUND SECTION OF TOOTH

Indicate: 1. Enamel 2. Dentin 3. Dentinoenamel junction 4. Dentinal tubules

Task 120. ULTRASTRUCTURE OF ENAMEL А

Indicate: A: 1. Enamel rods 2. Head of enamel rod 3. Tail of enamel rod (interrod enamel) 4. Hydroxyapatite crystals

Task 121. SURFACE COATINGS OF ENAMEL

В

С

B. Electronogram of enamel prisms (cross section) C. Organic matrix enamel: 1. Protein, soluble in acids 2. Calcium-binding proteins 3. Ca 2+ 4. Phospholipids (centres of crystallization)

1

4

2

3

72

Indicate: 1. Pigmented plaque 2. Cuticle 3. Pellicle 4. Dental plaque 5. Calculus 6. Mucinous plaque

Task 122. DENTIN

Task 123. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY DENTIN

Indicate: 1. Primary dentin 2. Secondary (regular, physiological) dentin Indicate: 3. Tertiary (irregular) dentin 1. Odontoblast. 2. Nerve. 3. Predentin. 4. Peritubular dentin. 4. Odontoblast 5. Intertubular dentin. 6. Odontoblastic process. 5. Dentinal tubules 7. Dentinoenamel junction. 8. Mantle dentin. 9. Interglobular 6. Demarcation line dentin. 10. Periodontoblastic space. 73

Task 124. PULP STONES

Task 125. PULP ARCHITECTURE

Indicate: 1. Odontoblastic layer: a. Cell body b. Odontoblastic process 2. Intermediate layer: a. Cell-free zone b. Cell-rich zone c. Parietal neural plexus 3. Central pulp 4. Blood vessels 5. Predentin

Indicate: 1. Enamel 2. Dentin 3. Dentinoenamel junction 4. False attached denticle 5. True denticle 6. False free denticle 7. Embedded denticle

Task 126. DENTAL PULP Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

74

Indicate: 1. Fibroblasts 2. Blood vessels 3. Undifferentiated cells of cell-rich zone 4. Odontoblasts 5. Pulp stones 6. Collagen fibers 7. Lymphocytes

Topic: TOOTH SUPPORTING APPARATUS (PERIODONTUM)

LITERATURE

1. Oral development and histology / ed. J. K. Avery; assoc. 1. Structural organization of the supporting apparatus of the tooth. ed. P. F. Steele. 3rd ed. P. 226–242. 2. General characteristics and functions of cementum. 2. Material of lectures. 3. Acellular and cellular cementum. 4. Role of cementum in reparative processes. Hypercementosis, its types. 5. Microscopic structure of the periodontal ligament. Principal fibers. Blood supply and innervation. 6. Epithelial rests in the periodontal ligament. 7. Alveolar process. Structure and functional characteristics. 8. Functional and reparative restructuring of the periodontium. Correct tasks №№ _______________

To repeat: 1. Structure and histogenesis of connective tissue. 2. Structure and histogenesis of bone tissue.

THE LESSON IS COMPLETED Teacher _______________________ «____» ______________________

75

Task 127. GROUND SECTION OF TOOTH

Task 128. CEMENTICLES

Magnification: 80×, 400×

Indicate: 1. Acellular cementum 2. Cellular cementum 3. Enamel 4. Dentine 5. Pulp 6. Cementocytes 7. Intercellular matrix 8. Extrinsic fibers (Sharpey’s fibers) 9. Granular layer of Tomes 10. Dentinal tubules

Indicate: 1. Dentin 2. Cementum 3. Periodontal ligament 4. Alveolar bone 5. Free cementicle 6. Attached cementicle 7. Embedded cementicle 76

Task 129. PRINCIPAL FIBER GROUPS

Task 130. MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE Task 131. NERVE (I) AND BLOOD (II) OF PERIODONTIUM SUPPLY OF THE PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT I

Indicate: 1. Dentogingival fibres 2. Transseptal fibres 3. Alveologingival fibres 4. Alveolar crest fibres 5. Oblique fibres 6. Apical fibres 7. Interradicular fibres

II

Indicate: 1. Gingival nerves 2. Intraalveolar nerves 3. Apical nerves 4. Apical vessels 5. Intraalveolar vessels 6. Gingival vessels

Indicate: 1. Dentine 2. Cementum 3. Periodontal ligament 4. Alveolar bone 5. Fibre groups 6. Blood vessels 7. Epithelial cell rests

Color: blood vessels — red, nerves — yellow 77

Task 132. ALVEOLAR BONE

Indicate: 1. Alveolar bone 2. Basal bone 3. Alveolar crest 4. Inner cortical plate 5. Volkmann’s canal 6. Outer cortical plate 7. Cancellous bone 8. Neurovascular bundle

Task 133. THE EFFECTS OF TOOTH MOVEMENT ON THE PERIODONTIUM

Indicate: 1. Periodontal ligament 2. Pressure side (bone resorption) 3. Tension side (bone deposition)

78

LITERATURE

Topic: DEVELOPMENT OF THE TEETH

1. Oral development and histology / ed. J. K. Avery; assoc. ed. 1. Origin of dental tissues. P. F. Steele. 3rd ed. P. 72–106. 2. Periods of tooth development: bud, cap and bell stages 2. Material of lectures. stages. 3. Dentinogenesis and Amelogenesis. 4. Development of the dental pulp and tooth supporting apparatus. 5. Mechanism of eruption. 6. Development and eruption of the permanent teeth. Correct tasks №№ _______________

THE LESSON IS COMPLETED Teacher _______________________ «____» ______________________

79

Task 134. FORMATION OF DENTAL LAMINA

Task 135. DEVELOPMENT OF DENTAL AND VESTIBULAR LAMINAE

Indicate: 1. Vestibule 2. Alveololingual groove 3. Dental lamina 4. Nasal cavity 5. Tongue 6. Meckel’s cartilage 7. Nasal septum 8. Oral cavity

Indicate: А — 7-weeks germ 1. Oral epithelium 2. Vestibular lamina 3. Dental lamina 4. Mesenchyme 5. Vestibule 6. Tooth bud

80

B — 8-weeks germ

Task 136. TOOTH DEVELOPMENT. EARLY STAGE. ENAMEL ORGAN

Task 137. TOOTH DEVELOPMENT Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Indicate: 1. Outer enamel epithelium 2. Stellate reticulum 3. Stratum intermedium 4. Ameloblasts 5. Enamel 6. Odontoblasts 7. Dentin 8. Predentin 9. Dentinal tubules 10. Tooth pulp 11. Blood vessels

Indicate: 1. Oral epithelium 2. Mesenchyme 3. Blood vessels 4. Dental lamina 5. Outer enamel epithelium 6. Inner enamel epithelium 7. Stellate reticulum 8. Dental papilla 9. Dental follicle 10. Developing alveolar bone 81

Task 138. DIAGRAM OF TOOTH ROOT DEVELOPMENT

Indicate: 1. Outer enamel epithelium 2. Ameloblasts 3. Enamel 4. Dentin 5. Odontoblasts 6. Epithelial root sheath 7. Fibers of periodontal ligament 8. Epithelial cell rests 9. Pulp proliferation zone

Task 139. DIAGRAM OF PERIODONTIUM DEVELOPMENT

Indicate: 1. Cementum 2. Periodontal ligament fibers 3. Epithelial cell rests 4. Epithelial diaphragm 5. Dentine 6. Odontoblasts 82

Task 140. DIAGRAM OF ROOT FORMATION AND TOOTH ERUPTION

Indicate: А — Bell stage: 1. Cervical loop. B — Apposition of dentin and enamel: 2. Epithelial root sheath. C — Root formation: 3. Oral epithelium. D — Clinical eruption: 4. Root dentin. 5. Epithelial diaphragm E — Cementum formation: 6. Gingiva. 7. Root sheath remnants. 8. Cementum. 9. Epithelial cell rests.

