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Handbook of Research on Contemporary Approaches to Orientalism in Media and Beyond Işıl Tombul Independent Researcher, Turkey

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Gülşah Sarı Bolu Abant İzzet Baysal University, Turkey

A volume in the Advances in Media, Entertainment, and the Arts (AMEA) Book Series

Published in the United States of America by IGI Global Information Science Reference (an imprint of IGI Global) 701 E. Chocolate Avenue Hershey PA, USA 17033 Tel: 717-533-8845 Fax: 717-533-8661 E-mail: [email protected] Web site: http://www.igi-global.com Copyright © 2021 by IGI Global. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or distributed in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without written permission from the publisher. Product or company names used in this set are for identification purposes only. Inclusion of the names of the products or companies does not indicate a claim of ownership by IGI Global of the trademark or registered trademark. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Tombul, Isil, 1980- editor. | Sari, Gulsah, 1984- editor. Title: Handbook of research on contemporary approaches to orientalism in media and beyond / Isil Tombul and Gulsah Sari, editors. Description: Hershey PA : Information Science Reference, [2021] | Includes bibliographical references and index. | Summary: “This book is intended to provide a snapshot of the current state of orientalism and media, show how orientalism is handled in cinema, series, painting, art, news, photography, writing, and advertising”-- Provided by publisher. Identifiers: LCCN 2020049338 (print) | LCCN 2020049339 (ebook) | ISBN 9781799871804 (hardcover) | ISBN 9781799871828 (ebook) Subjects: LCSH: Orientalism in art. | Orientalism in mass media. Classification: LCC NX650.E85 H36 2021 (print) | LCC NX650.E85 (ebook) | DDC 700/.458--dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2020049338 LC ebook record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2020049339 This book is published in the IGI Global book series Advances in Media, Entertainment, and the Arts (AMEA) (ISSN: 2475-6814; eISSN: 2475-6830)

British Cataloguing in Publication Data A Cataloguing in Publication record for this book is available from the British Library. All work contributed to this book is new, previously-unpublished material. The views expressed in this book are those of the authors, but not necessarily of the publisher.

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• Humanities Design • Visual Computing • Products, Strategies and Services • Color Studies • Design Tools • Print Media • Popular Culture • Digital Heritage • Fabrication and prototyping • Environmental Design

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Titles in this Series

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Scientific Perspectives and Emerging Developments in Dance and the Perfoming Arts Bárbara Pessali-Marques (Bastidores - Dance, Research and Training, UK) Information Science Reference • © 2021 • 300pp • H/C (ISBN: 9781799842613) • US $195.00 Handbook of Research on Narrative Interactions Recep Yilmaz (Ondokuz Mayıs University, Turkey) Information Science Reference • © 2021 • 401pp • H/C (ISBN: 9781799849032) • US $265.00 Engaging Communities Through Civic Engagement in Art Museum Education Bryna Bobick (University of Memphis, USA) and Carissa DiCindio (University of Arizona, USA) Information Science Reference • © 2021 • 350pp • H/C (ISBN: 9781799874263) • US $195.00 International Perspectives on Rethinking Evil in Film and Television Dilan Tüysüz (Adnan Menderes University, Turkey) Information Science Reference • © 2021 • 248pp • H/C (ISBN: 9781799847786) • US $195.00 Handbook of Research on Methodologies for Design and Production Practices in Interior Architecture Ervin Garip (Istanbul Technical University, Turkey) and S. Banu Garip (Istanbul Technical University, Turkey) Information Science Reference • © 2021 • 534pp • H/C (ISBN: 9781799872542) • US $245.00 Handbook of Research on Aestheticization of Violence, Horror, and Power M. Nur Erdem (Ondokuz Mayıs University, Turkey) Nihal Kocabay-Sener (İstanbul Commerce University, Turkey) and Tuğba Demir (İzmir Kavram Vocational School, Turkey) Information Science Reference • © 2021 • 696pp • H/C (ISBN: 9781799846550) • US $245.00 Describing Nature Through Visual Data Anna Ursyn (University of Northern Colorado, USA) Information Science Reference • © 2021 • 367pp • H/C (ISBN: 9781799857532) • US $195.00

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Multidisciplinary Perspectives on New Media Art Celia Soares (University Institute of Maia (ISMAI), Portugal & Polytechnic Institute of Maia (IPMAIA), Portugal) and Emília Simão (Escola Superior Gallaecia University (ESG), Portugal & Portuguese Catholic University (FFCS-UCP), Portugal) Information Science Reference • © 2020 • 279pp • H/C (ISBN: 9781799836698) • US $185.00

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Editorial Advisory Board

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Ian Almond, Georgetown University, Qatar Tuna Baskoy, Ryerson University, Canada Halime Yücel Bourse, Galatasaray University, Turkey Recep Boztemur, Middle East Technical University, Turkey Aleksey Bykov, Saint Petersburg State University, Russia Ahmet Ersoy, Boğaziçi University, Turkey Suat Gezgin, Yeditepe University, Turkey José Antonio González Alcantud, University of Granada, Spain Richard A. Landes, Bar Ilan University, Israel Artur Lozano-Méndez, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain Per-Erik Nilsson, Uppsala University, Sweden Alev Fatoş Parsa, Ege University, Turkey Dilek Takımcı, Ege University, Turkey



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List of Contributors

Akgün Çomak, Nebahat / Galatasaray University, Turkey.............................................................. 536 Akiner, Nurdan / Akdeniz University, Turkey...................................................................................... 72 Akmeşe, Eşref / İnönü University, Turkey......................................................................................... 648 Akşit, Onur O. / Ege University, Turkey............................................................................................. 197 Al Halabi, Gina / Istanbul Bilgi University, Turkey.......................................................................... 557 Anaz, Mehtap / Université de Tunis-El Manar, Tunisia.................................................................... 398 Anaz, Necati / Istanbul University, Turkey........................................................................................ 398 Arslan, Hicabi / Aydin Adnan Menderes University, Turkey............................................................. 778 Atay, Tulay / Faculty of Communication, Hatay Mustafa Kemal University, Turkey........................ 838 Ateş, Hüdai / Ege University, Turkey................................................................................................... 12 Atiker, Barış / Bahcesehir University, Turkey................................................................................... 355 Barış, Baran / Dokuz Eylül University, Turkey.................................................................................. 338 Beyazoğlu, İbrahim / Eastern Mediterranean University, Cyprus................................................... 304 Beyazyüz, Selim / Düzce University, Turkey...................................................................................... 507 Biçer, Serkan / Communication Faculty, Fırat University, Turkey.................................................... 760 Bitirim Okmeydan, Selin / Ege University, Turkey.......................................................................... 453 Cicek, Filiz / Indiana University Purdue University Columbus, USA................................................ 123 Corral, Alfonso / Universidad San Jorge, Spain............................................................................... 107 Diker, Can / Üsküdar University, Turkey........................................................................................... 574 Erol, Ebru Gülbuğ / Cummunication Design Faculty, Muş Alparaslan University, Turkey............. 421 Evren, Ozan / Istanbul University, Turkey............................................................................................. 1 Gezgin, Suat / Yeditepe University, Turkey............................................................................................ 1 Guder, Feride Zeynep / Faculty of Communication, Üsküdar University, Turkey............................ 838 Gülsün, Mustafa / Muş Alparaslan University, Turkey..................................................................... 421 Gültekin, Gökhan / Aksaray University, Turkey............................................................................... 231 Gülüm, Erol / Bilecik Şeyh Edebali University, Turkey..................................................................... 662 Gümüşel, Günseli / Atılım University, Turkey................................................................................... 251 Gündüz, Uğur / Istanbul University, Turkey..................................................................................... 145 Güntürkün, Elif / Anadolu University, Turkey.................................................................................. 324 Gürses Köse, İlknur / Ege University, Turkey................................................................................... 324 Güven, Fikret / Nişantaşı University, Turkey.................................................................................... 591 Ileri, Berna / Faculty of Fine Arts, Canakkale 18 Mart University, Turkey...................................... 214 İmik Tanyıldızı, Nural / Firat University, Turkey............................................................................. 681 Kalayci, İsa / Hatay Mustafa Kemal University, Turkey.................................................................... 920 Kamperis, Aya / Independent Researcher, UK.................................................................................... 53  

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Karcı, Huri Deniz / Ankara Medipol University, Turkey................................................................... 818 Kırteke, Simge / Independent Researcher, Turkey............................................................................. 974 Koç, Esma / Independent Researcher, Turkey.................................................................................... 574 Kunacaf, Ezgi / Independent Researcher, Turkey.............................................................................. 904 Kuşçi, Ahmet / Hatay Mustafa Kemal University, Turkey................................................................. 920 Landes, Richard A. / Bar Ilan University, Israel................................................................................. 33 Nazlı, Azra K. / Ege University, Turkey.............................................................................................. 197 Nicha Andrade, Julijana / Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil............................................. 92 Nizam, Feridun / Communication Faculty, Fırat University, Turkey................................................ 706 Okmeydan, Cudi Kaan / Yaşar University, Turkey........................................................................... 470 Oliva, Héctor J. / Universidad San Jorge, Spain................................................................................ 107 Özdemir, Emel / Communication Faculty, Akdeniz University, Turkey............................................ 799 Özdemir, Murat / Independent Researcher, Turkey.......................................................................... 858 Ozkan Altinoz, Meltem / Ankara University, Turkey........................................................................ 283 Ozkavruk Adanir, Elvan / Faculty of Fine Arts and Design, Izmir University of Economics, Turkey............................................................................................................................................ 214 Özkent, Yasemin / Selçuk University, Turkey.................................................................................... 939 Parlayandemir, Gizem / Faculty of Communication, Istanbul University, Turkey........................... 875 Parsa, Alev Fatoş / Ege University, Turkey........................................................................................... 12 Pembecioğlu, Nilüfer / Faculty of Communication, Istanbul University, Turkey...................... 145, 536 Pérez, Brenda / Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain.............................................................................. 107 Sarı, Gülşah / Bolu Abant Izzet Baysal University, Turkey................................................................ 231 Semiz Türkoğlu, Hülya / Faculty of Communication, Istanbul University, Turkey.......................... 730 Sezer, Işık / Fine Arts Faculty, Dokuz Eylül University, Turkey........................................................ 375 Sinha, Subir / Dum Dum Motijheel College, India........................................................................... 240 Soğukkuyu, Bahar / Dokuz Eylül University, Turkey........................................................................ 888 Söğüt, Fatih / Kırklareli University, Turkey....................................................................................... 717 Süar Oral, Selin / Istanbul Aydın University, Turkey........................................................................ 486 Süngü, Ertuğrul / Bahçeşehir University, Turkey............................................................................. 557 Sütcü, Özcan Yılmaz / İzmir Katip Çelebi University, Turkey........................................................... 633 Telseren, Aslı / Dogus University, Turkey & University of Paris, France......................................... 438 Tombul, Işıl / Independent Researcher, Turkey................................................................................. 181 Topal, Aslihan / Aydin Adnan Menderes University, Turkey............................................................. 778 Toros Ntapiapis, Nihal / Üsküdar University, Turkey....................................................................... 904 Türkoğlu, Süleyman / Faculty of Communication, Istanbul University, Turkey............................... 730 Yalçın, Seray / Kocaeli University, Turkey............................................................................................ 1 Yaşdağ, Meltem / The Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Turkey...................................................... 268 Yetkin, Barış / Giresun University, Turkey........................................................................................ 611 Yolcu, Ayşe Şebnem / Bingol University, Turkey............................................................................... 681 Yüceer Berker, Deniz / Istanbul Ayvansaray University, Turkey...................................................... 953 Yüksekdağ, Yusuf / Istanbul Bilgi University, Turkey...................................................................... 165

Table of Contents

Foreword.......................................................................................................................................... xxxiv Preface.............................................................................................................................................. xxxvi Acknowledgment.................................................................................................................................. xli

Volume I Chapter 1 Orientalism From Past to Present, Traditional to Digital........................................................................ 1 Suat Gezgin, Yeditepe University, Turkey Seray Yalçın, Kocaeli University, Turkey Ozan Evren, Istanbul University, Turkey Chapter 2 The Construction of Orientalist Discourse in the Documentary Series on the Digital Broadcasting Platform Netfix...................................................................................................................................... 12 Hüdai Ateş, Ege University, Turkey Alev Fatoş Parsa, Ege University, Turkey

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Chapter 3 Orientalism as Caliphator Cognitive Warfare: Consequences of Edward Saïd’s Defense of the Orient..................................................................................................................................................... 33 Richard A. Landes, Bar Ilan University, Israel Chapter 4 Virtual Orientalism/Imagined Dualism (VO/ID) Expansion: Examining the Mechanisms Behind the Objectifcation of Zen as an Aesthetic Style.................................................................................... 53 Aya Kamperis, Independent Researcher, UK Chapter 5 Analyzing Jordan Peele’s Get Out With Fanonism: Tracing Postcolonialism in Hollywood Representations...................................................................................................................................... 72 Nurdan Akiner, Akdeniz University, Turkey  



Chapter 6 Constructing and Reconstructing Orientalism: Depicting Orientalist Imagery in Contemporary Art in the Quest of Self-Identity............................................................................................................ 92 Julijana Nicha Andrade, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil Chapter 7 New Portrayals of the Arab World in TV Series................................................................................. 107 Alfonso Corral, Universidad San Jorge, Spain Brenda Pérez, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain Héctor J. Oliva, Universidad San Jorge, Spain Chapter 8 Engendering Orientalism: Fatih Akin’s Head-On and The Edge of Heaven....................................... 123 Filiz Cicek, Indiana University Purdue University Columbus, USA Chapter 9 The Diference Between the Western Refections of Disaster News and Orientalist Perspectives: Positioning Women in the Case of Titanic.......................................................................................... 145 Nilüfer Pembecioğlu, Faculty of Communication, Istanbul University, Turkey Uğur Gündüz, Istanbul University, Turkey Chapter 10 Aguirre, Caché, and Creating Anti-Colonialist Puzzles: A Normative Perspective............................ 165 Yusuf Yüksekdağ, Istanbul Bilgi University, Turkey Chapter 11 Harem and Woman From Orientalist Pictures to the Cinema: Harem Suare...................................... 181 Işıl Tombul, Independent Researcher, Turkey

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Chapter 12 Techno Fantasies of East and West: Ghost in the Shell....................................................................... 197 Onur O. Akşit, Ege University, Turkey Azra K. Nazlı, Ege University, Turkey Chapter 13 Orientalism Revisited: Orientalism as Fashion................................................................................... 214 Elvan Ozkavruk Adanir, Faculty of Fine Arts and Design, Izmir University of Economics, Turkey Berna Ileri, Faculty of Fine Arts, Canakkale 18 Mart University, Turkey Chapter 14 The Others of Babel in the Context of Orientalism............................................................................. 231 Gülşah Sarı, Bolu Abant Izzet Baysal University, Turkey Gökhan Gültekin, Aksaray University, Turkey



Chapter 15 Orientalism and Hollywood: Refection of India on Western Cinema................................................ 240 Subir Sinha, Dum Dum Motijheel College, India Chapter 16 Eastern Male Image in Contemporary Oriental Media: The Novel and Movie of The Lustful Turk...................................................................................................................................................... 251 Günseli Gümüşel, Atılım University, Turkey Chapter 17 Orientalist Museum Exhibitions in UK as a New Media at the Turn of the 21st Century: ReOrientalism of Orientalism.................................................................................................................. 268 Meltem Yaşdağ, The Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Turkey Chapter 18 Spatial and Architectural Representations of the East in Selected Western Films and Games........... 283 Meltem Ozkan Altinoz, Ankara University, Turkey Chapter 19 Orientalism, Colonialism, and Bouchareb’s Indigènes........................................................................ 304 İbrahim Beyazoğlu, Eastern Mediterranean University, Cyprus Chapter 20 Fantasies of Returning to Nature as an Escape From Culture: The Case of The Beach (2000).......... 324 Elif Güntürkün, Anadolu University, Turkey İlknur Gürses Köse, Ege University, Turkey Chapter 21 Representations of Masculinities in Gaya Jiji’s Film Named My Favorite Fabric.............................. 338 Baran Barış, Dokuz Eylül University, Turkey

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Chapter 22 Neo-Orientalist Approaches in XR (Extended Reality) Applications................................................. 355 Barış Atiker, Bahcesehir University, Turkey Chapter 23 Post-Orientalist Comments by Contemporary Women Photographers............................................... 375 Işık Sezer, Fine Arts Faculty, Dokuz Eylül University, Turkey Chapter 24 French Orientalism Representations of Ottoman in Caricatures in Le Petit Journal.......................... 398 Mehtap Anaz, Université de Tunis-El Manar, Tunisia Necati Anaz, Istanbul University, Turkey



Chapter 25 Reconsidering Gender Stereotypes Through Bollywood Cinema: Reconsidering Bollywood Movie Dangal...................................................................................................................................... 421 Ebru Gülbuğ Erol, Cummunication Design Faculty, Muş Alparaslan University, Turkey Mustafa Gülsün, Muş Alparaslan University, Turkey Chapter 26 Representing and Othering Oriental Women After 9/11: An Analysis of Body of Lies...................... 438 Aslı Telseren, Dogus University, Turkey & University of Paris, France Chapter 27 Tracing Orientalism in the Image of the Country Refected by the Media.......................................... 453 Selin Bitirim Okmeydan, Ege University, Turkey Chapter 28 Orientalism in Turkish Political Election Campaigns.......................................................................... 470 Cudi Kaan Okmeydan, Yaşar University, Turkey

Volume II Chapter 29 Diversity or Uniformity: Existing Demands and Representation Problems in Emoji as a Visual Language.............................................................................................................................................. 486 Selin Süar Oral, Istanbul Aydın University, Turkey Chapter 30 Projection of Orientalist Elements: White Man’s Burden................................................................... 507 Selim Beyazyüz, Düzce University, Turkey

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Chapter 31 Refections of Orientalism and Modernism in the Film Hamam by Ferzan Özpetek.......................... 536 Nilüfer Pembecioğlu, Faculty of Communication, Istanbul University, Turkey Nebahat Akgün Çomak, Galatasaray University, Turkey Chapter 32 Reiterative Presentation of the East in Western-Produced Video Games: A Foucauldian Discourse Analysis................................................................................................................................................ 557 Gina Al Halabi, Istanbul Bilgi University, Turkey Ertuğrul Süngü, Bahçeşehir University, Turkey Chapter 33 The Creation of Sustainable Orientalism in Cinema........................................................................... 574 Can Diker, Üsküdar University, Turkey Esma Koç, Independent Researcher, Turkey



Chapter 34 The Discursive Representation of Islam and Muslims in Movies....................................................... 591 Fikret Güven, Nişantaşı University, Turkey Chapter 35 A Comparative Study Oriented Tourism Advertisements in Turkey: The Internality of the Oriental-Self........................................................................................................................................ 611 Barış Yetkin, Giresun University, Turkey Chapter 36 Country in the East and West Claw: Winter Sleep............................................................................... 633 Özcan Yılmaz Sütcü, İzmir Katip Çelebi University, Turkey Chapter 37 Searching for the East in the Shadow of the West: Layla M as the Portrait of an Oriental Woman in Modern Orientalist Discourse.......................................................................................................... 648 Eşref Akmeşe, İnönü University, Turkey Chapter 38 The Trial of Traditional Turkish Culture With the Auto-Orientalist Cultural Industry....................... 662 Erol Gülüm, Bilecik Şeyh Edebali University, Turkey Chapter 39 Women’s Images in Turkish Cinema in the Context of Orientalism: The Samples of Tight Dress..... 681 Nural İmik Tanyıldızı, Firat University, Turkey Ayşe Şebnem Yolcu, Bingol University, Turkey Chapter 40 An Orientalist “Journey” to Istanbul From the Super Bowl Final: The Shifting of Classical Orientalist Discourse............................................................................................................................ 706 Feridun Nizam, Communication Faculty, Fırat University, Turkey

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Chapter 41 Digital Games and Orientalism: A Look at Arab and Muslim Representation in Popular Digital Games.................................................................................................................................................. 717 Fatih Söğüt, Kırklareli University, Turkey Chapter 42 Orientalism, Islamophobia, and the Concept of Otherization Through Civil Confict, Digital Platform Netfix: The Example of the Messiah Series......................................................................... 730 Hülya Semiz Türkoğlu, Faculty of Communication, Istanbul University, Turkey Süleyman Türkoğlu, Faculty of Communication, Istanbul University, Turkey Chapter 43 Orientalism and Humour: Marginalization of the Turks in 9GAG...................................................... 760 Serkan Biçer, Communication Faculty, Fırat University, Turkey



Chapter 44 Evaluation of Women’s Perspectives in the East Societies on New Media News............................... 778 Hicabi Arslan, Aydin Adnan Menderes University, Turkey Aslihan Topal, Aydin Adnan Menderes University, Turkey Chapter 45 The Otherization of Turkey in the Orientalist Discourse: Turkey and Orientalism............................ 799 Emel Özdemir, Communication Faculty, Akdeniz University, Turkey Chapter 46 Transmedia Storytelling in Advertising: The Mediator Between Orientalism and Occidentalism..... 818 Huri Deniz Karcı, Ankara Medipol University, Turkey Chapter 47 Orientalist Representations of Antakya (Antioch-on-the-Orontes) in Digital Media Narrations........ 838 Feride Zeynep Guder, Faculty of Communication, Üsküdar University, Turkey Tulay Atay, Faculty of Communication, Hatay Mustafa Kemal University, Turkey Chapter 48 The West-East From Two Children’s Points of View: The Example of BBC-TRT............................. 858 Murat Özdemir, Independent Researcher, Turkey Chapter 49 The Transformation of Ion Perdicaris to Eden Perdicaris as a Retro Scenario and Orientalist Codes in Art: Woman and East “To Be Saved” From Eastern............................................................ 875 Gizem Parlayandemir, Faculty of Communication, Istanbul University, Turkey Chapter 50 Analysis of Poster Designs of Turkish TV Series on Ottoman History: Resurrection Ertugrul and Magnifcent Century Examples............................................................................................................ 888 Bahar Soğukkuyu, Dokuz Eylül University, Turkey

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Chapter 51 Orientalist Discourse in Communication and Media: Analysis of Researches in the Field of Media and Communication in Terms of Orientalism..................................................................................... 904 Nihal Toros Ntapiapis, Üsküdar University, Turkey Ezgi Kunacaf, Independent Researcher, Turkey Chapter 52 From Theory to Discussion Orientalism and History From Past to Present........................................ 920 İsa Kalayci, Hatay Mustafa Kemal University, Turkey Ahmet Kuşçi, Hatay Mustafa Kemal University, Turkey Chapter 53 Refection of Orientalist Discourse on Netfix Turkey: The Protector................................................ 939 Yasemin Özkent, Selçuk University, Turkey



Chapter 54 Reproducing Orientalism With Cinema: Aladdin (2019).................................................................... 953 Deniz Yüceer Berker, Istanbul Ayvansaray University, Turkey Chapter 55 Orientalist Approaches in Advertising: Sample Advertising With Nike’s “What Will They Say About You?” Slogan............................................................................................................................ 974 Simge Kırteke, Independent Researcher, Turkey Compilation of References.................................................................................................................xlii About the Contributors................................................................................................................. cxxvii

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Index..................................................................................................................................................... cxl

Detailed Table of Contents

Foreword.......................................................................................................................................... xxxiv Preface.............................................................................................................................................. xxxvi Acknowledgment.................................................................................................................................. xli

Volume I Chapter 1 Orientalism From Past to Present, Traditional to Digital........................................................................ 1 Suat Gezgin, Yeditepe University, Turkey Seray Yalçın, Kocaeli University, Turkey Ozan Evren, Istanbul University, Turkey

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The concept of orientalism, which the Western world puts forward as an academic discipline in order to recognize the Eastern culture, is commonly defned as the efort of the West to facilitate the establishment of the hegemonical structure by building itself over the East. Although orientalism contains diferent defnitions, it is related to many concepts. Among these, there are concepts such as “geographical discoveries,” “colonialism,” “imperialism,” “ethnocentrism” that contribute to our understanding of the relationship between Western-Eastern opposition. Concepts such as “technology” and “digitalization” have been added to these concepts in today’s world, and the orientalist discourse continues through digital technologies. In this context, a new concept defned as “digital orientalism” has emerged. The study aims to explain the changing/transforming understanding of orientalism today by shedding light on the understanding of orientalism from the past to the present. Chapter 2 The Construction of Orientalist Discourse in the Documentary Series on the Digital Broadcasting Platform Netfix...................................................................................................................................... 12 Hüdai Ateş, Ege University, Turkey Alev Fatoş Parsa, Ege University, Turkey Developing technology and communication opportunities show that the audience can access fction and documentary flms more easily than in previous years. This research reveals the extent of globalization with the development of communication technologies and how orientalism takes place in documentary flms through a netfix documentary. The orientalist perspective is transformed into a global perception through documentary flms and documentary series on digital platforms, World’s Most Wanted, Samantha 



Lewthwaite: The White. In this documentary, how the orientalist elements take place and how Islam is portrayed as a terror religion is revealed with the method of semiotic analysis, and the meanings created by the written-audio codes are revealed. Chapter 3 Orientalism as Caliphator Cognitive Warfare: Consequences of Edward Saïd’s Defense of the Orient..................................................................................................................................................... 33 Richard A. Landes, Bar Ilan University, Israel When Edward Said wrote Orientalism, he was defending the honor of the Western “other,” especially that of his fellow Arabs. Three years later, he published a book on Western media coverage of the Iranian revolution of 1979, in which he applied many of the principles he worked out in orientalism to Western journalists’ coverage of events in 1979. It is probable that Said did not know that 1979 was 1400 in the Muslim calendar, and that it marked the dawn of modern global jihad and the drive for a global caliphate. It is also probable that Said had no idea that his attack on the West for their “racist” attitudes towards his fellow Arabs actually paralyzed the West’s ability to deal with the cognitive war about to come. This chapter will analyze the way in which Said’s honor-driven analysis worked to the beneft of those working towards a global caliphate, warriors whose values and goals were the exact opposite of what he espoused in his post-colonial work. The problems with the Western reception of Saïd continue to haunt democracies and progressive eforts. Chapter 4 Virtual Orientalism/Imagined Dualism (VO/ID) Expansion: Examining the Mechanisms Behind the Objectifcation of Zen as an Aesthetic Style.................................................................................... 53 Aya Kamperis, Independent Researcher, UK

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In Virtual Orientalism, Jane Naomi Iwamura extends Edward Said’s theory through an analysis of the US post-war visual culture to trace the genealogy of the icon of the East she calls the ‘Oriental Monk’. The aim of the chapter is to explore the appropriation of the notion of Zen, particularly its application and exploitation as an aesthetic ‘style’, and the mechanisms behind such phenomena. The chapter extends Iwamura’s thesis to elaborate on the function of the Virtual Monk to question the development of its ontology in the contemporary world of neoliberalism and social media to introduce the concept of VO/ID, which has been deployed by capitalist corporations to market Zen as a lifestyle product/service. It ofers an insight into the process of identifcation within the framework of orientalism, that is, the way in which the Self and the Other come into being, and ofer Gen as a possible solution to the VO/ID expansion. Chapter 5 Analyzing Jordan Peele’s Get Out With Fanonism: Tracing Postcolonialism in Hollywood Representations...................................................................................................................................... 72 Nurdan Akiner, Akdeniz University, Turkey The colonial discourse racially defned the others and distinguished between people regarded as barbarous, infdels, and savage, such as the inhabitants of America and Africa. The formal abolition of slavery has not been the solution for Blacks, but they have often been subjected to the domination of sovereign ideology at diferent social life levels. The dominant ideology in USA is also infuential in representing Blacks in the cultural industry. This chapter examines the 2017 flm Get Out, directed by Jordan Peele, as an example of the recent diversity positive trend in Hollywood. Peele is the frst Black screenwriter



to win the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay. The flm was analyzed by Roland Barthes’s semiotics theory and Frantz Fanon’s critical theory Fanonism. This research shows that Get Out is truly a Black renaissance in Hollywood. The signs of racism skillfully placed in the flm were analyzed by focusing on denotative and connotative meanings, and the racial oppression faced by African-Americans throughout history was revealed by regarding Fanonism. Chapter 6 Constructing and Reconstructing Orientalism: Depicting Orientalist Imagery in Contemporary Art in the Quest of Self-Identity............................................................................................................ 92 Julijana Nicha Andrade, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil The purpose of the chapter is to show that orientalism is a dynamic construct that simultaneously represents continuity and change. The hypothesis outlines that contemporary artists build upon 18th century symbols to reconstruct orientalist art, hence reproducing the constructed, stereotypical neoorientalist or self-orientalist imagery. The hypothesis is seen to be true as the intimate artwork of Zahrin Kahlo, Lalla Essaydi, Eric Parnes, and Yasmina Bouziane shows that contemporary orientalist artists are using recurring symbols to depict their self-identity, even though they appropriate those symbols in an act of resistance to depict social change. A more productive path of expression may be one of authenticity rather than a recreation of existing imagery in the attempt to deconstruct it. Even though the continuity of the construct is obvious, change is granular and not as pronounced. Chapter 7 New Portrayals of the Arab World in TV Series................................................................................. 107 Alfonso Corral, Universidad San Jorge, Spain Brenda Pérez, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain Héctor J. Oliva, Universidad San Jorge, Spain

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This work refects on how the representation of the Arab world has evolved in three fctional works that have emerged in the second decade of the 21st century: Homeland (Showtime Networks, 2011-2020), Tyrant (FX Network-Fox, 2014-2016), and Jack Ryan (Amazon Prime Video, 2018-). The goal is to determine whether the main socio-political milestones that occurred during this period (the Arab Spring, Syrian Civil War, appearance of ISIS, etc.) have transformed the already classic theories of authors such as Edward Said, Jack Shaheen, or Evelyn Alsultany, among others. A viewing and analysis of the frst season of each show demonstrates that the panorama has not improved in terms of discourse, topics, and stereotypes. It is clear, therefore, that the lens of 9/11 is still very present in the Hollywood mindset regarding Arabs, Muslims, and Islam. Chapter 8 Engendering Orientalism: Fatih Akin’s Head-On and The Edge of Heaven....................................... 123 Filiz Cicek, Indiana University Purdue University Columbus, USA This study explores the elements of orientalism in German-Turkish director Fatih Akin’s flms Head On (2004) and The Edge of Heaven (2007). Utilizing Homi Bhaba’s theory of third space where the immigrant usually exists and Edward Said’s critique of the colonial gaze, the chapter analyzes to what degree the bodies of immigrants willingly embody the mysterious “oriental” and to what degree and when they are projected upon the male and female character in these two flms. Akin’s characters dwell between perceived and imaginary Occident and the Orient, while living and travelling in the soil of both



the Germany and Turkey. Chapter 9 The Diference Between the Western Refections of Disaster News and Orientalist Perspectives: Positioning Women in the Case of Titanic.......................................................................................... 145 Nilüfer Pembecioğlu, Faculty of Communication, Istanbul University, Turkey Uğur Gündüz, Istanbul University, Turkey The women issue is important not only in Western but also in Eastern cultures. Positioned in between the East and West, Turkey always provides an interesting collection of cases and data. Apart from the daily consumption of the women images and realities, the image of the women is also mobile when it comes to the press, and thus, this mobility is extended worldwide through the new media possibilities in the age of information. However, the contradictory images of the diferent cultures were displayed in the history of media as well. This chapter aims to put forward how the positioning of women in the past took place specifcally in the case of Titanic news on the press of the time. The chapter questions the similarities and diferences of handling women in news comparing and contrasting the Western journalism of the time and Ottoman press coverage. Chapter 10 Aguirre, Caché, and Creating Anti-Colonialist Puzzles: A Normative Perspective............................ 165 Yusuf Yüksekdağ, Istanbul Bilgi University, Turkey This chapter explores the anti-colonial narrative potential of certain works of cinema taking Aguirre, the Wrath of God and Caché as a case in point. To do so, this chapter frst and draws upon the theoretical and normative lens put forward by Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak on the representation of the colonized other and her resulting political and intellectual call for self-refection on one’s privileged Western intellectual positioning. This lens has many normative implications for the ways in which the colonized subject and colonial history are discussed and represented. The partial lack of representation of the colonized other in Aguirre, the Wrath of God leaves the subjectivity of the colonizer in crisis and madness. Second, the narrative of Caché is explored and it is suggested that it resembles the rhetoric of Foucauldian disciplinary power of surveillance turned upside-down thus enforcing the complicit of colonialism to question her privilege.

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Chapter 11 Harem and Woman From Orientalist Pictures to the Cinema: Harem Suare...................................... 181 Işıl Tombul, Independent Researcher, Turkey Orientalist art played an important role in the orientalist knowledge base. Depictions of the East, especially in the art of painting, have created a representation of the East in the West’s mind. However, this representation is exactly what the Westerner wants to see. One of the subjects that Westerners want to see and hear most is the harem. In orientalist art, women are depicted here as if they were always standing naked for their masters. Whereas harem is a place of pleasure and delight for the West, it is a family institution for the East. There is a transition from orientalist paintings to cinema in harem representation. For this reason, this transition from painting to modern art needs to be read intertext. In this study, the refection of the harem institution from painting to the cinema in the Ottoman Empire is examined. Ferzan Özpetek’s movie Harem Suare (1999) was examined together with the paintings of



orientalist painters, and intertextual reading was made. Chapter 12 Techno Fantasies of East and West: Ghost in the Shell....................................................................... 197 Onur O. Akşit, Ege University, Turkey Azra K. Nazlı, Ege University, Turkey In this chapter, the science fction anime that takes its source from Masamune Shirow’s manga with the same name, Kōkaku Kidōtai (攻殻機動隊, Ghost in the Shell), is examined and compared with the U.S. adaptation flm Ghost in the Shell (2017) within the framework of techno-orientalism. The study aims a comparative critique through anime and flm, which both allow explaining the transformative potential-efects of technology in a socio-cultural context in the east-west axis, through dissociations, convergences, and integration. It is to review the representations of traditional Western-centered thought that is deconstructed with the narrative which maintains focus on technology axis; it is aimed to reveal with the analysis that takes the 2017 flm to the center. In this way, Ghost in the Shell ofers possibilities of representation in the axis of futuristic Eastern culture with the female-cyborg character that presents the cyber-society environment, the deconstruction of the idea that puts focus on anthropocentrism, especially the ‘Western man’. Chapter 13 Orientalism Revisited: Orientalism as Fashion................................................................................... 214 Elvan Ozkavruk Adanir, Faculty of Fine Arts and Design, Izmir University of Economics, Turkey Berna Ileri, Faculty of Fine Arts, Canakkale 18 Mart University, Turkey

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Orientalism is a Western and Western-centric broad feld of research that studies the social structures, cultures, languages, histories, religions, and geographies of countries to the east of Europe. The term took on a secondary, detrimental association in the 20th century which looks down on the East. However, this chapter will not dwell on the defnition of Orientalism that is debated the most; instead, it will discuss the positive contribution of Orientalism to Western culture. Even though the West otherizes the East in daily life, when it comes to desire, vanity, luxury, and famboyance without hesitating a moment it adopts these very elements from the Eastern culture. It could be said that this adaptation brings these societies closer in one way or another. The highly admired fashion of Orientalism in the West starting from the 17th century until the 21st century will be the focus of this study. Chapter 14 The Others of Babel in the Context of Orientalism............................................................................. 231 Gülşah Sarı, Bolu Abant Izzet Baysal University, Turkey Gökhan Gültekin, Aksaray University, Turkey Cinema is a branch of art that uses images. In this context, cinema can take Orientalism to a diferent dimension with images by using its own narrative language. In this study, the 2006 flm Babel by Mexican director Alejandro G. Iñárritu is analyzed in order to show how the orientalist elements were constructed in the West’s (Occident) otherization of the East (Orient). As a result of the analysis, it is seen that Babel put forward everything that is related to the East since its frst scene, mostly with an orientalist point of view, in a way that alienates the East. The flm is based on the fact that the language of the marginalized



can never be understood, and therefore, there is always a diference between the West and the East. Chapter 15 Orientalism and Hollywood: Refection of India on Western Cinema................................................ 240 Subir Sinha, Dum Dum Motijheel College, India Orientalism is a broad concept of cultural studies which is nurtured with the fabricated stereotypical images of the Middle East and the Eastern world that were developed or imagined by the West. Edward. W. Said strengthens the concept of the ‘Orientalism’ by his wide explanation and discussion about the Orient. However, Hollywood cinema shows an imprint of Orientalism while depicting the Indian scenario. Hollywood cinema with Indian set up shows several fabricated stereotypical concepts related to India and Indian society. The stereotypical concepts are mainly related to the Indian tradition, customs, rituals, poverty, illiteracy, etc. Even they use various beautiful landscape and Indian music in their own ways to give mystic charms to their cinema. Recently it was recognised that the stereotypical concepts about India and Indian society are changing rapidly in Hollywood cinemas which try to justify that the concept of Orientalism is changing with the passage of time or with the arrival of modernity. Chapter 16 Eastern Male Image in Contemporary Oriental Media: The Novel and Movie of The Lustful Turk... 251 Günseli Gümüşel, Atılım University, Turkey When the Ottoman Empire in the 17th century was at the peak of its power, British and French merchants who came to Istanbul were writing so-called memories of harems to their homeland, and these letters composed the image of Eastern male in Orientalism and details of Muslim male image, which was one of the most important prototypes. The details which were written by non-Muslims who had no chance to even come near to Sultan’s private life, recounted a period of literature to politics. Moreover, Muslim males who were called “not lustful Turk” in the past also have to face some kind of vexatious accusations today because of this created identity. In the same year, the producers proposed that The Lustful Turk movie had a big budget and an ambitious project; they were trying to afect potential audience. In this study, The Lustful Turk’s novel segments and the movie are analyzed in detail to understand top-level racist accusations to Eastern male image, especially the Turkish one. Also, contemporary media approaches will be evaluated from Edward Said’s point of view.

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Chapter 17 Orientalist Museum Exhibitions in UK as a New Media at the Turn of the 21st Century: ReOrientalism of Orientalism.................................................................................................................. 268 Meltem Yaşdağ, The Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Turkey In this chapter, the author examined the orientalist themed museum exhibitions totally held in Britain after 2000 to understand the real intention behind their thematic artifact selection and their efect on people as becoming media tool. These were “Turks: A Journey of a Thousand Years, 600-1600” in 2005, “The Lure of the East: British Orientalist Painting” in 2008, and recent “Inspired by the East: How the Islamic World Infuenced Western Art” in 2019, respectively. The author analyzed the criticisms in newspapers and magazines as well as curators’ interviews and catalogs for the museum exhibitions organized in United



Kingdom. In this way, the author also discussed the efects of the exhibition created with the media. Chapter 18 Spatial and Architectural Representations of the East in Selected Western Films and Games........... 283 Meltem Ozkan Altinoz, Ankara University, Turkey Aspects of Eastern culture have long been featured in Western cinema but seem to be less popular today. We see less use of spatial and architectural features attributed to the East and a worrying nihilistic trend, particularly in the gaming sector. Such distortions would seem to signify Western preferences, albeit ones shaped by real stakeholders, shape everyday perceptions of the East and its representation. This study traces oriental approaches through the use of space and architecture in several popular flms and games and tries to understand the logic behind their visualization. Chapter 19 Orientalism, Colonialism, and Bouchareb’s Indigènes........................................................................ 304 İbrahim Beyazoğlu, Eastern Mediterranean University, Cyprus Rachid Bouchareb’s movie Indigènes (aka Days of Glory, 2006) constitutes a powerful critique of the discourse of orientalism in signifcant ways that requires consideration. The chapter presents a descriptive and critical analysis of ambivalent positions during colonial encounters in the Second World War and analyses the totalizing and monist nature of the logocentric regime of meaning in the construction of a colonial orientalist discourse where knowledge and power enter into an agreement of sorts. The chapter throws light on ways in which Eurocentric history writing undermines the colonial soldiers’ struggle for recognition and opens up a vista onto the critical role of post-colonial cinema in giving the invisible subjects’ their due in history and popular media.

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Chapter 20 Fantasies of Returning to Nature as an Escape From Culture: The Case of The Beach (2000).......... 324 Elif Güntürkün, Anadolu University, Turkey İlknur Gürses Köse, Ege University, Turkey Modernism and its institutions have begun to be questioned by postmodern thinkers in almost every feld. Nature was afrmed as an ideal on the path to liberation from culture. According to Camille Paglia, culture, which was seen as a way to the main obstacle to freedom, and the hierarchical position of the contrasts such as East-West, nature-culture, etc., has become the focus of discussions in the world of art and thought as fctions that need to be questioned and overcome on the way to liberation. While the view of nature as a liberating potential fnds its place in consumer culture and popular culture as an extension of the opposing perspective originating from the counterculture, the return to nature has been fetishized by authenticating Eastern cultures with an Orientalist perspective. The beach, which is one of the representations of this common interests in the East in the art of cinema, will be examined in the light of the concepts of counter culture, postmodern subject, consumer culture, in the axis of natureculture and East-West dichotomies. Chapter 21 Representations of Masculinities in Gaya Jiji’s Film Named My Favorite Fabric.............................. 338 Baran Barış, Dokuz Eylül University, Turkey



Masculinity refers to the roles expected of men by gender ideology. Masculinity studies after 1990 revealed that masculinity cannot be taken as a universal subject. Another important concept in this study is orientalism. Orientalism generally refers to the West’s point of view regarding the East. In Western narratives, Eastern women are generally depicted as oppressed heroes, and men as heroes who are always strong. However, alternative narratives reveal that diferent forms of femininity and masculinity can be seen in Eastern societies. In this study, a Syrian director’s flm named My Favorite Fabric is analyzed with a semiotic method within the framework of these concepts. When the representations of masculinity in the flm are examined, it is seen that diferent forms of masculinity are constructed, and an alternative to the orientalist discourse is presented accordingly. It has been revealed that diferent variables are efective in the construction of masculinities. Chapter 22 Neo-Orientalist Approaches in XR (Extended Reality) Applications................................................. 355 Barış Atiker, Bahcesehir University, Turkey Being one of the most prominent refections of intercultural interaction, orientalism is the West’s description of the East according to its own beliefs and understanding. This concept also includes the alienation and isolation of the human while trying to defne ‘the others’. The digital culture has searched for alternative realities and identities visible through virtual worlds controlled by the individual. This search for identity has led to the transformation of a fctional and shallow imagination into a cultural commodity through various stereotypes, just like in orientalism. Extended reality is one of the new oases of neo-orientalism as a research subject that combines the concepts of virtual and augmented reality. The increasing fusion between the human mind and machines radically changes the way people are born, live, learn, work, produce, dream, discuss, or die. This research aims to interpret the efects of transformation of information in XR technologies within the axis of neo-orientalism perspective through new individual experiences.

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Chapter 23 Post-Orientalist Comments by Contemporary Women Photographers............................................... 375 Işık Sezer, Fine Arts Faculty, Dokuz Eylül University, Turkey Today, Iran, Morocco, Tunisia, etc. women photographers have made the orientalist visual expression form the focal point of their art: the orientalist painting tradition as a result of the painter Delacroix’s trip to Morocco in 1832, the imagination world and the painting tradition shaped by the economy-politics of the period, from the male-dominated point of view, the harem, the chamber, etc. It is based on fantasies based on the female body in oriental spaces. Although this painting movement maintained its efectiveness between 1832-1914, it is taken as a reference by photographers in today’s postmodern art environment. In today’s photography art, Shirin Neshat, Lalla Essaydi, Shadi Ghadirian, Majida Khattari, Meriem Bouderbala, who have Eastern and Western cultures and mostly live in Western countries, visualize the position of women in their countries with an interdisciplinary interpretation in their photographic visions that they shape with a post-orientalist attitude. Chapter 24 French Orientalism Representations of Ottoman in Caricatures in Le Petit Journal.......................... 398 Mehtap Anaz, Université de Tunis-El Manar, Tunisia Necati Anaz, Istanbul University, Turkey This study attempts to answer a number of questions inspired by popular geopolitics literature on how the



French newspaper, Le Petit Journal, depicted the Ottoman Empire (including the Sultan Abdulhamid II and the Turkish parliament) and refected their views to their readers in their publications. And how the Ottoman ‘other’ was constructed by the journal in relation to France’s political position during the Balkan Wars. The examination of the newspaper from 1908 to 1913 suggests that the journal’s understanding of the Ottoman subject rests parallel to that of France, especially during the years of the Balkan Wars in Europe. This study also expresses that war-time knowledge production via quotidian channels inform the geographical imaginations of the masses in particular ways. In the end, the authors re-emphasize that knowledge production on the orient involves a whole set of image constructions as introduced in orientalism studies. Chapter 25 Reconsidering Gender Stereotypes Through Bollywood Cinema: Reconsidering Bollywood Movie Dangal...................................................................................................................................... 421 Ebru Gülbuğ Erol, Cummunication Design Faculty, Muş Alparaslan University, Turkey Mustafa Gülsün, Muş Alparaslan University, Turkey The concept of gender determines the biological sex of an individual by birth. However, according to the understanding of gender, there are basic codes for men and women, and people act in accordance with these codes. Orientalism is an imitation or depiction of directions in the Eastern world. In terms of cinema, it is the creation of an Eastern atmosphere with the Eastern representation and images in the flms. Sports, common name for all body movements that are performed by obeying certain rules and techniques, are benefcial to physical development and aim to have fun and are open to everybody regardless of sex. Traditional gender stereotypes posit that women do certain kinds of sports. So, flms that depict this extraordinary contrast are remembered for their subjects. The flm Dangal depicts the father-daughter relationships of an Indian family living in an Eastern cultural tradition and a female wrestler with international status, unlike a family shaped according to oriental codes.

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Chapter 26 Representing and Othering Oriental Women After 9/11: An Analysis of Body of Lies...................... 438 Aslı Telseren, Dogus University, Turkey & University of Paris, France This chapter aims to analyze the reconstruction of the otherness of oriental women in the post-9/11 era via an analysis of the representations of the oriental women in Body of Lies (2008). To examine this subject, the shifts in orientalist discourse in this period, the neo-orientalist context, and ideological functions of Hollywood are considered from a postcolonial feminist approach. Considering the specifc position attributed to oriental women in the post-9/11 era, this chapter examines how Hollywood conveys gender and race relations through the construction and reconstruction of oriental women images and attempt to show how these images have participated in the reconstruction of the otherness of oriental women after the 9/11 attacks through the analysis of Body of Lies. Chapter 27 Tracing Orientalism in the Image of the Country Refected by the Media.......................................... 453 Selin Bitirim Okmeydan, Ege University, Turkey This chapter focuses on the relationship between Orientalism and country image, and the efect of the orientalist approach refected in the media on the country image. The image of a country is especially afected by the representations refected in the media. Therefore, media, where discourses and images



are produced and shared, play major roles in the formation and consolidation of the country’s image. A country that is generally featured in the media with negative images appears as a result of the orientalist approach towards countries marginalized by the West. Turkey is seen as the other by the West. This study features the authentic refections of the orientalist view of Turkey in the media and the efect of these refections on the country’s image with contemporary examples. Thus, this study based on literature review and case study method is aimed to reveal traces of Orientalism in Turkey’s image in the Western media. Chapter 28 Orientalism in Turkish Political Election Campaigns.......................................................................... 470 Cudi Kaan Okmeydan, Yaşar University, Turkey This chapter studies the use of orientalist elements in advertisements of Turkish political parties as a reaction to the orientalist approach of the West, based on examples. It is observed that especially the right-wing parties frequently use orientalist elements in political advertisements during election periods in Turkey. These orientalist elements usually consist of large historical mosque fgures and Ottoman motives. However, these orientalist elements are presented together with Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, Turkish satellites, unmanned aircraft, and modern city views to establish a connection between the past and future and show developed and contemporary aspects of Turkey. Thus, it is hinted to the West that a Muslim country taking pride in its past can also be a contemporary and developed country. The present study is focused on orientalism refections in Turkish political election campaigns and aims to reveal orientalist elements and orientalist perspective that are common in election campaigns.

Volume II Chapter 29 Diversity or Uniformity: Existing Demands and Representation Problems in Emoji as a Visual Language.............................................................................................................................................. 486 Selin Süar Oral, Istanbul Aydın University, Turkey Emoji is a Japanese term that reminds users in the digital world about history, community, attitudes, appearances, economics, and politics while texting. This study aims to address identity representations that are focused on the demands of distinction in the postmodern era and ofered by emoji in the digital world. The thesis also attempts to challenge whether the structure of multiple identities is feasible in the postmodern era and/or whether identities are re-uniformized in a symbolic language.

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Chapter 30 Projection of Orientalist Elements: White Man’s Burden................................................................... 507 Selim Beyazyüz, Düzce University, Turkey The age of discovery is one of the most important periods in human history whose efects continue to be seen. In this period, the world was traveled by European sailors, new continents were discovered, and the discovered resources, work, and labor power fowed to Europe. All these developments have led to changes in the perception of the East in the West. Orientalism, defned as the manifestation of the West on the East, has found a place in art, literature, all kinds of written or printed media, especially cinema. The purpose of the study is to examine the domination structures starting with colonialism in the context of orientalism through the narratives of cinema in light of information. The narrative of 12 Years a Slave (2013) was examined using the discourse analysis method which is one of the qualitative text analysis.



As a result, it was seen that the dialogues, images, character depictions, and the language used played an important role in the presentation of the othering; the white man was in the role of savior/god/good, and this situation was also supported by metaphors. Chapter 31 Refections of Orientalism and Modernism in the Film Hamam by Ferzan Özpetek.......................... 536 Nilüfer Pembecioğlu, Faculty of Communication, Istanbul University, Turkey Nebahat Akgün Çomak, Galatasaray University, Turkey Having the visual and linguistic text of the flm Hamam as the main data, the chapter discusses how the values are attributed to the images of orientalism and modernism and how these attributions afect the meaning, value, and consumption of the messages. Not only the cultural codes as Barthes mentioned were deciphered through the qualitative and descriptive methodology mainly following the discourse analysis, but also the chapter relies upon the data analysis making use of the 12T’s approach inspired by Stoller and Grabe’s Six-T’s Approach for Content-Based Instruction. In this research, each T refers to a diferent perspective that controls the quality of the sample questioned and helps to establish consistency, cohesion, and coherence of the text. These T’s put forward how the refections of orientalism and modernism were scattered in the flm Hamam and how Western images vs. Orientalism were put in a complementary and counteracting way helps to shape the new identities. Chapter 32 Reiterative Presentation of the East in Western-Produced Video Games: A Foucauldian Discourse Analysis................................................................................................................................................ 557 Gina Al Halabi, Istanbul Bilgi University, Turkey Ertuğrul Süngü, Bahçeşehir University, Turkey

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Today’s video game industry is full of examples of games that showcase Oriental stereotypes repetitively and portray them with the typical passive, barbaric, and violent perception. The methodology of this study builds its structure on that problem by gathering data from a conducted survey that focuses on video gamers based in the Middle East, with the aim of exploring how the reiteration of the stereotypical portrayal of the Orient in video games produced by the West afect people’s perception of the Orient. The data then gathered will be analyzed according to Carla Willig’s approach of the Foucauldian discourse analysis using six stages: (1) discursive constructions, (2) discourses, (3) action orientation, (4) positionings, (5) practice, and (6) subjectivity. The analysis’s main limits and strengths will then be taken into consideration, and recommendations will be suggested based on the results of the analysis. Chapter 33 The Creation of Sustainable Orientalism in Cinema........................................................................... 574 Can Diker, Üsküdar University, Turkey Esma Koç, Independent Researcher, Turkey The myth of modern culture’s superiority to other cultures is instilled as a norm to the masses through the media. The myth of the cultural superiority of the West not only formed with the economic possibilities of the West but was also supported by the non-Western world by self-orientalism, thus becoming sustainable. While themes such as modernity, development, and technological superiority are watched within the scope of Hollywood flms, several platforms have been created for non-US countries to watch alternative



flms. Although flms known as European and World Cinema have the chance to show themselves at flm festivals rather than flm theatres, non-Western directors face a cultural challenge in these festivals due to the sociocultural structure of Western-based flm festivals. In this study, by examining how non-Western directors are directed towards self-orientalism indirectly through festivals and funds, the relationship between the creation of sustainable orientalism in cinema and the political economy of the flm industry will be revealed. Chapter 34 The Discursive Representation of Islam and Muslims in Movies....................................................... 591 Fikret Güven, Nişantaşı University, Turkey September 11 has changed the world we live in. Justifcations and commentaries have been a revival of the East/West Orientalist binarism. Movies on September 11 and the subsequent Iraq War have continued to follow the same discourse, frst lending themselves as conveyors of knowledge and later passing their Orientalism under a guise of art. The selected movies are Paul Greengrass’s United 93, Peter Markle’s Flight 93, David Priest’s Portraits of Courage, Kathryn Bigelow’s The Hurt Locker, and Peter Berg’s The Kingdom. The subject matter of the movies discussed in this chapter focuses on September 11 and the subsequent Iraq War for being the major recent historical events which are continually depicted as an inherent East/West confict. It largely shapes today’s perception of the world or in other terms creates a sense of a new perception today despite the continuity of the same Orientalist binarism that has always been there. Chapter 35 A Comparative Study Oriented Tourism Advertisements in Turkey: The Internality of the Oriental-Self........................................................................................................................................ 611 Barış Yetkin, Giresun University, Turkey

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This study examines the orientalist infuences in the media. Studies that determine the orientalist elements in media content in Turkey are not sufcient. In order to eliminate this defciency, it was determined as the starting point of the research whether the orientalist stereotypes are still valid today and whether they contain epistemic violence. Based on this problem, some of the advertisements used in tourism promotion in the last 20 years within the framework of the ofcial state policies of the Republic of Turkey are selected. Historical understanding and analytical thinking are adopted. In this direction, cultural context research is conducted using comparative case studies. It is aimed to fnd out whether the situation defned as self-orientalism in tourism promotion advertisements coincides with Western orientalist stereotypes. Thus, it is desired to provide a new perspective to researchers working on this subject and to present meta-analysis data. Chapter 36 Country in the East and West Claw: Winter Sleep............................................................................... 633 Özcan Yılmaz Sütcü, İzmir Katip Çelebi University, Turkey Nuri Bilge Ceylan puts the perspectives of Anatolia under pressure through the analysis of individuals’ souls in the movie Winter Sleep (2014). He examines the “Western perspective” through the intellectuals (Aydın, Necla, and Levent) and the “religious and traditional perspective” of Anatolia through Imam Hamdi and Ismail. Ceylan gets individuals out of cultural and ideological codes and allows them to confront their own realities in Anatolian geography. This possibility can be expressed as a kind of Foucauldian



violence. There is a violence of going into the deeper layers of the repressed, unresolved points. This is an inner violence that comes from stripping all code and layers. This internal violence is the result of the soul analysis that is refected in Anatolia as a camera of people awakening in Winter Sleep. The immediacy of Anatolia’s vital existence can only be grasped in the depths of vital experience itself. Chapter 37 Searching for the East in the Shadow of the West: Layla M as the Portrait of an Oriental Woman in Modern Orientalist Discourse.......................................................................................................... 648 Eşref Akmeşe, İnönü University, Turkey Orientalism is defned as part of the discourse of power which includes the purpose of exploitation and domination that represents attribution of “Easterner” qualities that are opposite and inferior to the qualities that Euro-American cultures ascribe to themselves, and labeling them as irrational, uncivilized, inferior, not open to change, and so on. Orientalism, which is an expression of an extensive and longterm cultural and ideological process, states a discourse that marginalizes what it leaves out of EuroAmerican culture. This style of discourse is efective in diferent mediums and reproduced consistently. In this chapter, asserted Eurocentric arguments in the modern orientalist discourse are discussed with a critical approach through Dutch director Mijke de Jong’s flm Layla M. (2016). Chapter 38 The Trial of Traditional Turkish Culture With the Auto-Orientalist Cultural Industry....................... 662 Erol Gülüm, Bilecik Şeyh Edebali University, Turkey Traditional Turkish culture has archaic, unique, universal, diverse, dynamic, competitive, and distinctive contents (traditional knowledge and practices, cultural codes, canonical images, motifs, structural patterns, etc.) that can be valued in diferent ways in cultural creative industries. However, this cultural capital cannot be utilized sufciently to meet Turkey’s sustainable economic development goals from the past to the present. One of the main reasons why the potential inherent in traditional culture cannot be efectively, creatively, and innovatively actualized is the predominance of auto-orientalist discourse in the Turkish cultural industry. Here, in this text, the trial of traditional culture with auto-orientalist Turkish cultural industry will be analyzed from historical, sociological, and economic aspects.

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Chapter 39 Women’s Images in Turkish Cinema in the Context of Orientalism: The Samples of Tight Dress..... 681 Nural İmik Tanyıldızı, Firat University, Turkey Ayşe Şebnem Yolcu, Bingol University, Turkey Orientalism, which we can defne as how the West recognizes the East, can be determined in many diferent felds such as literature, music, and architectural painting since ancient times. In orientalist ideology, the negative traits of the other are always emphasized. Because, as Said also emphasizes, the West can only create its own self by alienating and negating the East. The representation styles of marginalized societies; identities and genders are negative in parallel with the Western understanding in the movies that are dominated by the orientalist ideology. The Eastern woman, who is currently the absolute other in terms of gender, is marginalized once again in the examples of Orientalist cinema.



This study, based on the movie Tight Dress, aims to observe the hegemonic structure of the willingness to represent women in the patriarchal order of the Eastern Muslim-Turkish representation of women produced within the Western masculine fantasy discourse within the framework of feminist theory and to reveal the orientalist elements in the flm through semiotic analysis. Chapter 40 An Orientalist “Journey” to Istanbul From the Super Bowl Final: The Shifting of Classical Orientalist Discourse............................................................................................................................ 706 Feridun Nizam, Communication Faculty, Fırat University, Turkey This study is frstly built on the determination of the orientalist elements in Turkish Airlines’ commercial flm Journey, which was broadcast in the Super Bowl fnal of the 2019 American Football League, and how Turkish culture is represented in Istanbul with these orientalist elements. In the context of the sample handled in the study, Turkish architectural structures, Turkish historical structures, Turkish Islamic cultural elements, and Turkish traditions are included, and the presentation of Istanbul from the eyes of a “foreigner” with an orientalist point of view has been handled with the method of semiotic analysis. The main problem of the study is on the diferent presentation of the East and Istanbul, despite the usual orientalist perspective in media contents and especially in advertising. In this sense, it focuses not on antiorientalism, but on the conclusion that orientalism is presented with the change of classical narratives. Chapter 41 Digital Games and Orientalism: A Look at Arab and Muslim Representation in Popular Digital Games.................................................................................................................................................. 717 Fatih Söğüt, Kırklareli University, Turkey

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The cultural and ideological tools that enable the West to maintain the imperial and colonial rule over the East have been varied. With the help of Western-based digital technologies and communication tools, it is possible to produce, publish, and distribute all kinds of information easily and quickly. The western and Western perspective is also refected in the media content, and all kinds of popular media texts such as flms, music, newspapers, magazines, toys are the bearers of the political social, cultural, and ideological structure of the West. Media texts produce discourses, especially about the ‘East’ and position the East as one other. In this context, digital games should not be considered independent of the political, social, cultural, and economic structure in which they exist. The aim of this study is to assess research studies focusing on the orientalist perspective in digital games. While examining the relationship between orientalism and digital games within the framework of the literature, especially the Muslim and Arab representations in the plays were examined. Chapter 42 Orientalism, Islamophobia, and the Concept of Otherization Through Civil Confict, Digital Platform Netfix: The Example of the Messiah Series......................................................................... 730 Hülya Semiz Türkoğlu, Faculty of Communication, Istanbul University, Turkey Süleyman Türkoğlu, Faculty of Communication, Istanbul University, Turkey Orientalism is a form of marginalization that constitutes the thinking system of Western civilizations. The question of how the East is represented can be answered with series that have a global impact. In this study, the Messiah series, which is a digital television platform Netfix series that continues its broadcasting activities on a global scale, is discussed. The Messiah series is an American-made series that



draws the attention of the people of three great religions, which is about the belief that the prophet Jesus will return and save the world. Orientalist ideologies are presented in the series. It has been evaluated in terms of narrative structure, fction, characters, and space. For this purpose, the chapter discusses the orientalism fction and othering discourses in the series with the literature review method by considering the representation of the East in the series with its general framework. Chapter 43 Orientalism and Humour: Marginalization of the Turks in 9GAG...................................................... 760 Serkan Biçer, Communication Faculty, Fırat University, Turkey Edward Said undoubtedly didn’t analyze the concept of orientalism through an Ottoman or Turkish perspective in the context of the relationship with the West. However, although orientalism isn’t directly connected to Turkey, it indirectly concerns the country as the image of Turkey and East is the same in many articles, literary works, political texts, and orientalist pictures. The purpose of this study is to understand and analyze the orientalist viewpoint about the Turkish identity on “9GAG” internet site, one of the most known humour sites created after 2000 with the participatory culture. In this study, the two-level interpretation system of Roland Barthes, involving the systematic connotation and denotation and myth, is used. The images of Turks in caps are presented with signifers such as Turban, Islamic tabard, beard, prayer beads, coif, and shalwar. Signifed, on the other hand, is usually the element of East, religion/Islam, tradition, underdevelopment, and violence. The specifcally designed Turkish image is used as a kind of actor that creates a sense of threat. Chapter 44 Evaluation of Women’s Perspectives in the East Societies on New Media News............................... 778 Hicabi Arslan, Aydin Adnan Menderes University, Turkey Aslihan Topal, Aydin Adnan Menderes University, Turkey Turkey is located frequently in women’s media. The representation of women in the media, which should be evaluated in many aspects such as sociological, psychological, political, economic, and legal, has been frequently the subject of academic studies. In the country and in the world, women can generally fnd their place in the media within the social roles assigned to them. The view of countries towards women is also shaped by the efect of cultural, economic, political, and social structures. In Eastern cultures, the woman is usually burdened with roles in need of protection, such as the woman of her home, the mother of her child, a good wife, a self-sacrifcing woman who lives at home.

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Chapter 45 The Otherization of Turkey in the Orientalist Discourse: Turkey and Orientalism............................ 799 Emel Özdemir, Communication Faculty, Akdeniz University, Turkey This chapter aims to make out how the orientalism that dominates and that reshapes the East as Western discourse afects the construction of Turkish image that is infuenced by the new orientalism process, and how it has changed with the media. By studying the news and images about Turkey, it is purposed to analyze whether the otherization of Turkey in orientalist discourse that is generally established with diferent kinds of many bad images, expressions from past to now is still alive with all the images,



discourses, expressions in the media, or whether it has started to acquire a diferent point of view in orientalism today, or not. In this study, it is possible to see the reconstruction of Turkish image and the general perception of the West about Turkey in the process of new orientalism that is refected via the discourses, images, and expressions in the media by analyzing the news about tensions in the Eastern Mediterranean in the foreign press. Chapter 46 Transmedia Storytelling in Advertising: The Mediator Between Orientalism and Occidentalism..... 818 Huri Deniz Karcı, Ankara Medipol University, Turkey Otherization has been executed in both Orientalism and Occidentalism for a long time. People have always been expected to choose either side in a binary opposition such as “mother or father,” “male or female,” “destiny or coincidence,” “pasta or pizza,” “Fenerbahce or Galatasaray,” etc. However, the human itself is the balance of those binary oppositions such as “good and bad,” “normal and abnormal,” “optimistic and pessimistic,” etc. In this respect, this chapter ofered a new term, “medientalism,” indicating advertizing as a possible alternative medium to mediate between otherized opposites such as gender, race, ideology, lifestyle, religion within the fame of the opposition between Orientalism and Occidentalism. As a result, transmedia storytelling, a persuasive multiplatform strategy to reach the audience by telling stories, was suggested as a functional tool to employ in spreading the idea of mediation between otherized opposites. Chapter 47 Orientalist Representations of Antakya (Antioch-on-the-Orontes) in Digital Media Narrations........ 838 Feride Zeynep Guder, Faculty of Communication, Üsküdar University, Turkey Tulay Atay, Faculty of Communication, Hatay Mustafa Kemal University, Turkey

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This study aims to criticize the defnition and misinterpretation of “the East-the Orient” in the scope of Antakya city according to Orientalist approach and to analyze how this approach put into practice by the narration of the Westerners via scrutinizing digital media platforms. To uncover this dominant narration, Said’s Orientalist theory has been explored for the main arguments of the study. With the help of cognitive semiotics benchmarks, three digital media platforms are analyzed to indicate how Orientalist perspectives dominate the narration and representation of Antakya. Although the city conveys modern lifestyle and outlook, these perspectives are omitted, and these narrations fail to represent the core and unique characteristics of Antakya. Examples found in digital media prove the lack of such representations, including particularly the absence of images, narrations, and portrayals of inhabitants. In conclusion, close and critical reading of digital tourism genres are recommended, and although these platforms are new and digital, the way they narrate have echoes of the old. Chapter 48 The West-East From Two Children’s Points of View: The Example of BBC-TRT............................. 858 Murat Özdemir, Independent Researcher, Turkey This study discussed whether the media is a tool that produces orientalist representations and whether the media is efective in the internalization of orientalism. The aim of the study is to identify the orientalist discourse in the language and culture of the media through discourse analysis method, and to discuss the efects of the media on the formation of self-orientalism as well as the instrumentality of the media



on this issue. In the study, a sample of the documentary named Istanbul and Bristol in 1971 From Two Children’s Point of View, which is a co-production of BBC-TRT, was taken, and the documentary was analysed with the orientalist discourse analysis method of Edward Said. As a result of the research, it was seen that the media has a discourse that alienates Eastern culture and is also a tool in the production and internalization of orientalism. Chapter 49 The Transformation of Ion Perdicaris to Eden Perdicaris as a Retro Scenario and Orientalist Codes in Art: Woman and East “To Be Saved” From Eastern............................................................ 875 Gizem Parlayandemir, Faculty of Communication, Istanbul University, Turkey Based on mainly the perspectives of three thinkers, Walter Benjamin, Edward Said, and Jean Baudrillard, in this study, beyond the general perception and “Barbarian” and “Berbers,” the flm The Wind and The Lion, which was written and directed by John Milius in 1975 and inspired by a “real” life event that happened in 1904, and the transformation of the man kidnapped in real life, Ion Perdicaris, into a woman, Eden Pedecaris, in the flm, and the relationship of this transformation with the “orient” perception, the economic and political infrastructures of this relationship, its roots in Orientalist painting will be discussed through intertextual reading and discourse analysis. The analysis of this flm’s discourse sustains its importance since not only flm scholars but also audiences can receive the discourse of the flm via new media presently. Chapter 50 Analysis of Poster Designs of Turkish TV Series on Ottoman History: Resurrection Ertugrul and Magnifcent Century Examples............................................................................................................ 888 Bahar Soğukkuyu, Dokuz Eylül University, Turkey

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TV series are signifcant media products when considered as part of audience’s leisure activities at home. Marketing of leisure activities to the audience in front of the screen as an indicator of individuality is one of the basic conditions of media consumption. With the watched product, the person feels that he belongs to a community, or, on the contrary, he is unique. It is possible for the individual who watches the historical series to adopt/refect the national and social spirit. Again, as a part of the consumer society, the displays of the spectacular elements that emphasize the individual’s need to express himself/herself with commodities are quite high. In the study, the poster designs of two series that are shown in Turkey (and in various countries of the world) and reach a wide audience have been examined with both visual design elements and principles and semiotics to reveal clues about cultural memory and orientalism in terms of refecting the Ottoman history. Chapter 51 Orientalist Discourse in Communication and Media: Analysis of Researches in the Field of Media and Communication in Terms of Orientalism..................................................................................... 904 Nihal Toros Ntapiapis, Üsküdar University, Turkey Ezgi Kunacaf, Independent Researcher, Turkey Today’s people fall into the advertising network more and more every day with the developing technology. The modern world is exposed to many written and visual images in this area. All these images contain



a whole of meanings. Advertising, which is one of the concepts that afects and transforms society, is also a collection of messages. While conveying his messages, the facts that create and transform society, cultures, and identities, and creation processes occur in this context. The created advertisements, the concepts of self, and the “other,” East and West, have existed since the formation of human history and have been infuenced from time to time, and the Orientalist, re-orientalist perspective has shown itself in the advertisements. The underdevelopment of the East is a discourse aimed at religion, language, and races. The West spreads its Orientalist discourse to the world through mass media. This research investigates the orientalism efects in media and communication regarding how the media and communication feld is afected by Orientalism. Chapter 52 From Theory to Discussion Orientalism and History From Past to Present........................................ 920 İsa Kalayci, Hatay Mustafa Kemal University, Turkey Ahmet Kuşçi, Hatay Mustafa Kemal University, Turkey The subject of orientalism is generally discussed by both Western and Eastern researchers from a religiouscentered perspective. However, this issue can be understood by analyzing in terms of inter-communal and socio-economic-cultural interactions and perceptions. In this respect, revealing the relationship between orientalism and history strengthens the originality claim of this chapter. In addition to this, considering that mission of history science is not just “past,” knowledge about the current debates of orientalism is signifcant in analyzing the situation. This makes it necessary to research the “orientalismhistory-media” equation. In short, the refections of orientalism in media are also addressed in order to reach the current knowledge in this section. Therefore, it has been tried to reveal how a historical issue evolved in the 19th century.

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Chapter 53 Refection of Orientalist Discourse on Netfix Turkey: The Protector................................................ 939 Yasemin Özkent, Selçuk University, Turkey This study focuses on the analysis of the orientalist structures in The Protector (2018-2020) which is the frst original series of Netfix Turkey. The formation method of the image of the East through a popular culture product in a global digital broadcast program constituted the starting point of the study. New media platforms have also gained a place as the principal actor of orientalist fction with the development of digital technology today. As a digital platform producing special contents for each country, Netfix interprets cultural values through exchanging and re-producing them. Accordingly, discourse analysis method was used in the study to discover how orientalism related patterns were inserted in Netfix contents. Formation of orientalist discourse was examined through character representation and timespace representation categories formed through considering theoretic information. As a result, it was observed that orientalism has also found a representation area for itself in media devices emerging with technology. Chapter 54 Reproducing Orientalism With Cinema: Aladdin (2019).................................................................... 953 Deniz Yüceer Berker, Istanbul Ayvansaray University, Turkey The place and importance of mass media as an ideological device is accepted without any discussion today. The sovereign states, trying to impose their ideology and world view to “others,” impose the



dominant ideology by using the media as well as economic and political pressure. Cinema is like a mirror that reveals the socio-cultural and economic structures in societies and refects all changes and conficts. Therefore, the relationship between cinema and social structure is quite strong. At this point, the relationship between cinema and orientalism, which is the subject of the study, becomes important. Orientalism is constantly being reproduced through cinema, which is one of the most efective mass media. In this context, the movie Aladdin produced in 2019 will be analyzed in order to analyze how the orientalist perspective is reproduced with cinema and how the eastern image is “otherized.” In the study, critical discourse analysis method was preferred for the purpose of analyzing the social and political backgrounds of the ideologies in the flm. Chapter 55 Orientalist Approaches in Advertising: Sample Advertising With Nike’s “What Will They Say About You?” Slogan............................................................................................................................ 974 Simge Kırteke, Independent Researcher, Turkey Brands ofer indicators to audiences through advertisements in many topics such as political, ideological, economic, and cultural. In particular, while creating their advertisements, international brands make use of the indicators that assume the cultural and demographic structure of the geographic location they are published in and carry out advertising campaigns under the infuence of Orientalism. With these advertisements, it is presented how the West shows the East with an Orientalist perspective to the audiences that the advertisement reaches both in the geographical location where it is published and in the international geography. Within the scope of this study, the Nike brand, which emerged in Western societies and became a big name in the international arena, the advertising campaign with the slogan “What will they say about you?” and the SHE (Saudi Heroines Empowering a Nation) advertisement were examined and compared with the method of semiotic analysis, and their relationships with Orientalism were explained. Compilation of References.................................................................................................................xlii About the Contributors................................................................................................................. cxxvii

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Index..................................................................................................................................................... cxl

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Foreword

The publication of Edward Wadie Said’s Orientalism in 1978 inaugurated something of an intellectual revolution. This book, critically examining western depictions of the Orient in (mainly French and English) literature, examined the binary characterisations of Self and Other which ensured that representations were in key respectsgenerallymisrepresentations. Said was the ideal person to write such a book. A literary critic of great distinction, he was culturally positioned between his Palestinian birth, his education in a British school in Egypt (which he hated, according to his Autobiography) and in the United States, having acquired US citizenship through his father’s military service. If his first name seemed westernised, his middle name crucially located him in his cultural family. He was famously a lover of western classical music and a notable pianist. Such a background provided him with the cross-over insights which infused his work. To this he added influences from such theorists as Gramsci, Fanon, Foucault and Adorno, among others. He thus came to make powerful contributions to post-structuralist theory, discourse analysis, and postcolonial studies. Beyond this he was, in his own words, an organic scholar deeply involved in questions of the day including Palestinian/Israeli relations, western perceptions of such developments as the Iranian revolution, the liminal position of refugees and the specifically culturaland situational problems of immigrants. To all of this he brought knowledge of inter-faith relations from his upbringing as a Palestinian Christian educated in Anglican schools, while always remaining deeply sympathetic to Islamic causes. Orientalism almost immediately began to influence studies in many other fields. Perhaps the first of these was art history since art historians realised that the Saidian paradigm fitted perfectly analyses of the images of the East produced by western artists. In thus transferring ideas from texts to the visual, it was a small step to the consideration of photography and later cinema. In addition, other literary traditions beyond those in the English and French languages came to be considered. Some scholars also began to expand the geographical application of Said’s ideas to South Asia and the Far East and even to representations of Self and Other in cultural encounters in other part of the world apart from Asia. Inevitably, there were also respectful modifications to his ideas as well as some critiques. In particular, it was pointed out that there were some instances in which the western self was positively influenced by the Asian other, particularly in the considerable respect that developed in the nineteenth century for Asian crafts as representing a significant alternative to industrially produced products that were seen as becoming aesthetically debased. This might also be true in approaches to philosophy and nature. Nevertheless, Said’s uniquely powerfulideas continued to influence the writings of a vast array of scholars and to be applied to other periods and media not considered by him. This Handbook represents the considerable scope and scale of such collateral effects. In the more than fifty contributions to be found in these two volumes there are many which display Said’s influ 

Foreword

ence, some which modify his insights, and only one or two that are a little more critical. These articles move the debate forward into the extensive consideration of a number of films from the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, as well as various documentaries and the productions of modern digital platforms such as Netflix. Displays in museums and in exhibitions have also to be interrogated here, including the arrangement of artefacts, images and captions, as reflecting the perceptions of curators and of the contributors of articles in catalogues. An important area for the conveyance of cross-cultural ideas and mis/representations is that of advertising. Images and texts relating to adverts often perfectly reflect some of Said’s strictures in the twentieth century, and in many ways continue to do so as companies search for ways in which products might be alluring to customers. In advertisements, as in other media, the semiotic analysis of language is vital. Other print media include newspapers and journals, both those with a popular readership and those that offer political, economic and cultural analysis, including the character of trade blocs and of international diplomacy. In several of these media we can identify assumptions about the alleged characteristics of modernism and its supposed alternatives. Yet another medium is that of modern video games, which have developed such popularity among the young (and perhaps not-so-young) and which convey so many covert and overt stereotypes of the East. The contributions on Turkey are important in all of this, as representing a culture which in some respects straddles Europe and Asia in the same way that it straddles the Bosphorus. Not the least of such self-stereotyping can occur in Turkish travel advertisements in which the stereotypes may be perpetuated in the interest of attracting western travellers to the allegedly ‘exotic’ character of Turkish culture (and also in parallel examples from other Asian countries). Such representations of Turkey are often related to the particularly cross-cultural situation of the Ottoman Empire and its transformation in modern times. Yet another highly significant area is that of gender studies and very importantly the stereotyping of women but also of elements of masculinities. The representation of the lives and alleged treatment of women constituted an important part of Said’s arguments and continues to be so in all modern studies. All of this reveals the extraordinary riches contained in this Handbook. It represents a set of tremendously valuable insights into the current state of play in these cultural studies and in many respects provides a sequence of signposts to the manner in which such scholarship may develop or diverge in the future. Both editors and contributors are to be congratulated in producing such a prolific resource invaluable as a foundation for so much future scholarly work.

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John M. MacKenzie Lancaster University, UK

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Preface

Orientalism begins to involve much more than the information gathering about the East in its general postcolonial period. In this period, this issue is reshaped with the work named Orientalism written by Edward Said. According to Said, who was influenced by Michel Foucault’s discourse theory, Orientalism is a Western discourse that dominates and reshapes the East. When we look at history, the West has established itself through the East with a dualist approach. The East has been the information object of the West. There is “otherization” in Orientalist discourse. There are stories of travelers in the past, novels that tell the East, and today the reconstruction of the East in discourse through all kinds of media. Discourse is established on all kinds of media such as cinema, television, news, newspaper, magazine, internet, social media, photography, literature etc. Today, under the headings of post-orientalism, neo-orientalism or self-orientalism, new orientalist forms work together with new media and traditional media. Therefore, this study aims to show how both new media and traditional media deal with orientalism today. Gender, race, religion, culture etc. are the main topics of orieantlist theory. Therefore, this study can be a source to show how orientalism is handled in cinema, series, painting, art, news, photography, writing, advertising etc. The book consists of 55 chapters in total. In the first chapter titled Orientalism From Past to Present, Traditional to Digital, it aims to explain the changing / transforming understanding of orientalism by shedding light on the present. The second chapter titled The Construction of Orientalist Discourse in the Documentary Series on the Digital Broadcasting Platform Netflix reveals how orientalism is realized in documentary films with a netflix documentary. Third chapter titled Orientalism as Caliphator Cognitive Warfare: Consequences of Edward Saïd’s Defense of the Orient analyzes the way in which Said’s honor-driven analysis worked to the benefit of those working towards a global Caliphate, warriors whose values and goals were the exact opposite of what he espoused in his post-colonial work. In the fourth chapter titled Virtual Orientalism/Imagined Dualism (VO/ID) Expansion: Examining the Mechanism Behind the Objectification of Zen as an Aesthetic Style, the concept of Zen, especially its applications as an aesthetic ‘style’, and the mechanisms behind such phenomena are examined. In the fifth chapter, Analyzing Jordan Peele’s Get Out with Fanonism: Tracing Postcolonialism in Hollywood Representations, Get Out is examined as an example of the recent positive diversity trend in Hollywood. In the sixth chapter, Constructing and Reconstructing Orientalism: Depicting Orientalist Imagery in Contemporary Art in the Quest of Self-Identity, it is shown that orientalism is a dynamic structure that represents continuity and change at the same time.  

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Preface

In the seventh chapter, New Portrayals of the Arab World in TV Series, three fictional series (Homeland (Showtime Networks, 2011-2020); Tyrant (FX Network-Fox, 2014-2016); and Jack Ryan (Amazon Prime Video, 2018-)) examines how the representation of the Arab world has evolved. In the eighth chapter entitled Engendering Orientalism: Fatih Akin’s Head-On and The Edge of Heaven, the orientalist elements in German-Turkish director Fatih Akın’s Head On (2004) and The Edge of Heaven (2007) films are examined. In the ninth chapter titled The Difference Between The Western Reflections of Disaster News and Orientalist Perspectives: Positioning Women In The Case of Titanic, it is aimed to reveal how the positioning of women in the past was realized in Titanic news, especially in the press of the period. Aguirre, Caché and Creating Anti-Colonialist Puzzles: A Normative Perspective, the tenth chapter discusses the anti-colonial narrative potential of certain works of cinema taking Aguirre, the Wrath of God and Caché as a case in point. In the eleventh chapter titled Harem and Woman From Oeintalist Pictures to the Cinema: Harem Suare, the reflection of the Harem institution from painting to cinema in the Ottoman Empire is examined. Along with the pictures of orientalist painters, Ferzan Özpetek’s film Harem Suare (1999) was examined and intertextual reading was made. The twelfth chapter, Techno Fantasies of East and West: Ghost in the Shell, takes a comparative critique through anime and film. Orientalism Revisited: Orientalism as Fashion, in the thirteenth chapter, examines the orientalism fashion from the seventeenth century to the twenty-first century. In the fourteenth chapter titled The Others of Babel In The Context of Orientalism, Mexican director Alejandro G. Iñárritu’s 2006 film Babel analyzes how orientalist elements were constructed in the marginalization of the East. The fifteenth chapter titled The Orientalism and the Hollywood: The Reflection of India on Western Cinema examines the reflection of India on Hollywood cinema. In the sixteenth chapter titled Eastern Male Image in Contemporary Oriental Media The Novel and Movie Of “The Lustful Turk” racist expressions towards the image of the Eastern male are analyzed in the axis of the novel and movie “The Lustful Turk”. Orientalist museum exhibitions in UK as a new media at the turn of 21st century: Re-orientalism of Orientalism, the seventeenth chapter examines the effect of orientalist themed exhibitions on people as a media tool. In the eighteenth chapter titled Spatial and Architectural Representation Problems of the East in Movies and Games, orientalist approaches in space and architecture are examined. The nineteenth chapter, Orientalism, Colonialism and Bouchareb’s Indigènes, examines the struggle for recognition of the colonial soldiers of Eurocentric historiography and the role of invisible subjects in the cinema. In the twentieth chapter titled Fantasies of Returning to Nature as an Escape from Culture: The Case of The Beach (2000), The Beach will be examined in the light of the concepts of Counter Culture, postmodern subject, consumer culture, in the axis of Nature. Culture and East-West dichotomies. In the twenty-first chapter, Representations of Masculinities In Gaya Jiji’s Film Named My Favorite Fabric, the representation of masculinity in a Syrian director’s film offers an alternative to the orientalist discourse.

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Preface

In the twenty-second chapter titled Neo-Orientalist Approaches in XR (Extended Reality) Applications, the effects of the transformation of information in XR technologies are interpreted in the perspective of new orientalism. In the twenty-third chapter, Post-Orientalist Comments By Contemporary Women Photographers, post-orientalist images from the interpretation of female photographers are examined. In the twenty-fourth chapter entitled French Orientalism Representations of Ottoman in Caricatures in Le Petit Journal, it analyzes how the French newspaper Le Petit Journal depicts the Ottoman Empire and reflects it on its readers in its publications. In the twenty-fifth episode, Reconsidering Gender Stereotypes Through Bollywood Cinema: Reconsidering Bollywood Movie Dangal, the film “Dangal”, which depicts father-daughter relationships in an Indian family and a female wrestler with international status, as different from a family shaped by oriental codes, is examined. In the twenty-sixth chapter titled Representing and Othering Oriental Women After 9/11: An Analysis of Body of Lies, the reconstruction of the otherness of Eastern Women after September 11 is examined. In the twenty-seventh chapter titled Tracing the Orientalism in the Image of the Country Reflected by the Media, the relationship between orientalism and country image and the effect of the orientalist approach reflected in the media on the country image is examined. In the twenty-eighth chapter titled Orientalism In Turkish Political Election Campaigns, the use of orientalist elements in the advertisements of Turkish political parties as a reaction to the West’s orientalist approach is examined. In the twenty-ninth chapter titled Diversity or Uniformity: Existing Demands and Representation Problem in Emoji As A Visual Language, it deals with the identity representations offered by emoji in the digital world. In the thirtieth chapter titled Projection of Oriented Elements: White Man’s Burden, the structures of domination starting with colonialism are examined through cinema narratives in the context of orientalism. Reflections of Orientalism and Modernism in the Film “Hamam” by Ferzan Özpetek, in the thirtyfirst chapter, examines the reflections of orientalism and modernism in the movie Hamam. In the thirty-second chapter, Reiterative Presentation of the East in Western Produced Video Games: A Foucauldian Discourse Analysis, it examines how the stereotypical depiction of the East is repeated in video games produced by the East. In the thirty-third chapter titled The Creation of Sustainable Orientalism in Cinema, the relationship between the creation of sustainable orientalism in cinema and the political economy of the film industry is revealed by examining the indirect orientation of non-Western directors to self-orientalism through festivals and funds. In the thirty-fourth chapter, The Discursive Representation of Islam and Muslims in Movies, films focusing on September 11 and the Iraq War that followed it are examined. In the thirty-fifth chapter, A Comparative Study Oriented Tourism Advertisements in Turkey: The Internality of the Oriental-Self, the orientalist elements in media content are examined. In the thirty-sixth chapter titled Country in The East and West Claw: Winter Sleep, Anatolian people are discussed from an east-west perspective in the axis of the movie Winter Sleep. In the thirty-seventh chapter titled Searching For The East in The Shadow of The West Layla M.as The Portrait of An Oriental Woman In Modern Orientalist Discourse, European-centric arguments put forward in modern orientalist discourse. The film Layla M. (2016) is discussed with a critical approach.

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Preface

In the thirty-eighth chapter titled The Trial of Traditonal Turkish Culture with the Auto-Orientalist Cultural Industry, the experimentation of traditional culture with the auto-orientalist Turkish culture industry is examined from historical, sociological and economic perspectives. In the thirty-ninth chapter titled Women’s Image In Turkish Cinema In The Context of Oriented: The Samples Of “Tight Dress” Film, the Eastern women representations produced within the hegemonic discourse of the West on the axis of the movie Tight Dress are analyzed. In the 40th chapter titled An Orientalist “Journey” to Istanbul from the Super Bowl Final: The Shifting of Classical Orientalist Discourse, the orientalist elements in the Turkish Airlines commercial film “Journey”, and Turkish culture with these orientalist elements in Istanbul. how it is represented is examined. In the forty-first chapter titled Digital Games and Orientalism: A Look at Arab And Muslim Representation in Popular Digital Games, focuses on the orientalist perspective in digital games are evaluated. In the forty-second chapter titled Orientalism, Islamophobi and The Concept Of Otherization Through Civil Conflict, Digital Platform Netflix, The Example of The “Messiah” Series, the orientalist elements in Christ, are discussed. In the forty-third chapter titled Orientalism and Humor: Mariginalization of The Turks In 9GAG, the orientalist perspective on Turkish identity is analyzed on one of the well-known humor websites “9GAG”. In the forty-fourth chapter titled Evaluation of Women’s Perspective In The East Societies On New Media News, the representation of women in the media is discussed in the axis of eastern societies. The forty-fifth chapter titled The Otherization of Turkey In The Orientalıst Discourse: Turkey and Orientalism examines the changing orientalism and the construction of the Turkish image with the media. Transmedia Storytelling in Advertising: The Mediator Between Orientalism and Occidentalism, in the forty-sixth chapter, examines the relationship between transmedia storytelling and othering. The forty-seventh chapter titled Orientalist Representations of Antakya [Antioch-on-the-Orontes] in Digital Media Narrations criticizes the definition and misinterpretation of the East within the city of Antakya according to the Orientalist approach. In the forty-eighth chapter titled The West-East From Two Children’s Point of View The Example of BBC-TRT, it is discussed whether the media is a tool that produces orientalist representations and whether the media is effective in the internalization of orientalism. In the forty-ninth chapter titled The Transformation of Ion Perdicaris To Eden Perdicarıs As A Retro Scenario and Orientalist Codes In Art: Woman and East “To Be Saved” From Eastern, the film The Wind and The Lion is discussed through intertextual reading and discourse analysis in orientalist painting. In the fiftieth chapter titled Analysis of Poster Designs of Turkish TV Series on Ottoman History: Resurrection Ertugrul and Magnificent Century Examples, the poster designs of two Turkish TV series depicting the Ottoman Empire are examined. The fifty-first chapter titled Orientalist Discourse in Communication and Media: Analysis of Researches in the Field of Media and Communication in Terms of Orientalism explores the effects of orientalism in the media. In the fifty-second chapter titled From Theory to Discussion Orientalism and History from Past to Present, the relationship between orientalism and media and history is discussed. In fifty-third chapter titled Reflection of Orientalist Discourse on Netflix, Turkey: The Protector, the orientalist structures are analyzed in Protector. In the fifty-fourth chapter titled Reproducing Orientalism with Cinema: Aladdin (2019), it is analyzed how the orientalist perspective is reproduced with cinema, especially for the movie Aladdin. xxxix

Preface

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In the fifty-fifth chapter titled Orientalist Approaches In Advertising Sample Advertising With Nike “What Will They Say About You?” Slogan, the relationship between Nike advertising and orientalism is examined. In conclusion, this book is very important in terms of offering detailed interdisciplinary data for communications theorists, media analysts, practitioners, researchers, academicians, and students working in fields that include mass media, communications, film studies, ethnic studies, history, sociology, and cultural studies.

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Acknowledgment

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As editors, we owe a great debt of gratitude to our dear academics who wrote chapters for this book. This book will shed light on researchers, students and academics interested in the field thanks to the contributions of valuable authors. We would also like to express our gratitude to the academics of the editorial advisory board who provided full support in the constitution of the book. Finally, we would like to thank the IGI Global publishing house for giving us the chance to publish our edited book.



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Chapter 1

Orientalism From Past to Present, Traditional to Digital Suat Gezgin Yeditepe University, Turkey Seray Yalçın Kocaeli University, Turkey Ozan Evren Istanbul University, Turkey

ABSTRACT The concept of orientalism, which the Western world puts forward as an academic discipline in order to recognize the Eastern culture, is commonly defned as the efort of the West to facilitate the establishment of the hegemonical structure by building itself over the East. Although orientalism contains diferent defnitions, it is related to many concepts. Among these, there are concepts such as “geographical discoveries,” “colonialism,” “imperialism,” “ethnocentrism” that contribute to our understanding of the relationship between Western-Eastern opposition. Concepts such as “technology” and “digitalization” have been added to these concepts in today’s world, and the orientalist discourse continues through digital technologies. In this context, a new concept defned as “digital orientalism” has emerged. The study aims to explain the changing/transforming understanding of orientalism today by shedding light on the understanding of orientalism from the past to the present.

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INTRODUCTION Orientalism is basically simple but essentially it is very complex. For this reason, looking at the events, social dynamics and turning points of the East and the West in the historical process; it is very important to understand both orientalism and orientalist thought correctly. The further we go back in the history of humanity, the more we evaluate the events within the historical context, the more we can approach these concepts with a holistic perspective and add scientific meanings and values. In this context, one DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-7180-4.ch001

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 Orientalism From Past to Present, Traditional to Digital

of the most important questions to be asked while making sense of orientalism should be how societies living in different parts of the world try to position themselves on the stage in the historical process. Throughout the history, many societies living on different continents have adopted the most appropriate lifestyle in order to maintain their continuity. One of the most important factors that shape the lifestyles of these societies is the geographical features of the region that they live in and environmental conditions accordingly. For example indigenous people living in the rainforests of Papua New Guinea, still have to gather food to survive today, as did all humans on earth 13,000 years ago. Among the swamp soil and the trees that do not provide food, considering that the most important food source of these people is the sagu palm in the rainforest, it can be understood why these people are food gatherers rather than being hunters. In this respect, the thought of ‘geography may be the destiny of people’ seems quite reasonable. Even today, we observe the reflections of societies leading to very different lives in different geographies. In fact, when we look at the history of the world, while in the 13 thousand years following the Ice Age, literate and industrial societies with metal tools emerged in various parts of the world where in the same period there were societies that were illiterate and engaged in farming or hunting using stone tools. These differences state a fundamental phenomenon in the history of the world and their reasons are unclear and open to discussion (Diamond, 2010). Attempts to find answers to these differences have been made many times and are still ongoing. However, each answer contains some paradigms within itself. Of the interest of social scientists, especially anthropologists and historians, some thinkers approached to this subject on the basis of biological differences: they claimed that any population was superior in innate talent, intelligence or drive. However, it is quite clear in the light of today’s scientific developments that different development of different people is not related to biological differences. These explanations are nothing more than a reflection of the orientalist thinking. On the other hand, social scientists such as the British Edward Tylor and the American Lewis Henry Morgan adopted some aspects of Darwin’s evolutionist approach and tried to explain the differences between societies and their progress at different speeds. Tylor argues that cultures progress in a series of evolutionary stages, while Lewis Henry Morgan states that societies have three stages of development which classifies savagery, barbarism and civilization and defines the stages with technological development levels (Bates, 2009). Engels, who was influenced by Morgan, defined the Western history as a representation of the general development of humanity and approached the development of society and civilizations unitary. In the Asian-type society, this type of society has been somewhat pushed out of history, as the state and society that pulled it around were considered separately (Balandier,2010). As it can be seen in Haris’ study, “these ideas are associated with the characteristic feature of the 19th century British anthropology (Victorian Era) when the foundations of Orientalism were laid. During this period, cultural evolution, the idea that human societies developed in a certain direction, with a series of evolutionary stages and the idea of Westerners as the final stage of this development is widely accepted. In this sense, the origin of cultural evolution is sought in primitive societies and these societies, as the simplest societies, constitute the lowest step of the chronological development. In this sense, culture expresses an understanding that assumes the single and linear historical development of Europe, which is the highest point of civilization”(Nar, 2014, p. 1661). Although it was seen that the view of societies and cultures was “one-sided” and Western oriented in the early periods when the science of anthropology emerged, this situation reversed with the development of anthropology. Although there is no consensus on why societies move at different speeds and stages, explanations that approach this issue through the geography factor are more widely accepted. 2

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 Orientalism From Past to Present, Traditional to Digital

Why is it important to seek an answer to this question, although there is no absolute answer yet? Are the criticisms right which state that the search for an answer to this question is a futile effort and that it only contributes to the orientalist discourse? Diamond (2010), answers the question of “If we manage to explain how one people has superiority over another, wouldn’t it be like justifying this superiority?” as follows: “This objection is based on a general tendency to confuse explaining reasons with accepting results. The use of historical explanation is a separate matter from explanation itself. Understanding is often to repeat or perpetuate the results; it serves the purpose of trying to change those consequences, not the belief. That’s why psychologists try to understand the souls of murderers and rapists and social historians try to understand genocides and the doctors try to understand the causes of illnesses. The aim of these researchers is not to justify murder, rape, genocide or diseases. On the contrary, they want to break this chain by understanding chained causes” (p. 7). As Diamond expresses, understanding chained causes leads to break chains. Therefore, seeking answers to this issue should not be considered as contributing to the orientalist discourse. On the other hand, it is a fact that orientalism builds its Eastern-Western opposition through the answers given to this question. “The flattening quality of orientalism that ignores the originality of Eastern societies is the product of its own ideological thesis. Theses in the form of ‘progressive, civilized Western society’ against Eastern society, which is claimed to be static and underdeveloped, have created the ideological cover of the colonization process that forms the basis of capitalism’s progress towards the imperialist stage. Although the underdevelopment and progressiveness may be a thesis that can be attributed to a certain historical period, they arise from the framework of the Western centrist ideology that glorifies the stage of capitalism has reached in the West which is accepted as the end of history”(Keskinok, 2016). Before moving on to the dynamics that orientalism holds, it would be appropriate to try to explain the thoughts that feed the Western-centric ideology. Societies tend to judge customs according to their own standards, and this is not a phenomenon unique to Western societies. Almost every society finds the customs and traditions of different societies extraordinary and tends to look dissatisfied with them (Bates, 2009). According to Levi-Strauss (2014), “Everyone calls what they are not accustomed to as barbarian” (p. 9) but every habit, every belief or custom can be explained in its own context, no matter how strange, shocking or even revolting it seems. This situation, which is called ethnocentrism, is one of the main causes of inter-communal conflicts. Almost all of the political turmoil, wars and conflicts in history arise from the ethnocentric perspective. According to William G. Summer, the ethnocentric perspective is “more pride, arrogance, seeing one group’s beliefs superior to others” (https://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Ethnocentrism). An ethnocentric approach lies at the basis of the West’s adoption of the idea that it is “superior” to the East and the effort to establish dominance over the East. Systems of thought such as Eurocentricity or American Exceptionalism emerged from this perspective. According to Clastres (1991), “every culture is ethnocentric by definition within the framework of its narcissistic relationship with itself. However, there is an important difference between Western ethnocentrism and its ‘primitive’ counterpart; any indigenous or Australian tribe also holds its own culture superior to others, but never tries to form a scientific discourse on other cultures” (p. 17). It is possible to say that the cultural ethnocentrism of Western thought, which is based on an exotic view of non-Western societies, has risen even more with reaching the Eastern lands. In the 15th century, the geographic discoveries initiated by Europeans for reasons such as seeing and recognizing the richness of the East, buying the goods of the East first hand, making new roads and maps and spreading their religion, created a breaking point in the history of the world. Geographical discoveries led to the start 3

 Orientalism From Past to Present, Traditional to Digital

of colonial activities and the spread of Western culture to the world. Europeans’ discovery of unfamiliar geographies turned into a colonial activity, more than a discovery in the short term. In this context, it would be appropriate to say that the first orientalists were Western explorers, geographers or missionaries. Zinn (2018), quotes Christoph Columb’s sentences written for the Arawak people from the ship diary as follows: “They brought us parrots, cotton bolls, spears and many other things and exchanged them with glass beads and rattles. They are ready to change everything they have. They have developed and healthy bodies and handsome faces. They are unarmed and do not recognize weapons. When I showed them a sword they cut themselves clumsily by their sharp edges. They don’t use iron. They make their spears out of reeds. These can be good slaves. With fifty people, we can submit to all of them and get what we want” (p. 7). Indeed, it happened as Columbus said. The West tried to get to know the peoples in different geographies with the explorers sent to the East. However, this is not a real meeting, but rather a method of figuring out how the West can pacify those societies in order to give them consent to their own regime. While doing this, West also wanted to attract the indigenous peoples to their own religion through the missionaries they sent. The West has gained the “power” thanks to the colonial activities, which is the result of the efforts to establish dominance over the societies that the Western world thinks. This problematic, romanticized as geographical discoveries, is “discovery” for Europeans while it means “occupation”, “slavery”, “exploitation” for the Indians in America, the Aztecs in the Yucatan Peninsula, the Incas, the Mayans or the African natives. The concept of geographical discovery can also be evaluated as an orientalist discourse as a result of the Eurocentric historical fiction and perception. On the other hand, “like missionary, orientalism strengthened the dominance of the West and nurtured Western colonialism. This situation has delayed the questioning of the legitimacy of the West at different levels” (Bets, 2018, p. 9). This study tries to reveal how the orientalist thought emerged and aims to explain the digital orientalism understanding considering the historical and intellectual processes that feed orientalism. While the first part of the study, which consists of two parts, sheds light on the concept of orientalism, the second part will discuss the concept of “digital orientalism” in the context of today’s changing social dynamics.

