Haitian Creole: grammar, texts, vocabulary

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A

REBOUND

PAT NO .19.12

, SANTA CRUZ OFCALIFORNIA UNIVERSITY

3

2106

00076

HAITIAN CREOLE Grammar

Texts

. Vocabulary

By

Robert

A

. Hall , Jr.

with the collaboration

of

Suzanne Comhaire - Sylvain H

. Ormonde McConnell Alfred Métraux

MEMOIRS OF THE AMERICAN

FOLKLORE SOCIETY , VOLUME 43

PHILADELPHIA AMERICAN FOLKLORE SOCIETY 1953 THIS MATERIAL ALSO APPEARS AS MEMOIR NO . 74 OF THE AMERICAN

ANTHROPOLOGICAL

ASSOCIATION

4446

- ---

LIBRARY

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SANTA

CRUZ

-

- ---

--

HAITIAN

CREOLE

Grammar · Texts · Vocabulary

By

Robert

A

. Hall, Jr .

with the collaboration

of

Suzanne Comhaire - Sylvain H

.

Ormonde McConnell Alfred Métraux

MEMOIRS

OF THE

AMERICAN

FOLKLORE SOCIETY , VOLUME 43

PHILADELPHIA AMERICAN

FOLKLORE SOCIETY 1953

THIS MATERIAL ALSO APPEARS AS MEMOIR AMERICAN

ANTHROPOLOGICAL

NO . 74 OF THE

ASSOCIATION

the Wenner

en

YorkWenner

.

New

,

Inc .

from

teren

grant volume has been aided Anthropological for hobecnieResearch

,

Gren Foundation publication

by

this

a

The

of

The publication

1912

.

,

,

,

as

Folklore

.,

of

American

Richmond

Va

the Postoffice

in

Folklore and the Memoirs in

American

second class matter

.

,

24

.

of

act

of

the Journal

Entered August

as

issues issued

of

in

in

is

of

published January April July and October The Journal American Folklore Subscription by membership the American Folklore Society includes the quarterly

under the

GR

A5

.43

To

CARL DARLING

BUCK

TABLE INTRODUCTION 0. 1. Haitian

· Creole .

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0 . 11. Characteristics .

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0. 13 .

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0 . 2 . Analytical Procedure 0 . 3. Acknowledgments . 0.31.

Collaborators

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and Typographical

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0. 33 . Sponsors

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0 . 4 . Bibliography

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1. 111 . Nasalization

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1. 112 . Vowel Lengthening

1. 12. Semi - Vowels

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1. 13. Consonants

.

1.2. Occurrence

1 .3 . Syllable

of Vowels

- Structure .

1. 4. Occurrence

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1. 51 . Allophonic

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1.72 . Emphatic

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. . .

Normal

1. 8. Pitch 1.81.

- Contours Rising . .

1. 82 . Falling 1. 83 .

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1. 9. Orthography 1.91.

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Falling - Rising . .

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Gallicizing Orthographies Comparative

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1. 92 . Phonemic Orthographies 1 93

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.

of Consonants

.

1.71 .

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11

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of Phonemes .

1. 63 . Clusters 1. 7. Stress

11

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Effects . · 1. 52 . Phonemic Effects . . ' . . 1. 6 . Non - Significant Alternations of 1.61. Vowels . . . . . . 1.62 . Alternations

11

.

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of Consonants 1.41. Syllable - Initial . . . 1.42 . Syllable -Final . . .

1.5 . Juncture

··· .

· . · ·· ·· ·· · .···· ·· ·· .. ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· · · .. ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· · .. ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· · . ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· · · · · · · ··· ··· ··· ··· ··· ·· ·· · · · ·· · ·· ·· . .· .. · ·· · · ·· · ·· · · .. · ·· · · · · · .. ·· ··

1. Phonology and Orthography 1. 1. Linear Phonemes . . 1. 11. Vowels

.

.

:.

Conventions

0. 32 . Informants

A . GRAMMAR

· ·· ·· ·

· .

0. 12 . Dialects

. Relationships

CONTENTS

OF

. . . Table of Orthographies

. .

.

25

25

26

AMERICAN 2 . Form

- Classes

and

Morphology

.

.

.

. . .

2. 0 . Morphophonemic

Alternations . . 2 . 1. Free and Inflectionally Bound Forms 2 . 11 . Substantives 2. 111 .

Nouns .

2.112

Adjectives

.

2. 12. Numerals

2 . 13 . Pronouns 2.131

. 2. 132 .

.

Personal

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. . .. . . .

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Demonstrative

2. 133 . Indefinite

2. 15 . Adverbs

. . . . Minor- Clause Forms .

2 .2 . Phrasally

. . 2 .211 . Determinant .

.

Emphatic

2.22 . Prepositive

Particle

.

.

2.221 . Coordinators 2 .222 . Prepositions

. . .

2 .223 . Indefinite Article 2 .224 . Predicate Prefixes 2 .225

. 2 .226 .

. .

and Clausally Bound

2. 21 . Postpositive 2.212

. .

.

. . . . .

. . . . . .

Equational

. .

2. 313 . Adjectives

Verbs

2.32 . Suffixation

. .

Nouns .

2 .322 . Adjectives

2 . 323 . Pronouns 2. 324 . Verbs

2 . 325 .

.

Adverbs

. :

.

. . .

.

.

. . . .

. . . . . .

2. 326 . Prepositions 2.33. Compounding 2 . 331 .

. . .

Forms

· ··

.

Nouns . . 2 . 332 . Adjectives

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·· ·· · .

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:

:

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..

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. . . . . . -Alternants . . . . 2 . 31 . Prefixation . . . . . 2. 311 . Nouns .. 2.312 . Nouns and Adjectives . .

2 . 321 .

. . . .

:

.

2.30 . Stem

.

.

.

. .

Subject Form . Interrogators and Subordinators

2. 3. Derivation

2.314

. . .

.

. . . . 2 . 134 . Interrogative -Relative . 2. 14 . Verbs . . . . . . . 2 . 141. Verb - Classes and Alternants 2. 142 . Verbal Prefixes . . . 2. 16.

[MEMOIRS , 74

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

.

. . . ... . . ·. ... ·· .. ·· ..

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· ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· · · .

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·· . ·· . .. . . · ·· ... ·· ... .. ... .. ··· ·· .. ·· .. .. .. ... ·· ·· .. ·· .. .. . .. ·· · .. ·· . .. .. . ·· ·· .. ·· .. .. .. . ·· · .. ·· .. .. . .. · ·· . ·· . · .· ·· .. · . . · . · .· ·· . ·· .. ·· .. . · ·· .. ·· .. ·· .. ... ··. ·· · ·· .. ·· .. .. .. ·· ··· . ··· . . .. · ·· .. · . . ·· · ·· .. ·· .. . .. ·· ··· · . ·· .. ... .. ·· ·· ·· .. ·· .. .. .. ·· · ·· . ·· . . ·· ·· ·· ... ·· ... .. .. ·· ·· ·· .. .. ... .. · · · .. . .. .. .

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30

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31 31

31

34

35

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39

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42

HAITIAN

HALL ] 2. 333 . Pronouns

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2.334

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Verbs

2. 335 . Adverbs 3 . Phrase - Structure 3. 1.

Universal Combination - Types Without Connectives . 3. 12. With Preceding Connective 3 .11 .

3. 13 . With

Following

3. 2. Endocentric

Connective

Phrases

3.21.

Nominal . 3. 22 . Adjectival . 3 .23 . Numeral .

. . . . .

3 .24 . Pronominal 3 .25 .

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. . . . .

Verbal . . Types of Complements

3. 251 .

3. 252 . Order of Complements 3 .26 .

Adverbial .

. . .

. . .

. . .

Phrases . . + Object .

.

3.27. Prepositional

3. 28. Conjunctional 3. 3. Exocentric

. . .

3.31 . Preposition 3. 33.

Nominal . Adjectival .

3. 34.

Adverbial .

3. 32 .

3. 35 . Prepositional 3 . 36 . Conjunctional 4 . Clause - Structure 4 . 1.

Major

4 .11 .

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The Subject

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Clauses

4. 111.

Anticipation of Subject

4 .112

Recapitulation

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4 . 121 . Centers

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.

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4. 122 . Order of Predicate

of Elements

4 . 131 . Exposition

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4. 132. Anticipation 4 . 133 . Anacoluthon

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of Subject

4 . 12 . The Predicate

4. 13 . Order

·. . · . · .. . . . . · . . · . ·. . . . · . ·· .. ·· .. . . . · . . . · . . ·. ··· .. ·· .. ·. . ·· .. . ·. ·· .. ·. . . · . . · . ·. . . · . ·· .. . . · . . . . . ·. . . . . ·· . . ·. . . . . . . . . . .

.

.

. .

CREOLE

:

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.

Prefixes

. .

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Minor Clauses Elliptical . 4 .22. Individual Free Forms or Phrases 4 .23. Predicate Alone . . . 4 .24 . Special Forms . . . . 4 . 3. Interrogative Clauses . . . . . . 4. 2.

4.21.

4 . 4 . Subordination

.

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.

·· .. ·· .. .. ·· ... .. ·· .. . ·· . .. ·· . .. ·· .. .. ·· ... .. . . . · . ·· . .. ·· . .. · .. .. ·· .. .. ·· ... .. ·· .. ... ·· . . ·· .. . ·· ... .. ·· .. .. ·· .. .. ·· .. ... ·· . .. ·· .. . ·· ... .. ·· .. ... ·· . .. ·· .. . ·· ... .. ·· .. ... ·· . .. ·· .. .. ·· .. .. ·· .. .. ·· .. .. ·· .. . ·· . · ·· .. ... ·· .. ·· ·· .. . ·· . ·· ·· .. ... ·· .. ·· ·· .. .. · . · ·· .. .. .

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70

Distributive Clauses .

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134

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150

152

154

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146

163

Touyé you Koulèv

-



.

.

.

.

. . . . . . .

.

]

Ki

132

..

. . .

. . .

.

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.

.

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. . . . . .

.

. ). . .

: : .

.

.

.

.

Moun

Cochon Gras

-

:

.

.

.

-

(

.

Jeanty Henri

sou you

.

.

]

.

.

- . .

.

.

ak Sò -

Zwazo

. .



[

Totu

Mové Yo Jété Gouté Diri

02 123

120

. . . . . . . . . . .

-

.

.

.

.

Daughter

Kôpè Krabié Fwè Pérokèt Man Bewitches Girl

112

125

's ) . . . . . . ] . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Boy and Syrup Vendor Chérubin and Captain Lalin

Bèl Solèy

·.····· ·· . ·· · · · ·· · ·· ... ·· · ·· ·· ·· .. · ·· · · · · · · ·· ·· ·· ·· · . · ·.····· ·· · · · ·· . ·· ··· ··· ··· ·· .. . · ·· ·· ·· . .·· ·· .. · · ·

. .

. .

.

.

. .

.

.

Bô Dié

-

ak -

Vòlè

ak

,

Chê

Bourik

.

ak -

:

-

:

( (

Chat Kabrit Liô

( [

16 21 20 . . 15 . .14 13 . .10 .9 . 12 11 . 19 . .18 17

.

Wadilé Money Giving Lizard Sister and Brother Clean and Dirty Water

. 7. .

Bag

Rwa

108

.

.

. . ..

.

. .

.

.. . .. .

.

.

.

. . . ) . .. .

)

.

. . ) . ] ] . . . . ). . . . . . . .

.

.

]

.

.

.

6

. .

.

.

8

Fi

.

.

. .

.

]

's

.

]

.

.

.

.

:

[ ( [

(

of

Devils and Children Bluebeard Magical Escape Why Dog Hates Cat The Country Without Women Abisyo Touyé Rat

.

5 4

. .

's

King

. .

[

.

's

10 . 9

(B

Other Stories

.

.

. .

.

.

.

. . ) . . .. . ] . . . . . . . . . ) .

,

[ (

. 8. 7. .

[

6

-

Malice Rides Bouqui Bouki Rêmê Pitit Rwa Bouqui Malice and Monkey Bouqui Eats Own Mother Bouqui and Malice Get Bird Eggs ig Klaus and Little Klaus Bouki Kay Tayè Bouqui Goat Tongue Malice and Monkey

[

. 22 . 3. 2. 1. . 11 .