Topic: EMBRYOGENESIS OF MAXILLO-FACIAL REGION 1. Formation of the oral fossa (stomodeum). 2. Branchial (pharyngeal) apparatus, its structure and their derivatives. 3. Development of the person and the primary mouth. 4. Development of the upper and lower jaws. 5. Development of heaven, education nasal cavity and the definitive oral cavity. 6. Development of the tongue.

LITERATURE 1. Oral development and histology / ed. J. K. Avery; assoc. ed. P. F. Steele. 3rd ed. P. 21–42. 2. Material of lectures

Correct tasks №№ _______________

THE LESSON IS COMPLETED Teacher _______________________ «____» ______________________

83

Task 141. BRANCHIAL (PHARYNGEAL) APPARATUS AND IT’S DERIVATIVES B — germ of 6 weeks C — germ of 7 weeks А — germ of 5 weeks

1-5 – pharyngeal pouches (PP) 1-4 – pharyngeal arches (PA) 1-4 – pharyngeal clefts (PC) Indicate: 1. Cervical sinus 2. Tongue buds 3. Thyroid diverticulum 4. Esophagus

Designate primordia of organs and their structures: 1. External auditory meatus 2. Middle ear 3. Palatine tonsils 4. Superior parathyroid glands 5. Inferior parathyroid gland 6. Thymus 7. Tongue 8. Ultimobranchialbodies 9. Foramen caecum 10. Thyroid diverticulum 11. Cervical sinus 84

Indicate organs, derivatives of pharyngeal apparatus: 1. External auditory meatus. 2. Tympanic membrane. 3. Tympanic cavity and Eustachian tube. 4. Supratonsillar fossa. 5. Palatine tonsils. 6. Thyroid. 7. Superior parathyroid gland. 8. Inferior parathyroid gland. 9. Ultimobranchial body. 10. Thymus. 11. Tongue. 12. Foramen caecum. 13. Cheek skin. 14. Former location of the cervical sinus.

Task 142. FACE DEVELOPMENT

А — germ of 4 weeks

Indicate: 1. Frontal swelling 2. Oral cavity 3. Maxillary swelling 4. Mandibular arch 5. Hyoid arch

B — germ of 5 weeks

C — germ of 6 weeks

D — germ of 7 weeks

6. Nasal pit 7. Eye 8. Lateral nasal swelling 9. Medial nasal swelling 10. Auricular hillocks

Color: Derivatives of maxillary swellings — red Derivatives of frontonasal swelling — yellow Derivatives of mandibular swellings — blue 85

Task 143. PALATE DEVELOPMENT

Task 144. FORMATION OF NASAL CAVITY AND DEFINITIVE ORAL CAVITY

А — germ of 6 weeks B — germ of 8 weeks C — germ of 9 weeks

А — germ of 6 weeks C — germ of 9 weeks

B — germ of 8 weeks D — germ of 10 weeks

Indicate: 1. Lip. 2. Gingiva. 3. Labiogingival groove. 4. Primary palate. 5. Nasal septum. 6. Lateral palatine process. 7. Secondary palate. 8. Hard palate. 9. Palatine raphe. 10. Soft palate. 11. Uvula. 12. Incisive foramen. 13. Lip frenulum.

Indicate: 1. Nasal septum. 2. Tongue. 3. Lateral palatine processes. 4. Nasal conchae. 5. Nasal cavity. 6. Оlfactory nerves. 7. Palatine raphe. 8. Oral cavity. 9. Maxilla. 10. Mandible. 11. Меckel’s cartilage. 12. Eye 86

LITERATURE

Topic: HISTOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE ORAL GLANDS

1. Kuznetsov, S. L. Histology, Cytology and Embriology (a course of lectures) / S. Kuznetsov, T. Boronikina, N. Gorychkina. Moscow : 1. Composition and functions of saliva. Medical Informational Agency, 2004. P. 159–160. 2. Erlandsen, S. L. Color Atlas of Histology / S. L. Erlandsen, 2. General structural plan of the salivary glands. J. E. Magney. St. Louis : Mosby Year Book, 1992. 196 p. 4. Histology of secretory portions. 3. Singh, I. Textbook of Human Histology (with Colour Atlas and 5. Histology and function of the duct system Practical Guide) / I. Singh. 6th ed. P. 236–242. 4. Ross, M. H. Histology : a text and atlas : with correlated cell and 3. The endocrine function of the salivary glands. molecular biology / M. H. Ross, P. Wojciech. 6th ed. P. 545–568. 4. Structural features of the parotid, submandibular, sublingual 5. Material of lectures.

glands. Comparative characteristics of their secretory porions. 5. Topography and structural organization of minor salivary glands. Correct tasks №№ _______________ 6. Innervation of the salivary glands and nerve regulation of their secretion. 7. Sebaceous glands of the oral cavity.

THE LESSON IS COMPLETED Teacher _______________________

To repeat: 1. The structure of the glandular epithelium. 2. Classification of exocrine glands.

«____» ______________________

87

Task 145. STRUCTURE OF THE SALIVARY GLANDS (SCHEME)

Task 146. ELECTRONOGRAM OF MYOEPITHELIAL CELLS

Indicate: Indicate: 1. Myoepithelial cell 1. Serous acinus. 2. Mucous acinus. 3. Mixed acinus. 4. Myoepithelial cell. 2. Secretory cells 5. Intercalated duct. 6. Striated duct. 7. Serous cell. 8. Mucous cell. 9. Secretory granules. 10. Basement membrane. 11. Intercellular secretory duct. 88

Task 147. EXCRETION OF THE SALIVA

Indicate: 1. Secretory cell 2. Myoepithelial cell 3. Intercalated duct 4. Striated duct

Task 148. PAROTID GLAND

Task 149. SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Indicate: 1. Interlobular connective tissue 2. Interlobular excretory duct 3. Serous secretory part 4. Myoepithelial cells 5. Intercalated duct 6. Striated duct 7. Intralobular connective tissue 8. Blood vessels 9. Fat cells

Indicate: 1. Interlobular connective tissue 2. Interlobular excretory duct 3. Serous secretory part 4. Mucoserous secretory part 5. Serous demilunes 6. Myoepithelial cells 7. Intercalated duct 8. Striated duct 9. Intralobular connective tissue 10. Blood vessel

89

LITERATURE

Topic: ESOPHAGUS. STOMACH 1. General structure of the digestive tube wall. 2. Characteristic microscopic structure of the esophagus. 3. Stomach: sourses of development. The function of the stomach. 4. Stomach: topography and microscopic structure of its membranes. Relief of gastric mucosa. 5. Classification and characteristics of gastric glands, their cellular structure, functions. Regeneration of the gastric epithelium.