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A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE CONCEPT OF ORIENTALISM Although there is no consensus on when the concept of orientalism originated from the word “oriens”, which means “sunrise” in Latin, the general opinion is that it first appeared in the universities of the period in the 14th century by the Council of Vienna in order to understand the Eastern culture. Interested in Eastern culture, the West met the East with the Crusades and Geographical Discoveries during this period. After this meeting, departments such as Arabic, Syriac, Hebrew Language and Literature Departments were opened in various Western universities in order to understand the culture and richness of the East. Orientalism, which is also accepted as the science of the East, was used in England in 1779 and in France in 1799, and passed to the dictionary of the French Language Academy in 1883 (Turner, 2003; Nar, 2014). Contemporary criticism of orientalism has its origins in Edward Said. According to Said, the authority of the orientalist discourse is directly proportional to the success of constructing a reality through various prejudices affirming the Western world. These prejudices encode the West as the center of the

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 Orientalism From Past to Present, Traditional to Digital

world and the birthplace of civilization forever, and therefore the West is seen as the inheritor of modern civilization according to these prejudices (Jamerson, 2017, p.122-123). Since it is a system that transforms orientalism into an ideology, an operation beyond Eastern science, Edward Said was criticized by many orientalists when he put forward his thoughts that orientalism was not innocent at all. British-American historian Bernard Lewis said, “If someone says that ancient Greek studies can only be done by the Greeks, and that the ancient Greek researchers that were not done by the Greeks were spies and malevolent, we would consider him crazy. However, these views can gather supporters from the living orientals”(Ortaylı, 2009). Edward Said’s competence in the field, his experience and his being a Palestinian Christian Arab are two important factors that make his views on orientalism so popular. While defining orientalism, Said discussed the understanding of Reasoning (Discourse), which he described in Michel Foucault’s “Archeology of Knowledge” and “Discipline and Punishment”. Using Foucault’s knowledge-power formula, he emphasized that power and knowledge are intertwined with each other (Bulut, 2012). According to Lewis, who criticized Said’s view of orientalism, defined the concept as a school of painting composed mostly of Western European painters who have visited the Middle East, North Africa and painted what they saw or imagined, mostly in a romantic and extreme style. According to a more accepted definition, orientalism is a branch of academicism. In fact, with the Renaissance, there were Hellenists studying Greek in Western Europe, Latin who studied Latin, and they were called ‘classicalists’, while Hebrewists who studied Hebrew were called ‘orientalists’ (Lewis 1982 as cited in Bulut, 2012, p. 8) . Although Orientalism emerged as a science for the first time, it has been conceptualized over the West’s Eastern fiction, in this sense it is a complex subject that should not be considered one-sided. “Orientalism basically includes both a West-centered asymmetric world perception and in this context, it portrays a low, underdeveloped and irrational East” (Komel, 2014, p. 74). “The West defines itself by ‘alienating’ the East, in other words, by inventing an ‘East’ that is its completely opposite, by ‘Orientalizing’ the East” (Bulut, 2004, p. 13). Said (2016) stated that orientalism is a collective institution dealing with the Orient, and for the orientalist, he made the definition of “the person who researches, makes judgments, explains and teaches these provisions” for the orientalist (p. 4). On the other hand, it contains many different definitions within orientalism According to Said (1989), the first of these; Orientalism is a model of thinking based on the ontological and epistemological distinction between East and West, and includes the imagination between East and West. According to the second definition, orientalism is a discipline unique to Western universities that want to research and understand Eastern societies. Another definition is that Orientalism is a Westcentered institution that deals with the East, and the West is the way to dominate the East, re-establish it and become its supervisor. However, the point that needs to be underlined here is not that orientalism determines every word about the East unilaterally but that orientalism is a web of interests that inevitably comes into play and acts when it comes to the Orient. “In other words, Said defines Orientalism as a discourse-with reference to Michel Foucault-a discourse that through journalism, literature, academia and politics, encouraged, legitimized and even enabled or produced the British domination of great portions of the East” (Höglund, 2008). In this context, we can roughly define orientalism as follows: “An Orientalist discourse can be briefly defined as a communicative field that privileges Euro-American centric ways of thinking about places or people not considered part of Europe or the US.” (Jamerson, 2017, p. 122). The European-American centered way of thinking has a structure that legitimizes the superiority of the West over the East. Be5

 Orientalism From Past to Present, Traditional to Digital

cause as the West researches and learns the East, it opens up new areas where it can dominate the East. In this sense, orientalism shows itself in many different areas. Orientalism has appeared in many fields of art since the first time it emerged. While it was in close contact with the art of painting in the past, today it has spread to almost every field of art. In the early periods, Western artists, who had never seen the East and reflected their curiosity about the East and the images in their mind through their artworks, depicted the East with mysterious, hedonistic elements, on the other hand, they showed it as barbarian, primitive societies. Especially in the 19th century, we see that Western painters generally portray the West in an exaggerated way. From painting to literature, from plastic arts to cinema; art has become a tool of the West to strengthen the orientalist thought. Until recently, cinema has been one of the strongest fields of activity of the orientalist perspective. Cinema, which is an effective mass communication tool, reflects the beliefs and value judgments of Eastern societies by exaggerating and detaching them from context. The West, through the cultural representations of the East, overthrows the local and glorifies its own culture through historical distortions, excluding other than itself. Cinema, which is an effective tool in the production of mind-consciousness, sometimes alienates the East in individuals’ minds thanks to the meaning systems it creates with signs. But is orientalism’s current field of activity limited only to cinema? What tools does orientalism use in today’s digital age?

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FROM TRADITIONAL ORIENTALISM TO DIGITAL ORIENTALISM While using art as a tool, orientalism has found a wider area with the development and diversification of communication technologies. Especially with the introduction of mass media into our lives, the sphere of influence of orientalism has gradually increased. Mass media, which is one of the most important sources for the West to produce the image of the East, ensures the continuity of the orientalist perspective with its structure reaching millions. Especially mass media such as television programs, advertisements and cinema spread the orientalist discourse to the world. However, nowadays, thanks to the rapid progress of technological developments, the process of distribution of information has also become digital, and traditional mass media have taken new digital mass media. Orientalist discourse was also affected by this change and continued through digital technologies. In this context, a new concept of orientalism, defined as “digital orientalism”, has emerged. Jahshan (2014, p. 7) states that the images of the conflict broadcast on television during the Korean and Vietnam wars or, more recently, the reflection of the Iraqi War on the media are phenomenons that can be evaluated in this context, and at this point, indicates that Said’s“Theatrical of the East”definition is fully implemented in a digital context. However, when we consider the concept of digital orientalism within the current technological developments, it would be more appropriate to associate it with internet-based, especially new media technology, independent of the traditional mass media. According to Komel (2014) orientalism shows itself in the digital context as well as in the real world today. Social media platforms, environments such as computer or console games are among these areas where orientalism is seen. Digital games, in particular, target adolescents and young adults, causing the orientalist discourse to be easily processed. The game industry constantly releases digital games and these games are consumed very quickly. Quickly consumed popular culture products can easily affect the minds of individuals. 6

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 Orientalism From Past to Present, Traditional to Digital

Orientalism spreads its perspective imposed by digital games and popular culture products to the masses. “In parallel with the orientalist discourse in these products, the Eastern lands are reflected as a geography full of rich underground resources and treasures; Eastern societies are shown as barbaric, lazy, ignorant, aggressive and arrogant. Any kind of intervention in the East, which is defined as the opposite of the West and emphasized that it is in need of governance, is shown as legitimate. All of the symbols that make up the cultural image of the East are defined as anti-Western”(Taşkıran, 2019, p. 98). One of the studies on this subject was made by Sisler. In the analysis made by Sisler based on qualitative data, 15 computer games in the Middle East were discussed. According to this study, the representation of Arabs and Muslims in the game plays an important role in playing these games (Sisler, 2008). In this sense, digital orientalism is the face of a more insidious and more indirect hegemony compared to the traditional supremacy (Jahshan, 2014). “Just as travelers, historians and researchers in their time created the imaginary image of the East with novels, encyclopedias or paintings, this is accomplished today through video games, TV series and movies. After Said’s conceptualization of orientalism, the relations between East and West have been redefined according to power and power relations. In a sense, Orientalism is the West’s vision of being developed, powerful and modern in the mental world of the East. Western societies are in an effort to show the countries or societies that are in economic, political and technological conflict with them as bad, passive and inferior. Techno-orientalist thought is an effort to prove to East Asian countries and then to the whole world that the West is still strong especially in the context of America”(Becerikli, 2020, p. 1069). The emphasis on “West” when talking about orientalism is also considered to be Europe-America. However, there are some differences between the way Europe and America define the East. According to Said (1989) the East for Americans; especially China and Japan, that is the Far East. On the other hand, there is an understanding of the East for Europeans as being its “opposite image”. While explaining another aspect of digital orientalism, it is very important to make these two distinctions. Because in today’s technology world, orientalism has changed its shell. While traditional orientalism is transforming into digital orientalism, this concept refers to orientalism with a more American perspective. Therefore, talking about digital orientalism should not be mentioned without mentioning the USA and the technology race of the USA. “Today, America holds a position strikingly similar to that held by the British Empire of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Claims have been made both by the critical left and by the approving, neoconservative right that America, in fact, constitutes an empire” (Höglund, 2008). The USA is indeed making a name for itself in many fields and especially with its moves in digital technologies. While the leading country in the West is the USA, it is China in the East. Today, it is a fact that China takes a leading position in the production of technology. So much so that many technological products from mobile phones to computers, camera equipment to electrical objects, data storage devices to processors are produced in China. The overpopulation and cheap labor in East Asia causes the other parts of the world to carrytheir technology investments to countries in East Asia, especially China. The rapid rise of China and its technological development disturbsthe USA. In this context, tension between China and USA rises from time to time. One of the widelyknown examples of this is the Huawei crisis between USA and China. With the Huawei crisis, while China describes the US’ heavy moves against it as “economic fascism”, the US expresses its insistence on not backing down at every opportunity.On the other hand, with the Covid-19 pandemic, the competition between USA and China has become even

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more conflicted. By some commenters the statements of USA that the coronavirus was spread to the world by China are related to the fact that USA sees the rise of China as a threat. According to Mahoney and Mayer (2020), the US targeting China’s technology giant Huawei is due to an old fear that China might object to the West’s claim to be superior in civilization. If we approach the subject in terms of digital orientalism; according to Edward Said, the West has revealed itself as a superior civilization, legitimizing its hegemony with technological developments. Especially USA, which places itself in the center of the world, has started to see its technological progress as a “threat” while waiting for the collapse of China. Under the emergence of the concept of digital orientalism and effort to dominate the technologyglobally lies the West’s attempt to see the East as a “threat”. Mahoney and Mayer (2020) state that China is increasingly looking like the West with its unstoppable rise. On the other hand, it emphasizes that the West, which uses technologies similar to China’s technologies in the field of monitoring and public surveillance, has also started to resemble China. It is a fact that this similarity is not surprising in the globalizing world. However, this similarity is alarming for the USA, which is trying to dominate the East. Therefore, the USA did not delay in turning this situation in its favor. It is at this point that the concept of digital orientalism becomes meaningful: The West reflects the Chinese technology as “fearful” for the development of China in technology. This fear, which is expressed over the fact that China’s digital surveillance technologies are terrifying, makes the West’s own digital surveillance technologies more innocent. Shortly, “digital orientalism conceals how much democratic societies face the experiences and problems of the use of technology in China. It also prevents us from discussing socio-technological futures and the good society we need to imagine, by creating a ‘dangerous other’ and putting misleading dichotomies on the spot” (Mahoney & Mayer, 2020). Chinese and Western-based surveillance technologies are rapidly increasing and spreading around the world. Almost every country today uses surveillance technologies. In today’s world, where surveillance is tried to be legitimized, those under surveillance cooperate voluntarily “unwittingly” with the observers. While individuals worry about surveillance, they also become indifferent to the surveillance of their own countries under digital orientalist discourses. This indifference provides a comfortable environment for surveillance. It is also worth mentioning that in a world where smartphones, watches, computers, cameras located at every point under the name of security, face recognition systems constantly monitor and observe people, the ethical framework of this alarming situation should be determined and its boundaries should be clarified.

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FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION In today’s world where internet based technologies are developing without slowing down and societies are changing accordingly, orientalism is applied in a different dimension. In this context, digital orientalism, which emerges as a relatively new concept, needs further research and discussion. In this new era in which we are surrounded by social networks, in the immensity of digital developments, drawing new boundaries should be the primary task for us social scientists, especially communication specialists. Finding out unanswered questions, searching answers for unanswered questions… We know that modernization that developed with the Modern Age; politically, nation-states created capitalism in the economic sense and urban life in the social sense. Humanity has taken another step. What about digitalization, which has affected the world with the Information Age, has / will bring to humanity? To which 8

 Orientalism From Past to Present, Traditional to Digital

point will issues such as orientalism evolve with digitalization which has been discussed from the past to the present? Seeking answers to these questions is very important in understanding the past, present and future.

CONCLUSION Today, where everything is digitalized, traditional orientalism has also been reconceptualized as digital orientalism. Orientalism has been given new meanings through technology and digitalization. Indeed, considering the technological developments in the world, the necessity of examining orientalism in a new dimension has emerged. While the differences between the East and the West were very visible in the historical process, orientalism had to reconstruct itself in the globalizing world where the differences decreased. This situation, which is made clear by technology and digitalization, makes it necessary for orientalism to continue its existence through new fields. In the first part of the study, we mentioned why it is important to seek an answer to the question of why societies have gone through different stages of development in the historical process. Today, the rise of China and East Asia in technology and the equalization of the technological progress conditions with the West do not prevent the West from continuing its orientalist discourses in the “digital dimension”. The structure of orientalism that puts the West in the center through inter-communal differences in the beginning, continues in a more hidden and dangerous way in today’s world where differences are decreasing.

REFERENCES Balandier, G. (2010). Siyasal Antropoloji [Political Anthropology]. İş Bankası Kültür Publishing. Bates, G. D. (2009). 21. Yüzyılda Kültürel Antropoloji: İnsanın Doğadaki Yeri [Cultural Anthropology]. İstanbul Bilgi University Press. Becerikli, F. (2020). Wolverine (2013) Filminin TeknoOryantalizm Bağlamında İncelenmesi [An Analysis of The Wolverine (2013) in terms of Techno-Orientalism]. Journal of Erciyes Communication, 7(2), 1055–1076. Bets, F. R. (2018). Dekolonizasyon [Decolonization]. Büyüyen Ay Publishing.

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Bulut, Y. (2004). Oryantalizmin Kısa Tarihi [Brief History of Orientalism]. Küre Publishing. Bulut, Y. (2012). Orientalism’in Ardından [After Orientalism]. Sociology Journal, 3(24), 1–57. Clastres, P. (1991). Devlete Karşı Toplum [Society Against the State]. Ayrıntı Publishing House. Diamond, J. (2010). Tüfek Mikrop Çelik [Guns Germs and Steel]. Tübitak Publishing of Popular Science. Höglund, J. (2008). Electronic Empire: Orientalism Revisited in the Military Shooter. The International Journal of Computer Game Research, 8(1). http://gamestudies.org/0801/articles/hoeglund

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Jahshan, P. (2014). Cyber-Orientalism and the Virtualization of an Image: Edward Said’s Legacy for a Digital Century. In CASAR Fifth International Conference, Beirut, Lebanon. Jamerson, T. (2017). Digital Sociologie. In J. Daniels, K. Gregory, & T. Cottom (Eds.), Digital Orientalism: TripAdvisor and Online Travelers’ Tales (pp. 119-137). Policy Press. Keskinok, Ç. (2016). Oryantalizmden emperyalizme doğru doğu toplumlarına batı merkezci yaklaşımların eleştirisi [Criticism of western approaches to eastern societies from orientalism to imperialism]. Journal of Science and Utopia. https://www.bilimveutopya.com.tr/oryantalizmden-emperyalizme-dogru-dogutoplumlarina-bati-merkezci-yaklasimlarin-elestirisi Komel, M. (2014). Orientalism İn Assassing’s Creed: Self-Orientalizing The Assassings From Forerunners of Modern Terrorism Into Occidentalized Heros. Teorija in Praksa, 51(1), 72–90. https://search. proquest.com/docview/1518934407?accountid=13314 Lévi-Strauss, C. (2014). Hepimiz Yamyamız [We Are All Cannibals: And Other Essays]. Metis Publishing. Mahoney, G. J., & Mayer, M. (2020). Donald Trump’s campaign against Huawei is a symptom of digital orientalism, ignoring similarities in Chinese and Western surveillance.https://amp-scmp-com.cdn. ampproject.org/c/s/amp.scmp.com/comment/opinion/article/3046357/trumps-campaign-against-huaweisymptom-digital-orientalism-ignoring Nar, Ş. M. (2014). Oryantalizm Üzerine Antropolojik Tartışmalar [Anthropological Discussions On Orientalism]. Turkish Studies-International Periodical For The Languages. Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic, 9(5), 1651–1669. Ortaylı, İ. (2009). Tarih ve Medeniyet [History and civilization]. https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=6ir3HhwOO5Y.TRT Said, E. (1989). Oryantalizm Sömürgeciliğin Keşif Kolu [Orientalism]. Pınar Publishing. Said, E. (2016). Şarkiyatçılık [Orientalism]. Metis Publishing. Šisler, V. (2008). Digital Arabs: Representation in video games. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 11(2), 203–220. Taşkıran, Y. (2019). Dijital Oyunlarda Oryantalist Söylem [Orientalist Discourse İn Digital Games]. University of Atatürk.

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Turner, B. S. (2003). Oryantalizm, Postmodernizm ve Globalizm [Orientalism, Postmodernism and Globalism]. Anka Publishing. Zinn, H. (2018). Amerika Birleşik Devletleri Halklarının Tarihi [A People’s History of the United States]. İmge Publishing. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orientalism

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ADDITIONAL READING Abu-Lughod, L. J. (1991). Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D. 1250-1350. Oxford University Press. Almond, I. (2007). The New Orientalists: Postmodern Representations of Islam from Foucault to Baudrillard. I.B. Tauris. doi:10.5040/9780755696154 Bhabha, K. H., & Mitchell, W. J. T. (2005). Edward Said: Continuing the Conversation. University of Chicago Press Journals. Geiselberger, H. (2017). The Great Regression. Polity Press. Gould, J. S. (1996). The Mismeasure of Man. W. W. Norton & Company. Kottak, C. (2008). Anthropology: The Exploration of Human Diversity (13th ed.). McGraw-Hill. Rodney, W. (2012). How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. Pambazuka Press. Said, E. (1993). Culture and Imperialism. Knopf Publishing. Wolf, R. E. (2010). Europe and the People Without History. University of California Press.

KEY TERMS AND DEFINITION

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Digital Orientalism: Continuation of the orientalist discourse through digital communication tools in today’s world and a new approach to orientalism that emerged accordingly. Ethnocentrism: A belief that one’s own culture is superior to other cultures. Geographical Discoveries: The conventional term employed in historical literature to designate the major geographical discoveries made by European voyagers from the mid-15th to the mid-17th centuries. Imperialism: A condition in which one country has a lot of power or influence over others country, especially in politics and economic matters. Missionary: A person sent by a country to foreign countries to spread its religion. Orientalism: In short Western ideas about East. A thinking system that enables Europe-America centered thinking about the east. Orientalist: A person who does research about the east, rules over, explains these judgements and teaches them.

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Chapter 2

The Construction of Orientalist Discourse in the Documentary Series on the Digital Broadcasting Platform Netflix Hüdai Ateş Ege University, Turkey Alev Fatoş Parsa Ege University, Turkey

ABSTRACT Developing technology and communication opportunities show that the audience can access fction and documentary flms more easily than in previous years. This research reveals the extent of globalization with the development of communication technologies and how orientalism takes place in documentary flms through a netfix documentary. The orientalist perspective is transformed into a global perception through documentary flms and documentary series on digital platforms, World’s Most Wanted, Samantha Lewthwaite: The White. In this documentary, how the orientalist elements take place and how Islam is portrayed as a terror religion is revealed with the method of semiotic analysis, and the meanings created by the written-audio codes are revealed.

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INTRODUCTION “Everything is known through its opposite” … Explaining almost everything, this aphorism also clarifies the reason for the existence of the concept of Orientalism which was systematized by Edward Said and which refers to Western view on the East, their values, and the way they evaluate the East for the last three hundred years. The Eastern societies that had been colonized since the 18th century gradually lost power against the West and were dragged into a mentality that accepts the central position and the attitudes of the West. While defining themselves, these societies have considered the question of how DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-7180-4.ch002

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 The Construction of Orientalist Discourse in the Documentary Series

modern they are as an equivalent for the question of how Westernized they are or they seem; and tried to define themselves through Western civilization. This accepted superiority of Western civilization has gradually been perceived as an almost natural, internal process by Eastern societies. Following the accumulation of knowledge that lasted for years after the Age of Enlightenment, the West transformed itself into a merely universal subject of knowledge by stigmatizing other societies in different fields. At the heart of the process of constructing the perception of “we” and “they” lie exclusion and differentiation. This process that begins at society level with looking down on those apart from themselves moves down to individuals; while doing this, different criteria are used in different fields. Perhaps the most common one of these criteria is the comparison of cultural values. The comparison of cultural values is conveyed and imposed to the society by means of art and literature. With the development of communication technologies, the East-West dichotomy and the Orientalist discourse that started with painting and literature have passed on another dimension via films, news, the media in the internet environment with different structures, and finally, via digital platforms. The media, by its nature, influences to a great extent the way people think, perceive, and live. At the same time, it constitutes one of the most important means of representation as well. Every visual-audial message placed on the media constructs a new reality in the minds of the viewers. Discovering to use the media much better functionally earlier than Eastern societies, the West managed to spread much more effectively and rapidly the perception of reality it wanted to construct concerning the East-West dichotomy which is one of the dichotomies existed all through human history. It is evident that there is no other type of program on the media and the digital platforms than documentary films and documentary series that claim to represent reality. By their nature, documentary films claim that they convey or reveal the reality; they are transporters of culture, transmitters of values. Reproducing knowledge within the process of establishing connection with reality, they produce new forms of representation as well. This study scrutinizes how the East is represented with the Orientalist point of view in documentary films. In this context, a five-episode documentary series named The Most Wanted (Netflix/2020) has been selected by goal-oriented sampling among the documentary productions on digital platforms; and the study discusses how the narration and the meaning is constructed through the phenomenon of religion and how orientalist values penetrate beneath the surface in the episode “Samantha Lewthwaite: The White Widow” which is the third episode of the series. In the documentary, the crime of terrorism is told from a Western director’s perspective through Islam. Through semiotic film analysis, the study puts forward the connection of the discourse used in the documentary series with the signs and presents in a table how the Orientalist images and the associations or myths created by connotations are constructed. As a result, it has been revealed that the documentaries on the digital platforms are also influenced by Orientalism, and that it is tried to make the audience discredit Islam. Based on the thought that everything exists with its opposite, the study tries to uncover the paradoxical contradictions between the East and the West along with the dichotomies and conflicts that are open to discussion and that do not contain a certain judgment in this documentary series.

Digital Platforms as Means of Globalization When considered as a process, globalization is a concept having a history of almost 500 years. The globalization tendency which began with the desire of the explorers who set off from the West to discover other places on earth showed itself as a consequence of the enslavement of Africa, the black continent; peasantry evolving into bourgeoisie; the industrial revolution; and the spread of the new colonialist

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 The Construction of Orientalist Discourse in the Documentary Series

economic structure that developed with the emergence of nation states. In this new form of economy, the local markets expanded and grew bigger; materialistic and interest-based relationships gradually spread; the traditional production was diminished and profit-oriented production was placed in the center; and international capital expanded further all around the world. The new form of economy changed, transformed and globalized every market it entered. Destroying, plundering, or despising the previously existing one are the characteristics of this system which is named as capitalism by social science scholars working on society (Koç, 2003: 52-54). In this context, globalization developed parallel with the rapid spread of the capitalist understanding and showed itself clearly. For this reason, ‘globalization’ has been one of the phenomena discussed for the last 50 years in many disciplines, especially in social sciences. The developing technological substructure along with the innovations in transportation and communication constitute the fundamental dynamics of this phenomenon; thus, this concept has developed not only in political economy but also in all the fields in social life. This phenomenon which affected all the individual and social classes paved the way for many fundamental changes in human life ranging from social interaction to individual differences. The phenomenon of globalization which also refers to a social change process has gained great speed and acceleration for it makes long distances come closer in a short time with satellite broadcasting, new communication technologies, electronic substructure systems, and fast means of transport. Big developments and innovations in new communication technologies along with the great convenience brought about by mass broadcasting made it possible to transmit the event, situation or information emerged at any point in the world even to the most remote places. In this sense, mass media made globalization occur in an extremely widespread, rapid, and effective way. In terms of time and space, today’s world is in a completely different shape in the minds of the people with a totally new understanding compared to the past. Getting from one point to another is much easier; sending information to another part of the world with a few finger moves is even simpler and faster by the help of communication technologies. It is inevitable that the interactions that are simplified and accelerated to such a degree bring along many changes; this increased the dependency of states on each other. As a consequence of these changes, the globalization phenomenon which cannot be reduced to a single dimension since it refers to a versatile and different process in terms of economy, politics, society, and culture started to be defined in different ways. In the general sense, the globalization phenomenon is the process in which Northwestern rich countries keep their hegemonic attitude and superiority against poor countries. Globalization deals with whether the economic, politic, social, and cultural rules set by these countries are accepted by undeveloped countries; and it is based on the mentality that determines these countries as global actors (Talas, 2005: p. 99-101). Zygmont Bauman, who made postmodern philosophy applied in the field of sociology, states that the globalization phenomenon which moves on versatilely is basically a process of change, and it brings about time and space compression. In this way, both time and space change, and this process changes societies and people as well. Thus, the world is standardized. According to Bauman, globalization divides while uniting; the more it unites, the more it divides into pieces at the same time (2017, p. 8). Apparently, globalization cannot be considered as a single concept; in parallel with the developments it brings about, it should also be scrutinized in terms of its positive and negative aspects that should be examined separately. While many thinkers speak of globalization with its positive aspects, many others criticize it and take its negative aspects into consideration. It is these opposite point of views that provide progress in the scientific area.

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 The Construction of Orientalist Discourse in the Documentary Series

Concerning its impact especially on the countries where there is more consumption than production, globalization is used in a totally negative meaning because according to them, local cultures cannot be globalized, but the strong brands of international capital can. This leads to the disappearance of the local; the local somehow vanishes. However, when considered in terms of culture and art, it is a well-known fact that they reflect the society they belong. Created after the local is wiped out by the dominant culture or art norms brought about by globalization, the artistic or cultural product wipes out the diversity, uniqueness, and subjectiveness of the societies as well. Although interaction, common language or reference is among the indispensables of art, the negative aspect of the concept of globalization is clearly revealed when the globalized one wipes out the other. In today’s world, no phenomenon or concept can be considered independent of political economy. Consequently, almost every job serves the financial interest as this economic power has been set as the primary condition for existence and hegemony. Today, the dominance of international capital which constitutes the economic leg of globalization has reached all countries including the United States of America. When big capitals are represented with a worldwide brand, this brand can manipulate the world, the consumer and most of the people (Kongar, 1997: 1). Therefore, globalization which is considered separately with each of its aspects can never be thought independent of economy. In other words, global economic activities are more determinative compared to all other areas. As a natural consequence, the societies which cannot withstand the global economy make social, political, cultural and economic compromises. This not only means the loss of some values, but also results in a consuming society to which a unilateral and dominant culture is imposed. The most fundamental one of the varying needs of the economic units is communication. Trading worldwide and reaching many more sources effectively in a short time depend on the development of communication and information technologies. Mass media along with the new media makes it possible for any information to be spread to very large masses as well as a single person. This technological development process which started with the printing machine continued with the information revolution through radio, cinema, television and telephone, and reached its golden age with the internet and mobile devices. Being indispensable for new communication technologies, the internet has become the most fundamental actor of McLuhan’s global village as well. Besides creating the global network society, the internet and digitalization of the media has led to radical changes in the ways people live, think, perceive and understand (Ustakara, 2014: p. 340). As the internet is so powerful and effective, this new communication form has an impact in particular on people, and in general on societies and cultures. In this interactive communication age when everybody and everthing is affected in some way and speed is in the forefront, culture also gets its share from change and transformation. Today when cultural elements show changes continuously, a global and similar culture is constructed; local cultures lose impact and are defeated by the global culture. At this point, the main problem is that the West who has the possession of the global media, which means, therefore the possession of the power to create a new culture has also the power to spread its own opinion and mentality overlooking all systems of thought and cultures. Hence, the thing that is referred as global culture is in fact the Western culture resulted from the hegemonic attitudes of the Western societies (Yılmaz, 2007: p. 507). With the development of communication technologies, the West started to show itself more and spread to the world, which started the process of cultural imperialism. While global culture is being gradually adopted by undeveloped or developing countries, the local vanishes or hybrid cultures are born out of the combination of two cultures. The internet environment constitutes the dominant power that increases the pace of globalization more compared to other forms of communication. Unlike traditional broadcasting, the digitalization of 15

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 The Construction of Orientalist Discourse in the Documentary Series

analogue methods has made it possible to share sounds, images and all kinds of information much easier via computers and the internet technology. The process has reached its peak with satellite broadcasting; the conventional methods are substituted with fiber optic cables. Till 1960s, cinema, till 2000s, television, and today, the internet has been the locomotive of globalization. Thus, underdeveloped societies have had the opportunity to know and examine the world in a more detailed way. It is evident that cinema and television continue to have an impact; however, the internet provides a more powerful and effective, and at the same time, an interactive communication. Remembering that the first television dates back to 1930s, it is observed that broadcasting technology has reached to an unimaginable height of development in less than a century. As a consequence of the combination of the internet and television broadcasting, and switching to pay broadcasting, digital platforms have been developed; thus, broadcast of many programs is transmitted to masses ‘anytime anywhere’. Unlike traditional media, the internet provides a communication environment where there is no limit for time, place, scope, or speed which keeps on increasing day by day. These new opportunities also have an impact on the habits of television audience and make their habits evolve in a different direction. Several reasons such as the changes in preferences and priorities, the increase in the number of choices, and shortage of time made people turn towards digital platforms on which they do not have to stick to the time and stream process imposed by television and can schedule a particular stream on their own. Plenty of choices in different genres offered on a digital platform and having the chance to watch them anytime anywhere give the users a great opportunity and freedom in their choices of content. Therefore, the transformation of television broadcasting as a result of its combination with the internet has been rapidly accepted and new digital platforms are established all around the world. The technology companies and producers that develop digital broadcasting systems catch the audience who does not want to lose time with commercials and offer more quality time for a small but regular fee. Besides the internet, the development of mobile technologies and convergence and cross-media processes push the audience to the digital platforms as well. The practicality of setting broadcast streaming, time and place has also impressed producers as it made it possible to consume good quality productions anytime. Producers are also interested in local cultural and social events along with programs, series and films on a global scale. Therefore, the audience interests are taken into consideration all the time (Özsoy, 2000: 126). The integration of the internet into our daily life practices in a rapid and accessible way, mobile communication technologies, and their convergence with each other have led people to drift away from traditional media and prefer digital platforms. All of these are also named as cross-media; it provides individuals with easy access to the applications and contents that can be used via mobile phones and tablets anytime. In 1990’s, television broadcasting through online digital platforms was seen in the sector as a new kind of broadcasting. The development of mobile communication tools and the spread of internet use in 2000s brought pay television broadcasting to a new dimension (Chalaby & Segell, 1999: p. 352). The digital platforms which have a specific broadcasting system have a different structure compared to other systems. Payment options, reaccess to contents, and use on different devices such as tablets and phones are among these differences. The audience can set their preferences according to their priorities and choose among the alternatives. Making interactive broadcasting possible; having higher number of channel opportunities than a satellite by means of the internet; and providing access to hundreds

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of different kinds of programs anytime anywhere are the most prominent features of digital platforms (Koyuncu, 2017: p. 319). Digital platforms which provide the audience with different experiences develop their contents according to the feedback they get and the demands of the audience. With this digitalization, the audience is freed of the necessity to watch certain programs at a certain time and place, and helps to determine the content to be produced as well (Chalaby & Segell, 1999: 352). The digital platforms, which are very attractive for users both with their interfaces that provide easy use via applications downloaded on mobile phones and tablet computers and their rich and unique content, are global media tools that have a lot of types. Netflix, Hulu, DC Universe, Amazon Prime Video, Youtube Premium, CBS All Access are the biggest global digital platforms that have millions of users. In the given context, the world has switched to a different dimension with the brand new media while it is being globalized. The international global powers that have the possession of the media and new communication technologies can direct the flow of information in a certain direction and in certain ways by determining the content on the new digital platforms they founded. Besides, the opinions and values placed in the programs are imposed; hidden advertising of goods is done; and Western culture is imposed on the audience as a respectable and honorable culture.

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Netflix and Documentary Series Headquartered in California, Netflix Inc. is an American production company that provides technology and media services. It was established in 1997 in the Silicon Valley by Reed Hastings and Marc Randolph. A subscription-based streaming service is the primary business of the company. The subscribers can access to a library of films and television series – including Netflix productions – and watch them online. The company produces and distributes content in many countries for a certain fee and within the rules it has set. As for April 2020, Netflix has 173 million subscribers worldwide and 73 million in the USA – it is not used in mainland China due to local restrictions, and in Syria, Crimea, Iran and North Korea due to US sanctions (Investor Letter Q2, 2020). It should be remembered that it is the largest entertainment/media company by market capitalization. Netflix is a commercial digital broadcasting platform that offers its subscribers television shows, series, films, and documentaries for a certain monthly fee. The company provides its users with broadcasting service on a monthly subscription basis offering a variety of payment plans with no commitments. Offering unlimited viewing on all devices such as phones, tablets, computers or smart televisions; the opportunity to view the downloaded contents on phones without internet connection; the chance to continue to watch the contents anytime from where it was stopped are among the prominent features of Netflix. Along with the contents produced by various producers, Netflix also offers its own productions under the title “Netflix Originals”. Thus, Netflix is no longer only a broadcaster but also a producer offering service in almost 200 countries. Founded as a film rental service, the company started DVD rental by mail through internet orders in 1998. In 1999, it built its subscription system and introduced its film recommendation system in 2000 based on the calculated points given by the subscribers (Netflix, 2019). In 2005, the number of subscribers reached 4.2 million; and the broadcasting system in which all users can watch films and television programs on their personal computers was established in 2007. Company’s first foreign service out of the USA was given in Canada in 2010; in 2011, the company started its service in Latin America and the Caribbean. A year later, it started to gain recognition in many

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 The Construction of Orientalist Discourse in the Documentary Series

countries in Europe; and the number of countries it provided service increased day by day. In 2013, Netflix debuted its own productions titled Orange is the New Black, House of Cards, Arrested Development and Hemlock Grove. Furthermore, it earned the first nominations for original online-only web television programs at the Emmy Awards, and the film named Roma won the Oscars for “Best Director”, “Best Foreign Language Film” and “Best Cinematography” in the 91st Academy Awards. This digital platform which offers different content for each country describes itself as an “internet entertainment service”. Having 148 million users by year 2019, Netflix not only is an entertainment service but also has the role of a bearer of culture. This institution which has a very large number of followers offers different content to people in many different groups from children to the elderly. With its own productions, it has become highly popular all around the world and has reached very large masses. Even though it is not the only digital platform on the world, it has 71 percent of the global market with its original productions (Global Television Demand Report, 2018: p. 2). According to the results reported by Compari Tech in the first quarter of 2020, the number of subscribers in Turkey is over 1.7 million with a financial gain of 53 million dollars. This digital platform which has personalization features such as Pay TV, Mobile TV, Video on Demand, and Catch Up has become the pioneer of the new digital broadcasting system. The advanced personalization features provide the user with recommendations based on personal preferences. The algorithm built on the platform constitutes the basis for the recommendation system (Osur, 2016: p. 37). In the first years of establishment, Netflix defined itself as “an authoritative online source for movies”; in 2002, Hasting, one of the founders, made an explanation as follows: “What we believe is the true strength of the Netflix model: a proprietary system for personalizing movie recommendations for each subscriber via a remarkably powerful and innovative rating system. Instead of someone else’s tastes to guide a subscriber’s choices, Netflx builds a profile of each person’s movie likes and dislikes to truly personalize a DVD recommendation” (Osur, 2016: p. 37). Netflix, as a digital platform, is shown as one of the establishments that use social media in an active and up-to-date way. When the social media platforms such as Facebook, Instagram and Twitter are examined, it is observed that Netflix has developed a warm relationship with its followers, which is reflected in its replies to its users. The representatives of the platform who sometimes reply to the comments on the social media in a witty way follow local and global movements along with the current agenda and answer their users accordingly. Preparing different contents and types of programs depending on the demand of the users in the region or country where the service is provided, Netflix offers a wide range of content from series to films, from competition shows to documentaries. Although Netflix is the biggest representative of the sector, the company keeps developing its content all the time in order to acquire new subscribers and so as not to lose the existing ones. The platform which offered film rental service in the beginning gives weight to the production of films and documentaries today. Aiming to increase the number of subscribers and its prestige by winning international awards with its films, it makes great contribution to film production. Financially, films are generally the productions with the highest numbers. Therefore, films constitute the most powerful means of a global broadcaster like Netflix and the market. These films are means of not only increasing the number of subscribers and income, but also conveying the discourse, opinions, values and messages of the dominant ideology. Among these tools, documentaries are the type of films that are viewed the most seriously as they create the perception that they present the reality. The first film co-produced by Netflix and partner companies was Art of Conflict: The Murals of Northern Ireland (Directed by: Valeri Vaughn, 2012) which was distributed by Netflix as well. This film was 18

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also the first documentary film it produced. Following this film, Netflix made an exclusive distribution deal for a documentary about the Egyptian revolution named The Square (Directed by: Jehane Noujam, 2013) which won awards at the Toronto and Sundance film festivals and was nominated for the Oscar for “Best Documentary” (Zeitchik & Chmielewski, 2013). The documentary named The White Helmets (Directed by: Joanna Natasegara, 2016) which was distributed by Netflix won the Oscar for “Best Documentary – Short Subject” in 2017. Reaching 100 million subscribers all around the world, Netflix won the Oscar for “Best Documentary – Feature” for the film Icarus. Table 1. The Number of Films Netflix Produced by Year 2012

2013

2014

Film Documentary

1

1

7

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2

18

40

70

40

7

10

19

18

22

2

4

7

6

1

1

3

4

7

10

31

66

99

75

Short Film Special Film Total

1

1

7

Source: (Netflix, 2019)

The number of films produced by Netflix between 2012 and September 2019 are presented in Table 1. It is observed that the institution began film production with documentaries. In 2015, feature film production was added to documentary production that started in 2012. Today, with its direct contribution to film production, Netflix is of great importance in the cinema industry. Many productions in different genres and almost 300 films have been produced since it began film production. Besides the USA where it was founded, Netflix also made films in many different countries with different directors in the languages of those countries. Nevertheless, the real contribution of Netflix was not in the film production sector but in distribution. The films are no longer viewed at movie theaters; they are viewed everwhere on mobile devices, computers, and televisions via digital platforms.

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Table 2. The Number of Films Netflix Distributed Internationally Films in English

54

Films in French

17

Films in Spanish

32

Films in Korean

11

Films in more than one language

11

Films in other languages

66

Total

191

Source: (Netflix, 2019)

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 The Construction of Orientalist Discourse in the Documentary Series

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Including films in many different languages such as Japanese, Spanish, French, and German, Netflix has bought distribution rights for films from different countries and offers them as contents on the platform. The contribution of Netflix in the film industry could not be ignored after it broke the record with the film Bird Box which reached 45 million viewers in a week. This number corresponds to the 32 percent of almost 140 million subscribers of Netflix in 2019 when the film was debuted. Despite all the negative criticism the film received, it was widely shared on social media accounts such as Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter, which caused an increase in the ratings (Clark, 2018). This also attracted the attention of film producers; they have started to produce films without being concerned about the boxoffice revenue as Netflix has canalized its investments to film productions to be offered to the already present viewers, not for the movie theaters. This tendency reveals how effective and powerful the impact of digital platforms on film industry is. While the traditional film industry is gradually being replaced by the digital film industry, the digital platforms see how the developing media technology influences film production and distribution with the Netflix example (Gür, 2018). Netflix has had an impact on many businesses including film industry and film festivals in the process it started with distribution. The first nominations of Netflix films in festivals started with documentaries. In the years when Netflix had just stepped into film production, the film The Square was nominated for the Oscar for “Best Documentary” besides its several nominations in film festivals (Özsefil, 2019). Directed by Alfonso Cuaron, the film Roma (2018) received world-wide fame after it was nominated for the Oscar for “Best Picture” and was also shown in movie theaters. Then, the films The Ballad of Buster Scruggs, Mowgli, and Bird Box met the viewers in movie theaters as well. Following the negotiations with Hollywood producers, a number of Netflix production films were shown in movie theaters before they were streamed on the platform (Küstür, 2019). In spite of the fact that Netflix’s priority is to stream the films it produces on the platform, it is also important to show them in movie theaters and participate in film festivals in order to increase the popularity of the films and make them gain prestige. In conclusion, by producing documentary films and series in more than one language in different cultures, Netflix reaches its viewers all around the world today. Besides gaining economic interest, these documentary films and series aim at entertaining as well. Through these documentaries, public opinion is formed; particular values, opinions, ideologies, and images are imposed on the individuals; and various products are advertised in a hidden way. While there are many discussions on the legal processes and control concerning the digital platforms, the opportunities that the internet provides in a free environment are still a concern for the countries. On the other hand, Netflix has been searching for new types of expression by providing opportunities also for independent cinema producers besides mainstream film makers. Netflix has a great impact on film industry – positive and/or negative; it shows how powerful new media technologies can be.

Reflections of Orientalism on Cinema and Documentary Films It is not possible to have a certain idea about the emergence process of Orientalism. However, when the dialectic between Western and Eastern worlds is taken into consideration as the phenomenon at the heart of the concept, it is possible to say that the emergence of Orientalism is as old as the time since the West and the East emerged; that is, it is as old as its existence (Bulut, 2014: p. 18). Edward Said systematized the concept from the 20th century till our day and introduced it in the field of social sciences. According to Said, Orientalism is a manner of writing, vision and study peculiar to the Orient (the East) in which the needs, perspectives, ideological tendencies and values identified for

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the Orient are constructed by the West. The Orient is taught and studied in pre-determined ways, and then it is administered and pronounced upon. Thus, the Orient becomes dependent on Western learning and consciousness, and takes the form of representation shaped by the set of forces that are hold by the West (2017, p. 227). For Said, Orientalism is a Western school of interpretation that has chosen the Orient as its material. The East has been poles apart from the West for centuries. The West was interested in the East which had reached a certain level of civilization long before it did; taking advantage of the richnesses of the East, the West aimed to construct its own identity. Agriculture, as it symbolizes the fact that the East had adopted a settled life before the West did, is taken as an example for the phenomenon that constitutes the dialectic between the East and the West. Although there were vast fertile lands both in Asia and Europe, Europe fell behind in agricultural technology in that period and could not develop agricultural areas. This problem was overcome by being in a continuous commercial relationship with the East while taking its share from Asia’s unique products such as precious fabrics like silk, and spices (Bulut, 2014: p. 18). The relations between the East and the West were based on the mutual needs of the different societies and states both in the East and the West. Since it was difficult to make a clear geographical distinction between the West and the East in that period, these relationships are more than merely the interaction between two regions (Bulut, 2014: p. 18-19). As a consequence of the Macedonian King Alexander the Great’s expeditions to the East, Western societies encountered for the first time with Eastern societies in great numbers. New communal societies were formed such as the Commagene Empire who were Western but settled on Eastern lands and continued their existence for years. In the same way, Atilla’s expeditions resulted in great migrations of societies that came from Middle Asia and settled in Europe; yet, unlike Alexander’s expeditions, they led to massive ethnic conflicts. These major events – when considered within the conditions of those times – prevented the clear line between the East and the West, and paved the way for Eastern societies to follow more expansionist policies with the birth of Islam within a few centuries after Atilla marched to Europe. Islam started to spread and expand from the 7th century on, and gained power as a phenomenon belonging to the East by being associated with the Islamic world. This constituted a new critical threat for the Western world. In that period, by means of Christianity, images against this new religion were constructed and Mohammad, the prophet of Islam, was identified with negative characteristics. Accordingly, leading figures of Eastern Christians wrote refutations against Islam. The West decided to define the East which they considered for the first time as the opposite party with these refutations (Bulut, 2007: p. 428). In this context, Islam was generally tried to be shown as a barbaric, aggressive, and destructive religion. While the Umayyads of Al-Andalus were threatening the West through Spain in the 9th century, the Crusader armies under the leadership of the Pope launched expeditions to the East through Anatolian lands. In that period, Crusaders considered the East as a heaven on earth including the holy lands (Jerusalem and nearby areas). In spite of the fact that conquering the holy lands and saving them from Muslims seemed to be the main purpose, the different states that formed the alliance had different economic, political and military concerns. Feudal lords’ desire to gain economic power on Eastern lands; knights’ quests for adventure; ambitious efforts of the clergy to spread their religion; and the curiosity of the explorers about the East led to the differences in the West’s definitions of the East (Hentsch, 2008: p. 61). Apparently, expansionist policies have always been set forth in terms of political economy in every century within its particular conditions. Thousands of people died in the wars on the Islamic lands which continued at intervals until the 15th century. While fighting with the armies from the West, the Islamic world was

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also exposed to Mongol incursions from the other direction and lost power due to these attacks. The Crusader armies were in a continuous interaction with Eastern societies through these expeditions and they had the chance of getting to know the Islamic civilization closer. Besides many inventions such as gunpowder, compass, paper, and printing machine, they were also introduced with mathematics. As a result of these expeditions, Western societies discovered new commercial markets, invaded new lands, introduced with precious fabrics and various spices, and had a forceful and destructive impact on Eastern societies (Hitti, 2011: p. 255). In the 18th century, Orientalism went through a significant development and change, and became an institutional field of knowledge. While the East lost power against the West with the change in political conditions, Orientalism became an academic discipline. Within the conditions of those times, the West tried to dominate over the East in an imperialist way (Bulut, 2014: 71). In the late 18th century, the East which had always been a focus of interest for the West started to be explicitly considered as an area that should be civilized by the West. Orientalism which gradually turned into an ideology served the purposes of revealing the differences of the East, examining these differences to transform East’s richnesses into a form that the West can make use of, and imposing and spreading all around the world the idea that the West is superior (Boztemur, 2002: p. 135). While the colonialist, imperialist mentality gained power in the 19th century, Orientalist studies accelerated. Although the East had the possession of the richnesses that the West was in need of, it could not use them effectively (Bulut, 2014: p. 87). Looking from a different perspective for its own life style and interests, the West considered the East as an “academic field of study” and an object of its imperialistic purposes. In this period when the number of academic studies increased, researchers who made analyses on various subjects and fields through an Orientalist perspective were also sent to the East as well as the ambassadors. In this period, as colonialist activities continued in different fields, new inventions emerged as well. While colonialism which was of critical importance for Western states gained new attributions, “cinema” was born as Lumiere brothers organized the first public screening of a film in December 1895. Soon after this invention, film makers started to record images from different parts of the world for various purposes. During these recording attempts, many different countries and societies had the chance to learn about these new invented devices; and the images obtained from these places were shown in different parts of Europe. In the following years, the majority of the images obtained from different continents consisted of the ones taken on the colonized lands. For the West, the East appeared exotic and mysterious. Recorded through the perspective of the Europeans, these images were shot in the way they wished and expected to see them as it was them who would watch these images. Considering the East as primitive and undeveloped, the West placed itself at a modern and civilized position with the images taken by the cinema technicians that went there. The Orientalist perspective directly contributed to the spread and establishment of colonialism, monarchy, and imperial ideologies. In the first films consisting of unedited raw images, the contributions to the colonies were filmed; what the colonialist Western societies did were tried to be shown as legitimate and valuable. This shows that cinema was used as a tool of consent in that period for illustrating in their own geographies the activities the Western did on Eastern lands. These images taken until the invention of editing were almost ‘document films’; in the following years, the shootings were brought into another dimension as editing techniques were developed. Everything including the construction of the story, costume and set design, characters, composition, and editing served as a reason to question the reality of what is shown.

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 The Construction of Orientalist Discourse in the Documentary Series

In the following years, the question of whether the cinema reflects reality or not was the most discussed topic concerning cinema and editing. Certain cinema theoreticians and art critics reminded that since it was fiction, reality should not be searched in cinema or art, and indicated that the criticism was unfair. The reality presented by cinema is a new produced reality; this means everthing shown in the films is reflected from a subjective perspective, and sometimes is twisted and distorted. This discussion has also been significant and critical in terms of Orientlist representations. If cinema is fiction, then, directors and producers can construct a context the way they like within their flexibility of thought and present their films on their level of artistic reality. For instance, in the films made after the USA-Vietnam war, the people who lived in this wonder of nature, Vietnam were depicted with extremely negative characteristics and portrayed as a primitive society; it was conveyed to the audience that the USA was in fact trying to modernize them. Since cinema is fiction, and the director presents a fictional work of art, the blame cannot be put on the director. However, on the other side of the coin, if this method in which the reality is distorted is approved, should the director be held responsible at all? How should the reality of the films that have been produced through an Orientalist perspective including the colonialist films and Hollywood cinema be questioned and evaluated? The main problematic of the study should be considered in this regard within the framework of Orientalism. Edward Said indicates how the USA cinema presented Muslims in this context as follows:

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“…There is now, for example, a new wave of large-scale feature films whose main purpose is to first demonize and dehumanize Muslims in order, second, to show an intrepid Western, usually American, hero killing them off. Delta Force (1985) began the trend, but it was carried forward in the Indiana Jones saga, and innumerable television serials in which Muslims are uniformly represented as evil, violent, and, above all, eminently killable. One of the changes from an old habit of exoticising the Orient in Hollywood films is that romance and charm have now been completely eliminated, as they have also been in the ninja films that pit a white (or even black) American against endless number of black-masked Orientals, all of whom get their just deserts.” (2013, p. 28). As stated by Said, the director does not make decisions coincidentially while making up the fiction; moreover, the thing presented to the audience as fiction is part of a bigger fiction. During the period known as ‘cold war’ or two poles world order, the USA presented Soviet Russia to the West as the other and an enemy. Following the September 11 attacks, the same intention was targeted to the Islamic world, and a negative perception of Muslims was created through films. The September 11 attacks were reported to be committed by “Muslim terrorists” or “Muslim criminals”; not terrorists or criminals. As a result of the UK’s and central Europe’s approach, considering England and European countries as the center, the term Middle East started to be used in the 19th century along with definitions like the East, the Far East, and the Near East. As a matter of fact, even this process reflects the West’s colonialist approach to the East. After the September 11 attacks, the East, again, was the geography that the West was interested in. Through these films, the USA had to take revenge from the bad guys, clear the region from these barbarian terrorists, and make the region modern and civilized in the way it wanted. The invasion of Afganistan and Iraq was announced to the whole world by George Bush, the president of the USA at that time, stating that the USA had no other purpose than fighting with the bad people. When the USA foreign policy shared these opinions with the world, American film producers shared the same thoughts and feelings; which was criticized by Said.

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 The Construction of Orientalist Discourse in the Documentary Series

In the last century, the USA which constitutes the central power of Western societies has tried to impose the enemy that the West should fight or the “other” through cinema. During the times when the USA considered Russia as the first threat to fight with, in Hollywood films, Americans were shown fighting Russian terrorists. Or when Vietnam, China, or Japan is a threat for the USA, the bad guys in the films are from these countries. It should not be considered as a coincidence that the character that the director or the script writer portrays as the bad guy in the film is chosen among the individuals who do not comply with the US policies. Also according to Said, the Orientalist representation forms in Hollywood cinema are always based on negativities. The Arabs in particular, and the Muslims in general, are reflected as lustful; bloody terrorists; sadist; treachers; slave traders; lazy; unaware of the developments on the world; helpless; unwise; ignorant; and lowbrow. Consequently, constructing the perception as if these societies which have been fed on defeatism and terrorism will conquer the world contributes to America’s policies and the hegemonic perspective of the West (Said, 2017: p. 300). This perception created by the Hollywood cinema is underlined in the documentary films made by the West; since it is much easier to accept documentaries as reality, the orientalist perspective is still included in the documentaries. Just like the Western film technicians in the first years of cinema who shared with the audience the images they had taken from the colonized lands, the documentary films today serve the same purpose. In other words, Western directors or directors who neglected their identities shoot stories of Eastern societies in a way that is beneficial for the West for money or popularity. Furthermore, documentary films which are produced for ideological purposes are supported behind the mask of “reality and scientificness”. The Orientalist perspective has been reflected in and has penetrated into documentary films and series so much that visual, audial, and written codes and signs appear frequently in this kind of documentary films and series.

The Analysis on Netflix Documentary Series The Most Wanted

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Method In communication sciences, all the processes between the source and the receiver are explained with different theories and the findings are analyzed through different methods. Scholars have long been questioning and trying to find out how the message is received by the receiver. The messages conveyed through television are assumed to be perceived passively by the audience, and changed depending on the culture and knowledge accumulation of the audience. In addition, the messages shown on television serve certain purposes and are used to construct the desired perception in the minds of the audience. At this point, every message that is shown is analyzed, and the content and the purpose of the message are revealed. In this part, how the Orientalist images are placed in the film has been put forward through semiotic analysis. This study focuses on the crime of “terrorism” and is limited to the placement of Islamic elements with an Orientalist perspective. All forms of communication are made up of certain codes and signs. The codes provide the organization of the signs and their relations with each other; in this way, they show that signs refer to other meanings besides their own. Messages are given to the audience through certain codes and signs; and the communication structure which is defined as social interaction is formed with these messages (Fiske, 1990: p. 1-2). The codes are systems of meaning, and meaning is constructed by the interaction between the signs and the environment they are positioned in.

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 The Construction of Orientalist Discourse in the Documentary Series

The study analyzes the visual, audial, and written codes given to the audience through the documentary series, and thus, considering cultural values and ideologies as a whole, looks for traces of Orientalism. In addition to this, the consistent relations and connections in the narrative of the film need to be structured in order to construct the basis for semiotic analysis. According to Barthes, this consistency is possible with “the principle of pertinence”. According to this, the phenomena are interpreted through the same perspective and the analysis is done within the examined topic. All the data within the analysis makes up the corpus. The corpus is identified by verifying the connections and the phenomena within the scope over and over again (Barthes, 1993: p. 72). Texts and films are interpreted through the reader’s or the audience’s cultural or personal predictions. While the relation between the signifier and signified determines the denotation, the difference between the two and the interpretation of these differences reveal the connotations. The formal interpretation of signifier-signified relation makes up the connotation, whereas the interpretation concerning the content makes up the associations and myths (Fiske, 1990: p. 85-88). The traces of Orientalism are presented in the table which explains the signifiers-signifieds, connotations, and myths through the data obtained from the documentary. In addition, the audial and visual codes in the film contribute to revealing and understanding the messages given through the images that are analysed. The table is based on Roland Barthes’s two levels of signification approach.

Findings

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Released by Netflix, the biggest online digital platform of the world, in 2020, The Most Wanted is a five-episode documentary series about the people accused of various crimes who have not been arrested despite the global investigations and the prices put on their heads. The crimes of the wanted can be listed as ‘mafia relations, genocide, and terrorism’. The study analyzes the third episode of the series which is about a British woman called Samantha Lewthwaite who is accused of terrorist crimes but has not been arrested. The director of the episode titled “Samantha Lewthwaite: The White Widow” is Hugo Van Offel. This documentary which is totally based on Orientalism is presented to the audience with features reinforcing and strengthening the perception of “the association of Islam and terrorism” which has been created by especially the Hollywood cinema and the Western media. The woman in the center of the documentary, Samantha Lewthwaite, is not an ordinary British citizen. She is described in the documentary as a “white Western woman who converted to Islam” with her free will. Starting with the images of the London subway attack in 2005 and an interview, the documentary opens with the phrase “the first suicide bomber attack in the United Kingdom”. It implies that such terror incidents have started with attacks made in the name of Islam. The documentary is based on the interviews with the witnesses, journalists, experts, and the law enforcement officers who tried to catch the terrorist named Samantha.

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 The Construction of Orientalist Discourse in the Documentary Series

Table 3. Analysis Based on Barthes’s “Two Levels of Signification” Approach How Many Times Shown

Signifier

Signified

Connotation

Association/Myth

London, Mombasa, Nairobi and Mogadishu

14

General view of the city

Orderly cities against dilapidated, ruined buildings

Development of the West against underdevelopment of the East

Developed /Underdeveloped Civilization myth Underdevelopment ideology

London, Mombasa and Mogadishu

33

Muslim woman

Woman in burqa or hijab

Conservatist women contrasting with European women

Past and unprogressive

London, Mombasa and Mogadishu

17

Muslim man

Man in taqiyahs, keffiyehs, or snow masks

The implicit Orientalism of men in outfits of Eastern culture – frightening, horrifying

Past and unprogressive Backwardness Fear

Mombasa and Mogadishu

14

Weapon

AK-47, Rocket launcher, Molotov

The chaotic and unlawful society structure in which the ones with the weapon construct their own justice

Religion of terrorism Death

Arabic writings and weapons: Labeling Islam as a religion of terrorism

Religion of terrorism

Anti-modernist

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Place

Mombasa and Mogadishu

8

Flag

The flag with white Arabic script and images of weapons on black background

Mombasa, Nairobi and Mogadishu

12

Vehicle

Barrow, carriage and motor tricycle

Animals are used, outdated vehicle

London

6

Newspaper

Headline

The woman in hijab in the news with the headline “Mother of All Terrorists”, news about Samantha Lewthwaite

London

3

Worship

Salat and prayer

Society that is far from rationality, anti-realistic and mystical

Anti-rationalist

London, Mombasa and Mogadishu

3

Building

Mosque and minaret

Far from modernity

Faith Orientalist element

The episode consists of the footages taken in London, Mombasa, Nairobi, and Mogadishu. The city views, the number of which is noted as 14 in the table, only consists of the footages taken by drone cameras; the footages with constant or active cameras on the streets of the city are not included in the number. While the documentary displays the development and magnificence of London 4 times through the general view of the city (omniscient point of view) from the sky, the city views from Kenya and Somali are shown through 10 different drone footages taken in Nairobi, Mombasa, and Mogadishu. The ruined houses, the chaos of the cities, the buildings damaged in explosions and conflicts, and unplanned urbanization in Kenya and Somali make reference to the countries’ chaotic, uncanny, and underdeveloped structure. Interestingly, in one of the scenes, the modern look of London is shown by drones, then, the news about Samantha Lewthwaite with the heading “Mother of all terrorists” is given, and next, the

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 The Construction of Orientalist Discourse in the Documentary Series

ruined buildings in the cities of Somali are shown. To explain it in the language of editing, footage a plus footage b equals footage c, that is, the implied new meaning – in this constructed scene, the perception that England will also turn into ruins if terrorism cannot be avoided is implied to the audience. In only one scene, the modern and luxurious hotels on the coast of Somali are shown with drone footage. The contrast between the East and the West is put forward through these footages as developed-undeveloped; and the welfare levels of the countries are also portrayed in this way. Regarding the images of woman shown in the documentary, it is emphasized in many parts of the film that Samantha Lewthwaite, who is the focus of the episode, is white and a widow; she is presented as the image of Muslim woman in the photograph with her Muslim husband and child. The film shows the stereotype of Muslim woman in burqa or hijab 33 times; 18 of these pictures are the photographs of Samantha Lewthwaite by which she is insistently and repeatedly shown as “the perpetrator of terrorist attacks”. Only at the end of the film, it is stated that she has not been arrested or judged, and her crime has not been ascertained yet. Women are also seen in several footages on the streets of Kenya and Somali; yet, the number 33 in the table consists of only the pictures in which a woman is foregrounded. Particulary, the women in burqas are shown as potential criminals; moreover, the picture of a woman in burqa in the city of Aylesbury where the main character was born is chosen and shown on purpose. This city is also known as the city where the rebelling actions of the separatists took place in the past. Samantha’s father had engaged in many armed conflicts with the Irish separatist terrorists in this city when he was a British commander; and also in this city, he married an Irish woman and Samantha was born. In the film which depicts terror incidents, the problems the British had with the Irish in the past are also reminded to the audience through Muslims. With the images of Zakia Hussein in hijab, who is the Director of Community Policing at the Somali Police Force, the existing Orientalist ideology in the film is tried to be broken. However, in the interview, referring to Samantha Lewthwaite, Zakia Hussein says, “We are both from the United Kingdom”. With this statement of hers and her hijab, Hussein is reflected through Western norms, and is tried to be positioned right against Lewthwaite through the perception of “Muslim woman on the good side”. The director who has built the good and bad dichotomy through two Muslim women has tried to be unbiased with the dialectic he created. In spite of the fact that the main character in the film is a white British widow woman, there are a lot of images of men in different types most of whom are African descent men. Starting with Samantha’s husband who is shown in taqiyah, the Muslim man profile is displayed through men with beards; in turbans, snow masks, jubbas, and military camouflage uniforms. While the phenomenon of terrorism is being explained in the film, 17 Muslim man images, regardless of being involved or not, are shown in the accompanying pictures. In these pictures, the terrorist groups on the African continent or ordinary Muslims are shown. In the first scenes of the film, a crowd with Arabic banners and Arabic headbands is shown in a protest in England. These pictures indicate that the country is civilized and free in every respect. The inclusion of images of Muslim men as armed terrorists on the streets of England or in African countries serves to the reinforcement of the perception that Muslim men are potential terrorists. In the interview with the British Colonel Patrick Mercer, while he is talking about the extent of the danger, Muslims are shown finishing their worship service during a demonstration in England, and then, a man in turban and jubba is shown saying, “As Europeans, you will suffer the most”, without indicating what he was saying earlier. With this statement, it is implied that Muslims are in fact threatening them. There are of course quite a lot of images of weapons in the scenes where terrorists are shown. It is pointed out that uncontrolled and excessive arming brings along unlawfulness and injustice, and this can only happen in undeveloped countries. Kalashnikovs (AK-47) and rocket launchers, which are associated 27

 The Construction of Orientalist Discourse in the Documentary Series

especially with the Middle East geography and terrorists, are frequently included in the film. Besides showing the soldiers and weapons of the regular armies in England, Kenya, and Somali, the film shows weapons 14 times in the scenes where the terrorists are shouting Islamic slogans. The flag hanging from a minaret is perhaps one of the most striking images in the documentary. The flag is black with white Arabic script and two white Kalashnikov pictures. The flag with white Arabic script on black background which we know from terrorist groups such as ISIS, Al-Qaeda, or Al-Shabaab is shown 8 times in the film. The flags seen particularly in the scenes where terrorist groups get on their pick-ups with heavy weapons are conveyed to the audience as the symbol of Islam. In the documentary, the images of carriages and motor tricycles which we are accustomed to see in India are shown in Kenya and Somali 12 times; the anti-modernist structure of the countries is portrayed through outdated and primitive vehicles. Furthermore, the image of a camel on the coast is included in the documentary as the inevitable image of Orientalism. When the written codes are taken into consideration, it is observed that newspapers are foregrounded. The newspaper with the photograph of Samantha Lewthwaite next to the heading “Mother of all terrorists” is shown 6 times; in addition, she is seen in burqa in many photographs in other magazines or journals. On the other hand, the words such as ‘mujahid, jihad, martyr’ written in her diaries are shown to the audience as well. It is also stated that a 34-lined poem written for Osama Bin Laden was also found in these diaries. The references concerning the mystical structure of Muslims are reflected through the footages taken during their worship service. In the documentary, Muslims are shown three times as doing salat or praying; the signs of mosque and minaret are also given three times. In addition, the sound of azan is placed as an audial code at the background while showing the images of minarets and in the following scenes. It is told in the documentary that Samantha considered such extraordinary processes natural as her childhood was full of terrorist actions. Concerning her teenage years, she is described as a normal teenager. In the interview, it was stated that the only thing that differed her from other people was that “her best friend was a Muslim”. There is another significant point in the film that should be mentioned. The British Colonel Patrick Mercer describes Samantha as an ordinary “young individual conforming to the norms of English society” with fair skin and blue-green eyes. He believes that she cannot be called a monster or a demon, and emphasizes that the change started after she converted to Islam. So, a question comes to the mind: are the ones who do not conform to the English society demons or monsters?

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CONCLUSION The world has gone through great changes and developments for the last three hundred years. Especially, the developing technologies and scientific activities in the West made humanity believe that the West is a more civilized, progressive, and developed society. However, it is apparent today that despite the technological advancements and scientific developments, the West could not present a civilized human vision. On the contrary, it has smashed the humane values of all civilizations under the powerful wheels of the capitalist world view and wasted them for its own interests. Globalization rapidly gained acceleration with the mass communication tools developing in the West. Contrary to the extensive and positive developments that new communication technologies and globalization were supposed to bring along, the world presents standardized views in the way the West desires to see the humanity. It has

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 The Construction of Orientalist Discourse in the Documentary Series

become meaningless to discuss the extent of globalization, but it is significant to discuss its contribution to humanity. With the technological developments in communication and transportation networks, it has become easier to spread ideas and messages rapidly. It is not the big fish which eats the little fish anymore; it is the fast fish which eats the slow fish. Mass communication which started with written works and newspapers and moved further with the radio, cinema, telephone, television, and computer has reached its peak with today’s tablet computers. When the global digital network, the internet, was added to these inventions, all individuals got the opportunity to be in communication and interaction regardless of time and place. Developed in 1990s, the digital platforms provided their users with the opportunity to watch films, series, documentaries, and various programs on different devices. Discovering and developing mass communication technologies earlier, the West has used mass media to spread the values and ideas of global powers to other societies. With the developments in recent years, it has shown that phenomena such as the ethical values, freedom, democracy, human rights, and the superiority of the system of justice are only valuable on the condition that they serve the West in terms of international law. The book written by Edward Said in 1978 titled Orientalism revealed the negative attitude in the West’s perspective on the East despite the concepts put forth by the West. For centuries, the West considered the East exotic; yet, following the enlightment, colonialism, and the industrial revolution, exotism turned into Orientalism. All the values belonging to the East are criticized by the West in a negative way; particularly, the Islamic geography is targeted as it is in socio-economic relations with the West. After the wars and commercial activities lasted for years, colonialism projected a new perspective to the West; the West has sunk into the effort to use the rest of the world for their own interests. The Orientalist perspective became evident mostly in the field of art rather than science, economy, and social life. It was especially observed in the accounts of Western travelers and in the works of artists and musicians; and spread with the invention of cinema in the 20th century. Following the invention of cinema camera, many technicians sent to the colonized lands presented the footages they shot on those lands to the West; they historicized and naturalized the processes. With the developments in the cinema sector and television broadcast, the Orientalist opinion manifested itself in certain types of programs in the media. This perspective which reached its peak with the Hollywood cinema was also reflected in the documentary films as well. Since fictitious and documentary films started to be streamed on digital platforms, films have been released from the imprisonment in movie theaters and televisions, and turned into an object of easy consumption that people can access anytime anywhere. This object is of course prepared to serve Western global capital so that the existing system and order can be sustainable. In this way, the societies which consider themselves inferior than Western societies can easily accept any innovation brought about by the West. Netflix, the biggest digital platform of the world, provides its users with easy access to many contents that are viewed thousands of times everyday. Netflix earned money from the distribution of many productions in the past; however, today its priority is to stream the films or programs which are its own productions. The third episode of the documentary series The Most Wanted titled “Samantha Lewthwaite: The White Widow”, which comprises the topic for this study, constitutes a prototype that serves the global capital as it contains orientalist elements. The West labels Islam as “a religion of terrorism” and the documentary, trying to base it on documents and incidents, imposes this idea. Most of the Orientalist elements that are observed frequently in the American media and the Hollywood cinema are used in the documentary. In this episode which depicts terrorism, references to Islam

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and Muslims are great in number. Showing something related to Islam right after showing something related to terrorism results in attributing the incidents to Islam, not to terrorism. The signs in the documentary and the written and audial codes that support these signs are significant in terms of showing the point Orientalism has reached. The blameworthy attitude of the Western media is also shown in this documentary. The prejudice that is tried to be constructed against Islam is also at work on a digital platform which has reached millions of people today. In conclusion, while the Western media makes people regard other civilizations with prejudice, it makes its own people build prejudices far from reality as well.

FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION Documentary films and documentary series that claim to show the real need to be examined more. This research is special in that it shows that orientalism is also featured in documentary films. It guides communication researchers and viewers to conduct orientalism research on documentary films. While globalization is taking place, it creates awareness by showing how orientalism takes place in documentary films, which leads to further studies. How the different is rejected through orientalism in documentary series, which is one of the most consumed content of digital platforms, has been examined in depth in this study.

REFERENCES Aslanoğlu, R. A. (2000). Kent, Kimlik ve Küreselleşme. Ezgi Kitabevi. Barthes, R. (1993). Göstergebilimsel Serüven. İstanbul: Yapı Kredi Yayınları. Bauman, Z. (2017). Küreselleşme, Toplumsal Sonuçları. Ayrıntı Yayınevi. Boztemur, R. (2002). Oryantalizm ve Marksizm. Doğu Batı Düşünce Dergisi, 20(1). Bulut, Y. (2007). Oryantalizm, Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslam Ansiklopedisi (Cilt 33). İstanbul: Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı Yayınları. Bulut, Y. (2014). Oryantalizmin Kısa Tarihi (5. Baskı). İstanbul: Küre Yayınları.

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Chalaby, J. K., & Segell, G. (1999). The Broadcasting Media in the Age of Risk: The Advent of Digital Television. New Media & Society, 1(3), 351-368. . doi:10.1177/14614449922225627 Clark, T. (2018). Bird Box in Its First Week, But We Don’t Know How Many Finished The Movie. https:// www.businessinsider.com/netflix-says-45-millionaccounts-watched-bird-box-in-first-week-2018-12 Erkal, E.M. (2000). İktisadi Kalkınmanın Kültür Temelleri. İstanbul: Der Yayınevi. Fiske, J. (1990). Introduction to Communication Studies. Routledge. Gür, D. A. (2018). 190 Ülke 130 Milyon Abone: Netflix Buraya Nasıl Geldi? https://journo.com.tr/ netflix-buraya-nasil-geldi Hentsch, T. (2008). Hayali Doğu. Metis Yayınları.

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Hitti, P. K. (2011). Haçlı Seferleri’nin Doğu Hristiyanlığı Üzerindeki Etkileri. https://dergipark.org.tr/ tr/download/article-file/255258 Investor Letter 2020 Q2. (n.d.). https://web.archive.org/web/20200717051752/https://s22.q4cdn. com/959853165/files/doc_financials/2020/q2/FINAL-Q2-20-Shareholder-Letter-V3-with-Tables.pdf Koç, M. (2003). Küreselleşmenin Sosyolojik Boyutları. In Küreselleşme ve Psikiyatri (pp. 52-63). Ankara: Türk Tabipler Birliği Yayınları. https://www.ttb.org.tr/kutuphane/k_psikiyatri.pdf Kongar, E. (1997). Küreselleşme ve Kültürel Farklılıklar Çerçevesinde Ulusal Kültür. www.kongar.org /makaleler/ Koyuncu, E. (2017). TV Yayıncılığı Alanındaki Dijital TV Platformları Sosyal Paylaşım Ağlarını Neden Kullanırlar? Trakya Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 19(1), 315-335. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/ trakyasobed/issue/30919/335679 Küstür, S. (2019). Netflix Yeni Filmlerini Önce Sinema Salonlarında Gösterecek. https://www.teknoblog. com/netflix-orijinal-filmlerini-ilk-olarak-abdsinema-salonlarinda gosterecek/ Netflix. (n.d.). Netflix Filmleri. https://www.netflix.com/tr/browse/genre/34399 Osur, L. (2016). Netflix and the Development of the Internet Television Network. Surface, Syracuse University. https://surface.syr.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1448&context=etd Özsefil, İ. C. (2019). Oscar Adaylığı Elde Etmiş Netflix Orijinalleri. https://www.filmloverss.com/oscaradayligi-elde-etmis-netflix-orijinalleri/ Özsoy, A. (2000). Televizyon ve İzleyici: Türkiye’de Dönüşen Televizyon Kültürü ve İzleyici. Ankara: Ütopya Yayınevi. Said, E. (2013). Medyada İslam (2. Baskı). İstanbul: Metis Yayınları. Said, E. (2017). Şarkiyatçılık, Batı’nın Şark Anlayışları. İstanbul: Metis Yayınları. Talas, M. (2005). Küreselleşmenin Sonucu Olarak Türkiye’de Kimlik Krizi. Tabula Rasa Felsefe-Teoloji Dergisi, 5, 99-115. Ustakara, F. (2014). Küreselleşmenı̇n Sürükleyı̇cı̇ Gücü Halkla İlı̇şkı̇ler ve Halkla İlı̇şkı̇lerı̇ Dönüştüren Küreselleşme. Global Media Journal: TR Edition, 5(9). https://globalmediajournaltr.yeditepe.edu.tr/ sites/default/files/Fuat%20USTAKARA%20.pdf

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Yılmaz, A. (2007). Romantizmden Gerçeğe Küreselleşme. Minima Yayıncılık. Zeitchik, S., & Chmielewski, D. C. (2013). Netflix Enters Oscar Race With Move Into Original Documentaries. https://www.latimes.com/entertainment/envelope/la-xpm-2013-nov-05-la-fi-ctnetflix- square20131105-story.html

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ADDITIONAL READING Beck, U. (2018). What is globalization? John Wiley & Sons. Jameson, F., & Miyoshi, M. (1998). The cultures of globalization. Duke University Press. Jenner, M. (2018). Netflix and the Re-invention of Television. Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-94316-9 Lobato, R. (2019). Netflix nations: The geography of digital distribution. NYU Press. McDonald, K., & Smith-Rowsey, D. (Eds.). (2016). The Netflix effect: Technology and entertainment in the 21st century. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. Sardar, Z. (1999). Orientalism. McGraw-Hill Education. Sutkutė, R. (2020). Representation of islam and muslims in western films: an “imaginary” muslim community. Eureka: social and humanities (Vol. 4). Scientific Route. Venkateswarlu, K. (2020). Colonialism, orientalism and the Dravidian languages. Taylor & Francis.

KEY TERMS AND DEFINITION

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Documentary Film: A documentary film is a non-fictional motion-picture intended to document reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record. Globalization: The process of interaction and integration among people, companies, and governments worldwide. Globalization has accelerated since the 18th century due to advances in transportation and communication technology. Netflix: Netflix, Inc. is an American over-the-top content platform and production company headquartered in Los Gatos, California. Netflix was founded in 1997 by Reed Hastings and Marc Randolph in Scotts Valley, California. Orientalism: In art history, literature and cultural studies, Orientalism is the imitation or depiction of aspects in the Eastern world. These depictions are usually done by writers, designers, and artists from the West.

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Chapter 3

Orientalism as Caliphator Cognitive Warfare: Consequences of Edward Saïd’s Defense of the Orient Richard A. Landes Bar Ilan University, Israel

ABSTRACT When Edward Said wrote Orientalism, he was defending the honor of the Western “other,” especially that of his fellow Arabs. Three years later, he published a book on Western media coverage of the Iranian revolution of 1979, in which he applied many of the principles he worked out in orientalism to Western journalists’ coverage of events in 1979. It is probable that Said did not know that 1979 was 1400 in the Muslim calendar, and that it marked the dawn of modern global jihad and the drive for a global caliphate. It is also probable that Said had no idea that his attack on the West for their “racist” attitudes towards his fellow Arabs actually paralyzed the West’s ability to deal with the cognitive war about to come. This chapter will analyze the way in which Said’s honor-driven analysis worked to the beneft of those working towards a global caliphate, warriors whose values and goals were the exact opposite of what he espoused in his post-colonial work. The problems with the Western reception of Saïd continue to haunt democracies and progressive eforts.

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INTRODUCTION Ask the current generation of prominent scholars in Middle East Studies, what impact Edward Said’s work had on their field, and they will recount a triumphant narrative about a fundamental paradigm shift, like one of Kuhn’s scientific revolutions, that deconstructed previous work on the Orient, as expressions of Occidental imperialism. Ask critics, and they will tell you that that “revolution led to a massive loss of relevant knowledge, replaced with politically correct insistence that any negative generalizations about Arabs and Muslims were, by definition “essentialist,” “Orientalist,” “racist,” and “Islamophobic.” DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-7180-4.ch003

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 Orientalism as Caliphator Cognitive Warfare

Saïd saw the West observing the Arabs, and “he did not like what he found” (Khawaja, 2009), taking umbrage at a clearly superior West (in both war and economic production) that looked down on an Arab and Muslim world that had – despite having massive petrodollar infusions of wealth – not only failed to modernize, but lost to Israel in successive wars. This invidious attitude of the superiority-minded Westerners lies at the heart of Saïd’s assault on Orientalism: “The essence of Orientalism is the ineradicable distinction between Western superiority and Oriental inferiority… disregarding, essentializing, denuding the humanity of another culture, people, or region” (Saïd, 1994a, p. 42, 108). Instead, he fought to his dying breath against “the tightening of the grip of demeaning generalization and triumphalist cliché,” that he saw all around him (Saïd, 2003a, p. xiv). This chapter explores the consequences of Saïd’s assault on negative depictions of the Arab world, and their extension to Islam over the course of the last generation.

BACKGROUND: THE INTOLERABLY INVIDIOUS COMPARISON So crucial was this problem of alleged Western superiority to Saïd, that it became virtually the yardstick of what he used every rhetorical technique to condemn. More than once, this led to some reductive readings of the Western canon (Ibn Warraq 2007, p. 27f). And if those who admired Arabs and Islam like the romantics could get short-shrift from his pen, then certainly anyone who dwelled on the authoritarianism of Arab political culture, of the impact of misogyny, of the belligerence of shame-honor culture, religious triumphalism and intolerance towards minorities, the ruthless way in which Arab armies fight – all that came from racist Orientalists demeaning the objects of their study and an “incitement to anti-Arab and anti-Muslim violence” (Saïd, 1986). Put simply, like so many other Arab intellectuals in the decades following the double-military defeat of combined Arab armies by Israel (1967-73), Saïd looked in the global mirror and, as an Arab, he felt humiliated. Khalil Hawi, three years before his suicide at the sight of Israelis coming into a civil-war devastated Lebanon in 1982, wrote “Wounded Thunder”:

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How heavy is the shame, do I bear it alone? Am I the only one to cover my face with ashes? The funerals that the morning announces echo in the funerals at dusk. There is nothing over the horizon, save for the smoke of black embers (Ajamai, 1996, p. 97). In 2003, an Arab journalist wrote a scathing indictment of the mentality among his fellow Arabs that illustrates precisely the way in which the dominating imperative (rule or be ruled) operates within a hierarchy of humiliation to lock dictatorship in as the single model of Arab political behavior (Smith, 2010): I do not exaggerate by saying this [that Arab culture is addicted to tyranny], because within each one of us there is a little dictator who feels gratification when he is repressed by those stronger and more brutal than he, and who at the same time does not refrain from acting this same way, in his milieu, towards those weaker and inferior in status. And when that milieu expands, he gradually imposes this on more people, so that when this sphere grows and he is the one who decides first and last, and who gives the

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orders, dictatorship spreads and it is imposed on all the people. Thus, yesterday’s oppressed become today’s oppressor; yesterday’s subjugated become today’s subjugator; he that was wronged now becomes the wrongdoer; the humiliated becomes the arrogant (Rashid, 2003). But rather than address those failures, rather than examine those failures in their cultural context, Saïd preferred to shame the West for noticing it. The October 1973 war in particular produced a whole mass of analyses, having for their background some almost incredibly atavistic pieties [?] about the Arab mind, the Islamic mentality, and Arab society, all of them resting upon a wickedly simplified, colonial view – openly racist in its more honest expressions – of the Oriental personality (Saïd 1983, p. 264; see also, Saïd 1997, and 2003a). Not unusually, after having dismissed the “Orientalist” explanation, Saïd offers no counter-explanation for the repeated failure of modern Arab armies, and not just against Israel (DeAtkine 1999). One senses the importance of shaming the other in Saïd’s language about anybody who says things he does not approve of about the Arabs and Muslims: “perfervid… venomous… irrational… vulgar defamation… pretentious… bogus… dehumanizing… incoherent… boring… Neanderthal… retrograde polemicist… gushing prattle… mediocrity… ludicrous… inhuman… belligerent… dishearteningly ignorant… self-repeating… self-winding… unrelieved rubbish… self-deceiving… jejune… preposterous… frivolous… peddling rubbish… thought-stopping fury… belligerent collective identity… demeaning generalizations and triumphalist clichés (Saïd, 1981, 2002, 2003a; Karsh and Miller, 2008). The rhetoric reflects a tendency to denounce criticism as “dehumanization.” It also projects a zero-sum mentality onto the West when that best describes the mind-set Saïd protects from criticism (Bensimon 2009). In one of his many attacks on his bête-noir, Bernard Lewis, for example, he derides him for pointing out that Islam has never evinced the same curiosity about the West that the West has for Islam, few translators, fewer mechanisms for translation (dictionaries) (Lewis, 2002, pp. 155-57; Saïd, 2002, July, p. 73). And yet the very moment he belittled Lewis for his Orientalist clichés, the UN published a report on the Arab world – written by Arabs, in which the discussion of translations into Arabic noted:

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The Arab world [350 million] translates about 330 books annually, one fifth of the number that Greece [11 million] translates. The cumulative total of translated books since the Caliph Maa’moun’s time (the ninth century) is about 100,000, almost the average that Spain translates in one year (UNDP, 2002, p. 78). It’s not like Saïd is incapable of seeing the problems in the Arab world. The problem is that, when he does (Saïd 1998), he sounds just like the Orientalists he disdains. But more often, it’s denial and hostility to those Arabs willing to criticize their own people. When Saïd did address the UN report, he focused on Arab disunity; but rather than explore the cultural elements that contribute to that failure (e.g., D. Landes, 1999, chap. 24), he offers the Palestinian cause as the solution (Saïd 2002, August 19). He thus replicates the very techniques that despotic Arab leaders use to distract the people they immiserate with the Zionist scapegoat – anti-Zionism as a WMD, weapon of mass distraction (Manji, 2003). As for those Arabs who address the Report’s findings in the media, they “reek of subservience, inauthenticity and a hopelessly stilted mimicry” (Saïd 2003, January 16-22). The motto of Orientalism and all its successor attacks on an “essentially racist” West is: ‘don’t you dare say things about Arabs that make them look bad, especially since it’s your fault they’re having 35

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these problems.’ Saïd’s extraordinary ability to affect the way Westerners speak about the Arab and Muslim world, may have “reinforced his defensive self-pride” (Saïd 2001), but they came at a much larger cost, a cognitive failure of major proportions at a critical time. And so, while Arabs in the Middle East, tormented by the thought they might be “marked by a special propensity for tyranny, a fatal brand that rendered them unable to find a world beyond the prison walls of the despotism” (Ajami 2011), Saïd had a different approach: condemn the West for even thinking such a thing, and blame the West for the very problems he denied. As a result, precisely everything that mattered in the Arab and Muslim world during the quarter century of his “Orientalist” writings (1978-2003) – religious triumphalism and intolerance, authoritarian politics, war-ready elites, Hama rules – he shamed compliant Westerners into not discussing. Horrified at the very thought of being seen as a “racist,” an “Orientalist,” many liberal and progressives scholars avoided any of these invidious, imperialist tropes that suggested Arab inferiority, no matter how accurate they might be. Those working in Middle Eastern Studies, filled with a combination of “pathological niceness” (Ibn Warraq 2007) and self-lacerating criticism, embraced Saïd’s critique of their field and their culture with such enthusiasm that within a decade Orientalism served as “a generalized swearword” (Kramer, 2000, p. 37). How should Westerners talk about Arabs and Muslims according to Saïd? The way they talk about people in democracies, as variegated individuals with many concerns, as human beings, not cultural stereotypes.

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At all costs the, the goal of Orientalizing the Orient again and again is to be avoided, with consequences that cannot help but refine knowledge and reduce the scholar’s conceit. Without “the Orient” there would be scholars, critics, intellectuals, human beings, for whom the racial, ethnic, and national distinctions [NB: no mention of religion] were less important that the common enterprise in promoting human community. (Saïd, 1994, p. 328). Determined to see the Arab world as basically the same – i.e., moved by political and economic motives primarily – and offended by the very suggestion that Arab political culture was systemically authoritarian, post-Orientalist, Middle Eastern experts expected democracies to sprout any moment in a Middle East upon which they projected their liberal mindset, dismissing anything less sanguine as “vulgarized… reductionist stereotyping” (Brynen, 1995, p. 66). “As liberalization marches across the Middle East political landscape, can democratization be far behind?” asked one reviewer of Brynen’s book (Bill, 1999, 468). The non-post-Orientalist answer: ‘very far behind’ (Kramer, 2000, pp. 61-83). Saïd’s presentation of the Palestinian issue, so fundamental to his approach, applied all these Western concepts (nationalism, nation-state, self-determination, democracy, human rights, justice, dignity) to a conflict in which these concepts had to compete with Muslim supremacism, Arab honor, and “strong horse” political culture for the hearts of people who claimed Palestinian leadership (Landes, 2014, June 24). Forbidden to focus on the authoritarian elements of Arab political culture, encouraged to see it as not in any way different from the democratic West, post-Orientalist scholars and journalists greeted the wave of protests that hit the Arab world in 2011, as an “Arab Spring,” by which they meant, springtime for democracy. Even one of Saïd’s “Orientalist villains, Fouad Ajami got swept up in the excitement (Ajami, 2011); while others hailed it as definitive proof that Huntington and the other Orientalists were wrong about the “clash of civilizations (Mahdavi and Knight 2012). Instead it proved a springtime for tribal and religious warfare, and a winter for the Arab world (Phillips 2012; Cockburn 2016, Part 4; 36

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Filiu and Lacroix, 2018). Following the lead of the post-Orientalist, US intelligence so misread events that both NSA Clapper and Hillary Clinton spoke of the Muslim Brotherhood as a “largely secular” and moderate movement (Mohammed, 2011; Clapper, 2011). A decade later the totals run: no democracies, one failed attempt (Egypt), one very limited success (Tunisia), three states riven by tribal and religious warfare (Syria, Libya, Yemen), hundreds of thousands dead, and a flood of millions of refugees who destabilize neighboring nations (Turkey, Jordan, Europe).

SAÏD, THE ORIENTAL ORIENTALIST: CONCEALED SHAME-HONOR DYNAMICS

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In an earlier essay, I discussed Saïd’s attitude towards shame-honor dynamics as particularly revealing dimension of Orientalism’s shortcomings (Landes 2007). He categorically rejected any and all discussion of the differences between the West and the Arabs in terms a much higher valuation placed in the latter culture on both gaining/preserving honor and avoiding shame even at the cost of shedding blood (Saïd 1979, p. 43, citing Glidden 1972), no matter how much evidence suggested that such patterns (BlackMichaud, 1975; Boehm, 1984; Weiner, 2013) may have an exceptional hold on Arab culture (Hamady, 1960; Pryce-Jones, 1984; Patai, 2007; Darwish, 2008; Smith, 2010). Actually, since 1978, if anything, the Arab world, and particularly its political culture, have behaved very much in conformity with these shame-honor dynamics. And yet, the more dramatically selfdestructive and self-impoverishing their political and social behavior by Western standards, the more violence, repression, and hate-speech, and religious zealotry has risen in Arab culture in the two score years since Orientalism (Saïd, 1998 January), then the more Saïd and post-Orientalist scholars have insisted we “read” this dramatically different, pre-modern culture as an expression of the same forces that shape modern democracies. The key elements in their behavior, according to this kind of analysis, must be analyzed using categories of social and economic forces, nationalism, dignity, rationality. In a piece Saïd wrote in early 2003, shortly before his death, he expressed his disgust with the pathetically weak state of the Arab world unable to unite against Bush’s planned invasion of Iraq. He also lashed out at the Westernized Arabs who criticized their own culture, citing the UN Arab Development Report (UNPD, 2002): “The only ‘good’ Arabs are those who appear in the media decrying modern Arab culture and society without reservation [sic]. I recall the lifeless cadences of their sentences for, with nothing positive to say about themselves or their people and language, they simply regurgitate the tired American formulas already flooding the airwaves and pages of print. We lack democracy they say, we haven’t challenged Islam enough, we need to do more about driving away the specter of Arab nationalism and the credo of Arab unity. That is all discredited ideological rubbish. Only what we, and our American instructors say about the Arabs and Islam – vague re-cycled Orientalist clichés of the kind repeated by a tireless mediocrity like Bernard Lewis – is true. The rest isn’t realistic enough… (If I had the time, there would be an essay to be written about the prose style of people like Ajami, Gerges, Makiya, Talhami, Fandy, et. al., academics whose very language reeks of subservience, inauthenticity and a hopelessly stilted mimicry that has been thrust upon them.) (Saïd, 2003, January 16-22) Apparently, anyone who understood the demands of civil society – self-criticism above all (Ibn Warraq 2008, pp. 75-83) – registers on Saïd’s radar screen as a sell-out. These voices are inauthentic, 37

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stilted; they are shameless dhimmis. Such people, Saïd felt, were submitting to Western imperialism, not reflecting Western liberal values… the same ones Saïd was busy appropriating for the Palestinian cause. The most striking irony in all this, is that Saïd, despite espousing the most high-minded cosmopolitanism, actually came to embody the very shame-honor dynamics he so scornfully denounced. In their introduction to the Saïd reader, Bayoumi and Rubin write: In critical ways, Said envisioned Palestine not simply as a place, but as an irrefutable idea, an experience, and an act of irrepressible human will-tied to a people. The idea of Palestine was the grounds on which his understanding of humanism developed as a motif in Orientalism’s account of colonialism and its strategies of domination, just as it informed his notion of the responsibilities of the intellectual. Europe’s study of the Orient was, after all, for Said an ‘intellectual’ (as well as a human) failure. In The World, the Text, and the Critic, he argues that “criticism must think of itself as life-enhancing and constitutively opposed to every form of tyranny, domination, and abuse; its social goals are noncoercive knowledge produced in the interests of human freedom,” and he posits that the most useful adjective to be joined to criticism would be oppositional (2019, p. xxii; italics mine). How tragic for his posture as a humanist and ‘intellectual’ that he sided with one of the more tyrannical, abusive, coercive, movements of his day. Saïd wrote the quoted remark in 1983, when the PLO had just spent seven years in a merciless civil war, massacring Arab civilians in Lebanon (Becker, 1984, Part 6); and Bayoumi and Rubin edited their volume at a time that Palestinians leaders openly embraced the genocidal aspirations of the Nazis (Herf, 2008; Burdman, 2010). And what drove Saïd to place so much of his intellectual capital in the Palestinian movement? Could it have been the very shame-honor drives he contemptuously dismissed as the invention of invidious, racist, Orientalism? In his last writings denouncing both Arab dictators who cannot stand up to the West and those who Westernize by criticizing their own people, Saïd found one group to admire amidst all this shameful lack of Arab manhood. The courageous “Palestinian people.”

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Remarkably though, the great mass of this heroic people seems willing to go on, without peace and without respite, bleeding, going hungry, dying day by day. They have too much dignity and confidence in the justice of their cause to submit shamefully to Israel as their leaders have done. What could be more discouraging for the average Gazan who goes on resisting Israeli occupation than to see his or her leaders kneel as supplicants before the Americans? (Saïd, 2003 January 16-22) NB: in 2003, “resisting” consisted primarily in suicide attacks on Israeli civilians in malls, trains, and restaurants (Alvanou 2008). This passage carries echoes of the very “Arab Street” he elsewhere in the same essay dismisses as an invention of “mediocre Orientalists.” There is no place in this fantasy heroism for negotiation, compromise, recognition that the ‘justice’ of the Palestinian cause might need to make some room for the Jewish/Zionist ‘other.’ No acknowledgment that the “heroic dream” of Palestinian is tribal justice (‘my side right or wrong’), a triumphalist religious imperative (Bartal, 2008, p. 29), an imperialist impulse (“from the river to the sea”) that so far, Arab armies have not been capable of achieving by the sword and to which they have sacrificed the Palestinian people, especially the refugees, for over a half-century (Romirowsky and Joffe, 2013). Anything like that, in Saïd’s view, would be mere pandering to Orientalist

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westerners and Zionists determined to humiliate the brave and noble Palestinian people who sacrifice all for their “dignity.” Indeed, if anything qualifies as “Orientalism” here, it is Saïd’s interpretation of a collective, “courageous and noble” Palestinian people, defying their corrupt and cowardly rulers to stand up for the demands of honor. More likely, the Palestinian people here constitute a construct whereby Arabs can restore honor lost. ‘They,’ he assures us ‘don’t want their leaders to compromise with the Israelis, to negotiate with them.’ They are the last bastion of his Oriental notion of “heroic” Arab honor. And so, Saïd works against the decent life that presumably (to we liberal cognitive egocentrists to whom he appeals) all Palestinians want (the political and economic factors Saïd emphasizes in Orientalism and the dignity he invokes in a final essay, 2003, July 2). He does not even mention the demonizing lies and abuse with which Palestinian leaders lead these wretched souls to embrace suicide terror and child sacrifice, cheering on a literally suicidal war in which “they could only lose, only die, only bleed and starve daily.”1 On the contrary, Saïd cheers on the worst of it in search of honor, and heaps contempt on any move to self-criticism and moderation – too modern, too self-hating (Saïd, 2003a, p. xxi). Saïd speaks from his tenured position at Columbia, where he can say anything he wants and not only not get “disappeared,” but rather get lionized by the culture he assaults (Karsh and Miller 2008). And yet his point is not that the Arabs are “too tribal, too insular, too unself-critical, too stuck on models of honor that demand dominion and do not work in the modern world.” For a proud Arab, all that talk is too subservient to the West, too self-hating, even if Saïd’s anti-Western message thrives on precisely that self-critical Western ethos. No, his “self”-criticism complains that Arabs aren’t proud enough to resist this western onslaught, aren’t courageous enough to fight back, aren’t suicidal enough to turn their back on everything that might lead to the reform he himself (in a parenthetical clause) admits they need. As a result, his criticism of the Arabs in 2003 resembles that of Palestinian leaders critical of the Arab League in 1948: their failure was not that they should have accepted the offer made by the UN and built a strong and dignified Palestinian nation alongside Israel, but that they failed to wipe Israel out.