6

.

.

.

. .

.

,

[ [

as

(B

6

Bouqui and Malice Stories ouqui Zombie and Bouquinette Bouqui Saddle Horse

.

.

.

. . . . . . . .

.

.

. .

.· ·· ·· ·

. . . . . . . Saint Ristil

.

of

.

.

.

-

6

.

.

.

. .

. .

.

.

5 . . 1. 5 . 2

.

5 . 3

Translation

Texts from Informants Autobiography Joram Folk Tales

6 .2 . 1 . . . 21 5 4 3 2 1 . . . . . .

.

6

Text and Interlinear Free Translation Analysis

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

TEXTS Sample Text and Analysis

.

5

B .

4. 43 .

· · ·· ·· .. ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· .. ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· · . · ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· .. ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· ··· ... ·· ··· ··· ··· ··· ·· ·· .. ·· ·· ·· · ·· · ··· ... ··· ··· ··· ·· ···

105

.

.

.

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.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

and Hypotaxis

4. 42 . Sequence of Tenses

.

4 .41. Parataxis

(MEMOIRS , 74

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

.

AMERICAN

170 172

.

.

.

.

. .

. . .

. .

.

181 183

186

. . . .

.

.

.

-

]

.

. · . ·

·

. . . . . .. .

ak

.

.

.

:

. · . . · . . · . . · .

. — . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

188 189 201 210 210 210 212

.

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.

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.

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. .

.

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. .

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.

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.

.

. .

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. . .

. .

222 222

.

222 223

.

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.

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.

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. .

.

. .

. .

. .

.

. .

.

. . . . . . . . . . .

.

. . .

.

. .

.

.

.

. of

French Words .

.

English Creole Glossary -

. . .

.

. .

.

The Adaptation Vocabulary .

.

Vocabulary

.

.

-

. .

8 1

8 . 2

dAiti

Material

Bible Text

173

Broadsides and Educational Songs

Istwa Péi

.

Literary

Progrè

Mélô

.

From

Material

.. ·· ··· ... ... ... ·· ... ··· ··· ... ... ... · . · · .. .· .. · . .. ··· .. · .. .. ·· .. · · . .. ·· .. · . ·· ·· ·· ·· · · · · ··

Rwa

.

,



7

From

Popular

7 7 . . 4 3 .

.

C

Limiè

From

7

. . . 22 21 . .

7 . .2

7

. . . .

Fòs

Zétwal Didactic Material

Fô -

12 11

7

.

,

Didactic Literary Newspaper Texts

.

8

. · . ·

Proverbs

Riddles Newspaper

7 .1 .

.

7

6 6 6 . 4. 3. 5 . . .

(

. .

Bull and Calf Father Son Koumâ Malfini Vini Mâjé Poul Vaudoun Text

VOCABULARY Creole English

.

9

Ki Marié vs . .

.

]

.

25 24 23 22 .

Istwa You Maléré Man Eats Bird

Fi

HAITIAN CREOLE

HALL )

266

by

THIS

its

INTRODUCTION in

of

in

of

's

32 )

.

in

in

as

.

0

M

( cf .

A

(1 )

,

in

:

– 9

1

origin two projects undertaken the author preliminary exploration 1948 and tentative analysis Haitian Jacques Balince during the latter Creole begun 1948 with Teaching Assistant residence Ithaca the Division Modern Lan

work had

(

),

in

of

a

(2 )

,

in

of

,

of

linguistic survey Cornell University and Creole undertaken spring the 1949 for the Fundamental Education Project UNESCO conjunction United Nations Educational and Scientific Organization

guages

,

on

of for

", (

to

's

au -

to

.

a

in

a

),

a

with which the author made month field trip Haiti March and April 1949 including valley visit Jacmel and the Gosseline but involving part stay the most Port Prince and intensive work the analysis vocabulary texts and

of

in

-

a

).

is

13 )

separate

treated

intensive

,

.

.

in 0

.

Dialectal variations are

made the object

a

should

of

and

.eg

the language

of

.

,

only occasionally study

to is

31

(

. .0

cf

on a

of

-

in

au

a

to

as

to

,

of

historical aspects

be (

to

be

on

;

of

,

of

is

provide The purpose and scope the work scientific description spoken especially modern Haitian Creole Port Prince and the valley give representative the Gosseline and selection texts and vocabularly based the texts and other sources This study purely synchronic and only incidental consideration given intended

is of

It

.

to

as

,

an

,

say

,

-

of

[3 ]

[ã ];

of

of

[ã ];

of

in

to

(

[í ]

of

)

to

are

.

to

,

.

Its

,

0

in

)

(

modern Italian Latin ap comparison Characteristics with present day French proximately the following phonetics differ somewhat from those stand ard French presenting the features found also French dialects and Ca corresponding nadian French nasalized standard French cor responding standard French and assibilation the dental con

. 11 .

French

as

a

of

,

in

.

0 .1

is

Haitian Creole the native speech almost all the inhabitants the Republic numbering approximately three million Haitian 1944 not independent language about closely related dialect French but

, ],

dz

/

c

Ø

/y

,

( 31 cf . ). 0

,

Marbial is

du

.

Port Prince his Origines des variations

32 ),

0 .

cf .

(

au -

at

,



-

in

,

Creole

of .

by

,

of

Ethnologie

in d '

, of

of

41 ).

.

0

(

haïtien

Michelson Hyppolite the Bureau regional variations brief survey

of . cf . a

2 M

of

1

of

Location the Fundamental Education Project UNESCO whose center was and from which region come most the texts furnished Dr Métraux author

[

[ ts to ]

to

[i ])

,

the typical Indo European parts adverb preposition conjunction

,

of

,

,

,

in

,

,

(

'

-

of ,

,

In

all

/ə /. of

of

eight the Romance languages that adjective pronoun speech noun verb

of

is

(n

a

In

.

t[]

[d ]

ormally high front vowel sonants and before and respectively phonemic structure however Creole very close French except for the general absence the series front rounded vowels morphology Creole must be classed with and the central mid vowel

the

créole

AMERICAN

12

(MEMOIRS , 74

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

and ' interjection or minor -clause form ) must be distinguished on the basis of morphological and syntactical criteria ; and in that the verb - forms fall into the ' conjugations ' typical of the Romance languages , and specifically into the

'

'

'

'

'

e g

, . .

of

in a

'

,

'

'

A

.

of

of or

,

of

,

is a

overwhelmingly

.

')

'

)

(

-

,

( -pa

is

of

a

is



liv

is

.

as

'

' ‘

he

,

in

')

li

.g .

')

"

.

of ( té - -



origin French The main dialectal divisions Haitian Creole correspond roughly with those ncluding the the départements the country West speech Port Prince South and North Northwest and Center The dia

. of

:

by di

of

,

;

is )

-

is

. ., .

of

to

).

13

.

1

cf .

as

] (

'

' ('

/

fòr

cf

/

. .

e g

in

]

/r /,

]

' ('



e g

had

. 1 . . 42 ). .

'

clothes

in

' of - 'ſ ()j ,

or

instead

had

re

a

on

the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries morphological and syntactic features from the be

of

,

in

tion between masters and slaves

with considerable borrowing

in

a

,

is

,

or

of

0

. 13 .

(

/ fò /

l’

],

rôt

the use

ard

[h ]

hốt shame hôt instead stand jad versus standard The strong opposed North often pronounces syllable final standard Relationships Haitian Creole creolized language based pidginized variety originally spoken duced French the contact situa

of

initial jõt

.

becoming the standard language Prince Each these own lexical peculiarities The South further distinsguished

its

-

;

of

au au

of

of

lect Port visions has

of .

is

.

0

Dialects

(i

. .12

Creole

in

lary

- ( e

-

lit .

',

-

of

'

of

the determinant definite article noun phrases and very fre bought verb plus verb phrases achté you mwê give me part French part African book me Clause structure type Predicates may have speech usually with their centers any part meaning action when the center verb and with meaning equation any other class special feature location when the center form predicate structure predicatively bound prefixes indicating the presence past time alva future time and negation tense not The vocabu for

position quent use

,

of ).

is

in

-

in

in

of

use

three characteristic of French (pal- é speak ’; dòm - i sleep ; bwè drink ). But the inflectional system of Creole is greatly reduced as compared with that of standard French , and is in many respects similar to that of West African lan prefixation guages ( e. g. in verb inflection and derivation Phrase structure Creole not basically dissimilar from that French but many individual details are reminiscent post African languages

to

is

Sylvain

and their formation Otto Language Bloomfield

,

.26 5

Leonard

,

)

;

1923

, cf .

languages

'

,

'

'

'

au -

Le

.”

):

“ A

,

, ,

du

ce

,

des deux côtés

fortune de certains mots

se

'

ajustement

,

du

au

de la d

l'

ile

(

8



eu

esclave

l'

et

dans celle

effort

extraordinaire

de l'

y et a se

. Il

sa

'

s

maître

un

,

-

langue

langue

de notre vocabulaire du

la

York

lui parler dans

formation la

blant dans

creolized

and New

)



du

'

d

essayer

explique

and

London

Comhaire Créole Haïtien Wetteren and Port Prince 1936 créole haïtien est probablement dans Tortue cours XVII° siècle flibustier français son maître faire comprendre esclave nègre est avisé pour

,

mon avis jour

pidginized

.

1933

,

York

S de un le .

4

(

New

discussion Language 216

Cf .

,

Jespersen

ff of . (

For

a

3

,

of

.

of

West African languages the slave population Haitian Creole classed among the Romance languages and specifically among the northern group

qui

ressem

HAITIAN CREOLE

HALL )

.

,

,

of

-

coming contact with other slaves grammatical structure are those

from

of

them

in

keep

The basic

of

to

on

the plantations the same language

of

,

its

, of

of

a

in

be

to

is

its

.

,

of

the

phonological morphological basis the Gallo - Romance branch , on Historically speaking the origin syntactical and lexical correspondences merger sought the French the speech habits structure speaking masters and the African slaves who were systematically scattered features

of

.

by

,

of

is

in

to )

,

)

,

modern America

lin

as

it

,

of in

,

of

,

. are

in

;

in

re -

if

kept

been

seemed preferable

other instances where introduced general those current Typographical conventions guistic publications especially those the Linguistic Society defined

new terms have been

, .

has

verb

,

,

noun

,

. , , .g

or

(

terminology

traditional

(e

,

some instances necessary and

,

.

L

in

field

own structure

In

terms

Language New York 1933 and modified present Creole Every effort has been made any other language French Latin not that

Bloomfield

the

of

of

its

later workers

, .?

set forth

in

as

in

. .

0 2

.

to

to

,

to

both French and West African languages with some West African speech French and some peculiar Analytical Procedure and Typographical Conventions The procedure analysis used modern descriptive linguistics especially this work that

which are common which are peculiar

in

of

.

)

(

14

.

' ';

]

['

: e .g .

in

,



'.

ten

]

'; [' d



leg

is

[[ žā (m )b ) ]

in

.

1

(

:

in

its

no

linguistic forms are made 1941 Citations Bulletin set forth following manners the using the International Phonetic Alphabet Phonetic transcriptions square brackets type given mwē me enclosed roman IPA are

no . 2 ) .

in

-

;

/

/

' '.

dis

'leg ;



/

'.

.

,

dlo

Creole

Kent

The Sounds

. .

,

Roland

.

listed

G

by

(

)'

replacing descriptively

relationship

: e .g .

;

)'

means

/

begle

e g

Creole

/

(d

by >

/

', .

(

1945

. Relationships

Haitian Creole

”,

The Genetic

of

,



article

escriptively

Ricerche Linguistiche

1950

).

analysis

1948 Cornell Romance

;

,

Ithaca

the

, cf .

descriptive linguistic

of

the aims and techniques Descriptive Italian Grammar

(

the author

's

to

brief discussion

of

(

a

linguistic

determining

Baltimore

bøgle

)

for

ed 's .,

(

15

Cf .



For

Introduction

)' / '

/

( is )

la

'

'

Cf .

3rd

the author

194 203 ?

1 .

the criteria

Latin 6

of

6




'

la

means bøgle becomes Creole begle French historically means coming from

replaced

/

’; ' ( Fr ) . is

) nâ ',

replaced

in

' :

,

of

~

dlo

as

' ';

to

’: e .g .

istorically

by



'

>

(h

.'

dlyo

means becoming

)

of

/

, '

in

/

/

):

' ';

(u

in

'

~

,

in

:

in

is

)

92

' ';

(u

(

in

, .