1. Kuznetsov, S. L. Histology, Cytology and Embriology (a course of lectures) / S. Kuznetsov, T. Boronikina, N. Gorychkina. Moscow : Medical Informational Agency, 2004. 239 p. 2. Erlandsen, S. L. Color Atlas of Histology / S. L. Erlandsen, J. E. Magney. St. Louis : Mosby Year Book, 1992. 196 p. 3. Material of lectures.

To repeat: 1. Epithelial tissue. Glandular epithelium. 2. Muscle tissue.

THE LESSON IS COMPLETED

Correct tasks №№ _______________

Teacher _______________________ «____» ______________________

90

Task 150. GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT (scheme)

Task 151. CROSS SECTION OF THE ESOPHAGUS Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Indicate: I. Mucosa: 1. Stratified nonkeratinized squamous Indicate: epithelium; 2. Lamina propria; 3. Excretory duct of I.Oral cavity. II. Esophagus. III. Gastric fundus. IV. Gastric pylorus. proper glands; 4. Muscularis mucosa V. Duodenum. VI. Jejunum. VII. Appendix. VIII. Large intestine. 1. Epithelium. 2. Lamina propria. 3. Salivary glands. 4. Esophageal II. Submucosa: 5. Esophageal proper glands III. Muscularis externa: 6. Circular layer; 7. Longitudinal proper glands. 5. Muscularis mucosa. 6. Neural ganglion of layer submucosa. 7. Muscularis externa. 8. Gastric pits. 9. Intestinal villi. IV. Adventitia: 8. Connective tissue; 9. Blood vessels 10. Crypts. 11. Mesothelium. 12. Lymphatic follicle. 91

Task 152. MUCOUS MEMBRANE OF THE STOMACH (DIAGRAM)

Indicate: I. Cardia: 1. Gastric pit. 2. Cardiac glands. 3. Lamina propria. 4. Muscularis mucosa. II. Fundus: 5. Proper (gastric) glands: a) isthmus; b) neck; c) body (base). 6. Muscularis mucosa. III. Body (corpus). IV. Pylorus: 7. Gastric pit. 8. Pyloric glands. 9. Lymphatic follicle. 10. Submucosa

Task 153. PROPER GASTRIC GLAND (DIAGRAM)

Indicate: 1. Gastric pit. 2. Surface mucus cell. 3. Lamina propria. 4. Gastric glands. 5. Mucous neck cell. 6. Parietal cell. 7. Chief cell. 8. Enterondocrine cell. 9. Muscularis mucosae. 10. Submucosa 92

Task 154. FUNDUS OF THE STOMACH Stain: Hematoxylin & Congo red Magnification: 400×

Indicate: I. Mucosa: 1. Gastric pits. 2. Sutface epithelium. 3. Mucous neck cells. 4. Chief cells. 5. Parietal cells. 6. Muscularis mucosa. II. Submucosa: 7. Nerve ganglion. 8. Blood vessels. III. Muscularis: 9. Oblique (a), circular (b) and longitudinal (c) layers. 10. Ganglion of myenteric plexus. IV. Serosa: 11. Connective tissue lamina. 12. Nuclei of mesothelial cells.

Task 155

Organ

Fill in the table (mark in the table with «+» presence of these structures in the wall of the esophagus and stomach) Anatomical parts

Mucosa Epithelium simple

stratified

Presense of glands

Submucosa Muscularis mucosa 1 layer

Presense of glands

3 layers

Esophagus

Upper third

Middle third

Lower third

Stomach

Cardia

Fundus corpus

Pilorus

93

Muscularis externa Sceletal muscle Sceletal Smooth and smooth muscle muscle muscle

Outermost layer Adventitia

Serosa

LITERATURE

Topic: SMALL AND LARGE INTESTINES

1. Kuznetsov, S. L. Histology, Cytology and Embriology (a course of lectures) / S. Kuznetsov, T. Boronikina, N. Gorychkina. Moscow : Medical Informational Agency, 2004. P. 164–168. 2. Erlandsen, S. L. Color Atlas of Histology / S. L. Erlandsen, J. E. Magney. St. Louis: Mosby Year Book, 1992. 196 p. 3. Ross, M. H. Histology : a text and atlas : with correlated cell and molecular biology / M. H. Ross, P. Wojciech. 6th ed. P. 586–627. 4. Singh, I. Textbook of Human Histology (with Colour Atlas and Practical Guide) / I. Singh. 6th ed. P. 251–262. 5. Material of lectures.

1. Morphofunctional characteristic of the small intestine. Sources of its development. 2. Microscopic structure of small intestine villi in different departments. 3. Histophysiology of the «crypt-villus». Regeneration of the small intestine epithelium. 4. Digestion. Endocrine apparatus of the intestine. 5. Functions and morphology of the large intestine wall. 6. Structure and functional features of the appendix. 7. Structural peculiarities of the rectal wall. 8. Nervous and endocrine regulation of digestive tract.

Correct tasks №№_______________

THE LESSON IS COMPLETED Teacher _______________________ «____» ______________________

94

Task 156. SMALL INTESTINE

Task 157. DIAGRAM OF CELL DIFFERENTIATION IN THE CRYPT-VILLUS UNIT OF THE SMALL INTESTINE

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Draw villus and indicate: 1. Simple columnar epithelium 2. Brush border 3. Goblet cells 4. Lamina propria 5. Smooth muscle cell 6. Lymphocyte 7. Blood capillary 8. Lymph capillary

Indicate: I. Villus: II. Crypt: 1. Absorptive cell. 2. Goblet cell. 1. Stem cell. 2. Enteroendocrine cell. 3. Paneth 3. Enteroendocrine cell. 4. Loose cells. 4. Blood vessels. 5. Lymph capillary connective tissue 95

Task 158. DIGESTION IN THE SMALL INTESTINE

Carbohydrate digestion

Protein digestion

96

Fat digestion

Task 159. DUODENUM

Task 160. LARGE INTESTINE

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Indicate: I. Mucosa: 1. Villi. 2. Crypts. 3. Simple columnar epithelium with goblet cells. 4. Lamina propria. 5. Muscularis mucosa II. Submucosa: 6. Terminal parts of duodenal glands (Brunner’s glands) III. Muscularis externa: 7. Circular layer. 8. Longitudinal layer IV. Serosa: 9. Connective tissue lamina. 10. Nuclei of mesothelial cells

Draw mucosa and indicate: 1. Crypts. 2. Brush border cells. 3. Goblet cells. 4. Lamina propria. 5. Muscularis mucosa. 6. Lymphatic follicle. 97

Task 161. CROSS SECTION OF VERMIFORM APPENDIX

Indicate: I. Mucosa: 1. Crypts. 2. Lymph follicles in lamina propria (B-zone). 3. Interfollicular areas (T-zone) II. Submucosa III. Muscularis externa IV. Serosa

LITERATURE

Topic: LIVER. PANCREAS 1. Liver: sources of development, functions. 2. Structure of classical hepatic lobe. 3. Blood supply to the liver. The concept of the portal lobe hepatic acinus. 4. The liver regeneration. Age peculiarities. 5. Bile ducts: structure of the bile ducts and gallbladder. 6. Pancreas: functions of exocrine and endocrine portions. 7. Sources of development of the pancreas. 8. Structure of the exocrine portion of the pancreas. 9. Pancreatic islets. Structure of the endocrine portion of the pancreas.