ORIENTALISM AND ISLAM: THE SOUNDS OF SILENCE

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It is likely that Saïd took these positions from Arab pride, something that became particularly acute in 1967, which seems to have marked a turning point for him.2 Certainly when he wrote Orientalism he had relatively little to say about Islam, partly because he knew so little about it (Binder, 1988, pp. 120–21). Does Said realize how insistently Islamic doctrine in its many variants has traditionally proclaimed the applicability of religious standards to all aspects of human life, and the inseparability of man’s secular and spiritual destinies? What does he suppose the Ayatollah Khomeini and the Muslim Brotherhood are all about? (Kerr, 1988 December, p. 545). But in 1981, he published Covering Islam, in which he assaulted the Western, especially the American press for its coverage of the revolution in Iran, and Khoumeini’s accession to power. Here he applied all the strictures he had already laid out for covering Arabs, to Muslims: negative remarks about them were all “previously discredited” Orientalist ideas, suddenly revived by events in Iran. As a result, he claimed, Western observers reverted to type: looking down with a sneer on “Muslims, generally nonwhite people” (1994, p. 19). 39

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Of course, Saïd was more than capable of disparaging, especially religion, whose results he thought “were often disastrous” (Saïd, 1983, p. 2900). Hart describes his attitude towards religion, consistent across his opus and “transcultural and transhistorical” generalization: “dogmatic, deferential to authority, otherworldly, subservience-compelling, and violence-producing” (Hart, 2003, p. 45). But somehow, Saïd doesn’t apply his “secular critique” to Islam. On the contrary, his main concern is to defend it from Orientalist racist generalizations about Islam and Arab culture as “primitive,” and fanatically religious. In his book on Covering Islam, updated in 1997, at the very dawn of global Jihad (Bin Laden 1998), Saïd has nothing to say on jihad, religious violence, blind obedience, except to condemn Orientalists for dwelling on the subject. Essentially, Saïd’s success in academia meant that nothing of real import in the Arab and Muslim world could be addressed.

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His most extreme formulations imply that although Orientalism explains imperialism, and imperialism explains Western depredations against the Orient, Islam bears no explanatory relation whatsoever to terrorist acts by Muslim believers performed in the name of Islam—even when those acts are justified in detail by fatwas based on Islamic scripture and jurisprudence, ratified by Islamic jurists, have precedents in Islamic history, and are approved of by millions of Muslims (Khawaja, 2007, p. 699). As a result, academics downplayed even ignored people like Bin Laden in the 80s and 90s, preferring to highlight the “Muslim Martin Luthers,” leaving it to “Orientalists” – journalists and academics (Lewis, 1998) – to pay attention to the Jihadis, whom the post-colonial academics promptly denounced for dwelling on the negative (Kramer, 2000, p. 52-57). When it came to evils of imperialism, the Western variety got the lion’s share of scholarly attention; the role of imperialism in Islam, not so much (Karsh, 2006). While one can criticize Saïd for his contradictory attitude towards “essentializing” – forbidding it when thinking of the Orient or Islam, doing it to Orientalism (Khawaja, 2007; Windschuttle, 1999) – the issue here is somewhat different. One need not essentialize Islam, or paint all or even many Muslims with the same brush, or deny the variegated nature of the religion of over a billion people, in order to identify a strain of Islam that constitutes a direct threat to, and identifies itself as a mortal enemy of, the West, democracy, human rights, religious tolerance, and human freedom to choose… and certainly of the secular humanism that, at least in his own mind and the minds of his admirers, Saïd champions (Selby 2006). The modern strain begins in the late 19th century with al-Afghani, takes shape with the Muslim Brotherhood ideologue, Sayyid Qutb, and turns into an active movement in 1979/1400 with the emergence of both the Shi’ite revolution in Iran under Khoumeini and al Qaeda under the leadership of the Palestinian Abdullah Azzam and Osama Bin Laden (Landes 2011, chap. 14; Filiu, 2011; Bartal 2016). By the end of the 20th century, apocalyptic Jihad had developed a full-blown eschatology (Furnish 2005; Cook, 2006), and radical Jihadi groups had sprung up and grown all over both the Muslim world and among Muslims in the West, especially among university students (Husain, 2007). Here we find, resurrected in its most millenarian form, the doctrine of the fundamental enmity between Dar al Islam (realm of Islam/Submission) and Dar al Harb (realm of the sword/war). Starting in 1400 AH, and metastasizing in 2000 AD, the West has been confronted by a growing generation of apocalyptic Muslim militants, Caliphators, who believe fervently that now (this generation at the most) is the time for a global Caliphate. Where there was Dar al Harb (especially western democracies) there

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shall be Dar al Islam. #GenerationCaliphate. Whether by Jihad (Osama) or Da’wa (Qaradawi) “Europe and the US will be conquered by Islam” (Landes 2018). In the coming decades, these Caliphator beliefs would create much more active (to the outside, aggressive) Muslim communities, from Afghanistan, to Palestine, to Sudan, to Nigeria, to the universities in the West. Starting in 1979 (1400 AH), Muslims showed the world an unusually fierce face, engaging, in the name of Islam, in violent acts of many kinds, including an eight-year-long war between Iran and Iraq that used their own child soldiers as cannon fodder, and some of the more savage uses of a new weapon, soon to become the Caliphator jihadi’s weapon of choice: suicide bombing. And Saïdians repeatedly accused anyone who drew attention to these forms of cruel violence as dehumanizing. This apocalyptic Islam at once fascinated (Destiny Restored) and frightened other Muslims (takfir), who, to this day, are its most numerous victims. Like most apocalyptic phenomena, Caliphator beliefs could leap sectarian splits (Shi’i vs. Sunni) even as it created new ones (Mujahiddin vs. Westernizers). That it represented the full-blown beliefs of only a tiny fraction of the variegated billion-plus population around the world when Saïd wrote, however, does not make this Muslim movement any less relevant for Western thinkers – information professionals (academics and journalists), intellectuals, intelligence analysts, policy-makers, voters. For indeed, a group of Muslim believers, convinced the apocalyptic time has come to conquer the world, armed with scriptural passages that call for terror-inducing slaughters (Stern and Berger 2015), had only one meaning for infidels who inhabit Dar al Harb (especially those in democratic lands): the choice between conversion, death or (maybe) submission (dhimma). One doesn’t have to think they will succeed in realizing their millennial dream of global conquest, not to recognize how much damage they can do on their way to failure (like Bolshevism, Nazism and Maoism). They may be a tiny minority of Muslims, but as far as infidels who, as the folksong has it, ‘treasure freedom’ are concerned, they’re just the kind of subject they needed to know about. Saïd, however, considered them “non-subjects.” Once having proven to his own satisfaction that it’s unforgivable “Orientalism” and “racism” to claim that Islam is inherently terrorist (the essentialist thesis updated), he can comfortably assert that the “connection between Arabs, Muslims, and terrorists… is entirely fictitious” (Saïd, 1997, p. xiv); and after 9-11 to advise his readers…

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…to look with deepest suspicion on anyone who wants to tell you the real truth about Islam and terrorism, fundamentalism, militancy, fanaticism, etc. You’d have heard it all before, anyway, and even if you hadn’t, you could predict its claims. Why not look for the expression of different kinds of human experience, instead, and leave those non-subjects to the experts… who get us into one unsuccessful and wasteful war after the other (Saïd, 2002). Saïd consistently read the traits that alarmed some of his Western concitoyens as “not Islamic,” and anyway, the fault of the othering West. Westerners, he advised, were better informed by understanding this violence as righteous indignation directed against a culpable West.3 The fallacy in Saïd’s accusation of Western essentializing about Islam is that, one need not say all, or even most Muslims are Mujahiddin for a global Caliphate, in order to identify military jihad as Islamic and to note the resonance such triumphalist strains (Landes, 2018) have among Muslims not only along the arc from Morocco to Indonesia whose profound differences Saïd felt “made a mockery” of any effort to generalize about Islam. On the contrary, this weird apocalyptic tiding, it turned out, had an uncanny appeal even among Western Muslims (Stern and Berger, 2015). 41

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In reality, it’s not about essentializing Islam. It’s about saying things about aspects of Islam and about some Muslims that are accurate, but that make those Muslims about whom they speak, look very bad by Western progressive standards. (To say someone or some group is not humane does not constitute “dehumanizing;” sadism is a uniquely human trait). Muslims, especially those who so behave (like targeting children), violently reject “the terrorist label.” And non-Muslims who find out about them, predictably grow wary. High-minded information professionals, however, did their best to play down the Islamic dimension of violence, lest it generate hostility to Muslims… Islamophobia (Bawer 2009). Instead, academics, even the ones Saïd didn’t like, such as Fawaz Gerges, did their best to blame the Westerners warning about Islamic terror for making the problem – and in this case, only months before 9-11.

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Should not observers and academics keep skeptical about the U.S. government’s assessment of the terrorist threat? To what extent do terrorist “experts” indirectly perpetuate this irrational fear of terrorism by focusing too much on farfetched horrible scenarios? Does the terrorist industry, consciously or unconsciously, exaggerate the nature and degree of the terrorist threat to American citizens? (Gerges 2001). Saïd and those who followed his lead imposed a Muslim sensitivity on the public sphere: anything that might provoke their anger should be avoided, any fears that arose among non-Muslims were phobias, any warnings, Western war-mongering. Are there other religions with these triumphalist strands? (Landes 2016). Yes. One need not even be monotheist to demand that others acknowledge publicly acknowledge the superiority of one’s religion to theirs; but monotheist triumphalists, especially the supersessionist ones, are among the most ambitious religious imperialists: “One God in heaven, One Faith on earth.” One can draw a solid strand from the Crusaders who, after their genocidal explosions against Jews in the Rhineland, entered Jerusalem, bragging that their horses waded in blood up to the bridals, singing: “This is the day the Lord made, let us rejoice therein!”… to the medieval inquisition torturing and executing people for their beliefs… to the Wars of Religion that plagued early-modern Europe… to the Deutsche Christen who gave Hitler their unrequited love, to the acephalous Phineas Priesthood of murderous zealots in the US today. The problem for Saïd and so many others in the late 20th, early 21st century, was that they launched their program of essentializing criticism at the West and their corresponding refusal to dwell on problems in the Muslim world, just as Caliphator apocalyptic expectations and ambitions hit the Umma. Saïd took upon himself the task of defending all but the most extreme Caliphators (whom he roundly if ineffectively denounced). He did this with a three-pronged attack already laid out in Orientalism. 1) He systematically minimized the “non-subjects,” the “entirely fictitious” links between Islam and terror attacks. 2) He accused Westerners who show alarm at these “fictions” of being xenophobes, racists, and, like Huntington, warmongers. And 3) he explained what little he did admit about the problems in the Muslim world as the fault of the West, especially the US and Israel. When Saïd lists the horrible stereotypes that Westerners have of Muslims, as if they were ridiculously wrong, he expects us to follow his lead and drop such negative images from our discourse: it was all the fiction of an invidious Western need to view the Arabs and Islam as inferior. Saïd writes sarcastically about an article in the Chicago Tribune identifying Khoumeini’s revolution as a particularly dangerous religious phenomenon.

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Mosley’s attack on Iran was supported by a truly cosmic editorial in his paper [Chicago Tribune], the same day, accusing Khoumeini of nothing less than a “holy war on the world.” The jihad (holy war) motif… has become the single most important motif in Western media representations of Islam. (Saïd 1981, p.114). The reader, of course, is supposed to respond, ‘What Orientalist nonsense!’ And yet, the Chicago Tribune’s “first draft of history” proved correct: Khoumeini was only the most visible of the apocalyptic Jihadis in 1400 AH (1979/80) who believed that the time had come for global Jihad and world conquest (Kahalaji, 2008). No matter how many other kinds of Islam there were and are, and no matter how important the non-military meaning of jihad [“to struggle”], this particular “active cataclysmic” (Landes, 2011, chap. 2) apocalyptic strain of Islam was precisely what infidel Westerners needed to learn most about: Dar al Islam, Dar al Harb, dhimmi, harbi, al wala’ w’al bara.’ Thirty years later, in addressing an audience of some 400 Homeland Security personnel, I asked how many knew the meaning of Dar al Islam and Dar al Harb, and only a couple of dozen raised their hands. But after 9-11, Saïd’s version, now the version the cognitive Caliphator warriors wanted Westerners to adopt, increasingly became the dominant voice: that terror has nothing to do with Islam, and jihad means inner struggle, that Islam is a religion of peace. Writing shortly after 9-11, insisting it was “impossible” to write the history of so-variegated Islam, Saïd heaped scorn on Bernard Lewis for dwelling on jihad (“an ideological portrait of ‘Islam’ and the Arabs that suited dominant pro-imperial and pro-Zionist strands in US foreign policy”), and piously wished Karen Armstrong would have “allowed herself to wander among aspects of the spiritual life of Islam that, as a former nun, she has obviously found congenial” (Saïd 2002). He attacked the Huntington thesis as “a blanket declaration of war against all civilizations” (Saïd 2001, p. 49), despite the way it had been so spectacularly illustrated that day. Rather than see Muslim culture as part of the problem like

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…the vulgar and jejune Thomas Friedman who has been peddling this rubbish, which has, alas, been picked up by equally ignorant and self-deceiving Arab intellectuals – I don’t need to mention any names here – who have seen in the atrocities of 9/11 a sign that the Arab and Islamic worlds are somehow more diseased and more dysfunctional than any other, and that terrorism is a sign of a wider distortion than has occurred in any other culture (Saïd 2003, July 2). What scholar would hazard even a less caricatured and empirical approach? From a Caliphator point of view, Saïd and his post-colonial followers were the preparatio Califatae, they cleared the roads for the Caliphate just as Roman imperial roads had cleared the way for the Gospels according to Eusebius. His accusations of racism, Orientalism, xenophobia prepared the ground for ‘Islamophobia,’ the perfect accusation for Caliphators to use as a weapon. In a sense his secular demopathy – translating a triumphalist religious war into terminology taken from the advanced democratic discourse of human rights, equality, democracy, decolonization, and dignity – impugned the West with its own standards and crippled its response to attack. The Caliphator information jihadis had no trouble adopting Saïd’s secular indictment of the West. Indeed, 20 years after Orientalism, the academic scene was highly disposed to adopt a key formula, one might even say, a prime Caliphator directive for infidels: ‘When Jihadis attack a democracy, blame the democracy.’

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One can see the combination of Saïd’s impact after the turn of the millennium in the contrast between the anti-Islamic ways that government officials and the media behaved in the ‘80s and ‘90s that Saïd found so offensive (Saïd 1981, 1997, 2002), and the reaction of the British to the jihadi attacks on London of 7-7-05. Shortly thereafter, the BBC informed its journalists not to use terror to describe the attack (Editorial Guidelines, 2005), and a spokesman for police intelligence declared: “As far as I am concerned, Islam and terrorists are two words that do not go together.” During the Obama administration, it was policy not to even mention terror and Islam together (Countering Violent Extremism, 2016), leading to some extraordinary displays of learned helplessness from administration officials (Pipes, 2013 Spring). 9-11 is, I think, a key moment to consider in judging Saïd’s work. When the “non-subject” of jihadis showed not only how ruthless they could be, but how readily they metabolized Western sins – real, inflated, imagined – as a justification for killing infidels civilians in Saïd’s very own city? Was it still justified to inflate Western sins and minimize Muslim ones? Did it make sense to obsess over the Israelis and their uniquely evil occupation, while dismissing the palpable links between Hamas and Al Qaeda?4 In his contradictory assault on essentializing Islam and his essentializing assault on Westerners, Saïd produced a paralyzing phobia among Western academics about making any generalizations, certainly negative ones, about Arabs and Muslims. Orientalism taught an entire generation of Arabs the art of self-pity — “were it not for the wicked imperialists, racists and Zionist, we would be great once more” — encouraged the Islamic fundamentalist generation of the 1980s, bludgeoned into silence any criticism of Islam, and even stopped dead the research of eminent Islamologists who felt their findings might offend Muslim sensibilities and who dared not risk being labeled “Orientalist” (Ibn Warraq, 2007, p. 17). When Husain Butt recalled how he and his friends “used to laugh in celebration whenever people on TV proclaimed that the sole cause for Islamic acts of terror… was Western foreign policy… draw[ing] away any critical examination from the real engine of our violence: Islamic theology” (2007), he could thank among others, Edward Saïd. Ironically, “the Christian agnostic became a de facto apologist and protector of Islam” (Ibn Warraq, 2007, p. 53).

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FUTURE RESEARCH AND DIRECTIONS We need to deconstruct the pejorative meanings and uses of “Orientalism” and to apply similar standards to all cultures, rather than the moral inversion of accusing a self-critical culture of systemic racism and absolving cultures that revile admitting any wrong. Scholars and researchers need to understand the dynamics of shame-honor cultures. They need to distinguish between dignity and honor, between triumphalist religiosity and non-domineering forms, between human and humane, between cultural criticism and racial prejudice. The current uses of “Islamophobia,” “racism,” and “Orientalism,” as terms of disdain, are major impediments to our understanding the social and cultural factors shaping both interpersonal and international relations. They make us vulnerable to appeals based on dignity (human rights, democracy, equality) made by people who do not share those values, who even work to undermine them. Self-criticism in particular, deserves more scholarly attention: the reciprocal ability to both give and accept criticism, both privately and publicly, stands as the most critical dimension of peaceful, productive, positive-sum cultures (among which, democracies feature prominently). People, movements, cultures, 44

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where power is used to silence criticism and deny responsibility, expending enormous economic, social and psychological capital expended), stunt their own growth, and then blame their failures on others, often those they envy. The ability to self-criticize is both a key to future success (emotional resilience, learning from the past) and a litmus test of the sincerity of those who lay a claim on our moral attention.

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CONCLUSION Today, we are sadder but not wiser. If anything, thanks to the pioneering work of what he calls his trilogy – Orientalism, Question of Palestine, and Covering Islam – Saïd laid the secular groundwork for an enormous Western cognitive failure in dealing with the war declared by those risibly “cosmic,” millennial jihadis who do aim at world conquest. That attitude had been so effectively inculcated, certainly in academic circles in the 1990s, that, after 9-11, when Caliphators who waged cognitive Jihad insisted on the narrative of an Islam of Peace, that has nothing to do with terror, a broad consensus emerged that the best way to deal with the Muslim question was not to ask it (Bale, 2013). A graduate student in Middle Eastern Studies at Princeton (Bernard Lewis’ department) who wanted to study Jihad after 9-11 as a service to his nation, was advised that if he insisted, he would not get a job in academia where the narrative favored a less abrasive Islam. Instead, he’d end up in one of those “think-tanks” that Saïd considers manufacturers of imperial wars. And, indeed, that is where he ended up. Five years later, readers complained to the publisher that a study of Muslim apocalyptic thought was “hate speech – not the hate-speech of the Caliphators in their wild apocalyptic rantings, but that of their translator (Cook, 2006). Indeed, these were the years that the apocalyptic ravings of the seers in the 1990s spread and weaponized in the circles of global Jihad. This analysis raises an important if unanswerable question. Did Saïd understand what he was doing? It’s hard to believe that he would have knowingly shielded global Jihad from scrutiny. Presumably he understood that, as a “secular humanist,” he was at best the Caliphator’s useful idiot, at worst, among those at the top of their enemies list. Did he recognize their dangers but think them negligeable in comparison with the added power they brought to the anti-Israel, anti-US agenda he had so deftly formulated… like the Iranian Communists who did not expect Khoumeini’s faithful to devour their movement. Was he seduced by the easy blend of post-colonial anti-imperialism with the Caliphators’ ‘Two Satans’ apocalyptic narrative of good and evil? Was he so enamored of his discourse’s power to paralyze Westerners with their own liberal principles, to make them squirm at the very prospect of being called a xenophobe, to knock the Israelis off their moral pedestal… that he ended up believing that jihad really was a “non-subject,” that “Islamic terror” was a completely fictitious formulation, and that “world conquest” was a risible xenophobic fantasy? If so, he certainly was not alone. Like Judith Butler, professing his anti-imperialist principles, he embraced the most ruthless and ambitious imperialists in the world… the “anti-imperialism of fools.” When Saïd wrote, in the 25th anniversary edition of his key book, “I would like to believe that Orientalism has had a place in the long and often interrupted road to human freedom…”, he let slip his aspiration to play a role in the Occidental grand narrative, and inadvertently described his place in that long road to human freedom. He mastered the Western idiom brilliantly, and then put it to the service of a political movement that had nothing to do with freedom, one of the most violent, irredentist, and fanatically religious products of 20th century Arab political culture. In so doing, he was heedless of the costs, and when Caliphators appeared openly in the 21st century, he embraced them in his anti-Western 45

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vendetta. And like so many autophagic “progressives,” he shamed his companions on that long road to freedom, into stupidity about their (and his) deadly enemies. In the grand narrative of freedom, which is not anywhere near journey’s end, Saïd’s Orientalism will feature as a major interruption.

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Bin Laden, O. (1998). Declaration of Jihad against Jews and Crusaders. In B. Lawrence (Ed.), Messages to the World: The Statements of Osama Bin Laden. Verso. Bin Laden, O. (2001). Recruiting Tape. http://www.ciaonet.org/cbr/cbr00/video/excerpts/excerpts_index. html Binder, L. (1988). Islamic Liberalism: A Critique of Development Ideologies. University of Chicago Press. Black-Michaud, J. (1975). Feuding Societies. Basil Blackwell. Boehm, C. (1984). Blood Revenge: the Enactment and Management of Conflict in Montenegro and Other Tribal Societies. University of Pennsylvania Press.

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Brynen, R., Korany, B., & Noble, P. (Eds.). (1995). Political Liberalization and Democratization in the Arab World: Theoretical Perspectives. Lynne Rienner Publications. Burdman, D. (2010). Genocidal Indoctrination: Palestinian Indoctrination to Genocide. Genocide Protection Now. https://www.ihgjlm.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Genocidal-Indoctrination.pdf Butt, H. (2007 July 1). My Plea to Fellow Muslims: You Must Renounce Terror. Guardian. https://www. theguardian.com/commentisfree/2007/jul/01/comment.religion1 Clapper, J. (2011, February 10). Testimony before House Intelligence Committee. CSPAN. https://www. youtube.com/watch?v=POwd44zH9GA Cockburn, P. (2016). The Age of Jihad. Verso. Countering Violent Extremism (CVE) Subcommittee. (2016). Interim Report and Recommendations. Author. Darwish, N. (2008). Cruel and Unusual Punishment. Thomas Nelson. DeAtkine, N. (1999). Why Arabs Lose Wars. Middle East Quarterly. https://www.meforum.org/441/ why-arabs-lose-wars Filiu, J.-P. (2011). Apocalypse in Islam. University of California Press. Filiu, J.-P., & Lacroix, S. (Eds.). (2018). Revisiting the Arab Uprisings: The Politics of a Revolutionary Moment. Oxford University Press. Furnish, T. (2006). Holiest Wars: Islamic Mahdis, Their Jihads, and Osama bin Laden. Praeger. Gerges, F. (2001, March 12). The Ultimate Terrorist: Myth or Reality? Daily Star (Beirut), p. 12. Glidden, H. (1972). The Arab World. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 128(8), 984–988. doi:10.1176/ ajp.128.8.984 PMID:5058119 Hamady, S. (1960). Temperament and Character of the Arabs. Twain Publishers. Hart, W. (2003). Edward Saïd and the Religious Effects of Culture. Cambridge University Press. Herf, J. (2009). Nazi Propaganda for the Arab World. Yale University Press. Husain, E. (2007). The Islamist: why I became an Islamic fundamentalist, what I saw inside, and why I left. Penguin. Copyright © 2021. IGI Global. All rights reserved.

Ibn Warraq. (2007). Defending the West: A Critique of Edward Saïd’s Orientalism. Prometheus Books. Karsh, E. (2003). Arafat’s War: The Man and His Battle for Israeli Conquest. Grove Press. Karsh, E. (2010). Palestine Betrayed. Yale University Press. Karsh, E., & Miller, R. (2008, Winter). Did Edward Said Really Speak Truth to Power? Middle East Quarterly, 13–21. https://www.meforum.org/1811/did-edward-said-really-speak-truth-to-power Kerr, M. (1988, December). Review of Orientalism. International Journal of Middle East Studies, 12, 4.

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Khalaji, M. (2008). Apocalyptic Politics: On the Rationality of Iranian Policy. Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Khawaja, I. (2007, October). Essentialism, Consistency and Islam. Israel Affairs, 13(4), 689–713. doi:10.1080/13537120701444961 Khawaja, I. (2009). Orientalism, Racism, and Islam: Edward Said Between Race and Doctrine. Policy of Truth. https://irfankhawajaphilosopher.com/2017/06/01/orientalism-racism-and-islam-edward-saidbetween-race-and-doctrine/ Kramer, M. (2000). Ivory Towers on Sand. Academic Press. Landes, D. (1999). Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why Some are so Rich and Some so Poor. W.W. Norton. Landes, R. (2007). Edward Saïd and the Culture of Shame. Israel Affairs, 13(4), 167–181. Landes, R. (2011). Heaven on Earth: The Varieties of the Millennial Experience. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199753598.001.0001 Landes, R. (2014, June 24). Why the Arab World Is Lost in an Emotional Nakba, and How We Keep It There. Tablet. https://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-news-and-politics/176673/emotional-nakba Landes, R. (2016, February 10). Triumphalist Religiosity. Tablet. https://www.tabletmag.com/sections/ israel-middle-east/articles/triumphalist-religiosity Landes, R. (2017). Caliphaters: A 21st Century Millennial Movement. MERIA, 21(2). http://www. theaugeanstables.com/2019/09/18/caliphaters-a-21st-century-millennial-movement/ Landes, R. (2019). Oslo’s Misreading of an Honor-Shame Culture. Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs. Lewis, B. (1976, January). The Return of Islam. Commentary. Lewis, B. (1990, September). The Roots of Muslim Rage. Atlantic. Lewis, B. (1993). Islam and the West. Oxford University Press. Lewis, B. (1998, November/December). License to Kill: Usama bin Ladin’s Declaration of Jihad. Foreign Affairs, 77(6), 14–19. doi:10.2307/20049126

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Lewis, B. (2002). What Went Wrong? Western Impact and Middle Eastern Response. Oxford University Press. Loewen, T. (2016). Caveat Lector: An Examination of the Said – Lewis Debate. https://www.academia. edu/10520204/Caveat_Lector_The_Lewis_Said_Debates Mahdavi, M., & Knight, W. A. (2012). Towards the Dignity of Difference: “Neither End of History’ nor ‘Clash of Civilizations. Routledge. Makiya, K. (2007). The Tyranny of Silence: War, Tyranny and Uprising in the Arab World. Norton. Manji, I. (2003). The Trouble with Islam Today: A Muslim’s Call for Reform in Her Faith. Random House.

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Mohammed, A. (2011, June 30). U.S. shifts to closer contact with Egypt Islamists. Reuters. https://www. reuters.com/article/us-usa-egypt-brotherhood-idUSTRE75T0GD20110630 PA TV. (2020). Children and Education. Palestinian Media Watch. https://palwatch.org/analysis/99 Patai, R. (1973). The Arab Mind. Scribner and Sons. Phillips, J. (2012, December 20). The Arab Spring Descends into Islamist Winter: Implications for U.S. Policy. Heritage Foundation. https://www.heritage.org/report/the-arab-spring-descends-islamist-winterimplications-us-policy Pipes, D. (2013, Spring). Denying Islam’s Role in Terror: Explaining the Denial. Middle East Quarterly. Pryce-Jones, D. (1989). The Closed Circle: An Interpretation of the Arabs. Ivan Dee. Quandt, W. B. (1990). After the Gulf Crisis: Challenges for American Policy. Arab American Affairs, 35, 11–19. Quandt, W. B. (1994, July-August). The Urge for Democracy. Foreign Affairs, 73(4), 2–7. doi:10.2307/20046737 Rashid, A. (2003, June 23). Long Live Dictatorship. Al-Itihad. Romirowsky, A., & Joffe, A. (2013). Religion, Politics, and the Origins of Palestine Refugee Relief. Palgrave MacMillan. doi:10.1057/9781137378170 Saïd, E. (1978). Orientalism. Vintage. Saïd, E. (1981). Covering Islam. Vintage. Saïd, E. (1983). The World, the Text, and the Critic. Harvard University Press. Saïd, E. (1986). The Essential Terrorist. The Nation. https://www.thenation.com/article/archive/essentialterrorist/ Saïd, E. (1993, October 21). The Morning After. London Review of Books, 15(20). https://www.lrb. co.uk/v15/n20/edward-said/the-morning-after Saïd, E. (1994a). Afterward. Orientalism. Vintage. Saïd, E. (1994b). The Politics of Dispossession: The Struggle for Palestinian Self-Determination: 1969–1994. Pantheon Books. Copyright © 2021. IGI Global. All rights reserved.

Saïd, E. (1996). Peace and Its Discontents: Essays on Palestine in the Middle East Peace Process. Vintage. Saïd, E. (1997). Introduction. Covering Islam. Vintage. Saïd, E. (1998, January). The Problem is Inhumanity. Al Ahram Weekly; reprint. Saïd, 2000, 234–238. Saïd, E. (1999). Out of Place: A Memoir. Vintage. Saïd, E. (2000). The End of the Peace Process: Oslo and After. Vintage. Said, E. (2002a, April 11). Thinking Ahead. Le Monde.

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Saïd, E. (2002b, April 21). What has Israel done. Al Hayat. Saïd, E. (2002c, July). Impossible Histories. Harpers. https://harpers.org/archive/2002/07/impossiblehistories/ Saïd, E. (2002d, August 19). Arab Disunity and Factionalism. Al Hayat. Saïd, E. (2003a). Introduction. In Orientalism. Vintage. Saïd, E. (2003c, July 2). Dignity and Solidarity. Al Hayat. Saïd, E. (2004a). Humanism and Democratic Criticism. Columbia University Press. Saïd, E. (2004b). From Oslo to Iraq and the Road Map. Vintage. Saïd, E. (2001, October 22). Adrift in Similarity. The Nation. Said, E. (2003b). An Unacceptable Helplessness. Al-Arahm. Saïd, E., & Hitchens, C. (1988). Blaming the Victims: Spurious Scholarship and the Palestinian Question. Verso. Schapira, E. (2002). Three bullets and a dead child. https://vimeo.com/67662480 Selby, J. (2006). Edward Saïd: Truth, Justice and Nationalism. Interventions, 81(1), 40–55. doi:10.1080/13698010500515241 Smith, L. (2010). The Strong Horse: Power Politics and the Clash of Arab Civilizations. Doubleday. Steinberg, G. (2007, October). Postcolonial Theory and the Ideology of Peace Studies. Israel Affairs, 13(4), 786–796. doi:10.1080/13537120701445166 Stern, J., & Berger, J. M. (2015). ISIS: The State of Terror. HarperCollins. Stetkyevich, S. P. (1993). The Mute Immortals Speak: Pre-Islamic Poetry and the Poetics of Ritual. Cornell University Press. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (2002). Arab Human Development Report. Oxford University Press.

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Windschuttle, K. (1999, January). Edward Said’s Orientalism Revisited. The New Criterion.

ADDITIONAL READING Bale, J. M. (2017). The Darkest Sides of Politics, II: State Terrorism, “Weapons of Mass Destruction,” Religious Extremism, and Organized Crime. Routledge. Bat-Ye’or. (2002). Islam and Dhimmitude: Where Civilizations Collide. Farleigh Dickinson University Press. Irving, R. (2006). For Lust of Knowledge: Orientalists and their Enemies. Penguin.

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Landes, R. (2021). (in press). Stupidity Matters: A Medievalist’s Guide to the 21st Century. Academic Studies Press. Leung, A. K., & Cohen, D. (2011, March). Within- and Between-Culture Variation: Individual Differences and the Cultural Logics of Honor, Face, and Dignity Cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(3), 507–526. doi:10.1037/a0022151 PMID:21244179 McCants, W. (2016). The ISIS Apocalypse: The History, Strategy, and Doomsday Vision of the Islamic State. St. Martin’s Press. Nawaz, M. (2007). Radical: My Journey Out of Islamist Extremism. Lyons Press. Salzman, P. C., & Divine, D. R. (2008). Postcolonial Theory and the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Routledge. Schleifer, R. (2006). Psychological Warfare in the Intifada: Israeli and Palestinian Media Politics and Military Strategy. Sussex Academic Press. Weiner, M. S. (2013). The Rule of the Clan. Farrar, Strauss, Giroux. Wettlaufer, J., Nash, D., Hatlen, J. (2021). Honour and Shame in Western History. Routledge (in press).

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KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS Apocalyptic: Belief that the climax of history is imminent, that certainly within the lifetime of the believer there will be either the beginning of a millennial, messianic era or the End of the World entirely. Until now, this frequent belief has been disappointed. Before disappointment, though, apocalyptic time radically disinhibits believers, preparing for the final battle between good and evil. Active cataclysmic: believers play a major role in bringing about the apocalyptic cataclysm that destroys evil on earth. Caliphators: A Muslim apocalyptic millennial movement believing that in this generation (apocalyptic), Dar al Harb will be eliminated and a global Caliphate will be established in which all surviving infidels become dhimmi (millennial goal). Cognitive Warfare: Warfare undertaken by the weak side in an asymmetrical conflict, manipulation of information and ideas designed to convince the stronger side not to use its superior strength, to make patriots of one’s own and pacifists of the enemy, to redeploy in order to better fight the kinetic (military) war. Trojan Horse, Treaty of Hudaybiyya. Da’wa: “Summons” whether summoning infidels to convert, or lax Muslims to return to strict commitment. Among Caliphators, Da’wa is a form of cognitive/information warfare summoning infidels to either convert or behave like dhimmi. Dar al Harb “Realm of the Sword”: Countries where infidels rule, areas with which Islam is at war, areas to be conquered by the sword. Harbis: infidels destined to the sword. Dar al Islam “Realm of Submission”: Countries where Islamic law (Sharia) governs. Dhimmi (“Blameworthy”): The status of infidels under Sharia law, protection from Muslim violence assured by submission to rules governing behavior, systemic degradation of status, legal humiliation. Perceived violation allows Muslims to attack dhimmi who have violated the rules. Dignity Culture: The conviction that each individual at birth possesses an intrinsic value in principle equal to that of every other person. Inner-directed by a sense of integrity independent of what “others”

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think. Guilt-integrity vs. shame-honor. Because everyone has intrinsic dignity, such cultures tend towards positive-sum interactions, protect human rights, and favor democratic systems of government. Islamophobia: “An outlook or world-view involving an unfounded dread and dislike of Muslims, which results in practices of exclusion and discrimination” (Runnymede Trust). The key problem is defining “irrational” or “unfounded fear.” Islamophobia in current usage is often used to reject any criticism of Islam, to silence any rational or founded reason to fear it. Jihad (“Struggle”): The “great Jihad” inner struggle; the “little Jihad”: war against infidels. Soldiers in the kinetic war are called Mujahiddin. Millennialism (“Thousand Years”): Belief that in the future, this world, permeated by evil, will be purified and a reign of peace, plenty, mutual love and justice will govern mankind for an extended period (a thousand years). Heaven on Earth. Shame-Honor: An emotional and existential orientation that places primary importance on avoiding shame and acquiring, maintaining and regaining honor. Other-directed concern for one’s reputation. In a shame-honor culture it is legitimate, expected, even required to shed blood for the sake of honor. Honor cultures find criticism, especially public, humiliating; they tend towards zero-sum interactions – one wins (honor) only if the other loses (shame), and towards social hierarchies. Triumphalist Religiosity: The need to have the public (especially members of other religions) visibly acknowledge the superiority of one’s own religion and its practitioners.

ENDNOTES

2



3



4



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1

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See the depressing panoply of hate speech aimed at children, PATV, 2020. For documentation of the systematic brainwashing designed to produce “martyrs” at precisely the moment Saïd was writing, see Schapira, 2002. Saïd makes numerous remarks about how the “shock” of the loss of the ’67 war “dislocated” him and proved a turning point in his career (1999). See also Saïd, 1994, pp. xiii, xv. For one example of many, in his essays written during the Jenin Refugee Camp operation against what Palestinians themselves called the “suicide capital,” he never once mentions the terror campaign both Hamas and the PLO had conducted against Israeli civilians for over a year. On the contrary, his only vituperation is for Sharon and the Israelis, while the Palestinians deserve the “moral high ground” as “one of the great moral causes of our time.” As for Palestinians as terrorists? The very mention is “total dehumanization.” (Saïd, 2002, April 11; April 21). In the essays he wrote from 2000 to 2003, he mentions Hamas 18 times and Bin Laden 23, never substantively and most often dismissively, but mentions Sharon 178 times and “occupation” 183 times often in causal explanations for Palestinian violence. See Bartal 2016.

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Chapter 4

Virtual Orientalism/Imagined Dualism (VO/ID) Expansion:

Examining the Mechanisms Behind the Objectification of Zen as an Aesthetic Style Aya Kamperis Independent Researcher, UK

ABSTRACT In Virtual Orientalism, Jane Naomi Iwamura extends Edward Said’s theory through an analysis of the US post-war visual culture to trace the genealogy of the icon of the East she calls the ‘Oriental Monk’. The aim of the chapter is to explore the appropriation of the notion of Zen, particularly its application and exploitation as an aesthetic ‘style’, and the mechanisms behind such phenomena. The chapter extends Iwamura’s thesis to elaborate on the function of the Virtual Monk to question the development of its ontology in the contemporary world of neoliberalism and social media to introduce the concept of VO/ID, which has been deployed by capitalist corporations to market Zen as a lifestyle product/service. It ofers an insight into the process of identifcation within the framework of orientalism, that is, the way in which the Self and the Other come into being, and ofer Gen as a possible solution to the VO/ID expansion.

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INTRODUCTION In Virtual Orientalism, Jane Naomi Iwamura analyses the American Orientalism through visual culture and introduces the concept of “Oriental Monk” (Iwamura, 2011). She attributes the reach and impact of the image of the Monk to the broadcast channels deployed, such as and newpapers, magazines and television, which help reach a much wider public than academic or governmental reports as initially posited by Said. While these channels on the surface seem benign, disguised as fashion and entertainment, the impact of the image of the cultural icon created is as powerful if not more powerful a tool in achieving the state’s hegemonic ends. This paper further extends the analysis into the mechanism of Virtual Orientalism and consider how the new media has affected the development of the icon. While DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-7180-4.ch004

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 Virtual Orientalism/Imagined Dualism (VO/ID) Expansion

Said’s initial thesis was primarily concerned with Western Europe’s relation to the Arab world, rather than America’s relation to East Asia, his theory is still illuminating in this context and thus will inform much of this article. The chapter comprises three parts: as the concept of Zen has often been associated with simplicity and ascetic reduction, it begins with a discussion on the Japanese concept of Ma (間)and its relationship to minimalism in terms of creative and lifestyle practice. Ma is in everyday use in the Japanese language, widely employed as an umbrella term to take account of such concepts such as space and silence. The application of minimalism and Ma in various fields of art will be examined. Mirroring the framework utilised by Iwamura in her elucidation of the Virtual Monk, by discussing the impact of new media and employing Ma and minimalism to argue that the Monk has now been further abstracted since Iwasmura described. The second section discusses the various mechanisms posited to engender and reinforce Orientalism. It begins by questioning Said’s claim regarding the silent Other and explores the role the Orient plays in the construction of Orientalism as well as the East/West dichotomy. It is followed by expanding Iwamura’s suggestion that the Oriental Monk manifests as a result of psychological defence mechanism, discussing the psychoanalytical theories offered by Mulvey and Studlar in relation to the objectification of the Orient. The third part of the chapter examines the impact of globalisation and the advances in the new media on the development of contemporary Zen. It explores the mechanisms of Capitalist Orientalism and the paired concepts of Virtual Orientalism and Imagined Dualism (VO/ ID), which work together to delineate the further augmentation of the Virtual Monk and its exploitation by the neoliberal states and corporations. Finally, the article returns back to the notion of Ma and discuss Tetsuro Watsuji’s work on the intercultural understanding of the concept to illuminate its use as an intersubjective phenomenon. The paper aims to make such constructs transparent to empower the consumers and dispel the dualist fallacies to offer a possible alternative by introducing the concept of Gen as a possible solution to the VO/ID expansion.

BACKGROUND

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Do you know that even when you look at a tree and say, `That is an oak tree’, or `that is a banyan tree’, the naming of the tree, which is botanical knowledge, has so conditioned your mind that the word comes between you and actually seeing the tree? (Krishnamurti, 1969, p. 25) Edward Said’s concept of Orientalism is defined as the system of thinking employed by the West to continue colonial domination over the East. The foundation of Said’s seminal book, Orientalism, was that the West has historically held the power of representation over the East, arguing that the Western academic and state discourse produces the homogenous and exoticised Oriental Other in order to identify itself in opposition as superior, civilised and modern. Central to Said’s argument is that such rigid fixing of identity is detrimental, or ‘insidious’ as described by Iwamura, to the Orient, claiming that it prevents integration or equality. Iwamura’s definition of Orientalism in her book, Virtual Orientalism, shifts the focus from the relationship between the Anglo-French and the Middles East to that of the US and the Southern/Eastern Asia, namely India, China and Japan. Iwamura introduces the concept of the “Oriental Monk”, a representational of image of the East, created and employed by the US media to make the alien Other palatable for the American audience. She examines how and why the representations of the Oriental Monk, 54

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 Virtual Orientalism/Imagined Dualism (VO/ID) Expansion

a personified image of the general quality of the Orient, is constructed and recycled by the Occident and the hegemonic Orientalist ideology throughout history by outlining the catalysts that have produced and continue to produce such an icon. She analyses the genealogy of the Oriental Monk through three key figures, D. T. Suzuki, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, and Kwai Chang Caine (from the popular television series Kung Fu, played by David Carradine), to reveal the development of the projected icon particularly in relation to the media platforms employed and the US political climates that founded each rendition of the Monk. Iwamura notes that the American Orientalism’s sense of ambivalence toward East Asia has been mirrored in its attitudes toward Asian Americans, feared as an economic threat but also imagined to be industrious, over-achieving model citizens particularly in the last few decades since the post-war era. D.T. Suzuki represents the 1950’s Zen boom, the Yogi Maharishi Mahesh and his celebrity followers the 1960’s psychedelia, Kung Fu’s Kwai Chang Caine the Monk’s ontological transformation into a virtual icon. According to Iwamura the image of the Monk is utilised as an ideological contrivance occurring in the cultural discourses of various historical epochs in an attempt to quell any social change considered to be threatening to the colonial infrastructure. Improvements in the Oriental’s political and/ or economical position produce stress points in the historical continuum which destabilise previously clearly demarcated racial/cultural boundaries thereby provoking a response from the dominant ideological network through its institutions (legal, governmental, academic etc.) and cultural productions (TV, Film, print media, design etc.). Now in the age of internet and social media, lay people can become ‘influencers’ to shape and affect the public opinion, to utilize their powers to promote particular lifestyles with associated projects. The dissemination of information and ideas has become a mass process with a much wider, global impact rather than being the domain of well-educated elites as was the case in the context of Said’s original thesis. This paper extends the theory and propose that Iwamura’s Oriental icon is now further dehumanised as an abstraction; with the Monk acting as the conduit to its virtual habitat, the Virtual Monastery if you will, the contemporary model is an extra stylised version of the East. The article focuses on the Orientalism of the notion of Zen and its appropriation as an abstracted aesthetics and lifestyle. Moreover, it posits that such objectification and exploitation of Zen and its associated ethos are expanding at the expense of both the Orient and the Occident since in the context of corporate Orientalism, the hegemonic forces are deployed against all consumers globally, including the West. According to Jeremy Carrette and Richard King, such capitalist exploitation of the Virtual Orientalism works only when deployed together with the Imagined Dualisms of the Self/Other, a psychologised belief in the ontology of an independent and autonomous self. These notions, Virtual Orientalism and the Imagined Dualism, when combined as a neoliberal corporate strategy, will be expressed as VO/ID hereafter in this article. VO/ID differs from cultural colonialism in that it is not a political strategy utilised by any specific nation; rather, it is a process in which the supposed empire is created in the imagination of the consumers and often utilised by the corporations for capitalist gains. The hegemonic dynamics are a lot more complicated as there is no specifically dominant nation propagating the phenomenon. Rather, it is a network of capitalist corporations that deploy the cultural trend that is independently occurring to their benefit by reinforcing the notion by offering consumable services and products. The aim of the article is to examine the mechanism of VO/ID from the roots of its manifestations and the platforms used to survive and strengthen, before offering a possible solution to the issue in the form of Gen.

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MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER Minimalist design has been associated closely with Japanese Zen with the ascetic attitude and quality. This has manifested most popularly in lifestyle designs including fashion and architecture. When people talk of Zen design, they do not necessarily mean traditional Japanese style but more the imagined, stylised and modernised concept, which manifest as simple designs with the use of wood, stone and natural lights. The colour white as the primary base with touches of light colours are used to emphasise the lightness. While Iwamura mentions that the image of the Monk is multisensory experience and includes the environment within which he resides virtually, in the process of transplantation the notional environment has transformed into a more Westernised version. This article proposes that Orientalism has since expanded the perception of the original Monk and his space, developed into a more abstracted concept while still preserving the key qualities of the original form. The icon has been revamped through further dehumanisation and exaggeration of the Zen minimalist aesthetics introduced earlier in the Suzuki era – modernised, almost unapologetically idealised and futuristic – a Westernised version of contemporary Zen. As one of the key characteristics considered fundamental to Zen as philosophy and practice is the process of subtraction and the consequential simplicity (Kurosawa, 2004) – qualities which many minimalist works share. Engaging directly with the material and the space it occupies by stripping the work to down to its absolute essence, eliminating all unnecessary and distracting features, minimalists encourage the viewer to be conscious of the encounter with the work itself. This allows for a purer reaction to the work itself, rather than the associated beliefs and conceptions; in lieu of admiring aesthetics, the viewer must actively engage with each work in order to experience it. Reducing the artwork to its basic structure was a technique first explored by Russian avant-garde artists in the first quarter of the twentieth century such as Tatlin and Rodchenko (Tate Archive, 2013). Numerous contemporary artists have since been experimenting with the use of such minimalist approach through various disciplines and mediums: John Cage’s silent piece of music, 4’33”, is said to have been inspired by Robert Rauschenberg’s work where he spent a month erasing a drawing by Willem de Kooning, with the resulting artwork being a framed white paper. In the late 1950s artists Frank Stella exhibited his black paintings at the Museum of Modern Art in New York in 1959 (Brown, 2012). Like the rise of the Virtual Monk, it has been suggested that it may be the sociopolitical iconoclastic mood of the postwar US, combined with and expedited by the rapid advancement in the mass media technology, that contributed to the popularisation of minimalism as an artform as well lifestyle design and practice. Japanese houses were traditionally made entirely of natural materials such as wood and paper with exceptionally simple designs, emphasising the use of Ma (間) (Millar, 2001). The notion of Ma is in everyday use in the Japanese language whose English equivalent does not exist but has often been described as a meaningfully empty space-time interval (Loots, 2010), p. 74). It is widely employed as an umbrella term to take account of other related concepts such as the void, emptiness, silence, pause, lull etc. (Goda, 2010) It does not manifest by compositional elements in the sense of an enclosed entity; rather, it takes place in one’s imagination in the occurrence of ‘the simultaneous awareness of form and non-form deriving from an intensification of perception.’ (Loots, 2010), p. 76) Much like the silences between sounds or gaps between physical structures, the lack of a presence can be, depending on one’s mode of perception, experienced as tangible and meaningful. Alan Fletcher says, in his book The Art of Looking Sideways:

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‘space is substance. Cezanne painted and modelled space. Giacometti sculpted by “taking the fat off space”. Mallarmé conceived poems with absences as well as words. Ralph Richardson asserted that acting lay in pauses ... Issac Stern describes music as “that little bit between each note - silences which give the form”. (Fletcher, 2001, p. 370) Loots states that Ma ‘eludes representation and refuses explication’ (Loots, 2010), p. 74). In describing Hemingway’s use of space in his writing he says that the experience of Ma is: ‘not to understand what is missing [...] but rather “how” we can detect some dark gravity‘ (Loots, 2010), p. 76). Referring to the use of the “pregnant pause” in Kabuki theatre, Goda claims that Ma is ‘a property of the interpretative moment rather than the material presence of a thing’, stating that, ‘Ma is difficult to pin down because it is an entirely relational concept and the word is only intelligible within our most subjective responses to temporal and spatial discontinuities’ (Goda, 2010, p. 3). This relationality will be discussed in further detail later in the last section of the article in relation to Tetsuro Watsuji’s theory of Gen. The conditions under which Ma is most likely to be experience is claimed include quietness, calmness and simplicity (Goda, 2010). By pursuing a simple and clean lifestyle, one is liberated from distractions, whereby identity-formation can take place. Zen aesthetics thus often employ subdued colour systems ranging from black and white to grey, nude and dark brown while abolishing all functionless detail. (Weihua, 2010) John Cage described Robert Rauschenberg’s unmodulated white paintings as ‘airports for the lights, shadows and particles.’ (Cage, 1994) The same has been said of Cage’s own work, 4:33, as well as the minimalist decluttering, where the ma is created and the moment of mindfulness happens. Mindfulness as a notion and practice, brought over from the Eastern philosophy by thinkers such as Suzuki, has been made fashionable and popularized in the West by academics and artists such as Suzuki himself, Alan Watts, John Cage, David Lynch and other influential figure in a last few decades. It is now said to be a $4 billion industry with technology giants such as Google and Apple adopting the philosophy and practice of Mindfulness as part of their corporate training. (Purser, 2019) The exploitation of the Oriental icon and its accompanying ethos will be discussed further later in the chapter. One of the criticisms against Said’s thesis is the fact such Orientalism took/takes place beyond the colonial time or place; contrary to his proposition, Orientalism was practiced in times of history before the Anglo-French colonialism and outside of his premised regions. However, Said himself had claimed that his book was focusing on specific time and place and that there are possible extensions of the notion that was beyond the scope of his publication at the time. Numerous studies, including Iwamura’s work, have since focused on American Orientalism, which had widened its perceptual range from the Middle East Orient towards East Asia during the 19th century due to the East Asian importation and immigration. Said’s theory has evidently stimulated further discussions on the expanded notions such as Inverse-Orientalism, Self-Orientalism, and Occidentalism. In critiquing Joseph Conrad’s work, Said describes how the Occident perceives the Orient as a faux reality. As in the case in the film ‘Lost in Translation’ (Coppola, 2003), the Oriental is often deployed as an impersonal theatre background or props, where the West can play out their psychological dramas (Said, 1978). Said has often been condemned as the ironic propagator of Orientalism. It as been claimed that through his approach to the subject he reinforces the East/West dichotomy by labeling the Orientals as the ‘silent Other’ who cannot represent themselves. Within the framework of Orientalism, however, plethora of representatives of the Other have been active participants and expediters in the discourse, particularly in the forms of what are now called inverse Orientalism and positive Orientalism. Figures such as D.T. Suzuki and Maharishi Mahesh Yogi are considered the pioneers in contemporary marketing 57

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of spirituality for their use of the Oriental dichotomy to their advantage in promoting their teachings to the world (Iwamura, 2011). Suzuki’s role as an active agency of Orientalism propagation is well documented; Borup, citing Fader, describes him as the “popularizer” (Borup, 2004, p. 471) of Zen Buddhism. Iwamura depicts Suzuki as one of the original Oriental Monk and his conceptual and physical image set the prototype form for her icon. Nevertheless, the Suzuki-style marketing tactic utilized by many Oriental Others since, such as Marie Kondo, they are still coming from the Orientalist passive position as they employ the assumed power of the West to their advantage. It has also been posited that the self-inflicted Orientalism is rooted in self-contempt or self-deprecation, often in an effort to assimilate (Forbush, 2017). Equally, however, the sense of nostalgia and fantasy for the imagined Orient is not limited to the West and there are also undeniable tendencies for Occidentalism in the Orient. Japaneseness is said to be formed and reaffirmed in direct relation to the Western Other through the process of self-identification opposite an inferior Other. It has been claimed that the pace and severity with which Japan’s imperialism was altered has led to hyperbolic forms of Orientalism and Occidentalism; Japan’s view of itself (as arguably a significant part of the Orient) in relation to the Occident has varied widely since it opened its doors, from inferior to equal, or even at times superior to the Occident. James G. Carrier defines Occidentalism as ‘stylized images of the West,’ (Carrier, 1995, p. 1) which are, rather than mere passive representations, social, political, and economic tools employed with intentions similar to the Saidian Orientalism. Just as the Occidental Self’s need to believe in the fantasised Other, the Other experience the need to believe in the objectified idea of the Occident. Yokoyama asserts that the perception and the use of the Westerner in Japan is a form of ‘deification’. Yokoyama elaborates on the complexity of such conceptualisation by clarifying that since a God can be good or evil for the Japanese, the notion thus represents both a desire of and an aversion to the Occidental Other, allowing the perception of ‘gaijins’ (foreigners) as ‘non-persons’ (Yokoyama, 1994, p. 177). Carrier observes Japan as a ‘particularly fruitful source’ of Occidental images, a country where representations of the Occidental Other are abundant in popular culture (Carrier, 1995, p. 1). It has been argued that the Japanese use of the representational image of the West inverts the “feminization” imposed by the occupation of post-war Japan by the US troops (Cornyetz, 1994). Millie Creighton claims that images of Western people are a ‘pragmatic tool consciously utilized [sic] by the advertising industry’ to help present ideas that may ‘evade Japanese cultural values,’ (Creighton, 1995, p. 145) which in turn forge and affirm self-identity. This represents a reciprocal defense mechanism that compliments the Western Orientalism; together these mutual forces contributes to a dynamic construction and evolution of the Other. Such stance of Self-Orientalism in this context is of acceptance and embrace, rather than negation, of the projected image and the assumed East/West dichotomy. Whether for affirmation of the self-identity, self-deprecation or for self-defence, Orientalism is not a monocausal process, where the Oriental Other has become a complicit agent in the continued Orientalism. Whether in the form of positive-, inverse-, self-Orientalism or Occidentalism, the core premise of the East/West dichotomy is still remains; whatever the means or motivation, such discourse still reinforces the dualist foundation. ‘[t]here have always existed Fatal Women both in mythology and in literature […] mythology and literature are imaginative reflections of the various aspects of real life’ (Praz, 1933, p. 189) As the American Orientalism towards the Monk has always been “positive”, unlike the image of the Middle-Eastern iconographies debated in traditional Orientalism discourses (Borup, 2004; Said, 1978), 58

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the notion has been interpreted as benign. However, this paper argues, as with the proposition put forward by Iwamura, that the affable Monk may be a psychological strategy deployed to emasculate the East as a self-defense against the threat of the inscrutable. By giving a clear and agreeable form, the ambiguous presence of/from the East is made more palatable and less foreboding. Iwamura suggests that the Oriental Monk as an objectified representation was created for the symbolic castration of the East to keep the West feeling safe and secure of its central position in the world. Similarly, the simplification and stylisation of the entire Zen way of being into a design style may be a psychological strategy to moderate a sense of inadequacy in the inability to comprehend the complex nature of Zen. This mechanism has been compared to that in sexism, where the goal of the objectification of the woman is the dismissal and devaluation of the enigmatic Other. Iwamura proposes that the creation of the projected image is rooted in the bewilderment and fear of the unknown culture; the uncertainty was condensed into the form of the Oriental Monk to give form and feminised so to suck out the potency of the mystical presence. Iwasmura references Mulvey’s psychoanalytic film theory regarding the position of the female in relation to the Orient’s position from the perspective of the West. According to Mulvey’s theory, based on Lacan’s concept of the infantile “mirror stage”, the infant sees the idealised image of itself in the mirror and responds with attraction and despair simultaneously. Iwamura argues that the Oriental Monk represents the “ego ideal” to the US audience who want to both vicariously celebrate as the symbol of subaltern demographic and castrate the unintelligible Other. The representation of the otherworldly Monk struggles to coexist with any notions of sexuality; he is consequentially emasculated and the threat of his dominance is turned into a fiction or a fantasy. Orientalism in this context is in essence a manifestation of the West inferiority complex and a defense-mechanism against what is portrayed as the holy presence. Quli argues that the key part of the rationale for the salvage studies is to “protect the feminine, passive third world from the modern, masculine West.” (Quli, 2009) The notion of feminisation often suggests a negative and subordinate status of the female, based on the basis of the Freudian theory of castration anxiety:

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During the American occupation in the immediate postwar period, Japan was perspectively “feminized” and metaphorically raped as a result of its subordinate positioning […] deprived of self-governance, forced to surrender and capitulate to the Western other, upsetting the terms of power and masculinity. (Cornyetz, 1994) Mulvey, in discussing the objectification of the female maintains that, “castration anxiety is alleviated by either fetishistic scopophilia in which female characters are over-valued and idolized, or sadistic voyeurism where they are ultimately demystified by being saved, devalued, or punished” (Mulvey, 1981, p. 35). Studlar, however, proposes that such an idea inadvertently perpetuates the oppressive strategies that it seeks to uncover and change, as it necessarily by logic accept Lacanian and Freudian reduction of the female to what she lacks (Studlar, In the Realm of Pleasure: von Sternberg, Dietrich, and the Masochistic Aesthetic, 1988). Citing the work of Deleuze and Felix Guattari, whose theory was centred on the infantile stage before Lacan’s “mirror stage”, Studlar emphasise the mother’s image. As opposed to Iwamura’s take, the infant, in this case the audience, derives pleasure from the recognition of and submission to the powerful mother/hero. Studlar hence contrasts Deleuze’s emphasis on masochism to the Mulvey’s theory of sadism, concluding that, within such a masochistic framework, the Other is not defined by the lack. Unlike the sadism construct, where the Other’s power is not outlined by the “phal59

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lic” and a transference of the male power, within Studlar’s construct the mother possesses what the male lacks – the breast and the womb – and is hence powerful in her own right (Studlar, Masochism and the Perverse Pleasures of the Cinema, 1985). The woman therefore represents the formidable unknown, thus potent and dominant, that needs to be confined within a manageable frame. Stadlar proposes that the impact of the dynamics of this pre-Oedipal stage in relation to such a powerful maternal imago must be acknowledged (Studlar, In the Realm of Pleasure: von Sternberg, Dietrich, and the Masochistic Aesthetic, 1988, p. 30). The infant “regards the mother as both sacred and profane, loving and rejecting, frustratingly mobile yet the essence of rhythmic stability and stillness” (Studlar, Masochism and the Perverse Pleasures of the Cinema, 1985, p. 609). The Monk represents the archetypal mythological characteristics of the soothing caregiver and emasculating fetale simultaneously. Obviously not the direct imagery of the Dragon Lady or the Geisha – more the Orient as the femme fetale with all the fine balance of the alures and danger. Mimicking the powerful mother could be interpreted as an aspiration for the admired Other, which is a common form of self-defense. Perhaps the appropriation of Zen is a cultural manifestation of the deep anxiety of the Other. The psychical need that is fulfilled may then be one where the object of desire and fear is the mother, rather than the Oedipal father as claimed by Iwamura. This form of mimicry differs from Bhabha’s use of the concept (Bhabha, 1994) in this context; rather, it is a form of psychical integration. According to D. W. Winnicott, ‘projection and introjection mechanisms [...] let the other person be the manager sometimes, and to hand over omnipotence.’ (Winnicott, 1986, p. 50) Freud’s notion of mourning has been compared to Maria Torok and Nicolas Abraham’s concept of introjection, since they, like Freud, deploy the language of conquest, claiming that the self ‘advances, takes over, assimilates’ the object. Introjection is a process of coping to deal with the sense of loss, whereby the self extends outward and absorbs the object of loss, principally the caregiver, by mimicking their behaviors or attributes. (Torok, 1986) Akin to Freud’s melancholia in relation to mourning, whereas introjection is regarded as a normal stage of development, incorporation, on the other hand, is considered an unsuccessful form of introjection. As Derrida describes, “I pretend to keep the dead alive, saved inside me … but it is only in order to refuse … to love the dead as a living part of me.” (Derrida, 1986, p. xvi) By refusing to mourn the loss through the psychic mummification, while the subject may seem to go through the motions of introjection and adopt its stylized articulation with superficial signs, the process is ultimately inauthentic. The stylisation of Zen and its appropriation may thus be interpreted as a collective psychical form of incorporation. Whoever reaches into a rosebush may seize a handful of flowers; but no matter how many one holds, it’s only a small portion of the whole. Nevertheless, a handful is enough to experience the nature of the flowers. Only if we refuse to reach into the bush, because we can’t possibly seize all the flowers at once, or if we spread out our handful of roses as if it were the whole of the bush itself – only then does it bloom apart from us, unknown to us, and we are left alone. Lou Andreas-Salomé (Andreas-Salome, 2011) The resilience of the Oriental icon means that it can afford to not only shape-shift but be abstracted beyond the virtual figure as proposed by Iwamura, but into a dehumanised psychic space, the virtual 60

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Monastery as opposed to the personified Monk. Marie Kondo is another abstracted Monk; the icon is no longer male or authoritative in the traditional way nut still uses both the race and gender Othering to her advantage, successfully marketing her ‘Konmari’ method. She has been named one of Time magazine’s 100 Most Influential People in the World and now lives in Los Angeles. (https://shop.konmari.com, 2020) This essay extends Iwamura’s theory and proposes that the iconography of the Monk has been further abstracted since, passed down the western disciples from the Oriental master. One could interpret such Hollywood effect as an even more blatant form of Orientalism than one Said initially brought into its critical discourse in terms of the socio-political context. However, perhaps the whole process has come full circle and Suzuki has managed to preserve the spirit of Zen, albeit in an evolved form. Rather than being diluted or inauthentic, what is refer to as the contemporary, Westernised Zen is the abstracted apostle with no race or gender, not need for personification. In discussing the transformation of Zen in the US, Borup references Agehananda Bharati’s concept of the “pizza-effect’’ (Borup, 2004, p. 477). Just as Allan Watts became the Western disciple of the Oriental Monk of Suzuki, acting as the palatable bridge of Zen and Japanese culture, the new Californian Zen, represented by the abstracted monk of the social media in the form of architectural and product design, making the Oriental spirituality safe for consumption for the masses. The transplanted mixed race disciple is intercultural; the contemporary Zen is a complex and nuanced hybrid, occupying what Bhabha calls the “third space.” (Rutherford, 1990; Bhabha, 1994) The transplanting of the seed was bound to change its nature in the Western soil. It would be contrary to the spirit of Zen to not embrace its transformation; to not accept the modern Buddhists or Western Zen is to assume “jus sanguinis” of the ethos (Forbush, 2017). Salvage paradigm that mourns the loss of traditions, whether rooted in colonial nostalgia/guilt, is contradictory when applied to Zen, whose embracing of change is core to its both philosophy and practice, reinforcing the Orientalism (Quli, 2009). The beginning of such cultural estrangement had already began in the Japanese in relation to Zen decades ago, as noted by expressed by Suzuki in a Newsweek article from 1959: ’although nearly 5 million Japanese still profess to ne Zen followers, few know anything about the discipline.’ (Iwamura, 2011, p. 53) In the process of ‘protecting’ the tradition and purity of Zen and by labelling the contemporary Zen practitioners as Orientalist, one risks committing the same Orientalist mistake by reinforcing the essentialist view. On the other hand, if this manifestation of the colonial mimicry were to be interpreted in the same light as Bhabha’s observation (Bhabha, 1994), then what is happening with the stylized Zen is perhaps a form of VO/ID, reinforced and deployed by a global corporate consumerist market. While Borup refences Sharf and Faure as examples of successful contextualisation of the Suzuki Zen (Borup, 2004), this article extends their argument in the context of Iwamura’s theory of Virtual Orientalism and propose that the impact is not necessarily progressive in the way it may seem on the surface. The conceptually fabricated monastery is kept alive by the notion of self, which itself is a fabrication, to serve the constant need to fulfil the desire for the Other. With increased international access to the real Orient through improved technology and transport, the Oriental/Occidental Other had to be replaced by a virtual one. Along with the economic systems, the representational platforms for the icons must also adapt to the changing technologies. The improvements in travel mean that the Other is no longer geographically inaccessible in real terms. The need to preserve the place for the representational Other means that the icon now had to be pushed out into the virtual realms of internet and social media, further into an abstracted and dehumanised form. There has always been abundance of prominent figures who spearhead sociocultural movements and booms and their successes have invariably depended on their ability to utilise the new forms of com61

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munication platforms, and technology of the time. Until the first half of the twentieth century, formal academic writing governmental reports played the most important role of knowledge dissemination, hence Said’s focus on the state officials and scholars. In the second half of the last century depended heavily on the mass media, namely the press and broadcast, where mainstream figures such as journalists and media celebrities played vital roles in influencing the masses. Iwamura’s analysis of the Virtual Monk mainly focuses on its representations in on print media – fashion magazines and newspapers in particular – and the television programme, Kung Fu. It seems now impossible to discuss the impact of social media on the manifestation and evolution of the Virtual Monk. We live in the world of the influencer economy, where celebrities play even more significant a role as the marketing tool and strategies to endorse such fads and styles. It is in this sense that Suzuki was the exemplar master of marketing, with a great awareness of the importance of the new technology mass media; by the end of the decade, he would have his own New Yorker profile, and celebrity status to match. While Buddhist texts had been circulating in Europe and the US for a hundred years, they were considered an esoteric interest for a scholarly few. Suzuki’s US arrival in the 1950s transformed the entire image of the Eastern culture. The stylised Suzuki Zen, simplified as easily consumable exotica, appealed to both the glamorous elite and the countercultural Beat Generation. The fact it can now involve non-academics means that Orientalism is no longer a one-way construct, informed solely by academics – if there was ever a question of the directionality of its development, it has now become even more dynamic, with celebrities and the ordinary public influencing the construction of the image of the Monk. Spirituality is arguably the most popular Asian cultural imports to the West. It has been argued that spirituality should not be considered merely as a set of beliefs, practices, communities, and so on, but as a carefully manufactured set of media representations that practitioners and nonpractitioners engage with. The media representations are thus not trivial, but in fact central and critical to the shaping of the entire spirituality industry. Zen has been transplanted and transformed in the West. It has evolved from a stylised spirituality of the Suzuki Zen into what is now packaged up for sale as a luxury Hollywood Zen, marketed back to the Orient to reinforce the Self-Orientalism of the notion. The general mindset of Generation Y, young adults with birth years ranging from the early 1980s to the early 2000s, coupled with the rapid advances in new media technology, has been suggested to have had a huge impact on the recent resurgence of the Zen inspired simple living. Despite probably being the most educated generation in history, the millennial generation is faced with a global economic recession, poor career prospects and delayed milestones such as homeownership. Having seen their parents fall victim to downsizing and frequent layoffs in spite of long working hours made them wary of pursuing the same path, many are said to be turning for satisfaction in a different direction: “making a life” is favoured over “making a living”. (Eddy S.W. Ng., 2010) In his 2014 New York Times Bestseller book, Essentialism – the disciplined pursuit of less, Greg McKeown makes a case for the importance of living by design and not by default by eliminating nonessentials and consciously distinguishing the vital few from the trivial many. (Mckeown, 2014) Marie Kondo, in her book The Life-Changing Magic of Tidying Up: The Japanese Art of Decluttering and Organizing, along with her award-winning Netflix series, Tidying Up with Marie Kondo, also emphasises the disposal of redundant and superfluous items to concentrate on essentials, with her now famed mantra: “discard everything that does not spark joy”. (Kondo, 2014) Joshua Fields Millburn and Ryan Nicodemus, through their publication, Minimalism – Living a meaningful life, along with the feature-length film, Minimalism: A Documentary About the Important Things, demonstrate why working long hours, wasteful spending habits and ephemeral indulgences inevitably lead to depression, and how removing the excess leads to existential contentment. (Minimalists, 2020) 62

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All these authors present systematic minimalist approaches for determining priorities, which will eventually lead to a meaningful and satisfied state of being. Decades after Suzuki-Zen was introduced to the West, “Minimal” is still the it word for the “contemporary” culture globally. With appearances, inter alia, on NPR, NBC, FOX, Forbes, NYT, the Wall Street Journal, Vogue, GQ, BBC, at Harvard Business School, Apple, and several large conferences such as SXSW, TEDx, World Economic Forum and World Domination Summit, with millions of social media followers, these authors above are just a few examples of the celebrity ambassadors who symbolise and validate such minimalist lifestyle for the masses. (Moon, 2019; Why Minimalistic Interiors Are Good For Your Wellbeing, 2018; Bunker, 2017) Social media outlets, such as blogs, vlogs, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and Pinterest, have become the new mass communication platform over the last two decades, overtaking traditional media. With their image-heavy user-generated contents, online influencers are now in direct competition with established publications such as magazines and newspapers as a source of information and inspiration. It cannot be denied that many bloggers also adopt an aesthetic of faux-minimalism, posting new images of their minimalist lifestyle every day, seemingly unaware of the irony. Simplicity is merely used as a stylistic device whilst the amount of the purchased items remains abundant. This phenomenon has been quickly identified and utilised by mass-market retailers, who have jumped onto the bandwagon with minimalistic collections, transforming minimalism into a mainstream fashion trend. Corporate brands exploit the high viral marketing potential of such influencers; an increasing number have turned commercial and become financially sound via advertisements and sponsorships, transforming into professional ambassadors, releasing new high-quality content at a pace that traditional publications cannot keep up with. (Carlson, 2009) Due to its viral nature, social media posts make lingering interests and concerns apparent, reflecting the social climate in a society. Electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) has become the new form of word-of-mouth communication and a major source of cultural formation and consumer behaviour. (Lee, 2012) Suzuki’s depiction and promotion of Zen as a laissez-faire spirituality, coupled with the West’s deep-seated conception of the self as an autonomous ontology that needs individual nurturing with the well-being practice, helped the wide and fast spread of the whole variety of Zen culture globally. Akin to the marketing phenomenon where a brand becomes so established in the public’s mind and no longer requires celebrity ambassadors to endorse it, through the use of mass media and eWOM, the dehumanisation of the representational icon has now reached a further abstracted virtual form, no longer needing to even take on any specific fictional character like Kung Fu’s Kwai Chang Caine, let alone a real form. One fundamental, invariable feature of the Monk is that it is a reflective shapeshifter. The Orient in the Monk has been so abstracted by the VO/ID process that it no longer belongs to anywhere even remotely relatable to the Orient and can be packaged and sold to the Orient themselves. In the context of social media, the boundary between promotion and product can blur, overlapping “between journalistic, narrative or non-commercial text and advertisement” (Cornyetz, 1994, p. 119) By employing the seemingly apolitical language of psychology and the areligious rhetoric of the exotic Orient, the force of the VO/ID is deployed by the corporate brands to effectively create a new kind of cultural and economic hegemony. Concerns with the symptoms rather than the cause of the projected image of the Other may be due partially to how deeply embedded the Orientalism notion and the assumed dichotomy is in the Western collective psyche. While Orientalism has been used as a promotional and commercial tool, as well as a social or political strategy, the objectification and the encrusted abstraction of Zen is effective for a reason. It not only pacifies or fulfil the psychic anxieties and desires, but it also reconciles existential incongruencies experienced by the encounters with Other. It allows the otherwise passive subject to 63

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grasp the tangible entity to utilise it to their own benefit. Both side of the dichotomous relationship, the Self and Other, require the belief in the dualism, even if has to be imagined out of fantasised ontology, akin to the ideation of the opposite gender. The infantile drive is manifested collectively, not only by the Occident towards the Orient and vice versa, but also towards themselves by both parties, with Orientalism serving as an existential pacifier to basic drives. It is the process of Othering itself therefore, that is of essential necessity for the collective psyche, manifested through cultural production. The Orientalist derives pleasure through disassociation and appropriation. While the Orientalist phenomenon seemed like an intentional socio-political strategy, the continued manifestation and the popularity of the cultural icon may indicate that it is in the public psyche – not as a result of imperial manipulation but of basic instinct.

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SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Jeremy Carrette and Richard King argue that the field of psychology is largely responsible for constructing the concept of the private self – an autonomous ontology that can suffer or develop independently through individual practice – which in turn has led to the need for and explosion in the self-management industry. In their book, “Selling Spirituality: the Silent Takeover of Religion” (King, 2005), Carrette and King claim that spirituality has been utilised by policymakers and the corporate wellness industry to sustain efficient and docile workforce, as well as to divert public attention from actual societal issues. By focusing on the individualized, internal problems such as stress and its privatized management, any external concerns, such as social, ethical and environmental matters are passively accepted as personal responsibility or an inevitable feature of contemporary life. Simultaneously, the self-managed employees as a valuable corporate resource function with increased efficiency, self-soothing and propelling itself tirelessly, in the belief that such cog work is moral. Foucault, in discussing the societal networks that create individual ‘subjects’, says: “It is a form of power which makes individuals subjects. There are two meanings of the word “subject”: subject to someone else by control and dependence; and tied to his own identity by a conscience or self-knowledge. Both meanings suggest a form of power which subjugates and makes subject to.” (Foucault, 1982, p. 781) According to Carrette and King, the neoliberal capitalist systems like VO/ID is reliant on the delusion of the self, which has been embedded deeply into the mind of the public through a long process of psychologisation over a hundred years by utilising the regime of governmentality to make itself the central ideology of state institutions particularly welfare, educational and medical systems (King, 2005). Examining the aesthetics of impermanence, Inouye contemplates the ontology of the self and maintains that no such thing exists: ‘on the one hand, the relative permanence of our bodies formulate a sense of who we are … on the other hand, nothing teaches us the truth of change than our bodies’ (Inouye, 2008, p. 36). Based on the ontological questions raised by the Ship of Theseu thought experiment, where the assembled parts that makes the whole object are replaced gradually, Lopes examines the manifestation of the Ise Jingu (Ise shrine) in Japan. Ise Jingu’s physical building, despite being over 2000 years old, is rebuilt every twenty years as part of the Buddhist ceremony and in cerebration of transiency. Lopes claims that the ontology of the shrine uniquely manifest through their temporal presence (Lopes, 2007). Quoting Bogsnar, Lopes describes the rebuilding cycle as a piece of theatre: ‘ephemerality … can paradoxically yield lasting or enduring achievements’ (Lopes, 2007, p. 83). He compares the ontology of Ise Jingu as a ‘real object’ with that of a theatre, as opposed to that of a statue. Unlike traditional Western architectures whose ontology manifest as sculptural objects with the emphasis on the spatial 64

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aspects of their existence, Ise Jingu, through the process of rebuilding reconciles impermanence with permanence.‘While many cultural institutions and sites in Japan have elected to register with UNESCO as pieces of world heritage, Ise Grand Shrine has resisted this trend, as the traditions and rituals that take place there, far from being relics of the past, are still very much alive.’ (Living Heritage: Ise Grand Shrine, 2015) Perhaps the ontology of the self as this constant process of transformation may be comparable to that of Ise Jingu and the rebuilding process, where the permanence that is manifested through the impermanence and action is the essence of the temporal ‘object’. As expressed by Wu, ‘the notion of individual consciousness is no more than an abstraction in the face of the practical everydayness of [human] activities.’ (Wu, 2001) Watsuji’s theory of Gen offers significant insight for the present discussion. The Japanese word for ‘human being’ is ningen (人間), which comprises two characters for ‘person’(人/nin), and ‘between’( 間/gen). In “The Significance of Ethics as the Study of Human being” (Watsuji, 1996), Watsuji focuses on the character “Gen” in examining Japanese ethics, claiming that this term embodies the Japanese comprehension of the ontology of the human as a relational being, which is strikingly different from major Western philosophies that emphasises the autonomy of the individual (Wu, 2001; Purser, 2019; King, 2005) Emphasising the sense of ‘in-between-ness’ of the character Gen, he proposes that ningen contains three meaning strands: • • •

as individual human being as socially enmeshed human beings as the space (Ma) between beings in which the enmeshment occurs

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In such a condition, ‘one must see the two sides of [being both/neither individual and/or social] the person as being in a constant state of tension (Carter, 2001, p. 127). Human being is hence a “unity of contradictions” (Wu, 2001, p. 98), an ontological condition, and Ma is the space where such delicate ambiguity is temporarily held in between the ontologically schizophrenic states. Watsuji contrasts the Japanese term 存在 sonzai (existence) against its European counterparts. The character 存 (son) designates preservation, while 在 (zai) designates the subject’s staying-in-place against departure (Watsuji, 1996). Taken together, unlike “is” or sein, sonzai hence means ‘the self-sustenance of the self as between-ness’. (Wu, 2001, p. 99) Ethics, then, is the manner of being for such a subject as its activities unfold in the practical actions of the everyday. The ontology of self is in this context manifests in the continual reflection on one’s behaviour towards and in relation to others. Taking ningen’s condition of intersubjective betweeness as the point of departure, the laws of ethics are to be located in the double structure of human existence as both individual and totality. This structure is essentially a movement of negation that unfolds through the dialectic between individual and totality, the movement of absolute negativity returning to itself in the form of the nonduality of self and other. (Wu, 2001, p. 99) Watsuji believes that ningen represents simultaneously the public (世間 se-ken) and the individual human beings living in it (Watsuji, 1996). The character 世 se/yo is equivalent to “generation” thereby giving the term “public” a historical dimension, while 間 Ken, which again is the character for Ma (between), implies ‘living and dynamic betweeness, as a subjective interconnection of acts.’ (Wu, 2001, p. 98) The ontology of ningen ‘entails the unity of the sociality and individuality of humanity’ (Fogel, 65

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2015) and that the self is fundamentally rooted in the intersubjective in-between-ness and thus cannot be defined without the network of social space (Maynard, 2002). ‘What characterizes a person as human is that one is always together with other humans. In Japanese history, the only physical escape from the community was through withdrawal into the mountains, and in that case a person was referred to as sen-nin (仙人) “hermit”, a world of otherworldly nuance. There never has been a Japanese word for “privacy.”’ (Nitschke, 2018) According to Watsuji, ‘the structure of existence (sonzai) appropriate to human beings (ningen) expects and depends on trust and truth in human relationships … human relationships are those of trust; and at a place where human relationships prevail, trust is also established.’ (Watsuji, 1996, p. 343) Watsuji’s Gen existence, the no-self being, is not a passive act; rather, it is an active and dynamically responsive way of being – as aptly put by Thich Nhat Hanh, ‘When bombs begin to fall on people, you cannot stay in the meditation hall […] you have to learn how to help a wounded child while still practicing mindful breathing.’ (Purser, 2019, p. 191) – only then the Virtual Monk comes back to life, becomes you, and ceases to be a mere projected representation. Go to the pine if you want to learn about the pine, or to the bamboo if you want to learn about the bamboo. And in doing so, you must leave your subjective preoccupation with yourself. Otherwise you impose yourself on the object and do not learn. Your poetry issues of its own accord when you and the object have become one – when you have plunged deep enough into the object to see something like a hidden glimmering there. However well-phrased your poetry may be, if your feeling is not natural – if the object and yourself are separate – then your poetry is not true poetry but merely your subjective counterfeit. (Basho, 1966, p. 43)

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FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS The possibility of the Other is necessarily intimidating and reassuring simultaneously, not only in the context of Orientalism but in any form of Othering. Further studies into the precise nature of such identification processes regarding Orientalism in relation to the infantile development will help deconstruct such notions of essentialism and binarism. Comparative examinations into gender study may also generate useful insights into the psychological mechanisms behind the process of Othering. It should be noted that the comparison to gender study employed in this article applies to the current state of Orientalism. It represents the general acknowledgement of the reality of the persistence of essentialist belief in dualism. Further studies into the application of the VO/ID expansion theory on other stylised cultures would yield better understanding of the political infrastructures of the phenomenon and the impact of the corporate forces. The argument regarding the impact of the neoliberal politics at individual, national and global level would benefit from analyses of the effects of VO/ID in cultures outside of the US and European countries (where the belief in the psychologised self is prevalent) to gain additional insight into the sociopolitical mechanisms and the influence of the social media.

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CONCLUSION The chapter Addressed three major fallacies in the Orientalist discourse: the myth of the silent Orient, the myth of the subordinate woman, and the myth of the Self. Founded on the theory that it is the psychologised notion of the individual self that plays a major role in the capitalist promotion of stylised Zen, the chapter demonstrated the impact of VO/ID on such market and its expansion. Accordingly, it offered Tetsuro Watsuji’s theory of Gen as a possible solution to instigate a fundamental paradigm shift. We must all re-cognise our complicity in perpetuating the three fallacies of dualism examined as, after all, these myths are the reflection of our operational imagination that make us human. Nevertheless, as expressed by Borup, these discourses help polish the mirror of our perception so to forces us all to stare squarely at ourselves so that we can act authentically. When one touches the surface of the mirror it is merely a representation of oneself. In the film, “Lost in Translation” (Coppola, 2003), the two protagonists disguise their own sense of lostness by pretending to themselves that they recognise a fellow Self in each other and by attributing their disorientation to the Oriental Other. The peculiar backdrop of Tokyo and its eccentric occupants are reduced to mere representations that they can project their anxiety in an effort to cope and avoid facing their own loss. We see the process of incorporation when they imitate the behaviours of the Other: ‘I don’t feel anything,’ one utters. This sense of disorientation can be, however, a positive transformation if experienced actively rather than suffered passively. The role of Said’s thesis as cultural critique cannot be overemphasised. Our role as academics is not to criticise or judge but to illuminate and help re-cognise the complex dynamics of cultural discourse. Not to judge but describe; the proverbial water that ebbs and flows (fragments, merges, conjoins, stagnates, disperses), or the plant that gets transplanted in various soils and adapts to new environments, may not be the Zen but the whole discourse of Orientalism – rather, the Zen in the context is the eye that observes the water’s movements and the adaptations of the plant. Recognising the Orientalist filters may help gain a new insight into one’s own subjectivity and its impact on the wider Orientalist discourse. Said maintains that anyone who studies Orientalism must necessarily position himself in relation to the Orient, a site that is not geographical, but rather a conceptual and discursive ‘space’. Such understanding may help us remain objective over our own subjectivity and the necessarily biased frameworks and filters. Everyone is lost in Translation and everyone is Other, including one’s self, thus nobody is the Other. As Inouye affirms, ‘Only because of our interdependence with everyone and everything can we become thoroughly condemned and, therefore, endlessly compassionate and moved.’ (Inouye, 2008, p. 39)

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-forprofit sectors.

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Basho, M. (1966). The Narrow Road to the Deep North. Penguin Books. Bhabha, H. K. (1994). The Location of Culture. Routledge. Borup, J. (2004). Zen and the Art of Inverting Orientalism: Religious Studies and Genealogical Networks. In New Approaches to the Study of Religion, Volume 1, Regional, Critical and Historical Approaches (pp. 451 - 487). Berlin: Verlag de Gruyter. Brown, M. (2012, May 18). Haywards gallery’s invisible show: ‘the best exhibition you’ll never see’. Retrieved from The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2012/may/18/hayward-galleryinvisible-show Bunker, J. (2017, October 9). How to be a minimalist. Retrieved from https://www.gq-magazine.co.uk/ article/expert-advice-on-how-to-become-a-minimalist Cage, J. (1994). Silence: Lectures and Writings. Marion Boyars. Carlson, B. (2009, September 11). The Rise of the Professional Blogger. Retrieved from The Atlantic: https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2009/09/the-rise-of-the-professional-blogger/307696/ Carrier, J. G. (1995). Occidentalism: Images of the West. Oxford University Press. Carter, R. E. (2001). Encounter with Enlightenment: A Study of Japanese Ethics. State University of New York Press. Coppola, S. (Director). (2003, November 4). Lost in Translation [Motion Picture]. Retrieved from IMDB. Cornyetz, N. (1994). Fetishized Blackness: Hip Hop and Racial Desire in Contemporary Japan. Social Text, (41), 113–139. doi:10.2307/466835 Creighton, M. R. (1995). Imagining the Other in Japanese Advertising Campaigns. In Occidentalism: Images of the West. Oxford University Press. Derrida, J. (1986). The Wolf Man’s Magic Word: A Cryptonom y. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Eddy, S.W., & Ng, L. S. (2010). 2010. New Generation, Great Expectations: A Field Study of the Millennial Generation. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25(2), 281 - 292. Evans, V. (2015, October 8). Beyond words: how language-like is emoji? Retrieved from http://blog. oxforddictionaries.com/2015/11/emoji-language Copyright © 2021. IGI Global. All rights reserved.

Fletcher, A. (2001). The Art of Looking Sideways. Phaidon. Fogel, J. A. (2015). The Emergence of the Modern Sino-Japanese Lexicon: Seven Studies. Brill. doi:10.1163/9789004290525 Forbush, S. T. (2017). Japan’s internationalization: Dialectics of Orientalism and hybridism. In Intercultural Communication in Japan: Theorizing Homogenizing Discourse. Routledge. Foucault, M. (1982). The Subject and Power. Critical Inquiry, 8(4), 777–795. doi:10.1086/448181

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Goda, S. (2010). An Investigation into the Japanese Notion of ‘Ma’: Practising Sculpture within Spacetime Dialogues (PhD Dissertation). University of Norttumbria at Newcastle. https://shop.konmari.com Inouye, C. S. (2008). Evanescence and Form: An Introduction to Japanese Culture. Palgrave Macmillan. doi:10.1057/9780230615489 Iwamura, J. N. (2011). Virtual Orientalism: Asian Religions and American Popular Culture. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199738601.001.0001 King, J. C. (2005). Selling Spirituality: The Silent Takeover of Religion. Routledge. Kondo, M. (2014). The Life-Changing Magic of Tidying Up: The Japanese Art of Decluttering and Organizing. Ten Speed Press. Krishnamurti, J. (1969). Freedom From The Known. HarperCollins Publishers. Kurosawa, M. (2004). Eight Elements of Japanese Aesthetics / Yattsu no Nihon no Bi-ishiki. Kodansha. Lee, C. M. (2012). What drives consumers to spread electronic word of mouth in online consumer-opinion platforms. Decision Support Systems, 53(1), 218–225. doi:10.1016/j.dss.2012.01.015 Living Heritage: Ise Grand Shrine. (2015, December 8). Retrieved from All About Japan: http://allaboutjapan.com/en/article/1077 Loots, C. (2010, Spring). The Ma (間) of Hemingway: Interval, Absence, and Japanese Aesthetics in In Our Time. The Hemingway Review, 29(2), 74–88. doi:10.1353/hem.0.0061 Lopes, D. M. (2007). Shikinen Sengu and the Ontology of Architecture in Japan. In Global Theories of the Arts and Aesthetics. Blackwell Publishing, Inc. Maynard, S. K. (2002). Linguistic Emotivity: Centrality of Place, the Topic-comment Dynamic, and an Ideology of Pathos in Japanese Discourse. John Benjamins Publishing Company. doi:10.1075/pbns.97 Mckeown, G. (2014). Essentialism – the disciplined pursuit of less. New York: Crown Business: Penguin Random House USA. Millar, L. (2001). Textual Space: Contemporary Japanese Textile Art. Surry Institute of Art and Design College University. Minimalists, T. (2020). Retrieved from The Minimalists: https://www.theminimalists.com/

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Moon, C. (2019, February 1). Zen and the Way of Tidying. Retrieved from https://www.lionsroar.com/ zen-and-the-way-of-tidying/ Mulvey, L. (1981). Visual and Other Pleasures. Indiana University Press. Nitschke, G. (2018, May 16). Ma: Place, Space, Void. Retrieved from Kyoto Journal: www.kyotojournal. org/the-journal/culture-arts/ma-place-space-void Praz, M. (1933). The Romantic Agony. Oxford University Press. Purser, R. E. (2019). McMindfulness; How Mindfulness Became the New Capitalist Spirituality. Repeater Books.

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Quli, N. E. (2009). Western Self, Asian Other: Modernity, Authenticity and Nostalgia for ‘Tradition’ in Buddhist Studies. Journal of Buddhist Ethics. Rutherford, J. (1990). The Third Space: Interview with Homi Bhabha. In The Third Space: Interview with Homi BhIdentity: Community, Culture, Difference (pp. 207–221). Lawrence and Wishart. Said, E. (1978). Orientalism. Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. Saito, Y. (2007). The Moral Dimension of Japanese Aesthetics. The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 65(1), 85 - 97. Studlar, G. (1985). An Anthology: Vol. 2. Masochism and the Perverse Pleasures of the Cinema. University of California Press. Studlar, G. (1988). In the Realm of Pleasure: von Sternberg, Dietrich, and the Masochistic Aesthetic. University of Illinois Press. Tate Archive. (2013, October 2). Minimalism, Tate Archive. Retrieved from http://www2.tate.org.uk/ archivejourneys/reisehtml/mov_minimalism.htm Torok, N. A. (1986). L’écorce et le noyau (Paris: Aubier-Flammarion, 1978). In N. Lukacher (Ed.), Primal Scenes: Literature, Philosophy, Psychoanalysis (pp. 88–90). Cornell University Press. Watsuji, T. (1996). Watsuji Tetsuro’s Rinrigaku: Ethics in Japan (Suny Series in Modern Japanese Philosophy). State University of New York Press. Weihua, Y. (2010). The Application of Zen Style in Modern Fashion Design. IEEE 11th International Conference on Computer-Aided Industrial Design & Conceptual Design. Why Minimalistic Interiors Are Good For Your Wellbeing. (2018, October 21). Retrieved from Japana Home: https://japanahome.com/journal/minimalistic-interiors-good-wellbeing/ Winnicott, D. W. (1986). Home is Where We Start From: Essays by a Psychoanalyst. W. W. Norton & Company. Wu, J. (2001). The Philosophy of As-Is: The Ethics of Watsuji Tetsuro. Stanford Journal of East Asian Affairs, 96 - 102.

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Yokoyama, T. (1994). Gaijin: The Foreigner in Japan. In e. A. Uenda, & t. M. Eguchi. In The Electric Geisha: Exploring Japan’s Popular Culture (pp. 175–184). Kodansha International.

ADDITIONAL READING Beauvoir, S. d. (1947). The Ethics of Ambiguity. Editions Gallimard. Eng, D. L. (2001). Racial Castration: Managing Masculinity in Asian America. Duke University Press. doi:10.1215/9780822381020 Fromm, E. (1989). Beyond the Chains of Illusion. Abacus.

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Jodidio, P. (2009). Taizo Kuroda. Prestel Verlag. Kristeva, J. (1991). Strangers to Ourselves. Columbia University Press. Nietzsche, F. (1886). Beyond Good and Evil. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. Ricoeur, P. (1992). Oneself as Another. The University of Chicago Press. Sartre, J.-P. (1943). Being and Nothing. Editions Gallimard. Snodgrass, J. (2003). Presenting Japanese Buddhism to the West. The University of North Carolina Press. Suzuki, D. T. (1959). Zen and Japanese Culture. Bollingen Foundation. Inc. Suzuki, D. T. (1972). The Zen Doctorine of No-Mind. Weiser Books. Tanizaki, J. (1977). In Praise of Shadows. Leete’s Island Books, Inc.

KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

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Gen (間): The experience of an intersubjective Ma and the dynamic response to the Ma. Imagined Dualism: The belief in the essentialist dichotomy of the Self/Other, East/West and/or Male/Female. Ma (間): The presence of a meaningful space/time interlude. Occidentalism: The projected image of the Occident. Orientalism: The projected image of the Orient. Oriental Monk: A personified representation of the Orient. Virtual Orientalism: The manifestation of Orientalism in the visual media. VO/ID: The paired concept of Virtual Orientalism and Imagined Dualism.

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Chapter 5

Analyzing Jordan Peele’s Get Out With Fanonism: Tracing Postcolonialism in Hollywood Representations Nurdan Akiner https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0295-9373 Akdeniz University, Turkey

ABSTRACT The colonial discourse racially defned the others and distinguished between people regarded as barbarous, infdels, and savage, such as the inhabitants of America and Africa. The formal abolition of slavery has not been the solution for Blacks, but they have often been subjected to the domination of sovereign ideology at diferent social life levels. The dominant ideology in USA is also infuential in representing Blacks in the cultural industry. This chapter examines the 2017 flm Get Out, directed by Jordan Peele, as an example of the recent diversity positive trend in Hollywood. Peele is the frst Black screenwriter to win the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay. The flm was analyzed by Roland Barthes’s semiotics theory and Frantz Fanon’s critical theory Fanonism. This research shows that Get Out is truly a Black renaissance in Hollywood. The signs of racism skillfully placed in the flm were analyzed by focusing on denotative and connotative meanings, and the racial oppression faced by African-Americans throughout history was revealed by regarding Fanonism.

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INTRODUCTION One of the 15th century’s critical technological developments is to make ships move rush in the oceans using wind energy. However, gaining speed in the oceans using wind energy and gigantic sailboats designed accordingly, although considered a crucial development for humanity, accelerated Africa’s pillage and even turned it into a business. Although the discovery of wind energy is a source of great

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-7180-4.ch005

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 Analyzing Jordan Peele’s Get Out With Fanonism

pride for Europe, it is one of the most tragic examples of the abuse of science against humanity, such as the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in terms of its results. Today, the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean is filled with the wreckage of some 1,000 ships trading slaves on a line from Africa to Brazil, the USA, the Caribbean. More than 12 million Africans are estimated to have been smuggled into the American and Caribbean colonies by Europeans. The longest part of the journey in slave ships across the Atlantic Ocean from the West of Africa to the American and Caribbean colonies is called the Middle Passage. According to a very conservative estimate, the number of deaths in the Middle Passage alone is 1.5 million. The number of deaths on land during the slave trade is unpredictable (Miller, 1981). Declared as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2017, Valongo Wharf was built in 1811 and was used as a place of download and trade for slaves brought from Africa until 1831, when the Transatlantic slave trade was banned (the slave trade continued secretly until 1888). Valongo Wharf was created during the light rail system and flamboyant buildings as part of the 2016 Rio Olympic Games. The first place where nearly four million enslaved Africans (now ten times the number in the United States) set foot in Brazil is Valongo Wharf, an enormous role in the Transatlantic slave trade (Lima, 2020). Mass graves that were accidentally encountered in Portugal and Brazil’s excavations, the first country that commodified Africans in the 1440s, reveal the terrible extent of the “transatlantic slave trade.” The Africans enslaved in Portugal were found in a dump in Lagos, a coastal town in the Algarve, a popular tourism destination. Most of the skeletons discovered were chained and had traces of severe trauma on their bodies. Worse, one-third of these corpses were children. The area in question is currently an underground car park with a golf course on its roof (Ferreira et al., 2019). After the Europeans colonized the American continent, the blacks, whom the European traders abducted from the African continent by force and enslaved, lived under challenging conditions for many years; even after abolishing slavery in the USA in 1865, blacks continued to work as slaves and were exposed to racist rhetoric. So much so that, after the persecution, blacks have become alienated from their identity and history with the influence of the culture industry. With this alienation, black people, who have always been aware of the discriminatory treatment, started to think and act like white people. In this context, Jordan Peele aimed to remind all blacks of their forgotten past and identity with the 2017 film “Get Out.”