2

. .1 3.

cf

an

sing adaptation IPA are roman type enclosed t en mwẽ me žāb slant lines solidi sually the McConnell Laubach orthography Conventional spelling given italics mwê me jâb leg dis ten single quotation marks the above examples Glosses are enclosed Special symbols those the IPA are addition alternating with dlyo means means alternating with Phonemic transcriptions

Series

/ že ) , coming

“ Creole

nèg

to

. .

e g

related

':

means

to

space



(

:

by

.

-'

,

'

-

/ ( le )

French

from

OIR


%- , occurs with the adjective other you whose plural accordingly zòt other nòm another man

’;

.

':



e .g

lòt

'

lòt

four hours four

. è , 13 ‘ . as

katr

as

' '.

kat

eight

nèf



)

';

'

The basic

three

’; ';

ten or

' dé

?

'; (o

';

attributes

stamps

two twa ccasionally uit

' ' ; ';

'; '

';

or

-

';

three

s

final months

kat and the

two

'

twa mwa

;

to

:

of

a

in

few

'

';

'

déz

added

is

(s )'

'

added

two years

déz

>

,

of

twa

to

is

added

duz

ou

.g . â ‘ ‘

(e

year

sis dis

wit

acting

twelve trèz thirteen katòz fourteen kêz twenty trât thirty karât forty sêkât fifty mil 1000 Before words beginning vowel longer forms hour certain numerals are used ten

sixty

swasât

têm

one

sèt seven

ésixteen

';

'

';

fifteen

sis

five

sêk

you

; -,

';

'

-)

four dis

gnou

gnou



the numerals are

dis



of

in

‘ (

katr nine

(s )

dis

endocentric nominal phrases

forms

-

' ten ';

the other children Numerals are free forms either standing alone

a

2

. 12 .

yo

' ' ' ; -% ten : dé ; '; sâ , e.g , è‘ ‘ ' ôz . is 100 ' ' ; '; ; '; ( s o â t ) ' vê ' ' is '; ' ; ‘ : ou ‘ '. six ‘ '. : ' '; or , e. , )' .' '; to , .g ' '; ‘ vê , '; ,

zdt pitit

sèz

(

). ',

sg

2. A

clock

:

),

25

,

.

(3

in

of

him

.

-

,

,

he ,

or

(

-

m

kôprân

prân

li

him

-a

a

vowel

’; : n e - .g ap .

'

saw

)

'. is

before they

-l

yo



'; li '

,

'I

:

,

'yo

';

al '

he



';

or

'

yo

of ' ;

is

There

.

,

fn

.1 ) ) . .

;

,

' '

exists also

a

,

MH SCH 61 SCT 51 237 239

is (

'.I ,

'

)

=

.

3

,

, -

112

.2

âmwê

(2

zòt

. .sg

.

-

y

';

to

,

for you mwê me pronoun Demonstrative

and

form

( JB

'

dialectal

when proclitic

saw me

they went read personal pronoun North West and Central Plateau the the South especially around Les Cayes nou used only for

in

)

,

us '

, i(

is

;

In

' 'I

';

-m



the North

MH

'

ou

.

, li,

and nou and also for

understand we are learning

we

.

(3

,

we li , , , us ,

to a

it

,

';

nou verbal form

mwê

) 31 )

(

in

of

as

,

Personal pronouns are the following mwê me she you you they them When proclitic enclitic diphthong optional but frequent for loss the vowel

131

.

2

her

4 . .11

2

,

especially Pronouns substitute syntactically for substantives for subjects nouns clauses and complements verbal phrases objects prepositions They are and four types personal demon strative indefinite and interrogative relative

be

to

is

'

'

sa



'

from French

,

-é -

euse the suffix

-

eur

;

/øz -

er

/-

from French

êz

.



;

(r )

â

't ';



'.

sa

'I

-pa

-

m

)t

';

.

'.)

(

'.

)

';

't

got

‘I

'I

-

èz is a

borrowing

,

Northwest and Central Pla

,

).

yoû

the South

(n : ) in (

MH

, '

the North



numeral for one are

and

in

of youn

;

,

the West

the

.

-è -

-

in

;

,

Regional variants yôn

2

7 -0 1 0z ) -

The suffix eux euse

teau

'

‘(

'(

- . -tpa m - -

an

is

m



.eg

'; ': .

.

2

a

basically

as

.

.

2

sila that The form this thing noun meaning this pèsôn nobody 133 Indefinite pronouns are kichoy some hing nothing wè kichoy saw something kônê pèsôn don know anybody anything thing that gêgnê ûyê hadn The form indefinite demonstrative pronoun 132

classified

AMERICAN

.

is

as a

'

'

'

,



of



?

'. ?

. I



a

is

Gallicism

as

ki

,

'

containing interrogative

phrase

?

'

kòz m -t-a -châté ? or

- Relative pronoun is ki ‘ who , what': e.g . moun ki bó ki moun li sâblé ? 'who does he look like ?' ; pou ki sing what reason should Ki moun who nominal what attribute Use what which relative

who are good ’;

.

'

(MEMOIRS , 74

ASSOCIATION

Interrogative

the people

for

.

2 134

ANTHROPOLOGICAL

: e .g . ,

)

; -

é

-

-

=

-

' , ' sin a ' )' , ', ; '

;

') ' ; ,



IV ( ‘

at



a

maniók

ès

.

stem

ki -lèté - ki l--é

]



'

ba [y

set

'. ' :

e .g

( in it ) is

ki l--

, ', ', e.g .

') ‘ .

’, ,

give

phrase

syntactic

specific

in

'

is

'

-ki l-

is '

é

it

lit .

',

combina

its us

in

as

i.e, .

first syllable the complement

verbal phrase let

vini

or

'

by

'

let ,

:

)

another verb

' ‘ ' let

.

,

used

may occur without

allow

when followed







at

.

(

1

forms

sing

kouri run

103

The verb kité

. 2 25 . .4

ès

, . . e g

1

lit

,

SCH

form



, e is , .g ', ès ', . ‘

-

(

'

verbs have alternant

Certain

tions

châté

depart

pati

formant zero wish dwè owe vomi vomit âfèbli enfeeble The equational verb occurs only the present the time and which which was manioc which which was manioc stem

formant

péché





, e .g . -

vlé

+

-

of

+

=

;

-i

-i

-

(

vomi vomit vomis formants verb root be

zero

stem

formant dòmi sleep

stem

I

:

classes

formant

stem

of

' ' ' ' . '. =

wè see wè one these four (

four

to

(

he

;

+

of

-

=

'



')

;

II of

.

love

'

III

one

to

longs rêmê

of

-

.

-

.

in 2

: e .g .

-

-

;

he

he

.

. ,

vini come vin By the occurrence

1

+

+

2



li is

larly

is

2

. 14 .

Verbs are those forms which can take the inflectionally bound pre 142 The simple verb form without prefixes invariable any and has aoristic tense reference can refer time the action vini comes came will come 141 Verb Classes and Alternants The structure the simple verb form mâjé eat root stem formant root mâj stem formant simi fixes enumerated

to

’.

by

li

ti -

ba

-

a

's

a

t-

fòk

';

a

yo



a

a

-y

by



';

‘I

104

'

'.

its té

ti -p

m

-

'll

-





m

ba

-

-l -

e . ou .g



. .

-ap :

e g

it

-

';

m

:

)

(3

come nou bwè drink pronominal The verb bay give may lose final when followed complement lat my mother had given me mâmâ little give you you lâg you dish kal blow makak According tongue was necessary they should give him little monkey him

:

by

up

’;

his

to

for

go

-

complement

';

off

in

. . . .'.

to

';

' ‘

';

. ..



to



did

';

to



. ';

. . . ’; ';

‘ ):

. ( . . ‘ '; '; l

n

'

at

’;

'



-

?

yo



la

- ka

rét

ou

ou

'; ’;

]?

.

a

' .e ; ?

[i

'

'

he m -

ti -

's

103

pòté

you put the beat me mét pwa difé pòt véso bring vessel moun are you staying not with relatives wét pitit take away the child

used

the fire house

al ..

finish

kouzê

to

,

from



. . . '; :

on

kôné the bring rété remain wété take sòti have just vini come jwê mâmâ my little cousin went find his mother

mété set about

kôn bat mwê

someone

SCH

be

a

.

'

la

yo

'

-l

. .

a

’; -

of



li

alé

pou

e g

: ‘

yo

fin

.

)

( lit

- 3.

pronominal

habit fini come Thus beans

li ’;

is

,

ba

. .

e g

non

is

any complement this alternant usual whenever bay followed pitit mâjé give the children food but the texts collected Métraux regularly show bay bay pitit give him children majinatè réglé zwazo bay nèg when the sorcerer had fixed the bird give the man etc for following The following verbs optionally lose their final vowel before

SCH

HAITIAN

CREOLE

came out from make two other

]

(

)

( lit .

‘I

-

bwa

bear

to

-



m

';





sòt

31

milking the cow zòt pitit she came

finished fè

li



'; la

he

fin

the woods

tiré bèf

vin

li in

HALL ]

. '.

children

Verbal Prefixes inflectionally bound and indicating aspect are The imperfective durative prefix apr often Southern indicating action which continuing not yet complete dialects future The form apr occurs only before alé and elsewhere apé optionally

:

in

.

,

or



:

:

.

-

-ap

ni n-

’;

a

'; l-

'.

in

'I ,

's

'; ';

at

-

he

to

-

-

-



li

the extended

vini had just come Magloire house live

fèk

had only just sat



';

m

té -

(

'

in

some regions

I

';

'

‘I

-

(

ap

(é ) ap - -

,

'I 'll

you



-

‘ 's

-

'

' ' I

-

ve

fèk

-

house

have just just arrived

ve

-

-

-

he

a

ou

m

ba

'; ap -l -

'; to

m

-)

: e .g .

rêk

fèk

té -

m lò - m

give you

abité kay Maglwa when had just gone only just washed fèk rêk chita

rêk lavé

fèk

and

kal

apé kozé

rivé

before any verb Thus beating châté apé mênê kay zôbi was talking

consonant

the zombie The completive prefix fèk

fèk

form

sing

'll

,

singing we we he was taking her

)-

-,

' is 'go ,

-

'I 'm

alé

-

' ‘ m ' 2 . re

beginning with going

verb

a

before apr

, (ap é

,

,

[s ]) ,

-

1

. .2

142

before

)(

;

woman

!”

see

,

's

âmod

play

and

'.

s

go

let ' !

jwé

let

â ( n

),

(

,

fam



sing

before consonant



(

ân at ou a al - ) -

ân

!”go

âm04

'; ;



's 's



alẽ

-

châté

prefix

let let

;

!'

"

eat

-

, ân

)

: let 's e. .g

alê

a

imperatival

.

1

The

vowel mâjé

Ôn - .pl

.

3

'.

down

,

.

,

,

3

(

22 )

.1 ) .

.



',

'I

pli

attributively plis

used

have no more

'.

that

'.

you

?

do

How

',

too

'

';

ta

do

'

' ' ,

'

li

sa ?



koûmâ



’,



ba

-



ou

'

~

?



)

, ':

'



kô (ů

ou



~

is

-

' pa

.g .

’; pli: e

~

'

'it ' ' s ‘

how

when

plis

lazier latter mwês travay tròp you gave her much Interroga too heavy trò lwê too far

tive adverb



have

parésé

less work mwê less good tròp lajâ too much money tro lou

'

a

2

( of cf .

a

as

) -

.

an

or

an



',

and tròp too much adverb mwê

more than that

sa

) ' 26 .

(3

. 2 ‘ 25 .5 . ), 15 . ',

(3

plis more mwês less adjective before ké

va

(

a

Only one inflectional prefix occurs time with verb except when ap replaces the future prefix negative after 224 adjectives Adverbs serve primarily attributes verbs They are normally invariable except that and other adverbs

' ';

, :

gòp

plò

:

in

.

,

‘I

-

-

,

in

that can

't

‘ all

-pa sa

, '.

tou

sa

verb

sa

,

to

independent

in

also

, as

) is

100

an

in



99 -

SCH

m

.g .