1. Kuznetsov, S. L. Histology, Cytology and Embriology (a course of lectures) / S. Kuznetsov, T. Boronikina, N. Gorychkina. Moscow : Medical Informational Agency, 2004. P. 168–171. 2. Erlandsen, S. L. Color Atlas of Histology / S. L. Erlandsen, J. E. Magney. St. Louis : Mosby Year Book, 1992. 196 p. 3. Ross, M. H. Histology : a text and atlas : with correlated cell and molecular biology / M. H. Ross, P. Wojciech. 6th ed. P. 628–663. 4. Singh, I. Textbook of Human Histology (with Colour Atlas and Practical Guide) / I. Singh. 6th ed. P. 262–273. 5. Material of lectures

Correct tasks №№ _______________

THE LESSON IS COMPLETED Teacher _______________________ «____» ______________________

98

Task 162. CLASSICAL HEPATIC LOBULE, PORTAL LOBULE, HEPATIC ACINUS

Task 163. BLOOD SUPPLY TO THE LIVER Indicate: 1. Hepatic vein 2. Hepatic artery 3. Inferior vena cava 4. Portal vein 5. Bile duct Indicate: 1. Interlobular artery 2. Interlobular vein 3. Interlobular bile duct 4. Arteriole 5. Venule 6. Sinusoids 7. Endothelium 8. Macrophage (Kupffer cell) 9. Bile capillary 10. Central vein

Indicate and colour: 1. Classical hepatic lobule (purple) 2. Acinus (yellow) 3. Portal lobule (red) 4. Portal canal 5. Central vein

Colour: arterial flow — in red, venous flow — in blue, capillaries purple, bile ducts — in green.

99

Task 164. ULTRAMICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE OF THE LIVER

Task 165. FUNCTIONS OF THE LIVER Complete the table: Carbohydrate Metabolism

Fat Metabolism

Protein Metabolism

Exocrine function

Storage of vitamins Indicate: 1. Endothelial cells. 2. Kuppfer cell. 3. Bile canaliculus. 4. Rouph endoplasmic reticulum. 5. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum. 6. Lysosoms. 7. Granules of glycogen. 8. Nucleus of hepatocyte. 9. Golgy apparatus. 10. Space of Disse

Protective function

100

Task 166. PIG LIVER

Task 167. HUMAN LIVER

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Indicate: 1. Capsule 2. Interlobular connective tissue 3. Interlobular vein 4. Interlobular artery 5. Interlobular bile duct 6. Hepatic lobule 7. Central vein 8. Sinusoid capillaries

Indicate: 1. Interlobular vein 2. Interlobular artery 3. Interlobular bile duct 4. Central vein 5. Intralobular sinusoids 6. Cords (plates) of hepatocytes 7. Endothelial cells 101

Task 168. DIAGRAM OF GALLBLADDER WALL

Indicate: I. Mucosa: 1. Simple columnar epithelium 2. Lamina propria II. Submucosa III. Muscularis externa IV. Serosa

Task 169. DIAGRAM OF PANCREAS

Indicate: 1. Intralobular duct 2. Intercalated duct 3. Acini 4. Pancreatic islet 5. Blood capillaries in the islet 6. Artery

Task 170. DIAGRAM OF PANCREATIC ACINUS

Indicate: 1. Intercalated duct 2. Centroacinar cells 3. Acinar cell: a. homogenous (basophilic) area b. zymogenic (oxyphilic) area c. Golgy apparatus; d. endoplasmic reticulum e. mitochondria 102

Task 171. PANCREAS Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Indicate: 1. Interlobular connective tissue 2. Interlobular excretory duct 3. Interlobular vein. 4. Interlobular artery. 5. Acinus: a) homogenous (basophilic) area of acinous cells; b) zymogenic (oxyphilic) area. 6. Intercalated duct 7. Pancreatic islet 8. Blood capillaries in the islet

LITERATURE

Topic: INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM (SKIN) 1. Morphofunctional characteristics of the skin. The sources of its development. 2. The cellular structure and histophysiology of the epidermis. Process of keratinization and the regeneration of the epidermis. 3. Histophysiology of the connective tissue basis of the skin (dermis). Features tissue organization papillary and reticular layer of derma. 4. Blood supply and innervation of the skin. Features receptor apparatus. 5. Histophysiology and topography of the sweat and sebaceous glands, their development in human ontogenesis. 6. Development of the structure and types of hair. The growth and change of hair. 7. Age- and sex-related peculiarities of the skin.

1. Kuznetsov, S. L. Histology, Cytology and Embriology (a course of lectures) / S. Kuznetsov, T. Boronikina, N. Gorychkina. Moscow : Medical Informational Agency, 2004. 239 p. 2. Erlandsen, S. L. Color Atlas of Histology / S. L. Erlandsen, J. E. Magney. St. Louis : Mosby Year Book, 1992. 196 p. 3. Material of lectures

Correct tasks №№ _______________

THE LESSON IS COMPLETED Teacher _______________________ «____» ______________________

103

Task 172. CELLS OF EPIDERMIS

Task 173. SKIN OF THE FINGER Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Indicate: 1. Keratinocytes 2. Melanocyte: a) melanosome 3. Langerhans cell 4. Merkel cell 5. Nerve terminal

Indicate: I. EPIDERMIS: 1. Stratum basale. 2. Stratum spinosum. 3. Stratum granulosum. 4. Stratum lucidum. 5. Stratum corneum II. DERMIS: 6. Papillary layer. 7. Reticular layer. 8. Sweat gland. 9. Meissner’s corpuscle. 10. Blood vessels III. HYPODERMIS 104

Task 174. DISTRIBUTION OF RECEPTORS IN THICK SKIN

Indicate: 1. Free nerve terminals 2. Merkel cells 3. Meissner’s corpuscle 4. Ruffini endings 5. Pacinian corpuscle

Task 175. SKIN WITH HAIR Stain: hematoxylin-eosin. Magnification: 80×, 400×

Task 176. STRUCTURE OF THE HAIR (cross section)

Task 177. SKIN GLANDS

Gland

Indicate: 1 — epidermis; 2 — dermis; 3 — external and (4) internal root sheath; 5 — connective tissue root sheath; 6 — hair bulb; 7 — papilla; 8 — blood vessel; 9 — fat tissue; 10 — arrector pili muscle; 11 — sebaceous gland; 12 — hair cuticle; 13 — hair cortex; 14 — hair medulla

Indicate: I. Hair shuft 1 cuticle 2 cortex 3 medulla II. Epithelial root sheath 4 internal root sheath 5 external root sheath III. Connective tissue root sheath IV. Follicle wall 105

Structure

Type of secretion

LITERATURE

Topic: RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 1. Morphofunctional characteristics of the respiratory system. Functions of conducting and respiratory portions. 2. Sources of development of the respiratory system. 3. Microscopic structure and functions of the upper respiratory tract (nasal cavity, throat). 4. Sources of development, the structure and functions of the trachea. 5. Classification and histological structure of the bronchi. 6. Structure of the respiratory acini. Cellular structure of the alveolar lining. 7. Blood-air barrier. Role of the surfactant. 8. Blood circulation, lymphatic drainage and innervation of the lungs.