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THE AFRICAN-AMERICANS IN USA: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND For the first time in 1619, twenty Africans were brought as slaves to the American continent, where Europeans invaded and settled. The blacks were chained to the galleons, which were abducted from the African continent colonies. They were persecuted and tortured by slave traders on these ships throughout their journey. These people, who were sold very cheaply as slaves, were employed in the Lower South states of America in the cotton fields extending into Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, without any rights and pay (Bullard, 1993). The American War of Independence took place between 1775 and 1783, and the colonial peoples in the American continent united around the phenomenon of “independence” against Britain and formed the United States of America. The previous “Boston Tea Party” incident set the stage for the American War of Independence (Barley, 2007). They were reacting to the high tax imposed on tea by Britain, a

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prominent colonial state. The American colonial forces disguised as Native Americans and poured tons of tea into the Boston Harbor to eliminate England’s high taxes. The American Declaration of Independence was proclaimed in 1776. In the introductory sentences of this declaration, it is seen that all humanity is created equal, and it is emphasized that they have some inalienable rights such as life, freedom, and access to happiness. After becoming president, Abraham Lincoln formally abolished slavery in 1865. However, this did not provide a solution for their situation as blacks without economic power had nowhere to go. This time, blacks were worked as slaves in secret. Discriminatory treatment of blacks in social, economic, and political spheres continued (Bullard, 1993). Although slavery was abolished, discriminatory policies against blacks continued. The clearest example of blacks’ discrimination is the racist Jim Crow laws, which advocate the principle of “separate but” equal. Jim Crow is a character created by Thomas Rice, an English comedian, in 1828. The character Rice portrayed by painting her face black with charcoal was black with the low mind, primitive and humiliated. After a while, “Jim Crow” became the name used to humiliate blacks. Mainly after 1890, with these segregation laws that oblige the separation of races in all areas of life in the South, it aimed to keep blacks apart from whites in social life (Bullard, 1993). The best example of this is when blacks and whites have separate seating arrangements on buses. Rosa Parks, who was subjected to racist treatment in line with this discriminatory policy, was asked to leave the seat reserved for blacks because the white seats were occupied, and Parks was arrested for refusing this. With this incident, Martin Luther King, against discriminatory policies, “I Have a Dream!” With the slogan (I Have a Dream), he started an excellent resistance for freedom and equality and carried out many actions without violence. Thus, the Hollywood film industry, which played a major role in the production of racial relations, started to set up its narrative structure only implicitly against the blacks since then, and the marginalization of blacks in the products of the culture industry continued (Artz, 1998). During slavery, black people were forbidden to be educated to prevent them from getting empowered by learning how to read and write. However, blacks had learned to read and write at the risk of all kinds of punishment. Blacks, who have the power to communicate with this power, have taken a big step for their freedom (Küngerü & Akıner, 2016). In his book Black Skin White Masks, Frantz Fanon opposed black people’s humiliation because of their skin and discussed that black-skinned people had to wear white masks to become respected by society. According to this, when black-skinned people saw that white-skinned people have all the privilege, they started to act with the idea that they should be like white people to be successful. As Fanon points out, the alienation that occurs due to the whitening of the brain of a black person who experiences a “whitening” complex results in black people forgetting their roots and culture (Akıner, 2014). According to Fanon, the black person is defined as “non-white,” which results in the attribution of positive or negative characteristics that the black person does not have. However, since white people are considered natural and defined by their characteristics, black people prefer to be a white person to be a subject; they wear white masks. Fanon’s dialectical point of view later Nelson Mandela’s “I fought against white domination. I fought against black domination. I defended the ideal of a democratic and free society where everyone has equal opportunities and lives together in harmony” (Lee, 2015).

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REPRESENTATION OF BLACKS IN HOLLYWOOD AND DIVERSITY POSITIVE The main focus in critical theory is the power of large companies that want to monopolize cultural production. Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer, members of the Frankfurt School, discuss the cultural industry in their primary text, Dialectic of Enlightenment (1947). This text provides an appealing critique of the mass entertainment culture of consumer capitalism. According to Adorno and Horkheimer, the culture industry plays a significant role in the reproduction of capitalism. When Adorno and Horkheimer wrote the work, they focused on leading entertainment companies such as Metro - Goldwyn - Mayer (MGM), Twentieth Century - Fox, and Radio Corporation of America (RCA) (Horkheimer & Adorno, 1972). If Adorno were alive today, he would point to international media companies like Walt Disney Corporation, AOL Time Warner, or News Corporation. According to them, such organizations produce goods intending to increase corporate profits rather than foster critical thinking and human freedom. In other words, in this process, a culturally oriented production line is formed, such as film, music. It is combined with standard tasks shared among workers like other manufacturing products (Smith & Riley, 2011). In other words, the culture industry is a part of the Industrial Revolution, which is actually a product of industrial technology and is a means of making profit through culture. With the recent acceleration of liberal globalization, a new type of capitalism, industrial and fiscal based on speculation, rose. From now on, real power is in the hands of some global conglomerates and economic groups whose weight in world affairs seems to be more important than governments and states. Today’s modern hyper-companies are taking over various media industries in many different continents countries through concentration mechanisms. Moreover, these global conglomerates are also exerting pressure on governments to eliminate laws that prevent the creation of monopoly-duopolies and restrict concentrations. These giant media companies widely distribute their messages, including these chain symbol makers, television, animation, film, video games, CDs, DVDs, publishing, Disneyland-style theme parks, and sporting events (Akıner, 2014). Film technology has changed the narrative of film in the historical process. The USA has invented the machines that produce widespread cultural meaning, and by integrating this meaning with the ideological power, it has used its dominant discourse globally through all cultural industries, especially Hollywood (Miller, 2012). Hollywood is the most vigorous wing of the global movie industry and is above all a commodity-producing industry. Hollywood has a critical ideological discourse in this context. American liberal-conservative understanding dominates the culture produced by global communication networks. It is articulated with American domestic policy and supports American interests at the global level.

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Blacks in the Hollywood Film Industry Few films in Hollywood Cinema objectively examine African-Americans’ social position and their racist behavior and problems. While the Hollywood film industry creates an art form that allows the other to be portrayed, it is also an essential tool in conveying nationalist discourses. The Hollywood film industry plays a vital role in shaping the viewer’s perception of “us” and “them,” with its choice to represent cultures outside of the culture in which it exists. Cinema reveals who is strong or weak, who is capable of exercising power and brutality, and who is incapable; legitimize the situation of those who have power, and conveys message to the powerless to stay where they are (Kellner & Ryan, 1988). In its simplest definition, racism is any policy, attitude, action, or inaction that supports individuals or groups according to their race (Wolf & Guin, 2004). Orientalism discourse puts the Orient in a 75

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downward position to justify what the West has done to the East. Esposito concludes that what makes information good or bad, right or wrong, is related to society’s needs that produce the information. On the other hand, Foucault points out that the discourse’s producer has the power to make it right (obliges according to the meaning of validity or scientific status) (Akıner, 2014). Hall puts the final point: “The question of whether the discourse is true or false is less important than whether it is effective in practice.” According to Stuart Hall (1997), the Non-Western “Other” is defined by the West, the “Us (the Self),” and the “Them (Other)” is essential in the formation of the self. The “Other” is a person or group different from the West itself. An easy way (perhaps the most straightforward way) to characterize the “Other” is to look at someone’s skin color as a marker of racial difference. Seeing that “white” was the accepted norm in Western countries, people of color were automatically “marginalized.” In The Spectacle of the Other, Stuart Hall (1997) discusses three moments in which the West encountered black people and led to an avalanche of popular representations based on the sign of racial difference: The first is the West African kingdoms, a source of black slaves for three centuries. It is the contact between the European merchants and the 16th century. Its effects would be seen in slavery and the post-slavery societies of the new world. The second was the struggle between European powers to control colonial lands, markets, and raw materials during the European colonization of Africa and imperialism. Third, after the Second World War, there were migrations from the third world to Europe and North America. Western ideas about images of race and racial differences are profoundly shaped by these three moments of fate. In representations in the Hollywood film industry and other media representations, “Us-West” is seen as contemporary, rational, rugged, open, and masculine. “Other-East” has been regarded as the opposite: uncivilized, irrational, weak, barbaric, and feminine Non-Western. Before the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s, black actors were often represented in the Hollywood film industry’s products by stereotypes, in other words, by fixed, simplified, generalized stereotypes of members of a group that ignored individual characteristics of individuals. After the Civil Rights Movement, the racism that had been openly displayed on the screen until then became less accepted. Civil Rights Movement aimed to establish equality in civil rights for African-Americans and led by nonviolent resistance advocate Martin Luther King. Thus, the Hollywood film industry, which played a significant role in racial relations production, started to establish the narrative structure against the black people only in a disguised way (Artz, 1998). But in the 1980s, black participation in horror movies was rather fleeting or absent. In horror films of this period, the vast majority of black characters were not only killed in the plot, but blacks were also the first to die (Coleman, 2011).

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Diversity Positive and Hollywood Film Industry The sensitivity shown in the representation of groups exposed to ethnic racism and sexist discrimination has increased in recent years. As a culture carrier, Hollywood is the epitome of momentum. Diversity Positive is a part of colonialist Western societies’ daily lives like the USA, including Hispanic, Italian, Jewish, and African immigrants, and do not have a homogeneous structure. Diversity positive refers to the work done to leave behind the ethnocultural discrimination that has left traumatic marks on the world’s recent history. Thanks to diversity positive, the Hollywood film industry has enabled tolerance and tolerance concepts to be considered a marketing policy in one aspect.

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One of the most striking researches on the subject was conducted by the USA-based media research platform Annenberg Inclusion Initiative. The report proves with the data that diversity positive has gradually increased over the past years. “Inequality in 1,200 Popular Films: Examining Portrayals of Gender, Race / Ethnicity, LGBTQ & Disability from 2007 to 2018” is remarkable about the directors (Smith et al., 2019): Considering 1200 films and 1,335 directors, only 80 of them were found to be black. This number corresponds to 6 percent in the percentile. Of the 80 directors, only 5 are female directors, and the remaining 75 are male. On the other hand, a group of 42 Asian or Asian Americans occupies only 3.1 of the percentile. In this group, the number of female directors is only 3, while 39 directors are male. With this in mind, the number of those who want to embrace the belief that a “new world” is possible increases rapidly both within the industry and among the audience. According to the UCLA, 2019 Hollywood Diversity Report, it is noteworthy that in 2018, not only the representatives in the leading roles and supporting roles, but also the 15 directors behind the camera were black, which corresponds to 13.4 percent in the percentile (Hunt et al., 2018). Fourteen of these directors are men, while 1 of them are women. The year 2018 saw a historic increase in the number of black directors in the industry. It is no coincidence that Sony hired four black directors for high-budget movies. The annual Hollywood diversity report focuses on diversity, both in front of and behind the camera. The evidence in the report highlights that America is increasingly favoring different film and television content by different audiences. This diversity is significant to Hollywood. Because blacks make up about 40 percent of the USA population (Hunt et al., 2018), in the report, the number of female film directors that almost doubled from 2016 to 2017 is also striking, but it can be concluded that it is not sufficient in terms of only 12.6 percent of all directors.

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Fanonism in the Context of Postcolonial Theory When evaluated in postcolonial theory, there is a hegemonic relationship between West and East based on power and domination. “Orient” is a phenomenon that has been constructed by naturalizing stereotypes by generations of intellectuals, artists, commentators, writers, politicians, and the mass media industry. Colonialism includes a range of comprehensive practices, such as trade, bargaining, war, enslavement, genocide, and rebellion in the lands newly created by the colonists. As the origin of the word, colonialism means a farm or settlement, and this settlement revived relationships in the settled space. These applications have produced various documents such as private and official records, commercial documents, letters, and scientific literature. Practices and written documents have influenced the studies of colonialism and postcolonialism (Loomba, 1998). Postcolonial theory has many definitions. Postcolonial theory emerges as a theory, method, and trend that investigates the social, economic, political, cultural, and psychological effects of the conditions that emerged in the colonial period and after. The position of “Third World” countries against colonial practices and the effects of colonialism and the characteristics of colonial societies are also examined (Ashcroft, Griffiths Gareth, & Tiffin, 2002), (Young, 2001), (Loomba, 1998), (Gandhi, 1998), (Quayson, 2000), (Parry, 2004), (Appiah, 1991), (San Juan Jr, 1998). The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice in Postcolonial Literatures is one of the most important works ever published in postcolonialism, written by Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin and published in 1989. In this book, Ashcroft, Griffiths, and Tiffin discuss the relationships in postcolonial works and examine the forces acting on postcolonial text words. As noted by Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin, the theorists of postcolonialism, along with Said, some critical scholars such as Homi K. These, at best, laid the theoretical groundwork, and 77

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 Analyzing Jordan Peele’s Get Out With Fanonism

the theoretical process of using postcolonialism in cultural analysis occurred after The Empire Writes Back. According to Ashcroft, Griffiths, and Tiffin, more than 75% of the world’s people today have experienced colonialism in the modern period. When looking at people’s worlds of perception, literature, music, arts, and dances, it is easy to detect the effects and prevalence (Ashcroft, Griffiths & Tiffin, 2002). Fanonism is the term that expresses the anti-colonial pro-liberty critique developed by the Martinique psychiatrist Frantz Fanon (1925-1961), a pioneering postcolonial theorist and activist. Fanon’s work in Algeria prompts him to join the Algerian liberation movement; has led him to publish work on racism and colonialism. These include his work on racism and its colonized psychology The Black Skin White Masks (1952) and The Wretched of the Earth (1961), published just before his death. In this work, Fanon addresses the colonized, politically, economically, and culturally oppressed peoples, which he describes as the “damned of the earth - the wretched of the earth” and ignored by the colonial powers. In The Fact of Blackness (1952), on the other hand, he addressed the construction of prejudice, and the powerful and defining psychological effects of this on the self-construction of black peoples (Ashcroft, Griffiths & Tiffin, 2013). The Wretched of the Earth and Black Skin, White Masks, two important works of Fanon, also shed light on the problems caused by the psychological tension and loss of self-created by the “in-between” of black people in the world of whites. In his book The Wretched of the Earth, he emphasizes Europe’s colonialism and criticizes the racist movements they carried out along with the ideals promised by Western civilization. Frantz Fanon is an essential contributor to the field of postcolonial theory. Contrary to popular belief, long before Edward Said, Frantz Fanon concluded his colonial claim by saying, “Europe is the creation of the Third World.” According to Fanon, the colonial transfers all the wealth of the colonial regions to the metropolis. It uses all the resources in the colonies for its benefit. Fanon (1963) defines this situation as follows: “This European opulence is scandalous, for it has been founded on slavery, it has been nourished with the blood of slaves, and it comes directly from the soil and from the subsoil of that underdeveloped world. The well-being and the progress of Europe have been built up with the sweat and the dead bodies of Negroes, Arabs, Indians, and the yellow races ”. Eurocentrism, orientalism, and racism played a vital role in the historical formation of colonial discourse. With European-centered thinking, the European “white man” has fixed his position, placed himself in the center of the world, including everything excellent and beautiful in his European identity, which he produces directly, and defines himself by looking at the other. The relationship between West and East is a relation of power, domination, and a hegemonic relation. The concept of orientalism, which became popular with the work of Edward Said, examines the processes built and still maintained by European thought. Edward Said (1979) argues that Europeans divide the world into two parts. East and West or Occident and Orient, or civilized and uncivilized. These concepts are an utterly artificial limit; “they and we” depend on “their and our” concepts. Frantz Fanon (1986) talks about black people being the other of whites. This marginalization also acts by the black man’s wishes to prove himself, whether he wants it. To understand this, all that needs to be done is to examine children’s magazines. On the pages of these magazines, the words “okay boss, okay, boss” are spilled from the mouths of every black person. Black people who appear in movies, who are not intelligent, who are spoken of slang, or are punished with death in the slightest and ridiculous mistake are examples. Fanon explains these stereotypes of black people as a concern to remind black people of the dominant ideology at every opportunity.

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We come across black typologies that are not allowed to express thoughts on serious issues: “If a black man is to speak of Marx, the first reaction will always be the following: “Let’s get you to our level, then you get up and stir things against our benefactor! Ungrateful to you! What can be expected from people like you”. These black people’s typologies are so engraved in memories that black in Europe has become synonymous with everything’s evil. Based on this, Fanon states that all archetypes of low value are represented by blacks (Fanon, 1986).

METHOD OF THE RESEARCH Get Out (2017), directed by Jordan Peele, draws attention with its narrative structure by borrowing and transforming signs, cultural codes, and myths from historical and social processes. This situation causes the audience to reinterpret the narratives. Despite being in the horror genre, Get Out, which is also described by film critics as a documentary on the fate of African-Americans in the international arena, has hidden elements because it is a product of the Hollywood film industry. The director skillfully designed the signs in the film. In this context, the visual indicators selected from the film have been analyzed with the concepts of French Linguist Roland Barthes’ theoretical approach, denotation, and connotation. Frantz Fanon’s critical theory has also been interpreted with Fanonism. Jordan Peele’s debut feature Get Out was one of the few films that successfully achieved the commercial success that was the dream of all horror filmmakers at the box office. Get Out grossed more than $ 250 million worldwide with a budget of $ 4.5 million. Although the film raises commercial concerns about being a USA-made and blockbuster film, it criticizes blacks’ dominant ideology through the culture industry from within through diversity positive.

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Synopsis and Details of the Film Chris (Daniel Kaluuya) is a young black photographer. He has a happy relationship with a white woman named Rose (Allison Williams). One day, Rose invites Chris to his family home. Despite warnings from his black friend Rod (Lil Rel Howery), Chris agrees to join the White Anglo-Saxon Protestant family. Chris senses an oddity in the behavior of the black workers in the mansion. She is hypnotized by Rose’s mother, Missy Armitage (Catherine Keener), and plunges into the dark world. In this dark world, control is in the hands of white, wealthy, and liberal families. A weekend meeting of wealthy white families takes place at the Armitages’ home. Different plans are made for Chris at this meeting. Chris is unaware of the situation he is in, and he becomes uneasy with the actions of the young black man attending the meeting. Writer, screenwriter, and comedian Jordan Peele directed and scripted the movie Get Out. The movie, released on February 24, 2017, is 104 minutes. The film is produced by Jordan Peele, Jason Blum, Sean McKittrick, and Tedd Hamm. Black director Jordan Peele’s film, Get Out, with references to America’s problem of racism and blacks’ historical exploitation, was nominated for Best Director, Best Original Screenplay, and Best Actor for Best Picture. The film won an Oscar for Best Original Screenplay, and Jordan Peele became the first African-American to receive this award (Dockterman, 2018).

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Semiotics and the Cinema

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The Swiss linguist Ferdinand De Saussure (1857-1913) and the American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) were pioneers of semiotics. After the studies of Saussure and Peirce, semiotics studies in America and Europe continued with different approaches. Roland Barthes, Umberto Eco, Claude Levi Strauss, Christian Meltz, Louis Hjelmslev are some of these theorists. Each scene of a film contains signs. The branch of science that studies these signs is semiotics like all kinds of forms, objects, phenomena that represent something outside of itself and can replace what it represents. In this respect, words, symbols are generally called signs (Rifat, 2013). The sign can represent and replace all kinds of objects and phenomena. Thus, the sign shows entities other than itself. The whole of signs constitutes the system, that is, the system. The system has been implemented by people to facilitate social life and communication (Akerson, 2005). The denotation is the first meaning created by an object in the world in our mind and belongs to the domain of existence. The concept of connotation has a value instead of a literal meaning and belongs to the field of myth. Roland Barthes’s denotation and connotation concepts can be applied to cinema, literature, and similar fields. This form of interpretation turns into a different form of meaning and interpretation in cinema, by combining with the social and cultural values of the audience, apart from the image that is literally reflected on the screen (Berger, 1995). According to Roland Barthes, myths, which are a process of making sense of the world, are ideologically based and differ from legends in this respect. Primitive myths are about life and death, man and gods, good and bad (Fiske, 2010). In his book Mythologies, Roland Barthes (1972) discusses the mythical meanings or cultural connotations of many French daily life phenomena, such as wrestling, steak and chips, toys, Garbo’s face, and striptease. Its purpose is to take the world of “things without saying” and show the connotations associated with it (which often reveal themselves as ideological issues). These “meanings,” which Barthes discovered in some details with brilliant methodological success and creative insight, are those objects’ connotations. In Empire of Signs (1970), he does the same for Japanese culture. In the context of this discussion, a myth is, among other functions, a narrative that serves to connect individuals to their culture and to explain natural and supernatural phenomena (such as the creation of the world and the origin of man). The literary critic Mark Shorer (1968) describes the myth as: “Myths are the means of our constant struggle to make our experiences understandable to ourselves. A myth is a great image that gives philosophical meaning to the realities of everyday life, provides control.” Genre films, considered a product of the Hollywood studio system, are considered one of the most influential ideologies (Kellner & Ryan, 1988). The Hollywood film industry has superior power in naturalizing and spreading stereotypes beyond what was anticipated.

RESULTS Director and screenwriter Jordan Peele wrote Get Out, the thriller about racial hypocrisy when debates on police violence against African Americans were intense, and hate crimes rose. In Peele’s own words, “The movie was written in the Obama era, which I’ve been calling the post-racial lie.” While Peele describes Get Out as documentary, horror, and comedy, he adds a new category to these genres: the social thriller (Yuan & Harris, 2018). The social thriller genre came back to the fore with Jordan Peele’s Get Out. Although commonly described as a horror movie, Peele describes Get Out as a “social thriller,” 80

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 Analyzing Jordan Peele’s Get Out With Fanonism

let the things that appear on the screen be as scary as they want, but society itself is horrifying and evil. According to director Peele, we are the evil (Castillo, 2017). Death of the Deer: When the deer’s sequence is examined, the deer depicted on a rock in the Paleolithic period symbolizes the “magic of hunting” or the hope that such depictions will magically come true (Gibson, 2009). Besides, the deer is considered by many civilizations as a sacred animal. The deer was accepted as the guide of the gods’ path by the American natives (Armutak, 2002). The deer used to reference the hunting ritual in this scene reminds of the “hunting magic.” Even though it was an unfortunate traffic accident for our hero Chris (Daniel Kaluuya) on his way to meet his girlfriend’s family, the hunting spell has already begun with its the connotative meaning in the film. Because his girlfriend, Rose, who was at the wheel at the time, was the “hunter” of the hunting party, which was first started by European slaves in the 16th century. In Get Out, Jordan Peele uses the deer as metaphor for representing the United States’ AfricanAmerican population. Rose’s father complained about the deer population, “One down, a couple of hundred thousand to go. These things are everywhere here” and speaks of the damage they are doing to ecology. The camera clearly shows the audience that Chris is uncomfortable with this comment. The deer is both metaphor and metonym, just like the teacup used in hypnosis, in the context of the meanings it represents. It represents the African-American population on the one hand, and on the other hand, historically, it refers to slavery in the South. After the prohibition of slavery in the USA, the southern economy suffered because slavery was its primary source. Hypnosis with Teacup: Chris’s mind becomes blurred as Rose’s mother, Missy Armitage, stir the teacup. Rose’s mother, Missy (Catherine Keener), is a hypnotist who puts black people in a trance. Throughout the film, African American characters are used only for their bodies. Rose’s mother, Missy Armitage, catches Chris at her weakest point during hypnosis. When Chris was a child, his mother died in a car accident. Chris continued to watch television instead of calling the police because his mother did not come home. “I just thought that if I did, it would make it real,” he tells Rose. “I just sat there.” The main character, Chris, is tortured through hypnosis like a black slave just as he was centuries ago. The teacup used as a hypnosis method, with its connotative meaning, evokes the “Boston Tea Party” that led the United States to independence. The main reason behind the Tea Party incident is the heavy taxes imposed by Britain, which emerged from the Seven Years’ War as a significant colonial power, to thirteen American colonies to make the colonies pay for the cost of the war (Sander, 1997). Unwilling to pay this tax, the American colonial forces disguised as Native Americans by creating a fictitious event and poured tons of tea on British ships into the sea. As in the Boston Tea Party incident, reality has been turned into a propaganda tool by fictionalizing a fabricated event. Connotation comes from the Latin connotate, which means “to write with.” Thus the connotation relates to historical, symbolic, and emotional issues that are told by a term or “come with it.” The denotation belongs to the field of existence, the connotation to the field of myth. It has presented a metaphorical richness within the plan. The teacup is both the Boston Tea Party’s metaphor and the USA’s creation myth’s metonym with its flamboyant meaning. Carole Shammas (1990) defines tea as “the commodity that started the American Revolution.” In the process leading up to independence, tea gained a mythological dimension in American society due to its political role. The Tea Party for Americans has become an emblem of their belief that a determined and organized group can bring about significant political change came and ended in independence (Carp, 2010).

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Table 1. Selected signs from Get Out (2017)

Source: (Get Out, 2017)

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 Analyzing Jordan Peele’s Get Out With Fanonism

In other words, the USA’s white and religious people, the White Anglo-Saxon Protestant Americans, did not want to share tea with people of dark skin. As a cultural tradition of whites, drinking tea excluded African Americans and became a metaphor associated with whites (Heneghan, 2003). With the dimension of connotation, which is a term used to express the cultural meaning added to a figure in a text or even a text, the tea ritual has also begun to be associated with stereotypes for women in the USA. While Chris remembers the past, he is opposite a TV instead of Missy Armitage. From this point of view, we see that the culture industry imposes White Anglo-Saxon Protestant morality that has clouded Chris’s mind since childhood. The system, which enslaves black people in the historical process and alienates them with discourse in the information age, does this by constructing messages implicitly. They do not realize that all immigrants and blacks living in America are destroying their cultures by being influenced by the liberal-conservative morality that controls the media. Identities that cannot produce counter-discourse are doomed to be bleached. The reaction of Chris, who received the command of “sink into the floor” from Missy Armitage, actually observes the historical victimization of the black people. In other words, it is as if Chris is startled by the violence of the oppression and exploitation of blacks since the 16th century. For this critical scene where the character should cry, Jordan Peele took five shots with British actor Daniel Kaluuya. Kaluuya’s eyes’ expression was profound in each shot, and a tear flowed from the young actor’s eyes in each scene. Her ability to control her tears and do justice to her role deeply affected the filming crew, especially director Peele (Yuan & Harris, 2018). When the scene of Chris’s fall into the dark world is examined with the connotative meaning, this scene represents the blacks are thrown into gaps in galleons while being brought from Africa to America and Europe. Chris falls into a void he doesn’t know what is. This stage’s space is the concept of “Sunken Place,” which is synonymous with the director’s cinema. After the movie’s February release, Sunken Place has become a metaphor that expresses the racist treatment all blacks are subjected to and how it silences blacks. Sunken Place is a metaphor used to express blacks’ helplessness in society against systematic and institutional racism. It also represents the control that white people can claim over black people through psychological, economic, and cultural pressure (Dictionary, 2018). Following the film, Sunken Place featured an excerpt from the film, along with photographs or written examples of black people who extort white people, and its influence expanded as it spread from language to language. Mainly Jordan Peele produced many important examples himself. Jordan Peele describes Sunken Place as the trivialization of black people and adds that “no matter how much we shout, the system silences us.” In Table 2, there is a historical representation of blacks’ treatment who were smuggled out of Africa after a long voyage by European traders on board. As seen in this picture, the blacks were chained and transported to the colonists’ ports in the galleons’ dark voids. The dark void that Chris is thrown into in the film, historically originates from this. Missy Armitage and her family locked up in Sunken Place to control black people before the transfer takes place. As white people’s minds are transplanted into blacks’ bodies, the hypnotized blacks remain sinked in Sunken Place (the command to be sinked into the floor). After the transplant takes place, it becomes the brain of a white person who now rules the black body. Thus, the person who owns the black body mentally continues to live in Sunken Place, but the person who rules the body is now a white. Just as Frantz Fanon points out, he forgets his self and culture by wearing the “white mask.” The technique of taking the African-American body and replacing it with a white brain refers to Frantz Fanon’s black skin-white mask metaphor with its connotative dimension. At this point, Fanon says that 83

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the black individual must wear a “white mask” for the white European to accept them. The only way to hide the “inferiority of darkness” is to wear this mask. The white mask is the acceptance of the values, thoughts, and norms of the European master. The black skin, the white mask, involves detecting this duality and division in the colonized consciousness. It causes alienation (Fanon, 1986). However, this is not from the colonized black itself, but It is important to emphasize that colonial violence stems from its psychopathological effects. All negative expressions about colonialism (lazy, stupid, animal, halfhuman) entered the colonial lands with colonialism, and the colonial discourse turned into a language of violence (Hammer, 2017). Table 2. The Fall into the Dark World and the Sunken Place Metaphor

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Source: (Get Out, 2017)

Now that the Armitage Family has developed a system that only uses African Americans for their bodies, whites will now have a chance to become black. The second stage is the surgical procedure of changing the person’s identity. This surgical procedure also refers to the history of medical racism, discrimination, and apartheid that privileged whites’ lives over blacks. Like surgeries performed on slaves, Armitageler uses the lives of blacks to help whites live longer. The white people who steal black bodies for their immortality point to who the “man-eating cannibals” actually are, the main stereotype of Africans in colonial discourse. Those who stole black bodies to extend their own lives with its semantic dimension and enslaved African peoples with its historical dimension are real cannibals. Fist-Bump sequence shows the fist salute, which is the ritual of greeting among blacks. The young black man Logan responding to Chris’s fist-bump with a hand shake in this scene. The connotation of the responding to a fist-bump with a hand shake reveals whiteness’s inability to understand Blackness or Black forms of sociality. This black-looking young man whose demeanor has been bleached, just as Fanon said, will not be able to hide the blackness of his skin, no matter how white he behaves with his attitude. Fanon describes the method used by black people to distinguish themselves from white as slang. According to this definition, the use of slang when the white person talks with black reminds the black person of his place, while the white person’s talking too softly with the black person is seen as a fake kindness. However, the black person does not need this artificial courtesy (Fanon, 1986). Chris, dismissing these bleached fake attitudes of the black in front of him, decides that nothing is going well and begins to worry.

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Looking for next African-American Victim: Rose is seen as a hunter searching for new prey. The trophy step in hunting is not random prey, but hunting a carefully selected and distinctive prey among the prey can be hunted (Bağcı, 2014). On the other hand, Rose’s character is seen to exhibit all the stages of this step. He is very selective and patiently pursue the prey until he finds the prey he targets. It tries to be selective by looking at the distinctive characteristics of the people it determines as prey. The scene in question refers to Rose’s hunting trophy with its connotative meaning. Rose is displaying her hunting trophy with pictures of her African-American victims on the wall behind her at this scene. Table 3. Positioning Blacks as Prey in the Context of Colonialism

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Source: (Get Out, 2017)

Throughout the film, the audience observes black men socializing in wealthy white neighborhoods. If Chris unwittingly wears a white mask so that the white elite can accept him, it will lead him to a great disaster. Chris’s girlfriend Rose takes him to his family’s mansion and sets the stage for a party, especially older whites. While White Anglo-Saxon Protestant or liberal Americans appeared progressive in Jordan Peele’s Get Out, they also adopted “post-racial” ideologies called the post-racial ideology of colorblindness that secretly oppress minorities contemporary society. “Do they know I’m Black?” Chris was referring to his girlfriend and his family. Rose argues that Chris’s race was not a significant factor. Rose shrugs her shoulders, “No, should it be?” he says. Today, white liberals such as the Armitage family believe that color blindness ideas promote racial equality; however, it does the opposite. Color blindness is the racial ideology that suggests that the best way to end discrimination is to treat individuals as equally as possible, regardless of race, culture, or ethnicity (Williams, 2011). Color blindness perpetuates racism as it allows minorities and those with racial problems to be invisible. This micro invalidation results in a denial of racially motivated action, and expressions such as “I don’t see color” reject people of color’s experiences and encourage the racial purity of whiteness. Director and screenwriter Jordan Peele also criticizes color blindness from first to the last frame of the signs he uses throughout the film. As seen in Table 3, the fact that black slaves brought from Africa are exhibited in slave markets and sold to whites by merchants is the source of inspiration for the film’s auction scene. In articulating mythical meanings, Roland Barthes (1972) focuses on the cultural connotations of the world of “things without saying.” The connotation of the scene of auctioning Chris in the yard of Dean Armitage’s (Brad-

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 Analyzing Jordan Peele’s Get Out With Fanonism

ley Whitford) house is Transatlantic Slave Trade centuries ago. There is no dialogue in this scene, and Jordan Peele constructs all the meaning through camera angles and music use. The Armitage family and their guests’ passion for youth, athletic prowess, and “trendy” dark skin sees them in the auction of their victims’ black bodies. In the party scene where Chris has to interact with white men and women socially, there are many references to his blackness and physicality. A man is seen trying to communicate with Chris saying, “I know Tiger.” A woman asks Rose questions, referring to Chris’s sexual abilities. The dialogues in question reinforce the stereotypes of black people. At the party at the Armitages’ house, the movie’s protagonist Chris classifies him as an athletic, muscular, and sexualized individual in the context of racist stereotypes by elite whites. The use of racist stereotypes is a way of establishing racial identity and maintaining dual consciousness. “Double consciousness” is often associated with William Edward Burghardt Du Bois, who introduced the term into social and political thought, famously, in his groundbreaking The Souls of Black Folk (1903). It is a seminal work in the history of sociology and a cornerstone of African-American literature. Du Bois explains the situation of African Americans in his book: “The American identity, a soul that yearns for the fulfillment of full social inclusion and is attached to American history, values, and spaces, contradicts the black identity, a soul that is the victim of Americanism, systemic racism, and hegemonic patriotism.” This double consciousness, the sense of perceiving itself only through the eyes of others, to clothe its soul the measures of a world that gives nothing but ridicule and pity for man is a strange consciousness. That duality is always felt as American and black. Two souls, two thoughts, two foundations that do not make peace with each other, two designs that fight each other, in a black body that only strength and strength protect from disintegration. Much like the W.E.B. Du Bois, Frantz Fanon also mentioned the double consciousness in Black Skin, White Masks, and expressed his despair to be neither white nor black. Fanon (1986) describes the double consciousness and origin faced by African Americans in Black Skin, White Masks, arguing that African Americans’ cultural and social confusion stems from European culture. The scene in question emphasizes that the racist ideology continues in today’s USA in a hypocritical way under cover of the ideology of color blindness, and the objectification of the black body continues. The white elite society in the USA targets the black race to maintain its survival and is portrayed by the director as a harbinger of the future of racial objectification. According to Fanon, it is unacceptable for a white woman to be with a black man. A white woman with a black man degrades classically and suffers from some kind of disease. Because after seeing the extraordinary sexual power of black men, he will not want to be white again (Fanon, 1986). It is concluded that the Rose character reflects Fanon’s thoughts while tracking the prey like a hound, who is continuously in search of black men. In the scene where the Armitage family neutralized Chris by preventing him from escaping, Rose’s saying to Chris “you were among my favorites” is the most important proof of this. Hypnosis in the Entertainment Room: The scene with Chris tied on the sofa shows that this is an entertainment room. There is an ancient television in the playground. This old fashion television takes audience to the first time Adorno and Horkheimer criticized the culture industry as a means of making a profit through culture. It is seen that the culture industry silences the masses who cannot control the discourse by imposing dominant ideologies on the masses in the historical process. Television, which is the sacred device of the culture industry, appears to be an entertainment tool that kills in entertainment room. Because entertainment on television is the supreme ideology of everything, and under entertainment, races can be represented, barbarism and tragedies can be hidden (Postman, 2006). This killing is the destruction of cultures in a metaphorical context. As shown by the hypnosis 86

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in the entertainment room, Chris, a black individual, is forced to sit in front of the TV. The connotative meaning of this scene is the imposed dominant ideology to blacks through television as the primary entertainment medium. Blacks cannot resist, and like the tea cup’s function, they are simply hypnotized to the thought of the dominant white man. Thrush in the sofa indicate that Chris wasn’t the first victim. Chris’s realization of this thrush is when he realizes his past, and with this sequence, cotton carries us to the dimension of connotation. The thrush emerging from the sofa Chris was tied to is a sign of the times in American history when blacks, forcibly brought in from Africa and enslaved, were employed in cotton fields. In the past, the cotton collected by his enslaved ancestors becomes Chris’s salvation. It is also when he turns his ears off to the culture industry dominating the United States. Until then, alienated from his roots and culture, Chris takes off his white mask identified by the Fanon dialect and escapes prey. In the scene that follows this, Chris kills his a major antagonist and hunter Dean Armitage (Bradley Whitford) while he is in hunting position with the deer’s head, which stands on the TV and is used as a metaphor in the film. Thus, the prey kills its predator. Chris’s liberation by killing Dean, in dimension of connotation, expresses the metaphor of the hunt (exploited) and the hunter (colonialist) mentioned by Frantz Fanon in “The Wretched of The Earth.” From the moment the anger among the colonial people directed against the colonizer, he has always been alert to take up the pain of being oppressed. He is always ready to come out of his prey role and become a hunter. According to him, concessions should never be made, as there can be no compromise, either colonized or saved; it is just a power relationship (Fanon, 1963). The scene of Chris’s best friend Rod (Lil Rel Howery) trying to convince the police that his friend has been kidnapped: Rod represents blacks’ common sense in this scene. Rod repeatedly warns his best friend Chris, who meets his girlfriend’s family, to be wary of whites. After a while, when he fails to hear from Chris, he goes to the police. Black cops ignore Rod’s suspicions and do not believe him sarcastically. Various diplomas stand out on the wall behind black cops in the relevant sequence. The scene’s connotation refers to the metaphor of “black skin, white masks,” pointed out by Fanonism. The black police went through the educational processes that is one of the fundamental ideological apparatus of the state, adopted the dominant discourse, and has already wore white masks. But Rod doesn’t have a mask, and that’s why he worries about Chris’s life.

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CONCLUSION Daniel Kaluuya, who plays Chris in the film, reacts to director Jordan Peele when he first reads the script: “Holy shit, man! Are you allowed to say this? Are we going to get in trouble? This is fucking epic and unapologetic! ” Jordan Peele edited the film under the director style described by the auteur concept in Get Out. Using the codes that integrate the meaning, music, and camera angles, he ultimately left his impact on the film. One of the factors affecting the setting is the actor. Daniel Kaluuya, who gave life to Chris’s character, is also a choice the director made to reinforce the film’s meaning as an auteur. He thought that the crying in the hypnosis scene, which was especially crucial for the movie, would be best expressed by the meaning in Daniel Kaluuya’s eyes. Jordan Peele also stated that he wanted to explain blacks’ problems and remind black people that they exist as black, stating that he would not give white actors a role in his films and wanted to set up in his cinema.

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What makes “Get Out” into a “horror” movie is that, throughout the film, audiences are intimately witnessing the bad luck of African-Americans. Initially, the first depictions of African Americans in the Hollywood film industry were limited to derogatory stereotypical images of people of color. In line with dominant stereotypes, African American characters were portrayed as inadequate, childish, excessively sexualized, and criminal. The fact that blacks can today shoot their films under the roof of Hollywood in the context of diversity positive is a kind of black renaissance, as emphasized by director and screenwriter Jordan Peele. Nearly a hundred years after the Harlem Renaissance, director and screenwriter Jordan Peele launched a new kind of Harlem Renaissance in Hollywood with “Get Out.” In a backstage statement to the press after the Oscar award ceremony, Peele expressed his pride in being a part of this movement. Harlem Renaissance was an African American cultural movement that lasted roughly from the 1910s through the mid-1930s, the period is considered a golden age in African American culture, manifesting in literature, music, stage performance and art. With his masterpiece Get Out, Jordan Peele broke the stereotypes of African Americans by using the “golf club” that is one of the signs representing White Anglo-Saxon Protestants. Just like Tiger Woods who is the most successful golf player of all time, Peele used the Get Out and started the black renaissance at the heart of Hollywood film industry. Directed and written by Jordan Peele, Get Out is like the reflection of the ideas of Frantz Fanon, whose works are considered the cornerstone of the beginning of the postcolonial theory. In other words, the movie itself was inspired by Fanonism.

FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS Get Out, directed and written by Jordan Peele, is a revolutionary work that finds itself a place on the big screen within the scope of the diversity positive trend in the Hollywood film industry; it is also one of the most critical signs postcolonial theory is still alive. The concepts that Peele put forward or brought again to the agenda, Sunken Place, social thriller, Hollywood Renaissance etc. should be introduced to the key concepts of postcolonial theory through with further academic studies.

REFERENCES Akerson, F. E. (2016). Göstergebilime Giriş. Bilge Kültür Sanat Yayınları.

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Akıner, N. (2014). Uluslararası Medya Emperyalizmi. Hükümdar Yayınları. Appiah, K. A. (1991). Is the post-in postmodernism the post-in postcolonial? Critical Inquiry, 336–357. Armutak, A. (2002). Doğu ve Batı Mitolojilerinde Hayvan Motifi I. Memeli Hayvanlar. Istanbul Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, 28(2), 411–427. Artz, L. (1998). Hegemony in Black and White: Interracial Buddy Movies and the New Racism. Cultural Diversity in the United States, 67-77.

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Ashcroft, B., Griffiths, G., & Tiffin, H. (2002). The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice in Postcolonial Literatures. Routledge. Ashcroft, B., Griffiths, G., & Tiffin, H. (2013). Post-colonial studies: The key concepts. Routledge. Bağcı, A. (Ed.). (2014). Sürdürülebilir Avcılık. Orman ve Çevre Bakanlığı. Barley. S. R. (2007). Corporations, Democracy, and the Public Good. Journal of Management Inquiry, 16(3), 201-215. Berger, A. A. (1995). Cultural criticism: A primer of key concepts. Sage Publications, Inc. Bullard, S. (1993). Free at last: A history of the civil rights movement and those who died in the struggle. Oxford University Press. Carp, B. L. (2010). Defiance of the Patriots: The Boston Tea Party and the Making of America. Yale University Press. Castillo, M. (2017, March 10). Where to Stream the Movies That Influenced Get Out. New York Times. Coleman, R. R. M. (2013). Preface & We Always Die First – Invisibility, Racial Red-Lining, and SelfSacrifice: 1980s. In Horror Noire: Blacks in American Horror Films from the 1890s to Present. New York: Routledge. Dictionary. (2018). What does the Sunken Place mean. https://www.dictionary.com/e/pop culture/ sunken-place/ Dockterman, E. (2018). Everyone Inculuding Jordan Peele Is Excited by His Oscar Win. https://time. com/5185301/jordan-peele-get-out-oscar-reactions/ Du Bois, W. E. B. (2008). The souls of black folk. Oxford University Press. Fanon, F. (1963). The Wretched of The Earth. New York: Grove Press. Fanon, F. (1986). Black Skin, White Masks. London: Pluto Press. Ferreira, M. T., Coelho, C., Cunha, E., & Wasterlain, S. N. (2019). Evidences of trauma in adult African enslaved individuals from Valle da Gafaria, Lagos, Portugal (15th-17th centuries). Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 65, 68–75. Fiske, J. (2010). Introduction to communication studies. Routledge.

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Gandhi, L. (1998). Postcolonial theory: A critical introduction. Allen & Unwin. Gibson, C. K. (2009). How to Read Symbols: A Crash Course in the Meaning of Symbols in Art. Herbert Press. Hammer, R. (2017). Epistemic Ruptures: History, Practice, and the Anticolonial Imagination. International Origins of Social and Political Theory, 153-180. Heneghan, B. T. (2003). Whitewashing America: Material Culture and Race in the Antebellum Imagination. University of Mississippi.

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Horkheimer, M., & Adorno, T. W. (1972). Dialectic of Enlightenment. Seabury Press. Hunt, D., Ramón, A. C., Tran, M., Sargent, A., & Roychoudhury, D. (2018). Hollywood Diversity Report 2018: Five Years of Progress and Missed Opportunities. UCLA College of Social Sciences, 27. https:// socialsciences.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/UCLA-Hollywood-Diversity-Report-2018-2-27-18. pdf Küngerü, A., & Akıner, N. (2016). Siyahi Eleştirinin ‘Görünmez Adamı’: Henry Louis Gates Jr. Abant Kültürel Araştırmalar Dergisi, 2016(1), 75–85. Lee, C. J. (2015). Frantz Fanon: Toward a Revolutionary Humanism. Ohio University Press. Lima, T. A. (2020). Valongo: An uncomfortable legacy. Current Anthropology, 61(S22), S000–S000. Loomba, A. (1998). Colonialism/postcolonialism. Routledge. Miller, J. (2012). Global Nollywood: The Nigerian movie industry and alternative global networks in production and distribution. Global Media and Communication, 8(2), 117–133. Miller, J. C. (1981). Mortality in the Atlantic slave trade: Statistical evidence on causality. The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 11(3), 385–423. Parry, B. (2004). Postcolonial Studies: A Materialist Critique. Routledge. Peele, J. (Dir.) (2017). Get Out. Blumhouse Productions. Postman, N. (2006). Amusing ourselves to death: Public discourse in the age of show business. Penguin. Quayson, A. (2000). Postcolonialism: Theory, practice or process. Polity. Rifat, M. (2013). Açıklamalı Göstergebilim Sözlüğü. İş Bankası Yayınları. Ryan, M., & Kellner, D. (1988). Camera politica: The politics and ideology of contemporary Hollywood film. Indiana University Press. Said, E. (1979). Orientalism. Vintage Books. San Juan, E. Jr. (1998). Beyond Postcolonial Theory. Palgrave Macmillan. Sander, O. (1997). Siyasi Tarih: İlkçağlardan 1918’e. İmge Kitabevi. Shammas, C. (1990). The Pre-Industrial Consumer in England and America. Oxford University Press.

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Smith, P., & Riley, A. (2011). Cultural theory: An introduction. John Wiley & Sons. Smith, S. L., Choueiti, M., Pieper, K., Case, A., & Choi, A. (2019). Inequality in 1,100 popular films: Examining portrayals of gender, race/ethnicity, LGBT & disability from 2007 to 2019. USC Annenberg Inclusion Initiative. http://assets.uscannenberg.org/docs/aii-inequality-report-2019-09-03.pdf Stuart, H. (1997). The Spectacle of the ‘Other’. In S. Hall (Ed.), Representations. Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices (pp. 223–290). Sage. Williams, M. (2011). Colorblind Ideology is a Form of Racism. Psychology Today. www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/culturally-speaking/201112/colorblind-ideology-is-form-racism

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Young, R. (2001). Postcolonialism: An historical introduction. John Wiley & Sons. Yuan, J., & Harris, H. (2018). The First Great Movie of the Trump Era. Vulture. https://www. vulture. com/2018/02/making-get-out- jordan-peele.html

ADDITIONAL READING Césaire, A. (2001). Discourse on colonialism. NYU Press. Durix, J. P. (1998). Mimesis, Genres, and Post-Colonial Discourse: Deconstructing Magic Realism. Macmillan. doi:10.1057/9780230377165 Eagleton, T. (1990). Nationalism, Colonialism, and Literature. University of Minnesota Press. Foucault, M. (1971). Orders of Discourse: Inaugural lecture delivered at the Collège de France. Social Sciences Information. Information Sur les Sciences Sociales, 2(10), 7–30. doi:10.1177/053901847101000201 Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (A. Sheridan, Trans.). Vintage. Said, E. (1993). Culture and Imperialism. Chatto & Windus. Spivak, G. (1990). The Post-colonial Critic: Interviews, Strategies, Dialogues (S. Harasym, Ed.). Routledge.

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KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS Diversity Positive: It refers to the works carried out to leave behind the ethnocultural discrimination that left traumatic marks on the world’s recent history. Fanonism: The name of the anti-colonial libertarian criticism formulated by Martinique psychiatrist Frantz Fanon (1925–1961). Get Out: The film that initiated the Black renaissance in the Hollywood film industry, directed and written by Jordan Peele. Harlem Renaissance: The social and artistic explosion that was inspired by the Black Studies, or Africana Studies; with the development of the Harlem neighborhood in New York City, Harlem was emerged as a Black cultural center in the early 20th century. Hollywood Renaissance: The concept expressing the change and transformation that Jordan Peele initiated on the big screen with his award-winning masterpiece Get Out, which was released in 2017, in favor of African Americans in the USA. Postcolonialism: It is a theory that investigates the social, economic, political, cultural, and psychological effects of the conditions that emerged during and after colonialism. Social Thriller: Coming back to the agenda after the 70s with the movie Get Out. It is a type of film that depicts the ugly and unacceptable examples of oppression in the society using elements of tension and fear. Sunken Place: Coming to the agenda with the movie Get Out, it is a metaphor used to express the helplessness they experience in the face of systematic and institutional racism faced by Blacks in society. It represents Blacks silenced by the dominant ideology in the USA. 91

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Chapter 6

Constructing and Reconstructing Orientalism: Depicting Orientalist Imagery in Contemporary Art in the Quest of Self-Identity Julijana Nicha Andrade Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil

ABSTRACT The purpose of the chapter is to show that orientalism is a dynamic construct that simultaneously represents continuity and change. The hypothesis outlines that contemporary artists build upon 18th century symbols to reconstruct orientalist art, hence reproducing the constructed, stereotypical neo-orientalist or self-orientalist imagery. The hypothesis is seen to be true as the intimate artwork of Zahrin Kahlo, Lalla Essaydi, Eric Parnes, and Yasmina Bouziane shows that contemporary orientalist artists are using recurring symbols to depict their self-identity, even though they appropriate those symbols in an act of resistance to depict social change. A more productive path of expression may be one of authenticity rather than a recreation of existing imagery in the attempt to deconstruct it. Even though the continuity of the construct is obvious, change is granular and not as pronounced.

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INTRODUCTION Orientalism is a construct very much alive today (Thomas, 2001; Kerboua, 2016; Shatz, 2020). One sees the reproduced Orientalist imagery that Western travelers and explorers created in the 18th century in the art of Eastern artists living in the West. However, these artists show us a contemporary and resilient prism of Neo-Orientalism and Self-Orientalism. The definitions of Neo-Orientalism and SelfOrientalism, though, are not completely suitable when we look at the interpretation of Orientalism in contemporary visual arts. The artist’s efforts to self-identification are much more layered and present a complex combination of the two concepts. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-7180-4.ch006

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 Constructing and Reconstructing Orientalism

In the effort to understand the continuity and change of Orientalism, this chapter makes use of the theory of self-identity (Horowitz, 2012) and takes visual art as narrative analysis. It studies the contemporary trend of Orientalist art by Zahrin Kahlo, Lalla Essaydi (2020), Eric Parnes (2011) and Yasmina Bouziane (2019), and their layered construction and reconstruction of Orientalism throughout their quest for self-identification. The selection of these four artists was based on their contemporality; Orientalist focus of any kind; international recognition, and Middle Eastern origin. Examining the visual art of Zahrin Kahlo, Lalla Essaydi, Eric Parnes and Yasmina Bouziane as a form of narrative (Adler et al., 2017) allows us to open the black box of contemporary Orientalism and decipher the layered harmonious and fragmented levels of self-identification. The artists’ narratives are analyzed through their visual work, interviews and personal statements that are publicly available online. The objective of the chapter is to show that Orientalism is a dynamic construct that simultaneously represents continuity and change, as well as to advocate for greater articulation of the contemporary self-identity of Orientalist, Arab artists.

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BACKGROUND During colonial periods, the Orient represented a mystical, magical place that was to be studied by Western explorers and government officials. It represented the binary opposite of the West, barbaric, exotic, erotic, unknown and un-civilized. Later, Orientalism became an influential theory introduced by Edward Said, which outlines the Western attitude and stereotyping towards the Eastern peoples (Said, 1978). As Said (1978) argues, the root of the stereotypical representations of the Orient is in the 18th Century French and British colonization of the Middle East and North Africa that depicted the Orient as very static and monotonic. In Said’s words “…as if they have consensually agreed on one common representation.” (1978, p. 20). Similarly, in Root’s words “[T]he quality of timelessness and the presentation of Araby as a static, decadent entity well past its prime helped create an imaginary Orient undifferentiated by place, time, and national or cultural specificity” (1996, p. 164). Among the many examples of these representations are the Orientalist paintings of French Neoclassical artists as Delacroix, Gerome, and many others who depicted women, men and sceneries of Algeria and Morocco through the eyes of the male Western explorer. The historical background of the relationship between Orientalism and visual arts starts with the origins of the French Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture which later became Academy De Beaux-Arts. The Academy emphasized the intellectual component of artmaking and distinguished the sophisticated bourgeoisie painters from the ordinary craftsman. After its recognition by Louis XIV, the Academy De Beaux-Arts controlled all artistic and academic activity in France and heavily influenced the academic teaching at the Royal Academy of England and the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts (Trodd & Denis, 2000). The standardization of the academic painting trends was enforced by the rigorous acceptance criteria to the Paris Salon that was the exhibition place where artists could seal their carriers. Only artists who strictly followed the academic standards could have a chance of exhibiting (Ibid). Orientalist painting emerged as part of the academic painting and was a combination of the artistic movements of Romanticism, Neoclassicism, Realism, Idealism and History painting. Initially, Orientalist painting aimed at depicting historical events, however, the political feelings and the curiosity towards the East resulted in creating romanticized images instead. As painting Eastern scenes became more and more fashionable, painters voyaged to North Africa, the Middle and the Far East to better depict the 93

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 Constructing and Reconstructing Orientalism

unknown lands and people and to show the Western audience a new, exotic and sensual culture. Some of their works were sketches to be finished in their studios in France. Other Orientalists presented iconic images of an Oriental reality fabricated in their studios, as many haven’t even traveled to the Orient (one example is the painter Antoine-Jean Gros). Artists painted for the European eyes and objectified the subjects as lazy, erotic, nonchalant, dull and even savage depicting Orientalist environments as tropical, idyllic, backwards, and patriarchic in Realist and picturesque painting style (McLeod, 2000 in Nicha, 2013). Colonial powers were producers and consumers of Orientalism which also served as a means of propaganda in support of the imperialist countries (Nicha, 2013). More recently, academic and History painting has been widely criticized by modernists and post-modernists for their use of idealism, mysticism, abstract idealization and conservativeness (Trodd & Denis, 2000; Behdad & Williams, 2012). After 9/11 a new form of Orientalism emerged, Neo-Orientalism, which criticizes Western behavior specifically towards Islam and the Muslim world. It’s worth noting that Neo-Orientalists are Easterners themselves (male, female or other) who render biased accounts of their region, religion and culture and engage politically and intellectually with the events in the West and the Middle East (Behdad & Williams, 2012). With the increased internal political divisions regarding Arab migrants based on extremist and terrorist groups or lone wolfs, the current public representation of the Orient is the one of a Muslim radical and terrorist suspect (Shatz, 2020). The same image of a savage barbarian is kept, only in a different package. The term is continuous, yet the change of Orientalism alludes on the focus to Arab man, women and culture. Therefore, Neo-Orientalism is a continuity of its predecessor (Behdad & Williams, 2012). Orientalism is reconstructed as the interactions between the Orient and the Occident are not binary and distantly divided anymore. With intensified globalization and migration, the Orient is in the Occident and vice versa. Self-Orientalism arises as a conscious or unconscious appropriation of the constructed image of the Orient in an attempt for Easterners to differentiate themselves from the Westerners (Kondo, 1997). Shatz (2020) argues that Orientalism today is not the same as the Orientalism Said discussed. Shatz (2020) rightly points out the latest instances of Orientalism, including the visual arts’ efforts to fight that negative representation, however, he fails to recognize that that change is not enough. The Orientalist representation as a threat to Western society is so strong that the isolated efforts to fight that representation pass unnoticed by the wider audience. Said depicted the continuity of the discourse, but additionally, we notice a change of that discourse, adapted to the contemporary setting. Orientalism, hence, is a dynamic construct that reflects change and continuity simultaneously. Art’s role in society is to criticize and question, but if the spectators are told the same story and continuously misrepresent the important aspects of contemporary societies, how do we know who the Orient is? How do we debunk the constructed images? Art should be a way to demonstrate that heterogeneity and cultural richness because the Other is not one thing, but a palette of cultures, customs and expressions. The difficulty to represent the plurality of Arab identities lies in their complexity and heterogeneity. That is particularly noted in the attempt for self-representation among Arab artists. Horowitz (2012) argues that each person has a repertoire of self-schemas, the unconscious generalization about the self that is dormant and can be activated when that person needs to process specific information. The overall constitution of self-schemas is called self-organization. Active self-schemas are the ones that are present in the current state of identity. Alternative self-schemas are activated on a case basis and can shift the person’s state of mind (Horowitz, 2012, pp.2-3). Between those two extremes, Horowitz lists three more categories that are mildly conflicted, vulnerable, and disturbed (Ibid).

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He further argues that alternative selves are an active part of a historical transition from tradition to modernity. However, through the quest to self-identity, contemporary Arab artists show us that the alternative selves are a construction of the complex blend between the two. Identity comes from the Latin for Idem, the quality of sameness, of being the same. However, we know that throughout time, identities change and adapt. As Horowitz argues, Identity exists in past, present, and future time frames. I am “the me” that was, and my present contains a focus on my becoming even more me in the near future. Or, perhaps, I feel dissociated now from past “me” and my expectations of “what next” may seem conflicted. In psychodynamic research on variation in self-states, as related to motivation, one considers: (a) social views of the person as well as (b) conscious and (c) unconscious information within that person…. Unconscious pictures, inner cognitive working-models, and maps of self are dynamic and complex networks of rich, but sometimes contradictory bits of information. The goal for maturity is to increase harmony between different schematizations. (2012, p.2) Depending on where the generalizations of the self in the scheme between harmonious and fragmented lie, different amount of self-transformative work needs to be done. If one is leaning on the harmonious side, then one’s sense of self is intending and conscious about their attitudes. If one is leaning more on to the fragmented side, then one’s self is confused and lacks emotional governance (Ibid). The leaning towards one or the other end can be identified by the narrative one tells themselves. Narratives are then analyzed and structured according to categories. Narratives are strong projections of one’s perceptions and identity and can be communicated verbally or via media, visual art, film, music, etc. (RimmonKenan, 2006). In this chapter, the focus falls on visual art as a narrative because the artist’s repeating representation of contemporary Orientalism doubles down the complexity of symbols. Visual narratives are constructed by symbols that appear in patterns (Thomas, 2001). Signs, symbols and art are reflections of a constructed reality that is constantly reproduced (Ibid). Studying the visual narratives helps us identify the key description of the “self”, the “other” or the “we” (Rimmon-Kenan, 2006; Horowitz, 2012). The theoretical framework and the interpretation of self-schemas are analyzed by identifying the recurring patterns commonly used in 18th century Orientalist paintings in contemporary paintings and photography. The patterns and the artists’ opinions are matched with their personal statements available on their online portfolios and interviews in online magazines and papers.

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MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER The Art of Lalla Essaydi, Zahrin Kahlo, Yasmina Bouziane, and Eric Parnes There are many contemporary Orientalist artists among which Marwa Adel, Ahmed Morsi, Mina Nasr, Adel el Siwi, Reada Saadeh and many others who construct the diverse art scene in the Middle East, regardless of their country of residence. The reason for selecting the following four artists is based on their significant international recognition and online availability to their personal statements. The arts of Zahrin Kahlo, Lalla Essaydi, Eric Parnes and Yasmina Bouziane are personal and deeply intimate reflections of their struggle for self-identity. Their narratives are constructed using symbols

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and gestures that are recurring in Orientalist literature and painting, hence the interpretation of those symbols is done by using Horowitz’s (2012) framework. Hypothesis: Contemporary artists build upon 18th century paintings to reconstruct Orientalist art hence reproducing the constructed, stereotypical imagery through contemporary Neo-Orientalist or SelfOrientalist art, failing to depict the contemporary and complex images of Arab men and women. Lalla Essaydi is a contemporary painter and photographer who works with the Arabic female identity and household scenery constructed through the 18th century Orientalist painting. She was born in Morocco but resided in the United States and Saudi Arabia. In her art, Lalla Essaydi explores the real and symbolic spaces of the female body and the architecture around her. Raised in a traditional Muslim family, Essaydi is familiar with the spaces specially designated for women and their personal stories intertwined with those segregated spaces. As the public world was traditionally reserved for men, women were to be kept away from the public eye (“Truth and Beauty Lalla Essaydi - Exhibitions - Sundaram Tagore Gallery”, 2018). Through staged photography, Essaydi plays with calligraphy, henna, the women subject and traditional Arabic architecture. “By reclaiming the rich tradition of calligraphy and interweaving it with the traditionally female art of henna,” she says, “I have been able to express, and yet, in another sense, dissolve the contradictions I have encountered in my culture: between hierarchy and fluidity, between public and private space, between the richness and the confining aspects of Islamic traditions.” (“Truth and Beauty - Lalla Essaydi - Exhibitions - Sundaram Tagore Gallery”, 2018, para.7). She takes inspiration from Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres and recreates his paintings to offer an alternative view of Orientalism. Particularly, she has reproduced Ingres’s “La Grande Odalisque” (see Figures 1 and 2). Figure 1. Essaydi, L. (Artist). (2009). Harem #8. [Photography].

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Retrieved from http://lallaessaydi.com/8.html

Her photographs present the multifaced identity of Muslim women. According to Essaydi, her work goes beyond Islamic culture to include the Western fascination with it (Proctor, 2017).

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Figure 2. Essaydi, L. (Artist). (2008). Les Femmes du Maroc: La Grande Odalisque. [Photography]. Retrieved from http://lallaessaydi.com/9.html

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My work speaks primarily in terms of Moroccan identity, but visual identifiers such as the veil, harem, ornate ornamentation, and sumptuous color also resonate with other regions in the Muslim and Arabic worlds where the place of women has historically been marked by limited expression and constrained individuality (“Through the Orientalist looking-glass: An interview with Moroccan artist Lalla Essaydi.”, 2020, para.7). At the same time, her work is deeply personal. As she herself writes: “In my art, I wish to present myself through multiple lenses – as artist, as Moroccan, as traditionalist, as liberal, as Muslim. In short, I invite viewers to resist stereotypes.” (Essaydi, n.d.). In her statement she reflects upon the complexity of expressing who she really was as a child and the contemporary woman she has become, shaped by the Eastern and Western cultural stirs. Zahrin Kahlo’s photographs are also intimate stories, explorations of her identity (see Figures 3 and 4). She paints the portrait of a free woman proud of her femininity. Growing up, Kahlo was exposed to different cultures and identities that she embodied. She has Mexican heritage but was born and raised in Morocco and lived in France and Italy (“Zahrin Kahlo Moroccan Photographers Intimate Diary on Femininity”, 2016). As she claims: My work is based on the double identity of a woman who has decided to no longer be the symbol of a single culture. The photography becomes an ideal way to represent the intimate sphere of a woman, with all her ghosts, her fantasies, her complexes and with images connected to the memories and the unconscious. A photography that wants to be vulnerable with the traces and signs of the time and all its imperfections. I’m looking for my HURIJA, my freedom. I am an Arab, but also free to be a woman? The

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look of the West on Arab women is sometimes linked to subordinate images: the home, the patriarchal authority, the veil that prevents an identity or a body which is the object of the desires of others. I want to determine my destiny to succeed, I have need to break with old stereotypes and diktats. CHRONICLE OF A YOUNG ARAB is the desire to be a woman who has control of his body, following the desires and pleasures without being subject to prejudice.… Nothing she hides the pride of her being an ARAB WOMEN. I love life and the intimate nature of sensuality. The photograph becomes the story of the disruption that an Arab woman can live today. (“Zahrin Kahlo Moroccan Photographers Intimate Diary on Femininity”, 2016, para. 10) Figure 3. Kahlo, Z. (Artist). (2019). Chroniques d’une Jeune Arabe [Photography]. Private collection.

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Retrieved from https://www.behance.net/gallery/12421927/CHRONIQUES-DUNE-JEUNE-ARABE

Kahlo has also taken inspiration from 18th century Orientalist art, particularly in her series of Neo Orientalism where indirectly she recreates the work of Ingres and Delacroix. Her self-portraits resemble Gerome’s “Veiled Circassian Beauty”. Yasmina Bouziane has Moroccan and French background. She worked as a photographer in the earlier years of her career, as well as on video, filmmaking and writings. In her piece “Inhabited by Imaginings we did not choose”, Bouziane uses staged self-photography to explore issues of identity and gender trying to bridge the gap between the East and the West. She diverts the clothing codes and plays with the studio setting, replicating the photo studio established by the French government in Maghreb during the colonial period. She dresses up as traditional Arab woman, man, transvestite and contemporary woman wearing western elements, like cowboy boots and sports shoes (Naguib, 2018). What is interesting in this series is that the Arab woman is the one pointing the camera at the viewer – meaning that she is in control of her representation. Moreover, Bouziane deconstructs the idea that photography is a documentary. On the contrary, she shows that photography always tells a story, and the one who holds the camera is the author of that story (see Figure 5). (Untitled No. 6, Alias “The Signature” From the Series “Inhabited by Imaginings We Did Not Choose,” n.d.). Last, but not least, the art of Eric Parns consists of mixed media, sculpture, photography and installation art. He is Iranian American who considers his art to be Neo Orientalist. What is even more interesting is that he talks about the Neo Orientalist trademark. As he explains:

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Figure 4. Kahlo, Z. (Artist). (2015). Kelaa. Neo Orientalism [Photography]. Private collection.

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Retrieved from https://en.193gallery.com/zahrin-kahlo

I gathered a selection of various pieces that all fall within the category of what I must insist on calling ‘trademarked’ Neo-Orientalism – if you know the art theory I work with, you know why – and that all still nonetheless explore what we know as ‘traditional’ Islamic arts in different ways. For instance, the exhibition’s canvases featuring portrayals of classic academic Orientalism, yet incorporating various high-end fashion designer symbols, or the large-format photographic prints of henna hands featuring brand name logos such as that of Gucci, for example, all address the challenges that contemporary Islam faces with the global advance of consumer culture. (Bekhrad, 2013, para. 10). In one of his series of work, he uses oil on canvas depicting the stereotypical images of the Arab men as violent and dull. Similarly, as the other artists studied in this chapter, he builds upon the depictions and symbols from 18th century paintings (see Figures 6 and 7). His art is a mixture of traditional and contemporary cultural elements. He works with elements of the Persian Empire and ancient Mesopota-

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mia, as well as pop culture, consumerism, corporate life and the violence Arab people face in America, especially after 9/11. Figure 5. Bouziane, Y. (Artist). (1994). Untitled No.6 alias “The Signature”. [Photography]. Retrieved from https://www.mbam.qc.ca/en/works/69136/

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Contemporary Orientalist Artists and Their Self-Identities Lalla Essaydi, Zahrin Kahlo, Yasmina Bouziane and Eric Parns are aware of the West’s creation of the fantasy East and they evoke it from a modern angle. They play with codes, traditions and narratives from the modern world, challenging the traditional representations of Arab men and women. Parns particularly works with Neo-Orientalism, the West’s depiction of the Arabs after 9/11 as violent and aggressive terrorists, alluding to the racial profiling the United States government pursued. Kahlo also works with this concept, but from a woman’s perspective. She presents the multilayered identities of a woman, her intimacy, her sexuality, her choice on how to use the veil, as well as the diversity among

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the Arab cultures and their interaction with globalization. Self-Orientalism is present among all artists, but most prominently in the art of Essaydi and Bouziane. Both accept the West’s gaze of the Orientalist woman and work with that Western gaze to recreate it in a manner that gives voice to the female model. She is not an object, but a subject with feelings, desires and needs that inhabits multiple identities. The four artists convert Self-Orientalism and Neo-Orientalism into an act of resistance. Their narratives are multilayered, complex, heterogeneous and mystic, but most importantly they are breaking stereotypes. Figure 6. Parnes, E. (Artist). (2011). Neo Orientalist TM. [Oil on canvas]. Private collection.

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Retrieved from http://www.eric-parnes.com/index.php?f=works_alldetails&id=66

Through their narratives, the artists are demonstrating the reality of being an Arab man or woman. They are consciously seizing existing Oriental imagery to accept or deny a specific part of their selfidentity. In their art, Kahlo, Essaydi and Bouziane try to capture the different roles women play in contemporary societies as professionals, mothers, citizens, wives, intellectuals, but also as housekeepers, timid subjects behind the veil, and caregivers. The same goes for the representation of Arab men in Parns’ art as breadwinners, violent, with kitsch taste for furniture and clothes. However, none of them breaks the expectation of the Westerner to see the Orientalist mysticism. They all embrace Neo-Orientalism and Self-Orientalism yet as an act of resistance, they still replicate the Orient Said described and they do not present the alternative selves Horowitz (2012) talks about. The artists are giving continuity of an identity that has actually changed, but those changes are represented as symbols, as hints and not as visually bold statements.

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Figure 7. Parnes, E. (Artist). (2012). Foreign exchange. [Photography]. Private collection.

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Retrieved from http://www.eric-parnes.com/index.php?f=works_alldetails&id=85

Even though the artists present an image of an Arab men and women who break stereotypes, they are portrayed in a way that is still backwards. In Bouziane’s art, the background of the photo studio is improvised, and the staging of the objects is very disorganized and even falling apart. Parnes’ representation of Arab men is similar. He portrays them as Persian warriors dressed in traditional cloth clothes from modern global brands as Gucci, Dolce and Gabbana and such. Kahlo and Essaydi in the process of empowering women still portray them as overly sexual and expressionless. The artists’ narratives demonstrate recurring patterns such as the nude woman, the lazy woman, the sexual woman, the dangerous Arab man, the violent Arab man, and the Arab backwardness among others. These patterns narrate their self-identities. It seems as if the artists were battling between harmonious and fragmented self-organization and as if both categories were living side by side. In line with Horowitz (2012) arguments, a harmonized self-organization is a result of self-schemas that people accept besides their contradictions, extremes and frustrations. Transitions between self-schemas would be smooth and their response to frustrations softened. In their heterogeneous narratives, the artists seem to accept the contradictions of their identities because they use the predictable Orientalist symbols combining them with their current identities, mixing globalization and cultural diversity. However, as the artists don’t detach from the expected Orientalist symbols and they do not show the viewer the contemporary and the idea of the future Arab man and woman, it seems as their transition between schemas is conflicting. In the encounter of the narrative, the viewer is shaping and refining their senses of the other person, or at least the part of that person that they choose to represent through the narrative (Adler et al., 2017). The artists reinforce the self-schema of otherness to define themselves and use Orientalism as a trademark, in Parnes’ words, to their self-identity. They choose to show the part of their person that the viewer

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is already familiar with. They embody the social view, and the conscious and unconscious images of themselves. In Horowitz’s (2012) categorization, what they all share is contradictions of expectations, intentions and values of their self-schemas. The artists simultaneously express positive and negative emotions towards the traditional Orientalist depiction. Continuity of Orientalism is obvious, but change is not highlighted. Change is reflected in the granular representation of the woman subject, but it is intertwined with the continuity of the concept, alluding to the mystic Arab woman hidden behind the veil or the violent Arab man. Alternatively, change is in the contemporary representation of the Arab women and men whose identity is multilayered, complex and oftentimes, cosmopolitan. In the art of Essaydi, Bouziane, Kahlo and Parnes, we see that nuanced change that needs to be more pronounced for the viewer to grasp the contemporary idea of an Arab man and woman. Contemporary Moroccan and Iranian societies (countries which the artists represent) have advanced since the 18th century1. The changes since the 18th century women and men depicted in Gerome’s and Delacroix’s paintings are that women have greater social and political involvement, men are not violent warriors by nature, societies are globalized and information and thought travel much faster and via different means. Departing from the artist’s narratives and personal journeys, one sees that they all are cosmopolitan, most of them follow a liberal political thought, they are of Muslim background and they are highly educated. Modern masculinity and femininity are politicized and not confined.

FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS

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This chapter opens the floor to a few future research directions. The shortcoming of this chapter is that the artists’ works studied here are deeply personal, reflecting their path to self-identity, hence a generalization to the contemporary image of Arab identity is simply impossible. Studying a larger sample of Arab artists might resolve this limitation. From the art of the four artists studied here, it is interesting to note how contemporary Arab female artists increasingly work with the female body and the empowerment of women agency throughout the years, whereas male Arab artists focus on other subjects, other than the male body. Further exploration and comparison of the artistic subjects between male and female artists might give more insights into this assumption. Orientalism and the intellectual branches deviating from it widely study media (text, paintings) produced in the past, overseeing the bulk of visual production at the current state. The contemporality portrayed in this chapter aimed to close that gap, but this chapter as such is not enough. The intellectual production of content depicting the contemporary complex Arab identity is more than necessary.

CONCLUSION The chapter showed that Orientalism is a concept that is subject to continuity and change, even though that change is granular. Contrary to Said’s monolithic representation of the Orient, most recently we are witnesses to a change of the concept of Orientalism narrowing it down to the Arab peoples. Furthermore, Arab artists and intellectuals are appropriating the term, accepting and challenging the stereotypes of violent, dull, non-intellectual, Arab men and women. However, in the process of their appropriation of

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Orientalism in the form of Self-Orientalism or Neo-Orientalism, they do not offer the audience alternative representations of the self. The analysis has confirmed the hypothesis that contemporary artists build upon 18th century paintings to reconstruct Orientalist art hence reproducing the constructed, stereotypical Neo-Orientalist or SelfOrientalist imagery. That is clearly noted in the continuity of the concept through the artists’ narratives. The symbols that the artists are choosing to use for constructing their narratives would be meaningless by themselves. Put in the wider context, they are Oriental elements which create a constructed Orientalist reality even today. It is apparent that the contemporary artists are not trying to reproduce reality by using these symbols, but to criticize it. However, the lack of new symbols that present to the viewer a more contemporary approach of Orientalism is lacking. From their narratives, one sees that change is present, but that change is not highlighted. Representation is dependent on who is in control of the narrative, but even though the narrative is written by the Arab artists themselves and even though they are problematizing the stereotypical identities, they are still not showing us an image, a representation of the complex Arab identities in the contemporary world. The counter-narrative is very silent as nuances of the diverse Arab identity are still lacking. A more productive line of creating the contemporary narrative would be one that lies in the harmonious end of Horowitz’s spectrum of self-organization where the artists are acceptive of the complexity of their contemporary Arab identity and move away from old-age representations of modern selves. Contemporary Arab identity should be stripped of past assumptions and stereotypes, so the current and future visions of the Arab visual narrative can be created. Of course, the argument doesn’t support the denial of past identities but argues for a depiction of current and projections of future ones. Orientalism’s role in society is subject to plasticity due to the alterations in global culture, economy and society and the artist’s role should be to imagine and depict it.

REFERENCES Adler, J. M., Dunlop, W. L., Fivush, R., Lilgendahl, J. P., Lodi-Smith, J., McAdams, D. P., McLean, K. C., Pasupathi, M., & Syed, M. (2017). Research Methods for Studying Narrative Identity. Social Psychological & Personality Science, 8(5), 519–527. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550617698202 Behdad, A., & Williams, J. A. (2012). On Neo-Orientalism, Today. http://www.entekhabi.org/index.html Bekhrad, J. (2013). Pop Goes the East - the 15th Sharjah Islamic Arts Festival. REORIENT - Middle Eastern Arts and Culture Magazine. http://www.reorientmag.com/2013/01/sharjah-islamic-arts-festival/

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Essaydi, L. (n.d.). Lalla Essaydi. http://lallaessaydi.com/1.html Galerie 127. (2019, December 2). Yasmina Bouziane. Retrieved from https://www.galerie127.com/ portfolio/yasmina-bouziane/ Horowitz, M. J. (2012). Self-Identity Theory and Research Methods. Journal of Research Practice, 8(12), 1–11. http://jrp.icaap.org/index.php/jrp/article/view/296/261 Kahlo, Z. (2012). Zahrin Kahlo. https://www.behance.net/zahrinkahlo Kondo, D. (1997). About Face: Performing Race in Fashion and Theater. Routledge.

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McLeod, J. (2000). Beginning Postcolonialism. Manchester University Press. Naguib, S. (2018). Art contemporain: Rencontre avec la directrice du musee slaoui autour de l’exposition “orient fantasme.” Kawn Culture. Retrieved from http://www.kawnculture.com/photographie-rencontreavec-la-directrice-du-musee-slaoui-autour-de-lexposition-orient-fantasme/ Nicha, J. (2013). Orientalist Art as Means of Cultural Imperialism over the Middle Eastern Countries [Unpublished undergraduate dissertation]. Bissell Library, American College of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece. ParnesE. (2011). Eric Parnes. https://www.eric-parnes.com/ Proctor, R. A. (2017). Lalla Essaydi’s Powerful Photographs Celebrate the Female Gaze. Galerie. Retrieved from https://www.galeriemagazine.com/lalla-essaydis-powerful-photographs-capture-the-female-gaze/ Rimmon-Kenan, S. (2006). Concepts of Narrative. In A. Korhonen, M. Hyvärinen, & J. Mykkänen (Eds.), The Travelling Concept of Narrative (Vol. 1, pp. 10–19). Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies. https:// helda.helsinki.fi/bitstream/handle/10138/25747/001_03_rimmon_kenan.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y Root, D. (1996). Cannibal Culture: Art, Appropriation, And The Commodification Of Difference (Icon Editions) (1st ed.). Westview Press. Said, E. (1978). Orientalism. Pantheon Books. Shatz, A. (2020, June 25). “Orientalism,” Then and Now. The New York Review of Books. Retrieved from https://www.nybooks.com/daily/2019/05/20/orientalism-then-and-now/ Thomas, J. (2001). Readers in Cultural Criticism: Reading Images. Palgrave. Through the Orientalist looking-glass: An interview with Moroccan artist Lalla Essaydi. (2020). Global Voices. https://globalvoices.org/2020/07/11/through-the-orientalist-looking-glass-an-interview-withmoroccan-artist-lalla-essaydi/ Trodd, C., & Rafael Cardoso, D. (2000). Art and the Academy in the Nineteenth Century. Manchester University Press. Truth and Beauty - Lalla Essaydi - Exhibitions - Sundaram Tagore Gallery. (2018). http://www.sundaramtagore.com/

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Untitled No. 6, alias “The Signature” From the series “Inhabited by Imaginings We Did Not Choose.” (n.d.). https://www.mbam.qc.ca/en/works/69136/ Zahrin Kahlo Moroccan Photographers Intimate Diary on Femininity. (2016). http://africandigitalart. com/2016/02/zahrin-kahlo-moroccan-photographers-intimate-diary-on-femininity/

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KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS Neo-Orientalism: A continuation of Orientalist thought. Neo-Orientalists are intellectuals of Oriental descent, appropriating the Orientalist bias and actively engaging with political and intellectual events occurring in the East and the West. Self-Organization: A combination of self-schemas that are dominant and construct the self-identity at a given time. Self-Orientalism: A conscious or unconscious self-identification with constructed Orientalist images. Self-Schemas: Unconscious belief about oneself that activates when the individual needs to understand or process specific pieces of information. Visual Narratives: Combination of visual symbols and gestures that when summed portray a message. Visual narratives can be sculptures, paintings, photographs, and other forms of visual art.

ENDNOTE

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1

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It is controversial to measure the development of a country without falling into the trap of measuring the Arab countries’ social advancements against the West’s due to the cultural and historic differences. For that reason, only a higher-level overview of change is shared in this chapter.

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Chapter 7

New Portrayals of the Arab World in TV Series Alfonso Corral Universidad San Jorge, Spain Brenda Pérez Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain Héctor J. Oliva Universidad San Jorge, Spain

ABSTRACT This work refects on how the representation of the Arab world has evolved in three fctional works that have emerged in the second decade of the 21st century: Homeland (Showtime Networks, 2011-2020), Tyrant (FX Network-Fox, 2014-2016), and Jack Ryan (Amazon Prime Video, 2018-). The goal is to determine whether the main socio-political milestones that occurred during this period (the Arab Spring, Syrian Civil War, appearance of ISIS, etc.) have transformed the already classic theories of authors such as Edward Said, Jack Shaheen, or Evelyn Alsultany, among others. A viewing and analysis of the frst season of each show demonstrates that the panorama has not improved in terms of discourse, topics, and stereotypes. It is clear, therefore, that the lens of 9/11 is still very present in the Hollywood mindset regarding Arabs, Muslims, and Islam.

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INTRODUCTION The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region entered the second decade of the 21st century in a very different way from how it had started the new millennium: if 2001 was the year of the World Trade Centre attack and the subsequent War on Terror, 2011 was the year of the Arab Spring. From a geopolitical perspective, there was a change from unrest to hope, since everything suggested that democracy would be established in Arab countries after the overthrow of Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in Tunisia and Hosni Mubarak in Egypt. According to Eugene Rogan (2012), these events were the most significant that had DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-7180-4.ch007

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 New Portrayals of the Arab World in TV Series

taken place in this region since the Islamic Revolution that ended the Shah of Iran in 1979. However, the other pieces on the Arabo-Islamic board did not fall at the same rate. Indeed, journalistic jubilation diminished as conflicts stalled (Yemen, Libya, and Syria) and Islamism began to reap its first electoral victories (Tunisia, Egypt, and Morocco). Any expectation regarding the Arab Spring was laid to rest with the coup d’état that removed Mohamed Morsi from the Egyptian presidency in July 2013. To make matters worse, the Syrian civil war and the Iraqi misgovernment turned the Middle East into a powder keg. And this climate was exploited by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi to announce, in Mosul, the creation of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (or Syria; henceforth, ISIS), a caliphate that brought with it the “third wave of jihadism” (Gerges, 2014). It is difficult to summarise everything that followed these events, but through the lens of global media coverage we can highlight the migration crisis, the internationalisation of the Syrian conflict, Kurdish self-determination, terrorism, the umpteenth page in the Palestinian issue, the coup d’état in Turkey, the nuclear agreement with Iran, the Iranian-Saudi struggle for regional power, and the assassinations of Jamal Khashoggi and Qasem Soleimani. Concurrently with the emergence of this new geostrategic scenario, a question arose that would end up underpinning this research: would these events transform the classic Orientalist representation of the Arab and Islamic world that had hitherto prevailed in the American entertainment industry? In this context, the purpose of this work has been to reflect on how the notion and portrayal of the Middle East has evolved in fictional American works from the second decade of the 21st century. In particular, this involves an analysis of the first season of the following three series: Homeland (Showtime Networks, 2011-2020); Tyrant (FX Network-Fox, 2014-2016); and Jack Ryan (Amazon Prime Video, 2018-). However, before presenting the results, we will review the main lines of discourse and the stereotyping of the Arab and Muslim in audiovisual productions.

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HOLLYWOOD, THE ARABS, ISLAM, AND ORIENTALISM In order to understand the logical links between American films and Arab or Muslim societies, one must start from Orientalism, a paradigm that, since its conception by Edward Said (1978), defines a Western style of thought that seeks to dominate, restructure, and exercise authority over the East, its civilisations, peoples, and regions. In other words, Orientalism displays a standardised way of writing, viewing, and studying dominated by ideological imperatives, perspectives, and prejudices. Hence, as far as the Arab and Islamic world is concerned, this portrait, which was established with the medieval Crusades, has evolved and mutated along with major international events such as imperialism, world wars, the creation of the State of Israel, the oil crisis, the Iranian Revolution, the collapse of the Soviet Union, and the attacks of 9/11. The initial interpretations and representations of the East were shaped by merchants, travellers, diplomats, painters, novelists, historians, and soldiers. It was only many years later, with the development of technology, that the mass media was added to this list (Said, 1997), among which the cinema stands out as the main tool in the construction of Orientalist imagery (Rius-Piniés, 2015). In this sense, the United States has owned the international media story since the end of World War II, thanks to its press agencies and entertainment industry. In fact, in an obvious propaganda and public relations manoeuvre, this country has used film discourse to amplify and legitimise its hegemonic image in the rest of the world, further justifying its commercial and political interests in the Middle East (Navarro, 2008; Said, 1997: 108

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124). It is enough to mention their favourable position towards Israel with regard to the issue of Palestine, a fact that has made Arabs and Muslims the object of every kind of stereotype and derogatory prejudice. The procedure adopted by Hollywood was to revive the classic European representation of the Arab world and embellish it until it became a kind of theme park made up of deserts, palm trees, oases, souks, belly-dancing women, snake charmers, palaces, harems, sails, flying carpets, terrorists and multimillionaire sheiks (Alsultany, 2012; Shaheen, 2009; Steinberg, 2002). However, in order not to offend sensibilities, these stories were set in invented locations, such as Abistan, Bukistan, or Karamesh (Shaheen, 2009). Of course, the Arab world has made the perfect set for adventure and entertainment (Navarro, 2008); a scenario in which the staging has been completed with the aromavision technique: here the spectator “could vividly smell the camel-shit-smeared, dirt-ridden, sweat-clinging clothing of Muslim characters” (Steinberg, 2002). Although it is an animated film, the best example corroborating all of the above is probably Aladdin (Ron Clements and John Musker, United States, 1992). It would, nevertheless, be unfair not to mention that, throughout history, other productions have recreated a more human or real Orient, including The Thief of Baghdad (Raoul Walsh, United States, 1924). In general terms, the male stereotype is Homo islamicus, a threatening, retrograde and violent being; an evil, depraved, conspiratorial, lewd, licentious, hypersexual, barbaric, sadistic, ignorant, inferior, monstrous, treacherous, stupid, dishonest, amoral and fanatical species; an entity whose physiology is completed with beards, turbans, weapons, ugliness, and dirt (Alsultany, 2012; Beltrame, 2009; MartínMuñoz, 2010; Navarro, 2008; Said, 1978; Said, 1997; Steinberg, 2002). In his analysis, Shaheen (2009) records many of the terms and qualifiers used in Hollywood to refer to Arabs or Muslims. As a collective, Muslims are an anonymous mass, demonised and dehumanised, therefore rendering them murderable or subjugable (Said, 1997). For their part, female figures often suffer a process of sexual reification to the point that they appear before Western societies simply as victims of the macho violence of Islam or Islamic fundamentalism (Alsultany, 2012; Rius-Piniés, 2015). The exclusion of Muslim women is systematised through the abusive use of veils and burkas (Navarro, 2008). However, they are often relegated to the background, and they rarely receive the prominence that Arab or Muslim men do. Even though there is a dominant imagery, reality shows us that this representation has undergone fluctuations or evolutions. In fact, it has not always received the same level of interest from Hollywood or the communication industry. Probably the first major turning point after the Second World War came in the 1970s, with the oil crisis and the Iranian Revolution, events that were understood as a direct challenge to the West and its dominance: Islam was returning and doing so through militancy, radicalism, and fundamentalism (Sardar, 1999). At this point, films lost much of their clichéd exoticism, sensuality, romance, and charm; the Arabs now appeared luxuriously dressed, well-armed and with full coffers, an uncomfortable image for the West (Said, 1997). In short, the idea that Muslims were seriously disturbed and that the cause of their disorder was deeply rooted in their barbaric religion, as the Orientalists of old had always maintained, regained its strength (Sardar, 1999). The next milestone was linked to the collapse of the Soviet Union, in other words, coinciding with the end of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s. The end of the cold war brought about the clash of civilisations, a theory championed by Lewis (1990) and Huntington (1993; 1996), which postulated an international geostrategic scenario dominated not so much by ideological disputes as by conflicts of a cultural or civilisational nature. In other words, when the Soviet bloc ceased to be a threat, the Arab and Muslim world became the principal enemy of the West on the grounds of history and the perception of values. The World Trade Centre bombing in 1993 fueled this discourse and the definitive association between Islam, the Arab world, and terrorism (Rius-Piniés, 2015). According to Said (1997), this imaginary 109

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connection had never before been so evident. To paraphrase this author, Islam’s role in kidnappings and terrorist actions, descriptions of how Muslim countries pose a threat to the West and its way of life, and speculation about conspiracies to blow up buildings, sabotage planes, or poison water supplies, occupy a significant space in Western consciousness. It was in this context that the attacks of September 11, 2001, occurred, and the subsequent War on Terror that led to the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq, as well as the strengthening of the cinematic dialectic and iconography of the preceding decades. As a result, in order to get international public opinion on its side, the George W. Bush administration relied on the entertainment industry to further demonise its Arab and Muslim enemy, a propaganda practice that is common in warfare, as happened with Japan in the Second World War or later with the Soviet Union (Alsultany, 2012). From Mokdad’s (2015) perspective, in addition to placing these attacks in a global context to realign foreign policy in favour of the United States and justify its intervention in other parts of the world, US post-9/11 productions have been characterised by three trends: realism, history and personification. Firstly, the storyline is given realism because it makes you the owner of the truth. With this aim in mind, new elements are incorporated into the plots, such as embedded journalism, audiovisual language, or documentary film strategies (camera held on the shoulder, sudden movements), resources that are perfectly illustrated in Zero Dark Thirty (Kathryn Bigelow, United States, 2012). This realism is subsequently reinforced with historical and geopolitical references that revive the origins and disagreements of the turbulent relationship between the Middle East and the United States. Among other things, through titles such as Munich (Steven Spielberg, United States, 2005), Syriana (Stephen Gaghan, United States, 2005), and Argo (Ben Affleck, United States, 2012) Hollywood resurrects the Arab-Israeli conflict, the fight for oil, and Islamic fundamentalism. Finally, it incorporates the psychological trauma of the American, now embodied by a soldier who has nothing to do with the invincible militarised male characters of the cinema from the 1980s or 1990s. This new pattern reveals the vulnerability of the hero, someone who has suffered abuse and torture. One example of this is American Sniper (Clint Eastwood, United States, 2014). For her part, Alsultany (2012) defends the existence of “simplified complex representations”, in other words, a process by which producers, screenwriters and directors end up racialising Arabs and Muslims when the intention was to end classical stereotyping. However, it is necessary to add at this point that stereotypes are equally used as narrative resources in many audiovisual productions, not for ideological purposes, but as reductionist plot mechanisms that reflect a shared system of values and beliefs at a given time. To substantiate her paradigm, the author details up to seven of these strategies: inserting patriotic Arab or Muslim Americans; sympathising with the plight of Arab and Muslim Americans after 9/11; challenging the Arab/Muslim conflation with diverse Muslim identities; flipping the enemy; humanising the terrorist; projecting a multicultural US society; or fictionalising the Middle East and Muslim countries. In spite of all this, the 9/11 attacks mean “Today’s reel Arabs are much more bombastic, brutal, and belligerent, much richer, ruthless, and raunchy. They are portrayed as the civilised world’s enemy, fanatic demons threatening people across the planet. Oily sheikhs finance nuclear wars; Islamic radicals kill innocent civilians; bearded, scruffy ‘terrorists,’ men and women, toss their American captives inside caves and filthy, dark rooms and torture them” (Shaheen, 2009, p. 4). Another of the resources shared by post 9/11 cinema and television are those images that show faceless crowds, masses praying and shouting verses from the Koran or untranslated phrases, of which Allahu Akbar stands out (Navarro, 2008). To counteract the hordes there are the spectacular individualities, namely the stills showing a child with a grenade launcher or a woman covered in a large black burka. This procedure reinforces the orientalist discourse that espouses Islam as a threat while concealing the real 110

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causes of conflict, which in turn makes it possible to legitimise certain political and military practices such as, for example, military interventions in “enemy” countries (p. 296). In parallel, the government has also invested billions of dollars in diplomacy campaigns to win “the hearts and minds” of North American Muslims (Kumar, 2012). At this point it is not unreasonable to say that the revolutions that the MENA region began to experience in Tunisia, in December 2010, may well have transformed the hegemonic representations through which Arabs and Muslims are represented by the American cultural industry. The fact that the demonstrators were clamouring for democracy, freedom, and dignity encourages us to reflect on this (Alsultany, 2012; Rogan, 2012). This is one of the main tasks of this work, as detailed below.

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HYPOTHESES, OBJECTIVES, AND METHOD The initial hypothesis is that American works of fiction still represent Middle Eastern communities and peoples according to the premises already established in theories such as Orientalism and the clash of civilisations. In particular, the starting point is that the main socio-political events of the 21st century have not mutated the classic patterns used to represent Islam and Arabs. Furthermore, it is assumed that the characterisation of these people has intensified to such an extent that Arabs and Muslims have been barbarised and appear in fictitious television shows as violent and bloodthirsty beings. In this respect, the producers of the series will have opted to dehumanise their characters, who will not be associated with familiar or affective environments with which the Arab community can identify. The general goal of this work has been, therefore, to describe whether the notion and portrayal of the Middle East has evolved in fictitious American works from the second decade of the 21st century. From this standpoint, the aim is to ascertain whether audiovisual productions pursue a simplistic and monolithic discourse based on generalisations and stereotypes about the Arab world; or whether an alarmist and securitarian discourse prevails, based on the fear and threat posed to the West by Islam, Muslims, or Arabs, thus incurring the construction of an “Other” as opposed to an “Us”. Likewise, the intention has been to decipher whether the image of Arabs and Muslims is subject to stereotyping, as this influences the viewer’s perception when it comes to creating a collective meaning for the series and, in turn, could lead to racist and Islamophobic positions. On the other hand, once the physical, psychological, and contextual characterisation of the protagonists has been described, the aim is to discover whether a direct association is established between the Middle East, terrorism, or religious fanaticism. At the same time, other aspects will be studied in detail, including the weight of terrorism and religion in the story or a character’s behaviour; the female element, its victimisation and symbols; the links between fiction, history and reality, and the presence of the clash of civilisations theory; the dichotomy between good Arab/Muslim and bad Arab/Muslim, in other words, between hero/ally or villain/enemy; the audiovisual language and the function of the shots, camera movements, colour, music and sounds, among other factors. Only in this way can it be ascertained whether the manner in which Arabs and Muslims are portrayed has evolved towards a model that abandons generalisations and stereotypes, or whether, on the contrary, it has evolved towards a pattern in which the negative and pejorative qualities of its people have been reinforced in order to further demonise them. To demonstrate the hypotheses raised and to accomplish all these aims, three representative and relevant television series have been selected for scrutiny, after thorough screening: Homeland, Tyrant, and Jack Ryan. Specifically, the qualitative analysis concerns only the first season of each production. 111

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Compared to other audiovisual products, TV series have been gaining in importance, both for the number of productions (especially on Video-on-Demand platforms), and in terms of popularity and audience numbers since the end of the first decade of the 21st century (Amidon, 2013). This factor is decisive when it comes to understanding television series as a leading ideological, propagandistic and cultural vehicle due to their high level of acceptance and impact on mass audiences, and makes them an ideal and relevant tool for testing the scope of the objectives proposed in this research. Homeland is a US series that began in October 2011, to address the issue of international terrorism and Islamic radicalism in different contexts and countries, with the role of the CIA as the central thread. Since then, the production has been both praised and criticised, above all, by the Arab and Muslim communities, who claimed that the depiction of them in the series was simplistic and did not reflect reality, but rather a small, intentionally manipulated segment related to terrorism (Rosenberg, 2012). The creators and promoters of Homeland include Gideon Raff, Alex Gansa, and Howard Gordon, the latter two being known for having produced another series with similar themes, 24 (Fox, 2001-2010). In total, the series ran for eight seasons and had 96 episodes that were broadcast on the Showtime channel. Two of the driving forces behind Homeland, Gideon Raff and Howard Gordon, joined Craig Wright to give birth to Tyrant, in 2014. The series premiered on the FX channel (therefore, within the orbit of Fox and, today, Disney) under an aura that combined American appeal with criticism from some Arab countries for the choice of filming areas and the noise generated by Homeland (Alsultany, 2015; Rose, 2014). This series narrates the political and family affairs of the Al-Fayeed dynasty, which rules with an iron fist in Abbudin, a fictional country in the Middle East that is on the verge of experiencing its own Arab Spring. In particular, the story focuses on the relationship between the two brothers, Jamal and Bassam, since the former inherited power from his father, Khaled. Essentially, this link is merely the umpteenth reflection of the East-West conflict. In 2016, it was announced that Tyrant would be cancelled after three seasons and 32 episodes (Goldberg, 2016). The sample finishes with Jack Ryan, the Video-on-Demand (VOD) series broadcast by the Amazon Prime Video platform (2018-). It is a work of fiction ascribed to the action genre with the characteristics of a spy drama that focuses on Jack Ryan, the main character and recurring protagonist of various novels by the American writer Tom Clancy, recognised for his bestsellers focusing on military thrillers with strong geopolitical and espionage themes. Clancy maintained a patriotic discourse closely aligned with American propaganda and geostrategic interests by always situating the stories and basing the character’s conflicts around current events and the US agenda (Terdoslavich, 2005). This is not Clancy’s first incursion into the audiovisual field, as Jack Ryan has previously appeared or starred in several films, including The Hunt for Red October (John McTiernan, USA, 1990), Patriot Games (Phillip Noyce, USA, 1992), and The Sum of All Fears (Phil Alden Robinson, USA, 2002). As far as the Amazon series is concerned, each season is themed, that is, it deals with a main plot that is resolved at the end while developing subplots that are resolved or left open between the different seasons. An economist by training and a CIA analyst in financial and economic surveillance matters, Jack Ryan becomes a field agent when he discovers a web of financing and economic crime that can help arrest one of the US’s most wanted terrorists, Suleiman, and dismantle his international Islamic fundamentalist terrorist network. So far, this has been the only season where the main plot has dealt with the West-East conflict in these terms, as the second season moves the action to Venezuela where conflicts unrelated to this are dealt with. With the new Jack Ryan, the temporal, geopolitical, economic, and ideological dimensions are updated to the predominant context faced by US foreign policy, introducing conflicts with the Islamic world as the starting point for this new audiovisual media venture. 112

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The following pages offer the main findings and ideas drawn from a qualitative analysis of each series. The results of the work are presented specifically for each show, leaving the overall interpretation for the conclusions.