(e

,

an

a

,

,

;

300 ).

.

')

is ( é )

.eg

:

die

be ' (i

to

;

51 .

,

'

always occur

pral mouri which occurs before verbs with future meaning prefix but independent verb form which also occurs with non élèv pral lékol the pupils were going school Likewise the form ndicating probability positive independent clauses possibility negative

not

can may can dependent clauses

be ' or (

as

,

. 21 .

: or

. .

i.e

2 2

2

3

pral

was about verbal complements

SCT

dò -

;

!”

.

hoofs

Phrasally and Clausally Bound Forms such conjunction with phrases clauses respectively include Postpositive Forms The form

wi

'

as

'

'; o ( ' 4. oh 2 !' ), ' ;

't

isn

'

horses

'

beat

of

‘ no ’;



in

-

2

. 16 .

Minor Clause Forms including interjections and other forms which yes occur primarily minor clauses are such the following imitating any nyapad voup wham there

AMERICAN Determinant ,

ANTHROPOLOGICAL

(MEMOIRS , 74

ASSOCIATION

' definite

article ', which serves to make a nominal ( 3 .21 ) out of to which it is added , and makes it refer to a specific thing or things , acting as a kind of ‘nominalizer '. basic kay form the which can occur all positions the house pitit the child madâm the lady The form with after nasal

.

.

2 211

or

any phrase

l '

'; , ';

la


'

-a

: e .g , .

-

'

';

the man machin the machine After non nasalized vowel may occur panié figi the basket trou the hole the face After nasalized vowel chê the dog the break mê nôm

â

ti -

cousin



-

: e .g .

nâ my little

kouzê

: e .g .





-m nâ ( -

'.



-



' '; ',

occurs after nasal consonants

)

1

: .52 1 .f la

‘ is -

la

in

Its

phrase

see

'.

'

the hand

, . '; : ), 9 2

)

as

,

is

an

,

'(

';

-

l-

,

la

'

';

In

(

form

léz

’;

its

'

plural

',

-

.



e .g “

of

is

'.

at



mwê

clause

: e .g .

or in

,

equivalent phrase

,

- :

',

'

-

', ’:

0

to

,

,

'



in



'.

'



at

‘ is

-

';



âj

-

-

o

'

)

(

3 .1

.

'.

:

)

, ';

and their use

.1 ) : e .g .

or

equivalent

of

'

é

(3

’.

"

'

';

,

a

in

(i

,

’;

mê but

';

or

before clauses

and

before free forms universal combination types épi and then but For examples stand

as

;

to '



)



sou

of '

;

kou

instead

according

; , ,



31 ),

include among

of '

' ‘at ‘ in '; ';

(

.

a

ka

their

'

).

(

333 1947

.

23

i

Language

',

Some prepositions are after kou blow

form

,

Hockett

.

olié



, cf . 3 . ' 31 ; . variant

F

the house

sélô



its

3

or

,

'; '

as of ;

without

Charles

cf .

',

portmanteau

far

ialectally

use in

(

their except



(d



;

of '

of ‘

';

of

' 'of

';



’ ‘ ; in

the term



of

For the

use

*

: e .g .

'

towards definitely Gallicisms

for

pou

For examples dé

'. '

parapòt because

spite

as

jouk

malgré

'

of ,

épi after

with

';

'

by

a

,

,

or

' 'to' ; ak

like

'

)

kô 'by ; (m

’;

avèk



‘ on pa ’; ‘ ,

as : '; , a

.

.

free form

such forms

between kôn

which introduce exocentric phrases having equivalent phrase predicate clause apré after âtré afòs dint because

,

Prepositions

222

object

a

2

.

3 .1

'

with



';

. . 22 , , . .



2

which may

'

.

2

léz

-





',

)

;

,

)



,

'(

'

lé -



2

form

Coordinators

221

phrases cf . ak

after any free

too Bouki tou Bouqui also ntroductory Prepositive forms include the following

me

tou

fixed phrases



or

')

- of la

or

,

and

Ségnè before vowel before consonant occurs angels passim the Lord Luk the the saints mò the dead Sundays matê mornings dimâch The same true the French portmanteau morpheme beginning the the komâsmâ the Emphatic Particle 212 tou too also which occurs universal combi

nation types

only

in

form



. .sg

m

in

)

(

'

';

la

-âj

or

(

. .

'

e g

of

la

The French definite article

, its .

'

make

a

.

)

2

(

223

to

lakot

kay house the non prefixed form else the con postpositive the Creole determinant the indefinite article lâj lakay you the house Luk the angel trip along the coast

: e .g of .

comitant use you

'

'. ';

'

its

the frequent use

-

by

’;

.

'

e or lè ' .g

in

(

Vocabulary The French definite article occurs with certain nouns preceding the nouns and the form before consonants before vowel lakay house lavil town lajistis justice lakòt trip along the coast time lâj angel such combinations the French definite article hasmore meaning and simply empty derivational particle less lost shown

HAITIAN CREOLE

HALL )

'

'.

as

an

:

’.5

‘a ,

,

';

12

of or

:

)

.

(

2

131 and

a

)

.

(4

as

follow

follows

.

or

con

'; ';

little dish was smaller

a

me

given

-pli

(



had

he

-

predicate prefixes see 122 Equational Subject Form clausally bound

.

4

'I 'm

-

-

not

rich

not hide this

from

.

of

For the order

m

'I 'll ';

sa

ou

't

know

pa

)

: e .g .

'.





li -

;

]'

-ap 'I

-

p

mwê

,

-

not me

didn kaché

kônê

m

'it ' 't s

-pa

stop

';

he

(

’; -tpa )- -



it

ak -p ‘

-



didn

mwê



rété

â

-

see

is

-

';

va

)

,

before vowel

elision

my mother

in

be

-

-l

a

-

l-

:

.

)

;

';

a

Thus ka sourit mâjé

86 – 7

a

a

'I '

' ll

(

-.

-

and indicate

following any other type

;

.2 '.

be

form

vowel SCH twist your neck

with optional

plat

to té

-m

Thus

gnou msyé

house

prézida rich the lady will rich automatically replaced This prefix for examples the latter reference



'; .

a

.g .

.

2

-m - ) té : - e

'. '; pa 3. -

-

-sé té

li

nominal

pitit eat the past mêm wa mi was little millet and beans The negative particle pla with optional elision before vowel

piti

rich you

va

-, :

-

-

bâ - t .3 [ m (é -; in ) 4 ti - - .

'

-

pou

full pronoun form

after

va

him -

(2

'

ap va

-

The past tense sign mâmâ mâjé for me

lakay

These forms occur

nou

the rats will eat madâm isit the president will here negative after 224 122

sonant

,

';

‘a

a

-

)

';

after

contracted

ava todyé kou

m

sleep

ll

va

-,

a

,

ava

consonant and

a

' , he ' a-

after

ava

gnou

'.

,

,

.

.

1

(

bicha

form you

precede predicates

Predicate Prefixes which negation are the following

more emphatic subject after

introducing

yoû

'a

,

you

ti -

';

';

mirror

glas

gnou

The future tense sign personal pronoun subject

a

ing

phrasally bound

is

Article which

“ a

.

'a

or

.

2

‘a

tense

the , some'; o ' in the ' ( cf . 2 . 211 ) and

The indefinite article has the beating gasố little boy

gentleman 224

') ; di ' of

.

3

(

kal

you

a ruler

21 )

as

.

phrases

with

Indefinite

223

2

'jis

. far

in kou t - féril blow

as

-pa

sé -

t ';

.)

'

or ,

(

;

)

/

. : . .g

a

'

(e

', '

'

.

43 ) /

31

-

' it 's

-

is

it



/9 /

III

is

')

Interrogators

'

is

,

pa in

sé , -

,

';

1 6 2

in

,

'( ‘

';



sé -

(

it -

' '

: t its' . , '





pa

.

t-( é )- ) :

-



a

't

a

as

-



'

-

la

sé -

of



-

it



';

it

té -



,

e .g

(

indicating identity

of

.

.

2

,

was etc prac immediately linguistic preceded what has tical context with what follows mwê me mwê not me mwê was me mwê wasn me AB 49 catastrophe LFP gnou katastròf wasn XII Use demonstrative prefix the meaning this that during this time pâdâ clearly momâ that moment Gallicism 225

,

),

mêm

?

apa

-

?

';

you happy

ou

?

'

';

(n

)

't

Aren

'

?

kôtâ

and

où in

.

.

208

ff

,

Northwest and Central

SCT

50

,

ô in

);

in

introduce depend

which

include the North yoû MH also

:

article

the South

,

;

in

)

'

+

of

the indefinite

')

conjunctions

('

subordinating

,

'.

yôn one

'

,

yô ( ff . =

51 .

220

apa

?



?

Subordinators

Regional variants

Plateau

SCT

Are they coming you

ou

(p

, 1 . ? '; 81 .2 ) to : e ou . .g

-

(

.

2 6

it

-y

vini

(n ) (

.

2

. .

The

1

Isn ap t' -

'

,

and Subordinators which introduce clauses include interrogative particles èské ositive and apa egative which any clause and accompanied by question questions when prefixed form sharp rising intonation èské kôtâ Are you happy èské 226

AMERICAN

34

(MEMOIRS , 74

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

as ”

'

as

soon

;

osito



that

'



';

until

';



’;

4

,

'.

examples

jiska

. 31 .2 (s . )

for

For

since



( w )

p

iské

the fact that

cf .

'

‘ since '; dèské ‘



ent clauses , include : jouk ‘until '; kâ ‘ when '; kou 'as'; si, sizoka ‘if '; sito 'as soon as . A number of subordinators are Gallicisms : e. g . dèké ‘as soon as ; dépi

,

,

in

(p

.

in

a

. , 30 . .

to

)

.

2 .3

of

refixation suffixation The three processes derivation and compounding are for the most part rare and are found but scatteringly large extent only Creole and learned words borrowed from standard Derivation

of

French

,

a

:

'

in

in

satisfè

'.

,

-

';

akt

>

';

-

'

-

>

'

tabat

in

’;

musician



'

'

kol

in

'

in

-,

>

in

mizisiê

tabak tobacco

,

/ I; t

proof

prèv

neck

kou

in

-

'

vb

'

prèv

mizis

>

'

'

music

cheat

per

pèmisiô

hope

'

in

-

'

/ ' IV , vb / I

vb

'

-

'

>

/

vb

'

'

>

/

in

and

in

I - :

vb

in in

'

-



'. '>

'

in

- : s in ,

is

-

'.



'.

'

' -

in

';

rabo

grâd

>

'

>

' ;

on

,

/ I;

vb

in

'

' ';

,

'

-

a

'.

,

'

,

IV

/

vb

'

'

make bigger

-

',

grosis

'.

in

-

padôn

pwazônê

a

pwazônê

: e .g .

words

in

in

-

pwazôn

' of >

a

number pardon

padô



vb

' ' > '

'

poison

/ , I; in

:

I.



'

tapisri tapestry vb /

in

- ‘



in

bud

boutônê

in

-

big

lajâtri silverware

.

in

>

'

size

tapis

in a

>



/ I;

vb

grâ

cover

'.

'.

'

ané year

in

>

'

-

ess

‘ in

an -

'

-

'

,

murderer asasin vwézinaj neighborhood >

-

year



,

in

in

i,

>

>

'

asasê

vwézin in â

With preceding

a

neighbor

>

vwezê

â

iii .

';

murder

preceding

'

.

ii

With

ê

/

poison

I.

vb

'

>

( n .) no '

kôplimâ

hat

kouvè

IV

/

-

grosè

in

'

,

'

vb in

' -

>

'

;

'. '>

to



’;

-

>

'

, '

gros

pwazo

in

-

/

of :



put have congratulate praise

kôplimâté

in

' -

in

, m,

' '



boutôn

protection

protéksiô

liberty

chapoté

name Hôm nômê name after bases ending nasal vowel change With the preceding vowel

bud padônê pardon

possession

'.