1. Kuznetsov, S. L. Histology, Cytology and Embriology (a course of lectures) / S. Kuznetsov, T. Boronikina, N. Gorychkina. Moscow : Medical Informational Agency, 2004. P. 172–178. 2. Erlandsen, S. L. Color Atlas of Histology / S. L. Erlandsen, J. E. Magney. St. Louis : Mosby Year Book, 1992. 196 p. 3. Ross, M. H. Histology : a text and atlas : with correlated cell and molecular biology / M. H. Ross, P. Wojciech. 6th ed. P. 664–698. 4. Singh, I. Textbook of Human Histology (with Colour Atlas and Practical Guide) / I. Singh. 6th ed. P. 217–226. 5. Material of lecture.

Correct tasks №№ _______________

THE LESSON IS COMPLETED Teacher _______________________ «____» ______________________

106

Task 178. NASAL MUCOSA (respiratory area)

Task 179. RESPIRATORY (A) AND OLFACTORY (B) NASAL MUCOSA A

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400× Indicate: I. True vocal cord 1. Stratified squamuos epithelium 2. Lamina propria 3. Elastic fibers 4. Sceletal muscle

B

Indicate: 1. Pseudostratified ciliated epithelium; 2. Goblet cells; 3. Excretory ducts of seromucous glands; 4. Terminal portions of the glands; 5. Lamina propria; 6. Artery; 7. Vein; 8. Venous sinus

Task 180. LARYNX

Indicate: 1. Ciliated epithelial cell; 2. Goblet cell; 3. Basal cell; 4. Blood capillary; 5. Mucous secretoty portion of gland; 6. Serous secretory portion of gland; 7. Olfactory sensory neuron; 8. Supporting cell 107

II. False vocal cord 5. Simple pseudostratified epithelium 6. Lamina propria 7. Smooth muscle cells 8. Seromucous glands 9. Ventricle 10. Thyroid cartilage 11. Lymphatic follicle

Task 181. STRUCTURE OF CONDUCTING AND RESPIRATORY PORTION OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Indicate: A. Trachea. B. Main bronchus (primary). C. Lobar bronchus (secondary). D. Segmental bronchus (tertiary). E. Bronchiole. F. Terminal bronchiole. G. Respiratory portion. H. Respiratory bronchiole. I. Alveolar duct. J. Alveolar sacs. 1. Simple pseudostratified epithelium 2. Lamina propria 3. Muscularis mucosa 4. Seromucous glands in submucosa 5. Cartilage 6. Adventitia 7. Interalveolar septum 8. Macrophage 9. Alveoli 10. Type I pneumocyte 11. Type II pneumocyte 12. Erythrocyte 13. Blood-Air barrier a. Endothelial cell cytoplasm b. Basement membrane of endothelial cell c. Basement membrane of pneumocyte d. Type I pneumocyte cytoplasm e. Surfactant 14. Fibroblast 15. Collagen and elastic fibers 108

Task 182. TRACHEA

Task 183. LUNG

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Indicate:

Indicate: I. MUCOSA 1. Simple pseudostratified epithelium. 2. Ciliated cells. 3. Goblet cells. 4. Lamina propria II. SUBMUCOSA 5. Seromucous tracheal glands. III. CARTILAGE 6. Hyaline cartilage. 7. Perichondrium IV. ADVENTITIA

A. Segmental bronchus (tertiary) B. Bronchiole C. Terminal bronchiole

109

1. Simple pseudostratified epithelium 2. Lamina propria 3. Muscularis mucosa 4. Submucosa 5. Seromucous glands of segmental bronchus 6. Plates of hyaline cartilage 7. Adventitia 8. Alveolar lumen 9. Inter-alveolar septum 10. Blood vessels

LITERATURE

Topic: EXCRETORY SYSTEM 1. Sources of embryonic development of the kidneys. 2. The structure of the kidney: cortex and medulla. Nephrons and urinary tract. 3. Histophysiology of the glomerulus, filtrating barrier. 4. Histophysiology of different portions of the nephron (proximal part, thin tubule, distal part and collecting tubules. 5. Mechanism of urine formation. 6. Renal endocrine complex end its physiology. 7. Blood supply of the kidney. Features of circulation in juxtamedullary nephrons. 8. Urinary tract. Development and structure.

To repeat: 1. Classification and histophysiology of epithelial tissue. 2. The structure and function of muscle tissue.

1. Kuznetsov, S. L. Histology, Cytology and Embriology (a course of lectures) / S. Kuznetsov, T. Boronikina, N. Gorychkina. Moscow : Medical Informational Agency, 2004. P. 188–194. 2. Erlandsen, S. L. Color Atlas of Histology / S. L. Erlandsen, J. E. Magney. St. Louis : Mosby Year Book, 1992. 196 p. 3. Ross, M. H. Histology : a text and atlas : with correlated cell and molecular biology / M. H. Ross, P. Wojciech. 6th ed. P. 698–739. 4. Singh, I. Textbook of Human Histology (with Colour Atlas and Practical Guide) / I. Singh. 6th ed. P. 274–289. 5. Material of lectures

Correct tasks №№ _______________

THE LESSON IS COMPLETED Teacher _______________________ «____» ______________________

110

Task 184. BLOOD SUPPLY OF NEPHRONS

Task 185. KIDNEY Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Indicate: 1. Renal corpuscle: a) capillary lumen; b) podocyte nuclei; c) endothelial cell nuclei; d) bowman’s space; e) bowman’s capsule, parietal lamina Indicate: 2. Proximal tubule 1. Cortical nephron. 2. Juxtamedullary nephron. 3. Cortex. 4. Medulla. 5. Interlobar artery. 6. Interlobar vein. 7. Arcuate artery. 3. Intermediate tubule (thin part of Henle’s loop) 4. Distal tubule 8. Arcuate vein. 9. Interlobular artery. 10. Interlobular vein. 5. Macula densa 11. Afferent glomerular arteriole. 12. Glomerulus. 13. Efferent 6. Collecting tubule glomerular arteriole. 14. Peritubular capillaries. 15. Vasa recta 7. Blood vessel Color: arteries and arterioles — red; veins and venules — blue. 111

Task 186. URINE FORMATION (DIAGRAM)

Indicate: 1. Renal corpuscle. 2. Proximal tubule. 3. Intermediate tubule (thin part of Henle’s loop). 4. Distal tubule. 5. Collecting tubule. 6. Blood vessel. 7. Interstitial connective tissue

Task 187. JUXTAGLOMERULAR APPARATUS

Indicate: 1. Capillaries. 2. Afferent glomerular arteriole. 3. Efferent glomerular arteriole. 4. Juxtaglomerular cells. 5. Extraglomerular mesangial cells (Lacis cells, Goormaghtigh cells). 6. Distal tubule. 7. Macula densa. 8. Filtration barrier: a) podocyte; b) endothelial cell; c) basement membrane. 9. Mesangial cells. 10. Bowman’s capsule, parietal lamina. 11. Connective tissue 112

Task 188. URETER

Task 189. URINARY BLADDER

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Indicate: 1. Lumen 2. Urothelium 3. Lamina propria 4. Internal longitudinal muscle layer 5. Circular muscle layer 6. Adventitia 7. Tunica adventitia

Indicate: 1. Mucosa: a) transitional epithelium; b) lamina propria 2. Submucosa 3. Muscularis externa 4. Serosa: a) connective tissue; b) mesothelium 113

LITERATURE

Topic: MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 1. Development of the male reproductive system. 2. Structure of the testis. 3. Generative and endocrine functions of the testis. Age-related changes. 4. Spermatogenesis, its stage. 5. The structure of the epididymis and other seminal ducts. 6. Prostate, seminal vesicles, bulbourethral glands. Structure and function.