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HOMELAND: THE RESURGENCE OF NEGATIVE MIDDLE EAST STEREOTYPES In the year that Homeland was produced, 2011, the international community had its gaze firmly fixed on the Arab Spring, although the events of 9/11 were still present in the American psyche. Like any audiovisual product it is a child of its time, insofar as it takes into account the political and social context surrounding it; Homeland responds to a stereotyping of Middle Eastern communities and peoples related to the clash of civilisations theory. In other words, its footage helps reinforce the “Otherness” of the East, creating an encounter between two blocks that are presented as homogeneous and appear to be determined by a single culture. The discourse is therefore charged with ideology and a feeling of belonging to the USA based on a reductionist viewpoint and full of stereotypes that recreate these two blocs: on the one hand the democratic, free West and, on the other, a doctrine that appears to embrace global terrorism. This is “Us” versus “Them”, good against evil, the United States against the Middle East, or civilisation and progress against disorder, barbarism, injustice, and violence. The result is that the concept of war is ever present and the two declare themselves to be enemies. In fact, the contention of the Middle Eastern communities in the production seems clear: Western imperialism is the cause of all their ills. The protagonist of Homeland, a US sergeant named Nicholas Brody, returns to his native country after eight years in captivity with the aim of assassinating the US vice-president. And he has converted to Islam, a fact suggesting that the most radical members of terrorist cells are capable of psychologically manipulating a war hero for their own interests. Brody thus stands as a clear victim of the groups living in the Middle East, which in reality are a minority within a vast community. In this way, Homeland makes the exception the rule and encompasses an entire people under the same negative attributes. This series includes no everyday moments where the Arab and Muslim world can be identified, nor does it include hybrid characters in terms of culture and identity: all the characters are linked to terrorism, the holy war, and enmity with the United States. There are particularly striking scenes where they appear to be praying or torturing Brody. The predominant images do not reflect the causes and contextual background and depart from any individuality by constantly presenting people as a group. In contrast, in the harassment of women, the imposition of the burka, contempt for life, or stoning, the focus does rest on this individuality, especially when it concerns the burka, as this symbolises the exclusion of women, and is thus a monolithic and unidirectional representation of the Islamic veil. At the height of this system, which is unwilling to bring about social change and in which Islamic fundamentalism poses a global threat, the figure of Abu Nazir gains importance as the antagonist in Homeland. Although a certain humanity towards Brody or his personal motivations can be observed in some sequences, his very being embodies the imminent danger to the West, for at no time does he abandon his attempt to attack the United States and take the life of the vice-president. Abu Nazir is the “most dangerous terrorist in the world” and has managed to plant a mole in the upper echelons of US intelligence. Everything therefore points towards an enemy that should not be underestimated, as he is no longer as ignorant or inept as in the past. In other words, the terrorist threat exists and is a phenomenon that cannot be avoided. The digital effects reinforce this concept even more strongly, since they recreate 113

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bloody and spectacular scenes that have a greater effect on the spectator, who comes to perceive the fiction as if it were reality. On the other hand, far from abandoning the classic characterisation of Arabs and Muslims, Homeland expands this with even more pejorative qualities: these beings are presented as aggressive, bloodthirsty, and unscrupulous. This portrait is toughened up further thanks to the scenography, since the environments to which they are associated are, in most cases, dangerous and violent, a world where insecurity, chaos and terrorism reign. However, there is also a certain implicit Orientalism, as the exoticism and mysticism of the pre-1980s and the idea of the East as synonymous with luxury, despotism, and sensuality are revived. However, this is now linked to the notion that the Arabs are a dark, refractory, and dehumanised people who objectify women. This topic is introduced into the plot at the hands of the prince allied to Abu Nazir, who has all manner of wealth at his disposal, and who holds a casting call to select several white women to form part of his harem in exchange for a very high salary. In other words, this is the cliché of a Pasha surrounded by women, but who tries to seduce Western women, since no Arab woman satisfies him. Here, therefore, the two sides of the same coin are fused: on the one hand, the classic pejorative and exotic representation of the Arabs and, on the other, the conceptualisation of the Middle Eastern people as being close to and collaborating with international terrorist networks. Both archetypes are still used as narrative tools in Homeland to portray the most extreme and strange part of the Middle East, thereby singularising all the Arab communities in which Islam is at the centre. In short, classical patterns of representation still occupy a substantial part of Homeland’s narrative. Although it is possible to appreciate an updating of the traditional archetypes, this evolves towards an even more barbaric and bloody conceptualisation of their communities. The negative attributes overcome the generalisation and stereotyping of its people, and the overriding impression on the viewer is that “the terrorists are still out there looking for blood”. Although in the first year of US production the theory of the clash of civilisations and the approach to Jihadist terrorism inherited from 9/11 continued to be the norm in the audiovisual industry, there have been developments in this respect in the other seasons of the series. Namely, Homeland has adapted the characterisation of Arab and Muslim societies according to the historical, social, and political context. For example, in its fifth season (2015), ISIS is introduced as one of the main figures, one year after this radical group proclaimed its caliphate from the Iraqi city of Mosul.

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TYRANT: THE ARAB SPRING BETWEEN UTOPIA AND DYSTOPIA In general terms, it could be said that Tyrant is Hollywood’s homage to the Arab Spring. Although, when the messages and images of the first season are critically broken down, entertainment takes a back seat, because Tyrant is an interested and Americanised version of the events that took place in several Arab countries beginning in 2011. The presence of the United States in the story is constant, in fact, the Stars and Stripes is the first thing the viewer sees in the opening frame, which is completed with the typical two-storey house, with a driveway and garden. The main character, Barry, then enters the scene as he tries to get in touch with his friend Fauzi. And this is the first culture shock: Barry uses his Anglo-Saxon name, but corrects himself because he is talking to an Arab and they know him as Bassam. While jogging, the audience discovers through a flashback that Bassam is the youngest son of Khaled Al-Fayeed, leader of Abbudin, a fictional country that could 114

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be likened to any other in the MENA region. Little by little, the storyline that revolves around Bassam and his two families unravels: the American family he created with Molly and her two children; and the Arab family where Khaled, his mother Amirah and his older brother Jamal are the most prominent. After twenty years of self-imposed exile in Pasadena, California, which has all but dearabised him, Bassam decides to return to his homeland to attend the wedding of his nephew Ahmed, Jamal and Leila’s son. Even before he lands, there are hints as to how this world in which dictators, palaces, oil, flags, luxuries, military uniforms, entourages, yachts, weapons, cars, statues, and self-portraits coexist with repression, torture, inequalities, backwardness, veils, filth, crime, savagery and terrorism. Souks, carpets, satellite dishes, palm trees, and the desert complete the scenery and aromavision of Abbudin. The main plot focuses on Jamal’s management of the government, after he came to power following Khaled’s sudden death. In this sense, the new leader complies with the media template for an Arab tyrant, an inept, unstable, depraved, authoritarian, impulsive, and monstrous being, a traumatic personality who, in this case, is the product of his father’s educational model. Luckily, Jamal now has Bassam, his beloved brother, by his side, the Western doctor, the perfect family man and the best advisor to his entourage. However, Bassam (or the American lion tamer) does not always succeed in curbing the fierce and contemptible instinct of Jamal (the Arab lion), who is even capable of slapping his wife, raping his daughter-in-law, murdering his lover, shooting his father-in-law, and leaving his main political opponent at death’s door. As the events progress, Bassam sets himself the goal of transforming despotism and clientelism into democracy. In a clearly paternalistic attitude, he wishes to guide Abbudin into the 21st century, but he will have to deal with several stakeholders, including the political opposition to the Al-Fayeeds, led by Sheik Rashid and his son Ihab. The two head up an organisation that is as closely related to the most democratic Islamism as it is to the most blatant terrorism: while the father’s whereabouts have been unknown since the Ma’an Gas Attack (a false-flag operation orchestrated by the military regime led by Tariq Al-Fayeed, the protagonists’ uncle, which took place at the same time Bassam left Abbudin), the offspring has been engaged in stirring up the masses to overthrow the oppressors since he returned from Syria. In this context, a citizen decides to immolate himself to protest against the horrendous living conditions, and his gesture culminates in a popular revolt and the taking of public space to fight for freedom, dignity, and democracy. This subplot gives two nods to the Arab Spring: first, to Mohamed Bouazizi, a martyr and the germ of the Tunisian revolution; and secondly, to everything experienced in the camps in Tahrir Square in Cairo. As if that were not enough, this association is rounded off with constant references to activism on social networks (Twitter, YouTube, etc.) and the involvement of corrupt soldiers, pseudo-terrorist groups, power-hungry women (Jamal’s wife Leila closely resembles the Tunisian Leila Ben Ali or the Egyptian Suzanne Mubarak), or of Islamism (very closely related, incidentally, to Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood, who are even quoted). In this respect, we should also note the realpolitik of the US Embassy as reflected in the hypocrisy of Ambassador John Tucker, a character with a lot of weight in the subplots and decisions of the Al-Fayeeds. Even so, the links between Tyrant, history, and reality are more than evident as demonstrated by the allusions to Saladin, the Crusades, Zionism, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Syria, the Arab League, Amnesty International, the death of Muammar Gaddafi, the BBC, and the United Nations. On the other hand, this series breaks with some of the classic patterns for stereotyping Arabs and Muslims. For example, although religion, terrorism, and the status of women are present in the story, it cannot be said that these issues are categorical, simplistic, or hegemonic. Suffice it to say that there is 115

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hardly any mention of the veil, nor excessive uses of Allahu Akbar or the other terrorist iconography. On the contrary, Tyrant’s interpretation is that there is an Arab world far removed from this more recurrent Orientalism, but also that in the MENA region there is still no room for democracy, at least according to the Western meaning of the term. The iron fist, corruption, lies, and conspiracy dominate the political spectrum. In this feral part of the globe, the price of life is different and you do not hesitate to shoot children, hang innocent people, or blow up planes. Indeed, here one of Tyrant’s key messages emerges: the cause (or fault) of conflict, chaos, and injustice is not so much social or cultural as it is the tyrants, who permit such acts or who mistreat and subjugate women. That is what makes Jamal and, to a lesser extent, Tariq, the anti-heroes. Standing against this is Bassam, the differential factor, someone who has lived between the two worlds and who is waging a war against their stigmas and internalising the Manichaean conflict. Because this character is a hybrid between the “Other” and the “Us”, between Bassam and Barry, between the Al-Fayeed who denies his past and the paediatrician who has lived the American dream, between the Arab and the Westerner, between the superhero and the tyrant, between the Muslim and the sceptic, or between coffee and alcohol. The idea of 20 years away from Abbudin is constantly repeated and this period is intended to represent the process of identity deconstruction and uprooting. It is interesting to witness that for the Arabs he is Amriki, while for the Americans he is just the son of another genocidal maniac. In this inner struggle, he himself says “My name is not Smith or Jones”. As well as the occasional visit to the mosque, it is Molly and Fauzi, his wife and his journalist friend, who support Bassam as the events unfold. Fauzi is undoubtedly the most complex character in the story, a man who breaks with the patterns of the traditional image of Arabs and Muslims and represents moderation, reflection, reason, openness, democracy, friendship, loyalty, a sense of family, and evolution. Once again, this is where the good Arab or Muslim (Fauzi) and the bad Arab (Jamal or Tariq Al-Fayeed) are defined. In this sense, it can be said that Tyrant leaves no room for the figure of the dehumanised Muslim. Ihab Rashid may come close at some points, but he is always far from the stereotype that prevailed after 9/11. In short, this series is a faithful reflection of the Hollywood paradox: trying to eradicate stereotypes while ending up reproducing or reinforcing them (Alsultany, 2015).

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JACK RYAN: AN UPDATE OF THE STEREOTYPICAL REPRESENTATION? In Jack Ryan there are issues common to Homeland, Tyrant, and any other work of fiction that talks about Arabs and Muslims. However, Jack Ryan does not only limit itself to replicating recognisable patterns and symbolism accepted by the audience, but also introduces a series of nuances and forms of representation that are new when it comes to generating a readjustment of these concepts, such as the justification of antagonists’ motivations. Nevertheless, the typical Arab or Muslim continues to reflect the classical patterns of representation. In other words, it perpetuates the image that associates Arabs and Muslims with tribal culture, dedicated to grazing in an indeterminate desert area in the Middle East or Central Asia (presumably Syria). Both the scenes that take place in rural settings and those at the Suleiman cell’s base of operations lend weight to the idea of a primitive barbaric culture, which is clearly backward in terms of technology and economic development when compared to the West, and which is bordering on poverty. The display of their activities (grazing, crafts), their clothing (ethnically and culturally indeterminate, but recognisable as traditional), and their austere (almost precarious) way of life encourage the clichés of unsophistication, barbarism, and primitivism associated with them. 116

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This imagery is reinforced by the inclusion of European or American aid workers (dressed in Westernstyle clothing) who are prisoners of the terrorists. Hence, the confrontation is not only aesthetic and visual, but also conceptual: the hostages are civilian doctors deployed to the region to provide humanitarian aid (embodying the scientific and moral superiority of the West), but where the response to their altruistic intention has been their capture by local violent forces (the East is shown as an aggressive barbarian who opposes Western progress), and where they are used as victims of the conflict to generate a certain image. In this sense, the stereotype of the terrorist has undergone a certain evolution, with the introduction of differentiated nuances between various groupings that are, in principle, aligned with the same interests. In this respect, Suleiman’s organisation has a violent clash with those who, on the basis of their appearance and costumes, can be recognised as militants of the Islamic state. This marks an updating of the Western representation of a Jihadist, as it identifies different branches and trends within a complex, convoluted web which, far from constituting a homogeneous movement, very often even embraces opposing and conflicting factions. Another key aspect of Jack Ryan is the Manichean representation of the good Muslim and the bad Muslim. Although, on balance, the representation is negative because of the narrative weight of the antagonists, it is not possible to say that Islam is globally identified with evil. The cultural-religious identification (positive-negative) therefore revolves around three axes. Firstly, through the antagonism that is evident in the conflict between Jack Ryan (the West, the CIA, and the French police forces) and Suleiman (the East, his terrorist organisation, and the other violent cells). On the other hand, the civilian population is shown to be relatively neutral, that is, it is not explicitly stated that they are aligned with the main thrust of confrontation. At most, they are portrayed as collateral victims on both sides or as colluding with local terrorist cells, a fact that once again tips the balance in the direction of a Middle East that tends towards the negative. Finally, the character of James Greer personifies a positive representation of Islam. Although he is not a protagonist, he plays an important role: he is also a CIA agent and Jack Ryan’s boss; he also plays the archetypal mentor and, later, the role of friend/companion of the hero. The fact that Greer is openly Muslim (he is an American who converted to Islam in order to marry his wife and, after divorce, continues to maintain and develop his faith) is striking within the stereotypical construction. The fact that there is a Muslim so close to the hero and aligned with US interests introduces a mechanism for positive recognition of Islam that contrasts with the previous clichés: this good Muslim is not only good because he is an active party in the fight against international terrorism but also because he is an utterly westernised Muslim. This represents a tolerable or preferable Islam, because it is necessary for people to embody at least a modicum of Westernisation in clear opposition to those Arabs or Middle Eastern people who are still barbaric and so prone to violence. On the other hand, in the development of the antagonist or villain, there is a more profound characterisation than usual. Throughout the season, different stages in Suleiman’s life are shown that explain his crucial development before he became the leader of the terrorist group confronting the US and Jack Ryan. Through this biographical explanation and the presentation of his traumas and motivations, it is possible to understand (and to a certain extent to empathise) with the character, something which is unusual in simplistic action stories and rarely seen in stories where the antagonists are aligned, in a stereotypical way, with the archetypal Muslim, Islamist, or terrorist. This enriches the (antagonist-villain) paradigm and evolves the stereotype by endowing it not with reason, but with motives. In some way, the character is humanised and not merely reduced to the role of a bloodthirsty terrorist leader whose only motivation is to serve Allah.

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To this end, some scenes from Suleiman’s past life are very revealing with respect to his current nature. The series itself begins with a flashback to the war in Lebanon during the 1980s. The scene portrays the childhood of Mousa (the original name of Suleiman, which is his alias or nom de guerre), where he is with his brother playing and dancing to Western pop music. They are surprised by a sudden bomb attack, apparently a mistake, that destroys their home, leaving them badly wounded and orphaned. This is the first great tragedy to mark the genesis of Suleiman, but not the only one. Throughout the season, other fundamental events are disclosed that explain the present Suleiman through the traumas of Mousa: he spends his youth in the West (France) with his brother, there he receives a university education and shows great talent, but when it comes to finding a job he is despised because of his ethno-religious background and is ostracised to the fringes of French society. This marginalisation and lack of opportunity lead his brother Ali to enter criminal circles, which eventually lands Mousa in prison after he takes the blame, instead of his brother, for possession of weapons and assault on an officer. It is in prison that all of the above events crystallise into the metaphorical death of Mousa and the birth of Suleiman. Up to that point, despite the calamities suffered (including ethnic and religious discrimination and the horrors of war), there had been no sign of even the slightest religious feeling on the part of the character (moderation or even secularism are suggested). However, once in prison, Mousa encounters two realities that he had not experienced before: the recognition and support of an Islamic community and the radical interpretation of Islam. This new refuge channels the misery, hardship and anger that awaken a Suleiman who does not hesitate to point to the West and the infidels as the cause and origin of all his ills. Another mechanism used to humanise Suleiman are the scenes of his present-day family. He is the leader of a terrorist group, but also a father who loves his children and his wife, Hanin. And it is indeed here that the role of women in the Islamic context once again plays a categorical role in the construction of stereotypes. The viewer can develop a strong connection and empathy with Hanin, despite the fact that she is, in principle, a character aligned with the antagonists. Represented as having a strong and confident personality (a result of her husband’s prestige and importance in the community), she is shown to defy other men (especially representatives of the Islamic state with whom no one seems to agree). However, this empowerment diminishes as she discovers more details of Suleiman’s organisation, especially the plans for a mass attack using a modified version of Ebola. In this way, Hanin’s pride is replaced by fear and oppression that force her to flee with her young daughters (although not her son). With this turn of events, her femininity returns to a position more in line with the portrayal of Arab women as victims and prisoners. This subplot includes sequences of action and persecution, and shows the hardships the mother and her daughters endure in order to reach a refugee camp in Turkey. Yet Hanin is another example of a Muslim who is good at being a victim and cooperating with the protagonist (and the West) by revealing Suleiman’s whereabouts. In Jack Ryan, there is another case that ends up slightly modifying the stereotyped image and dehumanisation of the terrorist. It begins with a family scene in the middle of a typical Arab village: a father says goodbye to his son and leaves on a motorbike. He seems to be a popular and affable character, who is greeted with joy by everyone. But just outside the village he is hit by a missile from an American combat drone. Next, we cut to Victor Polizzi, the pilot who fired the shot from thousands of miles away, in the United States, at the base from which the unmanned combat vehicle has wiped out not an exemplary father and neighbour, but a wanted terrorist, the leader of a local faction. The curious thing is that the drone operator appears emotionally and psychologically depressed by his own actions: he feels very guilty about carrying out targeted killings after spending weeks observing his targets from a distance, learning about their daily lives, work, and family activities, and the people around 118

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them. He even jokes with his partner about the romantic encounters of some of the local inhabitants they are monitoring, which shows that the American soldiers themselves end up empathising with the people under surveillance. It is this feeling that leads Victor to facilitate Hanin’s escape, when he intervenes without following official orders and fires a drone at one of Suleiman’s lackeys who had been sent to prevent his wife’s escape. Thanks to Victor’s interference, Hanin and her daughters manage to escape just as the woman is about to be raped by the terrorist. The character of Victor and his storyline shows a humanised and sensitive Western fighter who is remorseful and suffers from his actions in contrast to the ruthless behaviour of the antagonists. In other words, the goodies kill too, but they have a heart. The baddies do not. And the most evil is Suleiman, who orders the murder of his own wife when he discovers that she has fled. This interpretation of Jack Ryan therefore shows that the representation of the Arab and Islamic world continues to perpetuate patterns that make use of the aesthetic, symbolic and narrative issues of previous eras. Meanwhile, others are updated (bringing the fictional representation a little closer to reality) and some of these ideas are looked at in greater depth (such as the cases where the antagonists are humanised or explained beyond a simple archetypal construction), but without developing a critical, integrating, or didactic discourse.

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CONCLUSION At this stage, the completed analysis demonstrates that negative stereotypes have been reinforced in all three series. The productions not only continue to incorporate the classical ways of representing Arabs and Muslims as narrative tools, but also strengthen the most pejorative qualities of recent decades. After observation and reflection, the conclusion is reached that the communities of the MENA region live on a fictitious and unreal planet, as the entertainment industry continues to generalise a heterogeneous group of people through negative attributes, making them terrorists, barbaric, sadistic, violent, and aggressive. In Homeland and Jack Ryan the ecosystem is much more primitive, tribalised, and Islamised, while in Tyrant it is more urban and developed, but markedly stratified from a socio-economic perspective. In all three works, situations of conflict predominate where subjugation, weapons, and torture are the norm. There is hardly any room left for the affective, familiar, and sentimental environments of the Arab and Muslim characters, a fact that prevents the Arabs (who also watch these series) from seeing a reflection of themselves or identifying with these stories that fail to illustrate their customs, routines, or ways of life. In short, these audiovisual representations still do not convey sincere words, gestures, or feelings, even though this is the key to humanisation. In tune with the post 9/11 context, the plots offered by Homeland and Jack Ryan link themes such as terrorism, action, and American intelligence. None of these three ingredients has any particular weight in the plot of Tyrant, although the presence of the United States does appear to be overdimensioned in the figure of the Embassy. Despite the differences, the underlying interpretation is that the US has the solution to the challenges of the Arab world, be that terrorism or a lack of democracy. It does not seem unreasonable to say that this is a form of neo-colonialism. It must be recognised that the fictional audiovisual products studied have been created for entertainment and their goal is not to generate reflection or undertake a detailed analysis of the situations and characters they describe. Nevertheless, the final result is a perpetuation and reconstruction of stereotypes, as well as the transmission of values and ideas that should be carefully considered because of the associations they 119

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generate in the viewer’s mind. The final impact is dependent on issues such as symbolism, intentionality, and the ideological-propaganda agenda. The evolution of the classical patterns of representation towards this resurgence of negative qualities therefore has a direct impact on the viewer’s perception of Arabs, Muslims, Islam, and the countries in which these identities are predominant. This does, in fact, contribute to fuelling fears that did not previously exist, on the basis of biased and simplistic arguments, justifying, among other things, interventionist international policies with respect to the Middle East, while at the same time making it more difficult to manage interculturality in Western societies. Through these practices, Orientalism ends up evolving towards a more racialised, Islamophobic, or neo-Orientalist position.

FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION This work is an attempt to delve deeper into the field of studies that analyse the entertainment industry in order to understand the factors contributing to the generation of clichés, prejudices, and stereotypes about the Arab and Islamic world. Its purpose is to encourage free thinking while trying to transcend any intercultural distortion or rejection of that which is different. The journey does not end here, as this phenomenon is complex and ongoing. Indeed, future studies must open up new ways to study the discourse and stereotypes in productions that are created in European or Arabic countries. Furthermore, it would be interesting to analyse how the messages of these series are perceived by audiences.

REFERENCES Alsultany, E. (2012). Arabs and Muslims in the Media: Race and Representation after 9/11. New York University Press. Alsultany, L. (2015). ‘Tyrant’ o como luchar contra los estereotipos [‘Tyrant’ or how to counteract stereotypes]. Afkar-Ideas, 46, 75–77. Amidon, M. (2013). Netflix: the company and its founders. ABDO. Beltrame, F. (2008). La construcción occidental de la figura del enemigo islámico. La nueva hegemonía de Estados Unidos [Western manufacture of the Muslim enemy. The new hegemony of the United States]. Aposta. Revista de Ciencias Sociales, 42, 1–14.

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Gerges, F. (2014). ISIS and the Third Wave of Jihadism. Current History (New York, N.Y.), 113(767), 339–343. doi:10.1525/curh.2014.113.767.339 Goldberg, L. (2016, September 9). Why FX Canceled ‘Tyrant’. The Hollywood Reporter. https://www. hollywoodreporter.com/live-feed/why-fx-canceled-tyrant-926904 Huntington, S. P. (1993). The clash of civilisations? Foreign Affairs, 72(3), 22–43. doi:10.2307/20045621 Huntington, S. P. (1996). The clash of civilisations and the remaking of world order. Simon & Schuster.

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Kumar, R. (2012). Diálogo intercultural y cine: estudio comparativo de la representación del islam en Hollywood y Bollywood [Intercultural Dialogue and Films: A Comparative Study of the Representation of Islam in Hollywood and Bollywood]. In Y. Onghena & A. Vianello (Eds.), Políticas del conocimiento y dinámicas interculturales (pp. 127-123). Cidob edicions. Lewis, B. (1990). The roots of Muslim rage. Atlantic Monthly, 266(3), 47–60. Martín-Muñoz, G. (2010). Unconscious Islamophobia. Human Architecture, 8(2), 21–28. Mokdad, L. (2015). El cine americano posterior al 11-S [Post-9/11 American Movies]. Afkar-Ideas, 46, 71–73. Navarro, L. (2008). Contra el Islam: La visión deformada del mundo árabe en Occidente [Against Islam: The Distorted Vision of the Arab World in the West]. Almuzara. Rius-Piniés, M. (2015). De Rodolfo Valentino a ‘Los Nuestros’ [From Rodolfo Valentino to ‘Los Nuestros’]. Afkar-Ideas, 46, 68–70. Rogan, E. (2012). The Arabs: A history (2nd ed.). Penguin Books. (Original work published 2009) Rose, L. (2014, June 24). FX’s ‘Tyrant’: 11 Secrets From the Israeli Set. The Hollywood Reporter. https:// www.hollywoodreporter.com/live-feed/fxs-tyrant-11-secrets-israeli-714661 Rosenberg, Y. (2012, December 18). ‘Homeland’ Is Anything but Islamophobic. The Atlantic. https:// www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2012/12/homeland-is-anything-but-islamophobic/266418/ Said, E. W. (1978). Orientalism. Penguin Books. Said, E. W. (1997). Covering Islam: How the media and the experts determine how we see the rest of the world (2nd ed.). Vintage Books. (Original work published 1981) Sardar, Z. (1999). Orientalism. Open University Press. Shaheen, J. (2009). Reel Bad Arabs: How Hollywood Vilifies a People. Olive Branch Press. (Original work published 2001) Steinberg, S. R. (2002). French Fries, Fezzes, and Minstrels: The Hollywoodization of Islam. Cultural Studies, Critical Methodologies, 2(2), 205–210. doi:10.1177/153270860200200210

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Terdoslavich, W. (2005). The Jack Ryan agenda: policy and politics in the novels of Tom Clancy: an unauthorized analysis. Forge.

ADDITIONAL READING Alsultany, E. (2012). Arabs and Muslims in the Media: Race and Representation after 9/11. New York University Press. Navarro, L. (2008). Contra el Islam: La visión deformada del mundo árabe en Occidente [Against Islam: The Distorted Vision of the Arab World in the West]. Almuzara.

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Said, E. W. (1997). Covering Islam: How the media and the experts determine how we see the rest of the world (2nd ed.). Vintage Books. (Original work published 1981) Shaheen, J. (2009). Reel Bad Arabs: How Hollywood Vilifies a People. Olive Branch Press. (Original work published 2001) Steinberg, S. R. (2002). French Fries, Fezzes, and Minstrels: The Hollywoodization of Islam. Cultural Studies, Critical Methodologies, 2(2), 205–210. doi:10.1177/153270860200200210

KEY TERMS AND DEFINITION

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Arab Spring: The denomination that has been used for the revolutionary process that, from December 2010, was carried out in several countries of the Middle East and the North of Africa. Aromavision: The audiovisual resource that allows the viewer to feel experiences not linked to the visual sense, such as smell or touch. Dearabisation: Denying or depriving a person of his/her Arab identity. Entertainment Industry: The sector that includes cinema, video games, television, music, etc. Homo Islamicus: The metaphor that explains that Muslims are a specific species or race, with no links to the rest of human beings. MENA Region: The geographic area that incorporates the Middle East and North Africa.

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Chapter 8

Engendering Orientalism: Fatih Akin’s Head-On and The Edge of Heaven Filiz Cicek Indiana University Purdue University Columbus, USA

ABSTRACT This study explores the elements of Orientalism in German-Turkish director Fatih Akin’s flms Head-On (2004) and The Edge of Heaven (2007). Utilizing Homi Bhabha’s theory of “third spaces,” which immigrants often inhabit, and Edward Said’s lens of the postcolonial gaze, I analyze the degree to which the bodies of immigrants willingly embody the mysterious “oriental,” and how and when it is projected upon male and female characters in these two flms. Akin’s characters dwell between a perceived and imaginary Occident and Orient, while living and traveling in the soil of both Germany and Turkey.

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INTRODUCTION Immigrants from South Asian and Afro-Caribbean nations have been journeying to Britain for over a century now; France has become host to an estimated four and a half million immigrants, many from north Africa, and since WWII, Germany alone has received some seven million non-German residents, the majority of them Turks (Salhani, 2006). This number has increased since the Syrian refugee crisis, resulting in the rise of racial and nativist tensions throughout Europe. These developments have been expressed through recent films made by and focusing on the lives of European immigrants and their descendants, films which have themselves been moving to a cultural center stage and capturing more mainstream audiences not only in their host countries but also across the world. This trend signals an increased visibility, a louder voice, and more social capital for immigrant communities. Indeed, cinema has become a window through which we can gain insight to the dynamics of these communities in Europe, as well as a platform through which the issues of discrimination, assimilation, and integration can be tested and voiced.

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-7180-4.ch008

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 Engendering Orientalism

Despite the manifest relevance of European immigrant films, they have received relatively little scholarly attention. In the case of the Turkish-German Cinema, there has been some work done, which is referred to in this study, but a closer look is needed..

OVERALL APPROACH

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This study explores the elements of Orientalism in German-Turkish director Fatih Akin’s films HeadOn (2004) and The Edge of Heaven (2007). Utilizing Homi Bhabha’s theory of “third spaces,” which immigrants often inhabit, and Edward Said’s lens of the postcolonial gaze, I will analyze the degree to which the bodies of immigrants willingly embody the mysterious “oriental,” and how it is projected upon male and female characters in these two films. Unlike his predecessor, Kutlug Ataman, whose transgender characters in Lola and Bilidikid (1997), perform dual identities—on stage, they are oriental femme dancers who cater to the desires of Western fantasies of gazing upon the harem girl and off stage they tackle life head-on as hetero-homosexual Turkish and Kurdish males in Kreuzberg, Berlin—Akin dances with Orientalism, yet with a borrowed Occidental gaze (Baer, 2008; Hillman, 2006). While Ataman’s film is self-aware of both the gap and the mingling of the Oriental and Occidental gaze and seeks to critique it, Akin’s films instead utilize Orientalism to lure the viewer, whose Occidental perceptions towards the Orient have already been conditioned by the colonial gaze from previous centuries. In his landmark book, Orientalism, Edward Said (1979) laid out how the East was/is denied the telling of its own narrative. In his introduction, Said quotes Karl Marx, who stated, “they cannot represent themselves; they must be represented,” referring to the peasants and the proletariat (as cited in1979, p. 8). So was the attitude of the West toward the East. Said contends the West defines itself as the superior civilization against the “Orient,” a cultural concept that was created out of the Western imagination and one that came to stand as “truth” about the cultures and peoples spanning from Turkey to Japan. Said also pays homage to Benjamin Disraeli, the British Prime minister who stated that the “[t]he East is a career,” (1979, p. 13). This statement is taken to mean that the officers, foreign legion soldiers, artists, diplomats, and archeologists alike helped create a mythical third place in the lands of the East where Westerners are in charge, and as such, they project, impose, and downright force upon the aspirations and desires of the West on the East. Said calls this Western approach to the East, particularly that of the Europeans, an “Orientation,” or an imaginary place created by the West at the expense of the peoples of the “Orient.” Here, men and barbaric and women are voiceless. Critiquing Flaubert’s popular representation of women in particular Said states that: Oriental woman; she never spoke of herself, she never represented her emotions, presence, or history. He spoke for and represented her. He was foreign, comparatively wealthy, male, and these were historical facts of domination that allowed him not only to possess Kuchuk Hanem physically but to speak for her and tell his readers in what way she was “typically Oriental.” My argument is that Flaubert’s situation of strength in relation to Kuchuk Hanem was not an isolated instance. It fairly stands for the pattern of relative strength between East and West, and the discourse about the Orient that it enabled (1979, p. 14). Orientalism, then, functions as a self-serving narrative which continue to help shape policies, wars, exploitation of natural resources, and the labor of its peoples in the name of its supposed superior civi124

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 Engendering Orientalism

lization. Furthermore, Said goes on to explain how, in the absence of self-narration, the Orient, and Orientals, too, viewed the self from the Occidental perspective, recreating Orientalism in their arts and literature. In time, the internalized Orientalism thereby became quite authentic. “Oh, East is East, and West is West, and never the twain shall meet,” wrote Rudyard Kipling in his infamous 1889 ballad, even though his own birthplace and life proved otherwise—a British subject born in India and shaped by both cultures. So, too, are the characters of German-born film director Akin to their Turkish parents. Akin’s characters dwell between a perceived and imaginary Occident and Orient while living and traveling in the soils of both Germany and Turkey. Akin, who was born in Hamburg, is not free of either the ongoing colonial gaze or the internalized version of it as a German-Turk. As such, he also utilizes the “Turkish” Orient’s appeal to Western audiences in creating his male and female characters, whose quest-to-self journey always takes them back to motherland Turkey, to the Orient. In Head-On, Akin’s main characters consummate their marriage not in Germany, where they live, but in a hotel in the Pera district in Istanbul, with its Victorian and Baroque architecture referencing the city’s complicated relationship with the colonial West. While the characters struggle during their journey, an Ottoman chorus sings by the Golden Horn, standing on oriental rugs, with the Blue Mosque, Hagia Sophia and Harem of Topkapi Palace serving as the backdrop. Unlike Ataman, Akin does not feature Orientalist elements in order to deconstruct them. A discerning student of Rainer Werner Fassbinder (Elsaesser, 1996, p.129-147) and Douglas Sirk, Akin seeks to make films for critics and his family (lay people) alike. He also seeks populism, reaching broader German and European audiences whose conditioning of viewing Turks has been through the Orientalizing gaze. Hence, the rugs, mosques, music, and food in Head-On serve as tantalizing invitations to them in an attempt to create bridges between Western and Eastern culture. Akin is not the first Germany-based artist/director to feature Orientalist elements in his work. In the absence of effective models for portrayal of immigrants or for self-expression, especially in the visual arts, some postwar filmmakers readily internalized and perpetuated the Orientalizing approach in order to reach bigger audiences, such as Fassbinder’s Ali: Fear Eats the Soul. Everyone seeks to escape to a third space from time to time, regardless of where they are situated, and cinema provides a powerful tool and an essential outlet for expression and representation of any given group—in Akin’s case, Turkish immigrants in Germany. It also creates certain perceptions that come to stand in for reality. Taken together, these films provide increased visibility to underrepresented gender categories in the immigrant context, yet I argue that Akin mostly caters to the Western gaze in order to appeal to mainstream audiences. In Akin’s Head-On, Cahit is a forty-something-year old punker of Turkish origins but with a sense of Western nihilism who crashes head-on into a wall in an attempt to kill himself—hence the title of the film, in which both the literal and metaphorical lives of the two main characters collide head-on. At the hospital, Cahit meets Sibel, who also has attempted suicide in protest against her repressive Turkish parents. In her quest for personal and sexual freedom, Sibel convinces Cahit to enter into a pretend marriage. The pretend marriage soon blossoms into love. Akin utilizes love as a survival device for Sibel and Cahit. He also utilizes jail as an educational device for Cahit. When Sibel choses sexual freedom over love, Cahit kills Nico in a jealous rage, ends up in prison, where he becomes strong enough to embrace life because of his love for Sibel. Sibel, too, forced into space of self-discovery. After Nico’s death appears on the front page of the newspapers, she is disowned by her father and brother. Fearing for her life, Sibel moves to Istanbul, but remains in touch with Cahit. After his release, Cahit come to her and asks her to start a new life with him

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in Turkey. She decides to remain in Istanbul with her child and partner. Cahit takes off alone, heading to Mersin, the city of his birth to complete his journey to self-hood.

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(O/A)ccidental Turk Like Birol Unel who plays him, Cahit is shaped more by the German culture than the Turkish. Cahit is quite impatient with a taxi driver with inferior German language skills who has been deported from Bavaria back to Turkey, and even prefers to speak in English rather than Turkish with Sibel’s cousin, Selma1. Back in Hamburg, when Sibel’s brother judgingly asks him what he had done with his Turkish, Cahit replies that he has “thrown it away.” He is not the only Turk who lacks good command of Turkish. Many children born to Turkish parents speak Turkish with a German accent because their parents were first generation immigrants who either spoke German with Turkish accents, or no German at all. Language, then, especially accented language, marks an individuals’ race and class. It becomes a source of discrimination and privilege, integration and resistance, to the hegemonic culture. This is reflected in Akin’s “accented cinema” as his characters move from, place to place, from country to country, and from person to person, speaking multiple languages (Naficy, 2001, p. 23). Cahit’s lack of Turkish marks him as a double outsider in Germany. With his sense of hopelessness and Western nihilism after the death of his German wife, Cahit becomes at once the perfect Turkish antihero of Yilmaz Guney’s Western dramas and the emasculated man in crisis who never feels at home in Fassbinder’s post-war Germany. In fact, “home” for Cahit, as we see in the end, will be back in Mersin, Turkey—the motherland—although his resistance to the Turkish language is thus revealed as a denial of his past. But he must first shift the object of his lust from the infidel German Maren, the postmodern rubble-woman (Trümmerfrau), and find his heart and self through the Turkish Sibel. Maren is left behind without even so much as a goodbye. Cahit has been choosing German women over Turks—before Maren, his dead wife, Catherina, was also German. It is the love of a fellow Turkish woman who will save his life, however, that finally drives him against the wall at 80 miles per hour. But this is only after his death wish through an alcohol- and drug-addled lifestyle and a love for the infidel. After falling for Sibel, Cahit reverts to a violent Oriental male type and kills the man who had dared to insult his wife’s honor. And to cap it all off, the slain man was Greek, so we have a Greek killed by Turk. Ethnic clichés lurk behind the scenes and between the lines in Head-On, as in all Akin’s previous films. Akin also confirms the stereotypical image of non-integration over Turkish and German integration. Turks and Germans can play at love, even be lovers, but they do not end up as “proper” husbands and wives. In his earlier films, In July (2004) and Short Sharp Shock (1998), Turks end up with Turks and Germans with Germans—and the story is no different in Head-On. The impulse to this is as much a patriarchal as it is a racial one that keeps the unspoken law of the East and West not crossing certain boundaries, thus echoing Kipling’s edict that two shall not entwine. Western, emancipated women would not be as accommodating or as dutiful or worthy as Turkish Muslim women. They are the objects of desire to be possessed and conquered, but when it comes to marriage and procreation, only a Turk will do. Similarly, in most movies the Westerners who fall in love with an Oriental will suffer greatly, often ending up dead. Kebab Connection, a 2004 German film, directed by Anna Saul, tries to overcome this East and West divide through a romantic comedy. One wonders then, why Akin, who is one of the screen writers of the film, does not write such narratives for the mainstream films he directs. Why does

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he adhere to the East and West divide so closely while his characters cross physical borders? Why can they not effectively cross emotional and racial boundaries? Such an impulse comes from not only Akin’s own upbringing but also his overall populist philosophy toward cinema. While he may be a student of Fassbinder and Güney, he is also a self-confessed product of Hollywood Cinema, and, as he puts it himself, he wants his aunt (someone with only an elementary school education) to like his films, as well as the art critics (Cicek, 2012). This adherence to the traditional and populist yields Akin some interesting results in Head-On. Sibel’s redemption in motherhood and marriage with a fellow Turk offers a traditionalist alternative to being rescued by a German male lover, as in some earlier films made by sympathetic German female directors, such Helma Sanders-Brahms’ 1975 Shirin’s Wedding (Shirins Hochzeit). While Sibel’s antihero “husband” (Cahit) and caring husband (the taxi driver) are a welcome relief from the archetype of the oppressive Oriental husband, such as in Tevfik Baser’s 1986 film, 40 Square Meters of Germany (40 Quadratmeter Deutschland; Almanya 40 Metre Kare)—in Head-On Akin instead displaces these stereotypes on Sibel’s father and brother. Akin’s mix of the traditional and populist may also be seen in the way he romanticizes and glorifies the dutiful Eastern Muslim women for Cahit against the backdrop of Germany and German women. After all, Sibel does get a tattoo like that of Maren; has “[sex] like a man,” like Maren does; and does drugs and take up a punk lifestyle like the rest of her fellow Germans—only to end up in Turkey, in the motherland, with a Turkish gentleman, redeemed by motherhood. For both Cahit and Sibel, the motherland here becomes the Promised Land in reverse, a psychic resolution by spiritual return. They both escape to the mysterious yet dangerous Oriental Istanbul to survive and rebirth themselves. In the end, Cahit follows the German doctor’s advice at the clinic after his suicide attempt who asked: “Why don’t you go to Africa and help people?” Africa, for the German, is part of the Orient where even an immigrant German Turk can function as a white savior, which is an ongoing phenomenon in Europe and other parts of the West, where the Westerner feels good about himself by saving the noble savages of the Orient. When in Germany, Cahit, a Turkish immigrant male, almost destroyed himself. Sibel too, is almost destroyed by Turkish men, namely her father and brothers who are set to save the family honor by attempting to kill her. Turkish Orientals in the West are destructively caught between two cultures. The first generation in particular is often depicted as not wanting to integrate; refusing to assimilate and adopt Western values. They struggle to understand and accept the German part of their children’s identity. As such, Akin’s Cahit and even Sibel, who was born in Germany, must go back to the Orient to sort out their lives because the East and West contradictions that brought their lives to a suicidal halt cannot be solved in his Germany. The Turkish im/migrant space in Germany is clearly marked as Orient in Head-On. Turkish neighborhoods, homes, and people are constructed as the Other, echoing and mimicking the Orientalist gaze of the Occident. In his Golden Bear acceptance speech at Berlinale, Akin states that the film is made for the second generation of Turks, his own generation, as he aims to help the second generation to break free from the dualistic German-Turkish existence that is in constant conflict. But by critiquing only the backward Turkish/Oriental and not the German culture that has refused to accept itself as a migrant nation that insists even third-generation Turks are not German and thus must return to Turkey (a country where they have never been!), he leaves Turks in Germany feeling negatively represented by such onesided victim narratives that further cement the image of the backward Turk of Said’s description. Akin is not wholly successful, though, in his quest to address Turks in Germany who yearn for more accurate 127

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 Engendering Orientalism

narratives of daily lives—narratives that are not imbued with constant internal generational and gender conflicts, and where women in particular are not always the helpless victims (Gokturk, 2003, p. 182). The Turkish motherland is also constructed in opposition to the German fatherland, and the men in Sibel’s life are representatives of the Turkish patriarchy. Although Akin’s characters move with relative ease between the East and West, in the end, the Orientals and their progeny fail to bridge the gap and are firmly cemented in the Orient outside of Germany, a place that drew them to suicide. This is inconsistent with the everyday lives of the Turkish immigrants who live in an alternative third space (Bhabha, 2005, pp. 53-316; Rutherford, 1990, pp. 207-21), where both the Turkish and German socio-economic and cultural values are present, valued, embraced, and practiced to varying degrees. While Akin places the fault on the backward ways of first-generation Turks who refuse to assimilate, it is Germany that does little to embrace its immigrants who are not of German blood. For example, Turks are often faulted for living together in certain neighborhoods and not mixing with Germans, yet it was the original German official policy of the 1960s that demanded racial segregation by stamping specific neighborhoods on Turks’ passports, in which they were allowed to stay. It was the post-war, post-Nazi era Germany that insisted on separating Germans from non-Germans, Westerns from Easterners, and denying citizenship to children who are born to Turkish parents in Germany, all the while having granting of automatic citizenship to migrants with German ancestry from Europe and Russia. At the same time, as a people who had never been colonized, Turks strongly resisted assimilation, aided and abetted by the German government’s own refusal to admit that it had become a country of immigrants. Germany’s “affirmative action” policies during this period funded an “ethnic” theme-based cinema, but the films produced with this money from the German government also (over)emphasized the immigrants’ victim status. They failed to go beyond the pre-existing stereotype of the “Muslim Turk from the East,” complete with its assumed oppressive male and oppressed female constructions of the Orient, another mythology rooted in a previous century. Lacking in the new German ethnic cinema, therefore, was any depiction of the immigrant as a modern worker adapting to the exigencies of a modern capitalist society and negotiating an existence at the (lower) margins of the host economy and culture. The result, according to Deniz Gokturk, was that German policies like affirmative action for ethnic cinema which sought to give voice to the immigrant, instead only produced “well-meaning projects encouraging multiculturalism that, however, often result[ed] in the construction of binary opposition between Turkish Culture and German Culture” (2003, pp. 183-190). Europe’s “failed multicultural” immigration policies resulted in “parallel societies” rather than the integrated ones (Salhani, 2004). “Well meaning” here refers to the migrant cultural projects funded by the German government that perpetually depict violent males and victim females, denying the existence of Turks in Germany who do not fall into these binary categories. Projects from outside of this negative ethnic box have not been funded thus far—certainly not the ones that takes a critical look at both the Germans and the Turks who happened to live together in real life—unlike the films that depict otherwise. The gap between the Orient and Occident remains unabridged in Germany in the collective cultural psyche. It is in this political and cultural backdrop that Cahit and Sibel meet one another as two lost souls who are stuck, between the East and West, Orient and Occident. This conflict, this feeling of being stuck, is placed solely on the shoulders of the immigrants who as individuals had no direct involvement with the colonialism Orientalist tug-of-war. Yet here they are right at the center of it, as displaced Turks in Germany who are responsible for solving their own issues with no help from their fellow Germans. In Head-On the Germans get off scot free from any responsibility of improving the lot of the Oriental Turk amongst them. The film raises the struggles of the second-generation Turks in Germany with attempts 128

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to disrupt traditions and overcome gaps and conflicts between generations, genders and races, yet unlike Lola and Bilidikid whose old and young, women and men, German and Turkish characters face their issues head-on and resolve to remain in Germany and find ways to co-exist; indeed, Head-On’s characters have minimal interaction with Germans. Outside of Maren’s character who only amplifies the gap between the Turkish and German culture and Turkish and German women, Germans seem non-existent in Turks’ lives in Germany. Akin’s two troubled Turks cannot find salvation in Germany, living with Germans. With the happy accident of a match made in the suicidal heaven of a German psychiatric clinic, which functions as a healing/civilizing Western device for the Easterners, Cahit and Sibel set out to save one another. Cahit must overcome his own Turkish toxic masculinity and Sibel must overcome the toxic masculinity of Turkish men, first through the aid of the Western science and then by rebelling against the oppressive Turkish traditions through their sham marriage, which enables them to invoke and find love and strength in one another, long enough to survive the Orient that is set in the German-Occident. It is a face-off between generations, genders, parents and children, brothers and sisters, and males and females through the bodies of Sibel and Cahit.

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Melody in Drama: Gender-in(g) Soundtracks Music is an integral part of Akin’s melodrama. Reference may be made to Hollywood, and certainly to the Turkish tradition of Yesilcam as influences on Akin in this respect. The extravagances of Indian Bollywood may also be offered as exemplary of the escapist use of music (and dance) for emotional release within the confined, pressurized context of the intricate dynamics of intimate human and social relations. In this film, music is employed not only to both sustain and structure the narrative, but it also has the function of punctuating dramatic moments in the narrative (Flinn, 2004, pp. 1-15). Head-On starts with a male voice signaling a start, “1, 2, 3…” over a black screen, before we see images; then comes music, and the scene. This ordering reflects Akin’s own prioritizing insofar as he chooses his soundtracks before writing his scripts. The soundtrack to Head-On switches back and forth between the East and the West, present and past, masculine and feminine, aggressive and melancholic. Western punk rock of the 80s, for example, struts its rebellious, violently discordant tones. In his first scene, as Cahit argues with Maren and begins to break chairs over the table at the neighborhood bar and kick the man who insulted him by calling him “gay,” the punk rock soundtrack aids him in venting his anger. In another scene Cahit and Sibel are dancing in their Hamburg apartment, jumping up and down, to Punk is Not Dead2 Akin captures Cahit’s raw energy by an intermittent freeze of his face in midair, as he is screaming along to the music he frees the restrictions of his domestic space newly decorated by Sibel, and claims it for the masculine: “Punk..! Is..! Not..! Dead..! Yeah Baby!!!” The music of the East which sets the tone of the film at the countdown start, conversely, is melancholic; later, bittersweet nineteenth-century love songs will situate Istanbul in its Oriental past. These songs, used between scenes to divide the film into chapters, are sung by Turkish-German female singer Idil Uner against the backdrop of a romantic Istanbul skyline comprising the silhouettes of mosques and their minarets in the historical Golden Horn (Halic) district (Gocek, 1987, p. 24). This image can be read as a modern-day Thousand and One Nights, told by the poetess (asik) Scheherazade. The film opens (and closes) with a tableau featuring Idil Uner, accompanied by clarinet virtuoso, Selim Sesler, and a group of male musicians in black tuxedos. Uner’s body, clothed in long, velvet, red dress, dramatizes and feminizes the scene. Her mouth voices the words translated on screen, 129

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the songs of yester-love, love gone wrong, of the flirtatious, and of impossible love. With each interval (the interruption of the main narrative), the scene becomes more and more sexually charged, taking the viewer on a journey into the present-past of the decadent Orient, which, with its forbidden harem and sexual delights, had so captured the imagination of the prudish Christian Occident3. The presence of the mosques stands strong as a reminder of the moral codes for human sexual desires; the voice of the woman in a red velvet dress calls for love and temptation juxtaposed against the backdrop of the minarets from which Muslims are called to prayer. On this Orientalist carpet, the woman, desire and patriarchal control are laid out before the viewer. The viewer is invited to engagement: Which one will you choose? Woman or mosque, desire or duty? As the viewer watches the story unfolding, of characters who struggle with their dark passions (kara sevda), the boundary line and the tension between religion/men and sexuality/ women is that of power. Cahit kills for it. Sibel oscillates between rebellion and subordination

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Life Imitates Art Imitates Life In hindsight, the Oriental music sets the perfect stage for the lead actress, Sibel Kekilli’s, own background as a counter to the wholesome Muslim-Madonna-mother image her character achieves at the film’s conclusion. Plucked from a shopping mall and unknown before Head-On (this was her first feature film), Kekilli was exposed by the tabloid newspaper Bild-Zeitung as an ex-porn actress; apparently in her past she had used the pseudonym “Dilara,” and Akin’s was actually not her first film. At the Berlinale in February of 2004, Akin and cast members including Kekilli were on hand to collect the Golden Bear for the film. Head-On was feted, even appropriated perhaps, as the first German winner of the award for eighteen years, while for its part, reported Akin, “the Turkish film world saw it as part of Turkish cinema” (Mitchel, 2012). When the lurid Bild story broke and a media frenzy followed, the wholly untouchable Muslim-woman archetype was thus fractured. Kekilli herself admitted, “Yes, I did make these (porno) films. But that’s the past. What counts is the Golden Bear (Deutsche Welle, 2012).” Akin, who already knew her past, found the tabloid reporting “bigoted and disgusting.” And the Berlinale director who had to handle the scandal, too, was frustrated: “We’re behind her all the way… But I have nothing to say here morally… Thanks to the media, she can’t go out of her home, she’s totally besieged” (Deutsche Welle, 2012). Indeed, after seeing reproductions of some of the pornographic images in Bild, the actress’s father was quick to disown her: “The disgrace is too great for the family… Sibel moved to Hamburg two years ago. Apparently, she worked in the city hall and now this news. I can never forgive her for it. I don’t want to ever see her again” (Deutsche Welle, 2012). Sibel’s father in Head-On also disowns her after reading about his daughter in a newspaper that she had been transformed into an unfaithful, promiscuous woman in her search for her personal freedom and sexual liberation.4 On various occasions, Kekilli explained that she did porn because of lack of money and opportunity, but she was nonetheless publicly humiliated and punished by her family for her activities. Kekili’s acting achievement in the role of Sibel was widely recognized, however. She won a Lola (Germany’s premier film prize) for her work in the film, as well as a Bambi (Germany’s oldest media award). The awards ceremony for the Bambis that year was held at the Theater am Hafen in Hamburg, where Kekilli seems to have experienced an emotional meltdown: “She railed against the media, calling their interest in her past part of a “dirty smear campaign” and describing the ordeal of having her past being resurfaced as “media rape” (Cummings, 2011). Even though Kekilli was born and raised in Germany, the German media’s and the audiences’ insistence on viewing Kekilli both as victim and a sensual Oriental woman, stripped her dignity and her 130

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claim to agency as an actor and as an individual, very publicly exposed the Occidental gaze upon their enduring desires of the Orient. As a result, Kekilli was cast to the winds and into a no-man’s-land by the German In hindsight, the Oriental music sets the perfect stage for the lead actress, Sibel Kekilli’s, own background as a counter to the wholesome Muslim-Madonna-mother image her character achieves at the film’s conclusion. Plucked from a shopping mall and unknown before Head-On, Kekilli was exposed by the tabloid newspaper Bild-Zeitung as an ex-porn actress with a pseudonym “Dilara”. At the Berlinale in February of 2004, Akin and cast members including Kekilli were on hand to collect the Golden Bear for the film. Head-On was feted, even appropriated perhaps, as the first German winner of the award for eighteen years, while for its part, reported Akin, “the Turkish film world saw it as part of Turkish cinema” (Mitchel, 2012). When the lurid Bild story broke and a media frenzy followed, the wholly untouchable Muslim-woman archetype was thus fractured. Kekilli herself admitted, “Yes, I did make these (porno) films. But that’s the past. What counts is the Golden Bear (Deutsche Welle, 2012).” Akin, who already knew her past, found the tabloid reporting bigoted and disgusting. And the Berlinale director who had to handle the scandal, too, was frustrated: “We’re behind her all the way… But I have nothing to say here morally… Thanks to the media, she can’t go out of her home, she’s totally besieged” (Deutsche Welle, 2012). Indeed, after seeing reproductions of some of the pornographic images in Bild, the actress’s father was quick to disown her: “The disgrace is too great for the family… Sibel moved to Hamburg two years ago. Apparently, she worked in the city hall and now this news. I can never forgive her for it. I don’t want to ever see her again” (Deutsche Welle, 2012). Sibel’s father in Head-On also disowns her after reading about his daughter in a newspaper that she had been transformed into an unfaithful, promiscuous woman in her search for her personal freedom and sexual liberation4. On various occasions, Kekilli explained that she did porn because of lack of money and opportunity, but she was nonetheless publicly humiliated and punished by her family for her activities. Kekili’s acting achievement in the role of Sibel was widely recognized, however. She won a Lola (Germany’s premier film prize) for her work in the film, as well as a Bambi (Germany’s oldest media award). The awards ceremony for the Bambis that year was held at the Theater am Hafen in Hamburg, where Kekilli seems to have experienced an emotional meltdown: “She railed against the media, calling their interest in her past part of a ‘dirty smear campaign’ and describing the ordeal of having her past being resurfaced as ‘media rape’ (Cummings, 2011). Even though Kekilli was born and raised in Germany, the German media’s and the audiences’ insistence on viewing Kekilli both as victim and a sensual Oriental woman, stripped her dignity and her claim to agency as an actor and as an individual, very publicly exposed the Occidental gaze upon their enduring desires of the Orient. As a result, Kekilli was cast to the winds and into a no-man’s-land by the German media, neither rejected nor accepted, existing for a while in a new and a rather abstract third space (Bhabha, 1994, p. 53). Most Turks in Germany refused to see the film on the grounds that both the film and Kekilli reflected badly on Turkish women and the Turkish community in Germany as a whole (Cicek, 2006). They felt they had no control over the narrative beyond this rejection. As for Kekilli, in time she was able to embrace her newfound fame and go on to play a lead role in a number of European and US films and TV series, but with each film, there comes a renewed interest in her porn-past. Kekilli herself has thus come to function as an embodiment of sensual Oriental odalisque (DelPlato, 2002, p. 9) in media discourse as well as in real life.media, neither rejected nor accepted, existing for a while in a new and a rather abstract “third space” (Bhabha, 1994: 53). 131

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Most Turks in Germany refused to see the film on the grounds that both the film and Kekilli reflected badly on Turkish women and the Turkish community in Germany as a whole (Cicek, 2006). They felt they had no control over the narrative beyond this rejection. As for Kekilli, in time she was able to embrace her newfound fame and go on to play a lead role in a number of European and US films and TV series, but with each film, there comes a renewed interest in her porn-past. Kekilli herself has thus come to function as an embodiment of sensual Oriental odalisque (DelPlato, 2002: 9) in media discourse as well as in real life.

Gavur/Infidel/ Occidental Lover Another female character in the early part of the film who reflects the male projections of desires and fears in the Madonna/whore binary, is Maren, played by Catrin Striebeck. Maren is Cahit’s non-committal German lover. The two have aggressive, drug-induced sexual sessions, followed by scenes in which they are casually naked, playing backgammon, or drinking. One minute glorified—before sex, and the next ordinary—post sex, Maren’s body and sexuality are thus simultaneously glorified and undermined. From the Islamic perspective, Maren is also the German gavur woman, the sexually liberated, free Fräulein, in equal measure desired and despised by the Turkish immigrant. In the Turkish-Muslim collective psyche, the tall, blue-eyed infidels are accessible (which makes them attractive) but possessing an easy virtue (which makes them worthless). Akin’s The Edge of Heaven is a postmodern narrative put together from the connected but disjointed stories of its central characters, Ayten, Lotte, Yeter, Ali, Nejat, and Susanne. Ayten is a member of a leftist armed political resistance organization in Istanbul. After clashes with the police during the May Day celebrations, she goes into exile in Germany. A German student, Lotte, offers Ayten a room at her mother, Susanne’s, house. Lotte and Ayten soon become lovers. However, described as a “typically strict German” by her daughter Lotte, Susanne is not thrilled by the prospect of having an asylum seeker Turk under her roof.

Revolution Now, Here: Ayten vs. Goethe

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On the lecture podium in Hamburg, a professor quotes from Goethe. He explains that Goethe was talking about revolutions, which to him seemed uncontrollable, and which therefore destroy many good, old things, as well as create new ideas. Among the students is Ayten, a homeless Turkish female political activist in exile. Oblivious to Goethe’s teachings, Ayten is sleeping. She is here illegally and wants a Marxist revolution for the illiterate, the hungry, and the poor back in Turkey. Sometime after the lecture she encounters Lotte, a German student who asks: • • • •

Where do you live? Nowhere. But where do you sleep? Do you really want to know?

Goethe will be proven right in the course of the film. Death will claim two of the females characters—Lotte and Yeter—as we follow Ayten’s revolutionary journey to self-discovery. The four surviving characters, Susanne, Ali, and Nejat, along with Ayten, will journey back to Turkey, “on the other side” 132

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and “the edge of [blue] heaven” (Keough, 2008), and by the end of the film, there is at last an offering of an emotional closure for the audience (Keough, 2010). The Edge of Heaven is primarily about paternal and maternal relationships, as well as cultural identities, gaps, differences, and similarities. Ali and Nejat are father and son, Lotte and Susanne mother and daughter, and Ayten and Yeter also mother and daughter; they crisscross between Germany and Turkey, in death as in life. Death, in various guises, as well as love, is also at the heart of The Edge of Heaven.

Prostitute Mother, Criminal Father After the lecture on Goethe’s take on revolutions at Hamburg University, the scene cuts to the red-light district of Bremen where Ayten’s mother, Yeter, lives. Played by Nursel Kose, Yeter is a forty-something, self-sacrificing Turkish mother working as a prostitute in order pay for her daughter Ayten’s education back in Istanbul. She is completely in the dark about Ayten’s revolutionary aspirations, as is Ayten about her mother’s real occupation. Yeter has been sending shoes to Ayten since telling her daughter that she works at a shoe shop. Shoes serve here also as metaphor for this marginalized female immigrant, who had to flee her motherland after her husband was “shot and killed in Maras in 1978” (Tunc, 2011). Ali, a Turkish man in his 60s, played by Tuncel Kurtiz, meets Jesse (Yeter) in the red-light district of Bremen. Ali begins visiting Yeter regularly and proposes that she live with him and make love to him exclusively, for which he will provide for her financially. Soon afterwards, conservative Turkish Muslim men confront Yeter, and feeling that her life is in danger, she accepts Ali’s offer. Yeter’s selfdetermination comes to an abrupt end when Ali hits and kills her in a jealous rage. The masculine crisis here is caused by the hegemonic rejection of his existence, the socio-cultural center forcing him to find and (re)create his own center at the edges, in a now confined, marginalized space (Pels, 1999). Looking out of the window of his prison cell, Ali comments to the German Prison guard, “It’s very small.” In contrast, Nejat, played by Baki Davrak of Lola and Billidikid, seems to be at peace with himself and his surroundings. Whether he is teaching Goethe at a German University, eating Turkish food with Ali and Yeter, or reading a book in Turkish, he slides in and out of spaces with relative ease. The exception to this is when he is with his Turkish father. His father clumsily tries to open up a conversation about love and sex, for example, but it gets short shrift:

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• •

Who are you [sleeping with] these days? A gentleman does not ask such questions.

There is clearly a disconnect between father and a son which is not only generational, but also in terms of class and education as well as individuals. Their non-relationship comes to an abrupt end when Ali goes to jail after killing Yeter. His father’s fatal action shakes Nejat’s faith in his father’s humanity, so, in contrast to Head-On, it is the child who disowns the parent—a child who embraced the Occident through Goethe and disapproves his father’s Oriental ways. Leaving behind his father in a German jail, Nejat takes Yeter’s body back to Turkey for her burial. There, he decides to buy a German bookshop from a German shopkeeper who has become homesick for the fatherland and the German language. He is a weary and tired Occidental in the Orient, yearning for the company of his fellow Germans. His only conversation with a Turk happens when he orders tea in his broken Turkish—it is implied by his thick accent that he hasn’t learned Turkish despite all his years 133

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in Turkey, resisting assimilation. Historically, it is the Oriental who has forced to learn the Occidental language due to political, military and socio-economic conditionings: •

Cengiz, bize cay getir! (Cengiz bring us tea!)

To which little boy-Cengiz obliges, keeping the colonial Oriental and Occidental boundaries intact symbolically. Clearly, for this lonesome cultural missionary warrior, East and West have not met, so he seizes the chance to converse with Nejat, the German philosophy professor of Turkish origin. To him he can entrust his shop/German culture in the East/Istanbul and go back to the Heimatland/Germany in peace. Homi Bhabha articulated how an immigrant no longer exists in the homeland they left behind nor are they rooted yet in the adapted land in which they reside, and that this rootlessness forces them to create an alternative mental space to exist in, the third space (2006, p. 53). Nejat too now exists in a third space, in his new home in Istanbul above the German bookstore he just bought, keeping Goethe’s Germany within himself. Akin’s characters demonstrate that the German-Turkish community is not fixed in place. This extends to Germans in Turkey, in this case Lotte and Susanne. As we will see, that third space embodies both the East/Turkey and the West/Germany. In fact, it is the meeting and mingling of the bodies of the people from both lands that is at the center of Akin’s narratives, utilizing both Occidental and Oriental archetypes, perpetuating them at times, deconstructing them in certain instances, and sometimes doing both simultaneously.

Crossing the Boundaries: Death of the Blue-Eyed Blonde “Torture the blondes,” Hitchcock once famously said, and he tortured and killed a few, including Tippi Hedren in The Birds and Kim Novak in Vertigo. The master of suspense was a master at shifting the dark emotions of fear, anxiety, uncertainty, and desire from the male psyche to a female body. The blonde functioned as the body projection of masculine desires and fears, sometimes to the point of killing them in order to quell the inner turmoil of the male hero. The blonde as glyph for woman is a sacrificial tool in the male’s quest for life—especially if they cross the East - West cultural boundaries. This is true for blonde Lotte, who falls in love with a raven-haired Turkish beauty. When upon their first meeting, Lotte asks Ayten at the cafeteria where she comes from. Ayten answers her with a question:

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• •

Do you really want to know? Yes.

And Lotte does care. Caring is the key for the coexisting of Turks and Germans in The Edge of Heaven. She has a keen interest in other cultures; she has been studying Spanish and, having just visited India for three months, finds her own Orient in Ayten. Rescuing Ayten then becomes her personal avocation. The film lands Lotte into the dangerously sexual and wonderfully mysterious Ayten/Orient/Istanbul. Soon Ayten’s life will overtake hers and eventually devour her. After fighting for political asylum in Germany for a year, Ayten is deported to Turkey and subsequently jailed. Lotte immediately follows her to Istanbul, takes a room above Nejat’s bookshop, and begins studying the Turkish justice system. The empowered Occidental hero/ine has come to save the oppressed Oriental female victim. It is thus through this gaze of a German woman that Akin proceeds to criticize Turkish justice. 134

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Earlier Akin had touched up on the issue from an educational point of view with Nejat who goes to the police to find Ayten to pay for her education. The police had asked him why he did not pay for a homeless Kurdish child’s education instead. Now it is Lotte’s turn. She and Nejat are looking for the same person in the same city, are living in the same house, but do not know it due to Ayten’s pseudonym, “Gul” [Rose]. In Germany, Ayten had transformed into the more feminine name Gul the lover, but once in Turkey she goes back to the Marxist Ayten. Lotte is looking for love, looking for Gul in Ayten in the chaos and mystery of the Orient, which she supposes to be “timeless, otherworldly, incomprehensible, and waiting to be discovered by Westerners in search of self” (Mask, 2010). Love, once in Istanbul, proves to be unattainable, as Ayten is sitting in jail and waiting for her sentencing, which could be up to fifteen years. And the jail, symbolic of the Turkish legal system, proves to be as impenetrable as the walls of the Sultan’s harem. Palace guards are replaced by jail wardens. Even her conversations with the German consulate are conducted through secure partition walls, by telephone instead of face to-face in the more intimate setting of an office. Life in the Orient turns out to be difficult for Lotte, made harder by her mother’s refusal to continue helping her, financially or emotionally.

Love Turkish Style

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As the outdoors are dangerous for women in general, so the mysterious Other Orient is particularly dangerous. This has long been reflected in Western art and media, by American TV shows and Hollywood films from Road to Morocco to Midnight Express (Cicek, 2008). Having transgressed both racial and sexual boundaries, Lotte’s death proves inevitable. Such was the case in Ferzan Ozpetek’s Hamam (Turkish Bath, 1997), in which an Italian man who first has his homosexuality emotionally healed as he restores a hamam in Istanbul and is then stabbed to death after taking a Turkish male lover (Girelli, 2007, p. 23). Both directors of Turkish origins, Akin and Ozpetek each explore the possibilities of sexual freedom but then make up for the transgressions by inexplicably killing their characters. As the Turkish father in Hamburg tells his son in Kebab Connection (Saul, 2004) ‘you can date a German, you can even sleep with a German, but you must never marry a German or get her pregnant.’ The existing colonial era racial boundaries between Occidental and Oriental remain intact in Akin’s movies. In real life Kekilli who married a German man to be free from the constraints of her Turkish parents must marry a fellow Turk in Head-On. Boundaries of intimacy between east and West proves to be deadly for the Lotte. A few hours after finally seeing her lover Ayten in jail, Lotte ends up dead at the hands of street children. Addicted to glue, they had stolen her bag and with it the gun. High and dazed in the slums, one of them points the gun at her and shoots, as if playing. As recently as one of the endings in Babel ((Iñárritu, 2006), love and life in and with the Orient is still a deadly game, especially if you are a woman and not heterosexual.

German Mother-in(g) Turkey Lotte’s mother, Susanne, as the rational nurturing figure, in order to shed her “Germaneness” and find her free-spirited, life-enriching femininity, has to go back to the East, to Istanbul, to the gateway to the Orient à la in her 1960s to ‘70s hippie youth, when, in her disillusionment with Western capitalism, she and others ventured into the lands of Nepal, Tibet, and India in search of a short cut to enlightenment. Susanne does not quite succeed, judging by her contempt at having to host Ayten, her daughter, Lotte’s

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lover, and also to pay for Ayten’s legal fees when seeking asylum in Berlin. As she had done thirty years earlier, now here she is in Istanbul, staying at her late daughter’s room above Nejat’s German book shop. Hanna Schygulla (Fassbinder’s Maria Braun) plays Susanne, who travels to Turkey to grieve her daughter Lotte’s death in Istanbul. Once there, she sits at an old Victorian/colonial hotel room, dark as death, and laments the loss of her only child. Afterwards she moves into Lotte’s room in Nejat’s apartment, where she transforms from being “so German,” as Lotte once called her, into a nurturing and loving mother. Susanne had come to Istanbul many years ago, as she was hitchhiking from Germany to India. Now she is back under deadly circumstances. By the time Susanne visits Ayten in jail, Ayten’s political aspirations and rhetoric of the European Union as the solution to Turkey’s socio-economic and political problems will have become unimportant. Ayten had sought justice, equality and freedom for all through Marxist ideology, but this brought more death than life, beginning with her father’s political martyrdom and resulting in her mother’s migration to and ultimate death in Germany—and now her lover, too, is murdered. All she can do is utter an apology to Susanne, who comes to visit her in jail wanting to help her now. For that is what Lotte would have wanted, she tells Ayten. Ayten repeats herself in agony, speaking through the jail telephone in tears: “I’m sorry… I’m really sorry.” The daughter of the sexualized prostitute, the uneducated Oriental victim-female, who sought to empower herself through education, political activism and armed struggle has failed, too, in politics and in love, causing Lotte’s death. Susanne, the resourceful Occidental mother, steps in to save and nurture Ayten now. She is there to tame the violent Oriental Other through love, care and kindness.

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The Books of the Migrant – Civilizing the Oriental Father Looking at the men who go to the mosque to pray during the Feast of the Sacrifice (Kurban Bayrami), Susanne and Nejat exchange stories from the Koran and Bible, which turn out to be the same story of Abraham (Ibrahim), a father asked by God/Allah to sacrifice his son to prove his love for him. Bayrams (holy-days) in Turkey are also a time to forgive and heal. Susanne asks where Nejat’s father is now as he tells her how his father used to tell him that he would stand even against God himself to save his son from being sacrificed—and comes to a place of forgiveness. Nejat travels further into Turkey to his father’s birthplace to find him. It is there that we see Nejat’s father Ali shedding a tear as he finishes reading the book, The Blacksmith’s Daughter (Die Tochter des Schmieds /Demircinin Kizi), which Nejat had given him in Hamburg before he was deported back to Turkey. Since Ali insisted on maintaining his Oriental, violent, misogynist ways instead of integrating and accepting the civilized German culture, he is deemed hopeless by German institutions. Written by a Turkish-German author, Selim Ozdogan, this novel features a female protagonist and explores her relationship with her father. Ali has yearned for feminine love in his life so much that he paid for it with money, apparently unable to relate to women in a healthier way—but looking for love in a brothel in Bremen had proved fatal; he had first befriended the prostitute Yeter as a lover-companion, and then killed her in a jealous rage, becoming a murderer. Rendering Yeter into yet another Turkish female victim of the Turkish Orient in Germany. Sibel is a second-generation female who fights for self-empowerment; in contrast, Yeter as a first-generation immigrant is not able to in Akin’s narrative. Akin’s inclusion of Ozdogan’s Die Tochter des Schmieds in the film, whose female protagonist leaves her father and Turkish village behind and migrates to Germany to an uncertain future, serves as social 136

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engineering device, a form of education, and a tool for us to gain insight into the migrant women’s lives. Ozdogan is not alone in his attempt to come to terms with the Turkish German history of its women workers. Another Turkish-German author, Feridun Zaimoglu, has “championed these underrepresented and underappreciated women,” specifically as “equivalents to the Trümmerfrauen who built up Germany brick by brick after World War II, (KDJ, 2009).” This revaluation of the immigrant women workers’ past, however, has to be set in the context of the defensive push-back by the German nationalist, even fascist reactionaries. The books of migrants are opposed by the books of denial and bigotry, in Germany, inheritors of the ideal of Aryan pure-blood. Politician and banker Thilo Sarrazin’s 2010 book, Germany Is Abolishing Itself (Deutschland schafft sich ab) is a prime case in point. This disturbingly popular work focusing on Germany’s Muslim (Turkish and Arab) population and multiculturalism policy described Oriental Turkish migrant women as unintelligent and lower class, diluting the overall intelligence of Germany. The murderous father/male and prostitute mother/female plays into the racist narrative, while a German mother/female, Susanne, keeps civilization and knowledge intact for both the Germans and Turks by looking after the German bookstore when Nejat, the immigrant Turkish son, goes to make amends with and forgive his murderous father Ali, prompted by Susanne, who now becomes a surrogate mother to Nejat as well, who grew up without one.

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The Privileged Intellectual Nomad In Akin’s films’ collective consciousness, the men of the Orient do not fare well. This is mostly the case in The Edge of Heaven. Oriental Muslim fundamentalist men threaten Yeter and set off the chain of events that results in her death. Ali the divorcee is a drunk and jealous man who ends up killing Yeter. The Turkish male comrades in arms who were supposed to help Ayten/Gul when she escapes to Germany are no different than their sworn capitalist enemy. Not even the Turkish boys are innocent, since one of them (accidently) kills Lotte—one of the very same children that the Turkish judge had asked Nejat to support earlier, instead of Ayten. Only the privileged intellectual nomad, the educated university professor Nejat has redeeming qualities (Pels, 1999, pp. 63-86; Said, 1998, p. 53). With the help of the mothering of Susanne and his bluecollar cousin in Istanbul, a simple craftsman with Forest Gump-like qualities, Nejat is able to come to terms with his father’s now compromised humanity. Nejat also is the only man untouched by amorous love and loss.5 The film ends where it begins, by the Black Sea, from which Nejat’s surname is appropriated in reverse: “Aksu,” which translates as “White/Pure water”. Said, himself who was an exilic, stateless man from the Palestinian territories, stated that, “[e]xile for the intellectual in the metaphysical sense is rest-lessness, movement, constantly being unsettled, and unsettling others” (Said, 1994, p. 53). Nejat, has become a restless intellectual post-modern nomad. He has traveled there to find his father to make amends. The father does not resurface in the film again, however. A neighboring lady signals the completion of the symbolic patricide in Nejat’s quest for self-discovery: “He’s gone fishing.” As the holder of the active gaze, Nejat’s desire to find Ayten in Istanbul had functioned as a classic cinematic narrative, a neopostmodern Sufi plot (as it was for Cahit in Head-On) in his quest of self-discovery. Mulvey states that an active/passive heterosexual division of labor [has] controlled narrative structure…the man controls the film phantasy and also emerges as the representative of power in a further sense: as the bearer of

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the look of the spectator, transferring it behind the screen to neutralize the extra-diegetic tendencies represented by woman as spectacle. (Mulvey, 1989, p. 20) This is certainly the case with Nejat; the film starts and ends with him. Yet in The Edge of Heaven, this is not strictly about the person as such, but a triggering device in the character’s journey to the divine (Mannani, 2007, p. 10), in this case, an earthly Heaven. Nejat entered the film driving through a tunnel; now he stands by the edge of the Black Sea-Heaven. His father dwells within its “unpredictable weather,” as described by the villager, and his mother’s body rests in its hills. Ayten father’s body rests similarly, in Maras in Southeastern Turkey. Through the employment of this symbolic “matricide” and “patricide,” the film enables the Turkish youth, Ayten and Nejat, to achieve freedom of personhood as adults with the help of their German surrogate mother, Susanne (Russell, 2008). Susanne steps in for the well-meaning doctor in Head-On by helping and healing the self-inflicted wounds of the Turks in their own Orient, away from Goethe’s Germany in The Edge of Heaven. Their predecessor, Kaiser Wilhelm II, a.k.a. Hajji Muhammed Wilhelm, due to his self-confessed fondness for Islam, once sought to build a railroad from Berlin to Baghdad, then an Ottoman land, prior to WWI. The railways had become an important tool of the new imperialism, and Wilhelm II was in a railway race with Colonial France who was set to build an East-West railroad in Africa (Maloney, 1984). Hurgronje (1915), a Dutch Orientalist at the time, claimed that Wilhelm II also encouraged Ottoman Muslims to wage jihad against the Christians, especially the Orthodox Christians in the Balkans and the Eastern Anatolia, in order to better compete with Imperial Britain and Tsarist Russia for political and economic power. Revisiting the Wilhelm II’s 1916 statements regarding the Orient, John Lewis-Stempel writes in The Express (2014, October, p. 12) that Max von Oppenheim, a German archeologist and “crack Orientalist,” was his main agitator in the region, trying to jumpstart a “jihad for Deutschland” in the Ottoman lands. According to Maloney, the railroad was the main cause of WWI in which Germans and Turks fought as allies. Now in the post WWII, post-Nazi Germany, the lives of Turks and Germans have now become further intertwined. And yet, while Akin has his Turkish characters face and do battle with their personal obstacles and collective past demons, Germany’s demons are mostly overlooked. This is done to keep Germany as the civilized space and Germans as the agents of healing for the troubled and troubling violent Oriental male and oppressed female, resulting in the erasure of Germany’s violent past that created the need for migrant workers initially in the absence of German men who physically and psychologically disappeared in the war. This becomes clearer toward the end of the film when anti-Western and anti-imperialist Ayten gives up her armed struggle and adopts Susanne as a mother in place of her missing/dead Turkish one. Doing so she also replaces Lotte, now a dead German daughter. In order to co-exist in peace and harmony, Akin pushes for West to accept and love East and East to give up its violent ways and yield to the West. Keeping West in their superior Occidental position over the Orient.

FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS Turkish guest workers in Germany were often described by scholars as “mute” men (Aksoy & Robin, 2000, p. 206), and women who were unable, or not permitted, to integrate into German society. Fatih Akin’s films Head-On and The Edge of Heaven bring increased visibility and much needed voice to these “mute” immigrants, but at the same time his films perpetuate some of the same migrant and immigrant 138

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stereotypes that contribute to the very muteness of the immigrant who cannot tell their own narrative. Although there have been a few studies on these two films as well as Akin’s and other German-Turkish films from the perspectives of music, religion, and border crossings, the analysis of these films from the perspective of Said’s Orientalism is extremely limited. This study aims to contribute to the discourse of Orientalism in contemporary European Migrant Cinema in particular, and future research will benefit from further examination of the immigrant male gaze and concomitant emasculation, as well as the orientalization of characters.

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CONCLUSION Akin could be regarded as a privileged intellectual nomad. He operates as an individual artist within the collective. As such, his films come to function as part artistic and part social engineering, as well as taking their place in the populist capitalist medium. Akin himself is keenly aware of the entertainment aspect of film as both art and popular genre. Art and entertainment are not always mutually exclusive, of course. In Hollywood Cinema, where money and glamor are made to march together, this can result in two-dimensional work with archetypal characters that lack the accents and nuances of cultural, ethnic, racial, sexual, and gender identities. There are, it is true, the occasional “incidental characters” created for effect or simple narrative role, such as the “Muslim terrorist,” or, for comic relief, such as the gay male friend. Lacking depth, these roles enable, in this case, the Muslim and the gay Other to gain visibility, but only in a superficial and generally negative light. For some, that visibility might be better than none at all, while others prefer no visibility to such depictions. Yet the tension between the money and entertainment-driven Hollywood archetypes and the inclusion of marginal Others does occasionally produce works of genuine artistic value, as, for example, with the aid of independent cinema led by Sundance, Tribeca, Cannes and other more artistically driven independent film festivals supporting alternative depictions of the non-Western peoples. Fatih Akin’s films embody this tension between art and entertainment, the underground and the popular, a tension that is reflected in the racialized characters embodying Orient and Occident and gendered at times on the active male/West and passive female/East axis, as well as in the narrative as a whole. Akin is a filmmaker who is a graduate of a German film school, the University of Fine Arts of Hamburg, and as such he is artistically driven. He utilizes diverse genres in Head-On and The Edge of Heaven, including classic Hollywood melodrama, and postwar German and New German Cinema, to tell autobiographical tales through their exiled migrant characters. And they travel in varying directions—within and to Turkey and Germany. The bodies of Akin’s characters, as in his earlier film, In July, are bodies transported between Turkey and Germany, to be buried in their birth countries, Yeter in Turkey and Lotte in Germany. Even in death, and especially in death, as in love, the Orient and Occident will remain separate. Akin’s migrants are perpetual nomads with archetypal gender roles. The Occidental Germany had made it hard to put roots down for the Oriental Turk, who exists on the margins of German society. In his films, Akin desires for visibility to operate from the center to the margin (not the other way around) with an artful yet populist approach. He wants to be intellectual, but he also wants to entertain; he wants his aunt to like his films as well as the critics. This too is a lesson he learned from Guney and Fassbinder, both of whom wanted to make artful cinema that still appealed to the general public. As such, HeadOn follows the melodramatic genre, one with which Akin’s aunt—and uncle, as well many of his other 139

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relatives—would be familiar. As depicted in Supersex, Turkish migrant families of the 1960s and ‘70s in particular would regularly get together and watch tearjerker melodramas from home, finding a collective comfort in the not so happy endings that befell the films’ heroes and heroines. From this melodramatic formula comes the glorification of the sympathetic victim character, Sibel, the oppressed-victim, yet sensual odalisque of the Orient at the heart of Europe. Head-On includes all the usual Turkish melodrama themes of rape, murder, jealousy, and virtue, as well as the requisite hospital and jail settings that do little to counter and deconstruct the violent and oppressive Oriental Turkish image. Also, the melody epilogues that bridge the scenes further accentuate Turkish culture and Turkey as the mysterious Promised Land. It provides the Turkish immigrants with an imaginary third space as an alternative to the one they have, in which they can continually renegotiate their marginal identity, as Germans to Turks in Turkey, and Turkish to Germans in Germany. However, that journey back to homeland-Turkey usually does not happen in real life (Caglar, 1995, p. 223). Most migrants and their children choose to remain in Germany for various financial and social reasons. Indeed, most Turks who return feel further alienated by native Turks, who call them “German” (“Almanci” or “Germander”). This inability to return creates a vicious cycle wherein there is little hope of upward mobility in either country. Unlike Lola and Bilidikid, Akin’s ending in Head-On says to us that there is no chance of visibility for these characters in Germany other than as victims or criminals, and he offers no realistic alternative for a third space of existence. This feeds into the German media’s focus on the perpetually “hyphenated” identity of the Turks, which in itself stresses gender, national, and religious identities at the expense of other forms of identification (Caglar, 1995, p. 309). This is especially so for Akin’s women. Thus Sibel, as the oppressed, has her mode of empowerment presented as marriage and motherhood. Yet still, there is one redeeming future: Unlike Guney and Fassbinder, Akin is able create moments of female active resistance and empowerment without having to kill off his main female characters. In contrast to Fassbinder’s Maria Braun, who kills herself at the end of the film, Sibel’s attempt at suicide is rendered meaningless and, from the onset of the film, removed as an option. In Akin’s films, women are needed for love, healing, and nurture. Akin’s films give mixed messages on Orientalism, misogyny and women’s empowerment in general. The temporary room created for the Marxist lesbian in The Edge of Heaven and for the businesswoman, Selma in Head-On only accentuates the importance of mothering, and hence works against that empowerment. As for Sibel, she mothers herself by becoming one, naturally (for Akin), in Turkey. Amorous love, on the other hand, is equated in all three films with death (of Lola, Nico, Yeter, and Lotte). Each death triggers emotions and shifts that are transformative for the remaining lead characters. Love triggers death; death triggers transformation. Susanne follows the migrants to their roots to mother them there as the more civilized and rational German. Akin gives us the postmodern nomad who is in constant motion, with each character moving within their assigned archetypal Oriental and Occidental racial and gendered role and mobile-centers with relative ease, featuring the characters’ journey to self—triggered by love. So, love itself becomes home, and that home is the new battleground between East and West. The colonial-era’s, manufactured Orient and Occident trope still endures, as it constantly meets and mingles in the streets of Berlin, Hamburg and Istanbul. All the while, as Birol Unel puts it, “Home is where [the] foot is” (Cicek, 2006) and where the hearts beats, and where Yeter’s shoes yet search for their grounding. .

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REFERENCES Aksoy, A., & Robins, K. (2000). Deep Nation, the National Question and Turkish Cinema Culture. In Cinema and Nation. New York: Routledge. Ataman, K. (Director). (1997). Lola and Bilidikid. Millivres Multimedia. Baer, N. (2008). Points of Entanglement: The Over determination of German Space and Identity in Lola + Billy the Kid and Walk on Water. Transit. Accessed June 3.2012, https://escholarship.org/uc/ item/8q04k8v1 Bhabha, H. K. (2004). Location of Culture. Routledge Classics. Caglar, A. (1995). German Turks in Berlin: Social exclusion and strategies for social mobility. The Journal of the European Research Centre on Migration and Ethnic Relations, 21-3, 309–323. Cicek, F. (2006, July 18) Research interview with Birol Uner, Berlin. Cicek, F. (2006, June 15). Research interviews with German-Turkish actors, actresses, and residents of Berlin. Cicek, F. (2008, November 24). Orientalism in Film and Television. In Muslim Voices. Indiana University Global Studies Program. Cicek, F. (2012, May 16). Research interview with Fatih Akin, Cannes Film Festival, France. Cummings, T. (2011, June 16). ‘Game of Thrones’ Actress Sibel Kekilli Performed in Adult Films. Yahoo! Contributor Network. Accessed July 23, 2012, http://tv.yahoo.com/news/game-thrones-actresssibel-kekilli-performed-adult-films173300981.html DelPlato, J. (2002). Multiple Wives, Multiple Pleasures: Representing the Harem, 1800–1875 (Vol. 9). Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. Elsaesser, T. (1996). Fassbinder’s Germany: History, Identity, Subject. Amsterdam University Press. Girelli, E. (2007, April 30). Transnational Orientalism: Ferzan Ozpetek’s Turkish dream in Hamam (1997). New Cinemas: Journal of Contemporary Film, 5(1), 23–38. doi:10.1386/ncin.5.1.23_1 Gocek, F. M. (1987). East Encounters West: France and the Ottoman Empire in the Eighteenth Century. Oxford University Press.

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Gokturk, D. (2002). Beyond Paternalism: Turkish German Traffic in Cinema. The German Cinema Book. Gokturk, D., David, G., & Kaes, K. (Eds.). (2005). Is the Boat Full? In Xenophobia, Racism and Violence. Germany in Transit: Nation and Migration (pp. 105-147). University of California Press. Hurgronje, C. (1915). The Holy War, Made in Germany. The Knickerbocker Press. KDJ. (2009, January). Die Tochter des Schmieds. Love German Books Blog, 4. Keough, P. (2008, June 29). Artist on the “Edge”. The Boston Phoenix. https://www.thephoenix.com/ BLOGS/outsidetheframe/archive/2008/06/29/artist-on-the-quot-edge-quot-interview-with-fatih-akin.aspx

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Kipling, R. (1889, December 2). The Ballad of East and West. Pioneer. Lewis-Stempel, J. (2014, October 12). The Kaiser’s Jihad. The Express. Maloney, A. (1984). Berlin-Bagdad railway as a cause of World War I. The Center for Naval Analyses. Mannani, M. (2007). Divine deviants: The dialectics of devotion in the poetry of Donne and Rumi. Peter Lang Publishing. Mask, M. (2010, August 18). Eat, pray, love, leave: Orientalism still big onscreen. Morning Edition, NPR. Mitchel, W. (2012, August 15). Going to Extremes: Fatih Akin on His Turkish-German Love Story Head-On. Indiewire. https://www.indiewire.com/article/going_to_extremes_fatih_akin_on_his_turkishgerman_love_story_head-on Mulvey, L. (1989). Visual Pleasure and Other Pleasures. Indiana University Press. doi:10.1007/9781-349-19798-9 Naficy, H. (2001). An Accented Cinema: Exilic and Diasporic Filmmaking. Princeton University Press. doi:10.1515/9780691186214 Ozpetek, F. (1997). Dir. Steam: Turkish Bath. Sorpasso Film, Promete Film, Asbrell Productions. Pels, D. (1999). Privileged Nomads. Theory, Culture & Society, 16(1), 63–86. Russell, D. (2008). Reconsidering matricide in Spanish cinema of the transition: Furtivos [Poachers]. Studies in Hispanic Cinemas, 4(1), 19-33. Rutherford, J. (1990). The Third Space. Interview with Homi Bhabha. In Identity: Community, Culture, Difference (pp. 207–221). Lawrence and Wishart. Said, E. (1979). Orientalism. First Vintage Books Edition. Said, E. W. (1994). Representations of the Intellectual: The 1993 Reith Lectures. Pantheon Books. Salhani, C. (2004, December 8). Analysis: Europe’s failed multiculturalism. UPI. Accessed 2020, December, 27. https://www.upi.com/Defense-News/2004/12/08/Analysis-Europes-failed-multiculturalism/28161102508536/

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Salhani, C. (2006, February 13). Politics and policies: France versus immigration. United Press International (UPI). https://www.upi.com/Defense-News/2006/02/13/Politics-Policies-France-vs-immigrati on/58881139836604/?ur3=1 Sarrazin, T. (2010). Deutschland schafft sich ab (20th ed.). DVA Dt.Verlags-Anstalt. Saul, A. (2004). Dir. Kebab Connection, with contribution from Fatih Akin. WDR. Staff, D. W. (2012, February). From Bare to Bear for Ex-Porn Queen. Deutsche Welle Culture, 2. http:// www.dw.de/from-bare-to-bear-for-ex-porn-queen/a-1118125-1 Tunc, A. (2011). Maras Katliami: Tarihin Arka Plani ve Anatomisi. Belge Yayinlari.

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ADDITIONAL READING Armes, R. (1987). Third World Filmmaking and the West. Berkley: University of California Press.Berger, J. (1991). Keeping a Rendezvous. Pantheon Books. Beier, L., & Matussek, M. (2007, September 28). From Istanbul to New York. Interview with Director Fatih Akin, Spiegel Online International. Accessed, August 18, 2012, https://www.spiegel.de/international/zeitgeist/spiegel-interview-with-director-fatih-akin-from-istanbul-to-new-york-a-508521.html Berghahn, D. (2006). No Place Like Home? Or Impossible Homecomings in the Films of Fatih Akin. New Cinemas: Journal of Contemporary Film, 4-3, 151-57. Bottcher, A., Burford, S., & Morris, A. (2012). Beyond Stereotypes How Artists of Turkish Descent Deal with Identity in Germany. In Humanity in Action. Accessed November 10th, https://www.humanityinaction. org/knowledgebase/236-beyond-stereotypes-how-artists-of-turkishdescent-deal-with-identity-in-germany Eckermann, J. P. (Ed.). (1949). Words of Goethe: Being the Conversations of Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe. Tudor Publishing Company. Erdogan, N. (2002). Mute Bodies, Disembodied Voices: Notes on Sound in Turkish Popular Cinema. Screen, 43-3, 233-249. Foucault, M. (1990). History of Sexuality. Vintage. Gokturk, D. (2003). Turkish Delight-German Fright: Unsettling Oppositions in Transnational Cinema. In (Eds.) Derman, D. and Ross, Mapping the Margins: Identity Politics and Media. New Jersey: Hampton Press. Linke, U. (1995). Murderous Fantasies: Violence, Memory, and Selfhood in Germany. New German Critique, NGC, 64(64), 37–59. doi:10.2307/488463 Ozguven, F. (1989). Male and Female in Yesilcam: Archetypes Endorsed by Mutual Agreement of Audience and Player. (Ed.), Woodhead, C. Turkish Cinema: An Introduction, (35-41). London: University of London SOAS Turkish Area Study Group Publications. Schneider, J. (2009). From “Kanak Attack” to “GerKish” Generation: Second Generation Turkish Narratives in German Culture and Politics. International Journal on Multicultural Societies, 11(2), 212–229.

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Williams, L. (1998). Melodrama Revised. In Browne. N, (Ed.) Refiguring American Film Genres: History and Theory, (42-88). California: University of California Press.

KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS Accented Cinema: Refers to the films from the Third World as well the works of migrants, refugees, exilic and other displaced people who cross multiple borders and speak multiple languages with accents; often from margins to the center.

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Active/Male, Passive/Female: Refers to how traditional films present men as active, whose gaze and story the camera follows and presents women as the passive secondary characters who are there to aid the male hero in his journey. Colonial Gaze: The way in which the West controls and exploits natural and human resources through a dehumanizing narrative of non-Western lands and people by creating and maintaining an imaginary division between the colonizers/civilized, and Other, colonized/savage. Madonna Whore Complex: Refers to the ongoing dichotomy in viewing women as good, as in virtuous mother, Madonna’s as in Virgin Marry, and bad as in sexually active, seductive femme prostitutes. The split reflects inner conflict the patriarchal men experience in relating to women who could be both virtuous and have sexual desires. Melodramatic Formula: Is when a female character temporarily assumes the main active role and gains agency in a film due to the absence of a male character whose masculinity is in crises. The classic active male, passive female nexus is temporarily abandoned until the male hero returns to assume his patriarchal active role, restoring patriarchal power dynamic between genders and society. Orientalism: The way the Occident imagines Asia, especially the Middle East, in a mysterious but ultimately inferior to the West. This attitude is rooted in the colonialist era and continues to shape the West’s socio-cultural and economic policies toward the non-Western continents, one that often exploits their natural and human resources. Third Space: An abstract, in-between place, in which the migrants, refugees and exilic people who have uprooted themselves from their native lands and struggles to put roots in his/her host country, exist. Bhabha who coined the term states that third space: “gives rise to something different, something new and unrecognizable, a new area of negotiation of meaning and representation.” Transnational Cinema: Studies influence of globalization on the filmmaking process and promotes cross cultural and international filmmaking process, one that goes beyond nationals and embraces Third World Cinema, Accented Cinema as well as commercial Cinema.

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ENDNOTES 1



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Like Cahit, Uner was also born in Mersin, which he left at the age of six, and speaks very little Turkish, preferring German (he has also little patience for people—least of all artists and intellectuals—who are not fluent in German), or else English. Punk is Not Dead: by The Exploited, a Scottish punk band from the second (“new”) wave of UK punk. See: http://www.amazon.com/The-Exploited/e/B000APBP90. C.f. its employment by Virginia Woolf as the 1928 representation of a seventeenth-century (gender) liminal space for the eponymous Orlando. Relationships between the personal lives of actors made use in the film have also been noted in respect to Unel and Cumbul; other examples no doubt found their way onto the film scenario from Fatih Akin, one such being the idea of Cahit’s being propositioned for marriage by a stranger (Sibel), which apparently occurred to him (unlike Cahit, he did not accept, but he did see its value as a plot device) Originally Nejat’s character falls in love with a single mother, whom he meets in the Black Sea village, but Akin edited the scene out. See: The Edge of Heaven DVD Extras..

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Chapter 9

The Difference Between the Western Reflections of Disaster News and Orientalist Perspectives:

Positioning Women in the Case of Titanic Nilüfer Pembecioğlu https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7510-6529 Faculty of Communication, Istanbul University, Turkey Uğur Gündüz https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6138-6758 Istanbul University, Turkey

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ABSTRACT The women issue is important not only in Western but also in Eastern cultures. Positioned in between the East and West, Turkey always provides an interesting collection of cases and data. Apart from the daily consumption of the women images and realities, the image of the women is also mobile when it comes to the press, and thus, this mobility is extended worldwide through the new media possibilities in the age of information. However, the contradictory images of the diferent cultures were displayed in the history of media as well. This chapter aims to put forward how the positioning of women in the past took place specifcally in the case of Titanic news on the press of the time. The chapter questions the similarities and diferences of handling women in news comparing and contrasting the Western journalism of the time and Ottoman press coverage.