I ‘ >

vb

'

protékt

freedom

in

-

in

-

>

I

/

vb

-

in

-

>

in

-



in

>

'

by'

, -

'

>

-

' '

'

'

mô “

'

.

libèté

roughị tapi carpet

n

i.

addition

chapot

enlarge

fat big

,

coarse

e

>

'

'

',

grâdis gro

in

d

grosié

protect

posésið

novena

lajât lajâ blanket silver plane rabot raboté cho hot chod chodé heat scald

)

(

size

posés

névèn

név

libè

hat kôplimât

kouvèti

in

. ' C. d s, ,

grâdè

'

'

in

kt

of

-

in in

Stem

>

lib

'

in

tool

-

plane

possess

nine protéj

free

>

b

'

kouvèl

f.

in

byof

' i, by

by

-

>

'. '

'

in

'

k

in c.

,

f a d . . 2. . e. . t, è f j d ' , / > > in in i/ u s

poséd néf

chapo

'

soften

mizik

pèmit

éspwa

satisfaction prove

prouv

triché

III

snuff box

compliment

'

éspwar

satisfaksiô

molis

trich

trick

Extension



mol

replaced

trik

tabatiè

boutô

: è , -

>

/

soft necklace

permit

pèmèt

hope

-

,

vb

III

mou

kolié ch

éspér

satisfakt replaced

is

ou

.

b

'

' ';

wa

in

è

a

mission satisfy ol ,

replaced

is

. 1.

to

of

2

in

Stem Alternants occur number derivatives and are here listed according phonemes which they manifest the alternations Replacements Phonemes

asasinê

HAITIAN CREOLE

HALL ]

Prefixation

rway - in rwayal ‘ royal , rwayòm ‘kingdom . occurs in the following form - classes and with the following

'

morphemes :

'

';

ti -

'

sè a

';

'

,

'

:

'

-

'

e . ti - .g

': '. ' : ; e



ésister

' . ' . ',

'



pound

liv

half pound

liv

-

démi

-

half

.g .

démi

. ' sg : .

. 2.

:

sister

drop

'

' ':

gout

ti -

from

ti

tic

considerations

drop

'

other nouns , by the prefixes : precede any noun (2.111 ), limited only by seman gout kouzê little cousin kouze cousin little dézòd little rascal dézòd disorder rascal little

are derived

1. ti- 'little ' , which may

:

Nouns

:

2 . 311 .

'

>

'

2 . 31 .

rwa ‘king

'

. y, in

-

g

:

,

'

'

.

,

( é )

is

- '

my



';

m

syé

' '. ).

-

-d

e .g

':

or

-

'

-

bla



.

' . . ' ' . : ' ' ( ' -' . , fi in ‘

51

.

,

-

' sir ';



' ): :

: -



fi '

bo

m

fi '

as

law thing affording protection against

step

-

. . .sg :

'

;

medâm



-, - as in -

well

'

'

sir ,

' f. ' .sg

a

bo

4 . .

:

to

(

: '

zami friend



as

used

Mr White

white man syé mézâmi Dialectally mesdames dâm lady my daughter SCT mô 236 aughter daughter step

'

friends

dear



blâ



-

'; ’ : :

or

'; my

m

-

chè

(

dear



chè

title used by country folk white visitors gentleman gentlemen mouché and mésyé

Man

chè

.) ‘

-

’ : mô -

(f ‘ ).,

ma

’ ; ;

'

gossip

sg

-

or

.pl

-

m

on

. .sg

.pl

m

( é )

;

-

,

m

. sg . f.

m

.sg ;

1

sir '



-

3

my and having the possessive prefixes built The the root following forms ma only before syé and mou ché and mô elsewhere mé These forms occur only with certain respect ma tât my aunt nouns and adjectives indicating relationship tât lady aunt madâm madam dâm makòmè madam kòmè godmother

';

':

-

:

bèbèl smart looking

'

cv

:

'

:

' ‘

’ ' :

'

of

initical

.

)

'

,

negative

)

useful

'.

itil



':

useless



';

initil

dis -

:

':

dé -

de -

from

(

),

(

ê

Verbs are derived

before vowels

in

(

of 51 .

,

'

By

-' . :

in

in

déz

'

'.? ' ;

dd

:

by

.

In

1

?

.

2

. . .

reduplication

223

before consonants indisposed dispozé disposed

êdispozé

314

2

-,

un

;

in

'

:

,

'.

'

/ I:

'

-0

':



vb

(

'

,

'

),

to

7

';

: .eg .

-'

un

dis

-,

-,

de

'

)

),

dé (

:

,

(

-

déz

before consonants

débat

.

'

(6 ; .1 )

.1 , in 2 . a ).



tât

314

.

for verbs

-

as

as

dé -, -

in

of

would have the form

( 2

,

-

by

consonants

, it

before

in m

are true derivational prefixes not simply preposed possessive adjec shown the occurrence such possessive phrases ma mwê my aunt pre consonantal position No instances this prefix are found our material presum of

, 7

before vowels

That these forms

,

tives

Verbs with the prefixes

is

6

a

. .

2

'

bak

,

only before consonants Nouns with our material chapter this and with suffix débaké debark disembark kouraj courage boat dékourajé discourage

fn 1

.

cf

' :

:

'

'

'

,

'

’;

. 2.

one instance

bèl beautiful SCT prefixation

ably



:

.

'

,

paravâ

of

. ';

.

2



rain

'

-

5

pli

':

parapli umbrella windscreen windshield wind 312 Nouns and Adjectives The prefix dis occurs endocentric agréyab agree derivation nouns and adjectives dézagréyab disagreeable despair hope dézéspwa éspwa able dézònè dishonor ònè honor dézòd disorder misbehavior order 313 Adjectives are formed from adjectives para

abiyé

';

to

overflowing

dézés péré

dress

';

'

bôdé

fill

:



out '

undress

':

';

dézabiyé

make



paré

'



';

préparé

:

,

duct prepare

-

-

-

duce

say

.

dzi

' :

di

conduct predict

:

:

:

prédi

-'

'



-,

-

pre

' empty

débôdé

kodi

with

con

-

. .

load

'.

"

:

' Mô

pré

chajé

hope

éspéré



b c

'

despair

';

'

unload

'

bat - beat



déchajé

:

'

along'

' ':

' struggle

(MEMOIRS , 74

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION



AMERICAN

36

'.

ready

,

-

'-

' '; :

,

,



-

':



';

)

re -

'.

,



(

), r-

'

duct

réjété

'.



': ':



place

';

'.



'

sipòté

'.

,

duct lead

plant

trans

'

';

trâspòté

Gallicisms

in

and occurs chiefly

.

‘ -

'

,

is

particularly scattering

plâté

,

:

'

': ' -

-

':

duce

,

'

'

'. ':

si

': '

;

' ' ; '

in

dwi

transplant

trâs plâté

by

.

:

in

:

:

pòt

evening

:

'

;

'.



:

pòtay

animal

'

bèt

)

(

an -

'

';

bét

-

cattle

:

': '

bétay

'

,

in

'

:

,

in

,

collective

sign

portal

'

.

râvoyé

back

nouns nouns are derived the following suffixes pòtal portal signal signal pòt door sign

From

ay al 'al '

a . . 1. 2.

duce

'.

' ; in

-'

'. -', ,

-',

' '

. ' : 32 .

Suffixation

' -é . -

plasé

tradwi translate

trans pòté carry

Suffixes occur the formation 321 Nouns

b

again

dwi

suppose pozé place put pozé under over pòté carry sivéyé watch over véyé watch sispân suspend pân hang

in

sus

sis - -' -'

trans

2

replace

sup

bear

trâs

port

’ :

'

’ :

,

' '

re

' -, 'in ' :

throw râplasé

sub

tra

j . . h. k

:

(

-

.g f. ' - ra , si - :

jété

support

âvoyé send

dismiss

of



e

‘ '

reject

pozé put set before vowels rédwi reduce

propose

before consonants

send away

'

propozé

-'

'

pro

-

. d.

pro

'

';

';

';

filèt



,

)

':

shirt

';



'. ':

kôpâgni cover

,

kouvè

'

';

-

’ :

:

'

(z )

jealous

kouvèt

‘ ill '.

,

-

glas

lésiv

laundry

box

' '; ice ';

washerwoman

neck

'

glasiè

'



. : ' . . ': kou

:

kol

bonbonnier krabié crab eater

': ’.

lésivyè

bôbôyé

gum

' ‘ ' ; ': ice -

with

':

thing connected kwizin kitchen

' ... ' : '

necklace

'

; ';

'

kolyé

';

':

cook

crabʼ

chémiz

jalou

blanket

'

,

disease

'

, :

'

)' :

of ié ' of “





person

(



'

:

': ‘

kouvèti

'

,

companion

krab

milatrès man Negro

mal trunk

envy

sickness malad thing connected with tree bearing gumtree gômié gôm tree bôbô bonbon bird



-

-

'; '

:

(

'

-

:

jealousy

. '; . . ' ', ':

’; ' :

jalouzi



,

-i

.

h

-

.j

-

.

k

kwiziniè



'

fil

':

-

, .g

' ‘

kind kind

(a

a

maladi

devil nèg

'.

)

(

' ' , ' -'y ' : ';

:

'

'



-

(

( la )

':

.f -

:

'

':

ès





èt

undershirt

collective chémizèt diminutive string malèt small trunk net mesh

tablecloth

lodyâsè

action

31 ).

aksiô

lodyâs conversation talkative person SCH dyabl dyab dyablès feminine she devil nègès Negress mulatto woman milatr milat mulatto prêsès princess prês prince

abstract company kôpâgn



( la )

';

swaré

'.

board aksiôn

person

:

plâch

': ‘

':

plâché floor aksiônè active

year

: â ‘

'



. . ',

ané year

' '

, in

,

in

'. of .

'

)

. d. -è é

e

collective agent

in

.

swa

(

swar

duration evening

"

C

'

door

AAITIAN

kwizinyèz

'.

:

'

'

';

'

plateau

plat

.

id

,

:

tapis

-

':

tapestry

'

';

gendarme police

'

':

)

,

(

-

tapisri

'

:

lajâ

-

laját

jâdam

silver



:



'

lajâtri silverware

'.

'. ‘

'

'

:

'

,

:

rwa king platô kat card

'

':



;

tabak

music

belt sêtir sêti jâdamri gendarmerie police

:

sewing

';

(

-

kouti

:

tabat -

'

:

'

:

':

rway

-

dish

':

mizik

plate

cardboard

katô

sêtirô

)'

mizis

plat

' ' :

':

'-

hing

collective

ri

q

(t

'. ’; . - ,

flat

man

kingdom

augmentative

'

plate

'snuff -box ' :

'.

'

:

rwayòm

dom

koutir

: -

(

f ‘ .):

seamstress

' '

òm

. . -Ô -

0 p

:

:

. . -o - (f iê .) '

n

m

'

koutirièz

kwizin kitchen agent mizisiê musician diminutive plato tray

cook



agent

ièz

. -

1

prizôn - : prizô ‘ prison '; tabatiè

'

prizôniè 'prisoner ' : ‘ tobacco '.

CREOLE

)

HALL )

tapi

tafyatè

spell



wâga

'

sorceress

';

secret

sékré

': '

'

)'

;

wâgatè

.

(

'.

'

round

,

fat

gro

'

richès

gros

:

young

size

':

grosè

-

‘ '.

strange

big

grâ

rổ

' ' : .

:

étrâj

'

-

':

'

riches

:



,

'

’;

'

wealth

rich

'.



':

jènès youth vit quick

jèn

.

lôg

grâd

round

long

'

speed

size

:

,

'

' : : : :

grâdè

abstract

vitès



rich

:

-

. . f. '; e. ' -s -n -iè

ès

abstract length

' bô ’; ' '

' ' : :

'

er '

-



gà è

-

bigº

stranger foreigner

étrâjê

good

rôd

'

,

‘ :

,

:

d

; d. C. b. a. 2. lô

From adjectives by Reduplication bôbô bondon candy action involving characteristic



secretary

sékrétè

drink

' ' ' : .

'

. . . ' ': : local

(a



taffia

'

tafya

)31

:

drunkard SCH

,

fòj forge smithy

fòjrô blacksmith one connected with

:



agent

' ‘



.

- -

r. s



rug

'. ”.

:

:

-

'

lib

' ‘ ‘



': ':

';

'

';

'

:



:

:

the root

eat

' ';

'

:

:

'



,

of

mâjé

possession

gêgnê

)

-) ;

root nouris

(

IV

vb /

.