1. Kuznetsov, S. L. Histology, Cytology and Embriology (a course of lectures) / S. Kuznetsov, T. Boronikina, N. Gorychkina. Moscow : Medical Informational Agency, 2004. P. 195–203. 2. Erlandsen, S. L. Color Atlas of Histology / S. L. Erlandsen, J. E. Magney. St. Louis : Mosby Year Book, 1992. 196 p. 3. Ross, M. H. Histology : a text and atlas : with correlated cell and molecular biology / M. H. Ross, P. Wojciech. 6th ed. P. 784–829. 4. Singh, I. Textbook of Human Histology (with Colour Atlas and Practical Guide) / I. Singh. 6th ed. P. 290–302. 5. Material of lectures.

Correct tasks №№ _______________

THE LESSON IS COMPLETED Teacher _______________________ «____» ______________________

114

Task 190. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

Indicate: 1. Scrotum. 2. Testis. 3. Epididymis. 4. Ductus deferens. 5. Prostate . 6. Urinary bladder. 7. Seminal vesicle. 8. Ejaculatory duct. 9. Bulbourethral gland. 10. Urethra. 11. Penis. 12. Glans penis. 13. Fossa navicularis

Task 191. DEVELOPMENT OF THE MAIL REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

Indicate: A — Diagrammatic representation of the urogenital organs in the “indifferent” stage; B — Diagram of the development of the male genital organs 1. Genital gland. 2. Mesonephros. 3. Mesonephric duct. 4. Mullerian duct. 5. Kidney. 6. Urinary bladder. 7. Rectum. 8. Genital tubercle. 9. Genital ridge. 10. Genital swelling. 11. Urogenital sinus. 12. Opening of cloaca. 13. Prostate gland. 14. Urethra 115

Task 192. TESTIS

Task 193. STAGES OF SPERMATOGENESIS

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Indicate: 1. Tunica serosa. 2. Tunica albuginea. 3. Basement membrane. 4. Interstitial connective tissue. 5. Leydig cells. 6. Blood vessels. 7. Spermatogonia. 8. Primary and secondary spermatocyte. 9. Spermatids. 10. Spermatozoa. 11. Sertoli cells

Indicate: 1. Sertoli cell. 2. Spermatogonia. 3. Primary spermatocytes. 4. Secondary spermatocytes. 5. Spermatids. 6. Spermatozoa. 7. Basal zone. 8. Adluminal zone 116

Task 194. SPERMATOGENESIS

Task 195. HORMONAL CONTROL OF SPERMATOGENESIS

spermatozoa spermatids spermatocytes

ABP + Testosterone

spermatogonia Inhibin

Testosterone

Blood vessel

Indicate: 1. Spermatogonia 2. Primary spermatocytes 3. Secondary spermatocytes 4. Spermatids 5. Residual bodies

I. II. III. IV.

Indicate: 1. Sertoli cell 2. Leydig cell 3. LH (luteinizing hormone) 4. FSN (Follicle-stimulating hormone)

Mitosis First meiotic division Second meiotic division Spermiogenesis 117

Task 196

Task 197. PROSTATE

Fill in the table

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Sustentocytes (Sertoli cells)

Leydig cells

Seminal vesicles

Prostate

Indicate: 1. Secretory portions 2. Excretory ducts 3. Bands of smooth muscle cells 4. Connective tissue septs 5. Blood vessels 6. Prostatic concretions

Bulbourethral glands

118

LITERATURE

Topic: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 1. Structure of the ovary, embryonic sources of its development, age-related changes. 2. Oogenes, its stages. Difference betveen oogenesis and spermatogenesis. 3. Ovarian follicles and their varieties. 4. Mature follicle. Ovulation. 5. Yellow body, its development, involution, functional value. 6. Follicular atresia. Structure of th atletic body. 7. Endocrine function of the ovaries. 8. Development and structure of the fallopian tubes. 9. Uterus, its structure, cyclical changes. 10. Ovarian and endometrial cycles. 11. Vagina, structure, cyclic changes.

1. Kuznetsov, S. L. Histology, Cytology and Embriology (a course of lectures) / S. Kuznetsov, T. Boronikina, N. Gorychkina. Moscow : Medical Informational Agency, 2004. P. 204–222. 2. Erlandsen, S. L. Color Atlas of Histology / S. L. Erlandsen, J. E. Magney. St. Louis : Mosby Year Book, 1992. 196 p. 3. Ross, M. H. Histology : a text and atlas : with correlated cell and molecular biology / M. H. Ross, P. Wojciech. 6th ed. P. 830–895. 4. Singh, I. Textbook of Human Histology (with Colour Atlas and Practical Guide) / I. Singh. 6th ed. P. 304–314. 5. Material of lectures.

Correct tasks №№ _______________

THE LESSON IS COMPLETED Teacher _______________________ «____» ______________________

119

Task 198. OVARY Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

Task 199. UTERINE (FALLOPIAN) TUBE Indicate: I. Germinal epithelium II. Tunica albuginea III. Primordial follicle: 1. primary oocyte 2. flattened follicular epithelial cells IV. Primary follicle: 3. primary oocyte 4. zona pellucida 5. granulosa cell layer V. Secondary follicle: 6. follicular antrum 7. theca folliculi VI. Tertiary (Graafian) follicle 8. secondary oocyte 9. follicular antrum 10. corona radiata 11. zona pellucida 12. cumulus oophorus 13. theca folliculi VII. Corpus albicans VIII. Corpus luteum 14. lutein cells 15. blood capillaries

120

Indicate: I. Mucosa a) pseudostratified columnar epithelium b) lamina propria II. Muscularis externa c) circular layer d) longitudinal layer III. Serosa

Task 200. UTERUS OF A CAT

Task 201. HORMONAL REGULATION OF OVARIAN AND UTERINE CYCLES

Stain: H&E Magnification: 80×, 400×

I. Endometrium: 1 – simple columnar epithelium 2 – lamina propria 3 – uterine glands II. Myometrium: 4 – submucous layer 5 – vascular layer 6 – subserous layer 7 – blood vessels III. Perimetrium

Indicate: 1. Ovarian cycle. 2. Uterine (endometrial) cycle. 3. Primordial follicles. 4. Primary follicles. 5. Secondary follicle. 6. Mature (graafian) follicle. 7. Corpus luteum. 8. Corpus albicans. 9. Estrogens. 10. Progesterone and estrogens. 11. Stratum functionalis. 12. Stratum basalis 121