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-7180-4.ch009

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 The Difference Between the Western Reflections of Disaster News and Orientalist Perspectives

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INTRODUCTION: MEDIA IN OTTOMAN TIMES Nowadays, women issues are considered more than ever with the impact of the new media, the increasing number of violence against females, the identity issues, and the reaction to the traditional structure of the society. A diachronic and synchronic analysis of the women’s issues provides that it took a long way for different societies to understand the value of women and position them in the society. Due to cultural, economical, social, educational or political reasons the women’s issue has always been kept behind the other issues. Let it be urbanization or agriculture, raising domestic animals or growing up children, but especially kitchen work and housework were attributed to the women’s responsibility areas in society. Yet, males were only responsible for the managerial issues. Throughout history, many voices were upraised or silenced yet in the 21st century women’s issues are still hot topics to be discussed. Regarding the acknowledgment of women’s rights, many people prefer to point out the human rights would be enough, and even naming the issue with the feminine words sound ‘weak’ enough. Yet, to some others, women are more equal than men, having some special rights gained by birth. The mobility of the women, marrying or not, giving birth to children or not, women in arts, women in politics, women in history, women in the field of entrepreneurship gain many different perspectives in current times. With all the identities women carry and all the cultures they might be originated from, the languages, customs, and traditions the women issues would be discussed more and more. That’s because the women are discovered again and again in the new era, and they are questioned more than ever. The relationship of women with the media was a complex one. When the first daily newspapers begin to appear, the journalists or the media owners had no idea about the differences between the male and female audiences. The aim was just to deliver news, the press never had a concept such as the women image or female vs. male images in the media. Throughout the time, first, the press discovered the women as the audience and then the cinema and television. Nowadays, there are even television channels broadcasting mainly for the female audience and the media industry is dwelling on gender differences more than ever. There are more and more Women’s TV Channels all over the world they all make use of the latest substructure and modern technology to reach their audiences. Today, more than 30 television channels operate throughout the world. 9Gem, 10 Peach in Australia, Colours Lifestyle, Metro Channel in the Philippines, Cosmopolitan TV, MOI&cie, OWN, Slice, W Network, Twist TV in Canada, Diva Universal, STAR World in Asia, Divinity in Spain, Escape, Lifetime, Oxygen, VH1, WE TV in the USA, Estil 9 in Catalonia, ETC, Eve in Southeast Asia, La5, Mya in Italy, Living in the UK, Nova in Spain, OnStyle in South Korea, Passion, Sixx in Germany, RTL 8 in the Netherlands, SIC Mulher in Portugal, Sony Channel in Southeast Asia, Téva in France reach a wide range of both male and female viewers. All these television channels cope up with the difficulties yet they seem to be doing fine because, they prefer differentiating the male and female as two different, distinct categories requiring completely different communication and marketing strategies. Daalmans et.al, state that regardless of the genre as well as the country of origin of the program, women were underrepresented on men’s channels, while gender distribution on women’s channels was more equal. The representation of women in terms of age and occupation was more stereotypical on men’s channels than on women’s channels, whereas men were represented in more contra-stereotypical ways (e.g., performing household tasks) on women’s channels. Since television viewing contributes to the learning and maintenance of stereotyped perceptions, the results imply that it is important to strengthen viewers’ defenses against the effects of gender stereotyping when watching gendered television channels, for instance through media literacy programs in schools. (Daalmans, Kleemans & Sadza, 2017). 146

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 The Difference Between the Western Reflections of Disaster News and Orientalist Perspectives

As seen in the distribution of the channels, women issue is important not only in Western but also in Eastern cultures. Positioned in between the East and West, Turkey always provides an interesting collection of cases and data. Apart from the daily consumption of the women’s images and realities, the image of the women is also mobile when it comes to the press. Thus, this mobility is much more extended worldwide through the new media possibilities in the age of information. However, the contradictory images of the different cultures were displayed in the history of media as well. Once the stages of communication are considered as the past, Ottoman society, there are things to be flashed. Even if Gutenberg found the press by 1436, it arrived at the Ottomans by 1727. Regarding the communications turning stones, the first stamp is used in 1840 in Europe, the first stamp in the Ottomans is used by 1863. It was easier to follow the technology and innovations as the time gets closer to the current dates. However, in 1876 the first telephone used by Graham Bell, and the first city system established in Europe was in Paris, by 1879. And it reached to Ottomans only in 1908 after the second constitutional monarchy. Mainly used in the palace circles and common systems were established only by 1911 in Istanbul. However, the first newspapers published in Turkey were the French ones. Just after the French Revolution, the first printing press was established in the French Ambassadorship building by Vermainac, to provide first-hand information and explain the French innovation to ensure the support of the whole world, especially the Ottomans. In 1795, the first publication of 6-8 pages was named as “Bulletin des Nouvelles” to be published every two weeks (Topuz, 1973:28) Koloğlu (1994) states that the first newspaper was published in Antwerp in 1605 both in French and Dutch. Similarly, the first Turkish newspaper Vekayi-i Misriye is accepted to be published in Cario by 1828. It was also published in several different languages. Being in the multilingual, multicultural atmosphere and geography, the first Turkish newspaper is published in Istanbul by the state in 1831. Its name was Takvim-i Vekaî and it was published only 250 to be distributed among the high level government officers and consulates in Istanbul. This was a kind of official communication among governmental officials related to serious pieces of information. The newspapers in their general sense, targeting the civics soon arrived. The first private Turkish newspaper Tercüman-ı Ahval is published in 1860. It reached up to a few thousand circulations because, in those days, the newspapers were given to special specified people only. In 1860 a new private newspaper Ceride-i Havadis appeared and it applied a different strategy of circulation to be carried to the subscribers only. Topuz, explains their PR strategy: “They hired people for this job. These people were not only selling the newspapers on certain spots but also delivering the papers to subscribers, running throughout the whole city or certain districts and shouting the latest news on the newspapers. They were also getting some feedback about the publications and having the pulse of the audience. In 1878 this kind of circulation spread out of Istanbul out to the whole country” (Topuz, 2003) Up to 1959 these strategies approved success, however, new companies were established just for the delivery of the newspapers. These companies made good usage of the railroads and postal services as well. With the increase of literacy and the new multi-party system bringing a new political era after 1946, the newspapers reached up to the little villages and towns apart from the big cities. Especially, after 1957 and the opening of new parties mass media gained more importance in the country. Topuz on the other hand, explains how these newspapers were reaching to their target audience: “With the press, images were also involved into communication for the first time. The first newspapers with pictures were Ayine-i Vatan (1866), Muhip (1867), Utarit (1867). The rising literacy rates contributed to the press as well. With the hope of finding new audiences, the newspapers started to have women 147

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supplements with the main newspaper. The first women supplement Terakki (1868) paved the way for the first children’s newspapers Mümeyyiz (1869) and Hakayikü’l-Vakayi (1870) as well as the first special entertainment issues of Asır (1870), the first scientific newspaper Hadika (1869), first humor İstikbal (1875) (Topuz, 2003) Here, the question is perhaps if the Ottomans could have a real Orientalist mentality or Eastern type of journalism regarding the press. Because the dynamics of the Ottoman press were highly related to the Ottoman journalists in abroad and the foreign press in the country. On one hand, most of the best writers of the country were writing in the newspapers abroad but on the other hand, the western press was also so much inside the country that the number of the foreign-based newspapers were even reaching more than 400 up to the first years of the republic. On one hand, the Turkish newspapers were published abroad but on the other hand, there were so many foreign presses published in Turkey. According to Baykal (1990:44-47) for example, starting in the 1820s and specifically between 1914–1971 around 350 French newspapers and magazines were published within the Ottoman borders. Le Stamboul, La Republique, Tout-Pera, L’Economiste d’Orient, Moniteur Oriental, Llyod Ottoman, Jeune Turc, L’Aurore, La Patrie were among the most popular ones. According to Topuz, (2003), during the administrative reforms period, 1839-1876 in Ottoman history the westernization movements helped people to have more tendency to follow the press and learn other languages. Democracy and the freedom of expression movements started among the young journalists living abroad. They established associations and fractions and had a great impact on society. Their attitude had a negative impact on the government side and restricted their movements or activities in various ways. However, they continued the movement of freedom by publishing their own newspapers abroad. London based Muhbir (1867) and Hürriyet (1868), Paris based Ulum (1869) and Geneva-based Hürriyet (1870) were among the most influential ones. Apart from these, there were also newspapers having their own publications in Rum, Armenian, Old Spanish, Ladino, and Hebrew as well as German and English ones. By 1923, besides the 7 Turkish newspapers in Istanbul, there were 5 French ones. The newspapers aiming to establish democracy were circulating around 12.000 throughout in the new republic. And the foreign press was selling around 4.000. All these mean that the Turkish audience was used to the traditional way of delivering the news and the western type of it at the same time. However, during that time the foreign press was delivering the news around a week later and these had to be discussed in the following week. Although so many people think that women are the neglected part of the society, the press history is full of examples of women as readers and writers. Contrary to the contemporary press, these were highly involved with the women as their main subject. The image of the Turkish Women in Press is characterized as intellectual, publicly involved, socially active and extroverted, open-minded and flexible, modernized enough to cope up with any systematic thought or discussion and critical enough where needed. The basic problem on the side of the women’s literacy was establishing the reading habit and making the press understandable and comprehensible for the women followers. The prejudice and main assumption is that as the women of the time, they read less, react less. (Akgün-Çomak & Öcel, 2012:123-124). Akgün-Çomak and Öcel state that, the image of women in the press was active from the very beginning. Women were not just the subject of the news. They were there as writers, columnists, interpreters, critics, and reporters as early as 1860. And some of them even took place as the chief editors of the newspapers. The newspapers published for the women were also successfully acclaimed by society and approved by all the audience. This was perhaps due to the fact that the literate and socially upper-level people also took part in it such as the daughters of the famous historian Ahmet Cevdet Pasha, Emine 148

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Semiye Hanım, and Fatma Aliye Hanım. The other famous and influential writers such as Halide Salih (Halide Edip Adıvar), Nigar Bint Osman (Nigar Hanım), Selma Servet Seyfi. Apart from the women writers, there were also some male ones also writing under the women pseudonames. Among them, Ahmet Rasim as “Ahmet Rasime & Leyla Feride”, Celal Sahir “Jülide Sahir or Jülide” could be mentioned. Throughout time, the press for women became more, influential, and enriched through different magazines appealing to women only. “Hanımlara Mahsus Gazete”, “Mehasin Mecmuası”, “Süs”, “İnci Mecmuası”, “Hanım Mecmuası”, “Kadın Mecmuası”, “Hanımlar Alemi Mecmuası”, “Kadınlık Duygusu Mecmuası”, “Mürüvvet Mecmuası”, “Demet Mecmuası”, “Bilgi Yurdu Işığı /Bilgi Yurdu Mecmuası”, “Seyyale Mecmuası” were a few to mention(Akgün-Çomak & Öcel, 2012:124). The women audience first wanted to be recognized as a separate identity in the eyes of the media. Thus, from the early ages, the written media developed a nice tailored identity for the females. In Turkey, for example, this was providing them a kind of image of self-sufficient, self-confident identity and putting them into a safe layer. After developing enough audience, then came the active female representatives functioning well in the media. This was important not only to attract the attention of the women into the ‘able’ role models but also to develop a kind of trust and guidance for the developing new society mainly established by the young and motivated generation. This was the other angle of the triangle. The last point was creating the consumer role models, witnessing the efficient use of products, or suggesting better ones. The appeal was such high that the female image in the media sold more than ever especially with the economic freedom of the women. The positioning of women in the society and press, the values attributed to women could be visible. It could even be possible to emphasize the concept in different ways through different media. In countries like Turkey, verbal language plays an important role in shaping the culture, values and traditions. Yet, the media sometimes yield data and provide important perspectives to look back to history and see if there are any changes or not throughout time. Up to the date, when the daily press occurred in the past, having a single aim as just to deliver news, the press never had a concept such as portraying the women’s image or female vs. male images in the media. In its global sense, the female image is seen as an extra value to make the issues more important, effective, convincing, or innocent depending upon the event that occurred. These smooth and elegant appearances would mean a lot for the women as well as men in society. However, the meanings attributed to the press appearances of women changed a lot throughout the time. The women were put into a position of the aggrieved, oppressed, suffering, or victimized more than any other class in the society. The audience thus witnessed more closely how they suffer and victimized through the news in the press. Whereas, specifically in the first half of the 1900s, the woman image was still looked at in clusters requiring the pencil sketches or blurred photos at the beginning of the visual ages they begin to be replaced by photographs of the black and white silhouette. Even at these first occurring’s, the names and the images were handled with great care, not to cause any social outrages. Later on, more sensational photos and scenes would be delivered to the newspapers just to create more audience participation and better sales. The image of women is always questioned in news, specifically in newspapers and the press. In the paper, the global news axis will be considered for focusing on women specifically in disaster news. The reason for that is mainly the selling rate of the newspapers rather than the socializing the women with the news or informing the society about their issues. The Titanic ocean liner sunk in 1912 as a disaster questioned in a global perspective. The event caused many reflections in different countries and in the different press in different ways. The paper concentrates 149

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on the women images portrayed in the global press in 1912 within the framework of the Titanic news and how the women images in different countries reflect their position in society. Following a quantitative and descriptive methodology and analyzing the way of Eastern and Western type of reporting the paper concentrates on the data collected throughout the first pages of the world press concentrating on the news. This study is limited by the number of accessible newspapers of the time (around 20) allocating the specific information as a piece of news in 1912. Since different media at different time clusters puts forward ongoing discussions on the issue into the front pages, the analysis would be limited between 1912 up to the date. Throughout the paper, the image of women in the East and West will be compared and contrasted. How the news is valued and how the women are positioned in the pieces of news would be focused on. Yet, these images were analyzed depending upon the social perspectives as well as the percentage of the media coverage. Even if the event occurred in the West, the world press showed much interest in the disaster for many years all over the world. As the data, the newspaper articles having the Titanic news are classified as the ‘East’ and ‘West’. After a discourse analysis, the texts are classified and evaluated regarding the social classes over the hundreds of photographs to notify the women image. The similarities and differences between the images are analyzed as well as the visualization stage questioning the interleaving concepts such as violence, disaster, and value systems positioning the women in the core. In the study, a specific case is questioned about the Titanic disaster and global images of the world wide newspapers were scanned to filter the image of women of the time to be compared with the female image in the Ottoman time newspapers. In conclusion, this study compares and contrasts the women portrayals of media in the Western and Eastern media. In order to exemplify the difference, the data and interpretations are limited to a specific event and Titanic news was analyzed. Thus the choice of the media reflections in times of crises were analyzed. These narrative reflections provided some fundamental concepts as well as the projected identity of the globalized or localized culture codes. These visual and made up identities were compared and contrasted through the textual discourses as well as the semantic field symbols.

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HOW MEDIA PORTRAYED WOMEN IN EAST AND WEST Media portrayals of women are very important. The women are portrayed as little naïve girls, grown-up daughters of the family, brides, wives, or mothers. They may be portrayed all alone or within a group let it be the friends or workmates, neighbors, etc. The frequency of the portrayals seems to be depending upon the cultural background, function, and respectability of the women. Cultural values had a lot to do with the wording and design of the news and newspapers as much as visual media. The local and global aspects of the narratives and the long-term decision-making processes make it possible when the issue comes to male and female representation. In its global sense, the female image is seen as an attractive component to make the issues more important, effective, convincing, or innocent depending upon the event that occurred. These smooth and elegant appearances would mean a lot for the women as well as men in society. However, the meanings attributed to the press appearances of women changed a lot throughout the time. The women were put into a position of the aggrieved, oppressed, suffering, or victimized more than any other class in the society. The audience thus witnessed more closely how they suffer and victimized through the news in the press.

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 The Difference Between the Western Reflections of Disaster News and Orientalist Perspectives

The press was gaining more attention in the past due to the lack of information and low media literacy rates. Thus, a single newspaper would have the chance of being read by at least 10 or more people, the pictures were examined for minutes, and the news was poured from ear to ear. Representation has a lot to do with the culture, too. Yet it is a very difficult concept to define. Cultural differences might cause different cultures to develop different types of characters or portrayals of women. Also, there seems to be a clear-cut difference between the Western and Eastern types of Women. It is interesting to see that as much Western media stereotypes the Eastern women, the Eastern media does the same for the women of the West. Pembecioğlu (2015) states that the image of western women in Chinese advertisements is widely used. In most cases, it’s been argued that Chinese women feel extremely insecure about their physical appearance so they spend more on cosmetics and changes of appearances more frequently than the western ones. A high number of women attempt to change their physical appearances through aesthetic operations or other interferences just to look like western women. They use soaps or makeup to make their faces look white. Whereas the women of the East would like to resemble Western women, the Easterners are portrayed in the media in many different ways. For example, it’s always been a question of how Eastern women were portrayed in Western films. East Asian women have been portrayed as aggressive or opportunistic sexual beings or predatory gold diggers using their feminine wiles (Tajima, 1989). Western film and literature have continually stereotyped East Asian women as cunning “Dragon Ladies”. This stereotype invokes others within the same orientalist repertoire: “Lotus Blossom Babies”, “China dolls”, “Geisha girls”, “War brides”, etc. To Sue et.al., (2007) this attention has led to the idea that orientalist stereotyping is a specific form of racial microaggression against women of East Asian descent. For example, while the beauty of Asian American women has been exoticized, Asian American women have been stereotyped as submissive in the process of sexual objectification. Kim, (1984) argues that in the 1980s that the stereotype of East Asian women as submissive has impeded their economic mobility. Another typical Eastern women stereotype frequently used in the western world is the Tiger mother type reappearing after 2011 specifically. Depending upon the Confucian child-rearing techniques mainly, the parenting style refers to a strict or demanding mother who pushes her children to high levels of scholastic and academic achievement. This notion of being a tiger mother is also linked to the Asian stereotype of being more left-brained and proficient in math and sciences. However, if ever the Ottoman press has a representation function as the Orientalist approach, the image of women on that side was totally different. Having the women writers from the very beginning of the press history of Turkey was a contributing factor to establish a group of women, thinking, evaluating, criticizing, and researching. The writing club was full of enthusiastic followers, academicians, brilliant, and socially effective women. The women as the audience in those years were also having a nice, literate, wise, and interactive group mainly contributed to the image of working women (Terakki Muhadarat Gazetesi, 1869:5) Women’s letters having reflections were also published in the newspapers (Terakki Muhadarat Gazetesi, 1869:3). Soon, most of the newspapers had either a page for the female audience or covered the reflections of the women audience through sent letters, columns, critics, etc. The newspapers giving special attention to the women audience could be summarized as Terakki Muhadarat, Vakit, Mürebb-i Mukadderat, Aile, İnsaniyet, Hanımlar, Mürüvvet, Hanımlara Mahsus Gazete, Mehasin, Kadın Alem-i Nisvan, Kadınlık. This also helped the language to be more sensitive and less elaborative. Having more letters and reflections from the females, the female audience also increased the tendency of being responsive and having better use of time, attending to university and targeting the upper levels of the government and society. The audience could also form the expectations from the press in an open way (Terakki Muhadarat Gazetesi,1869: 104) The trouble with the language was that 151

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the Ottoman language was full of Arabic and Persian vocabulary requiring a higher level of education. This was the main problem of the female audience of the time. Regarding the topics, the letters to the editors could vary from the travel in the city to the appropriate behaviors in society. They frequently mention the importance of having a female part of the press as an influential point for the young generation especially for female literacy and higher education (Diyojen, 1871: 176).

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MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER Titanic was one of the utopias of the century when it was built when all the tickets were sold out and when it first left the port of Southampton for New York. For many people it meant different things. To some, it was the way of luxury for the high class people, but to some others, it was the new continent, new life and new expectations. The news about her was all around the world. East and West were publishing news about it as there were also 6 Ottoman passengers in it. Yet, a total of 2,208 people sailed on the maiden voyage of the RMS Titanic, the second of the White Star Line’s Olympic-class ocean liners, from Southampton to New York. The exact number of people aboard is an estimated figure. Because, not all of those who had booked tickets made it to the ship; about 50 people canceled for various reasons, and not all of those who boarded stayed aboard for the entire journey (Eaton & Haas, 1995). The main aim of this study is to put forward how the positioning of women in the past took place specifically in the case of Titanic news on the press of the time. The paper questions the similarities and differences of handling women in news comparing and contrasting the western journalism of the time and Ottoman press coverage. Concentrating on the images of the past and how these images were used as well as the reflections of the audience the study aims to put forward the values attributed to women in the past. This kind of diachronic approach reveals the fact that women were given importance in society. Their suffering reflected in the press was considered to be the main suffers of the society not as the pseudo reflections of the past. The research aims to evaluate the discourse level of the reflections of the past regarding women’s representations if they were placed in the front page or not. It also aims to evaluate the impact of this reflection in modern times. The research is believed to unveil many different perspectives on being a woman in Turkey in the modern ages. The data is collected mainly concentrating on the special case chosen, the sink of the Titanic, and aims to find out how this foreign-based news is covered in the newspapers of the Ottoman time. The content analysis of the data would also be analyzed regarding the image of women. In the paper, the global news axis will be considered for focusing on women specifically in disaster news. The image of women is always questioned in news, specifically in newspapers, press. The reason for that is mainly the selling rate of the newspapers rather than the socializing the women with the news or informing the society about their issues. Throughout the paper, the image of women in the East and West will be compared and contrasted. How the news is valued and how the women are positioned in the piece of news would be focused on. The paper concentrates on the women images portrayed in the global press in 1912 within the framework of the Titanic news and how the women images in different countries reflect their position in society. The Titanic ocean liner sunk in 1912 as a disaster questioned in a global perspective. The event caused many reflections in different countries and in the different press in different ways. The paper concentrates on the data collected throughout the first pages of the world press concentrating on the news. This study is limited to the number of accessible newspapers of the time (around 20) allocating the specific informa152

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tion as a piece of news in 1912. Since different media at different time clusters puts forward ongoing discussions on the issue into the front pages, the analysis would be limited between 1912 up to the date. These images were analyzed depending upon the social perspectives as well as the percentage of the media coverage. Even if the event occurred in the West, the world press showed much interest in the disaster for many years. As the data, the newspaper articles having the Titanic news are classified as the ‘East’ and ‘West’. After a discourse analysis, the texts are classified and evaluated regarding the social classes over the hundreds of photographs to notify the women image. The similarities and differences between the images are analyzed as well as the visualization stage questioning the interleaving concepts such as violence, disaster, and value systems positioning the women in the core. In the study, a specific case is questioned about the Titanic disaster and global images of the worldwide newspapers were scanned to filter the image of women of the time to be compared with the female image in the Ottoman time newspapers.

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ANALYSIS OF THE TITANIC NEWS AND WOMEN PORTRAYALS It is important to understand why the pictures are important in newspapers. Objects pictured may be factual or fictional, literal or metaphorical, realistic or idealized, and in various combinations. The idealized depiction is also termed schematic or stylized and extends to icons, diagrams, and maps. Classes or styles of the picture may abstract their objects by degrees, conversely, establish degrees of the concrete (usually called, a little confusingly, figuration or figurative, since the ‘figurative’ is then often quite literal). Stylization can lead to the fully abstract picture, where reference is only to conditions for a picture plane – a severe exercise in self-reference and ultimately a sub-set of the pattern. But just how pictures function remains controversial. Philosophers, art historians and critics, perceptual psychologists, and other researchers in the arts and social sciences have contributed to the debate and many of the most influential contributions have been interdisciplinary. Some key positions are briefly surveyed below. Powell (1997:15) defines culture as “the sum total of ways of living, including values, beliefs, aesthetic standards, linguistic expression, and patterns of thinking, behavioral norms, and styles of communication, which a group of people has developed to assure its survival in a particular physical and human environment”. Additionally, Powell points out that cultures are not static entities because of the interaction that takes place between cultures and the people who part of them. Geertz’s symbolic anthropology considered culture to be a system of interacting symbols and meanings that continually influence one another (Geertz, 1973). It might be possible to state that having the same or similar values for more than a century, the societies position or condition themselves in the media messages disseminated. In the past, when the aim was only to disseminate the news, concepts such as the image of women was out of the question. When the local and global perspective and the long- term decision making processes of these narratives are evaluated, it is seen that the male and female images of the narratives are not ordinary. Globally, the image of “she” is much more important than the male one. This female type of representation brings a more important, effective, persuasive, or innocent dimension to the incident. These soft and elegant looks mean a lot not only to women but also to society. Still, we see that the representation of women in the press has changed and changed over time. At present, more victims, the oppressed, suffering, or victimization takes place more.

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Within the framework of this study, the concept of ‘women’ is dealt with especially in the context of disaster news of Titanic. The study aims to question the image of women in the press, especially the image of women in newspapers. The reason for this is that, beyond the positioning of women in the social environment, it is the media informing women about social events too. The presence of women in newspapers generally stems from society. That means, society is aware of women and cares about what happened to women, and that’s why they buy the newspaper. In disaster news, in tımes of crisis, there could be billions of details to make news about. Which of them are carried up to the front page most has to do with the publication policies and the cultural tolerance levels. The other details seem to be minor or trivial to them. Yet, another newspaper prefers to put the news among the others instead of sparing a whole page for it. That also could be interpreted as the minimizing of the event of the century.

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Figure 1. New York American, The New York Times, The New York Herald, The Evening Sun

The newspapers of the past were reaching millions of people at that time. Of course there was the radio as the main news center. However people would like to buy a newspaper just to visualize what has happened. As it could be exemplified in the New York American newspaper headline, this type of page coverage seems to be giving more importance to the numbers of the lost and equally to the image of titanic. Here, human life seems to be valued more than anything else, however, they are seen as a big bunch of people, rather than the individuals, degraded into the numbers only. There is also a class distinction mentioned by the name J.J. Astor who was the richest passenger aboard the RMS Titanic and was thought to be among the richest people in the world at that time with a net worth of roughly $87 million when he died (equivalent to $2.3 billion in 2019). The New York Times paging did not make use of the famous image of Titanic. Instead it presented the names of the people who have lost their lives and only some of them were in the album of the great loss. The New York Herald on the other hand, made use of the pictures more than words. Here the two women were given much more importance than the others. Their size of photograph is visible as much as titanic itself. They perhaps want to emphasize that the ship is also “a female character” and all those females lost their lives now! One other thing they do is just mention the children. Apart from the other newspaper, they were concentrating on children for the first time. The Evening Sun, prefers to be more serious and instead of the passengers it makes use of the captain as the highest official responsible authority of the vehicle. This newspaper chose to report not on the accident, the passengers who were rescued and safe.

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Figure 2. The News Leader, The Washington Times, The Daily Mirror, The Times Dispatch

The News Leader preferred to put the lines on the side columns positioned the huge boat in the middle of the other news. That means it was not a whole front page value for the newspaper editors at that time. However, the paging of the photos covers around 2/3 of the news. It is interesting to have all the male photos on the same page in The Washington Times as if it’s just a men’s world. It also talks about the committee question regarding the sink of the unsinkable ship proposing revising the records and testifies as well as calling them a general ignorance causing the disaster. Whether due to the importance given to the crew or the scarcity of the number of the women in occasion this newspaper provided more of a man’s world. It might be interpreted that the females have nothing to do with the serious topics, even if their pictures cannot stand there. The Daily Mirror published all the names of the passengers and uses a smaller photo of the boat compared to the other newspapers. One other novelty they apply was just colouring the issue to sound like an old one in the past. The Times Dispatch on the other hand concentrates on the number of the survivors rather than the lost ones. One other thing is that the newspaper concentrates not on rumors but on the first-hand truth that they got it all from the new arriving Carpatia carrying the saved passengers of Titanic. Apart from these, The Daily Mail for example preferred not publish any photographs.

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Figure 3. Titanic Was A Huge Mystical Element

In many languages a boat is referred as a female. Thus, when the percentage between the male and female representations are considered, the representation of the female would be more even if the number of the female passengers were less. However, some newspapers wanted to emphasize the importance of ‘she’ as the Titanic and solely put it onto their front cover or keep it for the latest edition. This could be regarded as a kind of mourning or perhaps a last farewell to Titanic. The New York Times issue covering the 1/3 of it with the Titanic photo is actually exhibiting the beauty of a female. As for the newspaper readers might need to see some pictures to imagine the size of the accident the headlines carry big size

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photos to help the understanding and visualization. Sometimes they even try to compare and contrast it with the panoramic view of Big Ben and House of Parliament. This might be interpreted as the kind of a beauty contests and the audience is comparing and contrasting the degree of her beauty with the queen’s beauty. This newspaper was providing another perspective comparing it with the house of parliament and other monuments to put it into a more solid ground to provide the audience a better understanding.

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Figure 4. Titanic In Ottoman Headlines

There were so many different Ottoman newspapers of the time, yet, not each of them were concentrating on the foreign affairs. It was mostly due to the density of the local and national agenda and partly was stemming from the practical lack of substructure or technology in those days. The foreign press in the country was already delivering the foreign news around a week later and these had to be discussed in the following week. Under all conditions, the quick transfer of the news to Ottoman was attributed to the specialty of the news. On 19 April 1328 Servet-i Fünun for example the headline was “Titanic Ferry Crash” It was followed by two sentences. “In the Titanic Ship crash, many people from England and America’s most elegant families on their way to America perished. In this context, it has been verified that the billionaire Miralay Astor, one of the most famous names in the world, has lost and perished.” Here the content seems to be a twofold one, as the first one is Titanic and the other one is the loss of Astor. It seems that both equally were important to the audience. On a later issue the newspaper follows “Until now, there had been no marine accident that caused such perseverance losses to people and property. Many cruise and naval construction companies and marine engineers will be investigating what caused such a massive marine accident to occur, with the all-around perfect (Titanic) ship sinking so sadly. They will be concerned about the issue for a long time to decide whether this is a terror event or an accident. This terrible accident on the shores of the New World is an event of international significance. Thousands of families have been mourning in Europe and America and many people have been mourning. It is interesting that the newspaper has another issue the same day, probably in the evening issue due to the cruel situation. 19 April 1328 Servet-i Fünun issue puts the same headline as “Titanic Ferry Crash” and continues the news “On the evening of the fourteenth Sunday of April, the industrial wonder (Titanic), submerged. Unfortunately, after the collision with an iceberg, only a small amount of the passengers and crew are saved. The whole ferry, with all its valuable goods, and even the postal bags and the precious belongings of the passengers were sunk by the stern. Due to the collision of the world’s largest ship with an iceberg, there has been great damage and loss of all times in maritime lines, which has not been encountered in history until now.” In order to visualize it they put a huge iceberg and a half seen Titanic to demonstrate the size of the accident.

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Figure 5. Titanic Image In Popular Culture

April 20, 1912 Tanin: “Titanic Disaster” is reported as follows: “Telegrams have been giving a lot of information about a great disaster for a few days. The news given so far was gathered here and here, but it was still in a state that could show the severity and degree of the disaster that occurred. European newspapers, which received the latest mail, describe the “Titanic Disaster” with all its vain.” 25 April 1912 Vazife: The “Titanic Steamer”, the largest steamboat of the White Star Line Company to operate between England and America, sank by an iceberg. Out of the 2490 passengers in it, only 868 survived. First of all, saving women and children has the force of law on British ships, and women constitute the largest portion of this amount. Even weeks later the event, the newspapers were still publishing the new arriving stories, the narratives of the first hand ones through the saved passengers. May 4, 1912 Vazife mentions Titanic with the title “Chief Orchestra of the Titanic Ferry”. It transfers the story of the orchestra of the Titanic. “The conductor orchestra of the Titanic Ferry has been on the ships operating on the Europe-America line for many years. It was on Mauritania, the world’s largest ship, before the Titanic. He was convinced that one day he would die to the sea. One of his friends reports an interview with him regarding this idea: - Old friend, what would you do if you accidentally find yourself on a ship in such an accident one day? - Immediately I gather my entourage together and make them play their instruments to give the last concert.. -Which tunes, which type of music? -The most favorite Protestant song “I am very close to you, O my Lord!” suits the mood.

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Figure 6. Titanic Image In Comedy Films Mocking The Tragedy

Here is what Titanic’s old man and the conductor of the orchestra called it. He chanted as he planned and until half of his body is submerged in water, he played “I am very close to you, O Lord!

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Figure 7. Titanic as a toy, an accessory or cards to enjoy the family

Figure 8. Board games and puzzles for the family

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Not much heard of it after the accident. Because most of the stories were coming through the foreign press and the bilingual of those times living in İstanbul were spreading the news even before it’s been published. The publication of the newspapers were enduring much of the financial suffers and they could only publish limited issues for the subscribers. Due to the research and endless conspiracy theories about it, Titanic always occupied its own agenda. For many years, the stories of the saved ones the stories of the pretended to be saved were all told. Many people put their stories into films, audio and video recordings. But none of them were as famous as the Cameron’s story. Thus, the tragedy were not remembered as the event where hundreds were lost their lives and went into the ice cold sea. The thing remembered was the love story behind it. So the audience heard about it more. The more Titanic became an item in Popular Culture the more movies appeared. These movies turned to be humorous and mocking films in times. Professional or amateur documentaries, books, songs and poetry contributed to the agenda of Titanic. Much of these could be considered for adult due to the tragedy underlined. Yet, there occur the video games, toys, babies, model ship and accessories as ornamental items leek into the lives of the modern people.

Figure 9. Titanic Version of Barbie Babies and Titanic Adventure

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Titanic and the concept that it was lost might be a traumatic one. Perhaps that’s why the people were trying to involve some others into this extremely unique event. Thus, there occur more for the families to enjoy a board game with their kids. Or, here is the deck of cards to play with a friend. A lego set to build the whole ship again admiring the design building a slip. The most interesting ones perhaps are the Barbie babies with the crimson overgrown waiting to be rescued from the sinking Titanic. One other thing is the computer game in which you are stuck in Titanic and try to save your life and as many other rescuers as possible. There are even the ice molds when you feel hot, or blankets with Titanic inscriptions or teddy bears for clinging in difficult situations. Young couples get married with the Titanic theme and Titanic images were applied as marriage decors or the largest ball rooms of the chic hotels named after Titanic. Not only the hotels, but also the touristic attractions, honeymoon suits, and even the hospitals are named after Titanic. This post truth type of valuing and entertainment brings a kind of luxury into lives of the customers. And they perhaps would like to get the feeling of a survivor. People several times wanted to sell the tickets of all Titaniclike cruises. Titanic II is also planned as an ocean liner intended to be a functional modern-day replica of the Olympic-class RMS Titanic. The tickets are thought to be sold already for the 2022 voyage. Even if it were the imitation or pseudo – Titanic, people really urge to be there, longing to understand how it would feel. Figure 10 shows a Titanic theme park and restaurant in the form of a shipboard. Searched in Google, there could be more than 26.700.000 Titanic Restaurants each having similar designs to serve their customers. It is incredible that these are the places to be met, eat outside and enjoy the time. Thus, it could be argued that people are still wondering how it could feel to be in such an atmosphere.

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Figure 10. Titanic Theme Park, Restaurant and Shipboard

FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS Regarding all the information pointing out the popularity of Titanic proves that there need to be many other occasions to search for the reflections of Titanic. Not only could the portrayals of the women but also the children be analyzed. One other thing emphasized in the Titanic news is the class distinction between the known families and the unknown families. The press paid some special attention to the rescued passengers of the Titanic. They were found, interviewed and some were frequently mentioned

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in the news. It could be interesting how people lead different lives even if they were in the same boat once upon a time. Regarding the future research directions, the more newspapers of the old times the better it could be formulated that there are not many differences between the Eastern and Western types of reporting disaster news. Other disaster news could be handled and searched dwelling on how different cultures handle the same news. When the Covid-19 news considered in the 21st century, at least it could be said that they are almost uniformed. The East or West really look like each other, making all the cultures alert. The more digital copies of the local, regional or national papers could be found and analyzed. Yet, the concentration point wouldn’t change that much. The news-making strategies of the past East and West were not that much different either. However, slicing the news to give way to the first-hand stories made it a long way for the audience. Thus, they talked more of the event. Yet, the continuity of the stories due to the lack of enough communication substructure of the time wouldn’t be handicap anymore. However, it is not the news sliced in the modern age, it’s the number of the items and concepts associated with the image of Titanic. The materialistic values seem to be gaining more importance even if the event is more than tragic. With the help of the 3D printers or new types of cruises, people still die for being in the original Titanic. Perhaps, with virtual reality or augmented reality people would love to get the feeling of being there. Digital twinning ideas might provide new settings for the smart designs of the future. Yet, something is clear that people will always be remembering the giant unsinkable Titanic of those times.

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CONCLUSION Understanding the nature of the emergency situation may take time and making news about the overall event needs to be depending upon the shreds of evidence and fact checks. Thus, the far end of the world where the Titanic collides with the iceberg was so isolated that there were limited chances of taking actual photos. If the event took place today in somewhere the whole media could serve millions of photos from the accident area. Yet, in those days the access was limited due to special circumstances. This was not only due to the farness of the event but also the full agenda of the world. In the very same days, Turkish soldiers were fighting with the Russian, French and British soldiers including New Zealanders, Australians, and even Indians. So, the number of newspaper readerships was high and the national agenda was full of minute detail. The international agenda was arriving a few days delayed yet, it was also followed closely. The positioning of women in the newspapers of the time was usually following international pagination. In sea disasters, there has always been the rule of “women and children first”. The news of the time gives the impression that the newspapers of the time didn’t feel the need of making specialized news about the occurrence. The women’s photos serviced by the press usually belong to those who were rich and well-known people from the first class, not of the poor and unknown, second class ones. In the East and West, the same mentality served the broadcasting policy. And, taking the Ottomans as the representative of the East might even be wrong because there were so many foreign press representatives in the country yet, there were so many Ottoman journalists in abroad as well. Figuring out how the Titanic news found their way in the past and what were the main dynamics of the news-making in the past is not an easy thing we could handle at the moment. The decision making process as well as the cultural limits were some of the main reasons. The substructure, technical quality 160

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 The Difference Between the Western Reflections of Disaster News and Orientalist Perspectives

or the concept of journalism of those times were all different. It would be just dwelling on the possibilities and interpretations why a certain piece of news is delivered in that way but not in another way; why this picture is chosen but not the other. The time line of the event and the recurring news about Titanic symbolizes that the disasters such as Titanic are timeless. Even if it’s more than a century after the Titanic disaster, the media still makes use of it through different occasions and provides consumption chances to the audience. Here, the western media and entrepreneurs could be blamed to be concentrating more on the consumerism side of the concept, and profiteering the issue. However, it could also be the demand stemming from the audience. An example could be drawn from Turkey having many restaurants, clubs, ball rooms of the hotels and wedding themes specifically designed due to the huge demand from the customers. As the Eastern part of the world, Turkey has nothing to do with the Titanic disaster, however, we have many hospitals and hotels named after Titanic as well. This might be accepted as a kind of paying attention or showing the respect or simply valuing it. People in those times couldn’t believe that such a thing had happened and they wanted to make the name live longer at least. So, becoming a part of the popular culture, nobody remembers the sad side of the story but the still surviving part brings an extra joy to the concept. Rehman (1993) states that mass communication plays a key role in global understanding. In some respects, the media makes a very constructive contribution by presenting sympathetic and accurate depictions and images of distant places and people. According to the writer, more people in the “first world” move away or give up geocentrism and ethnocentrism (Rehman, 1993). When we look at the articles from the newspapers of the time, it is seen that the presentation and visualization of the Titanic accident in the Ottoman press was carried out with extremely humanistic concepts. The choice of the words, the structure of it still make the audience touched by the event. However, in the texts mentioned, it is been figured out that there are concepts such as us and them, that is, there is a line between East and West. It could be stemming from the far distance of the occurrence or it may be due to the awareness of the difference between the East and West. Differences in the perception of the world by the East and the West have been the subject of many studies. Research experiments reveal that Western people always focus on the name or object, whereas Eastern people focus on predicates and actions. This assumption could easily be seen in the newspapers. Mentioning the names and economic side of the situation etc, seems to be a Western approach to the event. In an experiment motherhood activities of Eastern and Western mothers were recorded and analyzed. The findings prove that unlike Eastern mothers, Western mothers always try to make their children memorize the names or objects. However, Eastern mothers emphasize the predicates and actions of their children. According to Bueno, Westerners always focus on the central things or the main object, whereas the Easterners focus on the background of the object and its environment. Westerners (American, European) looking at the same picture focused on the main object in the picture and talked about the central object instead of the background (Bueno, 2012). Yet, specifically in the case of Titanic, these findings couldn’t be proved directly because the journalism of the time was just like Chinese whispers, pouring information from one ear to another. There, in the Ottoman time, most probably all the data regarding the shipwreck and the accident were taken from foreign sources thus, there could be no uniqueness to be attributed to the Eastern evolving or Orientalist stereotypes. However, regarding the other Western originated news, there seems to be always a compare and contrast situation such comparing Titanic with the Parliament House or comparing the richness of dead men, etc. Concentrating more on the naming part seems to be turned into labeling in the Western world and teaching of the objects turned to be the materialistic values to gain nice profits. 161

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Bueno explains that in another experiment, children from Eastern and Western countries were asked to draw houses. Western children focused on the interior of the house and drew the interior of the house. However, Eastern children focused on their home from outside and drew how their house look like from the outside. The results of the experiments revealed show that Eastern children focus on what others think and feel about their home and how others view his home. It has been revealed that Westerners focus on themselves regardless of the opinions of others about their homes. As can be inferred from this, Western people have an “insider perspective”, that is, they see things from the speaker’s perspective, whereas Orientals have an “outsider perspective”, that is, they see themselves from the perspective of others. Westerners with an insider view focus on what they think and feel. Therefore, they believe that others feel the same, which is referred to as the “Egocentric Projection”. On the other hand, Orientals with an outward-looking perspective focus on what others think and feel. They try to imagine how others feel and think about themselves, which is referred to as “Relational Projection” (Bueno, 2012). Basically, this seems to be true in the case of reporting about the Titanic disaster since it’s got nothing to do with the Ottomans at that time, it might be referred to as the relational projection. The newspapers prove how sad the event was and they felt really sorry about the number of people losing their lives or losing all their money etc. It brought a kind of identification with the people in difficult times, considering the despair and helplessness of the situation. In conclusion, apart from the aforementioned things, there seems to be not much difference between Western journalism and Eastern journalism of the time specifically portraying women in newspapers regarding the Titanic case. One main reason here lies where the news was taken. The Western originated news could not be changed much when it comes to Ottoman’s journalism of that time. However, in Ottoman journalism history there seems to be no distinction between East and West because they believe that they are in both, having most of the Balkans, their borders reach to the midst of Europe. Thus, the type of journalism might not be classified as Eastern journalism taking its roots only from Eastern traditions, values, etc. One other factor is that the journalists on the way to follow liberation and freedom already occupy journalism positions abroad and vice versa, there seem to be too many foreign originated journalists in Ottoman’s fields. Thus, there seems to be no distinction between the reflections or portrayals of the women. They seem to be extremely sensitive about the women portrayals and the content of the news. Referring back to those days this could also be accepted as an example of good journalism.

REFERENCES

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Akgün-Çomak, N. & Öcel, N. (2000). Türk Basınında Kadın. İstanbul Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi Hakemli Dergisi, 10. Baykal, H. (1990). Türk Basın Tarihi: 1831 – 1923. Afa Matbaacılık. Bueno, C. R. (2012). West and East, Cultural Differences. https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=ZoDtoB9Abck&t=611s Daalmans, S., Kleemans, M., & Sadza, A. (2017). Gender representation on gender-targeted television channels: A comparison of female-and male-targeted TV channels in the Netherlands. Sex Roles, 77(56), 366–378. doi:10.100711199-016-0727-6 PMID:28845082 Diyojen, İstanbul, 1287/1871, N. 176, p.3 (Bir Hanım İmzasıyla Aldığımız Varakadır)

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Eaton, J. P., & Haas, C. A. (1995). Titanic, triumph and tragedy. WW Norton & Company. Terakki Gazetesi, İstanbul, 1285 /1869, n.85, p.3 (Terakki) Terakki Gazetesi, İstanbul, 1285/1869, n.85, p.5 (Bir Hanım Tarafından Aldığımız Varakanın Suretidir.) Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures (Vol. 5019). Basic Books. Kim, E. (1984). Asian American writers: A bibliographical review. American Studies International, 22(2), 41–78. Koloğlu, O. (1994). Osmanlı’dan Günümüze Türkiye’de Basın. İletişim Yayınları. Pembecioğlu, N. (2015). The Image of The Western Women in Chinese Advertisements. 4th Annual International Conference On Journalism & Mass Communications (JMComm 2015), Singapore. Powell, R. J. (1997). Black art and culture in the 20th century. Thames & Hudson. Rehman, S. N. (1993). The role of media in cross-cultural communication. Intercultural Communication Studies, 15–21. Sue, D. W., Bucceri, J., Lin, A. I., Nadal, K. L., & Torino, G. C. (2007). Racial microaggressions and the Asian American experience. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13(1), 72–81. doi:10.1037/1099-9809.13.1.72 PMID:17227179 Tajima, R. (1989). Lotus blossoms don’t bleed: Images of Asian women., Asian Women United of California’s Making waves: An anthology of writings by and about Asian American women. Beacon Press. Terakki Muhadarat Gazetesi. İstanbul, 1285/1869 n.104, p.3-4 (Üç Hanım İmzasıyla Matbuamıza Varaka) Terakki Muhadarat Gazetesi, İstanbul, 1285/1869 n.3, p.3 (Belkıs Hanım İmzasıyla Gelen Varakadır) Terakki Muhadarat Gazetesi, İstanbul, 1285/1869 n.3, p.3 (Belkıs Hanım İmzasıyla Gelen Varakadır) Terakki Muhadarat Gazetesi, İstanbul, 1285/1869 n.5, p.5 (Faika Hanım İmzasıyla Gelen Varakadır) Topuz, H. (1973). 100 Soruda Türk Basın Tarihi. Gerçek Yayınevi. Topuz, H. (2003). II. Mahmut’tan Holdinglere Türk Basın Tarihi. Remzi Kitapevi.

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ADDITIONAL READING Frey, B. S., Savage, D. A., & Torgler, B. (2011). Behavior under Extreme Conditions: The Titanic Disaster. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 25(1), 209–221. doi:10.1257/jep.25.1.209 Frey, B. S., Savage, D. A., & Torgler, B. (2011). Who perished on the Titanic? The importance of social norms. Rationality and Society, 23(1), 35–49. doi:10.1177/1043463110396059 Hines, S. (2011). Titanic: One Newspaper, Seven Days, and the Truth that Shocked the World. Sourcebooks, Inc.

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Larabee, A. E. (1990). The American hero and his mechanical bride: Gender myths of the Titanic disaster. American Studies (Lawrence, Kan.), 5–23. Preston, P. (2008). Making the news: Journalism and news cultures in Europe. Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780203888599 Steeves, H. L. (1987). Feminist theories and media studies. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 4(2), 95–135.

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KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS Balance: In its artistic or aesthetic sense, balance is the feeling of the layout being evenly distributed across the page. It is analogous to the physics sense of balance, in which each of the page elements can be thought of as having weight (virtually identical to its weight in the visual hierarchy), and the “torque” created by each weight and its distance from the center of the page should sum to zero. Balance can be achieved passively, through symmetry and the even arrangement of elements (which is easier but often seen as dull), or dynamically, by arranging very different elements in different spacing, but still arriving at balance. In journalism, the rate of the information and interpretation or the proportion of the written part and the visual part are expected to be in balance. Depiction: It is reference conveyed through pictures. What the image yields as a part of the message carried by the visual. Headline/Heading: It is the text indicating the nature of the article below it. A headline’s purpose is to quickly and briefly draw attention to the story. It is generally written by a copy editor, but may also be written by the writer, the page layout designer, or other editors. Niche: It is a specialized segment of the market for a particular kind of product or service. It implies a specific placement or positioning of the consumer and rates those as high valued ones. Representation: It is the use of signs that stand in for and take the place of something else. It is through representation that people organize the world and reality through the act of naming its elements. Signs are arranged in order to form semantic constructions and express relations. Titanic: RMS Titanic was a British passenger liner operated by the White Star Line that sank in the North Atlantic Ocean on 15 April 1912, after striking an iceberg during her maiden voyage from Southampton to New York City. Of the estimated 2,224 passengers and crew aboard, exactly 1496 died, making the sinking at the time the deadliest of a single ship in the West. Tolerance: It is the state of understanding and tolerating, or putting up with, conditionally. Victimization: It is the process of being victimized or becoming a victim. The field that studies the process, rates, incidence, effects, and prevalence of victimization is called victimology. Women Television Channels: These channels aim to broadcast music videos and films specifically for women.

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Chapter 10

Aguirre, Caché, and Creating Anti-Colonialist Puzzles: A Normative Perspective Yusuf Yüksekdağ https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2867-1212 Istanbul Bilgi University, Turkey

ABSTRACT This chapter explores the anti-colonial narrative potential of certain works of cinema taking Aguirre, the Wrath of God and Caché as a case in point. To do so, this chapter frst and draws upon the theoretical and normative lens put forward by Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak on the representation of the colonized other and her resulting political and intellectual call for self-refection on one’s privileged Western intellectual positioning. This lens has many normative implications for the ways in which the colonized subject and colonial history are discussed and represented. The partial lack of representation of the colonized other in Aguirre, the Wrath of God leaves the subjectivity of the colonizer in crisis and madness. Second, the narrative of Caché is explored and it is suggested that it resembles the rhetoric of Foucauldian disciplinary power of surveillance turned upside-down thus enforcing the complicit of colonialism to question her privilege.

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INTRODUCTION In this chapter, two particular ways are offered and explored in which the historically dominant and othering discourse towards the other are questioned via the narrative of a work of cinema. In other words, this chapter assigns an anti-colonialist narrative potential to certain works of cinema. One particular way that is offered is the intentional lack of representation of the other as a subjectmatter; leaving the colonialist protagonists without any material in the script, which otherwise can produce a justificatory set of knowledge for their conquest. It is this very dialectic process where the colonial power or the empire defines itself as superior in relation or in opposition to what the other is and vice versa (Spivak, 1985; Spivak, 1988; Said, 1978). Notably, the othering is not only about colonial DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-7180-4.ch010

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 Aguirre, Caché, and Creating Anti-Colonialist Puzzles

or imperial forces defining and ascribing certain characteristics or norms to the people of distant lands, and acknowledging them as ‘truly’ the other (Ashcroft et al., 1998). It is also about defining itself, one’s characteristics and norms as universal; creating a (superior) subjectivity on the basis of and in contrast to what the other is assumed to do or be. The very question of representation of the other should then be subject to a well-warranted scrutiny in any intellectual endeavor including the works of cinema – especially considering the recent progressive turn in media industries accommodating a higher degree of cultural diversity in production, narration, and casting (Gonzalez-Sobrino et al., 2018.). Aguirre, the Wrath of God (1972) is an exemplary movie, which has such a narrative that goes to the point of ridiculing the colonial state of mind, whose othering practices fail throughout the movie. Such practices throughout the script seem to fail, in particular, due to partial lack of representation of the other. In the end, Aguirre, the Wrath of God seems to point to the madness of the colonialist state of mind when faced only with itself. The second anti-colonialist puzzle is turning the historically dominant and othering gaze upside down. Caché (2005) accommodates such a narrative, resembling the Foucauldian disciplinary power of surveillance conducted rather on the privileged, enforcing to question one’s own privileged positionalities (Foucault, 2012; Winokur, 2003). While Caché’s narrative has been analyzed in relation to its debate on colonialism and its prospective features for the age of surveillance, such a normative questioning has not warranted much attention (Celik, 2010; Herzog, 2010; Levin, 2010). Movie narratives featuring a critical or even emancipatory prospect warrant a normative assessment as such, so their interpretative prospects are better comprehended and evaluated in respect to relevant philosophical and normative perspectives. Such a normative outlook is one of the gaps in media studies that would highlight and scrutinize such emancipatory narratives in the works of cinema. In addition, while there are many discussions on Aguirre, the Wrath of God and Caché and their exposure of colonialism, they have not drawn much attention in regard to their anti-colonialist narrative potential. As well as the contemporary forms of orientalist and othering discourses in different media outputs, the movie narratives on underprivileged groups, inner workings of privilege, colonial history and the Western subject deserve a critical analysis especially now when many media formats claim to provide non-discriminatory or even progressive representations of minority groups, racial politics and whiteness (Hughey & González-Lesser, 2020). With the proposed normative and anti-colonialist outlook, this chapter aims to complement many media discourses and representation studies offered in this edited contribution. This chapter has three parts. The first part introduces Spivak’s discussion on the representation and making of the other, and later briefly the Foucauldian debate on the use of disciplinary power. The second part explores the anti-colonialist prospect of narratives in movies, and then focuses on Aguirre, the Wrath of God and Caché against the backdrop of the theoretical debate in the first part thus delineating the ways in which both movies have an anti-colonialist narrative. Methodologically, a simple narrative structure analysis is used with a focus on rhetorical features in the movies. The former, Aguirre, arguably, works to the extent of making the practice of othering impossible and has implications for conclusions about the madness of the colonial state of mind. The latter, Caché, focuses on the already-othered subjects, in the form of the French treatment of Algerians. Caché offers a narrative in which once the privileged is subjected to the disciplinary power of surveillance, she starts questioning its past and guilt in the effects of colonialism and one’s personal part in it. The last part provides a short discussion on the prospects of analyzing movies with such a normative lens.

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REPRESENTING/MAKING AND DISCIPLINING THE OTHER With the increasing diversity of productions and post-TV production, comes the call for diversity in representation of otherwise vulnerable or minority groups, and also the inclusion of non-Western productions in collaboration. While this is an important development, still present is the concern about how representation of the other and more specifically of the colonized other might be vulnerable to being subjected to dominant and mostly Western schools of thought in processes of production, narration, and casting. In addition, as in any interpretative and constitutive moments of meaning-making, there is a potential of dominant interpretations for the Western audiences despite the prospect of any media output for resistance to dominant meanings and norms (Hall, 1989). Even the allegedly anti-colonialist perspectives representing a certain other, or trying to speak for marginalized groups might run into the problem of contextualizing the understanding of the other as homogenous and more importantly as designated by Western perspectives and assumptions. Any anticolonialist narrative then encounters the problem of representation as such. Especially when it comes to the question of representation of the other not simply as a descriptive text but as an imaginative endeavor, there comes the risk of propagating and reproducing othering practices and discourses. This goes not only for cinematic representations per se, nor a matter of dutiful representation, but it is of an ultimate issue of epistemology of representation as Spivak (1988) discusses in her seminal critique “Can the Subaltern Speak?”. The term subaltern can be conceptualized as a subset of the other that emphasizes the subalternity of some groups i.e. the colonized, marginalized, silenced, and dominated and not merely a discriminated or oppressed ‘other’, such as other dominant local groups or another colonizer or imperial forces or individual. However, for the purposes of this chapter, there is merit in using the terms ‘the other’ and ‘the subaltern’ or ‘the colonized other’ interchangeably: firstly in order not to take an a priori stance on deciding what warrants the title the subaltern, and given that Spivak’s epistemological debate also has implications for representation of the other in general. Moreover, the purpose of drawing from this discussion on representation of the other is to discuss Aguirre, the Wrath of God and Caché, whose narratives feature the colonized other. Mainly by drawing on Spivak’s critique, the following sections deal with representing/making of the colonized other. This is followed by a brief introduction to the Foucauldian notion of disciplinary power of surveillance and the mechanics of how any group, in particular the colonized other, is subject to such institutionalization of disciplinary power.

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Spivak on the Problem of Representing and Making the Other In an interview in 1977, Michel Foucault and Gilles Deleuze discuss the role of intellectual while placing emphasis on letting ‘the other’ talk and rebuffing their intellectual role in such a representation. As Filippo Menozzi (2014) rightly points out, Deleuze’s specific emphasis on letting the other speak has its roots in the very discussions of his time where the function of an intellectual was put into question. Therefore Deleuze, in order to escape from the criticism of not fulfilling the political involvement of public intellectual, simply asserts how “representation no longer exists” and the theory itself is actually a form of action (Foucault & Deleuze, 1977). For Spivak, Deleuze and Foucault unwittingly conflate two meanings of representation: (i) being a proxy on behalf of others and (ii) re-presenting someone or something. They think beyond representation (first meaning) there comes the real possibility of disclosing the power structures inflicted upon

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the other. And they intentionally refrain from speaking for others as public intellectuals, and rather aim to give the microphone to them. Being that the context of this discussion is their activism and role as public intellectuals, they argue that that theory is a form of action in the end and thus are engaging in theoretical activism (Foucault & Deleuze, 1977). By intentionally ‘not speaking for them’, they simply assume the ability of the other to speak for themselves, presuming they have a voice. For Spivak, however, by still representing (second meaning) and talking about them and assuming the intellectual privilege in doing so, the theorists as such still end up being ventriloquists for the other – while, and more unsettlingly, also inducing their own subjectivity that is part of the dominant (Western) knowledge and power structures (Steyerl, 2007; Menozzi, 2014). Even so, by talking about them, especially while the other is alive and present yet mute, one potentially ends up speaking for them, in a way then dialectically positing inability of the other to actually speak for themselves – especially considering how they conceptualize the theory as a form of action. Similar representations are very common in the context of history of de/colonization. For example, during the wave of decolonization after the World War II, and the subsequent decolonization movements in African countries, a Paris correspondent of The Economist reports in 1956:

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Only the Africans clearly know what they want. They want complete local autonomy, with their own prime ministers, ministers and legislatures. But they are not nationalists [...] They respect French culture and ideas […] In return, some of them want a federal, not a French, government to express this unity (The Economist, 1956). As a result, the colonized African is then either represented as they respect the French culture and merely pursue local autonomy, or they aspire for their nationalist movement. All the while we cannot epistemologically hear the voice of an African individual. It is either the former or the latter representation in the making; disregarding, for instance, their economic class position and what it implies especially for the interests of an African working class individual. This is also in the vein of Spivak’s discussion on widow-sacrifices in colonial India, where both the dominant Hindu interpretation (‘that the widow wanted to die’) and the dominant British interpretation (‘saving the women’) provide different ways to speak for the widow who in the end is rendered and made mute (Kapoor, 2004). This is a problem of epistemology of the other in general and thus a problem of colonial historiography. Spivak is not against representation in both forms nor are Spivak’s concerns, unlike what some argue, simply a matter of better and “dutiful representation” (Naiboglu, 2014: p. 125). It is firstly an epistemological cry in regard to ‘Western’ representations (second meaning) of the other, and secondly an emphasis on complexities and differences of the colonized subject (Naiboglu, 2014). In particular, it can be claimed that hidden underneath Spivak’s theoretical inflation and heavy jargon, the reasoning behind her rigorous critique is threefold. First, for Spivak, the individual and subject are being conflated by Deleuze and Foucault, and it is the very nature of the subject that it is not homogenous. Second, as a representer (second meaning), the ultimate privileged disposition of the intellectual or theorists should be taken into account (Menozzi, 2014). Third, and more practically, assuming the non-homogeneity of the other and thus stripping away one’s own privileged and dominant position in knowledge production, one should aim at disclosing the differences and complexities of the other – yet this is hardly done even by the scholars of colonization (Kaltmeier, 2017).

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Spivak on Western Intellectuals Spivak’s first concern is about the ways in which certain theories try to disclose power relations by assuming we, as individuals, are all subject to discourses of power. Spivak simply makes a leap of judgment about certain French intellectuals and theorists that they conflate the individual with the subject in that they homogenize and overgeneralize the human experience without any due consideration of very singular experiences – especially for the individuals whose experiences diverge from that of the colonizer (Janz, 2012). Such a concern towards a white gaze is also shared by George Yancy (2012) in his discussion of racism. The mere assertion that we are all subjugated to power and domination and the fact that race is a constructed category do not make the experience itself neither obsolete nor universal. It is a pejoratively unique experience only faced by the black person (Yancy, 2012). This non-situated or non-subject individual then is also what makes Spivak especially critical of Foucault and Deleuze in the sense that the other in particular is not heard in their works. At best, they are not given an undistorted microphone. No doubt, for instance, contemporary Foucauldian perspectives do provide illuminating discussions for the colonial history and race studies. There is however an underrepresentation of the issue of race in Foucault’s works that harbor, in “less careful hands”, the danger of disregarding the foundational role of the geopolitical materialities and experiences the other suffers from (Spivak, 1988: p. 274; Howell & Richter-Montpetit, 2019). This is especially worrisome considering that a latent universalist understanding of the individual would not be possible if it is not in contrast or relation to another’s subjectivity. This then leads to overlooking the nonuniversality of Western perspective and understanding of an individual (including the other) that might be very well composed without any due consideration of their socially, historically and economically determined subjectivity – in a way authorizing scholars or intellectuals to re-present the other as a non-subject, and at best ‘letting them speak’ without actually hearing them speak (Morris, 2010; Spivak, 2010). Notably, Andrew Robinson and Simon Tormey (2010) argue that Spivak’s critique does not go beyond a call for a better representation of the other and the criticism towards Deleuze is overstated. It is claimed that Deleuze should be even considered a postcolonial thinker (Price, 2014). However, as Gozde Naiboglu (2014) argues, this is not only a call for a better representation as Robinson and Tormey claim, it is rather a contextualized epistemological criticism towards the dominant theoretical underpinnings of Western intellectuals. The nature of the criticism itself nonetheless is still relevant to the extent of discerning the very challenge of representation of the other. Regardless of Deleuze’s own complicity, representation itself in a double-bind form always inscribes the risk of propagating the hegemonic and dominant Western structures of thought (Burns & Kaiser, 2012). So, as for her second concern, the complicity of Western intellectuals Spivak points to is then the implication of the conflation of the two conceptions of representation and their resistance to questioning their own privileged theoretical underpinnings and dispositions – economic, institutional, gendered or geographic (Kapoor, 2004; Spivak, 2010). Arguably, Deleuze and Foucault both show resistance to the ideological critique and to the delineation of the actual material interests of the other – induced by their skepticism to ‘ideological criticism’ and its appeal to absolute truths about material conditions (Scatamburlo-D’Annibale et al., 2018). For Spivak, the problem persists not in the need to speak for the silent other per se, but in then assuming/neglecting the Western dominant disposition that disregards actual geopolitical materialities of marginalized individuals while falsely claiming not to do so. This is the idea Spivak borrows from Marx’s (1954) The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte: The problem was not that peasants needed a voice, but they chose the wrong representer, Louis Napoleon, to speak 169

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on their behalf (Hartley, 2003: p. 248). So Spivak’s challenge is firstly an epistemological one indeed asserting the silence of the subaltern, yet it is secondly a call for a political, practical and intellectual project – an achievable one – in which one actively questions one’s theoretical underpinnings, and the subsequent or constitutive intellectual, economic, geographical or gendered privilege one enjoys. One can rephrase this question and ask how then can the subaltern speak for itself and re-present itself? As David Lloyd (2014) points out though, this project assumes a certain group consciousness that there is one single group of people. This is to assume, borrowing the Marxist terminology, the other constitutes a class for itself (p. 7). As Spivak points out it is yet again a dominant and hegemonic Western structure of thought to assume that the other necessarily has such a formed consciousness and performativity – homogenous in terms of their interests (Bracke, 2016). That is also why even non-Western scholars, while trying to re-present the other, mostly rely on the indigenous dominant groups and disregard stories of the marginalized individuals and the complexities of their interests (Spivak, 1988). As such, Spivak points to how there is still no mention of women and many other subgroups – a well-warranted exemplification which drives many of Spivak’s work in Subaltern Studies. What Spivak then comes to as a third point is rather a demand for better re-presentation of the other since the re-presentation of the other in many accounts of colonial history is appreciated yet found insufficient. To that end, Mark Griffiths (2017) offers a threefold ethical and normative suggestion based upon Spivak’s concerns, by rightly pointing out that her project is not to disengage from representation in both sense of the word, but to make it a reflective challenge for the Western intellectual to do so (Alcoff, 1991). This challenge is then a call for a non-universalistic approach to subjectivity, hyper focused on self-reflection of one’s privileged position, and making the other or their silence heard even if this requires naming or even speaking for them, depending necessarily on whether the former two suggestions are established (Ramsey-Kruz, 2007; Griffiths, 2017). Note that Spivak finds Jacques Derrida’s project of deconstruction to be a useful attempt in recognition of the European subject’s attempt to self-consolidate itself as a subject in relation to a determined other (Spivak, 2010). The binaries upon which the European subject is constituted in the making of the other also reflect the ways in which their dominant and colonialist position is justified: civilized/not primitive, intellectual/not uneducated, wealthy/not resource-poor, and powerful/not vulnerable. Questioning these and how they are constructed or refraining from the ways in which they are constructed in any intellectual production would surely enable one to escape from an inadvertent universalist approach to the interests of the other. This might serve as one of the building blocks of self-reflection on our privileged intellectual, gendered, economic, or geopolitical position. That is why, despite her critique, Spivak (2010) applauds Foucault’s work that highlight the processes of “disciplinarization and institutionalization, the constitution, as it were, of the colonizer” that both dismantle the processes of othering and shed light on the ways in which the other is disciplined into silence that maintain Western privileges (p. 265).

Disciplining the Other In Discipline and Punish, Foucault (2012) utilizes Jeremy Bentham’s prison reform structure, Panopticon, as a model of representation for modern forms of surveillance and their implications. Panopticon is an architectural design where the surveilled is structurally left uninformed about the identity, location and even the presence of the surveiller. For Bentham, this design would simply sustain the internalization of rules and regulations by the inmates and would enable compliance without the need for a use of violence (Whittaker, 1999).

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For Foucault, modern forms of surveillance resemble the governing idea of Panopticon. Rather than purporting violent punishment, a surveilling gaze is instituted to discipline people. Unlike the torturer of medieval context, this is a deterritorialized power. It is present in the street with CCTV to protect our security, in the workplace where one is recorded for the purpose of productivity and efficiency, in the online classroom, and even in the comfort of one’s home. For Foucault, this concerns a certain historical period where disciplinary surveillance has started to emerge in many institutions such as schools and workplaces to regulate, manage and ‘perfect’ every aspect of life (Carpenter, 2020). Unlike disciplinary punishment, they are not feared but justified in the ‘interest’ or rather the common good of the relevant parties (Sheridan, 2016: p. 45). This is especially in line with the rationalization of the colonialist groups’ methods that overemphasize the proper and efficient ‘management’ of the colonized land and subjects. As a case in point, especially in the height of online communication and education tools ‘necessitated’ by global pandemics such as the COVID-19 Pandemic started in 2020, digital surveillance measures in assessing student or professional performance are not only made possible (e.g. IP logs, camera surveillance) but they are also incorporated more and more as the norm – nothing to fear: they prevent academic dishonesty, and they provide productive efficiency. In a more broad sense, digital technologies and everyday datafication of lives enable a system where an invisible other (states and state agencies, corporations or intruding individuals) is able to collect personal information that is deeply private and not easily accessible otherwise. The inequality of data relations in the world should also be taken into account (Couldry & Mejias, 2019). It is not only that certain countries and its citizens are left without ownership or access to data, it is also that their interests, preferences and identities might not be taken into account in the streams of data that constructs our lives via platforms such as face recognition technologies or smart city applications. Unlike previous forms of disciplinary punishment, the implications of modern forms of disciplinary power are then threefold: (i) it enables compliance with and internalization of the rules, (ii) it encompasses larger and more intruding forms of surveillance, and (iii) it enables a system of constant norm-based scrutiny for individuals, thus, maintaining (Western) privilege and discourses of knowledge.

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ANTI-COLONIALIST PUZZLES IN AGUIRRE, THE WRATH OF GOD AND CACHÉ As mentioned, Spivak arguably does not go against the very project of representation. She makes a call for action so that the constative location of the other is deplaced to a performative one, where agency can be exercised, and thus this project is relevant for any form of intellectual endeavor (Bracke, 2016; Conway, 2018). Stephanie L. Daza (2013) calls for advancing such performativity through the use of media outputs given the very imaginative and thus performative and transformative potential and desires of visual texts in comparison to less-imaginative potential of written texts. Media is a locus of action for individuals and exercise of their agency as it connects people, and lets them share and imagine (Couldry, 2020). In particular, movie narratives have complex and engaging potential (Cutting, 2016). This is not to deny the implications of post-structuralist theory arguing that conflicting and dominant discourses might still be embedded in any form of work including movie narratives (Derrida, 1976; Cohen, 2001). However, it is also possible to assume a normative perspective that aims to, at the least, indulge a form of anti-colonialist and emancipatory narrative. This way, opposing interpretations to dominant meanings might be enabled through which the given disparities, inequalities, and power differences of any sort are

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questioned that has actual detrimental consequences for interests of the people. As Nick Couldry (2020) suggests, imagining – through more fictional outputs like TV series, movies and games – is one of the ways through which media connects people and enable them to gain new understandings of the world, and movie narratives that aim to create or illustrate non-dominant, anti-colonialist or anti-orientalist puzzles – if not deconstruction – warrant exploration. This opens up then the project of exploring cinematic works where privileged positionalities can be questioned vis-à-vis the narrative. Considering the potential erroneous ways where the other is represented, this chapter sees a potential in illustrations questioning the dominant subject in the cinematic practice. If the first concern of Spivak is taken very seriously, then speaking for the other is not problematic per se, but it still warrants scrutiny. Therein also comes the potential for cinematic narratives – either representing or speaking for the other – to do so in a more self-reflective manner, or for merely featuring questions or puzzles on privilege and Western subjectivity. The next section will discuss how Aguirre, the Wrath of God and Caché provide or resemble such anti-colonialist illustrations and puzzles. Another methodological note is needed at this point. In addition to scrutinizing the representative realm of cinema and assuming its potential for anti-colonialist puzzles, there is also a merit in recognizing the philosophical and normative function of cinema in general. The philosophy-cinema nexus can be understood in three ways. The first is the philosophy of cinema, which deals with film theory, aesthetics and semiotics of cinematic works. The second is the philosophy on cinema, where philosophical texts and arguments are discussed or represented using the cinematic narrative as an example, case or a hypothetical scenario. Third is the philosophy in cinema, where the philosophical features of the movie itself are questioned (Mcgregor, 2014). The following discussion over Aguirre, the Wrath of God and Caché will mostly resemble the second nexus in order to illustrate anti-colonialist puzzles drawing on Spivak and partially Foucault’s accounts, yet the philosophical features of these movies in themselves will also be touched upon.

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Aguirre, the Wrath of God: Non-Representing the Other and Rendering the Colonizer Mad Werner Herzog’s Aguirre, the Wrath of God is a story of an expedition that takes place in 1560 set alongside the Amazon River, where the colonial Spanish Conquistadors seek the treasures of the mythological and legendary being, El Dorado, imagined as a location, or a king, or a structure that is full of treasures and gold. Its protagonist (Aguirre) is loosely based on Lope de Aguirre (1510-1561), known as El Loco - the Madman. The expedition down the Amazon River while facing dangerous rapids, led initially by Ursua, consists of his wife (Flores), Aguirre (the second in command) and his daughter (Inez), a nobleman (Guzman), soldiers, enslaved individuals, a priest, and a black slave (Okello). The camerawork is especially illuminating in the scenes covering the initial stages of the expedition, almost turning the movie into a docu-drama (Ames, 2018). The story follows Aguirre’s arrest of Ursua and then using Guzman as a puppet-leader, followed by disease, hallucinations along with invisible arrow attacks from the riverbank. In the end, Aguirre is illustrated in a confused setting on the wreck of the raft, alone, with the rest of the expeditioners already dead (Figure 1). Eric Ames (2018) suggests that Aguirre, the Wrath of God “explores the madness and the hopelessness of Western striving, what Oswald Spengler, writing of the cinema in 1917, called “the unrestrainable Faustian impulse to conquer and discover” (p. 83). In light of the second part of this chapter on

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representation/making of the other, arguably, the narrative featured in Aguirre mirrors how, exacerbated by the camerawork and dream-like setting, a high degree of absence of visualization of the people of Amazon river renders the striving colonizer mad. This is not to claim that the not-yet-to-be colonized other is not subject to any visual representation. Lack of representation is still a way to define the other. Take the instance when the expeditioners initially face and encounter what may be the physical remnants of a group of people of the Amazon River. Seeing the village set on fire alongside the river, they land next to the village. Unaware of what expects them, they first push Okello to the front to foment fear for people they have never seen before. Resembling the point of Spivak on the lack of regard for complexities, differences and thus the material realities of the subaltern, the Conquistadors assume that what works as allegedly a fearful image for another colonized other or themselves – a black person – would surely also work for the people around the river. Okello is the other to them, they assume, speaking on behalf of people they have never seen. The ‘first encounter’ with ‘savages’ come very late in the movie. In addition, the visual rhetoric of the movie hints at a sensation of a dream on the part of the Conquistadors in this scene. Such a hallucinatory sensation is present and gradually increasing throughout the movie. In many acts of violence and horror, we see the killing but not the perpetrator (Ames, 2018). In one instance, a soldier walking in the jungle is taken by a rope above the trees and what follows is merely the sound of dying breath of the soldier. The colonizer and its gaze (or rather the aspiring colonizer) is left alone in the journey most of the time. Arguably, Aguirre, the Wrath of God’s narrative exemplifies how the striving colonizer when faced only with itself allow a disaster – where not only its superiority cannot be constructed, but that it is the foundational ontology of the colonizer being missing.

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Figure 1. Ending of Aguirre, the Wrath of God (1972)

The very subjectivity of the colonizer then is in crisis as it necessitates a binary superiority. Without the other, they are left alone with the self-proclaimed superiority and colonization. And once it is not

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substantiated via the other, the colonizer loses the sense of itself, and is left alone in madness. The very scene where Guzman sits in front of a parchment and draws a map to affirm he owns these lands now without actually ever setting a foot connotate with the first instances of madness in Aguirre, the Wrath of God. While Roger Ebert (1999) suggests death as the ultimate destiny in the movie, it can be also claimed that the ultimate destiny of Aguirre is madness as he is surrounded by corpses and hundreds of monkeys in the end of the movie (Figure 1).

Caché: A Disciplinary Tale on the Privileged

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[Caché] is a tale of morality dealing with how one lives with guilt. Do I accept it? And if I don’t what do I do? And if I do, what do I do? (Haneke, 2006). Caché is a story of individual and collective forgetting and guilt in the context of the French colonial past and in particular against the backdrop of the Paris massacre of 1961, when the Parisian police attacked and killed hundreds of Algerian protesters in the final years of Algerian War of Independence. The Paris massacre is one of the repressed instances of French colonial history, and as Ipek A. Celik (2010) suggests, Caché’s ethical project is to signify the presence of colonial structures existing still today. The movie right after its release was also received in the line of its social commentary on colonial violence in France (Celik, 2010: p. 65). In regard to Caché being an ethical and a scholarly project, the complicity of the scholar also warrants some scrutiny. Ruben Andersson (2014) makes this point about clandestine migration and how network of aid workers, migration scholars, activists as much as defense contractors are all part of what he calls ‘illegality industry’ (p. 15). Andersson emphasizes the fact that complicity has degrees and Haneke’s own complicity as the author of this ethical project can be put into a question. Regardless, the narrative featured in the movie provides many anti-colonialist allegories and puzzles inviting the audiences to reflect on issues of Western privilege, colonial injustices and individual complicity. In particular, it illustrates a debate about the implications of surveillance on questioning one’s own privilege. Caché starts with the protagonist (Georges) and his family being terrorized with static surveillance tapes of their private lives and in particular of the scenes that reflect Georges’s childhood memories (Figure 2). He then suspects one of the integral figures of his childhood, Majid, an Algerian orphaned boy whose parents were killed during the Paris massacre and being taken care of by Georges’s parents. In their second confrontation, Majid again denies his part in surveillance tapes and kills himself in front of Georges. According to Celik (2010), the violence inherited in Majid’s suicide reflects the repressed violence and oppression of the French colonial past. It would be however a mistake the think of colonial violence as only attributable to ‘past’ injustices. The colonial discourse and violence are still things of today, and their neglect would again lead to an epistemic injustice of silencing the existing material interests of the other. With Majid’s openly stated wish that he wants Georges to be present before he kills himself, there is a clear link made between public forgetting of the colonial past and Georges’s own denial and guilt not only for his past wrongdoings but for the very current epistemic injustice Majid suffers from in the form of Georges’s apathetic colonial amnesia during the scenes towards their past relationship.

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Figure 2. Caché (2005)

The moment Majid kills himself is an important threshold in Caché. Georges has now something not to fear per se but rather to delve into under the constant and now non-identifiable gaze of surveillance: his past creeds, his unveiled guilt in being a minor complicit in subjectivity of the colonized other. The audience then is invited into the past relationship between Majid and Georges. It is revealed that during their childhood, Georges tricks Majid into killing a rooster, and then goes on to complain about Majid’s ‘violent’ behavior, which in turn leads Georges’s parents to send away Majid to an orphanage. A foolish boy’s lie indeed - yet this is an interpretative ‘moment’ for the audiences to question the degree of their own complicity in similar wrongdoings. The very journey following this breakthrough for Georges echoes the Foucauldian idea of the power of disciplinary surveillance: putting a non-identifiable surveillance on the privileged makes him question his past, and go into this journey of guilt - especially after not figuring out who sends the tapes. This journey illustrates a reversed Panopticon so to say, this time working on the privileged for once. Georges simply stops questioning who sends the tapes, internalizing the surveillance and is function. The particular identity of the surveiller becomes obsolete – it is a silent other who merely hints at holding the information of past wrongdoings and disciplines Georges into a norm-based scrutiny and internationalization of un-rule (assuming that the norm and the rule is public forgetting of the colonial past as conducted by the French). The final sequence in the movie is one of the rare times we see Georges silent and thoughtful in the dark, later partially admitting his guilt.

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FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS Both Aguirre, Wrath of God and Caché provide illuminating anti-colonialist puzzles. However, the very Western identity of the author of such intellectual practices and its implications on representing the other should also be questioned. In addition, there is a merit in incorporation of normative and ethical perspectives in discussions over movies. Movies are not only an exemplary visual text but their complex narrations feature philosophical issues on their own.

CONCLUSION Notwithstanding the potentially different interpretations of Spivak especially considering rigorous academic jargon and theoretical inflation of her deconstruction, three issues raise here for a substantiated anti-colonial perspective when it comes to representation of the other: (i) the subjectivity of the other should be recognized, (ii) the Western positionalities and privilege should be scrutinized, and (iii) more emphasis should be given to complexities and the actual interests of individuals. In addition, as discussed, Foucauldian account of disciplinary power delineates the ways in which marginalized groups are disciplined into internationalization of the dominant rules and norms. While this is not confined to the experiences of the other for Foucault and it is rather a universal statement about politics, Spivak still sees its potential to disclose the processes of disciplinarization, institutionalization and maintenance of the Western-privileged position and norms. In this chapter, these normative suggestions were utilized to explore to what extent such concerns are illustrated and echoed via movie narratives, in the cases of Aguirre, the Wrath of God and Caché. It is suggested while the absence of vivid representation of the other in the former hints at a crisis the privileged suffers from, the latter also illustrates the implications of disciplinary mechanisms if they are exerted on the privileged for a change.

REFERENCES Ames, E. (2018). Aguirre, the Wrath of God. Bloomsbury Publishing. Andersson, R. (2014). Illegality, Inc. Clandestine migration and the business of bordering Europe. University of California Pres. doi:10.1525/9780520958289

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Ashcroft, B., Griffith, G., & Tiffin, H. (Eds.). (1998). Key Concepts in Post-Colonial Studies. Routledge. Bracke, S. (2016). Is the subaltern resilient? Notes on agency and neoliberal subjects. Cultural Studies, 30(5), 839–855. doi:10.1080/09502386.2016.1168115 Burns, L., & Kaiser, B. M. (2012). Introduction: Navigating Differential Futures, (Un)making Colonial Past. In L. Burns & B. M. Kaiser (Eds.), Postcolonial Literatures and Deleuze: Colonial Pasts, Differential Futures (pp. 1–20). Palgrave Macmillan. doi:10.1057/9781137030801_1 Carpenter, C. (2020). Power in Conservation: Environmental Anthropology Beyond Political Ecology. Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780429324659

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Celik, I. A. (2010). “I Wanted You to Be Present”: Guilt and the History of Violence in Michael Haneke’s Caché. Cinema Journal, 50(1), 59–80. Cohen, T. (Ed.). (2001). Jacques Derrida and the humanities: A critical reader. Cambridge University Press. Conway, J. M. (2018). When food becomes a feminist issue: Popular feminism and subaltern agency in the World March of Women. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 20(2), 188–203. doi:10.1080/ 14616742.2017.1419822 Couldry, N. (2020). Media: Why It Matters. Polity Press. Couldry, N., & Mejias, U. A. (2019). The Costs of Connection: How Data Are Colonizing Human Life and Appropriating It for Capitalism. Stanford University Press. doi:10.1515/9781503609754 Cutting, J. E. (2016). Narrative theory and the dynamics of popular movies. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 23(6), 1712–1743. doi:10.375813423-016-1051-4 PMID:27142769 Daza, S. L. (2013). Storytelling as Methodology: Colombia’s Social Studies Textbooks after La Constitución de 1991. Qualitative Research in Education, 2(3), 242–276. Derrida, J. (1976). Of Grammatology. John Hopkins University Press. Ebert, R. (1999, April 4). Aguirre, the Wrath of God. https://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/great-movieaguirre-the-wrath-of-god-1972 Foucault, M. (2012). Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Vintage. Foucault, M., & Deleuze, G. (1977). Intellectuals and power: a conversation between Michel Foucault and Gilles Deleuze. In D. Bouchard (Ed.), Language, Counter-Memory, Practice: Selected Essays and Interviews by Michel Foucault (pp. 205–217). Cornell University Press. Gonzalez-Sobrino, B., González-Lesser, E., & Hughey, M. W. (2018). On-Demand Diversity? The Meanings of Racial Diversity in Netflix Productions. In D. G. Embrick, S. M. Collins, & M. S. Dodson (Eds.), Challenging the Status-Quo: Diversity, Democracy, and Equality in the 21th Century (pp. 321–344). Brill. doi:10.1163/9789004291225_017 Hall, S. (1989). Cultural Identity and Cinematic Representation. Framework: The Journal of Cinema and Media, 36, 68–81.

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Haneke, M. (Director). (2006). Caché [Film: DVD]. Sony Pictures Home Entertainment. Hartley, G. (2003). The Abyss of Representation: Marxism and the Postmodern Sublime. Duke University Press. doi:10.1215/9780822384557 Heiduschka, V. (Producer), & Haneke, M. (Director). (2005). Caché [Film]. Les films du losange. Herzog, T. (2010). The Banality of Surveillance: Michael Haneke’s “Caché” and Life after the End of Privacy. Modern Austrian Literature, 43(2), 25–40. Herzog, W., & Prescher, H. (Producer), & Herzog, W. (Director). (1972). Aguirre, the Wrath of God [Film]. Werner Herzog Filmproduktion.

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Howell, A., & Richter-Montpetit, M. (2019). Racism in Foucauldian Security Studies: Biopolitics, Liberal War, and the Whitewashing of Colonial and Racial. International Political Sociology, 13(1), 2–19. doi:10.1093/ips/oly031 Hughey, M. W., & González-Lesser, E. (2020). Racialized Media: The Design, Delivery, and Decoding of Race and Ethnicity. New York University Press. Janz, B. B. (2012). Forget Deleuze. In L. Burns & B. M. Kaiser (Eds.), Postcolonial Literatures and Deleuze: Colonial Pasts, Differential Futures (pp. 21–36). Palgrave Macmillan. doi:10.1057/9781137030801_2 Kaltmeier, O. (2017). Doing Area Studies in the Americas and Beyond: Towards Reciprocal Methodologies and the Decolonization of Knowledge. In K. Mielke & A. Hordnidge (Eds.), Area Studies at the Crossroads: Knowledge Production after the Mobility Turn (pp. 47–64). Palgrave Macmillan. doi:10.1057/978-1-137-59834-9_3 Kapoor, I. (2004). Hyper-Self-Reflexive Development? Spivak on Representing the Third World ‘Other’. Third World Quarterly, 25(4), 627–647. doi:10.1080/01436590410001678898 Levin, T. Y. (2010). Five Tapes, Four Halls, Two Dreams: Vicissitudes of Surveillant Narration in Michel Haneke’s Caché. In R. Grundmann (Ed.), A Companion to Michael Haneke (pp. 75–90). Wiley-Blackwell. doi:10.1002/9781444320602.ch2 Lloyd, D. (2014). Representation’s Coup. Interventions, 16(1), 1–29. doi:10.1080/1369801X.2012.726444 Marx, K. (1954). The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte. Foreign Languages Publishing House. Mcgregor, R. (2014). Cinematic Philosophy: Experiential Affirmation in Memento. The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 72(1), 57–66. doi:10.1111/jaac.12044 Menozzi, F. (2014). Postcolonial Custodianship: Cultural and Literary Inheritance. Routledge. doi:10.4324/9781315818849 Morris, R. (Ed.). (2010). Reflections on the History of an Idea: Can the Subaltern Speak? Columbia University Press. Naiboglu, G. (2014). Beyond Representation: The Ethics and Aesthetics of Change in Turkish German Cinema After Reunification [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

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Price, J. (2014). Desiring Animals: Biopolitics in South African Literature [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Arizona State University, Arizona, United States. Ramsey-Kruz, H. (2007). The Non-Literate Other: Readings of Illiteracy in Twentieth-Century Novels in English. Brill. doi:10.1163/9789401204712 Robinson, A., & Tormey, S. (2010). Living in Smooth Space: Deleuze, Postcolonialism and the Subaltern. In S. Bignall & P. Patton (Eds.), Deleuze and the Postcolonial (pp. 20–40). Edinburgh University Press. Said, E. (1978). Orientalism. Pantheon Books.

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Sheridan, C. (2016). Foucault, Power and the Modern Panopticon [Unpublished Senior Thesis]. Trinity College, Hartford, Ireland. Spivak, G. C. (1985). Three Women’s Texts and a Critique of Imperialism. Critical Inquiry, 12(1), 243–261. doi:10.1086/448328 Spivak, G. C. (1988). Can the Subaltern Speak? In C. Nelson & L. Grossberg (Eds.), Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture (pp. 271–313). Macmillan. doi:10.1007/978-1-349-19059-1_20 Spivak, G. C. (2010). Appendix: Can the Subaltern Speak? In R. Morris (Ed.), Reflections on the History of an Idea: Can the Subaltern Speak? (pp. 237–291). Columbia University Press. Spivak, G. C. (2012). An aesthetic education in the era of globalization. Harvard University Press. Stein, S., & de Oliveira Andreotti, V. (2015). Complicity, Ethics and Education: Political and Existential Readings of Spivak’s Work. Critical Literacy: Theories and Practices, 9(1), 29–43. The Economist. (1956, March 31). New Deal in the French Union. Economist. Whitaker, R. (1999). The End of Privacy: How Total Surveillance Is Becoming a Reality. New Press. Winokur, M. (2003). The ambiguous panopticon: Foucault and the codes of cyberspace. Retrieved from https://journals.uvic.ca/index.php/ctheory/article/view/14563/5410 Yancy, G. (2012). Look, a White! Philosophical Essays on Whiteness. Temple University Press.

ADDITIONAL READING Bhambra, G. K. (2017). Brexit, Trump, and ‘methodological whiteness’: On the misrecognition of race and class. The British Journal of Sociology, 68(51), 214–232. doi:10.1111/1468-4446.12317 PMID:29114873 Chow, R. (1993). Writing Diaspora: Tactics of Intervention in Contemporary Cultural Studies. Indiana University Press. Chow, R. (2002). The Protestant Ethnic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Columbia University Press.

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De Genova, N. (2017). ‘The “Migrant Crisis” as Racial Crisis: Do Black Lives Matter in Europe? Ethnic and Racial Studies, 41(44), 1–18. Grønstad, A. (2016). Film and the Ethical Imagination. Palgrave Macmillan. doi:10.1057/978-1-13758374-1 Hiddleston, J. (2007). Spivak’s ‘Echo’: Theorizing otherness and the space of response. Textual Practice, 21(4), 623–640. doi:10.1080/09502360701642359 Hobsbawm, E., & Ranger, T. (2000). The Invention of Tradition. Cambridge University Press. Jonsson, S. (2008). A Brief History of the Masses: Three Revolutions. Columbia University Press. doi:10.7312/jons14526

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Mulhall, S. (2002). On Film: Thinking in Action. Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780203453476 Praeg, L. (2008). ‘An Answer to the Question: What is [ubuntu]?’. South African Journal of Philosophy, 27(4), 367–385. doi:10.4314ajpem.v27i4.31525 Wartenberg, T. E. (2007). Thinking on Screen: Film as Philosophy. Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780203030622

KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

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Decolonization: The processes through which the colonized entities (the individual or the state) go through a process of dismantling of colonial rule or discourses. Geopolitics: A term to describe the international and transnational power relations based on economic and geographical factors. Materialities: A term that describes and emphasizes on the importance of physical properties of socio-cultural realm and their implications for the study of culture. Normative: That relates to the realm of value-judgments. Panopticon: An architectural design of surveillance where the surveilled is unaware of the identity, location, or presence of the surveiller. Postcolonial Studies: A scholarly field in which the past or existing colonial doings, discourses and their effects are studied. Representation Studies: A scholarly field in which representations in any textual or visual form, how they are constructed, interpreted, and constitute meaning are analyzed. Subaltern: The marginalized, lower classes or the colonized other who cannot exercise their agency. Subjectivity: Non-universal and complex features and processes that construct the individual subject.

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Chapter 11

Harem and Woman From Orientalist Pictures to the Cinema: Harem Suare

Işıl Tombul https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7793-7227 Independent Researcher, Turkey

ABSTRACT Orientalist art played an important role in the orientalist knowledge base. Depictions of the East, especially in the art of painting, have created a representation of the East in the West’s mind. However, this representation is exactly what the Westerner wants to see. One of the subjects that Westerners want to see and hear most is the harem. In orientalist art, women are depicted here as if they were always standing naked for their masters. Whereas harem is a place of pleasure and delight for the West, it is a family institution for the East. There is a transition from orientalist paintings to cinema in harem representation. For this reason, this transition from painting to modern art needs to be read intertext. In this study, the refection of the harem institution from painting to the cinema in the Ottoman Empire is examined. Ferzan Özpetek’s movie Harem Suare (1999) was examined together with the paintings of orientalist painters, and intertextual reading was made.

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INTRODUCTION Edward Said (1979) showed that orientalism has a much more meaning than research having been done on the East. He treats orientalism as a Western style used to reconstruct the East. According to the theory of orientalism, the East is a knowledge object of the West. The West is rethinking, shaping and constructing the East through literature, art and science. Orientalism is a discourse and within this discourse the East is reconstructed according to the fantasies of the West. One of the places where orientalism shows itself mostly is art. Orientalist art used to be a communication tool that imparts knowledge from the East DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-7180-4.ch011

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 Harem and Woman From Orientalist Pictures to the Cinema

through paintings and novels. However, the imagination of Western artists and orientalist art, which was shaped according to the demands of the Western consumerism, also created a knowledge structure for the East. Thus, a discourse towards the East was formed. Writers who described the East without seeing the East personally, painters who paintedthe harem pictures without seeing a harem emerged, and after a while, Europe has learned the East by means of thethe works of these writers and painters. Every book about the harem has sold well since the 18th century (Lewis, 2004: 12). The depiction of orientalized women is a racialized and sexualized coding. The reader is presented with different representations of Oriental woman in a highly visual literary-descriptive style. Those who write about the Ottoman Empire use depictions of female appearance and beauty to present a range of racial and ethnic Ottoman identities that they expect to be only partially understandable to Western readers. Beauty expresses both the objects of the gaze and the owners of the gaze in a series of views and through that gaze which gender and racialize (Lewis, 2004: 142). Art has a great place in the construction of the marginalized East. Orientalist studies, which are seen as the way of exploration of colonialism, have also formed the literary art over time, the main success and continuity in Orientalist construction has been achieved with Orientalist cinema. Films about sheiks and harem have been very popular in the West. This provides a knowledge base. Therefore the Foucauldian discourse was important for Said (1979). In this study, orientalist cinema was reached by starting from orientalist paintings. In Orientalist paintings, the construction of woman was looked at, and then the subject of the harem in the Ottoman Empire was discussed. Turkish-born Italian director Ferzan Özpetek has often been criticized for perceiving Turkish culture as an orientalist. The Ottoman harem is handled in Ferzan Özpetek’s movie Harem Suare (1999). In this film, an intertextual reading was made based on harem and female representations in Orientalist paintings.

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ORIENTALIST ART AND ORIENTAL WOMAN The ideological reasons behind how the West portrays the East are related to colonialism. The West has always consideredthe East with sexuality and portrayed it as female. In its encounter with the East, it feels almost like the groom lifting the bride’s veil. In paintings, travel books, stories, poems, fascinatingly and exoticly beautiful women are depicted in the harems of ugly, vulgar, sluggish, immoral, barbarian Eastern men. Thus, there is a Europe that builds its own civilization against the barbarism of the “other” (Bulut, 2002: 25). Although many European painters did not see the inside of the harem, they presented paintings from Eastern harems containing eroticism, mystery and lust. In these paintings, the Eastern woman in the harem is more like the property of the Western bourgeois man rather than the private property of the sultan (Kontny, 2002: 129). As French painters could not model Muslim women, they modelled French women; these painters, who had never been to the East, drew Ingres’s Turkish Bath painting based on Lady Montagu’s impressions; they created stereotypes about the East before Gros, who was invited to Napoleon’s Egypt expedition, set foot in Egypt; British Bonnington, on the other hand, drew pictures on the harem without going beyond Italy (Kömeçoğlu, 2002: 45). The first examples of orientalism emphasized by Said can be seen in Eugène Delacroix’s paintings. The Death of Sardanapalus painting depicts a pre-Islamic period and emphasizes the tyranny of Eastern

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 Harem and Woman From Orientalist Pictures to the Cinema

rulers. The painting tells that as soon as Sardanapalus realizes that he is defeated, he takes the horses, dogs and the women in his harem to death with him (see Benjamin, 1997; Lemaires, 2001). The Orientalist painting art, which was used by the French and British until the 1870s, advanced. The first group included figural compositions, war, hunting, harem, bath, dance, daily life, local clothing, portraits. In the second group, there were archaeological sites and city views under the influence of ancient and Islamic architecture (Bal, 2010: 14). The travellers in the 19th century were mostly those who were tired of European modernism and seek exoticism and purity in the East. For this reason, the artists made enthusiastic depictions of a collective imagination (Germaner, 2007: 299-300). In Orientalist paintings, it is possible for the Western artist to define the East according to their own culture. These artists tried to depict scenes that they were not accustomed to in European society and therefore surprising to them. Men were shown in a much slower pace of life than in the West, even in working environments. There were scenes based on exaggerated demands such as in today’s movies containing violence and eroticism, as well as scenes of the bath, harem, and the prisoner market in which the oriental woman played the leading role. The orientation of the artists to these issues is mostly related to the demands, awards and sales opportunities they receive (Germaner, 2007: 301-304). Photographers and artists who created images of women brought up for European consumption were alleged to show either Muslim women in the harem or Jewish women and prostitutes. Almost all of the models that emerged belonged to these two categories (Benjamin, 2003: 171). Jean Gerome gave the image of the East in his mind, not the truth. For example, he turned a small fountain in the courtyard of Topkapı Palace, where no one could undress, into a bath scene. In addition, there was an area only wide enough for birds to drink water. Orientalist painters often added the figure of a black servant to the picture to highlight the beauty of the women in the bath. While this is in line with the definition of “master and slave” of the orientalist understanding of history, it also provides the contrasts such as well-groomed-neglected, light color-dark color (Bal, 2010: 18-21). Dressing style constitutes the most distinctive form of the uniqueness of a society, its immediately perceptible feature. Although there are changes in detail, the effect remains homogeneous as a whole. Societies’ dressing styles are learned through writing, photography or cinema. The fact of belonging to a particular cultural group often arises through dressing traditions. For example, in the Arab world, the veil worn by women is immediately noticed by tourists. In the eyes of the observer, a woman is a woman hiding behind a veil (Fanon, 1965: 35-36). The all-encompassing veil, which forms a barrier between the body of the Eastern woman and the Western view, places the Eastern woman’s body in a place beyond the reach of the Western gaze and desire. The practice of veiling and the woman with the headscarf thus go beyond simple references. It is not surprising that in Western discourses there are countless depictions of veiled women made in an effort to reveal the hidden secrets of the East. The veil is one of the metaphors in which the fantasies of the West penetrating the mysteries of the East and attaining the innerness of the other are realized phantasmatically (Yeğenoğlu, 1998: 39). Whether male or female, the Western subject’s desire for the Eastern other is always mediated by the desire to access the sphere of the woman, the female body, and the truth of the woman. What explains such an obsession with the Eastern woman is the metonymic union established between the Orient and its women. The Orient, seen as the embodiment of sentimentality, has always been understood in feminine terms, and accordingly its place in Western imagination is constructed by the simultaneous gesture of racism and feminization. This image requires the study of the Eastern and Eastern women (Yeğenoğlu,

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1998: 73). Because according to Grosrichard (1998: 144), after Aristotle, Europeans defined the women’s being as a lesser being than men:

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“Whether they were philosophers, jurists or doctors, the Europeans did nothing other than define woman ‘s ‘being’, after Aristotle, as a ‘ lesser being’ in relation to man . Metaphysically, she is an existence without essence, or a (male) essence whose actualization is hindered. It is something which exists ‘in otherness’, not ‘in itself . A woman, therefore, can ‘be or be thought’ only ‘ in man and through man’ - as, for example, Spinoza’s finite mode can be and be thought only by th e attribute of the substance it expresses. And just as the difference in ontological status between substance and mode means that between substances there is a real distinction, while between the finite modes of the same substance there is only a numerical distinction, so - mutatis mutandis - between man and woman the distinction is real, while between women there can be only numerical distinctions; man is to woman what substance is to mode, and the one which makes a man is of a quite different order from the one which makes a woman - just as the one of the substance is not like the one of a finite mode.” Orientalization of the Orient is a process intertwined with its feminization. The intertwining of the representation of cultural and sexual difference is secured by matching the discourse of Orientalism with the discourse of phallocentric femininity. As a result, most texts about the Orient can consistently contain sections devoted to women, harem and veil, but also various areas of Oriental life understood by female iconographies. Thus, in the symbolic economy of Orientalism, it can be easily seen that the typography of the mysterious woman hiding a secret behind the veil is reflected in the iconography of the Orient. The horror and threat of what is supposed to be hidden behind the oriental / feminine veil is revealed in these representations and through these representations. The desire to penetrate the mysteries of the Orient and thereby reveal hidden secrets (often expressed in the desire to lift the curtain and enter the forbidden space of the harem) is one of the founding metaphors of Orientalist discourse. An obsession with a secret Eastern life and the woman behind the veil and in the harem led to the over-representation of Eastern women in an effort to overcome the lack of a closed interior. However, despite this over-representation, the Orientalist’s desire always remains unsatisfied. It is the closed house space that Westerners cannot enter, which motivates the Western’s irresistible urge to enter this forbidden area. In order to fully grasp the Orient, it must see this area to reveal its truth. The mysteries of this inaccessible “inner space” can only be solved with the help of Western women (Yeğenoğlu, 1998: 73-74). Orientalists live on the imaginary woman who is suppressed and forbidden in themselves. The other is subconsciously identified with the other, and the person thus imagines what is forbidden or impossible in their life is experienced by this other. Then he punishes the person for himself whom he imagines to commit the act prohibited to him. In German Nazi propaganda, Jewish women are envisioned to live in constant sexual pleasure. Jewish boys are thought to seduce German girls. Therefore, the reason for the destruction of the Jewish community emerges. Because the German Volkskörper (the structure of public) needs to be cleaned of Jews. The puritanist Western man, who suppresses the emotions of the body, uses an entire region of the world as the screen of his projections. Thus, the East turns into a region condemned to the exploited West. Then the masculine logic starts to work: if the place where there is glamor, debauchery and sexuality that do not exist in the West is underdeveloped, then the source of that underdevelopment is femininity (Kontny, 2002: 129-130). Similar themes are seen in the transition from orientalist painting to cinema. Kömeçoğlu (2002: 45-46) mentions that more than 200 films were made in North Africa, where another European saved 184

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a European who fell into the harem of a sheikh. In fact, movies about these sheikhs are so popular that the word sheikh in slang means a sexual man. As Kömeçoğlu emphasizes the harem of a cruel sultan or sheikh in these films, it enables the European men to escape the constraints of European puritanism and Christian monogamy and plunge into the fantasies of sexual domination and perversion. The sheikh, who has become a sex idol in these films - whose religious aspect is forgotten - the West literally reveals his sexual fantasies.