'

'

nouri nourish

':

májé food

having

80 – 1

'

(

'

'

food

. '

nouriti

IV



'

';

: e .g .

of

' . : rot ' : ' : ..' , vb : /

To



ii .

abstract pouri

':

.

névên

'.

'

,

,

To

' - ; ‘ -0 ti ‘

.

a

b

twelve

douz

'

dozen

quarter kat four the following suffixes added

:

katyé

verbs with

i.



, -

'

';

. . of . : ':

douzên

'

:

about

nine

the simple form act with practically any verb knowledge gêgnê act kônê kônê know have soté jumping soté jump SCH decay

‘ ‘

. ': ':

. . .. . of

:

'

'.

addition

of

)

(

fractional

From

' '. ':

'

. , ' . . by ' ' .' ,

:

'

'

: ‘



-

4

. .

b



numerals amount név nèf

'

novena

,

‘ :

:



ên

-

3

From

a

'

-

. . '; .j

:

h

g

' ‘

in

one acting connection with êfimiè sick nurse èfim sick thing which has characteristic rôn ring circle round intelligent êtélija abstract êtélijâs intelligence kôsékâs conse quence kôsékā consequent important abstract belté beauty bèl beautiful libèté liberty libè free salté dirt sal dirty

pouriti

AMERICAN

'

'

/I ;

-

vb

' '

'

'

,

'

-

iii .

'

'

:

'

‘hope

'

'

/ I;

vb

'

'

:

ii .

(MEMOIRS , 74

ASSOCIATION

abstract : prèv proof : prèv - : prouv- prove vb / I. 1 act of . . . , result of . . . : e. g . dégou ‘disgust : dégout - disgust ékla ( fragment : éklat - bursť vb / I; éspwa ‘hope : éspwar - : éspér ; respect réspè respect réspèkt vb / I ' ': -‘ ' vb / I . adò agent fouradò indiscreet person four éstick shove

-0

'

i.

ANTHROPOLOGICAL

'

'

-

, '

': ' ;

/

' I.

'

'.

IV ;

'

run

-

' '

)



' '.

'; -'

:

)

'

'

'

'

' ‘ /I . '

'

vb

':

’ :

/ I;

': ' :

séri

lock

'

':

.

';

-

- ‘

' '; '. /

' '

'

-

:

injure

blés

chos

III

vb

'

-

';

'

-

:

,

':

' '

’ :

jou

'

-

'

flânè

protect

bat beat

sore

'

'

-

hunt

- -

: ':

-

'

'. ': ‘

: ':

:8

'; :

:

:

,

egg beater

blési wound

sér

act

.

':

ambition

âbisiô

':

-

':

akt

III

' ; :

posésiô

vb

'

pèmèt

discussion pinisió poséd possession

:

'

';

'

sèvis service

exercise

'

égzés

-

:

'

'

. . . ':

,

of

ice

'.

in

diskisió permit

';

' , ;

-

'

'

-

':

és

':





a

earlier

,

represents

).

verb base an



the suffix

pozisið

(

'

resolve

exposition poz expose kôtri position poz place put

'

';

és

- ‘

rézol

,

speaking

' ' :

,

:

' ':



Historically

pozisiô ution kôtribi contribute

-

sið

/

- II .

-

vb

)

.

ition

resolution

.

heať

chod

- ' ' ' ' ; ': '; ' ' vb ' ' / ‘

/ IV : ' ;

pèmit

punish

)

(

decide

désid

permission

pini

pot

chodiè

';

' ' -' ' ' : :

' ' :

'

hinder

bar

decision

'

'; :

pèmisiô

pinis

contribution

eur

gate

désiziô

on

'

be '.

-( ' -is i

.

': :

-

ion



8

batèz

means

chas

protéj

.



- XV ' .- . -

'

-

-

xvii

/ -

protékt

Also verb bases aksiô action ambitious égzésis act exercise

serve

'

sèv

vb

'

kach

,

èz

-

-i

.

,

'

'

xii . ';

' ‘

'

' '

possess

-|



agent alimèt match light chosèt sock alim jwèt game play kachèt hiding place sifl whistle

agent bariè

diskit discuss punishment

or

:

:

‘ '

flân

instrument

Aiô

rézolisið

combine

kôbin

shut

xiv

bisiô

en

fiâsay

lounger

hunter

chasè

"

in

, ‘ '- '

ix



'-

instrument

clothe with hide siflèt whistle

xvi

console

beat

many verbs

combination

kôbinézô

footgear

âbit

' ‘ IV ; ' on;

-

protector

close

pay

vb /

protéktè

effect

' ' '

'; '; or

'

er '

lounge

xiii

-

'



és

. . ': e g



': )

ation agent

ézô

kôsol

kourâ current kour rémâ lover rém love jwisâs enjoy asirâs assurrance asir assure enjoy suffering soufrâs soufr soufri suffer Ain rékônésâs gratitude rékónét rékônèt recognize

,

,

'- ‘

âs

(

-

Preceded

result

péy

X

/

jwi

by

vb vb

ance

jwis

III

:



' ': ,

-

-

'

:

'

vb / / . . xi II . . : . II; vii . - '; è- - . -â èt

agent action payment

péyâ

viii

: be ' ' : '; és : - ‘ : fly '. ' ' - : ' ': ' ' ': . ‘ ' ‘ ' ' ' ( : vb vb - / ' ' ; / ( I;

(

'- ’;

kôsilt consult kòsolasið consolation abstract collective batay battle bat fyâs affiance volay fowl vol

ay ':

.vi -

gagement

-‘

of

'-

,

aj

'

. ' . : . :' )' e.g ' . :



.

-

iv

' ‘

. -

v

sultation

ment

vb

pal talk talkative person âtouraj circumference age act âtour surround dôdinaj brotaj moving déménagement dangling rocking brot move contrary dôdin rock kôtraj contrariness kôtr plikasiô explanation plik explain asiô ation kôsiltasiô con paladò

later borrowing

from

French

HAITIAN

HALL )

CREOLE

, added :

xviii . -mâ -ment

the root in verbs of classes I and IV : e.g . amizmâ ' amusement ' : amiz - 'amuse '; âgajmâ ' trouble ' : âgaj - 'hinder' ; aplodismâ ' applause ' : aplodis (aplodi ) applaud vb / IV . A

.

to

B

.

to the simple

'

'

sâtimâ ' feeling

'

in

xix . -0 means , place , result : fouro scabbard : four - shove, stick dungeon : kach - hide ; roulo roll ( e. g. of money ) : roul - roll .

'

'

liar

mâtò

' lie '

'

watch

'; kacho

mât

/ II .

-

':

' ':

'

gadò " child -tender

'

';

'

'

'

'

-ò agent:8

'

-gad

'

xx .

vb

'

II : batimâ ‘ ship ’ : bat - (bati ) 'build ’;

verbs of class : sât - ( sâti) ' feel'. form

vb

'

'

-

'

';

';



'

:

-



,

':

':

'

chigger

communal

'.

:



(

)

-

'.

: '.

,



of

':

chik

:

chiggery

'

charitable



pitit

.1 ) :

:

,

';

'.

fear

-

(

-

( '. )pè ) '

' ' :

'

': '

' ,

crime

gro

jòlòt prettyish

joli

rough

:

:

gros

,

coarse



grosiè



':

being

'.

:

' '

)

(-

vis vice

sâs sense

.. .

quality

'

having

of :

,

'

in

-

',

ible sâsib sensible adjectives with

'; '

vicious thievish

èz

‘ :

to

':

by ‘

i:

visié

danger

'

(

cf

112

i.

. . a. 2. f. ii . '. -òt -iè ib

From

repose

'.

'

-

rest

:

':

,

' ‘

. . .. 2 . ':

chikata

'

III ;

' - vb /

.

/

'

':

'

/ :

'

-



:

répoz

III

mouchwa pikwa

pass

dâjér dâjé Added directly the noun dâjéré dangerous noisy uproar pèrèz pèr éskâdalé éskâdalèz éskâdal timid Preceded

’. '

'

- :

,

.

/

vb

III

:

,

''- in al ': ' ; ', '. ‘ '- ' èz

-

e

. d. -é -

commune having ous

double

.

':

'; '

:

'

'

'

:

';

'

, -

- :

:

'

,

1

' - ‘ al ab

.

C

doubl

little one child preceding vowel charitab able with elision charity mizérab miserable mizér mizè misery rwayal royal rway rwa king kominal

charité komin

III

stop

are formed

nouns with piti little small

From

ata

b

.

.

-%

-

' '

a 1 2 . . . .

Adjectives

bouch

beater bat beat paswa strainer pas the nose batwè

handkerchief mouch blow pick axe pik prick sting répozwa resting place sipriz sipri surprise surprise xxv action 322

cork

':

'

'

- ' ' ' vb

wè instrument

defend désân descend

défân

' '

'

II;

vb ’ ': / :

:

,

-

abstract défâs defence abstract désât descent

wa ' -,

-

xxiv

' ' '



'

.

s

xxiii

. . .-

xxii

-

'up ;

bouyô

: : :

,

agent result augmentative bouchô stopper bouy boil broth doublô doubloon



xxi

:

'

'

:

preceding vowel

)

with elision

of

diminutive

(

b

'

big

:

to

added

the lengthened form twazyèm

SCH

.

the other ordinals are not much used

73 )

two

' ';

:

':

déz



to

'

th

-

ó

added

second

'

-

yèm

dézyèm

(

';

:

able

in

' .12 ), , :

(2

chiefly

,

ab

-

.

with the suffix

three verbs with twa

',

From

.

4

twaz

a

':

third

'

numerals

From

the numeral

'-

of

.

3

'

pretty

(MEMOIRS , 74

AMERIC AMERICAN V ANTHROPOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION ASSOCIATION

. The root , in notab notable : not - note vb / I ; raisab (rai) 'hate ' vb / IV . ii . Simple form , in sèviab 'helpful' : sèvi ' serve ' vb / II .

vol

vb

in

abisyèz

other verbs

done

,

the condition bouché stopper

' 'in

/ I;

'

-

-

form

Ai

),

to

the simple

'brag



Preceded

-

thievish

'



be

,

(

-0



to

steal

volé volèz

the root :

to

fèt

' do ')

-

'

:

do

fè a

vâtadò

wander ambitous

-

drivay

rais

of . . . ing ', added : pal - ' talk ';

' '. .

.

.1 ) :

112

(2

'

,

-

,

-

'

' '

ing

'hateful' :

ótalkative '

paladó

and added verbal participle meaning make bouché stoppered

(

.

';

slow

the verb base âbit

added

-t

d

'

forming

'

the characteristic

girl

wandering

ambitious

:

.2 ) :

. . .

.

'

?

(2

to

-

:

is

,

of

'.

,

'

:

boulé

'

' '

:

' in

,

is

in



’;

'

:

'

'

,

, of

'; ‘

' '

)

fèt

-

(

fèk 3 .

';

burned boulé burn mouri dead mouri die kwit cooked kwit cook The verbal force these participles evident that addition verbal complements just they may occur with the aspectival prefix fèk 251 142 just made just born With some verbs the meaning the participle thus formed active

:

made

er

ish

. - é - èz '-

C

drivayèz

'

'

having

mizado “ slow ' : miz - 'be gart ' : vât- 'boast , brag '.

:

. -adò '- er ,

b

'

by :

'

' '; of of . . all . ’. ' ' :

i

';

]

'up ; ‘a

:

-

‘a

-

';

fèk

'a

-

is

up 'a '; it,

'a

';

(k

'a

';

';

a

';

'

';

'.

'a

'



'

dé lâ -

on

chimê glisé the slippery roads gnou pitit kônê wise nowing child biting animal gnou bèt mòdé gnou fâm bliyé kléré two shining eyes forgetful woman With others you chwal mouri medio passive dead hung standing gnou kâpé bagay horse rad kroké clothes nôm man mâjé kwit kaché hidden thing cooked meal you bèt fèt new born

kôt )

(

kôtr

-

in

'-

écontrary

kôtrè

':

ary

è

with

',

prepositions

From

,

.

4

'.

animal ‘

'.

against

-

is

in

,

'

';

'

' ' :

),

to

: n( ).' -e ; :

'.

,

is a

'

:

'

. )‘b ‘ ‘ .

.

a

work

travay

profit

bénéfis

':

travay

'

vb

sign





'

':

broom

balé

;

'.