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS IN HISTOLOGY, EMBRYOLOGY, CYTOLOGY FOR 2nd YEAR MEDICAL FACULTY OF FOREIGN STUDENTS (specialty “Dentistry”) 1. The cell as a structural and functional unit of tissue. The overall plan of cell structure. Biological cell membranes, their structure, chemical composition and basic functions. Cytolemma. 2. Cytoplasm: general morphofunctional characteristics. Сlassification of organelles, their structure and function. 3. The interaction of cell structures in the process of metabolism. The reactive properties of the cells. 4. The cell nucleus, its importance in the life of cells, the main components of nucleus and their structural and functional characteristics. 5. Sexual reproductive cells: morpho-functional characteristics. Role of nucleus and cytoplasm in transmission and implementation of genetic information. 6. Stages of embryogenesis: fertilization, cleavage, their biological nature. The structure of the human blastula. 7. The meaning and characteristics of the process of gastrulation. Gastrulation in humans. 8. Extraembryonic (provisory) organs, their structure and function. 9. Communication maternal body to the fetus. Implantation. Sources of formation, types and functions of human placenta. 10. Tissue as one of the levels of organization of living things. Definition. Classification of tissues. The concept of the cell populations. Stem cells and their properties. Intercellular matrix, non-cellular structures, syncytium. 11. Epithelial tissue: classification, general morphofunctional characteristics. Morpho-functional characteristics of simple epithelia. 12. Stratified epithelia: classification, morfofunctional characteristics. The physiological and reparative regeneration of the epithelial tissues. 13. Glandular epithelium. Classification of exocrine glands. Secretory cycle. Types of secretion. 14. Blood as a tissue. Plasma and formed elements. Blood count. The value of blood research in the diagnosis of diseases. 15. Hematopoiesis. The concept of stem cells and hemistem cells, features of embryonic and postembryonic hematopoiesis. 16. Red blood cells: their quantity, shape, size, structure, chemical composition, functions and lifespan. Erythropoiesis. 17. White blood cells: classification, WBC. Monocytes: structure, quantity, functions and life expectancy. Monocytopoiesis. 18. Granular leukocytes (granulocytes): varieties, quantity, size, structure, functions, lifespan. Granulocytopoiesis. 19. Lymphocytes: their structural and functional varieties, quantity, size, structure, function, and life expectancy. Antigendependent and antigenindependent lymphopoiesis. 20. Platelets (thrombocytes): structure, classification, quantity, functions and lifespan. Trombocytopoiesis. 21. Classification, sources of origin, general morphofunctional characteristics of connective tissues. Cells and intercellular matter. Age-related changes and regeneration. 22. Loose irregular connective tissue: morphofunctional characteristics, cells and intercellular matter. Relationships between blood cells and cells of loose connective tissue. 23. Dense fibrous connective tissue: classification, morphological and functional characteristics. The structure of the tendon. 24. Connective tissue with special properties: classification, morphological and functional characteristics. 25. Cartilaginous tissues: classification, general morphofunctional characteristics, development, regeneration. 122

26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53.

Bone tissues: classification general morphofunctional characteristics. Bone as an organ. Development of bone tissues. Intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Bone tissue remodelling and regenetation. Muscle tissues: classification, general morphofunctional characteristics. Smooth muscle tissue: a structural unit, contractile apparatus, regeneration. Striated skeletal muscle tissue. Microscopic and ultramicroscopic structure of muscle fibers. Muscle fiber contraction. Regeneration. Muscle as an organ. Striated cardiac muscle tissue. Sources of development. Types of cardiomyocytes. Nervous tissue: general morphofunctional characteristics, sources of development. Neurons: classification, structure, regeneration. Nerve fibers: morphofunctional characteristics, regeneration. Nerve endings: morphological and functional classification, the principles of structure and function. Interneuron synapses: classification, structure, mechanism of transmission of nerve impulse. Neuroglia: classification, location and functional significance of various types of glial cells. Organ as the level of organization of multicellular organisms. Types of organs. The concept of the structural and functional units of the body. Morphofunctional characteristics of blood vessels: classification, sources of development, the general plan of the structure of their wall. Artery: classification, microscopic structure, relationships between structure of arterial wall and hemodynamic conditions. Microvasculature: morphofunctional characteristics. Capillaries: classification, microscopic structure, regeneration. Arteriolovenular anastomoses. Veins: classification, microscopic structure, relationships between structure of their wall and hemodynamic conditions. The lymph vascular system: sources of development, structure and functions of lymph capillaries. Heart: sources of development, general morphofunctional characteristic. Conduction system of the heart: knots and bundles, their topography, cellular composition and functional significance. Red bone marrow: structure, function, topography. Characteristics of postembryonic hematopoiesis in bone marrow. Interaction between stromal and hematopoietic cells. Thymus: topography, sources of development, structure, functions. Interaction between epithelial, stromal and hematopoietic cells. Endocrine function of the thymus. Thymic involution. Spleen: sources of development, microscopic structure and functions. Blood supply, embryonic and postembryonic hematopoiesis. Lymph nodes: sources of development, microscopic structure and functions. Lymphoepithelial ring of pharynx. Tonsils: functions, sources of development, microscopic structure. Structure of lingual tonsil. Lymphoid nodules of mucous membranes. Cellular and humoral defense mechanisms of the reactions in the oral cavity. Histophysiology of tonsils. Nervous system: general morphofunctional characteristics, classification. The peripheral nervous system. Nerve, its structure, regeneration. Spinal ganglia. Spinal cord: morphofunctional characteristic, microscopic structure of gray and white matter. Brain: cytoarchitectonics and mieloarchitectonics of the cerebral cortex. The concept of the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers. Meninges. Cerebellum: structure and functional characteristic. Neuronal elements of cerebellar cortex. Interneuronal communications. 123

54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80.

Autonomic nervous system: structure and functions. Structural components of the autonomic reflex arcs. Microscopic structure of the autonomic ganglia. Senses: general morphofunctional characteristic. The inner ear. Microscopic structure of organ of hearing and balance. Organ of vision. Microscopic structure of fibrous, vascular tunics and retina. Morphofunctional characteristics of the endocrine system. Classification of the endocrine organs. Central and peripheral endocrine glands. Diffuse endocrine system: localization, functions, sources of development. Hypothalamo-hypophyseal system. Hypothalamus, morphofunctional characteristics. Neurosecretory neurons. Pituitary gland: general morphofunctional characteristic, microscopic structure of adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis. Thyroid and parathyroid glands: functional significance, sources of development, the microscopic structure. Adrenal glands: general morphofunctional characteristics. Histophysiology of adrenal cortex and medulla Embryogenesis of the craniofacial region. Pharyngeal apparatus and its derivatives. Oral and nasal cavities formation, the formation of the palate and nasal septum. Developmental anomalies of the face : macrostomia, microstomia, cleft lip & palate. Congenital neck cysts. Cheek: structure of buccal mucosa, buccal glands. Structural organization of the oral mucosa and its morphofunctional features. Minor salivary glands. Age-related features of structure. Hard and soft palate: sources of development, functions, structure of the mucosa. Tongue: functions, sources of development. Topographic features of the structure. Taste bud structure. Aging of tongue mucosa. Gingiva: free and attached parts and their histology, gingival sulcus and gingival crevicular fluid. Age-related changes of dento-gingival junction. General morphofunctional characteristic of teeth. Tooth parts: root, neck, crown (clinical, anatomical). Pulp chamber, root canal. Hard and soft tissues of the tooth. Embryonic development of the teeth. Tooth germ formation and differentiation. Sources of development of dental tissues. Morphogenesis of tooth crown. Root development of single-rooted and multi-rooted teeth. Congenital anomalies. Tooth tissues. Enamel: microscopic and ultramicroscopic structure, physicochemical properties, metabolism. Enamel. Structure of enamel of primary and permanent teeth. Dentino-enamel junction. Surface enamel coatings: structure, function. Aging of enamel. Amelogenesis. Stages of enamel mineralization. Disturbances of amelogenesis: enamel hypoplasia, amelogenesis imperfecta, dental fluorosis. Dentin: microscopic and ultramicroscopic characteristics. Primary and secondary dentin, denticles. Dentin: histogenesis, structure, topographic features (mantle, circumpulpal, predentin). Age-related changes of dentin. Dental pulp: function, development and microscopic structure. Tertiary (reparative) dentin. Dead tracts of dentin. Transparent (sclerotic) dentin. Age-related changes of dentin and pulp. Periodontium. General structural and functional characteristics of tooth supporting apparatus: cementum, periodontal ligament, gingiva and alveolar bone. Cementum, its origin and structure. Types of cementum and their topography in single- and multi-rooted teeth. Participation of cementum in the reparative processes. 124