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WOMEN IN OTTOMAN We see the change in the Turks with Islam mostly in inheritance law and polygamy. The inheritance is shared among the boys of the family. The older man is the head of the family and other relatives in the family. The right to divorce also belongs to the man, and in some cases the woman can make this request. Religious marriage, which is a tradition, is performed instead of official marriage. The testimony of two women can replace a man (İnan, 1982: 59-61; Altındal, 1977: 55-75, Ortaylı, 2006a: 36-37). It is impossible for this patriarchal structure of the Ottoman Empire not to be reflected in the family order. This structure divides the family into two as harem and selamlık (the part of a house reserved for men) (İnan, 1982: 63). There are various edicts regarding the dressing of Ottoman women. While Ahmed III prohibited women from walking around like non-Muslims fancyly, Mustafa III ordered them to wear dark colors. Abdulhamid II, on the other hand, banned the chador because the women wearing the chador resembled the mourning Christian women. In addition, making various frauds by hiding in the chadors was also effective in taking this decision (Kurnaz, 1991: 33). If we look at the dress bans imposed at various times in the Ottoman period, it will be seen that there are prohibitions against the sale of silk and glazed fabrics, dressing clearly in public areas, wearing a colored abaya with a thin fabric and an open collar, anybody other than women wearing gold, silver and glazed dresses, men and women wearing overly fancy and valuable clothes, women not being inappropriate and immoral (Tuğlacı, 1984: 17-22). The urban woman of the Ottoman Empire wears a hijab while going out and covers her head and face. It is rumored that the veil, that is, the face cover, passed through the Ottoman Empire from Iran and Byzantium. In addition, such attention to the covering of the urban woman comes from the woman’s desire to hide. In other words, veiling edicts without religious foundations were given to prevent the women of the aristocrat from meeting the public. From time to time, there was freedom in the 18th century during the Tulip Period (İnan, 1982: 63). It is seen that the veil was used by the women of the palace and the elite as a security shield for them. In time, women’s freedom movements would begin. Demirdirek (1993: 105) gives an example of the work of Müdafaa-i Hukuk-i Nisvan Association on this subject. This association, which offers requests that can be regarded as highly courageous initiatives according to the period, emphasizes that the veiling of women is in captivity that does not even fit what Islam wants. It is understood from Saz (n.d.: 228) that the young people, thin headscarves and the old people wear plain clothes, wander around the villages of Istanbul, where the freedom of women increases as they move away from the center of the city, the aristocracy and the palace. The changes that took place with Tanzimat in the 19th century also affected the position of women. In this period when the Ottoman Empire started reforms, the first steps of westernization were taken. Tanzimat was declared in 1839. The Tanzimat period now started. A period was started in which some

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arrangements in education, military, social life should be made and the institutions of the West should be taken as an example while doing these. The place of women in society began to be discussed with the Tanzimat (1839). In this period, changes were made in civil law as in education, and the right to property was given to women through inheritance (Altındal, 1977: 125; Kurnaz, 1991: 33). In this period, conservative-Islamist and Western views emerged. Westernist and modern group women who supported the Tanzimat saw the Tanzimat as the cornerstone of modernization and Westernization. For example, Göle (2001: 50) states that discussions are made through women. Those who drew attention to the universality of Western civilization defended women’s freedom of education and romantic love, while criticizing polygamy and gender discrimination. Those who perceived these reforms inspired by the West as a threat emphasized the necessity of preserving the position of women. During the reign of Abdulhamid II, it was decided to open idadi (a high school) for girls. Also during this period, girls got the right for conservatory education. Developments in this period took place before many countries of the West (Kurnaz, 1991: 51-54: Yaraman, 2001: 33-35). Consequently, female teachers were required for these schools. Furthermore, the life of these female teachers was reflected in literature as in Reşat Nuri Güntekin’s novel “Çalıkuşu”. The hero of the novel, Feride, is an idealist teacher devoting herself to Anatolian schools as a person who feels love resentment. As a matter of fact, in 1910, at a time when the Ottoman Empire was experiencing Westernization with all its intensity, Seniha Sultan rebelliously recounted how the West envisioned the conditions of Turkish women in a letter she wrote to a French friend. Seniha Sultan says that the West thought that the Turkish women were captive, were locked up in rooms, lived in a cage, lived in numerous female groups, and each Turkish husband had eight or ten wives (cited in Göle, 2001: 43). Ortaylı (2006a: 37) says that women could go to the market and visit the shrines. Of course, more is expected, in other words, for the woman to be in the public space as an individual. However, this would happen over time. In the World War I, women began to take part in public life with the men at the front, most women returned back to their home when men returned from the war; however, some of the women who enjoyed economic freedom and the outdoors would not want to go back and stay at home(Demirdirek, 1993: 112-113).

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HAREM IN OTTOMAN Harem, which comes from the word haram, meaning forbidden in Arabic, is not an institution specific to Eastern Muslims. In Ortaylı’s words, it is universal because all sovereigns actually have a harem; the difference of the East is that it institutionalized it. Thus, the institutionalization of the harem means that the harem is not a place of pleasure and delight, but a place where the sovereign’s family and himself stay. Ortaylı also emphasized that nations and sovereigns where harem was not seen could not be said to be more respectful to women, and informed that citing Louis XIV as an example that he had a life with plenty of women and money that made his contemporary Mustafa II and Ahmed III Ahmed jealous. Today, it should be known that the continuation of the harem in some oil-rich countries is a deviation that has nothing to do with the old harem tradition (Ortaylı, 2006b: 73-74). Harem is not a Turkish invention. It started in the XV. century in Turkish-Ottoman society. Harem existed in Umayyads, Abbasids, Iran and Byzantium before the Ottomans (Altındal, 1977: 106). In ad-

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dition, Ortaylı (2006b: 74) adds Ancient China, Indian and Florence to these. In the Ottoman Empire, it started to be applied in the houses of the pashas and viziers around the palace in time. Lewis says that “Rampant sexuality, is an old accusation leveled by Europeans against their Eastern neighbors” and describes the harem perception of the west as follows (Lewis, 1993: 82-83):

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“What chiefly aroused, in varying degree, the astonishment, reprobation, and envy of Western visitors were the institutions of polygamy and concubinage, and the processes by which the personnel of the harem were The Ottoman Obsession recruited and replenished. Western travelers dwelled in loving detail— much of it imaginary—on the staff of the seraglio, the odalisques, eunuchs, dwarfs, deaf mutes, and other exotic figures. It is revealing that in most European languages the word saray—which in Turkish and Persian simply means palace—came to connote only that part of the palace reserved for the women, presumably because that was the only part in which European travelers were interested. The more correct term is ‘harem,’ from the Arabic hamm, meaning forbidden in the sense of off limits or out of bounds. Although the law allowed a man four wives and as many slave concubines as he could afford, in fact such indulgence was limited to a small upper class”. In the Ottoman Empire, harem, also known as Harım-i Hümayun or dar’üssaade, became an organization when Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror founded Enderun. During this period, harem was run with a system similar to the devşirme (spolia) method. Those in the harem were able to rise like spolia. Respectively, there is an ascension line leading to kalfa (journeyman), usta (master), gözde (favorite), ikbal (lady), kadınefendi (lady whit child) and valide sultan (mother of sultan) (Uluçay, 1992: 116). Hürrem Sultan and Kösem Sultan, who arose from female slave to, are the first examples that come to mind (Kurnaz, 1991: 30). It is seen that Enderun and Harem are thus the two institutions that created the ruling class. However, even the highest possible position of women in government cannot give them the right to intervene in the affairs of the state, they will have authority limited to court affairs. Concubine (cariye) and gholam (gulam)are prisoners bought from the market or captured in war, as in Western society. The concubine, who has a child from her master, does not get rid of her captive status and becomes free after her master dies. Concubine is not obliged to cover up like a Muslim woman (İnalcık, 2001: 8). If the Sultan had childrenfrom the concubines who were taken or raised as special chamber, they were called ikbal. These were graded as the head ikbal, the second ikbal, and the third ikbal. İkbals were called as lady. The wives of the sultan were generally called the woman master, so they were separated from the ikbals (Uluçay, 1992: 38-41). In the harem, women read books and newspapers, play the piano, spend time playing traditional games like dominoes, napkins, backgammon and visiting and talking to each other. It can be said that harem is a women’s school (Saz, n.d .: 96). The palace has the highest literacy rate. Some of the women have very proper spelling. Thus, these educated women are set free from the palace, that is, when they get married and go out of the palace, they become ladies of the palace who keep the language and music of the Ottoman culture alive(Ortaylı, 2005a). Not all girls are allowed into the harem. It is observed that some girls fell into the harem from prison market and some were sent to the harem by their families. The concubines who came to the palace were either the captives gathered from the plains of the Crimean Khanate and brought from the plains of Ukraine and Poland, or are the beauties that officials such as Azov and Kefe starboard bought and gifted or captured by Algerian pirates in the Mediterranean. Safiye Sultan, the daughter of the Venetian noble Bafo family, is an example for this. Apart from these, girls from poor families in the Caucasus 187

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or Mediterranean islands and in the Balkan mountains were sent to the palace. The situation changed a lot in the 19th century. With a sense of loyalty to the dynasty and the caliph, Circassian or Dagestan families, as well as the nobility, sent their daughters to the palace as if they were giving a bride to the dynasty (Ortaylı 2006b: 74). After concubines, the other important group in the bath is eunuchs. The Harem Aghas, children brought from Abyssinia are castrated by priests in Egypt (Ortaylı, 2006b: 77). These children, most of whom were brought from Africa by being castrated at an early age, undergo a special education; they cannot be promoted, they only have ranks within themselves (Saz, n.d.:70). Historian Halil İnalcık (2001: 8) says that we have to disappoint the Westerners who think that the sultan has achieved what he wants by imprisoning hundreds of young and beautiful women in his harem. Harem system is a requirement of a conscious dynastic policy. In other words, harem system is closely linked to the Ottoman political structure and dynastic politics. The sultan’s relationship with many concubines stems from a political concern, his desire to have many sons for the continuation of the dynasty For this, the Valide Sultan chooses and presents beautiful concubines to their sons. Rude girls could not accompany the artful sultans who took literature lessons from the most distinguished teachers in their principality period. The crowded concubine community of the palace grew up in an unbending discipline and hierarchy like içoğlan (child servant). Harem is similar to the women’s monastery. If she had the chance, the concubine could be presented to the sultan after a long training under strict discipline. They would receive a salary according to their rank and pass certain degrees to become the head woman. In Ottoman society, the concubine was not seen only as a sexual object. It is understood from the women’s heritage lists that every well-to-do had one or more concubines. Concubines worked extensively, especially in the textile industry. Due to the nature of Islamic law, the prisoners gained their freedom quite easily, and every year thousands of concubines were imported from Africa, especially from the North Slav nations, the Caucasus and Black Sea coasts (İnalcık, 2001: 8-9). Valide Sultan, of course, had to make some political alliances with the dignitaries of the state within the army in order to retain sovereignty. The groupings in the harem against each other mainly reveal which son of the sultan will take the throne; outside, the viziers in the council, the Janissary Corps, the high scholars became inevitably partners in the games among these groups. The struggle was a life-or-death problem for everyone, as it was legal for the enthroned sultan to kill his brothers. Thus, in the 17th century, harem became the focal point of the power struggle in the capital. The reign of the mother of sultans, starting with the wife of Kanuni Hürrem Sultan, lasted for a century during the sultans of Nurbanu, Safiye, Kösem and Turhan. During this period, to understand the history of the harem who dominate the state, it is important to understand the side hidden in the history of the Ottoman state, and this has been a source of inspiration in France and Turkey for novelists and playwrights since the 17th century (Inalcik, 2001: 12).

ORIENTALIST PICTURES AND HAREM SUARE Harem Suare is a film about the impossible love between the Italian concubine Safiye who fell into the Ottoman harem during the 2nd Constitutional Monarchy (1908) and the black eunuch Nadir, shot by Turkish director Ferzan Özpetek living in Italy in 1999. While watching the film, we see many elements of Özpetek cinema (homosexual relationships, status of women, etc.). After the Hamam (1997) shot before this movie, Özpetek’s focus on a subject specific to the East brought about the debate whether he was an Orientalist director. Harem Suare takes place in a mysterious atmosphere in the palace. Clothes, 188

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fairy tales, magics, horoscopes, intrigues, homosexual relationships, baths, teaching the art of lust, etc. all heighten the orientalist mystery. However, Özpetek argues that he does not see harem as Orientalists, based on his research, and says that when the European audience heard Harem, they thought they would see naked women and sultan but could not find the sensual love they expected (see Taşcıyan, 1999). While giving the face of Safiye disguised with veil on the movie posters in Turkey, on the posters of the film used abroad, the nude photograph of Safiye in the bath and writing the word “An Erotic Tale of Sexual Freedom” on the poster reveals the Orientalist expectation of the film in the West. Although not as much as the people of Enderun, the education of Harem people is undeniable that the Palace is already a place where literacy is high. Apart from reading and writing, women who are taught music, sewing and adaptation receive an education that shows that they are courtiers when they are set free (Ortaylı, 2006b: 78). Özpetek did not reflect this much in the film. While Safiye Sultan wrote something for opera, it was understood that the sultan gave importance to culture; however, these scenes are not enough to reflect the cultural dimension of the harem. Generally, in the scenes that go through the events, women are shown in bath, entertainment, fairy tale scenes. Another issue that comes to mind when talking about palace is intrigue. However, Ortaylı (2006b: 78) is skeptical about the issue of intrigue. He does not find it logical that harem is a place where politics and intrigue are constantly discussed. Uluçay (1992: 45-49) also touches on similar issues while talking about the unlikely occurrence of the intrigue other than being in a century-old period between Hürrem Sultan and Kösem Sultan and that it cannot be more political than any other place. However, it is a natural situation for an intrigue to turn around in a place like harem. The reason for this is that in woman’s life framed by the male property, it has given her the ability to live in a limited area and to establish social relations (Berger, 1972: 46). The scenes in the harem where women listen to fairy tales are reminiscent of One Thousand and One Nights. We often hear fairy tale words, anyway. Şehrazat, the protagonist of One Thousand and One Nights, has to tell Şehriyar a story every night to save herself and the other girls of his country from death. It is as if the storyteller in the harem has to find fairy tales to the girls every night, and when he cannot find one day, he gives the task of telling the tale to one of the employees of the harem (Safiye’s friend) for that night, and thus, Safiye’s tale actually begins. At the end of the film, one of the apples is left to the audience, and we are reminded that we listen to a love story. Italian cinema magazines have drawn attention to the closeness between the paintings of famous Orientalist painters Dominique Ingres and Jean-Leon Gerome who lived in the 19th century and some scenes of the movie Harem Suare (Hürriyet, 1999). The bath and harem scenes are almost like the paintings of orientalist painters. A new holistic composition has been created by rearranging the elements in the paintings by combining lines, colors, lights, contrast, drawings and visuals. There is a hidden orientalism that does not construct the East passively but involves an unconscious and unconscious positivity (Uluç & Soydan, 2007: 49). In the harem and the bath, women pose as if to remind Berger (1972: 47): “Men act and women appear. Men look at women. Women watch themselves being looked at. This determines not only most relations between men and women but also the relation of women to themselves. The surveyor of woman in herself is male: the surveyed is female. Thus she turns herself into an object –and most particularly an onject of vision: a sight.”

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It is seen that the use of color and space in the paintings is similar in the film. On the other hand, women are predominant in the film, as well as in the harem and bath paintings. Dark skinned male and female servants serve the sultan’s women in the harem. In the paintings, there is usually a dark-skinned maid in addition to the white-skinned woman for contrast. Similarly, dark-skinned servants are seen alongside the women in the film. On the other hand, sexuality has an important emphasis in Orientalist paintings. Women walk or lie in the hamam or harem, either completely or half-naked. We also see a similar sexuality in the movie. In addition to the rapprochement between Safiye and Nadir, Safiye experiences a sensual intimacy with her maid while bathing in a bath scene. In terms of time, when we consider the paintings, it is possible to see the similar of the still life in the East in the film. Life is calm, still and serene. Figure 1. The Terrace of the Seraglio, 1886, Jean-Léon Gérôme (Dickinson, 2019)

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CONCLUSION The West is trying to explain the East with its own eyes, or in other words, the West evaluates the East from a history and development line formed on the way it created with its own internal dynamics. Therefore, an East that is very different from itself and built itself against this difference has emerged. In the Orientalist discourse, art has a great place in this construction process. One of the most used subjects in Orientalist art has been the harem. Harem is an organization taken as an example from the palace by the elite, although it has formed the family institution of the dynasty since the 15th century in the Ottoman Empire. For this reason, it is important to evaluate this family institution, which is in accordance with the requirements of the period and the state structure, in the relationship of time and background.

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Figure 2. Moorish Bath, 1870, Jean-Léon Gérôme, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

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Figure 3. Massage at the Hammam, Édouard Debat-Ponsan, 1883, Musée des Augustins, Toulouse

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Figure 4. The Great Bath at Bursa, 1885, Jean-Léon Gérôme

(Dickinson, 2019)

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Figure 5. Harem Suare

In this study, the construction of orientalist images is examined through an intertextual reading while moving from orientalist painting to cinema. Orientalist images still attract attention in the media. When we look at the film examined, the director tried to look at the subject “harem” through the eyes of the women in the harem. Even in the movie, we see women who are left helplessly as a result of the closure of the harem. In this sense, even if the director avoids an image that we would describe as the sultan and the women around him, he cannot get rid of some stereotypes. From the images of women to homosexual relationships, there are cliché visuals and themes that the West wants to see in Eastern art. In this context, scenes similar to the animated versions of orientalist paintings attract attention. The animated versions of the elements such as odalisque figures extending in orientalist paintings, women bathing in baths, black-skinned female servants serving women in the harem, black-skinned male servants

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(eunuchs) etc. are seen in the movie. Generally speaking, the scenes in the film attract attention as if they came from the brushes of orientalist painters. This may not be the conscious choice of the director, but the unconscious and memorable orientalist images inevitably reproduce themselves.

Figure 6. Harem Suare

Figure 7. Harem Suare

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Figure 8. Harem Suare

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Images similar to those of Jean-Léon Gérôme, Édouard Debat-Ponsan and Ernst Rudolph’s paintings attention in the film. It is possible to see the dim lighting, women lying down, naked women, women bathing in the hammam, etc. in the film. Of course, we should not ignore the desire of the director for an artistic use. This is generally what is meant to be done in orientalism today. In other words, instead of giving a negative representation, the creation of an image in accordance with the consumption ideology of the media draws attention. Visual richness is tried to be realized by inspiring from old artworks.

FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS Orientalist art is still reproduced in the media. There is an intertextual transition from painting to cinema. However, today this field has expanded with digital media. For this reason, this issue should be examined, from painting to cinema, from cinema to digital media.

REFERENCES Altındal, A. (1977). Türkiye’de Kadın. Havas Publishing. Bal, A. A. (2010). Oryantalist Resimde Bedenin Kolonileştirilmesi Bağlamında ‘Türk Hamamı’ İmgesi. Acta Turcica Çevrimiçi Tematik Türkoloji Dergisi, II(2), 13–23. Benjamin, R. (1997). Orientalism: Delacroix to Klee. Art Gallery of New South Wales. Benjamin, R. (2003). Orientalist Aesthetics: Art, Colonialism, And French North Africa, 1880 – 1930. University of California Press. doi:10.1525/9780520924406 Berger, J. (1972). Ways of Seeing. Penguin Books. Bulut, Y. (2002). Oryantalizmin Eleştirel Kısa Tarihi. Yöneliş. Demirdirek, A. (1993). Osmanlı Kadınlarının Hayat Hakkı Arayışının Bir Hikayesi. İmge. Dickinson, S. (2019). Four Orientalist Masterpieces by Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824 – 1904). https://www. simondickinson.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Gerome-4-Orientalist-Masterpieces.pdf

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Fanon, F. (1965). A Dying Colonialism (H. Chevalier, Trans.). Grove Press. Germaner, S. (2007). Oryantalizm ve Osmanlı Modernleşmesi. In Uluslararası Oryantalizm Sempozyumu 9-10 Aralık 2006. İstanbul: İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi Kültürel ve Sosyal işler Daire Başkanlığı Kültür Müdürlüğü Publishing. Göle, N. (2001). Modern Mahrem. Metis. Grosrichard, A. (1998). The Sultan’s Court: European Fantasies of the East (L. H. London, Trans.). Verso. Hürriyet. (1999). Cannes, Harem Filmini Bekliyor. Academic Press. İnalcık, H. (2001). Harem Bir Fuhuş Yuvası Değil, Bir Okuldu. In Osmanlı Sultanlarına Aşk Mektupları. İstanbul: Ufuk Kitapları.

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İnan, A. A. (1982). Tarih Boyunca Türk Kadınının Hak ve Görevleri. MEB Publishing. Kömeçoğlu, U. (2002). Oryantalizm, Belirsizlik, Tahayyül, 11 Eylül. Doğu Batı, 20. Kontny, O. (2002). Üçgenin Tabanını Yok Sayan Pythagoras: Oryantalizm ve Ataerkillik Üzerine. Doğu Batı, (20), 117–132. Kurnaz, Ş. (1991). Cumhuriyet Öncesinde Türk Kadını. Başbakanlık Aile ve Araştırma Başkanlığı Publishing. Lemaires, G.-G. (2001). The Orient in the Western Art. Könerman. Lewis, B. (1993). Islam and The West. Oxford University Press. Lewis, R. (2004). Rethinking Orientalism: Women, Travel and The Ottoman Harem. I.B. Tauris. doi:10.5040/9780755611744 Ortaylı, İ. (2005). Harem Üzerine II. Milliyet. Ortaylı, İ. (2006a). Osmanlı’yı Yeniden Keşfetmek. Timaş Yay. Ortaylı, İ. (2006b). Son İmparatorluk Osmanlı(Osmanlı’yı Yeniden Keşfetmek 2). Timaş. Said, E. (1979). Orientalism. Vintage Books. Saz, L. (n.d.). Haremin İçyüzü. Milliyet Publishing. Taşcıyan, A., (1999). Son haremde bir trajedi. Milliyet. Tuğlacı, P., (1984). Osmanlı Döneminde İstanbul Kadınları. İstanbul: Cem. Uluç, G., & Soydan, M. (2007). Said, Oryantalizm, Resim ve Sinemanın Kesişme Noktasında Harem Suare. Bilig, (42), 35–53. Uluçay, Ç. (1992). Harem II. TTK Publishing. Yaraman, A. (2001). Resmi Tarihten Kadın Tarihine. Bağlam. Yeğenoğlu, M. (1998). Colonial Fantasies: Towards a Feminist Reading of Orientalism Cambridge. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511583445

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ADDITIONAL READING Almond, I. (2007). The New Orientalists: Postmodern Representations of Islam from Foucault to Baudrillard. Front Cover. I.B. Tauris. doi:10.5040/9780755696154 MacKenzie, J., & MacKenzie, J. M. (1995). Orientalism: History, theory and the arts. Manchester University Press. Mohanty, C. (1988). Under Western Eyes: Feminist Scholarship and Colonial Discourses. Feminist Review, 30(Autumn), 65–88.

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Penzer, N. M. (1936). The Harem: An Account of the Institution as it Existed in the Palace of the Turkish Sultans With a History of the Grand Seraglio from its Foundations to Modern Time. London: Spring Books. Rose, G. (1993). Feminism and Geography: The Limits of Geographical Knowledge Cambridge. Polity. Spivak, G. C. (1985). Three Women’s Texts and a Critique of Imperialism. Critical Enquiry, 12(Autumn), 243–261. doi:10.1086/448328 Zuckerwise, L. K. (2015). Postcolonial Feminism. John Wiley & Sons.

KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

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Gender: The definition of sexuality in the social process. Harem: Section dedicated to women in the palace in Eastern culture. Harem Suare: It is a film shot by Ferzan Özpetek in 1999. Intertextuality: It is the shaping of the meaning of the texts by other texts. Orient: The definations related to Eastern civilization. Orientalism: It is a critical theory, which is reconsidered by E. Said and which describes the way the “West” discursively constructs and represents the “East.” Orientalist Painting: Western painters’ paintings depicting the East, especially in the 18th and 19th centuries. Ottoman: Turkish and Islamic State that existed between 1299-1922.

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Chapter 12

Techno Fantasies of East and West: Ghost in the Shell Onur O. Akşit Ege University, Turkey Azra K. Nazlı Ege University, Turkey

ABSTRACT In this chapter, the science fction anime that takes its source from Masamune Shirow’s manga with the same name, Kōkaku Kidōtai (攻殻機動隊, Ghost in the Shell), is examined and compared with the U.S. adaptation flm Ghost in the Shell (2017) within the framework of techno-orientalism. The study aims a comparative critique through anime and flm, which both allow explaining the transformative potential-efects of technology in a socio-cultural context in the east-west axis, through dissociations, convergences, and integration. It is to review the representations of traditional Western-centered thought that is deconstructed with the narrative which maintains focus on technology axis; it is aimed to reveal with the analysis that takes the 2017 flm to the center. In this way, Ghost in the Shell ofers possibilities of representation in the axis of futuristic Eastern culture with the female-cyborg character that presents the cyber-society environment, the deconstruction of the idea that puts focus on anthropocentrism, especially the ‘Western man’.

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INTRODUCTION: SHORT HISTORY OF ANIME ‘Anime’ is the name given to Japanese short or feature animated films or television productions. Animes are mostly producing from adaptations of Japanese comics named manga. They are one of the most popular cultural products of Japan that survived a massive trauma and transformed in terms of modernization after World War II. Anime cinema has significant differences in terms of aesthetic form when compared with the examples of western-style animation. First of all, animes are customarily made DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-7180-4.ch012

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 Techno Fantasies of East and West

by the traditional hand drawing method, make use of less computer technology compared to western animation. Anime directors create realistic character and space designs rather than based on movement and use various camera movements, angles, shooting scales by the classical cinema scene perception. Animes also have distinct aesthetic preferences. The history of animation in Japan dates back to the second half of the 1910s. The experimental short animations made on and after, animation examples of the World War II propaganda made in the ‘40s are the first significant examples of Japanese animation cinema. It takes the 1960s for Japanese animation to separate from Western examples and create a unique language, in other words, to turn into “anime”. Animations of the manga artist and animator Osamu Tezuka and especially Tetsuwan Atomu (鉄腕ア トム, Astro Boy; 1963) television series popularized the anime nationally and internationally. With the success of Walt Disney’s Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (David Hand) feature-length animation in 1937, Tezuka simplified Disney’s animation techniques and adapted them to anime, shortening the production process and contributing to the industrialization of the anime starting from the 1960s. Big eyes, which is the most striking feature of anime productions, is a style that Tezuka has brought to the anime genre, inspired by Disney characters. In the 1970s, many television productions of anime began to be produced in Japan and, the popularity of anime increased. Since the end of the 80’s, important anime films have been made that depict the psychological and physical damage (through the eyes of civilians, especially children) caused by the Second World War and especially the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which ended the war in 1945. Hadashi no Gen (はだしのゲン, Barefoot Gen; Keiji Nakazawa, 1983) stands out as a self-critical production, blaming the Japanese army that started the war rather than the US army. Hotaru no haka (火垂るの墓, Grave of Fireflies; Isao Takahata, 1988), by Ghibli, was again a powerful anti-war film. Anime is a large industry today with hundreds of production studios creating for both television and cinema. Production I.G., Toei, Madhouse and Ghibli, of which famously known anime director Hayao Miyazaki is one of the founders, are some of the major production studios. The most recognized, critically acclaimed films in anime cinema and awarded at major international film festivals are generally produced by Ghibli Studio. Sen to Chihiro no Kamikakushi (千と千尋の神隠し, Spirited Away; Hayao Miyazaki, 2002), as the winner of the Goldener Bär at the Berlin Film Festival as well as an Oscar for Best Feature-Length Animated Film at the Academy Awards and holding the record of being the mostwatched anime film is one of the most significant examples of anime cinema as a Ghibli production. Miyazaki’s Gake no ue no Ponyo (崖の上のポニョ, Ponyo; 2008) won two awards at the Venice Film Festival, Hauru no Ugoku Shiro (ハウルの動く城, Howl’s Moving Castle; 2004) and Kaze Tachinu ( 風立ちぬ, The Wind Rises; 2013) films nominated for Best Animated Feature at the Academy Awards. Besides, Inosensu (イノセンス, Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence; Mamoru Oshii, 2004) competed for the Palme d’Or being the first and only anime in history to compete for the Palme d’Or at the Cannes Film Festival. If the anime cinema, which is very mattering in artistic and industrial terms and offers rich content by containing codes specific to the Japanese society is examined, the social trauma in Japan as a traditional society’s rapid modernization can be read with the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The prominent themes of animes are environment, gender, youth, technology, faith, war, political corruption, etc. The criticism of post-war modernity in Japanese society and the fear of technology created by nuclear bombs are reflected in the animes in a favorable but generally compromising way in the context of urbanization/modernity and nature dichotomy. Science fiction anime, on the other hand, is ironic, at 198

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times pessimistic in the same context, but clearly conveys the forms of Japanese culture and beliefs to any possibility of the relationship between the human and technology.

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SCIENCE FICTION GENRE IN ANIME In Japan, the only country in the world to suffer from nuclear weapons, the trauma caused by this hightech weapon shows its effects in science fiction animes. The restructuring process that followed the massive destruction and the progress with the development of high technology distinguishes science fiction anime from typical western examples with technophobia. Science fiction anime left their mark in the history of cinema; with inquiries on science, technology and belief, and functions as a notable theme in the discussion of where the human and post-human / machine / other distinction begins and ends. Science fiction anime is generally about humanity’s integration with technology. It allows science fiction animes to deal with questions profoundly, sometimes using extremism as a style such as: what directions humans go with technology, how they should establish relationships with other species, and how human can maintain their humanity that has changed with technology. Akira (アキラ; Katsuhiro Otomo, 1988), Shin Seiki Evangelion (新世紀エヴァンゲリオン, Neon Genesis Evangelion; Hideaki Anno, 1995), Metoroporisu (メトロポリス, Metropolis; Katsuhiro Otomo, 2001) and Appurushīdo ( アップルシード, Appleseed; Shinji Aramaki, 2001) are some relevant examples. In science-fiction animes, we first come across characters who are right in their actions but are in opposite positions instead of distinctly good and completely evil characters. It is a thought stemming from Eastern beliefs where good and bad are blend in together. A view that is neither blindly attached to technology nor technophobic that respects nature in the face of developing technology are generally prevalent themes of animes. The difference in the science-fiction genre in the East from the West is due to the difference between the relationship between nature and culture. In the Eastern belief, nature is not something to be struggled with and that humanity positions against (Brüll, 1995: xı). Nature in traditional Japanese thought; is a regulating force, a part of which one feels included. Therefore, it is far from the Western view that objectifies nature and positions it outside of humanity. Hayao Miyazaki’s 1984 dystopian anime Kaze no Tani no Naushika (風の谷のナウシカ, Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind) can be cited as a clear and helpful example. According to Susan Napier, the apocalyptic theme arising from the political and environmental catastrophe of civilization in the anime is closely related to the nuclear destruction in World War II. Characters who try to survive and establish a civilization after a disaster can be thought to represent Japanese society that “born from the ashes” (Napier, 2005: 47, 273). The success of this anime paved the way for higher-budget and experimental ones. Although commercially unsuccessful, the science fiction Akira (アキラ,1988, Katsuhiro Otomo), which later became a legend and has been critically awarded today, is one of the most significant feature-length animations in the 80s. Made for television in 1995, Shin Seiki Evangelion (新世紀エヴァンゲリオ, Neon Genesis Evangelion; Hideaki Anno) brought a new dimension to the anime industry, which began to decline as a bold step with themes involving faith and technology, and then the feature-length Kōkaku Kidōtai (攻殻 機動隊,Ghost in the Shell; Mamoru Oshii, 1995) has been critically successful which was released the same year with similar themes. Kōkaku Kidōtai is also a massive inspiration for the series The Matrix (1999-2003, The Wachowskis), which, as its producers admit, guided the post-2000 science fiction genre. For that, the producers wanted to pay homage to the anime with The Animatrix (2003), which consists of 9 short animations made by famous anime directors. 199

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Science fiction anime producers’ obsession with the relationship between human and technology has led to an interest in the science fiction subgenre called cyberpunk. In the 1980s, the cyberpunk genre, which gained momentum with authors such as William Gibson, Bruce Sterling, Neal Stephenson, developed as a reaction to the modern utopian science fiction, which perceived technology as a tool of progress. Cyberpunk narratives depict dystopian worlds in which technology does not bring about final progress but is associated with a totalitarian order. In the apocalyptic cyberpunk world dominated by chaos and disorder, destruction has turned into an aesthetic style and, the domain of social life has gradually moved to cyberspace. Human-machine coexistence, artificial intelligence, artificial memories, virtual reality, and conscious machines are some of the main elements of cyberpunk narratives of a future imagination in which the individual is positioned in a universe full of excessive stimulus. Cyberpunk films, Blade Runner (1982, Ridley Scott), Terminator (1984, James Cameron), Johnny Mnemonic (1995, Robert Longo) as leading examples, are far from fetishizing technology as well as exhibiting a technophobic attitude. Although replicants are shown to be more real than human beings, concerns about the use of technology in science fiction universes hold an indispensable position. In narratives where the search for origins of human beings activates the protagonist, it is important that being a replicant or a machine is fundamentally intertwined with resistance. The issue of fluidity of identities, one of the main features of postmodernity, also determines the struggles of heroes. The integration of the struggle with the skill demonstrated in the use of technology makes many films in the cyberpunk genre differentiate from the conservative and technophobic science fiction films. Concerns about the social lifestyle determined by global capitalism, information density and virtual experiences; reflects on the anxious vision of a future dominated by totalitarian governments, based on class or ethnic distinctions are some of the many themes. In Ghost in the Shell, an anime that reflects traditional animes and is a cyberpunk masterpiece, the view of the relationship between human and technology is also based on the Japanese traditional Shinto and Buddha beliefs. Judeo-Christian religions of the West has an anthropocentric notion that has a certain hierarchy between human and other. In monotheist beliefs, only God can create life. So, man-made ‘robots’ can be just workers as Czech playwright Karel Čapek writes in R.U.R. (Rossumovi Univerzální Roboti, Rossum’s Universal Robots,1920) which is about a rebellion of robots leads to the extinction of the human race. However, beliefs like Shinto and Buddhism are more conducive to have faith in the peaceful coexistence of human and technology. Because Eastern beliefs have animistic roots that objects, places, and all creatures have a spiritual essence. Hence, artificial devices can also have spirits. Anime pioneer Osamu Tezuka says that: Japanese don’t make a distinction between man, the superior creature, and the world about him. Everything is fused together, and we accept robots easily along with the wide world about us, the insects, the rocks—it’s all one. We have none of the doubting attitude toward robots, as pseudohumans, that you find in the West. So here you find no resistance, simply quiet acceptance (as cited in Ito, 2010). We can understand Japanese culture’s distinct relationship with technology by the techno-animist thought. Robots, cyborgs, artificial intellgences are living things and spiritual entities in Japan society and popular culture. This de-centralization of human can be found in philosophical approaches towards post-humanist notion. As Rosi Braidotti puts it “The posthumanist perspective rests on the assumption of the historical decline of Humanism but goes further in exploring alternatives, without sinking into the rhetoric of the crisis of Man” (2013, p. 37). So, Japan science fiction animes easily embrace posthumanist 200

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positions and human-technology connections which western audience can find bizarre. Techno-orientalist look towards East is definitive for this context.

ISSUES OF TECHNO-ORIENTALISM

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A year here and he still dreamed of cyberspace, hope fading nightly. All the speed he took, all the turns he’d taken and the corners he cut in Night City, and he’d still see the matrix in his dreams, bright lattices of logic unfolding across that colourless void... The Sprawl was a long, strange way home now over the Pacific, and he was no Console Man, no cyberspace cowboy. Just another hustler, trying to make it through. But the dreams came on in the Japanese night like livewire voodoo, and he’d cry for it, cry in his sleep, and wake alone in the dark, curled in his capsule in some coffin hotel, hands clawed into the bedslab, temper foam bunched between his fingers, trying to reach the console that wasn’t there. William Gibson Traditional Western thought is founded on its basis Cartesian logocentric perspective built on dualities: the qualities are explained by opposites. The structure in which the main duality is based on nature and culture, culture is built over the opposition of self and the other. It is possible to say that upon that, the West sees the East as the “other” via putting the West in the center of the Western thought. Orientalism is the generic term that Edward Said has been employing to describe the Western approach to the Orient; “Orientalism is the discipline by which the Orient was (and is) approached systematically, as a topic of learning, discovery, and practice” (Said, 1977, p. 74). Kontny states that orientalism in the broadest sense is based on the duality of “us and the other” or “us and them”. According to him, “In the origin of such a dualism, it is necessary to seek the fact that Europe, can develop politically only on the plane of contradiction with the East, that is, as the antagonism of the East”. (Kontny 2002, p. 117). Techno-orientalism forms its main pillars from Edward Said’s conceptualization of orientalism. Technoorientalism is likewise a system of thoughts aimed at guiding East Asian countries for their interests due to the political and economic concerns of the West. In techno-orientalism, the technological progress of East Asia and especially Japan is emphasizing as a source of evil. While orientalism attempts to depict a practice of relations between Europe and the East with its general lines, techno-orientalism expresses the conflict between the United States and East Asian countries. (Becerikli, 2020, p. 1058,1060). Technoorientalism is the ideology and discourse that was formed as a result of Europe and America’s concern to keep modernity in the hands of West as a result of the technological advancement in the Far East, especially in Japan after the Second World War, and which can also be expressed with the concept of Japan Panic (Morley and Robins, 1997, p. 199). Identity definitions, both individually and in the eyes of society, are generally constructed over the other. If the other image construct with an ideological purpose, it usually appears in a lower position than the us. At this point, while Europe is placed at the center and idealized in the traditional Western thought, Eastern cultures positioned at a point where they can reach civilization as they get closer to it and, if they fail to approach given standart, Eastern cultures are doomed to remain barbarians. A recent we-other dichotomy has been built since the 1980s, with the technological breakthroughs of Japan, in a direction shifting from Europe to America. However, the integration of technology with Japan’s closed culture equipped with its mysticisms seems to deconstruct traditional orientalist dualities at some point. The reason for this is Japan’s technological superiority, which has risen to a post-modern position and 201

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 Techno Fantasies of East and West

re-defies the rules for the whole world, rather than the following modernization as in the traditional orientalist view. At this point, in the classical orientalist discourse we (the West) “civilized” and they (the East) “barbarian” conflict, while in techno-orientalism we (the West) “human” and they (East) “robot” contrast stands out (Morley ve Robins, 1997, p. 231). With the focus of technological progress shifting from America to Japan, a belief that the future is Japan is becoming widespread (Ueno, 1999, p. 98). As Japan becomes associated with the carrier of the technological development and questions Western modernity, this stimulates the West to shift into a kind of a defensive position (Morley & Robins, 1997, p. 202). While orientalism has fulfilled the function of creating the identity of the West, techno-orientalism has been established to protect Western identity from future risks (Ueno, 1999, p. 95). However, this type of defensive and othering is at the point of not being accepted in the postmodern world we are in, and according to Reich, this is cultural chauvinism and techno-nationalism. According to Reich, in the context of rapid globalization, the “who are we?” question becomes more and more problematic and irrelevant (Reich, 1987; 1990). One point where the same problem becomes meaningless as well as blurred is the techno-cultural habitus that emerged in societies integrated with technology in the post-modern era and the situation of individuals trying to make sense of themselves in it. As a result of the cultural, scientific, and industrial transformations brought by technological advances, the ontological boundaries of the individual are also consequential with expansion and obscurity. The new-frontiers brought by digitalization and biotechnology transform the definition of what a person is and the space in which defines by. Techno-culture, in this context, undertakes the carrier of a setting that makes it necessary to open up for discussing the areas where the dualities stuck in modernity such as human-machine, real-virtual, West-Eastern. Instead, it seems possible to hope that post-modernity would unite the dualities like a rhizome and open the gateway to new forms of existence. The cyborg, defined by Donna Haraway (1991, 2006, p.2) is a conceptualized form of such integration and hybridization. On the other hand, when it comes to the subject of representation, the orientalist approach to the Far-East based on techno-culture inevitably shows itself in many examples. Although it appears as the geography where many examples of posthuman existence such as artificial intelligence, autonomous machines, and humanoid robots are born, Asia is often stuck in the grip of ideological marginalization. In many examples of the techno-orientalist discourses and narratives, Asians are generally depicted in inhuman-humanism (Sohn, 2008: 8). The 1980s was a period when anti-Japanese (Japanophobic) thought was on the rise, and this is closely linked with techno-orientalism (Rivera, 2014, p.70). This historical period also has meaningful parallelism with the comprehensive existence of the cyber-punk genre in literature and cinema of techno-orientalist elements. The isolation and alienation of individuals in everyday life dominated by technology are associated with the concepts of high tech-low life, which constitutes a robot-like human silhouette. On the opposite side of this, autonomous machines with artificial intelligence also seek for their existence, questioning what makes them less than humans. In such narratives, there is almost a displacement between humanity and the machines. At this point, Philip K. Dick’s work on the determinant of the species, Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?(1968,2019) and The Blade Runner film (1982) adapted by Ridley Scott from his book is exemplary. The theme of the book and the film similarly reveals a depiction of a world that is the uncertainty of the blurring line between who is a robot and who is a human. At this point, the feature that separates the human from the machine is not intelligence or consciousness but empathy. There is an empathy test used to detect robots in both the film and the book. While the dominant theme in the book and film seems to be looking for what separates the human from the machine, it captures a twist with the debate on what it is to actu202

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ally be a human. Another point that stands out in the book and film, but also generally the cyber-punk genre, is the reflection of the dominant projections about Japanese culture on the general atmosphere. Nihonjinron, the Japanese ontological endless search for identity, is seen in examples of the dominant but equally latent aspects of culture. Nihonjinron constructs the traces of Japanese culture in both the individual and the way the living space is represented through a hybrid atmosphere that can defined with techno-mysticism. Besides, cybernetic networks create a kind of punk-alike existence, the elements encountered in the form of representation of techno-cultural structures. These punk-figures are seen in body representations, discourse, and space itself. The cybernetic networks that take over the body also turn the city itself into a kind of web, and there is no trace of nature in this techno-city environment. The city is gloomy, threatening, and alien. With a techno-orientalist point of view, the person who feels uncanny (unheimlich) in this foreign environment as in The Matrix (1999-2003) universe is the Westerner. The Western is marginalized and otherized in this environment. Yet again, this techno-habitat is almost natural for a Far Easterner. It is the case that the city digitized with hyper-reality and simulations and or existing in the cyber-space environment becomes a second-nature. This dark atmosphere of the cyber-punk genre, which also envelops the city with neon lights, often evokes and reminds of Japan. This fiction-future that Japan has not yet reached also contains a sense of nostalgia. In this space where beyond history and geography, this familiar feeling of nostalgia for Japanese posthuman individuals that depend on the web at the techno-otaku level is perhaps due to a lack of familiarity with a distant culture. This mystical culture is incomprehensible and alien to the Westerner in all ages. The representation of the future to the habitants of this culture that evokes an unconventional feeling is not that so extraordinary for this geography. East is the land of the unknown for the Westerner both now and in the past. The element that limits this portrayal of the future from belonging to the West, in which all kinds of pleasure and consumption are linked to technology, is its structure that allows for co-existence beyond the boundaries of modernity. According to David S. Roh, Betsy Huang, and Greta A. Niu, writers and editors of the book “TechnoOrientalism: Imagining Asia in Speculative Fiction, History, and Media”, a fictional world of Asiandominated future is terrifying for West and this fear appears in sci-fi works like William Gibson’s Neuromancer, Ridley Scott’s Blade Runner and the Wachowskis’ The Matrix. The U.S. adaptation of Ghost in the Shell, is heavily influenced by these works, has the equivalent techno-orientalist themes. Besides, the adaptation tunes down the most popular sci-fi anime themes and ideas on human and machine unity and existential question of being human through technology. By doing this, the matter becomes more suitable for the Western audience. In this chapter, we question techno-orientalism concept through analysing 2017 U.S. film: Ghost in the Shell by comparing with the anime through Japanese cultural elements.

GHOST IN THE SHELL: COMPARISON OF THE ANIME AND THE FILM The general perspective of this part is shaped by the interaction of human with technology in philosophical and cultural contexts and the state of orientalism in this interaction. At this point, the sample of the study is Ghost in the Shell (2017), which deconstructs traditional Western thought from some points. The general limitations that make up the analysis repertoire of the study are shaped within the scope of post-human thought. The post-human approach has been found worthy of addressing with technoorientalism at the point of breaking down the logocentric view, founded its continuum with the Ancient

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Age that centered human reached its peak with the Enlightenment. From this point on, the main objectives of the study are as follows: • •

To anatomize the concept of techno-orientalism in a post-human context To create the basis for the dissolution of traditional structural dichotomies on a human-machine basis

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Kōkaku Kidōtai (攻殻機動隊, Ghost in the Shell, 1995) is originally a manga series written and illustrated by Masamune Shirow consist of 3 volumes: Original manga (1989), Ghost in the Shell 1.5: Human-Error Processor (1991), Ghost in the Shell 2: Man-Machine Interface (1997). The original manga sets in 2029 in a fictional Japanese city called New Port City and follows the adventures of members of Public Security Section 9 consists of former military officers and police detectives. In this universe, computer technology has advanced to the point that people can have cyberbrains that allows them to interface their biological brain with digital networks. The heroine of the story, Major-Motoko Kusanagi, is a cyborg who use a full-body prosthesis to hold her cyberbrain after a terrible accident. She is the one and only of her kind and has ultimate skills of combat and hacking. Most of the stories are about ‘ghost-hack’ which is a criminal activity caused by hyper cyberization. Any highly skilled hacker can ghost-hack someone’s cyberbrain and use them as a ‘puppet’ or implant false memories. The manga’s writer and illustrator Shirow insisted the title should be ‘ghost in the shell’ because it is based on the book Ghost in the Machine written by Arthur Koestler in 1967. According to Koestler, the consciousness/spirit (can also be called the mind) of the person; is not an immaterial substance that flows independently of the body but is evolved, and integrated with it. The creators of Ghost in the Shell manga and anime embraced the idea that a computer program can also have free will, based on Koestler’s secular view of human beings. To Shirow and director Oshii, machines or machine parts can attain a consciousness/soul. In other words, inanimate/unconscious components can create a living/conscious structure. However, Koestler’s concept of “soul in the machine” has an ironic sense: Actually, there is no consciousness/soul in the machine; the machine (i.e. the body) is equal to consciousness/soul. Cartesian thought based on the separation of body and consciousness/soul/mind is criticized here. Whereas anime; marks this matter in the path of sacred and approaches the human soul/consciousness being able to transfer from bodies and exist without the need for one. The unity of the Puppet Master and Motoko in the same body is almost a spiritual experience with an angel image that appears for a second in the finale. Here the unification of the human and technology is blessed and, in a sense, celebrated. Ghost in the Shell becomes a big franchise after the success of the original manga. The media franchise (except video games) are: • • • • • • • 204

Ghost in the Shell, 1995 anime feature, Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence, a 2004 (partly) sequel to the 1995 anime, Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex, a 2002-2006 2 season anime television series that tell a parallel story to the original manga (the second season is known as 2nd Gig), Ghost in the Shell: Solid State Society, a 2006 TV movie after the Stand Alone Complex television series, Ghost in the Shell: Arise, a 2013-2015 anime television series which is a prequel to original story, Ghost in the Shell: The New Movie, a 2015 anime feature after the Arise television series, Ghost in the Shell (2017), U.S. live-action adaptation of 1995 anime feature and 2nd GIG,

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Ghost in the Shell: SAC 2045, a 2020 anime Netfix series follows Stand Alone Complex.

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Figure 1. Kōkaku Kidōtai Original Manga Cover

Mamoru Oshii’s 1995 anime feature adapted from Shirow’s manga did not gain a great commercial success in Japan but evoked admiration for science fiction enthusiasts, film critics, and filmmakers for its philosophical background and visual elements. Director Mamoru Oshii’s darker and seriously taken interpretation of the plot of the manga’s human/technology relationship in the film is one reason for the anime’s prestige. The film has its original discoveries for the science-fiction genre with its visual style that combines traditional animation with CGI (computer-generated image) method and is on realistic movements. The plot as follows: In 2029, the future-world is connected with a massive digital network and, people can join the network with their consciousness also transfer it to the artificial bodies. Major Motoko Kusanagi, is an Section 9 agent and appears as a young woman who exists with an artificial body that gives superior physical features, is tasked with finding a hacker named Puppet Master. Capturing or hacking the bodies of others, it turns out that the Puppet Master is not a human being, but a program

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produced by the government but subsequently declaring freedom. In the finale of the anime, Motoko catches the Puppet Master in a body, and she enters the body to be able to speak to the Puppet Master. Motoko, whose own body is destroyed, awakens in the artificial body of a girl, united with the Puppet Master. When the moment they unite Motoko sees a spirit for a second. At last, Motoko will continue as half-human, half-machine, half program, who has become a whole with the Puppet Master. The wedding song, composed by Kenji Kawai, that plays in the beginning of the anime finds meaning with this finale. Table 1. General information of Ghost in the Shell (1995)

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Ghost in the Shell (1995) Kōkaku Kidōtai (攻殻機動隊) Director: Mamoru Oshii Screenplay: Kazunori Itō (Based on Ghost in the Shell by Masamune Shirow) Starring: Atsuko Tanaka, Akio Ōtsuka, Iemasa Kayumi Music: Kenji Kawai Cinematography: Hisao Shirai Editor: Shūichi Kakesu, Shigeyuki Yamamori Producers: Yoshimasa Mizuo, Ken Matsumoto, Ken Iyadomi, Mitsuhisa Ishikawa Production companies: Production I.G, Bandai Visual, Manga Entertainment Running time: 82 mins. Country: Japan

Oshii also written and directed Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence which is partly a sequel. In this anime; after a series of murders due to malfunctioning ‘sex robots’, Section 9 agents Batou and Togusa find out that a gynoid company kidnapped young girls and duplicated their consciousnesses into the sex robots. Therefore these doll-like sex robots have human ‘ghosts’ and human-like performances. In this universe, the brains of all people are transformed into “cyberbrains” and their consciousness is connected to a digital information network that covers the whole city. Thus, the interface has disappeared and the cyberbrain can directly decode of the data stream. The word “dive” is used in this universe instead of “surf” which is used to surfing the internet in everyday slang. In both uses, a sea of information is pointed out, but there is no longer a structure on its surface that is navigated by a vehicle, but directly entered into it, diving to the bottom. Besides, people have the opportunity to enhance their bodies through technological interventions. Motoko replaced his entire body with a cyborg “shell”, leaving only her brain authenthic. What distinguishes Motoko from AI programs and robots is that she has a human-specific “ghost”. Human memories, thoughts, emotional backgrounds, briefly mind constitute the concept of ghost. But; ghosts that point to the human soul can be controlled by highly advanced users. This gives the information network a mystical meaning. This situation can be considered in parallel with the concept of the “force” in the Star Wars series. However, while the mystical is materialized in Star Wars, technology is mystified here. Arthur C. Clarke’s precept, “A sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic” seems to have worked in this vision of the future. “Wireless” technology that spreads everywhere and is invisible; has a magical structure by being the subject of control. At the beginning of the anime, Motoko’s jump from a tall building and disappearing into the city landscape can be read in this context. Thus, Motoko is not plugged to the network like in The Matrix series, but is a wireless existence. The anime addresses future Japan at a depressive point: people are frustrated and miserable. The city consists of giant skyscrapers and wasted, dirty slums at their feet. Besides, the struggle of many authority

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hubs has brought political corruption. In this atmosphere, Motoko feels like a prisoner inside the semimachine body and is in an identity-questioner. As such, the film carries a cynical view and criticism of Japan’s postmodern era. Motoko/semi-machine existence as representing the individual living in the postmodern period finds peace when united with the spirit of the machine-Puppet Master, meaning and order are found within technology. Here, the gods and robots as binary entities that are not imperfect and deserve perfection be interpreted in two alternatives: First, the deification or mystification of technique and technology; second, the materialization of God, nature. Both of these aspects have resulted in the acculturation of nature or the construction of second nature. In the film, this phenomenon becomes concrete as the city is a massive network. In Ghost in the Shell anime, Motoko, who gives up her cyborg body and chooses to be a ghost who freely wanders in the information network by being integrated with the Puppet Master, an artificial intelligence developed enough to form her self, appears as an angel substitute in Innocence. In the finale of the Innocence, Motoko enters one of the androids to help Batou, that is, she becomes like a god or avatar that is religiously embodied, and she acts as a kind of guardian angel for Batou, telling Batou that she will always be with him even though she is not visible. In the series, the relationship between robot and human discussed in two directions as “what makes humanity’s essence?” and “what separates the other from the human?” In the first anime, the artificial enters the human body, that is to be humanized, whereas in Innocence, what belongs to the human being is made an artificial by copying the ghosts of young girls into sex robots. In Ghost in the Shell (1995), Puppet Master searches for a body for himself and finds Motoko, who is completely artificial except for her brain, and persuades her to join him. The two become one to co-exist. The unification of Motoko’s “ghost” (that is the spirit that still makes her human), blended with Puppet Master’s ability to navigate through the web of knowledge and the fluidity to enter the body from the body has emerged an almost divine being. The animistic elements of Shinto belief mentioned before can be clearly seen in the context of human and technology relations. The U.S. live-action adaptation of the 1995 anime released in 2017 starring Scarlett Johansson as Major Mira Killian / Motoko Kusanagi. Like the original feature, film sets in the near future when the line between the human and the technology blurs. The story of the film is a combination of the the original source and television series Stand Alone Complex 2nd Gig. It also has some elements from the sequel Innocence. The plot as follows: In the near future, human organs are enhanced by the cybernetics technology developed by the Hanka Robotics Corporation which is also responsible for the development of a secret project called 2571 of a full mechanical body to be connected to a human brain. Hanka uses the brain of a young woman that lost her parents in an attack as subject of a prototype. One year later, the woman, Major Mira Killian (Scarlett Johansson), has joined Section 9, an anti-terrorist department. She needs to use a medicine to help the integration of her brain with the mechanical body and has no recollections of her previous life. When Section 9 seeks for a criminal known as Kuze (Michael Carmen Pitt), Major learns the secrets about Hanka Robotics’ experiment she was subjected to and finds her real name: Motoko and her mother. Then she tries to find Kuze, who has managed to hack into the cyberbrains to control them. It reveals that Kuze’s real name is Hideo and he was kidnapped and used for the project 2571 together with Motoko. It appears Kuze and Motoko both are the victims of the Hanka Robotics Corporation.

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Table 2. General information of Ghost in the Shell (2017)

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Ghost in the Shell (2017) Director: Rupert Sanders Screenplay: Jamie Moss, William Wheeler, Ehren Kruger (Based on Ghost in the Shell by Masamune Shirow) Starring: Scarlett Johansson, Michael Carmen Pitt, Pilou Asbæk, Chin Han, Juliette Binoche, Takeshi Kitano Music: Clint Mansell, Lorne Balfe Cinematography: Jess Hall Editor: Neil Smith, Billy Rich Producers: Avi Arad, Steven Paul, Michael Costigan Production companies: DreamWorks Pictures, Reliance Entertainment, Arad Productions Running time: 106 mins Country: United States

Kuze has taken from television series Stand Alone Complex 2nd Gig. In the film, as in the 2nd Gig, Kuze is a leader figure for the refugees and he tries to create a network from refugees’ cyberbrains. However, unlike the film, Kuze promises to refugees that they can leave their bodies and continue to live in the network he created in 2nd Gig. Because; after the wars, about three million Asians became refugees and were invited into Japan as a source of cheap labor. Then, they become unemployed in the period and their social unrest turns into a conflict. It turns out that head of the Cabinet Intelligence Service is behind all that conflict. Motoko and Batou kill him before he can defect to the American Empire. As it clearly be seen that both original anime and 2nd Gig have a subplot includes a political corruption. One of the screenwriters of 2nd Gig states that he wanted to “express irresponsibility of the Japanese when they voted for the politicians that planned to send Japanese troops to Iraq and Afghanistan” (Scally, Drummond-Mathews & Hairston, 2007, p.330) in the time of Iraq War. This self-criticising attitude is similar to Barefoot Gen (1983) which blames the Japanese army in World War II as the plot of 2nd Gig follows the situation after fictional 3rd and 4th World Wars. The U.S. version completely skip this kind of political subplots and only shows that the corruption comes from an evil corporation Hanka Robotics and its head Cutter. In science fiction animes like Akira, Nausicaä or Metropolis there is a catastrophic event similar to nuclear bombs exploded in Hiroshima and Nagazaki. The salvation comes from humble individualistic and social efforts in these narratives resembles a solidarity feeling. We can find traces of this solidarity feeling in Miyazaki’s animes, too. Kuze says to Motoko that “Salvation is possible when all the minds be together as a spiritual being” in the finale of 2nd Gig. However; in popular Hollywood narratives, salvation is always invidualistic and when hero defeats the villain the conflict dissolves. We can follow this individualistic pattern in U.S. version in context of human and technology relation. In the original anime, Motoko and Puppet Master become one and they create a new entity from themselves. But in live-action film Mira/Motoko doesn’t want to enter Kuze’s network to live with him without an autonomous body. We can find the ideological roots of this decision of screenwriters in the religious and cultural difference between Judeo-Christianism and Shintoism again. Susan Napier points out that: While the American films seem to privilege a kind of individual humanism as a last resort against the encroaching forces of technology and capitalism, Ghost in the Shell simply repudiates the constraints of the contemporary industrialized world to suggest that a union of technology and the spirit can ultimately succeed (2005, p. 114).

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Thus, artificial devices can possess spirits in Japanese culture but it is assumed this tought is hard for Western audience to comprehend. However; it’s interesting that in 2nd Gig (director of the original anime Oshii participated as a supervisor) Motoko makes the same decision with the U.S. adaptation. So we can assume that this decision also works with the dramatical continuity of a possible sequel. In Innocence, ghosts of kidnapped young girls are duplicated to doll-like sex robots. These ‘geisha robots’ can also be seen in U.S. adaptation as well. These robots have a traditional style by their gentle behaviours, traditional make up and costumes at first look. But when they hacked they can be deadly and they remove the beauty mask to reveal their ‘automata skeleton’. These skeletons have a unique design that resembles automatas of Victorian Age. In this age, Europeans were fascinated by these human-like, self moving automatas. We, as audience, encounter with a similar image in an episode of Netflix animation series Love, Death & Robots (2019). In this episode named Good Hunting (Oliver Thomas) sets in early 20th century colonized China, a shapeshifting fox-like spirit Yan begins to lose her shapeshifting magic because of modernisation process of China. Then she forcibly subjected to a surgery that transformed her organic body into a machine and turns into a cyborg sex toy. Then, she looks like a beautiful Victorian automata. In this apperreance, she seems like a symbol of Western techno-orientalist look towards Eastern women. But Yan’s old friend replaces and upgrades her mechanical body with a flexible chrome body and she can transform into a robotic shapeshifting fox-like spirit again to hunt down European man. Beautiful Yan can beat the techno-orientalist look towards her by an upper level technology and own a posthumanist position. Motoko and Yan look like they resemble technofeminist ideals, as well. The casting of Caucasian actors, especially Scarlett Johansson, is another issue of orientalism about Ghost in the Shell. The producers of the live-action film faced accusations of racism and “whitewashing” especially in the United States. However, Japanese director Mamoru Oshii of the original anime tells about this situation in an interview (2017) that there is no basis for saying that an Asian actress must portray Major and artistic expression must be free from politics since a political motive is in charge for people opposing it in United States. In addition to this, it seems that Japanese culture has no such concerns because in mangas and animes the characters don’t look like “Asian” since Osamu Tezuka’s Disney style big eyed characters became dominant in animes since 60’s. Therefore, the American adaptation became a box office success in Japan. In addition Japan critics and otakus (manga and anime fans) praised the live-action film rather than the original anime. Some critics said that (Sun, 2017), the reason for the film’s success is the dominant Western beauty standards in Japan. The famous actress Scarlet Johansson’s role is important for this issue because she has a strong sci-fi persona by the films such as The Island (Michael Bay, 2005; portrayed a clone), Her (Spike Jones, 2013; dubbed an A.I.), Under the Skin (Jonathan Glazer, 2013; portrayed an alien), Lucy (Luc Besson, 2014; portrayed a ordinary woman transformes into a super-human) and Natasha Romanoff / Black Widow in Marvel Cinematic Universe which was a Russian agent and later joined The Avengers. The 35 years old New Yorker actress is also an international beauty icon. Producers of the film tried to backlash the whitewashing accusations by a little screenwriting trick: In the final of the film it’s revealed that Mira is actually the brain of a Japanese runaway called Motoko Kusanagi with her memories wiped by Hanka Robotics.

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Table 3. Ghost in the Shell (2017) beyond Westernistic dualities

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FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS The animes, which are one of the most important cultural export object of Japan, a country outside the West but under the influence of the West; important research objects for understanding where social and cultural change coincides, and can come in the Zeitgeist. Anime series and films requires further academic analysis, especially as it provides a rich frame of reference for discussing the concepts of politics, technology and science, belief and gender.

CONCLUSION Gender, ideologies, color of our skin, the geography we were born in, our social status, the education we received: what defines us as humans? Or what makes it even more complicated: why do we need any definition? We as a human, objectify ourselves and attempt to build identity by looking through the eyes of the other, in order to be me. However, as we define what makes us by the limitations of any language or any signifier, we are trapped in a pattern. The more we look through the eyes of the other, the more we become alienated from ourselves. The truths standardized by the other, or society in its plural form, begin to define us, thus marginalizing us. While the subject of all kinds of utopias includes individuals who are purged of otherness, the basis of dystopias is human exile. We do not know where technology will take us in the future and where it will overcome the limitations of our mind and body. But the thing is, ever since we took the first piece of bone in our hands and used it as a tool, we have created a second nature for ourselves. We evolved through technology as much as we developed technology. The vision of a future where technology will turn humanity into the other and exclude is perhaps the greatest dystopia of human beings. The questions here perhaps should be about why we are in schizophrenia that fear the possible future we will create. Isn’t it possible that we choose to substitute a techno-phobic dystopia for the imagination of the posthuman future as selffulfilling prophecy? Since this is an academical work, there must be a conclusion. But, as the writers of this book chapter we are not sure there must be any. When all the issues about techno-orientalism are related to stereotyping and generalization, we want to leave an open gate for vagueness, like our analysis material Ghost in the Shell (1995). Maybe it’s better to not know where to go from here when “the net is vast and infinite” as Motoko Kusanagi says in the final of the anime.

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REFERENCES Becerikli, R. (2020). Wolverine (2013) Filminin Tekno-Oryantalizm Bağlamında İncelenmesi. Erciyes İletişim, 7(2), 1055–1076. Braidotti, R. (2013). The Posthuman. Poity. Brüll, L. (1997). Japon Felsefesi: Bir Giriş, (Tra. M. Tüzel). Kabalcı Yayınevi. Dick, P. K. (2019). Androidler Elektrikli Koyun Düşler Mi? (Tra. N. Yener). Alfa. Gibson, W. (2016). Neuromancer, (Tra. S. Oğur). Altıkırkbeş.

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Haraway, D. (2006). Siborg Manifestosu, (Tra. O. Akınhay). Agora. Ito, J. (2010). Why Westerners Fear Robots and the Japanese Do Not. Wired. https://www.wired.com/ story/ideas-joi-ito-robot-overlords Koestler, A. (1967). The Ghost in the Machine. Macmillan. Kontny, O. (2002). Üçgenin Tabanını Yok Sayan Pythagoras: Oryantalizm ve Ataerkillik Üzerine. Doğu Batı, 20, 117–135. Morley, D., & Robins, K. (1997). Kimlik Mekanları Küresel Medya, Elektronik Ortamlar ve Kültürel Sınırlar. Ayrıntı. Napier, S. J. (2005). Anime from Akira to Howl’s Moving Castle, Updated Edition: Experiencing Contemporary Japanese Animation. St. Martin’s Press. Osborn, A. (2017). Original Ghost in the Shell Director Mamoru Oshii Has No Problem with Live-Action Remake. IGN. https://www.ign.com/articles/2017/03/21/original-ghost-in-the-shell-director-mamoruoshii-has-no-problem-with-live-action-remake Reich, R. (1987). The Rise of techno-nationalism. Atlantic Monthly, 63(9). Reich, R. (1990). Who is us? Harvard Business Review, (January-February), 53–65. Rivera, T. (2014). Do Asians Dream of Electric Shrieks? Techno-Orientalism and Erotohistoriographic Masochism in Eidos Montreal’s Deus Ex: Human Revolution. Amerasia Journal, 40(2), 67–86. doi:10.17953/amer.40.2.j012284wu6230604 Roh, D. S., Huang, B., & Niu, G. A. (2015). Techno-Orientalism: Imagining Asia in Speculative Fiction, History, and Media. Rutgers University Press. doi:10.36019/9780813570655 Said, E. (1977). Orientalism. Penguin Books. Scally, D., Drummond-Mathews, A., & Hairston, M. (3 September 2007). Interview with Murase Shūkō and Satō Dai. In Mechademia 4: War/Time (pp. 330–333). University of Minnesota Press. Sohn, S. H. (2008). Introduction:Alien/Asian:Imagining the Racialized Future. Melus, 33(4), 5–22. doi:10.1093/melus/33.4.5

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Sun, R. (2017, Mar. 21). ‘Ghost in the Shell’: 4 Japanese Actresses Dissect the Movie and Its Whitewashing Twist. The Hollywood Reporter. Ueno, T. (1999). Techno-Orientalism and Media-Tribalism: On Japanese Animation and Rave Culture. Third Text, 13(47), 95–106. doi:10.1080/09528829908576801

ADDITIONAL READING Akşit, O. O. (2017). Japon Anime Sinemasında Modernite Eleştirisi: Fantezi ve Bilim Kurgu Animeleri Üzerine Bir İnceleme. Akademik Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi. Year, 5(55), 120–133.

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De Mul, J. (2010). Cyberspace Odyssey: Towards a Virtual Ontology and Anthropology. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Favaro, A., & Akşit, O. O. (2014). Zihinsel Haritaların Ve Deneyimin Dönüşümü: Total Recall. Humanities Sciences, 9(2), 11–26. Kitano, N. (2007). Animism, Rinri, Modernization; the Base of Japanese Robotics. http://www.roboethics.org/icra2007/contributions/KITANO%20Animism%20Rinri%20Modernization%20the%20Base%20 of%20Japanese%20Robo.pdf. Access Date: 03.12.20. Oktan, A. (2019). Sibernetik Kabuk: Ghost in the Shell Filmlerinde Bedenin İnşası. Journal of History School (JOHS) February 2019. Year, 12(XXXVIII), 270–303. Robins, K., & Morley, D. (1991). Japan Panic. Marxism Today, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282816826_Japan_Panic. Access Date: 20.11.20.

KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

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Cyborg: Hybrid term to describe hybrid entities, which is a combination of the words cybernetics and organism. Deconstructivism: A project to reveal the otherness that lies behind the dominant meanings of the Western category within the text. Hyper-Reality: The postmodern condition covers all of the distractions that detain from reality. Japan Panic: Westernistic dread of Japanese ascension, economically and technologically. Logocentric Bias: Centering Western reasoning in thought and discourse. Nihonjinron: A genre of text that raises the culturally and historically unalterable uniqueness of the Japanese nation. Post-History and Geography: Virtual dimension where time and space dissolved. Rhizome: Multiplicity and coexistence rather than singular, linear and hierarchical ones. Second Nature: Cultural habitat, human-made nature. Techno-Animism: Belief in the existence of spiritual vitality within technological entities.

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Chapter 13

Orientalism Revisited: Orientalism as Fashion

Elvan Ozkavruk Adanir Faculty of Fine Arts and Design, Izmir University of Economics, Turkey Berna Ileri Faculty of Fine Arts, Canakkale 18 Mart University, Turkey

ABSTRACT Orientalism is a Western and Western-centric broad feld of research that studies the social structures, cultures, languages, histories, religions, and geographies of countries to the east of Europe. The term took on a secondary, detrimental association in the 20th century which looks down on the East. However, this chapter will not dwell on the defnition of Orientalism that is debated the most; instead, it will discuss the positive contribution of Orientalism to Western culture. Even though the West otherizes the East in daily life, when it comes to desire, vanity, luxury, and famboyance without hesitating a moment it adopts these very elements from the Eastern culture. It could be said that this adaptation brings these societies closer in one way or another. The highly admired fashion of Orientalism in the West starting from the 17th century until the 21st century will be the focus of this study.

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INTRODUCTION Orientalism or Oriental Studies is a Western and Western-centric, broad field of research that studies the social structures, cultures, languages, histories, religions, and geographies of countries to the east of Europe, including the whole of Africa and Asia, and the Near East, Middle East, and Far East (Yildirim, 2003, p.19). It can be said, however, that the term Orientalism took on a secondary, detrimental association in the twentieth century. A prominent scholar who used the term in a derogatory manner was the Palestinian writer Edward Said. Whilst not the best of his work, Orientalism is probably his best-known book (Lazarus, 2007, p.160). Lewis (2007) talks about how the term “Orientalist” has been so tarnished as to become unusable ever again. He mentions that in 1973, the 29th International Congress of Orientalists which met in Paris DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-7180-4.ch013

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officially abandoned the term “Orientalism” and changed their name to the “International Congress of Asian and North African Studies” (p.223). Orientalism continues to be the subject of debate even today. However, this study will not dwell on the definition of Orientalism that is debated the most, which looks down on the East as Lewis states, and which is the most widely recognized definition of the term. What will be discussed is the fear, hatred, and subsequent enchantment that the West feels towards the East; in short, the Orientalism that is a type of fashion in which the East influences the West, particularly exemplified in the case of the Ottoman Empire and the lands within its boundaries. Europeans’ interest in Eastern culture became regular, or permanent, starting from the fifteenthsixteenth centuries, owing to the diplomatic, commercial, and artistic relations between the two regions. Merchants who returned to Europe with wares they acquired in the East, such as silk, carpets, and jewels, told tales of the mysterious East that piqued Europeans’ interest. Merchants who published books describing their adventures in the East include Chevalier, Chardin, Jean Baptise, Tavernier, Olearius, and Cornelius de Bruyn. Their books allowed the art and culture of Eastern civilizations to become better known by wider circles of aristocratic audiences, and they increased Western interest in Eastern art and philosophy (Day, 2003, p.92). Over time, this interest in the East continued to develop and grow. In the late eighteenth century, the political environment, financial relations between countries, influence of archeological discoveries, and Romanticism movement allowed Orientalist fashion to assume a permanent place of residence in Europe. Even though Orientalism acquired a negative connotation in the twentieth century, it continued to have a positive influence to fashion designers. It could be said that Orientalist style reached its zenith in the first half of the twentieth century (Steele, 2005c, p.5). French designer Paul Poiret (1879-1944) was the most well-known couturier who was inspired by the East. Between 1910 and 1924 he spearheaded the first phase of art deco fashion. This phase blossomed out of neoclassical, Oriental, and peasant stylings while the second was more minimalist in style (Steele, 2005a, p.76). The West otherizes the East in daily life, viewing the Eastern “other” as decadent and full of intrigue, but when it comes to desire, vanity, luxury, and flamboyance, without hesitating a moment, the West adopts these very elements that criticizes in Eastern culture. It could be argued that this adaptation brings these societies closer in a sense. In brief, this study intends to discuss the highly admired fashion of Orientalism in the West, in other words, the cultural and stylistic side of the movement starting from the seventeenth century until the twenty-first century.

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BACKGROUND Edward Said admits that there are “different types of orientalism” and this “cultural phenomenon” will continue to be discussed owing to its “variability and unpredictability” (Keller, 2013, p.7). Rosenthal quotes Said’s definition, “Orientalism in Western literature is a mode of thought for defining, classifying, and expressing the presumed cultural inferiority of the Islamic Orient: In short, it is a part of the vast control mechanism of colonialism, designed to justify and perpetuate European dominance,” and explains that he is not going to use this analysis in his study. He says that, “French Orientalist painting will be discussed in terms of its aesthetic quality and historical interest, and no attempt will be made at a re-evaluation of its political uses” (Rosenthal, 1982, p.9). After Edward Said’s inspiring work Orientalism in 1978, Linda Nochlin was one of the first art historians who related Orientalist theory to art history. She criticizes Rosenthal for, not attempting to 215

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re-evaluate Oriental theory in his study and says, “Having raised the two crucial issues of political domination and ideology, Rosenthal drops them like hot potatoes” (Nochlin, 1989, p.34). She asks, “How then should we deal with this art?”, then continues to discuss different perspectives of art historians regarding Orientalist paintings of the nineteenth century. Nochlin concludes, “As a fresh visual territory to be investigated by scholars armed with historical and political awareness and analytic sophistication, Orientalism-or rather its deconstruction-offers a challenge to art historians, as do many other similarly obfuscated of our discipline” (Nochlin, 1989, p.57). Ziauddin Sardar’s Orientalism defies Said’s homonymous work in terms of its content as well as the criticism it wields. In the foreword to this work, he states that Orientalism is understood and expressed in disparate ways, leading to mutual misunderstandings. Therefore, those who wish to discuss Orientalism should strive to go beyond these misunderstandings and uncover what cannot be seen, and the picture that has been distorted through centuries of myopic study should be viewed from another angle (Türer, 2002, p.150). Lowe’s seminal book Critical Terrains: French and British Orientalism “treats orientalism as a tradition of representation that is crossed, intersected, and engaged by other representations” (2018, p.ix). It was argued that her study “works against the historical desire to view the occidental conception of the oriental Other as an unchanging topos, the origin of which is European man’s curiosity about nonEuropean world” (Lowe, 2018, p.6). Its aim was “to challenge and resist the binary logic of otherness by historicizing the critical strategy of identifying otherness as a discursive mode of production itself” (Lowe, 2018, p.29). “The Orient” has been used to refer to different geographies throughout the centuries. In most eighteenth-century texts “the Orient” signifies Turkey, the Levant, and the Arabian Peninsula occupied by the Ottoman Empire. In the nineteenth century North Africa was added to the Orient’s definition, and finally in the twentieth century “the Orient” came to signify mostly Central and Southeast Asia (Lowe, 2018, p.7). Martin and Koda (1994) believe that, “The rich textiles and traditions of dress of the East transcend language barriers” and “Eastern ideas of textile, design, construction, and utility have been realized again and again as a positive contribution to the culture of the West” (pp.10-11). They say, “The West has tested Eastern materials and ideas in dress and has approved and immediately assimilated them, often faddishly” (Martin&Koda, 1994, p.11). According to them, dress has always been political, portable and “as one of the art forms most susceptible to new knowledge and expanded horizons, it has accommodated a changing world” (Martin & Koda, 1994, p.12).

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ORIENTAL CARPETS IN EUROPE Many goods have been traded between the East and West for centuries. Textiles, apparel, and carpets have been the most remarkable ones. Exports of Anatolian and other Oriental carpets to North and West Europe are documented from the eleventh century, but the decisive evidence about their influence on Europe is about 1450’s (Schoeser, 2003, p.116). Turkish rugs played a large part in acquainting Europeans with Ottoman and Eastern culture. In medieval Britain, piled carpets were laid in front of the altars in churches during ceremonies; they were not used as floor coverings. Until the middle of the seventeenth century the floors of British palaces, aristocratic or burgher houses were covered with layers of rush, grass, or straw. German traveler Paul Hentzner wrote in Travels in England that the audience 216

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hall’s floor in the palace at Greenwich was covered with straw in 1598 (Galea-Blanc, 1996, p.278). The British became familiar with Turkish carpets only after they were imported from Anatolia. The British geographer and historian Richard Hakluyt gave important information about the British travelers who traveled to East in his book called Voyages and Discoveries. According to him, in the years 1511 and 1512 until the year 1534 the ships of London, namely, The Christopher Campion, with certain other ships from Southampton and Bristow, had ordinary and regular trade with Sicilia, Candia, Chios, Cyprus, Tripoli and Beirut. The commodities which they brought with them were fine kerseys of different colors, course kerseys, and various cotton cloths; the commodities with which they returned were silks, camlets, wines, olive oil, cotton, pepper, cinnamon, various other spices, and Turkish carpets (Hakluyt, 1887, p.175). In 1518, after long talks between Cardinal Thomas Wolsey and the Lord Chancellor and Venetian merchants that were initiated by Henry VIII, eight Damascus rugs were purchased, followed by 60 more rugs in 1520. These are most likely akin to the rugs depicted in the portraits of Henry VIII and his family that were painted by Holbein (Galea-Blanc, 1996, p.279). Nearly 500 rugs were included in a 1547 inventory of Henry VIII’s belongings, most of which were Turkish carpets purchased from Venice (Mack, 2005, p.134). During the mid-sixteenth century, the Muscovy Company and English Turkey Company imported carpets from Turkey and Persia. The East India Company, which was chartered by Queen Elizabeth I in 1601, imported many carpets from Turkey, Persia, and Moghul India during the second half of seventeenth century (Galea-Blanc, 1996, p.279). Richard Hakluyt dispatched Morgan Hubblethorne, who was a dyer, to Persia in 1579 to learn everything about dying; he also gave him orders to bring a good workman in the art of Turkish carpet weaving. He quotes “You should bring the art into this realm, and also there by increase work to your company” (Hakluyt, 1886, p.126). Turkish and other oriental carpets were used as rare and luxury items by kings, queens, and aristocrats until the middle of the seventeenth century in Britain (Schoeser, 2003, p.116).

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REVELATION OF ORIENTALISM IN FASHION The chronicles of European merchants who traversed the Ottoman Empire sowed the seeds of an imaginary East in the minds of their readers. There had been European aristocrats dressing in the same manner as Turks since the sixteenth century. Sources state that during the reign of Henry VIII, the Count of Essex attended a Sunday feast prior to Lent dressed in the Turkish fashion. Turkish fashions eventually moved from being a personal choice to a more widespread occurrence in palace festivities at the courts of the Habsburgs and other reigning families. Ottoman outfits were also used in Eastern-themed plays, ballets, and operas. The Ottoman theme was used in 1662 at a dressage tournament to celebrate the birth of the French prince Louis (Le Grand), the first son of King Louis XIV; and in 1745 at a masquerade to celebrate the French heir apparent Louis’s marriage to Princess Maria Teresa of Spain (Williams, 2015, p.63). The Ottoman theme was not limited solely to court festivities in France. Similar entertainments held at the Saxony palace in Dresden also shared the same theme. A watercolor painting depicting a parade in February 1607 depicts the Saxonian elector Christian II and other royals dressed in the Turkish fashion. It is thought that one of the many watercolor painting albums depicting life in the Ottoman Empire that were published towards the end of the sixteenth century inspired these clothing choices (Williams, 2015, p.66).

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References to the Ottoman world at palace celebrations in Dresden became more common towards the end of the seventeenth century, during the reign of Elector Friedrich Augustus I (Augustus the Strong), who first assumed the Polish throne under the moniker Augustus II in 1697 (Williams, 2015, p.67). Starting from the reign of Stefan Batory (1576-86), Polish kings used Turkish fashions and armament styles as status symbols. In the same vein, certain Polish aristocrats commissioned paintings of themselves wearing clothes resembling kaftans, and holding Turkish-style ceremonial weapons, the gürz and the şeşper (Williams, 2015, p.68). Johann George Spiegel, who travelled across the Ottoman Empire as part of a Saxonian-Polish committee, was sent to Istanbul by Augustus in the spring of 1713 to buy various wares, and the purchase list included a large number of tents, weapons, rugs, cushions, and clothes (Williams, 2015, p.70). Shortly after the One Thousand and One Nights was translated into French by Antoine Galland (17041717), Montesquieu published the book Lettres Persanes, a fairytale that takes place in the Iranian court. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, wife of the British ambassador in Istanbul and the first European woman to be invited into the harem, wrote letters about the lifestyles, ideas, and mannerisms of the women of the Ottoman court. These letters were published posthumously in 1763 (Day, 2003, p.92). Lady Mary Wortley Montagu described her Turkish style clothes in every detail in the letter she wrote in 1717:

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I am now in my Turkish habit, though I believe you would be of my opinion, that ‘tis admirably becoming.— I intend to send you my picture; in the meantime accept of it here. The first part of my dress is a pair of drawers, very full that reach to my shoes, and conceal the legs more modestly than your petticoats. They are of a thin rose-coloured damask, brocaded with silver flowers. My shoes are of white kid leather, embroidered with gold. Over this hangs my smock, of a fine white silk gauze, edged with embroidery. This smock has wide sleeves hanging half way down the arm, and is closed at the neck with a diamond button; but the shape and colour of the bosom is very well to be distinguished through it.—The antery (entari) is a waistcoat, made close to the shape, of white and gold damask, with very long sleeves falling back, and fringed with deep gold fringe, and should have diamond or pearl buttons. My caftan, of the same stuff with my drawers, is a robe exactly fitted to my shape, and reaching to my feet, with very long strait falling sleeves. Over this is my girdle, of about four fingers broad, which, all that can afford it, have entirely of diamonds or other precious stones; those who will not be at that expense, have it of exquisite embroidery on satin (sic); but it must be fastened before with a clasp of diamonds.—The curdee is a loose robe they throw off, or put on, according to the weather, being of a rich brocade (mine is green and gold) either lined with ermine or sables; the sleeves reach very little below the shoulders. The head dress is composed of a cap, called talpock, which is, in winter, of fine velvet embroidered with pearls or diamonds, and in summer, of a light shining silver stuff. This is fixed on one side of the head, hanging a little way down with a gold tassel, and bound on, either with a circle of diamonds (as I have seen several) or a rich embroidered handkerchief. On the other side of the head, the hair is laid flat; and here the ladies are at liberty to shew their fancies; some putting flowers, others a plume of heron’s feathers, and, in short, what they please; but the most general fashion is a large bouquet of jewels, made like natural flowers; that is, the buds, of pearl; the roses, of different coloured rubies: the jessamines, of diamonds; the jonquils, of topazes, &c. so well set and enameled, ‘tis hard to imagine anything of that kind so beautiful. The hair hangs at its full length behind, divided into tresses braided with pearl or ribbon, which is always in great quantity. I never saw in my life so many

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fine heads of hair. In one lady’s, I have counted a hundred and ten of the tresses, all natural; but it must be owned, that every kind of beauty is more common here than with us. ‘Tis surprising to see a young woman that is not very handsome. They have naturally the most beautiful complexion in the world, and generally large black eyes. I can assure you with great truth, that the court of England (though I believe it the fairest in Christendom) does not contain so many beauties as are under our protection here. They generally shape their eye-brows, and both Greeks and Turks have the custom of putting round their eyes a black tincture, that, at a distance, or by candle-light, adds very much to the blackness of them. I fancy many of our ladies would be overjoyed to know this secret, but ‘tis too visible by day. They dye their nails a rose colour; but, I own, I cannot enough accustom myself to this fashion, to find any beauty in it. (Letter XXIX, para 2) In the same letter, Lady Montagu mentioned that how veils effectively disguise Turkish women, and she said, “This perpetual masquerade gives them entire liberty of following their inclinations, without danger of discovery” (Letter XXIX, para 3). According to Lowe (2018), “For Montagu to call the Turkish woman’s veil a masquerade is to transfer these specifically English associations to Turkish women’s society, to interpret the Turkish context by means of an ideologically charged English classification, and to attribute to Turkish women a powerful ability to subvert the traditional cultural systems of sexuality and class relations” (pp. 44-45).

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ORIENTALISM IN EIGHTEENTH CENTURY FASHION Wearing masks and celebrating festivals has been a tradition in Europe for centuries. In the eighteenth century, the masquerade as an open-air event became very popular. It was introduced as a form of public entertainment in London in 1710, and in Paris in 1715. People from all different classes could attend the masquerades for feasting and dancing. The participants usually wore masks and dominos over fashionable evening dresses while others wore all different kinds of costumes such as those of commedia dell’arte characters (Harlequin, Columbine, Punchinello, and Pantalone), nuns, monks, sailors, and savages. Turkish outfits that fascinated both women and men were often seen at masquerades with elements of turquerie, which was a popular cultural phenomenon in France between the 1660s and 1780s (Steele, 2005b, p. 3, 393, Landweber, 2005, p. 175). Louis XIV’s foreign affairs minister, Hughes de Lionne was the first known French person to disguise himself accurately rather than allegorically as the “grand vizier” of France for an audience with the Turkish diplomat Suleyman Aga in 1669. In 1670 Moliére immortalized Lionne’s act, in the scene of the Turkish ceremony in his play Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme. After the publication of Recueil de cent Estampes Représentant Différentes Nations du Levant by Comte de Ferriol in 1712, which consisted of one hundred different portrait types of people in the Ottoman Empire in a hierarchical order starting from sultan, the proto-ethnographical interest in the Ottoman Empire accelerated. The costume plates of the Recueil Ferriol were drawn by the painter Jean-Baptiste Vanmour, who was working for the French embassy in Istanbul. The drawings were done with great ethnographic accuracy. The Recueil Ferriol had comprehensive explanations of the costumes beside the detailed illustrations. The book turned out to be an invaluable guide for those who wanted to participate in masked balls in Turkish disguise. Seamstresses and artisans used the book as a reference to design Turkish costumes for their clientele of masqueraders. The illustrations were printed in color in the 1715 edition of the book, which further 219

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helped the costume designers. Sometimes the owners of the books added samples of actual fabrics and metals to show the dressmakers how should the costume look when it was finished. The Recueil Ferriol and subsequent similar publications were the visual guides for the dressmakers, and cultural guides for the masquerades of the period. Anyone interested in turquerie owned a copy of the book to get more information regarding Ottoman clothing. Turkish-themed masquerades became more common and more popular in France (Landweber, 2005, pp.181-182). In the preface of the Recueil Ferriol, the publisher Le Hay wrote that the best way of understanding another culture was to examine its clothing (Vanmour, 1712, preface). Before the publication of the Recueil Ferriol, Hughes de Lionne and other masqueraders who took the event seriously had to rely on a few private experts to guide them. Thereafter, following the publication of the book, it was possible for a larger group of masqueraders to have authentic-looking Turkish dress without seeking advice from the experts (Landweber, 2005, p.183). The marriage of the Dauphin of France to the Infanta of Spain was celebrated with a masquerade ball held by Louis XV in February 1745 at Versailles. In his large-scale drawing, Charles-Nicolas Cochin, depicted the crowd in painstaking detail. Cochin concentrated on a Turkish couple in the left foreground of the engraving (Landweber, 2005, p.183). Landweber (2005) describes the couple:

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The man is dressed in genuine-looking Turkish clothing, although a pucker at the back of his headgear suggests that it is a cinched bag, not a real turban. He also emphasizes that his costume is a disguise by wearing a half-mask with a moustache and a large nose… Her dressmaker has paid very close attention to costume guides such as the Recueil Ferriol, for her outer robe and underdress are both slender, in true Turkish style and in contradistinction to the sea of wide-paniered French dresses which otherwise fill the gallery. Her dress is belted low at the hip, and her robe is fur-trimmed, also authentic Turkish details. Nonetheless, her real identity is given away by the high-heeled French slippers that show beneath her skirts, and, like her partner, she proclaims her masquerader status by wearing a mask below her turban. (p.184) The masquerade that serves as a particularly good example of turquerie was the one organized in February 1748, during the Carnival season in Rome. French students of the Academy of France in Rome dressed like Turkish courtiers, the Ottoman Sultan, and courtiers on a pilgrimage to Mecca. The cheerful imagery of Turks presented in this and other masquerades was helping early modern France to form personal and national identities. Turkish references became evermore ingrained into French culture, and the French practice of Turkish masquerades in the seventeenth century evolved from allegorical to ethnographic during the eighteenth century (Landweber, 2005, p.176). The eighteenth-century embassies of the Ottoman Empire to France comparatively changed the old stereotypes of Turkish men as brutal despots, and of Turkish women as desperately sensuous harem residents. The presence of these real Turks in France also stimulated Turkish style masquerades to be organized in a more realistic way. People who would never have a chance to visit Turkey in person, had the opportunity to see the appearance and the habits of these foreigners. Turkish masquerades were everywhere in France: it was possible to see a Harlequin posing as a sultan on a street theatre stage and upper-class women wearing Turkish style clothes (Landweber, 2005, p.176). The Gentleman’s Magazine published the following comment regarding the masquerade held by the Danish King Christian VII in London in October 1768:

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It is true there were some exceptions, his Grace the D. of Northumberland was in Persian habit with the fine turban richly ornamented with diamonds; Ld Grosvenor was in a splendid suit of the Turkish fashion. The Duchess of Ancaster in a character of a sultana was universally admired; her robe was purple satin bordered with ermine, and fluttered on the ground so much in the style of eastern magnificence, that we were transported in fancy to the palaces of Constantinople from the borders of the Thames. (p.448) The most elegant costumes worn during the eighteenth century at masquerades in London were the Oriental ones (Steele, 2005b, p.394). Eastern fashions and costumes resembling Sultan’s clothes were available to rent for the purpose of masquerades from vendors such as the Eccard Warehouse. Certain aspects of these costumes were also embraced in daily fashions. In September 1777, the Magazine À la Mode published the following comment: “Ever since fashion as a source of entertainment was embraced thanks to the pleasure of the masked ball, our ladies’ attires hanker after Iranian and Turkish fashions exceedingly”. The fashion for masquerade outfits was not only limited to adults. In a portrait (circa 1765) by Johan Zoffany depicting Queen Charlotte with her eldest two sons, the young Duke of York wears a costume resembling a Sultan’s outfit (Williams, 2015, p.76). The Abduction From the Seraglio, an opera by Mozart which premiered in Vienna in 1782 was highly popular in all German-speaking countries; the work attempted to convey a Turkish musical style by using cymbals and the triangle to the accompaniment of a repeatedly beating, severe-sounding drum. The presentation of the work is in line with audiences’ perception of the Ottoman Empire, depicting an imaginary East formed through limited knowledge and stern prejudice: a magical, incomprehensible, and at times terrifying place (Williams, 2015, p.86).