'

e g

sweep

:

i.e

(

/

balé

.

:

'

fléris kroupis

' '; ' ;

flatten

':

big



grâ

platis

-

soft

gentle



' - ': '. '; :

'

':

dous

grâd

mou

:

-

mol

'

in

/ I,

-

-

sign

'

. . .

soften

bénéfisié

cool off

enlarge

’ ‘ :

-

dousis

grâdis

'

';

)

'; ‘

'

'

: e .g ' .

IV

/ 1 , flè

signifié signify

flower rump molis

(

-

flér

kroup

' ' :

squat

plat flat

'

vb

ify

-

'

-2 -

causative

flower

involving

action in vb /

' .

.

( n .) '

:

:

vb

'

-0

.

b

.

. d. e

right

klè

III

perform

- - ( n : is - ifi - .) ' '

C



'

'

,

: '; e. vb / .g I( klér

profit

' '

' : :

On

.

',

-0

a

'

brighten work

ki . '

added

. 1. 2.

'-

Pronouns to

.

.

2

An indefinite pronoun formed with the suffix kôk who kikôk anybody whoever 324 Verbs are found nouns and adjectives with the suffixes simple form many made with added the noun avâtajé encourage avâtaj instances ataké attack atak attack advantage donkey polish bouriké work like bourik donkey kléré 323

ever

HAITIAN

HALL

f. - ôn - intensive vb/ I, in 2 . On adjectives , with :

CREOLE

:

mangle

rachômê

rach

axe

.

/ I , in chofé 'heat ' : cho 'hot '. vb / I, in pròpté ‘clean ' : pròp ' clean (adj.) '. , 3 . On verbs with : a . -ad - frequentative vb / I : pousadé 'push repeatedly ' : pous- ' push '. b . -aj- intensive vb / I : fourajé 'rummage ' : four - ' stick , shove '. C. - ay - continuative vb / I : toûnayé ‘keep turning ' : toûn - ' turn '. dangle” : pady - hang ” ; tich d . - an - frequentative vb / I : padyane

. -f- causative b . --- causative

vb

(verb base ). 2 .325 . Adverbs are formed on adjectives , with 1 . t , in tou ‘ very , completely ' : tout ‘all'. 2 . -mâ ‘ - ly ', on almost other adjectives

bâdamâ

';

'

':

,

'

bâda

ordinarily

òdinèmâ



is '

of :

:

'

:

of ' in

'

koté place

on

,

kot where the formation

in

Elision final vowel Compounding occurs

. . ' . .

:

'.

at

ka of ‘

. 2. 2. 2. 1. 2. ‘ 33 ’; (3 . . , . . in

elegantly

':

, :e

.g .

all

:

elegant dousma gently sweetly dous gentle sweet ordinary òdinè Prepositions are derived from nouns with 326 kay house the house



âmê

'

':

pichk - 'pinch



':

often

'.

' pinch



a

Nouns based Noun Phrases having the structure attribute head head at figurative meaning jwèt tribute and usually with transferred jwèt round game joke popo big shot nèg important man popo nèg big man dyé statue dye good Lord twa dégout plant poison drops m ayi bouyi dégout kind violent twa three kind mayi bouyi boiled corn pwésô fri unimportant person pwésô fried fish

gro

:

'

of '

:

kabrit hypocrite

30

';

-po

': ‘ a

fri ‘ of -

:

-

'

‘a -

zo

’; ti -

'; ‘

'

'

rô + -

or

(a



';



of

-

-

-

:

';

'



'

+

-

'

's

in a

)

-

(é )

-

pasé

tèt

'

'. ': ';

to

raj

zero

:

suffix

hypocrite

'

souflé

':

a

,

with

-

break

maré

mark

clauses mòdé

20

. . . ': '; ':

'

':

-

pull

bear

'

or

,

and

mak

';

':

poté

predicates

suck

of '

'a

-

scarred

' ,

trênê

(

+

or

(é )-

, ' ' lit . ;

a

bone breaker kasé lâvi mouri want die pasé raj kind erotic dance

':

'; is



sousé

nô -j

';

-



of

'

'a

'

'

the head who

plant

person

verb phrases

:

of

-

poté mak

- he

tie

'

maré tèt

';

'

20

’;

'

- :

a

: -

'

.

3

kind

imprudent

Other types trênê parasite

-

'.

)

(

':

'

’; ‘

' '

surpass rage

sousé

kasé

lâvi mouri

bandanna

;

-

(3

he

'

mâjé keep food bones

in

:

'

of

'

,

-

'a



jwèt

. 2 . .25 1 .a ),

':

-

wèt zôbi nâ bwa zombie the woods play nickname name for having the structure verb Verb Phrases noun direct object thing meaning agent p erson and with the which chikâne vwazinaj sour herring bay kal chikâné vwazinaj cheat the neighborhood gives cupboard bay give mâjé gad gad who blow kal blow

'

plant

' :

front kind

'



krab

little Jesus crab skin dévâ kind flower zôbi dousmâ hypocrite zôbi zombie dousmâ softly

krab



bone zôbi nâ bwa

-

ti -

Jézu

'; 'a

in po

nâ -

'

:

'a

[

]'

-

;

nèg mòn hill billy nèg mòn man small goat Cassandra bouch kabrit mouth Jézu

dévâ

':

gro

-

bouch

'



the hills

';

':

's : ‘ ' '

-

'

',

a

gro

';

bô -

’;

'

‘ ' : ;

'



fry

or

+

,

:

,

) ' ,

gro

of or

'

':



21

-

1

331

AMERICAN

ANTHROPOLOGICAL

ASSOCIATION

, 74

(MEMOIRS

of

'

';

m

I'



go ké

a

ni ,

va

-

:

'



'.

girl

).

(

'

name given

a

'

it -

-

m

atò



':

yé a

fi

grandiose

,



-

' fò : '

sèch grâ

demeanour

'

chiré



';

lit .

-

'



'; , '

dry eyed showy

'. ':

grâ

boastful

gra bâda

-

,

: ‘

'

great taste

'

pompous

big eyes

daring

meaning

bahuvrihi

with

gro

'

-

sèch

grâ gou

:

:

'



';

eyes

-

.

,

grâ chiré

ribbon

-

on

lit

,

strong

hungry

gou

noun phrases big eyed



', 2. '

'

eyed

'

big

g (r ) ’; a- ': jé - ' fò

bâda

:

')

gro

';

eyes

based greedy



. . . .

(“

lit .

strong

dry

'

be -

is

Adjectives

332

.

2

it

:

enough daughters names are thus formed Asé asé hoped she will when the last female child

having



' '; :

'



-

'

- ni -

of

' li

: :

Fi '

'

va

’ '; ;

‘a

-



atò m

a

-yé

(i )

-l

vit

':

a

'



';

'

go

':

of

vit (

'

sès

and blow '; lésé - grênê ' insouciance ' : lésé grênê 'allow to drop plant géri get well quickly kind kind lagé brid kêbé lage brid flower sès without cessation rout kêbé let the bridle and grab the tail vât tatterdemalion vât vegetable good with bare belly kind now kou the present time kou the how stands Many proper

'bit

mòdé souflé off ; géri -

Pronouns with the structure personal pronoun attribute mêm forming emphatic pronominal compound intensive mwê mêm me myself mêm he himself 334 Verbs with the structure verb verb the first verb being mâgnê only just mâgnê you could have touch little bit koté +

-

:

'

out for

minute

a

-ap -

' 'll

we mâgnê géi

kò -

mâgnê sòti

-

go m

-

vin

sa -

a

t-

ou

talè

n -a

';

he '; 's

a

':

minute

)

me for just mâgnê mâjé

a

(

+

,



,

,

,

to

come

'.

li -

';

.

'

>

.

2

'

'

or

an

.

,

333

self

a

ulé a

-t -a -

+

’:

big

is by

'

-



from

their

' '

grâ

=

'

'

there

'

la

by

the world

in

never

'

jâmê

preceded

or

!

I

',

inside

m

'. ';

l ' ’; 's

so

to

sit

a

'I ' m

'; -l

:

' dâ grâ . ‘ of -

in

, ‘



-



'; +

-

-

m



' 'I

,

. -



little

a

a

ou

ti -

of

di -

-

m

.

2

dâ 1 .

The adverbial element there inside Adjective adverb

2 ' .

-

la

-

li

’;

l-

inside

eaten

a

she having good time mâgnê grâgou little bit little hungry mâgnê chita gout would have liked for him down little mâgne kichdy come little closer proché can tell you something 335 Adverbs compounded

soon

.'



-

is

shown mâgnê

-ap ,

,

as in

.

),

+

verb are compounds not phrases 142 the example given

(2

by

9

of

mågnê That these combinations occurrence preceded inflectional prefixes enjoying

géi

'.

jâmê never

just

PHRASE - STRUCTURE

3.

IN

Haitian

, as

Creole

other Romance languages , the place of a single form or a phrasally or clausally bound form ) may be

in

,

(normally

a free form utterance by a non -maximal combination of forms , or phrase . The structure of Creole phrases is discussed in this chapter . They fall into three main types : universal combination - types , endocentric phrases, and exocentric phrases. 1

taken

in an

3. 1. Universal Combination - Types ' are such as occur with free forms , phrases , or clauses of any function ; usually the forms combined thus are parallel in each part of the combination . They are here subdivided according

of connective elements . Without Connectives . A series of expressions linked together with no connecting elements may have one of the following meanings : repeated two or more times : 1 . With the same expression Emphasis a. or intensification : yô bèl bèl fi 'a very beautiful daughter '; the presence and distribution

to

. .

big

3 11

';

-

a

'; l-

a

'

';

';

'I ‘

-

-t -a -

m

';

he





'; ; li

of

'

'.

, ';

)

'

,

ish

. . .

-

'

. . ( . 1. ': ' 72

'

a

the first syllable blâch blâch whitish on

a

he



kâpé kâpé they were completely standing Repetition with emphatic stress and sliding tone slightly the first form gives meaning

Tô of

yo

- ‘

';

mapou tree ‘a great big , blâch blâch very white very very salty dous dous sweet salé salé tiré tiré tiré would have great deal gayé shot number times vâsé vâsé has advanced gayé will stretch out enormously nou rivé rivé we have arrived altogether gro gro mapou

yô gro

to

. . .

'

two and walked and

'.

, :

.

)'

,

,

, ’;

';



,

li

lit .

(

2

lougarou

zòbòp

'.

'; pa

,

-

’;

,

to

,

zèb



to

,

,

's

, ,

-

ten years

m

, ,

,

,

,

yo ,

,

or

nine



nèf diz

â

'.

caressed me

Alternative

:

,

me

bo m

-m

';

kissed

.

b

,

me

'

, of

-

a

bèt

'

:

,

bananas

viân

by ,

-

zôbi

,

'I

yo

pwa yo

,

diri

m

,

yam

,

a

werewolves zombies sorcerers yams rice beans meat kômâsé bay dlo okipé bèt papa châjé lòt savan tayé pou bay chwal my father animals giving water taking care bêgnê started the changing pastures cutting grass give the horses animals them into other bathing them mâmâ dodinê mwê karésé mwê my mother dandled

bânân

Enumeration

Nôk plotônê diskité after



by

'

,

two

she walked

. . . off ';

' '

yo

.



'

li

they dropped

he

:

maché



much discussion discuss discuss With different elements

. .

grênê youn youn

the people walk

kouri kouri ran and ran and ran Uncle pulled and pulled and pulled diskité

,

kouri

plotônê

yo

a

of

’;

ten

,

li

';

li

'; ,

plotônê

,





yo

ten

one moun maché Duration maché maché

walked

'

';

(

'

by

came



they

'

by

.

c

one

42 )

(s

'

'.

vini dis dis

li li

yo

a

.