81. Periodontal ligament: classification of collagen fiber bundles, cells and extracellular matrix. Sensory function of periodontium. Epithelial rests in periodontal ligament. 82. Tooth alveolus: interradicular and interdental septum. Histological structure of the alveolar bone. Physiological and reparative remodeling of alveolus wall. 83. Development and structure of the tooth root tissues. 84. Formation and eruption of deciduous teeth. Tooth eruption theories. 85. Development of permanent teeth. The mechanism of eruption of permanent teeth. Age-related changes of the teeth. 86. Principles of the structural organization of the major salivary glands. The composition and functions of saliva. Structure of secretory portions and excretory ducts. Endocrine function of the salivary glands. Age-related changes. 87. Parotid gland: functions, sources of development, the microscopic structure of secretory portions and excretory ducts. 88. Submandibular and sublingual salivary glands: functions, sources of development, the microscopic structure of the secretory portions and excretory ducts. 89. Tooth development: the formation and differentiation of tooth germ. Developmental disturbances (anodontia, extra teeth, macrodontia and microdontia). 90. The overall plan of the structure of the digestive tube wall. Esophagus: functions, microscopic structure of the wall. 91. Stomach: functions and microscopic structure of the wall. Histophysiology of the gastric glands. 92. Small intestine: microscopic structure of the wall. Histophysiology of crypt-villus system. 93. Large intestine: functions and microscopic structure of the wall. Appendix. 94. Liver: function, structure, blood supply. The structure of hepatic lobules. The possibility of liver regeneration. Microscopic structure of the gallbladder wall. 95. Pancreas: microscopic structure, functional value of the exocrine and endocrine portions. 96. Respiratory system: morphofunctional characteristics, respiratory and non-respiratory functions. Histophysiology of respiratory passages. Microscopic structure of the olfactory organ. 97. Respiratory passages. Microscopic structure of the larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles. 98. Lungs: histophysiology of respiratory portion. Air-blood barrier. Role of surfactant. 99. Skin: sources of development, the microscopic structure. Process of keratinization and physiological regeneration of the epidermis. Skin derivatives. Skin glands, their morphofunctional characteristics. Skin receptors. 100. Urinary system: morphofunctional characteristics. Kidney: sources of development, structure (cortex and medulla). Renal corpuscle. Filtration barrier. The nephron as the structural and functional unit of the kidney. Types of nephron. Blood supply. 101. Histophysiology of the nephron. Endocrine functions of kidney. Ureter, urinary bladder, urethra. 102. Male reproductive system. Morphofunctional characteristics of testis. Spermatogenesis. The blood-testis barrier. Excretory ducts and accessory sex glands of male reproductive system. 103. Female reproductive system. Microscopic structure of the ovary and uterus. Hormonal regulation of cyclical changes in the ovary and uterus.

125

LIST OF THE HISTOLOGICAL SLIDES 1. Cross section of the tubular bone (fibula). 2. Muscular artery. 3. Vein (femoral cat vein). 4. Microcirculatory bed (arterioles, venules and capillaries of pia mater). 5. Lymph node. 6. Spleen. 7. Thymus. 8. Palatine tonsil. 9. Pituitary gland. 10. Thyroid. 11. Adrenal gland. 12. Cerebellum. 13. Cerebral cortex. 14. Spinal ganglion 15. Eyeball (posterior wall). 16. Cornea. 17. The organ of hearing. Cross section of the cochlea. 18. Lip. 19. Gingiva. 20. Soft palate.

126

21. Foliate tongue papillae. 22. Tooth development (early stage). 23. Tooth development (late stage). 24. Parotid gland. 25. Submandibular salivary gland. 26. Transverse section of the esophagus. 27. Gastric fundus. 28. Jejunum. 29. Large intestine. 30. Human liver. 31. Pancreas. 32. Cross section of the trachea. 33. Lung. 34. Skin of finger. 35. Skin with hair. 36. Kidney. 37. Urinary bladder. 38. Testis. 39. Ovary. 40. Uterus.

CONTENT Objeсts and methods of modern histology ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 3 Basics of cytology. Cell morphology ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5 Bases of human embryology ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9 Epithelial tissues. Morphology of glandular epithelium....................................................................................................................................................................... 16 General morphology of blood and lymph. Structure and functions of blood cells. Embryonic and postembryonic haematopoiesis .................................................. 21 Structure of connective tissues ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 27 Structure of cartilage and bone tissues ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 30 Structure of muscle tissues ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 34 Structure of nervous tissue ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 39 Cardiovascular system .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 44 Hemopoietic and immunogenetic organs ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 48 Endocrine system.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 52 Nervous system .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 56 Sensory organs...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 61 Digestive system. Organs of the oral cavity: microscopic structure..................................................................................................................................................... 65 Structure of the tooth. Microscopic structure of enamel, dentin, pulp ................................................................................................................................................. 70 Tooth supporting apparatus (periodontum) .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 75 Development of the teeth...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 79 Embryogenesis of maxillo-facial region............................................................................................................................................................................................... 83 Histological structure of the oral glands .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 87 Esophagus. Stomach ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 90 Small and large intestines ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 94 Liver. Pancreas ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 98 Integumentary system (skin) ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 103 Respiratory system ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 106 Urinary system...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 110 Male reproductive system..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 114 Female reproductive system ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 119 Examination questions.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 122 List of the histological slides ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 125 127

Учебное издание Большова Евгения Ивановна Артишевский Александр Александрович Жарикова Нина Александровна и др.

ГИСТОЛОГИЯ HISTOLOGY Лабораторный практикум для студентов-стоматологов 5-е издание, исправленное Ответственный за выпуск С. Л. Кабак Переводчики Ю. М. Мельниченко, В. В. Заточная Компьютерная верстка Н. М. Федорцовой Подписано в печать 12.07.18. Формат 6084/8. Бумага офсетная. Ризография. Гарнитура «Times». Усл. печ. л. 14,88. Уч.-изд. л. 5,7. Тираж 111 экз. Заказ 519. Издатель и полиграфическое исполнение: учреждение образования «Белорусский государственный медицинский университет». Свидетельство о государственной регистрации издателя, изготовителя, распространителя печатных изданий № 1/187 от 18.02.2014. Ул. Ленинградская, 6, 220006, Минск. 128