ORIENTALISM IN NINETEENTH CENTURY FASHION

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All of this also led to a strong current of admiration of the East in the literature of the nineteenth century. In 1802 The Costume of Turkey was published for William Miller in London, which consists of 60 plates showing the elitist fashion vogue for turquerie styles. The colored illustrations were drawn by French artist Octavian Dalvimart who travelled in Turkey for four years starting from 1796. He created the drawings on the spot in about 1798. The texts were written, in both English and French, originating from works by B. De Tott, J. Dallaway, G.A. Olivier, M. Montague, J. Pitton de Tournefort, Μ. d’Ohsson and others (Bensley, 1802). In the preface of the book T. Bensley (1802) describes the work: Nothing, says the Chevalier D’Ohsson in his valuable inquiry concerning the Ottoman Empire, ought to be considered as more interesting than an acquaintance with different nations. Their religion, their history, their manners, and their customs, are worthy of the attention of everyone. The more considerable a nation is in itself, the more connections it has with others, the more important its political situation, the more it deserves to be known, both by its neighbors, and those countries connected with its government or commerce. We admire, and with reason, the rapid progress which that part of Europe, over which Christianity has spread her benign influence, has made in every department of science. It has thrown a Ray of light over the most distant periods of antiquity, dissipated the clouds which obscured with the origin of ancient nations, investigated the concerns of those which have risen from their ashes, while the spirit of inquiry

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has hitherto scarcely reached a nation, which sprang up on the borders of the Caspian Sea in the thirteenth century, and has, for near 400 years, acquired the possession of, and still reigns over, the most beautiful part of Europe, while its forces have often thrown terror into the most powerful of its neighbors. It is, indeed as Monsieur D’Ohsson justly observes, very difficult to penetrate the thick clouds, which surround this uncommunicative nation. The prejudices of religion have raised a barrier, which has been still farther strengthened by physical, moral, and political causes. The present work, then, has at least the merit of being both interesting and valuable as to its objects; and these objects are, to delineate with fidelity the various modes of dress and peculiarity of customs now existing among this singular nation, and its various dependencies; and to accompany such portraits with appropriate and accurate descriptions. With respect to the latter division, much is not to be expected from the very narrow limits, to which it was necessary to confine the descriptive part of this work. But it was impossible to enter more in detail upon the subject, without writing almost a volume instead of a page. The merits of this work depend upon the accuracy and beauty of the drawings and the truth of the coloring; and for other inquiries we must have recourse to the laborious and curious researches of D’Ohsson, D’Herbelot, Dallaway, Oliver, Tott, Montague, Tournefort, and various other writers. (para 1-4) The masquerades had gone out of fashion by the 1820’s; however, fancy balls given in private houses or organized as large-scale civic fund-raising events became fashionable during the nineteenth century. The outfits for these events were inspired by either historical characters, peasant dress or Turkish and Greek dress. The lists and detailed information of these costumes were published in periodicals. The World of Fashion and Continental Feuilletons, published between 1824-1851, was one such magazine that included plates of historical or foreign garments for inspiration (Steele, 2005b, p.3). In the October 1831 issue of the magazine Turkish costume was described as follows:

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White silk trousers, figured in bias stripes of lilac, over which is a caftan of blue moire, trimmed up the front, and round the border, in bright and dead gold. The loose robe worn over the caftan, and much shorter than it, is a rose-colored satin, bordered to correspond. Mameluke sleeves, lined with white satin, and terminating in a deep point; it is bordered, but in a lighter manner, with gold to correspond. The corsage is attached to the trousers, which is of plain white satin, cut rather low, and lightly bordered with gold. Headdress, a turban of white and gold tissue, ornamented with a bird of paradise and gold fringe; gold gauze veil; rose-colored satin slippers; necklace of large pearls. This dress is the usual costume of the favorite Sultana of Hussein, Ex-Dey of Algiers. (p.225) Orientalism was an influence on various aspects of daily life and art, including painting. The Orientalist art movement began in 1798 with Napoleon’s campaign in Egypt and developed considerably in the nineteenth century. It can be said that this movement came to an end when World War I started in 1914 (Eczacıbaşı Sanat Ansiklopedisi 3, 1997, p.1389). Orientalism was also an influence on many of the applied arts, such as architecture and furniture design. In the mid-nineteenth century, with the publication of writings by the French author Theophile Gautier, the term Orientalism began to be used to refer to paintings that depicted the East (Bal, 2010, p.13). According to Rosenthal (1982) “Orientalist

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art should not be confused with Oriental art: It represents the European artist’s view of an unfamiliar culture, rather than a view of that culture from within” (p. 8). For the most part, the first Orientalist painters did not visit the Orient themselves; they did their paintings based only on the impressions they gained from books. Although these first paintings were imaginative, later works started to become more realistic when the artists began visiting the Orient (Ozkavruk Adanır&İleri, 2013, p. 71). Some of the Orientalist painters spent a significant amount of time in the Orient. This Orient of the nineteenth century covered the Islamic world, especially the places within the boundaries of the Ottoman Empire and the Arab countries of North Africa. If these latter paintings are considered to be documentary records of the Near East, it should be taken into consideration that it shows the Islamic world from a Western point of view (Rosenthal,1982 pp.8-9). In 1829, Victor Hugo published his work Les Orientales, indicating that the Islamic world was a widespread obsession for thoughts and dreams alike, and stating in the book’s prologue that the era of Louis XIV had been Hellenistic, whilst the present era was Orientalist (Germaner&İnankur, 2008, p.36; Day, 2003, p.92). Throughout the nineteenth century, Orientalist paintings were sought after in Europe, the United States, and the Near East thanks to exhibitions and albums funded by public and private art galleries in Paris and London. They were especially popular amongst wealthy bankers and capitalists in the postIndustrial Revolution period (Eczacıbaşı Sanat Ansiklopedisi 3, 1997, p.1389). In his book Turkey and the Crimean War: A Narrative of Historical Events, Adolphus Slade (1867) states that the influence of Turkish fashions in Europe in this century went beyond clothing to include many aspects of life, going as far as to impact battle tactics and equipment (p.194). Although historic and exotic influences were dominant throughout the nineteenth century, starting from the 1850s Japanese-inspired styles became much more popular than Indian, Chinese, and Ottomaninspired ones. Loosely draped home wear garments inspired by the kimono were fashionable among both men and women (Cole&Deihl, 2015, pp.40-41). In short, the fashionable oriental objects of the nineteenth century were cashmere shawls, fez caps, kimonos, and silk fabrics (Steele, 2005b, p.102). Universal expositions and the colonial exchange made all these goods more available to the people in the West. The July 20, 1867 issue of the French journal L’Illustration mentions the Paris Universal Exposition, noting that, “Dreamers of travels, those who are attached by the short chain of their jobs and who dream of excursions on the banks of Nile or Bosphorus… now have no reason to complain. If they cannot go to the Orient, the Orient has come to them” (Martin&Koda, 1994, p.12).

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ORIENTALISM IN TWENTIETH CENTURY FASHION Despite the negative connotation that it took on in the twentieth century, Orientalism continued to positively impact Western fashion designers, reaching an apex in the first half of the century (Steele, 2005c, p.5.) Even though there were signs of modernization, Orientalism remained one of the most inspirational styles of the 1910s. This time the influence was not coming only from the Ottoman Empire: rather, it comprised a broader geography such as Turkey, North Africa, Egypt, Persia, and the Far East. Léon Bakst (1866-1924), who was the costume and set designer for the dance company Ballet Russes, directly associated with Orientalism. The company’s productions included ballets such as Cleopatra (1909), Scheherazade (1910), a rewriting of One Thousand One Nights, and The Blue God (1912), which 223

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 Orientalism Revisited

had Eastern and Orientalist themes (Fogg, 2013, p.215). After the performance of Scheherazade at the Paris Opera in June 1910, Bakst’s designs had an immediate effect on fashion and the arts. The year 1910 is considered by many to be the milestone for Orientalism in Western fashion (Steele, 2005c, p.45). French designer Paul Poiret (1879-1944) was the most well-known couturier who was inspired by the East. He was known as the King of Fashion in the United States and Le Magnifique in Paris. In 1898 he started to work as a junior assistant for the couturier Jacques Doucet. After he completed his military service, he continued his career at the House of Worth. Even though the House of Worth was sometimes criticized in the press regarding its conservativeness, it was still the main source of sophisticated design at the time (Polan&Tredre, 2009, p.21, Cole&Deihl, 2015, p.87). The first signals of Poiret’s great interest in Orientalism revealed themselves when he designed an Orientalist style coat for the Russian Princess Bariatinsky. The Princess was very upset with the piece, and Poiret was forced to leave the House of Worth. In 1903, with the support of his mother, Poiret responded to this situation by opening his own fashion house. Between 1910 and 1924, Poiret led the first phase of art deco fashion. This phase was largely based on a mélange of neoclassical, Oriental, and peasant origins whereas minimalism was at the forefront of the second phase (Steele, vol:1, 2005, p.76). Steele (2005a) refers to “Paul Poiret’s use of the tunic shape and updating old-fashioned styles with exotic harem pants and veils wrapped around the body in the 1920s” (p.338) in describing the essence of this movement. Chinese influences were also visible in his designs. One of the most common and well-known symbols of China in the West was the architectural style of “the pagoda”, which was adapted to garment design. “In the teens, dress emulated the tiered form, as the shifting silhouette moved away from the body and became an abstracted tube or cone comparable to axioms of Cubism and Futurism” (Martin&Koda, 1994, 25). China’s image in Europe was always more dreamlike than real (Martin&Koda, 1994, 18). Poiret was inspired by the Ballet Russes and designed costumes based on Middle Eastern and Asian patterns, usually with the use of turbans (Steele, 2005b, p.102). He also preferred to use turbans wound in a variety of styles as a women’s accessory (Fogg, 2013:215). In June 1911, he organized ‘The Thousand and Second Night’ party where all his guests and fashion mannequins wore Oriental costumes. The party served as a particularly a perfect example of Orientalism of the time (Polan&Tredre, 2009, p.22; Gueneli, 2017, p. 450). In the wake of Paul Poiret, the considerable influence of Orientalism continued to make itself evident in the creations of fashion designers such as Joseph Abboud, Kaffe Fasset, John Galliano, Rifat Ozbek, and Valentino. (Steele, 2005a, p.338). Moreover, the shoe designer Salvatore Ferragamo was also inspired by Orientalism in some of his designs. Italian shoe designer Salvatore Ferragamo (1898-1960) was one of the most innovative shoe designers in the world. He designed all types of shoes for every occasion such as, ankle boots, moccasins, laced shoes, Oxford brogues, stilettoes, and Oriental mules. He created upwards of 20,000 styles over the course of his professional career. During the war years when he could not find enough leather, he used the materials that were at hand, such as cork, crocheted cellophane, plaited raffia, rubber, fish skins, felt and hemp instead. He was inspired by past fashions, cultures, Hollywood, Oriental clothing, and classical styling. (Benbow-Pfalzgraf&Martin, 2002, pp.226-27; Cole&Deihl, 2015, p.200). In 1938 when the Oriental theme was in vogue, he created a unique pointed toe shoe which he called the Oriental mule. He had 350 patents, including shoes with heels fabricated in steel and the Oriental mule (Benbow-Pfalzgraf&Martin, 2002, pp.226-27; Steele, 2005b, 79). The inspirations for American knitwear designer Kaffe Fasset (born 1937), come from Oriental sources such as Turkish kilims, Islamic tiles, Chinese pots, and Indian miniatures. In his early designs 224

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he used small geometric motifs which were inspired by Oriental carpets (Benbow-Pfalzgraf&Martin, 2002; pp.215-16, Steele, 2005b, 310). During the 1980s Italian fashion designer Valentino (born 1932) developed a signature set of styles, including “the body-sculpting complex pleating, the oriental inspired embroideries and art deco appliqué work, his beloved animal prints and his sophisticated colour combinations” (Polan&Tredre, 2009, p.131). His suit of beige silk chiffon embroidered with red-and-gold sequins, from his fall-winter collection of 1990-91, has embroidered pagodas and palms inspired by Chinese and Japanese lacquers. Valentino is quoted as saying, “All manner of things may attract me: Hungary, Bavaria in Ludwig’s day, China, or some kitschy show I happened to see in a far land” (Martin&Koda, 1994, 25), confirming the role of Orientalism in his work. American fashion designer Joseph Abboud (born 1950) has been collecting Turkish flatwoven rugs (kilim) since the 1960s. From time to time the influence of the stylized geometric motifs of these kilims with their soft earth tones become apparent in his collections (Benbow-Pfalzgraf&Martin, 2002, pp.1-2). Nick Remsen (2019) describes Abboud’s 2019 fall menswear collection in Vogue magazine:

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The clothes, too, had a sense of historical homage apparent. Layered tailoring, well-worn-in tweeds, mismatched button embellishments, capes, raw edges, and rough washes were all notable, though a more condensed edit would have made for a stronger impression. Kilim-rug patches stood out, as did nostalgic prints of flowers—there was plenty of artisanal, nonindustrial charm. (para 3) Fashion designer Rifat Ozbek was born in 1953 in Istanbul, Turkey. He says, “My collections always have an element of ethnic and modern feeling” (as cited in Benbow-Pfalzgraf &Martin, 2002, p.524). According to Benbow-Pfalzgraf and Martin (2002), “One of Britain’s few truly international designers, Rifat Ozbek draws on London street style and his own Turkish origins to produce sophisticated clothes that successfully amalgamate diverse sources and keep him at the forefront of new developments in style” (p.524). After graduating from Central Saint Martin’s School of Art, he worked for Monsoon, known for its production of garments made from Indian fabrics and creating styles inspired by non-Western origins (Kelloog, et al, 2002, p.237). Ozbek was known in the mid-1980s for combining unusual fabrics, motifs, and shapes from various cultures. His floral women’s fragrance “Ozbek” was launched in 1995 in a bottle shaped like a Turkish minaret. He said, “I wanted something traditional yet modern… I wanted it to be quite floral, but not too strong. It is supposed to be very feminine and sensual” (Benbow-Pfalzgraf &Martin, 2002, p.524). In the 1994 “Orientalism Visions of the East in Western Dress” exhibition held at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Rıfat Ozbeks’s fur-trimmed gray satin and pink silk taffeta evening ensemble was also among the exhibited garments. Fur trim is an authentic Turkish dress detail which can be clearly seen in Charles-Nicholas Cochin’s large scale drawing, from 1745. The curator Richard Martin and the associate curator Harold Koda (1994) described the dress: Ozbek creates a dramatic, bandstand Turquerie. The narrow top is based on a Turkish military overvest, and the bubble skirt evokes the ballooning legs of Zouave pants. By the 1990s, some inhibitions haunt such hyperbolic Orientalism, associated by some with the politics of imperialism. Ozbek born in Turkey and living in England, accepts the possibilities an interpretive challenge of an overt exotism without the onus of political judgment. (p.71)

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Oriental influences are always obvious in British designer John Galliano’s (born 1960) collections as well. Colin McDowell mentions Galliano’s enthusiasm for historicism and Orientalism in his 1997 biography (Polan&Tredre, 2009, pp.211-212). Moreover, in Galliano’s spring/summer 1997 collection, it is prominently noted that “Galliano took classic Dior themes and spun them together with exotic African Masai tribal forms to create silk evening dresses accented with colorful beaded choker necklaces” (Benbow-Pfalzgraf &Martin, 2002, p.256). In an April 2015 interview, Andrew Bolton asked, “You have found China to be a recurrent source of inspiration in your work. What drew you to China initially?”, to which Galliano replied, I was fascinated with the culture. In retrospect, I think it was because I knew very little about it. Before I visited China, it was the fantasy that drew me to it, the sense of danger and mystery conveyed through Hollywood. Much later, I learned more about the real China through research—paintings, literature, architecture. My design process involves in-depth research, and I make a scrapbook for every collection with images that show my current thinking. But, yes, my initial interest in China was fueled by movies, by their fantasized and romanticized portrayals. (Guiducci, 2015) Galliano interprets exotic and historical looks, inspired by his travels, museum exhibitions, research in libraries, and archives. Steele (2005b) says, “His approach has been described variously as magpielike, history-book plundering, romantic escapism, and postmodern pastiche.” (p.125)

FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS Orientalism, which has been influencing the West for centuries in literature, fashion, music, photography, and painting, is a broad field of research that includes social structures, cultures, languages, histories, religions, and geographies of countries to the east of Europe, including the whole of Africa and Asia, and the Near East, Middle East, and Far East. Orientalism can be studied with an integration of different disciplines regarding this huge research field. In this study, Orientalism as fashion is analyzed and interpreted from a point of view outside of the mainstream. Considering that Orientalism is still influencing twenty-first century designers, it is reasonable to conclude that researchers will continue to have ample opportunity to study this evolving phenomenon.

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CONCLUSION The rich textiles, traditions of attire, design ideas, and construction of Eastern garments have been taken into notice repeatedly as a positive contribution to Western culture. According to Martin and Koda (1994), textiles and garments were “a part of the economic system that adventuring created and colonialism sustained. – one cannot exculpate clothing from these cultural and economic destinies and defilements. But one can realize that clothing has served to consolidate more than to segregate” (p.11). The Oriental world was described in an erotic and sexist way in most of seventeenth and eighteenthcentury travelogues. Lady Montagu criticized the representation of the Oriental women by Western men and challenged the received representation of Turkish society provided by seventeenth- and eighteenthcentury travel literature. This dichotomy can be seen in Orientalist paintings as well. In most nineteenth 226

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century Orientalist paintings, Western artists created an Orientalist culture based on exotism and Orientalist sex symbols. Gueneli (2017) argues that, “Orientalist paintings often depict women sitting/lying on exotic cushions, or other fabrics such as silk and velvet, decorated with what are assumed to be oriental designs and patterns” (p.446). Ingres’s picture, the so-called ‘La Grande Odalisque’ (1814), where he depicted a harem girl, stands as a typical example of the imaginary and visual eroticism in Orientalist paintings. According to Rosenthal (1982), “The artist transformed the nude into a specifically Oriental subject by the addition of a few accessories: a multicolored headdress, a peacock feather fan, a nargile, and a Turkish incense burner” (p.52). These details imply an eroticized context for Oriental women fantasied by Western men. To conclude, Orientalism has been influencing the West, or the West has been inspired by Orientalism, for centuries whether the subject is literature, painting, or fashion. It could be said that the rich textiles and attire traditions of the East/Oriental have reshaped Western dress. There have been so many conflicts, arguments and even wars among these two cultures for centuries, but the influence of textiles and garments has always been a positive aspect of the two regions’ complex relationship. The East will continue to change Western dress; in other words, fashion designers of today and tomorrow will continue to be inspired by Orientalism. At the same time, reciprocally, the West has been influencing and will continue to influence the East as well. Starting from the beginning of the eighteenth century in Russia and nineteenth century in Turkey, the “westernization” of traditional dress, in other words formal transformation, has had a major impact on these Eastern cultures. During the foundation period of the Turkish Republic in the 1920’s, instead of an East-West dichotomy, the creation of a concept of “contemporary society” was adopted as an official ideology. Illustrations and stylish clothing secrets from the latest Paris fashion trends, explained in minute detail in the magazines of the era, influenced the modern Turkish women’s attire. Fashion articles translated from foreign journals described the new styles and materials used in Western clothing to their readers. When Recueil Ferriol (1714) and The Costume of Turkey (1802) were published in Europe, created a similar effect on the Western aristocratic society. The magazines of eighteenth-century Europe, such as The World of Fashion and Continental Feuilletons and The Gentleman’s Magazine and Historical Chronicle, played an identical role in the West as the magazines published during the 1930s, 40s and 50s did in Turkey. Martin and Koda said that, “Orientalism is not a picture of the East or the Easts. It represents longing, option, and faraway perfection. It is like utopia, a picture everywhere and nowhere, save in the imagination” (1994, p.11). However, this influence will continue to be in a bilateral way and bring the East and the West closer in the context of fashion.

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REFERENCES Anonymous. (1831). Newest London and Paris Fashions for October 1831. The World of Fashion and Continental Feuilletons. https://books.google.com.tr/books?id=i89eAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA217&lpg=P A217&dq=The+World+of+Fashion+and+Continental+Feuilletons,++No+90+London,+October+ 1,+1831&source=bl&ots=L-NffqhlvW&sig=ACfU3U0K-G_JxmSWEFFkZlOubUqtB0pXmQ&hl= tr&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiNirnx0JDtAhVoMewKHQWfAAUQ6AEwAHoECAEQAg#v=onepage& q=Turkish&f=false

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Bal, A. A. (2010). Oryantalist Resimde Bedenin Kolonileştirilmesi Bağlamında Türk Hamamı İmgesi [Colonization of the Body in Orientalist Paintings in the Context of Turkish Hamam Image]. Acta Turcica, 2(2), 13–23. Benbow-Pfalzgraf, T., & Martin, R. (Eds.). (2002). Contemporary Fashion. St. James Press. Bensley, T. (1802). The Costume of Turkey. Howlett and Brimmer. Cole, D. J., & Deihl, N. (2015). The History of Modern Fashion: From 1850. Laurence King Publishing. Day, S. (2003). The Artist Eye: Carpet and Textile Collections of the Orientalists. Halı, 126, 92–104. Fogg, M. (Ed.). (2013). Fashion the Whole Story. Thames & Hudson. Foundation of Nejat F. Eczacıbaşı (Ed). (1997). Eczacıbaşı Sanat Ansiklopedisi 3 [Eczacıbaşı Art Encyclopedia]. Yem Yayınları. Galea-Blanc, C. (1996). The Carpet in Great Britain. In S. Day (Ed.), Great Carpets of the World. Thames & Hudson. Germaner, S., & Inankur, Z. (2008). Oryantalistlerin İstanbul’u [Orientalists’ Istanbul]. Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları. Gueneli, B. (2017). Orientalist Fashion, Photography, and Fantasies: Baron Max von Oppenheim’s Arabian Nights in Context. The German Quarterly, 90(Fall), 439–458. doi:10.1111/gequ.12049 Guiducci, M. (2015). John Galliano on Why He Loves Chinese Motifs. Vogue. https://www.vogue.com/ article/met-china-catalog-costume-exhibit-john-galliano-interview Hakluyt, R. (1886). The Principal Navigations Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries of the English Nation, North Eastern Europe, and Adjacent Countries. http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/7769 Hakluyt, R. (1887). The Principal Navigations Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries of the English Nation, Central and Southern Europe. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/7900 Keller, M. (2013). The Turk of Early Modern France. L’Esprit Créateur, 53(4), 1–8. doi:10.1353/ esp.2013.0045

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Kellogg, A. T., Peterson, A. T., Bay, S., & Swindell, N. (2002). In an Influential Fashion: An Encyclopedia of Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Fashion Designers and Retailers Who Transformed Dress. Greenwood Press. Landweber, J. (2005). Celebrating Identity: Charting the History of Turkish Masquerade in Early Modern France. Romance Studies, 23(3), 175-189. Lazarus, N. (2007). Entelektüelin Temsilleri’nde Entelektüel Temsilleri [Representations of the Intellectual in Representations of the Intellectual]. Oryantalizm Tartışma Metinleri [Discussions on Orientalism], 159-176. Lewis, B. (2007). Oryantalizm Sorunu [The Question of Orientalism]. Oryantalizm Tartışma Metinleri, [Discussions on Orientalism], 217-245.

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Lowe, L. (2018). Critical Terrains: British and French Orientalisms. Cornell University Press. Mack, R. E. (2005). Doğu Malı Batı Sanatı [Bazaar to Piazza: Islamic Trade and Italian Art]. Kitap Yayınevi. Martin, R., & Koda, H. (1994). Orientalism: Visions of the East in Western Dress. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Montagu, M. W. (1766). Letters of the Right Honourable Lady M--y W-----y M------e. Sarah Goddard and Company. https://quod.lib.umich.edu/e/evans/N31507.0001.001/1:33?rgn=div1;view=fulltext Nochlin, L. (1989). The Politics of Vision: Essays on Nineteenth Century Art and Society. Harper & Row Publishers. Ozkavruk Adanır, E., & İleri, B. (2013). Oryantalist Resimlerde Türk Halıları [Illustrations of Turkish Carpets in Orientalist Paintings]. Yedi, 10, 71–80. Polan, B., & Tredre, R. (2009). The Great Fashion Designers. Berg. Remsen Nick. (2019). Joseph Abboud Fall 2019 Menswear. Vogue. https://www.vogue.com/fashionshows/fall-2019-menswear/joseph-abboud Rosenthal, D. A. (1982). Orientalism, the Near East in French Painting 1800-1880. Memorial Art Gallery of the University of Rochester. Schoeser, M. (2003). World Textiles: A Concise History. Thames & Hudson. Slade, A. (1867). Turkey and the Crimean War. Smith, Elder and Co. Steele, V. (2005). Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion (vols. 1-3). Thomson Gale. Türer, C. (2002). Ralph Waldo Emerson’un Oryantalizmi [Ralph Waldo Emerson’s Orientalism]. Oryantalizm-II [Orientalism II], 20, 150–168. Urban, S. (1768). The Gentleman’s Magazine and Historical Chronicle, 38. Vanmour, J.B. (1714). Recueil de cent Estampes Représentant Différentes Nations du Levant [Collection of 100 Prints Representing Different Nations of the Levant]. Academic Press. Williams, H. (2015). Turquerie-18. Yüzyılda Avrupa’da Türk Modası [Turquerie: An Eighteenth-Century European Fantasy]. Yapı Kredi Yayınları.

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Yıldırım, S. (2003). Oryantalistlerin Yanılgıları [The Misconceptions of the Orientalists]. Ufuk Yayınları.

ADDITIONAL READING Avcıoğlu, N. (2011). Turquerie and the Politics of Representation 1728-1876. Ashgate Publishing. Coleridge, N. (1988). The Fashion Conspiracy: A Remarkable Journey Through the Empires of Fashion. Harper & Row.

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Grothaus, M. G. (2005). At the Crossing of Orient and Occident: The Turquerie of Ptuj. Image of the Turks in the 17th Century Europe. Sakıp Sabancı Museum. Inal, O. (2011). Women’s Fashion in Transition: Ottoman Borderlands and the Anglo-Ottoman Exchange of Costumes. Journal of World History, 22(2), 243–272. doi:10.1353/jwh.2011.0058 PMID:22073435 Jasienski, A. (2014). A Savage Magnificence: Ottomanizing Fashion and the Politics of Display in Early Modern East-Central Europe. Muqarnas: An Annual on the Visual Culture of the Islamic World, 31(1), 173–205. doi:10.1163/22118993-00311P08 McDowell, C. (1997). Galliano. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. Renda, G. (2005). The Ottoman Empire and Europe in the 17th Century: Changing Images. Image of the Turks in the 17th Century Europe. Sakıp Sabancı Museum. Ribeiro, A. (1979). Turquerie: Turkish Dress and English Fashion in the Eighteenth Centuruy. Conoisseur, 201, 16–23.

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KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS Lady Mary Wortley Montagu: An English aristocrat, writer, poet, and wife (1689-1762) of the British ambassador who lived in Edirne and Istanbul during her husband’s official duty in the Ottoman Empire, known for the letters she wrote during her stay. Orient: The geographic region that signifies Turkey, the Levant, and the Arabian Peninsula occupied by the Ottoman Empire in the eighteenth century which expands to North Africa and Central, Southeast Asia and Far East in the nineteenth and the twentieth century respectively. Oriental Carpet: Hand-woven carpets mostly woven in Turkey and Iran. Oriental Painting: Paintings mostly done by Western artists depicting the Orient during the nineteenth century. Orientalism: A Western-centric, field of research that studies the social structures, cultures, languages, histories, religions, and geographies of countries to the east of Europe, including Africa, Asia, the Near East, Middle East, and Far East. Paul Poiret: (1879-1944) the most well-known twentieth century couturier who was inspired by Orientalism. Turquierie: Popular cultural phenomenon which influenced Europe’s art, music, painting, architecture, and fashion especially between sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. West: The western part of the world that differentiates itself historically and culturally from the East or Orient; in other words, the Occident.

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The Others of Babel in the Context of Orientalism Gülşah Sarı https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6590-6530 Bolu Abant Izzet Baysal University, Turkey Gökhan Gültekin Aksaray University, Turkey

ABSTRACT Cinema is a branch of art that uses images. In this context, cinema can take Orientalism to a diferent dimension with images by using its own narrative language. In this study, the 2006 flm Babel by Mexican director Alejandro G. Iñárritu is analyzed in order to show how the orientalist elements were constructed in the West’s (Occident) otherization of the East (Orient). As a result of the analysis, it is seen that Babel put forward everything that is related to the East since its frst scene, mostly with an orientalist point of view, in a way that alienates the East. The flm is based on the fact that the language of the marginalized can never be understood, and therefore, there is always a diference between the West and the East.

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INTRODUCTION “Orientalism”, which is used as “Oriental science” in the Turkish dictionary, can be considered as the point of view of Westerners against Eastern societies and their cultural practices. For Said (1978: 9-10), who is effective in the acceptance of the concept in the literature, Orientalism is a way of thinking based on the ontological and epistemological distinction between East (Orient) and West (Occident). In this aspect, according to Said, the East is almost a European invention and has been seen as a place of romance, exotic beings, unforgettable memories, landscapes and extraordinary experiences since ancient times. Çırakman, who thinks that Said’s starting point stems from a philosophical or socio-psychological problem, namely the problem of perceiving and understanding the other, states that Said actually made a serious claim (2002: 182): Throughout the ages, all knowledge of Westerners about Easterners and the representation of this knowledge is based on distorted, incomplete and inaccurate perceptions. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-7180-4.ch014

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 The Others of Babel in the Context of Orientalism

While Westerners are presented as completely rational and effective people in the East-West comparison; from an orientalist point of view, the Orientals are people who have negative characteristics that are not likely to be corrected (Yıldırım and Hira, 2016: 45). In this respect, they are marginalized in terms of their cultural practices. In this marginalization, the West first saves the East from its traditional structure and re-establishes it. Yıldırım (2002: 137) emphasizes that the Westerner who claims to be a subject actually owes their existence, knowledge and truth to the Easterner whom they reproduce, only in this way the West can become a temporal and historical norm. Until the 18th century, it is understood that the main occupation of Orientalism was to form the other against the West and to learn the culture of the other. However, Boztemur (2002: 135) stated that the West assumed a civilizing mission against the other at the end of the 18th century, and that the orientalist orientation started to change; he emphasizes that the East has taken a form in which it is revealed and studied with its differences, in order to emphasize the superiority of the West and make the rest of the world believe that it has such a superiority. Over time, this new orientation has become the ideology of obtaining the riches of the East. As Çırakman (2002: 191) put it, the idea of the East, which was continued in a uniform and consistent manner towards the end of the 18th century, actually has a quite contradictory and diverse structure. According to the author, the main reasons for this are the changing political and cultural relations between East and West over the ages, and it does not seem possible to say that the West was in the dominant position in these relations until the end of the 18th century. Therefore, as the West reflects itself in different ways in the historical process, it has also made some changes in its way of understanding the East. The end of the 18th century actually marks the post - “Age of Enlightenment”. According to Said, just as this period was left behind, European culture formed its own strength and identity by positioning it against the identity it defined as the East. In this respect, Orientalism is a point of view that the West marginalizes the East by establishing the East at a discursive level and coding it as an anti-Western traditional identity (cited in Keyman, 2002: 21). The aim here is for the West to impose its hegemony to the world and to marginalize the societies other than the West, especially the East. Established as an integral part of Europe’s material civilization and culture, the West presents itself under features such as modern, developmental, democratic and individualist, while loading the other with codes such as traditional, fanatic, underdeveloped, communalist, authoritarian. Therefore, what is different is made the other of the West. According to Said, the codes attributed to the East by the West in such a power relationship are not acceptable. According to Çırakman (2002: 182), Said states that the main reason for the East to make such moves is actually to reinforce the West’s desire to dominate the East. In the struggle for power, the West has constructed a kind of “Eastern image” by making use of social sciences such as anthropology, history and philology; started an intense propaganda covering literature, painting, cinema and other art fields (Mora, 2009: 418). Moreover, those produced by the West are not just images circulating in the global world; all individuals of the Islamic world have become part of a large diaspora in the West. Quite large Muslim communities live in every major European and North American capital. These immigrant communities are trying to implement the separate living space model in their new homelands. But the children of Muslim immigrants are caught between two worlds; they are wobbled between two worlds as they enter the world of new freedom from the authoritarian and patriarchal family structures they grew up under the influence of educational institutions or mass culture (Benhabib, 2002: 63). As a matter of fact, the relationship between orientalism and cinema, which is a field of cultural practice and functions effectively in the creation of mass culture, is striking.

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In this study, in the context of the relationship between cinema and orientalism, the 2006 film Babel by Mexican director Alejandro G. Iñárritu has been analyzed. The representation of the other in the film is analyzed from an orientalist point of view.

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Cinema and Orientalism Examples of how the West expresses the east with both language and images are encountered in the media. “Although the way Westerners see Orientals technically changed, it basically preserved its content. The idea that Easterners are despised, incapable of managing themselves and they could not develop themselves in the fields of art, literature, etc. still maintains its characteristic of being a “central thought” today. This way of thinking is produced and supported by the media” (Dursun, 2014: 25). Cinema is one of the tools that the West uses to position itself against the East. “While describing the Eastern, they give clues about how the Western should be and how it should be perceived; they build the western image on this. Cinema, which is a Western art in its origin, is mostly encountered with an orientalist perspective when telling its storie” (Aslan, 2018: 69). Looking at the relationship between cinema and Orientalism, it is understood that cinema is a narrative technique based on visuality. Although the relationship between cinema and Orientalism can be established through linguistic elements, it can be said that images in cinema place Orientalism in a different context. Even the orientalist elements in the cinema narratives can construct the reality at one point. As a substitute for reality, cinema narratives reproduce the orientalist view and thinking by constructing them. Therefore, there is a strong relationship between cinema as an art form and orientalism (Satır and Özer, 2018: 767). Especially in films that contain orientalist elements intensely, the idea of the East is placed on a legitimate ground by showing the West’s point of view towards the East (Yiğit, 2008: 237). The influence of cinema and especially Hollywood in the West’s marginalization of the East through Orientalism should not be overlooked. On the other hand, according to the conditions brought by the time, Hollywood has brought Some innovations, different codes, people etc. to the Orientalist point of view. For example, as Yücel and Sürmeli (2019: 116) put forward, the Arab terrorist, who was seen as a major threat to the USA in the 1990s, was added to the Eastern characters who are presented as barbarian, lazy and ignorant in Hollywood movies. An example of this is the 2005 American film Crash. In the film shot after the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001, the East is represented as a criminal. What has been accomplished with this new identity, which is characterized by the West in its other position, is actually to replace the role of the enemy that has become vacant after the Cold War. Oriental’s excessive sexual addiction, tendency to steer and sadistic are in the foreground. In the cinema, the East is presented as a place where there are always crowds, yet there is no individuality and uncontrolledness prevails. Accordingly, codes such as mass anger, misery, and irrationality are evoked through the East (Said, 2016. as cited in Yücel and Sürmeli, 2019: 113). As a matter of fact, as can be observed in Babel, which was examined in this study, Yusuf was sexually motivated enough to be attracted from his sister and dream of her, even though he was a child. Similarly, in the film, both Morocco and Mexico are represented and marginalized as places where there is only a large crowd but no individuality. In this sense, the Eastern male model coded through Yusuf is just one of the orientalist elements in the film. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the film Babel in detail in terms of revealing the relationship between cinema and Orientalism and using the orientalist elements as much as possible.

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 The Others of Babel in the Context of Orientalism

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Film Analysis Babel (2006, Alejandro G. Iñárritu) is a film that melts different cultures in the same pot. Japanese, Moroccan, Mexican, American ... Different cultures are sometimes given in convention as well as conflict. Like the title of the movie, the subject is based on the legend of the Tower of Babel. In the legend of the Tower of Babel, which is a story based on the Torah, it is told that God negated these purposes by making a high tower by mixing the languages of the people who were aiming to reach himself and thus measure his size with him (Buran, 2008; as cited in Yalçın, 2008: 666). “The word meaning of Babel is the door to the sky. However, the bbl root is also related to the verb to ‘confuse’. God then confused their language, and when they awoke to the new day, each person spoke a different language and could no longer understand each other. Therefore, they disperse and migrate to different places and establish different tribes in the world. Man is given this punishment for exceeding the limits, not being content with what he has, defying God, not living in harmony with nature, and aspiring to the skies and eternity” (Antakyalıoğlu, 2007: 31). Actually, this is the main issue in the movie. The film shows that people living in different parts of the world with different cultures, religions and languages cannot understand the intersections and what each other wants to tell. From the opening scene of Babel, cultural differences between East and West begin to unfold. The poverty of the family living in a mountain house in Morocco is clearly revealed in the first scene of the film. The undeveloped aspects of such a life are clearly shown as opposed to urban life. Women’s washing clothes by their hands especially strengthens this depiction. Another situation in this scene is that death is free from fear. Because gun is used as an element of fear in the West. As a matter of fact, when the gun is shown, everyone will flee, and this situation is reinforced as much as possible in a genre like Western movies. At the beginning of the film Babel, the reactions of both children and women against the gun are just laughter and fun. Therefore, in this first scene, it is also possible to see a representation of the Americans’ view of Muslims and the East after the September 11 attack. On one side, there are American kids (Mike and Debbie) playing with their toys in their safe homes; on the other side, there are Moroccan children (Yusuf and Ahmed) shooting the bus. Differences in innocence, fun, and fear between the children of the East and the West are represented by this first scene. Iñárritu makes use of matched cuts to demonstrate this contrast. The cut from the image of Yusuf and Ahmed, who started fleeing after shooting the bus, to the image of Mike and Debbie playing games in their home under the supervision of their caregivers, Amelia, refers to the cultural difference between East and West through children. Susan, who asked Richard why they were in Morocco at the beginning of the film, serves to squeeze the people of the East into certain patterns through the disgusting look she directs to the locals. Asking for a coke with Richard in the place where they sit, Susan says that Richard must throw the ice from his glass, they do not even know what kind of water it is made of. Therefore, Western coke is “healthy”, and the Eastern ice that is used to cool the coke is harmful. With a more concise meaning, the West is healthy and the East is unhealthy. To reinforce this meaning, the camera focuses on people eating by their hands in the rest of the scene; after Susan gives the menu back to the waiter, she disinfects her hands and cleans the fork and spoon she uses. Susan will probably never do this kind of action in a restaurant in America, in the West. Indicators of the negation of the Eastern lifestyle and culture in a sense gain meaning in the scene where the detail of the moment Susan is shot is shown. As Susan and Richard are travelling on the bus, what the audience sees, positioned in Susan’s point of view, is the women in black veils who are walking along the roadside. Just in this image, the views of Yeğenoğlu (1996: 114), who said that the 234

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representation of Eastern women by the West is again a reflection of the view towards the East will be remembered. The music in the background accompanying the image is in a tone aimed at increasing the anxiety of the East and the lifestyle. Therefore, the scene, which is based on the anxiety of the East both visually and audibly, has reached its real meaning by showing the moment of Susan’s shooting, and thus the anxiety of the East is proven. When Richard takes his injured wife Susan to a village close to their location, the gaze of the people on the tourist bus becomes synonymous with the look of the audience. The East is revealed in all its backwardness. The fear of tourists is based on the fact that these lands are unsafe and will bring death or disease. Even, the fact that one of the tourists told Richard that 30 German tourists were killed by cutting their throats in a place similar to their village in Egypt, clearly reveals how Westerners perceive the Easterner. However, the images seen in the fiction parallel to this statement are people trying to carry the injured Susan with their own means. On the contrary, the West seems selfish and less insensitive. Because the tourists only think of their own lives and are in a hurry to go. Therefore, while the West does not think of another Westerner; the Eastern thinks of the Western. In the film, the object that connects people who are both geographically and culturally distant from each other is the rifle. American Susan is shot with a rifle in the Moroccan boy’s hand. The Moroccan man who caused the rifle to fall into the hands of the children actually bought it from a Japanese. Thus, although the three cultures may never understand each other, they intersect in one event. In this case, the Japanese who gave the rifle to the Moroccan boy and the Moroccan who used it are criminals; the American who was shot is the victim. From the broader perspective, the East is guilty while the West is the victim. The image of the East in the eyes of the West is also seen in the statements of Moroccan parents: Father: I think the terrorists shot an American tourist. Mother: Well, there are no terrorists here. Father: Who knows. In another dialogue between Richard and the Moroccan man who helped him, the codes of the culture of the East are again revealed: Moroccan: Do you have a child?

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Richard: Yes. He takes photos from his wallet and shows them. Moroccan: Only 2? You have to have more. In this dialogue, having a large number of children in a family in the eastern society is emphasized. The West otherizes not only the East, but all societies, people, etc. that it considers apart from its own values. In the film, the images that provide the clearest observation of this situation are conveyed through American children Mike and Debbie’s Mexican babysitter, Amelia. Amelia, who wants to go to her son’s wedding in Mexico, is not allowed by Richard, as Susan has been shot and their return to America will be delayed. In return, Amelia goes to Mexico with the children, as she cannot find another 235

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babysitter. During the journey, the audience observes the Mexican people, positioning the astonished gaze of Mike and Debbie. Mike’s saying “My mother said Mexico is a very dangerous place.” is added to these images. With the images accompanying this discourse and the discourse itself, Mexico is reduced to a marginalized and unsafe country just like Morocco. By mingling with Mexican kids, Mike and Debbie share their play language. But the beheading of the chicken in front of Mike and Debbie strengthens Mexico’s link with violence, blood and danger. Babel not only reflects how the West perceives the East, but emphasizes that those who are marginalized are actually human beings and that their language is not intended to be understood by Westerners. Perhaps this lack of understanding or disagreement has been the greatest punishment of people since the Tower of Babel legend. As a matter of fact, Babel places some of its scenes on the lack of understanding or disagreement with the marginalized in some way. Therefore, in one of the scenes with Chieko, who is deaf and dumb, the voice is suddenly cut off and the audience becomes identified with her, and the audience will not hear others. Once again, Amelia is stopped by the police, subjected to criminal treatment and eventually deported when she sets off to take the children home on the way home from a wedding. In the film, Susan is treated by a Moroccan veterinarian in the home of a Moroccan with no hygiene conditions, where the Moroccan Government does not allow a US helicopter to enter their country. At the first encounter between Richard and the vet, Richard’s distrust of himself is evident from his gaze. As Susan’s treatment continues, a radio news is heard. The report included the statement “While the authorities were dealing with the possibility of robbery, the American government claimed that it was an act of terrorism.” The game in which two Moroccan children play with guns becomes an act of terror. While this news is being given, Moroccan men are featured in the images. Thus, the terrorist act in the news and Moroccan men in the image are matched. Yusuf and Ahmed, who played a game with a rifle at the beginning of the film, are now terrorists because they fired at the police. As a matter of fact, Ahmed dies in the conflict. Thus, the last person who is marginalized in a sense and perceived that he should be punished for making Westerners live some things is also punished. The Moroccan who sold the rifle is caught, Amelia is deported and Ahmed dies. “The Americans have reached a happy ending,” says the announcer on Japanese television, who witnessed the footage of Richard and Susan returning home by helicopter at the end of the film. The West has prevailed over the East, and the East has realized that with the funeral in hand, it must be more careful now.

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FUTURE RESEARCH AND DIRECTION There are many works of art or mass products prepared with an orientalist point of view, and as a matter of fact, whether they are seen as an art work or as a mass product, they are highly influenced by orientalism. In this sense, although there are films that can be witnessed how the West depicts the East, there are also films belonging to the East in which the orientalist perspective of the East can be seen. Therefore, it will be important to work on films in which the East negates its own culture in some way. Likewise, the representation of techno-orientalism in films in the context of the representation of East Asian societies, one of the cultures in the film, in the western eye is another subject to be examined.

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CONCLUSION From its first scene, Babel reveals everything that is related to the East, mostly from an orientalist perspective, in a way that alienates the East. In doing so, it benefits from life practices. Life in mountain houses, eating by hand, washing by hand, wearing a sheet or baggy trousers, using a gun at a young age, and the lust that starts during childhood… These are all portrayed as the negative aspects of the East and the Orientals. Of course, good people can be met in the East, “even if only a few”; just as bad people can be met in the West. In this sense, the Moroccan who helps Richard is presented as the basic person who is kind-hearted, helpful, caring for people and does not care about money. Similarly, the tourist who confronts Richard and tells them that they should go is one of the selfish people who can be encountered in the West. Otherization does not only work through Moroccans and Japanese in the East, Mexicans are the others that should be avoided for America and Americans who are the representatives of the West. Being Mexican himself, Iñárritu, in a sense, by painting his own geography, actually reflects his otherness as an other rather than the Western view of the Eastern. His portrayal of Mexico as such a dangerous place as a Mexican is striking in this aspect. Although Iñárritu tries to create the image that the people there are “good people”, the space, the appearance of the characters in it, and the reactions of American children do not allow this. Moreover, Iñárritu attributed his view of his otherness to his Moroccan father and designed a scene where he thought this person might be a terrorist in his own land. “In Orientalist films, Arabs are lascivious, terrorist, lethargic, foolish, weak. On the one hand, it represents rottenness and backwardness. Westerners, on the other hand, have a democratic, sane, reliable, virtuous and strong character” (Ekinci, 2014: 55). In fact, this judgment, although it reveals the general lines of the Westerner’s view towards the Easterner, also dominates the film Babel. In the eyes of the West, Moroccans are terrorists and have remained far from civilization. Lust is presented as a negativity found in Easterners from an early age. As a matter of fact, Moroccan Yusuf breaks a taboo that is considered forbidden for him by having kinky feelings for his sister (Ingram, 2014). The Japanese in the film can be evaluated in the context of techno-orientalism. In the context of techno-orientalism, East Asian societies are the people who are feared in the eyes of the West over their armed power (Said, 1998. as cited in Becerikli, 2020: 1058). The rifle that the Japanese sold to Moroccan causes the American to be shot. This situation causes fear in the West. Although the most intense armament is in America, they are the victims of the firing of the guns, as conveyed in the film through Richard and Susan. Babel is positioned on the fact that the language of the marginalized can never be learned, and therefore there is always a difference between West and East. Since the legend of the Tower of Babel, human beings, who do not understand each other, have been given the mission of understanding only one place in the modern age when marginalization has reached the highest level. According to this new curse, there is only one place in which one should be understood, whose language should be known and all life should be planned according to them: the West and its pioneer America. Especially as a result of the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, also known as the Twin Towers, on September 11, 2001, all Muslims and the East had to face a situation where they could be marginalized much more. In a sense, it turned into something like God’s curse on humans in the Tower of Babel legend; The Tower of Babel was replaced by Twin Towers. The only difference to this modern legend is that it is no longer God but America that will curse people. As a matter of fact, after September 11, societies outside the West and especially America turned into societies that were much more incomprehensible or marginal237

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ized. In support of this kind of ideology, Americans are represented as victims and others as criminals in Babel, in line with the general structure of Hollywood movies.

REFERENCES Antakyalıoğlu, Z. (2007). Brugel Haklıydı. Artist Modern. Aslan, M. (2018). Türk Sinemasında Öteki Karakter: Üçüncü Sayfa Filminde Ötekilik. Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 5(2), 65–76. doi:10.30803/adusobed.443358 Becerikli, R. (2020). Wolverine (2013) Filminin Tekno-Oryantalizm Bağlamında İncelenmesi. Erciyes İletişim Dergisi, 7(2), 1055–1076. doi:10.17680/erciyesiletisim.724560 Benhabib, S. (2002). Kutsal Olmayan Savaşlar. Doğu Batı, 20, 51-65. Boztemur, R. (2002). Marx, Doğu Sorunu ve Oryantalizm. Doğu Batı, 20, 135-150. Çırakman, A. (2002). Oryantalizmin Varsayımsal Temelleri: Fikri Sabit İmgelem ve Düşünce Tarihi. Doğu Batı, 20, 181-197. Dursun, O. (2014). Batı’nın Egemen ‘Kötü-Öteki-Doğu’ Düşüncesinin Pekiştirildiği Bir Alan: Dünya Basın Fotoğrafları Kuruluşu, Yılın Fotoğrafı Kategorisi Üzerine Bir Analiz. University Faculty of Communication Journal/Istanbul Üniversitesi Iletisim Fakültesi Hakemli Dergisi, (47), 19-50. Ekinci, B. T. (2014). Argo Filmi Bağlamında Hollywood Sinemasında Söylem ve Yeni Oryantalizm. Atatürk İletişim Dergisi, (6), 51–66. Ingram, P. (2014). Framing the Mother in Alejandro Gonzalez Inarritu’s Babel. Mothering and Psychoanalysis: Clinical, Sociological and Feminist Perspectives. Demeter Press. Keyman, E. F. (2002). Globalleşme, oryantalizm ve öteki Sorunu: 11 Eylül sonrası dünya ve adalet. Doğu Batı, 20, 11-32. Mora, N. (2009). Orientalist discourse in media texts. Journal of Human Sciences, 6(2), 418–428. Said, E. (1978). Orientalism. Routledge & Kegan Paul. Satır, M. E., & Özer, N. P. (2018). Oryantalist Bakış Açısının Sinemaya Yansıması: The Physcıan (2013) Filmi Örneği. Gümüşhane Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi Elektronik Dergisi, 6(1), 759–778. Copyright © 2021. IGI Global. All rights reserved.

Türkçe sözlük. (n.d.). https://sozluk.gov.tr/ Yalçın, S. K. (2008). Rusya’da Yaşayan Türklerin Konuşma Dillerinin Yazı Diline Dönüştürülme Süreci ve Ötekileştirme Ekseninde İzlenen Dil Politikaları. Turkish Studies, 3(7), 662–678. Yeğenoğlu, M. (1996). Peçeli Fantaziler: Oryantalist Söylemde Kültürel ve Cinsel Fark. In Oryantalizm, hegemonya ve kültürel Fark (Vol. 57). İletişim. Yiğit, Z. (2008). Hollywood Sineması’nın Yeni Oryantalist Söylemi ve 300 Spartalı. Selçuk İletişim, 5(3), 236–249.

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Yıldırım, A. K. (2002). Edward Said’in Şarkiyatçılık Düşüncesine Eleştirel Bir Bakış. Doğu Batı, 20, 135-148. Yıldırım, E., & Hira, İ. (2016). Türk Televizyon Dizilerinde Oryantalist Yansımalar: Muhteşem Yüzyıl Örneği. PESA Uluslararası Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, 2(2), 43–53. Yücel, A., & Sürmeli, Z. (2019). Sinemada Oryantalist ve Oksidentalist Söylem: “Duvara Karşı” Filmi Örneği. İdil, 8(54), 111-125.

ADDITIONAL READING Park, J., & Wilkins, K. (2005). Re-orienting the orientalist gaze. Global Media Journal, 4(6). Prakash, G. (1995). Orientalism now. History and Theory, 34(3), 199–212. doi:10.2307/2505621 Roh, D. S., Huang, B., & Niu, G. A. (2015). Techno-Orientalism: Imagining Asia in Speculative Fiction, History, and Media. Rutgers University Press. doi:10.36019/9780813570655 Said, E. W. (1985). Orientalism reconsidered. Race & Class, 27(2), 1–15. doi:10.1177/030639688502700201 Sardar, Z. (1999). Orientalism. McGraw-Hill Education. Sim, L. (2012). “Ensemble Film, Postmodernity and Moral Mapping”, Screening the Past. http://www. screeningthepast.com/2012/12/ensemble-film-postmodernity-and-moral-mapping/

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Ueno, T. (1999). Techno‐Orientalism and media‐tribalism: On Japanese animation and rave culture. Third Text, 13(47), 95–106. doi:10.1080/09528829908576801

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Chapter 15

Orientalism and Hollywood:

Reflection of India on Western Cinema Subir Sinha Dum Dum Motijheel College, India

ABSTRACT Orientalism is a broad concept of cultural studies which is nurtured with the fabricated stereotypical images of the Middle East and the Eastern world that were developed or imagined by the West. Edward. W. Said strengthens the concept of the ‘Orientalism’ by his wide explanation and discussion about the Orient. However, Hollywood cinema shows an imprint of Orientalism while depicting the Indian scenario. Hollywood cinema with Indian set up shows several fabricated stereotypical concepts related to India and Indian society. The stereotypical concepts are mainly related to the Indian tradition, customs, rituals, poverty, illiteracy, etc. Even they use various beautiful landscape and Indian music in their own ways to give mystic charms to their cinema. Recently it was recognised that the stereotypical concepts about India and Indian society are changing rapidly in Hollywood cinemas which try to justify that the concept of Orientalism is changing with the passage of time or with the arrival of modernity.

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INTRODUCTION The Orientalism is a broad concept or the study of the orient or the eastern world. It is a branch of cultural studies that is based on western fantasy or the style of thought about the east. It reflects how the western world views the East. The wide concept of Orientalism was developed by the early western world that depicts about the Middle East and the East. The concept mainly encircled with various fabricated stereotypical idea about the Middle East and the East. Edward Said enrich the field of Orientalism with his critical thoughts and explanations about the Orient and the Occident. Edward. W. Said in the Introduction of his book ‘Orientalism’ opined about the Orientalism as: Orientalism is a style of thought based upon an ontological and epistemological distinction made between “the Orient” and (most of the time) “the Occident”. Thus a very large mass of writers, among whom are poets, novelists, philosophers, political theorists, economists and imperial administrators have accepted DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-7180-4.ch015

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 Orientalism and Hollywood

the basic distinction between East and West as the starting point for elaborate theories, epics, novels, social description and political accounts concerning the Orient, its people, customs, “mind”, destiny and so on- (Said, E. 1979; pg 2-3) The statement of the Said reflects his thoughts which are based upon ontological and epistemological distinction made between the orient and the occident. In the lower section of the Introduction he also described Orientalism in short as: “Orientalism as a Western style for dominating, restructuring and having authority over the Orient”. The statement reflects western dominating styles of thought about the East. The concept of Orientalism was wide and discussed by various scholars in various way. Srinivas Aravamudan in his book ‘Enlightenment Orientalism’ compared and contrasts Orientalism with Enlightenment. In the initial introductory part he compared Edward Said’s Orientalism with Immanuel Kant’s Enlightenment. Ziauddin Sardar in his book ‘Concepts in the social science: Orientalism’ mentioned Orientalism as:

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As a scholarly tradition, Orientalism was concerned with the study of Asian civilization, identifying, editing and interpreting the fundamental texts of these civilizations and the transmission of this scholarly tradition from one generation to another through an established chain of teacher and students. It was largely focused on Islam; and Islamic studies became a major branch of Orientalism. Orientalism thus studied Islam and other civilization with European ideas of God, man, nature, society, science and history and consistently found non- Western cultures and civilizations to be inferior and backward. (Sardar1999; pg 4) Ziauddin Sardar focused on Islamic study related to Orientalism, however Orientalism was not only confined or encircled within Islamic studies rather its existence reflected from various western point of views associated with various fields or study related to the Middle East and the Eastern nation .The concepts of Orientalism are also traced while analysing several Hollywood cinemas with Indian set up. The term Hollywood is most synonymous with the American film industry from the early 1990’s. It becomes a wide source of entertainment not only for the United State of America but also for the entire globe in the modern era. Since the early 1990’s, the mesmerizing charms of the Hollywood spread worldwide and took the audience into the world of love, romance and action. Hollywood produces a wide variety of cinema based on action, spying, love, romance, tragedy, comic, scientific fiction etc. Recently the work of graphic and animation are also playing a significant role in creation of fictional and delusive character, atmosphere, surrounding, background, etc which take the audience into the world of fantasy. Along with all this variety, Hollywood cinemas often focus on the Middle East and the East to give a fictional oriental charm. The atmosphere and background of the Middle East and the East become vital for several Hollywood cinemas. They focus on their society, traditions, customs, food habits, dress codes etc to put an oriental effect on the cinema. Hollywood cinemas use the oriental backgrounds of the Middle East and the East mainly to give a dramatic effect to the cinemas that provides audience the fabricated magical beauty of the East. The touch of the Middle East are mainly represented and reflected by the Arabic world. The Hollywood cinema like ‘The Thief of Bagdad’ (1940), ‘The 7th Voyage of Sinbad’ (1958), ‘Prince of Persia: The Sand of Time’ (2010), ‘Aladdin’ (2019), etc reflect the charms of the Middle East Arabic world and put the light on the oriental views. However among the eastern nation, India plays a significant role in the Hollywood cinema. India becomes the centre of attraction for the Hollywood cinema from the very beginning. Hollywood cinemas 241

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with Indian plots mainly focus on India and highlight Indian society, its tradition, customs, dress code etc to enrich cinematic charms. In various occasions Hollywood film industries even collaborated with the Indian cinema industries for various cinematic projects. Hollywood as well as Indian cinema industries are well recognised and accepted by a huge majority from across the globe. Both the industries present a wide variety of cinema for the global audience. However both the industries present the views of orient in their own way. Indian film industries mainly present India with its traditions, customs and development in a glorious way which reflects the beauty of real India but most of the Hollywood cinema reflects the India with fabricated oriental views which affect the image of real India. It is hiding the glory of real India and exposing the negative sides which are mostly fabricated and stereotypical in nature. The glorious past of the ancient civilization, its traditions, customs and high culture are all getting covered under the debris of fictional stereotypical images. Most of the Hollywood cinemas with Indian plots or background set up are mainly focus on the fabricated oriental stereotypical concept like poverty of India, illiteracy, magical power, dirty slams etc, which are actually very low in percentage and small in section that exist in the modern India. The fabricated concepts are projecting a negative image of India in front of the global audience. The real India is actually highly literate, scientific and optimistic in nature which is totally different from the oriental stereotypical negative images that are projected through Hollywood cinemas. However with the passage of time the concept about the India in Hollywood cinema is changing rapidly. The recent trends of Hollywood cinemas with Indian background set up mainly focusing on Indian culture, customs, tradition, love, romance, religious harmony, peaceful non violence attitude, developed infrastructure etc, in a glorious way.

CASE STUDIES OF HOLLYWOOD CINEMAS WITH INDIAN SET UP AND IT’S ANALYSIS: The article “The Orientalism and the Hollywood: The Reflection of India on Western Cinema” analysed four western Hollywood cinema –‘Octopussy’(1983), ‘Indiana Jones and the Temple of the Dooms’(1984), ‘Bride and Prejudice’(2004), and ‘SlamDog Millionaire’(2008) as a case study which reflects the existence of Orientalism in western Hollywood cinema with Indian set up. The case studies focus on the backgrounds, traditions, rituals, food habits and dress code used in the cinema.

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Case Study 1: Octopussy (1983) ‘Octopussy’, the famous western cinema from 007 James Bond series directed by John Glen was released in the year 1983.The film was taken from Ian Fleming’s ‘Octopussy and the Living Daylights’. The plot of the cinema begin with a replica of soviet precious gift item ‘Faberge Egg’ called “The Property of lady” and the mischief personal conspiracy of a soviet general named ‘Orlov’ who was secretly conspiring and stealing the soviet precious items. Bond was assigned to investigate and to overlook the soviet general and his connection with a wealthy afghan prince Kamal Khan and the lady Octopussy. In this connection Bond arrived in India and investigates and foiled the conspiracy against NATO. However a major section of the cinema reflects an oriental stereotypical image of India. The scene when Bond arrived in India shows grand Taj Mahal, old civilization near the crowded river bank, fruits and vegetable vendors selling their items on the river bank, snake charming, narrow crowded road where 242

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cows and camel are roaming, etc. The palace and hotel scene are also full of Orientals views. These pictorial set up of the background related to India are highly oriental and stereotypical, which are actually fictional and fabricated in nature used to enhance the charm of the cinematic background.

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Case Study 2: Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984) ‘Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom’ is a block buster action adventure Hollywood cinema based on the replicated Indian background set up. The cinema was directed by one of the greatest Hollywood film director Steven Spielberg. ‘Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom’ is the second cinema of the Indiana Jones series that released in the year 1984.Unlike the previous cinema of the Indiana Jones series, Indiana Jones does not deal with the German Nazi force rather the story shows Indiana Jones accidentally arrived in British India and started to find a mystical stone or a ‘Shiva Linga’ that was stolen from the Indian village in which he and his companions arrived. The cinema was bit controversial in India but achieved a great success globally. The controversy rises as it shows several oriental stereotypical concept of the west related to India which Indian government were not allowed. Producer Frank Marshall explained that “originally the scenes were going to be shot in India at a fantastic palace. They required us to give them a script, so we sent it over and we didn’t think it was going to be a problem. But because of the voodoo element with Mola Ram and the Thuggees, the Indian government was a little bit hesitant to give us permission. They wanted us to do things like not use the term Maharajah, and they didn’t want us to shoot in a particular temple that we had picked. The Indian government wanted changes to the script and final cut privilege.”- (Wikipedia). As a result, location work went to Kandy, Sri Lanka, with matte paintings and scale models applied for the village, temple, and Pankot Palace. The plot of the cinema shows Indiana Jones who is a famous archaeologist came to India after a crash landing along with his companions to an Indian village, where the resident claim a dark evil power has stolen the precious mystical stone or the Shiva Linga of the village along with their children. Indiana was asked to search the children and the mystical stone by the villager. Indiana Jones assures to help them and started his journey. The next day prime minister of Pankot, Chatter Lal offered them to stay the night in palace. That night Indiana Jones discovered a secret passage within the palace that goes directly to the catacomb of the Thuggee. Indiana discovered the Thuggee cult is behind all this evil deeds, he fight and stopped them and finally he rescued the stone and the children. However the cinema highlights various stereotypical fabricated concepts about Indian. The arrival scene of the Indiana Jones in the India village was very creepy as the village that were shown were very poor, rustic and mystical in nature. The people of the Indian village are reflected as helpless and fearful. The dinner scene of Pankot Palace was also very strange as it shows foods like roasted python, roasted bugs and chilled monkey brain which are totally fictional and fabricated. But the most stereotypical concept arise when the cinema shows the Thuggee worshipping and giving human sacrifice in front of the Hindu goddess Kali. According to the Hinduism the images of goddess Kali reflects as a holy power which destroy all the evils, instead of that the cinema reflects goddess Kali as negative power and worshipped by the evil Thuggees. The cinema also reflects the illegal and forceful child slavery scene. These all scene are stereotypical, fabricated and highly fictional in nature which reflects the oriental concepts. Through these oriental stereotypical concepts the cinema tries to create a wonderful atmosphere of fear and mystical charms which make the cinema a block buster hit.

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Case Study 3: Bride and Prejudice (2004) Bride and Prejudice’ is a wonderful romantic Hollywood as well as Bollywood cinema which released in 2004 in United Kingdom and in India but in United State of America it was released in the year 2005. It was filmed primarily in English with few Hindi and Punjabi dialogues. The cinema was based on Jane Austin’s famous novel ‘Pride and Prejudice’ which glorify 18th Century love and romance. However the cinema Bride and Prejudice replicated the novel and gave an Indian touch where the theme of love and romance were same but the name of the character changed. The cinema Bride and Prejudice mainly focused on the cross cultural marriage between the hero ‘William Darcy’ who was a wealthy American gentleman and the heroine ‘Lalita Bakshi’ a beautiful charming Indian girl from Amritsar. The role of William Darcy was played by Hollywood actor Martin Henderson where as the role of Lalita Bakshi was played by Indian Bollywood actress Aishwarya Rai. The cinema highlights Indian society, various Indian traditions, and the dress codes. The director Gurinder Chadha presents the story in a splendid Indian way. The plot of the cinema was colourful and energetic adaptation of Austen’s classic but the names of the characters were changed. The plot begin with Balraj, a London barrister of Indian origin visits Amritsar in a friend’s wedding ceremony, he brings along with his sister Kiran and his William Darcy an American gentleman, where they meet Mr. And Mrs. Bakshi and their four daughters- Jaya, Lalita, Maya and Lakhi(Lucky). Balraj was attracted to Jaya and fall in love with her. Lalita feels offended initially on William Darcy for his attitude towards India and Indian but later they also fall in love with each other. The opening scene begins with rural farm lands, crowded Indian road and an Indian marriage ceremony where Indian dresses like salwar suit, sharwani, and turban headed men were displayed which are highly oriental and stereotypical in nature. In various scenes Indian foods were also come under the focus of the camera. However the overall cinema gives an oriental stereotypical concept with a cross cultural comparison between the Indian society and the society of United State but the central theme of love and romance dominate throughout the cinema. ‘

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Case Study 4: Slamdog Millionaire (2008) ‘Slamdog Millionaire’ is a remarkable Hollywood cinema directed by Danny Boyle and Loveleen Tandan which get released in the year of 2008. The prime focus of the cinema is on the vision of poverty but the cinema manages to reflect the image of a perfect balance between poverty and economically developed India. The plot of the cinema is extremely heart touching and romantic which depict the story of a young poor boy Jamal Mallick from the slam of Mumbai. Jamal Mallick a young teenage boy become contestant for the television show “Who wants to be a Millionaire”, while reaching the final question of the quiz, host of the show Prem surprised and suspicious. When the teenage boy Jamal Mallick was interrogated under suspicion of cheating, he recalls his past and revealed how he answers each question correctly. ‘Slamdog Millionaire’ is a story of struggle of few poor children, it narrate how they grew up in the presence of extreme hard struggle of life. The cinema ‘Slamdog Millionaire’ reflects various oriental stereotypical images related to India. The cinema highlights extreme poverty, hard struggle for survival of life, the dingy slam area and the narrow crowded roads of India. All these pictorial representation represent the oriental stereotypical concept of the west. However along with these oriental stereotypical images, love and romance remain the central theme of the cinema ‘Slamdog Millionaire’. The cinema also gives a beautiful song ‘Jai Ho’ of A. R.

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Rahman which means ‘be victorious’. The song glorifies the singer by providing with Academy award. The song is a beautiful fusion of Indian and western music.

FACTS AND DISCUSSIONS The field of Orientalism has become a topic of discussion for the cinema and media studies from the early days of its arrival. However the case studies of few Hollywood cinemas analysed in this article gives a wide comparison between the culture of the east and the west and put the light on the oriental views that get reflected through the plot of the cinemas. The cinemas reflect the Indian scenario from a wide angle but all of them are projected from western point of view. Most of the cinemas instead of glorifying the Indian culture and traditions tried to put a dominating hegemonic effect based on the oriental views. The cinemas try to dominate the Indian culture and tradition through the fictitious and stereotypical images. While depicting the Indian scenario in Hollywood cinema the concept of Orientalism are used in various ways. The concept of Orientalism are reflects through the use of various fictitious or fabricated stereotypical images related to traditions, customs, cultures, beautiful landscapes and Indian music. While on the other the western culture were presented as superior, flawless, free from superstitious and glorious in nature which helps to highlight and to terminate the flaws exist in Indian cultures. The Oriental cinematic pictorial presentations reflected through Hollywood cinemas are promoting fabricated images about India which adversely affects the Indian traditional and cultural developments.

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Reflection of Hegemony in Hollywood Cinemas The reflection of Orientalism through Hollywood cinemas with Indian plot is also promoting an immense effect of hegemony over the Indian cultures and traditions. Most of the cinemas are dominating the Indian cultures and projecting fabricated conception about Indian society, customs, traditions and rituals. These fabricated cinematic projections developing a negative image about India and its culture in front of the entire globe. Several scenes of the cinemas that we have discussed denounced Indian traditions, culture, ritual, foods, dress codes etc in a dominating manner. The hegemonic attitude was reflected from various scene of the cinema ‘Indiana Jones and the Temple of Dooms’. The cinema wrongfully projected the worship of Hindu goddess Kali in negative sense for the cinematic charms. In the cinema ‘Bride and Prejudice’ the character William Darcy also shows negative attitude towards India and Indian customs in the initial part of cinema. These cinematic presentations are reflecting a dominating approach over Indian traditions and customs. The effect of these hegemonic cinematic presentations is immense which act as an obstacle or barrier in the development and propagation of Indian cultures and traditions. In the global perspective, the propagation of fabricated cinematic presentation will support to develop false assumptions among the nations or states that are unaware of Indian cultures and traditions which adversely affect on the image of the great nation India. However the hegemonic cultural dominance was not effective fully as the motives of the cinemas was not to produce the cultural dominance rather they are presented for the sake of entertainment and amusement.

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Reflection of Stereotypical Concept Hollywood cinemas with the Indian plot or with the Indian set up are mostly encircled with various fabricated oriental stereotype concepts which in reality have hardly any truth in it. The concepts mainly present India with poverty, illiteracy, chaotic atmosphere, dirty environment, etc. These fabricated negative concepts are mainly used to create a mystic charms and cinematic effects but circuitously they promote a negative image about the great nation, which have a past glories history from the days of Vedic age. The fabricated scene with poor villagers, rural and rustic atmospheric set up, kingly palace, monuments provide the audience an effect of India of pre independence era whereas slams, narrow lane, dusty roads are used to create an atmosphere of third world nation or a developing nation. Several cinematic presentations of Hollywood cinemas like ‘Octopussy’ (1983), ‘Indiana Jones and the Temple of Dooms’ (1984), ‘Bride and Prejudice’ (2004), ‘Slamdog Millionaire’(2008), etc present the Indian scenario as a land of poor, magic, superstition and snake charmers. They classified Indian society and its people mainly into two categories, the royal or the maharaja class and the common people. The portrayal of the royal or the maharaja class are as the kingly class of India who rule over the natives. They are highly luxurious and passive in nature who have no touch with the common man where as the portrayal of common man were highlighted as poor, rural, rustic and illiterate in nature. In modern India these portrayal have hardly any truth in it, they are absolutely false and fabricated concept. In the post independence era, Indian education system widely disseminates primary, secondary and higher education throughout the nation. Modern India also has a close focus on industrialization, business and beautification of the nation. In modern India, developments of every sector are given high priority as development, prosperity and success are the ultimate goal of the nation. However in the recent days the stereotypical fabricated concept of Hollywood cinemas about India is rapidly changing. Hollywood cinemas are presenting India and its society in a new way. They depicting and glorifying India’s age old tradition and customs, significance of joint family, significant of middle class, newly develop modern infrastructure, delicious Indian foods etc. The new style of presenting India is a combination of glorious age old Indian tradition with the modern outlook of India which tries to make a perfect balance between past and the present. The concepts are no longer hampering the image of the Indian society rather they glorifying Indian theme in a beautiful cinematic ways.

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Reflection of Cross Cultural Effect in Hollywood Cinema Orientalism and Cross Cultural study are the two different types of studies which Hollywood cinemas bring close to each other. Cross cultural study is dealing with or comparing between two or more different culture. However Hollywood cinemas with Indian set up use in several occasion the cross cultural scenario and present the global audience the beautiful mystic essence of India. The mystic charms are not always negative in nature rather sometime they mesmerise the audience with the fantasy of India which help to give block buster hit. Hollywood cinema with Indian set up has shown various cross cultural plot and theme. They explore various Indian tradition and customs and beautifully present them in cinema. The cross cultural effects compare, contrast and mixed western culture with the east. Through cinematic presentation they highlight the combination of diverse cultures of two nations to give a cross cultural effect. Several Hollywood cinemas focus Indian traditional marriage, tradition, customs, dress codes, food habits etc. They contrast and blend the Indian tradition with the western one; it is a fusion of two cultures. In Hollywood cinematic presentation Indian marriage style are mainly 246

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presents as holy ritual performed for a happy prosperous married life. The style of presenting Indian marriage ceremony is now becoming highly popular in various Hollywood cinemas. The age old traditional style of Indian salutation ‘Namaskar’ by joining two hands is also popular among various Hollywood cinemas. The cultural symbolisms were also expressed through the use of Indian dress codes and food habits. The popular Indian dress like Kurta, Pajama, Saree, Salwar, Turban etc are highly used by Indian as well as western actors actress of various Hollywood cinemas. These images which reflected through the cross cultural comparison are mainly oriental in nature.

Reflection of Indian Location in Hollywood Cinema Location plays a significant role in every cinema. Locations of the cinema are the place where the story is set up. Most of the modern cinema use combination of multiple locations to give an illusion of real effect or originality. Orientalism also creates fantasy among the western viewer about various Middle East and eastern landscape. Hollywood cinemas are also running behind such fantasy and try to find such charming landscape for their movie set up. They use various Indian locations for their cinema set up to give various realistic and charming effect. Several Hollywood cinema use Indian location to give an effect of third world nation or better we can say to give the scenario of a developing nation while few use the Indian location to give a mystic charm. Indian locations for shooting Hollywood cinemas are reflecting several oriental conceptions. Shooting location like Slam areas, narrow lanes, and rural village are used to create an image of poor developing nation where as mystic charms are create with the help of beautiful location with natural beauty like forest, hills, caves etc. Rivers and lakes are mainly use to symbolise peace and serenity but river side with saddhus or monk are mainly use to create an image of religious, spiritual, mystery, superstitions, moksha etc. The Old monuments, archaeological structure and kingly palace are commonly used to create an image of ancient civilization. Indian locations are unique for the Hollywood cinemas as they use them for wide variety of set up. In the recent Hollywood cinemas, the scenario of Indian modern cities are also getting place which symbolise developing infrastructure. Through the Hollywood cinemas the modern Indian cities are giving an exposure to the global audience about the modern Indian outlook. The modern cities mainly symbolise developing modern India.

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Reflection of Indian Music in Hollywood Cinema Martin Clayton and Bennett Zon in the introduction of their book entitle ‘Music and Orientalism in the British Empire, 1780s -1940s’ express: “The relationship between music and Orientalism is widely acknowledge to be an important one, particularly so in the long nineteenth century, and yet the literature on this topic remains under researched and modest in scope” – (Clayton & Zon 2016; pg 1). They signify the relation between music and Orientalism as an important one. Sounds, music, and SFX are all important part of every talkies cinema. Hollywood cinema uses a wide variety of music and SFX to support various visuals images. The sound effects enrich the feeling of love, action, horror, thrill etc and fill the heart of the audience with excitements and joy. The oriental effect is also finding its way into the world of sound and music. Hollywood cinemas are using various Indian sound and music whereas several Indian music composers are composing music based on Indian theme for the western Hollywood cinemas. Indian music is mainly tries to produce musical harmony and charming effect which took the audience into the world of musical fantasy. Indian music composer mainly use Indian musical instrument 247

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like Sitar, Tanpura, Sarangi, Sarod, Tablas, Flute, Binn, Drams, Dholaka, Harmonium etc for various musical effect. The Indian music support the visual set up based on Indian theme. For instance the music of Binn use by the snake charmer mainly flourished the scene of snake charming. Whereas the sound of sitar are mainly use when India and Indian traditions are display. The instruments like Tablas, flute, harmonium are mainly used during any song or dancing programme. During 1950’s Indian cinematic music played a dominant role throughout the globe. Its effect not only resides within Bollywood or Hollywood rather it moves Middle East, Europe and America along with the entire Asia. Indian icons like Pandit. Ravi Sankar, Zakir Hossain, A.R. Rahman etc played significant roles in composing Indian music. Their influence on western cinema is enormous. However Indian music composer A.R. Rahaman took the Indian music to a new global level. His work was highly appreciated by western world. His work reached zenith in 2008 with Danny Boyle’s Hollywood cinema ‘Slamdog Millionaire’. The cinema received prestigious Oscar award, a BAFTA, a Golden Globe Award and two Grammy Awards.

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CONCLUSION Hollywood is manly known for the English cinemas which are mainly deal with western cultures and traditions but often they deal with India and Indian society. The concept of Orientalism is clearly visible in various Hollywood cinemas with Indian setup. The reflection of oriental effects in Hollywood cinema with Indian plots and background set up is prominent through the projection of various stereotypical images about India, and its traditions and customs, reflection of cross cultural comparison, giving the panoramic view of Indian location for various plot and scene along with the use of Indian music. All are presented in a western dominating hegemonic style. The imprint of Orientalism is prominent in Hollywood cinema with Indian plots and in most cases they are contradictory. The famous Hollywood cinema like ‘Octopussy’, ‘Indiana Jones and the Temple of Dooms’, ‘Bride and Prejudice’, ‘Slamdog Millionaire’, etc show several fabricated fictional stereotypical images about India and Indian customs. These stereotypical images reflects oriental concept from various dimensions. The fabrication of stereotypical image about India and Indian rituals in the famous cinema ‘Indiana Jones and the Temple of the Doom’ put the cinema under wide criticism in India. The cinema was criticizes by several Indian film critics for the fictional stereotypical images but the mystical images give the cinema a magical charms which help to achieve a great success. The recent Hollywood cinema Slamdog Millionaire of director Danny Boyle also reflects several stereotypical images. The cinema focused on Indian poverty and the slam of Mumbai with a central theme of love and romance. However the cinema Slamdog Millionaire shows a contrast between Indian poverty and the development. Hollywood cinema also reflects the concept of Orientalism through the use of cross cultural comparisons. Through the use of cross cultural comparison they highlight Indian tradition, customs and rituals in their own oriental ways. The cinema like Bride and Prejudice reflect a balance between Indian and American culture and highlighted several stereotypical images of Indian traditions and customs. In Hollywood cinema various Indian spot and location were also used in an oriental stereotypical manner to reflect the oriental view. In most of the Hollywood cinema with Indian set up shows India a crowded place with cows and buffalo are roaming on the streets and bazaars. Along with this view the old cities and river banks are mostly presented with monks and sadhus to give a mystic spiritual charm. These images are mostly fabricated and fictional in nature. The grand old Indian musical systems are also used 248

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in various Hollywood cinemas to reflect the oriental charms. Orientalism reflects in Hollywood cinema with Indian set up from various dimensions. Their views and conceptions about India are mostly static and stereotypical. India has developed a lot but the reflections of India in Hollywood cinemas are mostly fictional, fabricated and stereotypical in nature. The oriental view of India through the Hollywood cinema is hiding the real India from not only the west but also from the entire globe. They are hiding the panoramic beauty, ancient scientific knowledge, and the beautiful architectural works of real India. The oriental view is not focusing properly on the glorious past of the ancient Indian civilization which is rich in science, literature and architectural works rather constructing a hypothetical concept which is fabricated and fictional in nature. However in the recent days the oriental view about India is changing and most of the Hollywood cinemas are focusing on the Indian glorious past, ancient knowledge and architecture, Indian tradition and customs along with modern Indian outlooks. This signifies the changing pattern of Orientalism concept which is beneficial for both the East as well as for the West.

REFERENCES Aravamudan, S. (2012). Enlightenment Orientalism. The University of Chicago Press. Bauer, P. (2017). Slumdog Millionaire. Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Slumdog-Millionaire Berardinelli, J. (2004). Bride and Prejudice. REELVIEWS. https://www.reelviews.net/reelviews/brideand-prejudice Clayton, M & Zon, B. (2016). Music and Orientalism in the British Empire, 1780s -1940s. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. Craine, A. G. (2020). A. R. Rahman Indian Composer. Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/ biography/A-R-Rahman#ref1070030 Fandom. (n.d.). Octopussy (film). https://jamesbond.fandom.com/wiki/Octopussy_(film) IMDB. (n.d.). Award (Slamdog Millionaire). https://www.imdb.com/title/tt1010048/awards Ramnath, N. (2016). ‘Temple of Dooms’ is the Indiana Jones movie that Indian won’t forget in a hurry. Scroll.in. https://scroll.in/reel/805944/temple-of-doom-is-the-indiana-jones-movie-that-indians-wontforget-in-a-hurry

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Said, E. W. (1979). Orientalism. Vintage Books. Sardar, Z. (1999). Concepts in the Social science Orientalism. Open University Press. Wikipedia. (2020). Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indiana_Jones_ and_the_Temple_of_Doom

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KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

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Cinema: Motion picture or a movie. Cross Culture: Dealing or comparing two or more culture. Hollywood: An area in Los Angeles but its name associated with American or western film industries. Moksha: According to Hindu philosophy the ultimate liberation from the cycle of death and rebirth. Namaskar: A traditional Indian way of greeting someone by joining two hands. Orientalism: The study of the history, Language, culture and tradition of the Middle East and Eastern nations. SFX: Sound mixing for musical or sound effect. Spiritual: Holy or divine feeling or belief related to spirit or god. Stereotypical: A fixed set of idea that may be false.

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Chapter 16

Eastern Male Image in Contemporary Oriental Media:

The Novel and Movie of The Lustful Turk Günseli Gümüşel Atılım University, Turkey

ABSTRACT When the Ottoman Empire in the 17th century was at the peak of its power, British and French merchants who came to Istanbul were writing so-called memories of harems to their homeland, and these letters composed the image of Eastern male in Orientalism and details of Muslim male image, which was one of the most important prototypes. The details which were written by non-Muslims who had no chance to even come near to Sultan’s private life, recounted a period of literature to politics. Moreover, Muslim males who were called “not lustful Turk” in the past also have to face some kind of vexatious accusations today because of this created identity. In the same year, the producers proposed that The Lustful Turk movie had a big budget and an ambitious project; they were trying to afect potential audience. In this study, The Lustful Turk’s novel segments and the movie are analyzed in detail to understand toplevel racist accusations to Eastern male image, especially the Turkish one. Also, contemporary media approaches will be evaluated from Edward Said’s point of view.

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INTRODUCTION When the Ottoman Empire in the 17th century was on peak of power, British and French merchants who came to Istanbul were writing so called memories of Harem to their homeland and these letters composed the image of Eastern male in Orientalism and details of Muslim(or Turkish) male image which was one of the most important prototypes. The details which were written by Non Muslims who had no chance to even come near to Sultan’s private life, harem recounted a period of literature to politics. Moreover, as Muslim males who were called “not lustful Turk” in the past also have to face some kind of vexatious accusations (hypermasculine, macho, aggressive, unausterity, harsh, cruel, barbarous...) today because of this created identity. The basic characteristics of these falses were prepared literary by an anonymous DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-7180-4.ch016

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 Eastern Male Image in Contemporary Oriental Media

novel, “The Lustful Turk” which was written in 1828. In spite of the fact that the novel had been forbidden because of its obscure content, new editions could be done in the categories of “Classic English Victorian Erotica” and “Vintage Erotica” (1967). This novel consisted of letters to England which were written by a young and beautiful English girl who was kidnapped and sent to Algerian Protector’s Harem. The English girl, Emily Barlow was a slave in Harem and she was raped by Algerian Ali but then she felt in love with him just like the other women in Harem. This book was also adapted a movie by American producers in 1968. In the fragment of the movie, they tried to create a malicious perception of reality. For example, the characters of the movie were praising (to thank) Mohammed (Hz) just after they raped a suffering woman; so this was not only a defamation to Turks but also Islam. Both Turkish males and Muslims encountered accusation of barbarism enigmatically. Interestingly, the novel was too busy to recreate Turkish male image with pornographic and obscene details in letters, they ignored the truth: the man who was called as “Algerian Dayı (Ali)” in fact was not even a Turkish Sultan. Because the key point was focusing on an idea, “forcible Turkish entry of European territories” at the background. In the same year, the producers proposed that “The Lustful Turk” movie had a big budget and an ambitious project; they were trying to affect potential audience. There were behind-the-scenes pages in the magazine: artists to joke with scourges, a naked actor who was reading a Geology book. Also, the artists were expressing again and again that in the scenes of barbaric Turk behaviours it was very difficult to act even they were not real. In this study, The Lustful Turk’s novel segments and the movie will be analyzed in details with discourse analysis to understand top level racist accusations to Eastern male image, especially the Turkish one. Also, contemporary media approaches will be evaluated from Edward Said’s and point of view.

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The Eastern Myth The developmental history of humanity is a history of civilizations. Lasting for generations, the successive emergence of the civilizations that follow each other has created various identities for humanity. According to these identities, there are differences which cannot be ignored, between primitive societies and civilized societies: being civilized is “good”, being uncivilized is “bad”. The concept of civilization functions as a standard in the evaluation of civilizations (Huntington: 2019: 46). The most decisive contact between different civilizations is the destruction or subjugation of a people from one civilization by another civilization. These formations not only bring violence with them, but they also pave way for cultural interactions. The culture and social formation of one civilization, inescapably, draws more attention and interest from the other side. Just like how Eastern culture and society always fascinated the West. Both during premodern and modern times, the Western World has reinvented the Eastern World by way of fictionalizing it, especially in the context of colonialism activities. This orientalist doctrine bases all the terms related to the East such as “Eastern character”, “Eastern dictatorship”, “Eastern Lust”. The related orientalist doctrine is the work of Europeans who almost agree on everything that belongs to the east. Edward Said also supports this proposed idea with the following words: Orientalism is the collective institution which deals with the Orient; that is, it makes judgments about the Orient, passes convictions about the orient through its own approval, it depicts, teaches, civilizes

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and rules the Orient. In short, “Dominating the east is a way found by the West in order to re-establish and rule it. (Demiroğlu, 1997: 46-47). The Eastern Myth, which has been created and adapted to the ages as it has been reshaped, in actuality is a quest in the world of the Other, which is sometimes frightful and sometimes exciting. The historical work presented by the Orientalist archive show us that the information, in general about the East and the Easterners and in particular, about Muslims and Turks, is not always distorted or subjected to an incomplete assessment in order to make them look bad and not necessarily used to provoke the Westerners. There is no single Orient/Oriental image. There are various forms which take shape in different conditions and times (Bulut, 2012: vii-xx). Ralph Waldo Emerson, the father of American transcendentalism, portrays the “Asian destiny” in his writings. According to him, the East means a fatalistic philosophy that admires abstractions yet does not care about praxis, it lacks development and believes in the power of the doctrine. Life in the East is fierce, dangerous and in extremes. Its elements are few and simple... The essence of East is, “all or nothing. (Emerson, 1983:34).

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According to Lisa Rowe, who is the professor of ethnicity, race and migration at Yale University, there can also be “good” orientalists. So an Orientalism that speaks positively about the Easterners or produces scientific knowledge is possible. Yet still, the East is an object and positive orientalism still owes its terminology still to the west, the follower of the scientific method (Yıldırım, 2002: 145). For example, Claude Farrere has written his article entitled “The Spiritual Forces of Turkey” about the Turks, which is often used as a synonym for Islam, in a positive orientalist attitude in parallel with the changing zeitgeist. The Turks of the 20th century are no longer the Turks of the 12th or 13th century. Having already done with nomadism, they became civilized. They do not live in the steppes, nor dwell within their old yurts anymore. For more or less than five hundered years, they have been living in friendly, fertile soil of Anatolia where all kinds of fruits can be grown. They do not chase herds on horseback anymore. Turks of these times plough fields and tend to gardens. But still, they possess their old minimalistic and faithful character. But, him too, along with the entire environment, falls into lethargy. His old seriousness is being replaced by naivete. It is no longer possible to make these people Barbarians again, if they are the descendants of Timur and Cengiz, indeed, should not they be barbarians? The Turkish people are not a people to be despised. Maybe I am acting a little sentimental when I am mentioning the Turks. Just like Pierre Loti, I am deeply in love with this honest, faithful, minimalistic and noble nation. Let’s say that I have a special love for Turks. Then, what are we to say about what Rene Grosset, a great authority, wrote about wonderful body of work entitled “Asian History”. This honest person, who does not have sympathy towards muslims at all, writes that Turks were a race created to rule and talks about the successes they had accumulated throughout history in awe. The Turks, who have established a civilized life after coming from Asia, have the right for a long and good life. Europeans despised them for countless times. Europeans, by that I mean us, maybe have guaranteed the unity of the Ottoman Empire at least 20 times and during each of these guaranteees, this giant empire was pruned, injured, hurt. Of course, they will hold a grudge against us. No matter what, Turks still resemble their ancestors. Heroic, good, honest... Yet still, they shed a lot of blood, this is true. But, let’s not forget the fact that they have also

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shed their own blood without hesitation. One way or another, I like the Turks, because they are worthy of so. (Farrere, 2004: 140-144). Although a use in this sense develops a relatively positive discourse, it is actually not so common, it is considered an exception. The general themes used in Western discourse and Orientalism are fictionalised by a Western subject by way of journeys to the Orient, memories, anecdotage, correspondences and harem life and are negative (Demiroğlu, 1997: 55). For example, in his memoir called “Modern Egypt” the British soldier and diplomat Lord Cromer talks about how foolish and unassertive the Easterners are while also emphasizing their excessive flattery. According to him, the Easterners are inveterate liars and lethargic fools who always scheme and torment animals. And with all these characteristics, they are the polar opposite of what Westerners are. Lord Arthur James Balfour, referred to as “Balfour the Bloody” by Irish nationalists for his harsh methods against the Irish, also agrees with Cromer. Europeans are the “normal” ones and it is the Easterners who are irrational, immoral, childish, in short, “different”. Balfour, while making these comparisons, establishes his fictions within the dichotomy of strong-weak (Said, 2017: 48-49).

Image of Ottomans

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If the first event to form the main lines of the separation between East and West is the destruction and plunder of the Roman Empire by the “barbarians”, the second is the conquest of Constantinople by Ottomans. Giovanni Maria Angiolello, who is known as the first Italian Turkologist, mentions Sultan Mehmet, the conqueror of the historical city, as follows: This Emperor Mehmet, as I said before was also known as the Great Turk (Gran Turco) was a fleshy man of medium height. He had a wide forehead, large eyes and long eyelashes. He had a hooked nose and a small mouth, with a curly, reddish beard. His neck was short and his nape was thick, he had yellow skin and broad shoulders with a melodic voice, but he was also troubled by the gout in his foot. He had three sons but no daughters. The first was Bajazet, the middle name was Mustafa, and the third was Cem (...) Sultan Mehmet the second, the seventh Ottoman Sultan, was twenty-one years old when he took the throne after the death of his father Murat. The year when his fortune was clear as 1450, and as I mentioned, he did more work than any of his predecessors. He remained seated on the throne from 1450 to 3 March 1481, which corresponds to 31 years. He was an intelligent person fond of talent, and there was also people around him who read him books. As will be described later, he was very cruel. He dabbled in gardening and liked painting, for this, he wrote a letter to Venice and asked them to send a painter to him. Gentile Bellini, who had a great desire for art and who was happy to come was sent to him. He was commissioned to make a painting of Venice which the sultan liked, and various persons. Whenever the Sultan wanted to see someone who was famed for their beauty, he had Gentili Bellini made a painting of them and then gazed at it (...) Many beautiful paintings, especially paintings with a lustful content were made by Gentili who we have mentioned, the Sultan held a lot of these in his palace. When his son Bajazet took the throne, he sold them all in the market and many of them were bought by our merchants. The abovementioned Bajazet said that his father the sultan, did not believe in Muhammed. It really is so because everyone says that this Mehmed believes in no religion (Soykut, 2002: 49-50).

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While Angiolello claims that Mehmed being a non-muslim is relayed through the witnessing of his own son, in fact, the abovementioned lines were a direct reflection of the hostility towards Islam in the Christian Europe during the Early Modern Period. While the West is yet unable to process the trauma of the historical destruction of the Roman Empire, the capture of the lands where Christianity was born, by the Muslims, has deepened the hostility towards Islam. The history of the Crusades is also an indication of this deepened hostility. Europeans have always referred to this most frightening element of Eastern nations and Muslims by a common name which is “Turks”. Ethnicity and race have never been taken into account. During the years when Christianity was thought to be under attack, the words Turkish and Muslim were considered synonymous. And even, in 16th century the traditional Wednesday and Friday prayer of the Bishop of Salisbury was one of the important proofs of this:

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O’ Almighty and Everlasting God, our Heavenly Father, we thy disobedient and rebellious children, now by thy just judgment sore afflicted, and iin great danger to be oppressed, by thine and our sworn and most deadly enemies, the Turks, Infidels and Heathens and we hide beneath your forgiveness against our sworn enemeies and pray for your help. Even if we professed the name of your only son, Jesus, we have deserved your rage and wrath because of the sins and evils we have committed. O’ Lord, educate us not with anger but with forgiveness. We would rather fall into thine hands than fall into the hands of other people, especially the Turks and infidels, who are thine sworn enemies. We know by our hearts that you are our saviour and confess with our mouths. The Turk, instead of your beloved son Jesus Christ, is trying to prais and glorify a cursed, cruel monster named Muhammad” (Maclean, 2009: 1-2). This use of synonyms was considered problematic not only in terms of origin, but also in terms of the language of the geography which was pointed towards. The equivalent of the word “Turkey”, which Europeans used for the Ottoman Empire in the sense of “where the Turks lived”, did not find a place in the language of any of the subjects of the Ottoman Empire. This word is also not found in Ottoman language. In fact, the result that is tried to be obtained with this nomenclature is very clear. In the synonymous words dictionary prepared by the author Joshua Poole, intended for reading in schools, the word Turk referred to words “Godless, heathen, frugal, thrifty, cruel, merciless, unforgiving, unyielding, tough, warlike, circumsicised, superstitious, bloodthirsty, abstains-from-wine, turban-headed, greedy, ambitious and mad”. The word Turk, drew the line between the Eastern and Western identity with all of its opaqueness. Turk meant “instability”. So much so that the word “Turk” was used even for British people who behaved inappropriately. (Maclean, 2009: 9). For the British, the incongruity of the Turkish word and its existence was not limited to this. The Turks were described in an animalistic depravity. Animalistic forms of sexual intercourse were identified with the Turks. John Speed, who probably never actually traveled to the Ottoman country and who was influenced by what was passed down or read from generation to generation in England, writes with self-confidence of a racial etnograph, instead of witnessing something by himself: The majority here, that is, the Turks born and raised, still praise their barbaric ancestors and bear the marks of the Scythians and Tatars on their foreheads and muscles. Typically, they are wide-faced, strong-boned, properly proportioned, thick, slow-witted, lazy, but also with a taste for wealth, wasteful in eating, animalistic and lustful without distinguishing between kin or gender. (Maclean, 2009: 186).

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Because of all these characteristics, the fantasy that Britain should rule the “incompetent” Turks, that is, the Ottomans, was created with identity formations such as these, which are not covered by this research, since it lies within the framework of colonialism, which is a completely different dimension of the subject at hand. However, being an Ottoman was far beyond these fictions, because interestingly, the Ottomans themselves did not keep themselves equal with the Turks, although they accepted that the lineage of their dynasty was based on the Turks and spoke the language, Ottoman Turkish. Evliya Çelebi, who was considered an important traveler by the Ottoman Empire, was able to talk about the Turks as “filthy Turks” in his work describing a trip to Bitlis. He also saw them as “rabble”, just like the “Kurdish herds”, in his own words. This is one of the most striking examples of this fact we have mentioned. According to the Traveler, The Empire was in trouble with them (Makdisi, 2007: 281-282). In summary, the Turkish image or myth was established by narratives that displayed evil desires, sexual fantasies, and sometimes even homosexuality, all disguised as an Oriental. As the Ottoman Empire lost power and fell, its attempt to adopt Western modernization would also discredit the Turkish myth (Ahıska, 2010: 201).

Image of Turk Marriage ties established with distant or neighboring countries in states that existed during the Middle Ages and/or early years of the Modern era, or rather, marriage agreements, were considered the main source of diplomacy and were quite commonplace. The princesses who came from a dynastic family, waited to marry the princes of foreign rulers. The marriage of Orhan, Sultan of the Ottoman Turks, to the daughter of the Byzantine Emperor VI. Ioannes Kantakuzenos who was named Theodosia, is a fantastic example for us the understand the Turkish image in the Byzantine sources. Although the history books focus on diplomacy and peace, Doukas’ Historiae tells us a lot about the Turkish-Ottoman/ Eastern image at the beginning of the 11th century.

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When Orhan heard the ambassadors making this offer, he was like a bull, burnt by the scorching heat of the summer sun, unable to quench his thirst even if he drank from a calabash filled to the brim with cold water: his barbarous lack of willpower made him like this. This nation is more raucous and sensual than any other nation; more insatiably depraved than all nations. They are ignited with such a passion that their unscrupulous passions for having natural and unnatural sexual relations with women, men and animals never cease. The people of this shameless and savage nations does the following: if they take a captive woman from Greece, Italy or another nation illegally, they will embrace her like Aphrodite or Semele; but they will hate a woman of their own nation as if they hate a bear or a hyena. (Hopwood, 2002: 150). Doukas, who can be considered one of the first-period Orientalist writers, associates sexual intercourse and lust with Muslims and therefore primarily with Turks, which is an almost classical approach in Orientalist literature. This can even be seen in the accusations of William of Adam, Bishop of Sultaniyah, who goes further with a readily available link in minds that Islam praises sexuality. Although it is accepted that this is an idea that creates uproar, the prejudices formed by this idea are not minimal. The identity of Turks consisted of images which consist of negative attributes such as “barbarian, predatory, lecherous, non-religious, intolerant, illiterate, big-bodied but small minded” until the end of the 256

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17th century. Barbarian, on the other hand, means “wild, cruel, rude, mindless” in particular. Despite all the negative definitions, the success of the Ottoman Empire is sought after behind a regime based on violence. For whatever reason, in the eyes of Europeans, this is not a success, but an act that should be underestimated in a world where the Barbarians will never understand its dynamics. In the second scene of William Shakespeare’s Hamlet, the phrase “Turn Turk “is used in a meaning “to deteriorate and behave badly”. And in the fifth act and the second scene of Othello, we hear the following wish: ...we must bring such a son to the world that he will go all the way to Constantinople and catch the Turk by his beard. (Uluç, 2009: 272-273).

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However, a word that evokes savagery like “Barbarian” was nothing more than the foundation of Eurocentric Historical Studies which tells us that humanity evolved from primitive social relations to a complex civilization. These words would also be one of the most radical expressions of the evolutionaryprogressivist understanding of history during the 19th century. These basic terms, which were considered a category, would also form the basis for ideological currents and political formations that became widespread in the West: any intervention against Barbarians was legitimate. It was inevitable that the civil-barbaric distinction would also be reflected in the products of culture. This, in turn, would bring with itself, a huge “ontological shift”. Because the tools that had become an extension, as McLuhan described, had actually changed the meaning of the original, the primal and the authentic in a world defined by the media from the beginning, and the symbol had defeated what it symbolized, replacing the original (Kalın, 2018: 13) . It is emphasized that the area covered in Edward Said’s work “Orientalism” is a discipline specific to men and is perceived through “sexist horse blinders”. A masculine imagination is describing a boundless lust. Just as Africans and North American Indians were bestowed upon a boundless appetite and presented as a sexual threat to Western women, the Ottomans and Turks are approached with “fascination and fear” evoked by a designated sexuality. The so-called forms of sexuality created by the West commute around the axes of desire and disgust. In his Essay on Lay Analysis, Freud clarifies the issue as follows: The image of sexuality connects the apparent relationship between the sexuality attributed to the self of the blacks and the woman intertwines the visible relationship between the exoticism and pathology of the “Other”. The Westerners who instutitionalize “free” sexuality due to a number of obligations with increasing bourgeoisization, define the East as a place where sexual experiences that cannot be attained in the West could be pursued (Uluç, 2008: 246-247) and they can find no other way to project their own fantasies into this space and even sometimes believe in those fantasies they create. This is how the image of “Woeste Turk/Wild Turk” came into being and that image is still valid today.

The Lustful Turk (Harem) Novel For travelers who make journeys to the East, what they see here is interesting and full of contrasts. All the conditions necessary for creating a myth seem to be in order. A traveler’s imagination is also added to these conditions. The combination of these generally inspires written texts. Losing their power at the end of 18th century and the beginning of 19th century, the Eastern Barbarians are no longer a force that inspires fear. Now it is time for the romanticization of the East, which

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will lay the foundations for a new form of writing. At this point, similiar Eastern stereotypes are going to come into being as if they were seen through the eyes of those who created them. Now, the East and specifically Eastern males, are going to be regarded as the center of strangeness, immorality and egotism (Erkan, 2009: 84). Scenes that are too erotic, wild and strange are now going to come as normal. Because they take place in the East. The East is an area of excitement where unlimited sexual pleasure is realized. Rape, castration, sexual decadence, excess, and homosexuality are going to be considered as the routine of Eastern men. In fact, according to the authors, this is an experience of sexuality with severe sensory percep