:

b



'

'; ' ' ;



lightly piquant piké piké roundish salé salé somewhat salty slightly bitter dous dous sweetish SCH kiyè kiyè kiyè giving bay chak moun Distribution each by spoonful apiece Repetition person numeral indicates

AMERICAN

(MEMOIRS , 74

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

Successive events : m -kêbé li, prâ ti-plat- la ' I grabbed him [and ] took the little dish ' ; mwê tôbé krié , di . . . ' I fell to crying [and ] said . . . ' ; ti-kouzê m -nâ vini prâ ti- plat mwê , l-alé avè lakay li “my little cousin came and took my c

.

put

tèt

mété zorèyé âba

nou

she

'

li,

do

aba

mété

,

,

town (and ] she bought little black shoes

to

li

li

-

';

la

li

nwa pou mwê 'my mother went prâ twal me tân nat

for

little dish [and ] went with it to his house '; mâmâ- m al lavil , l- achté ti - soulié

of

it

,

it '

pitit

poté

an

just

the ear

'.

-

'

la

gnou

3

. 13 .1 ) .

' cf .

yo

just them

,

'

':

sèl

(

,

'

,

,

' '

.

on

';

-a

';

all ] li

is

[

b

kôsèy

; . . . ,

eye inside

'a

ak

madâm one canary

single

a

. . . ,

a

of

single

alone with his wife gnou grên kanari gnou grên kalòt single box the child brought subject pronominal expressions gnoû grên But with and follows The adjectives sèl alone only just and mêm even

grên

by

,

-

-

with

unit

a

'a dédâ

â



=

grain

grên

grên

ni ‘

yoù



. . .

‘ ’:

ak

.

a

The nominal phrase alone

just one

preceded

:

of

,

1

is

in

:

With Preceding Connective only one main element There the combination introductory expression one the following types

-

,

:

of

is

'

ak

-

. 3. '. 12 .

ak

'.

a

]

, d.

[

,

stretched out the mat she took cloth she under the back the bed and put pillows under our heads explanatory The second element the first mai moulê kwit âsâm pwa piti mi pwa ground corn cooked together with peas little millet and peas

he

-

’;

'

kabaré

-

tas

cup

'

ak



my

é

’;

:

'

or ')

swat father

';

and

épi

and

only before the last

'; ';

and tray

’;

,

ak

‘ '

indeed

my mother



-

ou



';

ou

or

(

as

,

or

ak

';

else papa

m

or

-m

mâmâ

bye

la



he

'

' , ,



-pa

,

is

'

'

':



,

-ppli '

'

é

'

l-

a

osnô

'; : ’ ;





li -



- :

a

';

. 2.

a

and then

element

'. ‘ ',

pa

-

'

'.

as

A

.

e



joined together more main elements coordinator such with and avèk with

There are two

With

' ’. ’: ké '



'

';



a

.

c

'.

alone mêm even advice only preské you kal chak jou The adverbs prèské almost and beating only present every day almost When the clause always negative contains the element not Kômè Laroz kêz goud only gourds Sister Rose had the fifteen coordinator such and épi and then mê but especially intro Epi ducing iti pasé mwê and then clause mêm was smaller lajistis than me mê rémé but loved justice them

big and

,

ti '; li



'

- é m -

li

,

to

pa

take away the apé boukânê

pòtrè swat gnou

trèz

twelve

or

gnou

'; kè,

-

-l

person

'

'; ou

';

douz

’; ' ';

,

on

m

“ a

or

an

or

a

'

heart

eye

wété

or a a -

la

-

';

sit

';

it

to

or

,

- ll

I'



‘a

down wét pitit osnô away bèf osnô moun cow cooking potatoes fighting

not

child else take patat osnô apé goûmê portrait osnô gnou

gro

he

, '; -

-m



,

he

li



-

sit

down

or

or

'

chita

to

to -

a

,

li

'

é

-m

li

-

'

é

';

ti -

'

maniòk dous avèk amè sweet and bitter manioc prâ mwê gadé volé the angel took me and flew kouzé my grabbed wè mwê kêbé little cousin looked saw me and me abiyé mwê pou mênê chapèl épi vini you dimâch matê mété soulié nâ pié mwê she came one Sunday morning she dressed me take my feet chita osnô me the chapel and then she put the little shoes

lâj

large

grâ

thirteen

HAITIAN

nâ - kwizin ou bye courtyard ' .

‘ in

nat nâ -lakou

sou

CREOLE

the kitchen

or else

. kil . ki .' : ti -

HALL ]

on

mat

a

in the

yo kô

sa ou

ba

-

a

bèt

-

pa -pa -tpa té -

ki

m

bèt

ki

-

' li

ki m

-

la

)

of

.

ni

pa

ni

a

'

a

';

or



, I or

on

of

. . .

' ')

-

-

ap

-

lè n

alé

-

-

ap

ni

,

lèd swa trò pòv

lè n

(

not the whole body either too ugly too poor toûnê how would be either

-

a

,

swa

' tè '

trò

(a

',

' kò

'

and

the predicate prefix

bwa

pròp âkò they speak evil

mal

drink châté châté bèt SCH 171 giving meaning alter lways with negative ele

sing

,

or

. . or .

'

';

swa

ou

pòté

ni

':

-

m

ap

tout

pròp

’;

even

to

't

'I

't

palê

'.

';

ki

yo

';

't

-pa

-

(n ) or

swa

the ground

on

be

kôtâ

(m )- ,

or

)

the tree jâm

either

mê never



. . .

. . as .

n

'(

swa

the adverb

sou

a

swa

either

pròp

coordinator before each element

with

such

willing

m

' ' ;

sa

.

c

With

',

ment

ti -

do

'; , '

of

a

't

of

't



pa

t--

kapab bwè can the creature wasn even able

bwè

châté

native

have given that mwê mwê

wouldn

clean any more

even

me

even

I

children

wasn

ki

even

he

-

to

' '

,

interposed between the two b . With the same element repeated and repetitions giving meaning emphasis even maché even the animals don walk like you moun moun

carrying you

'.

s

'; 'of; it

he ' he

a

.a ),

to

or

to

]

is

'.

of a

;

,

li -

yo

fi -a

:

)

vlé

-

,

m

-l

vlé

sa yô

lòt ou

-a

tou

tou

bågay âkò

oh ’

la

’;

as “

=

of

a

or

,

'

just like that for this person pitit for this person

’;



com meaning

mêm

mêm as

sa a o

’;

sa a

';

,

mêm

adding

a

sa o -d ) ,

or

';

the little girls kou for my table moun moun

form

-

',

,

for

mêm

o

.

'

' ‘

as as

(

' -a it 's

of

of

as

),

its

Endocentric Phrases such fulfill the function the phrase head fall into the same classes

as

' , . or

as

'

the minor clause

same

reduplicated

me Malice

(

contained

mêm

for this child

in

.

3 .2

mêm

mêm mêm

o

’;

mwê Malis

mêm

yo

fi

ti -

:

tab mwê

then

very

mêm

mêm

-

.

3

'.

';

,

too

';



then



kroupi koté

m

-

me too

tou

I

gnou grên

mêm

171

]' . (

':

,

';

’;

,

'

see

a

by

lit ' . of

or

'

.

'

2

'I

tou

'

bination thereof emphasis sé

(

'

is

[

to

I

in

as

,

the clause broté herself alone SCH âkò still yet mwê mêm

[

the end herself

The adverbs tou also myself squatted down beside him too mwê tou whatever you want want too épi and

still another thing The adjective

-l 3.

. .

sa .

-

a

t-

' It 's

-

+

,

, byat is

noun subject the noun pronoun gnou grên the girl carried them



'I

l-

sa

Just one



la

-

a

with

canary all the child brought you alone came This order obli the first two examples above with recapitulated pronominal phrase consisting poté

vini wè pronoun subject

grên

m

-a

-

gatory

grên pitit

gnou gnou

mêm

‘ 12 .1 :

of

li

'a

-

';

: li -

off or

kanari ou

. , 'I' . m . ,

ni

, ,

ni

.

13

1

. 3.

-

';

pa

to

either when we are going when we are return ing mwê kapab vân lwé not able either sell rent him With Following Connective one the following only single The phrase gnou grên after nominal pronominal phrase only gnou grên mêm raché could pull kapab capable mwê mêm gnou grên könê alone know what

one the forms the forms whose

).

( 2 .

133

who

'

pronoun

?

relative

ki '

identical with the interrogative

-

whether this

is

uncertain

ki

is

1

It

.

place they take

46

AMERICAN

ANTHROPOLOGICAL

(MEMOIRS , 74

ASSOCIATION

3.21. Nominal phrases — — those which take the place of nouns in further constructions — have the basic structure shown in Figure 2 . In this figure , classes of forms which may occur as attributes before and after the noun head are shown in the order in which they may occur ; those elements of the phrase whose inclusion is optional are enclosed in parentheses .

FIGURE

)

+

INTERROGATIVE

(

+

)

(

+

')

+

+

)

(

)

yo )

. or

.

+

(

+

)

by

yo

PLURALIZER

)

+

(

( (

)

,

(

+

)

(

+

)

(

+

(

)

+

(

)

+

DEF

(

DEFINITE ARTICLE

DEMONSTRATIVE

S

DEMONSTRATIVE

OG

)

+

or

)

)

Or

.

(

. +

(

,

tive

pose

each

(

chak

ART NUMERAL INDEFINITE ADJECTIVE NOUN NOUN parti ADJECTIVE ADVERB NOUN indicating characteristic rate extent NOUN indicating possessor VERB indicating pur preposition EXOCENTRIC PHRASE introduced CLAUSE +

(

or

all '



INDEF head



OF CREOLE NOMINAL PHRASE

STRUCTURE

(tout

2

ART

:

)

‘ '( H

;

(

';





yo

' '; all ‘

-

:

momâ that moment

what

person

,

moun

'

ki

':

,

ki '

'.

,

c . ?'. .

An

'

la

.

'

a

',



chak désân every descent The demonstrative that clear Gallicism maniòk that manioc interrogative especially what which b

)

all

ti

':



’;

]

'. '

provision sé

or

'



all [

'; '

' ';



';

.

a

.

1

in

Attributes preceding the head come the following order The adjective tout all chak each tout dézòd the little naughti nesses tout asièt the plates tout twa moun three people chak kay each house chak mèkrédi every Wednesday chak proviziô each

you

kilòt ròx

ti -

' ‘ ; ' :

two big author pitit any okên

'

an

indefinite



or

'; ,

a

,

)

.

numeral

chèz

'a

of

you

'

â

'; ';

twaz

'; ' ' ; ;

ities

223

gro otorité chair kat piti bwa four little sticks

shorts three years

‘a '

‘a

d

The indefinite article

little pink pair

(2

who

bad



'; ; ';

':

mové

' ' '

enormous

kout short piti little

'; ';

same

';

'

kokên chên

mêm



kokên

mal male



’;

big

'

';

young

kòd

young

'



fimèl bourik

an jên

gnou kokên chên

' '; ';

'

rat

-

enormous

'

-

'; ';

gro otorité

' ' ;

'

an

=

rat

the last trip great authorities

dénié vwayaj

la

one fine day long time

'





kokên

enormous

is

to

'.

';

,

'

';

lòt

';

'

’;

'a

of

If

an

'

gnou

great

kout priè little prayer souvni other memories gnou mâlmâ dyob extensive racket mové gasô bad boy piti soulyé nwa little black shoes adjective and noun be reversed emphasis the order thus given

';

rope



-



people

you gâ

'; ' ; :

Thus she ass

jou

.



';

mâlma very and undoubtedly others

'

';

'

'

, '; , : bô ' ' ‘ ' '; ', '; ' or ' '.

'.

'; ‘

'



lòt other

jên

big

';

gro

of

';

great

'

8

(r )a f .



';

.

e

of '

lòt

pil

â

kèk jou

';

few days kèk moun some people kèk parâ some relatives bagay many other things tròp too much plis One the adverbs plis more mwês less more time mwês diri less rice tròp bri too much noise good One the following adjectives dénié last fimèl female

child

HAITIAN

HALL )

CREOLE

‘a good child ' ~ gnou pitit bô ' a good child '; gnou woman ' ~ gnou madâm gro ‘ a very big woman '. f . Occasionally , a noun indicating a characteristic or (more frequently ) Wednesday Sunday morning you mékrèdi matê a title : dimâch matê morning you toro bèf bull bull bovine animal bòs tayé master :

the adjective

gnou bô pitit

'a St .

kôpè

', ' '.

,

'

+

'

of

'

, :

etc

).

.

33 in

(3

'

'; '

;

)'

' ki ;

ki

of

.



of as

in

. .

2

kalité traka

Ristil

Uncle Bouqui what valè value kind things bagay what kind nôk Bouki

found attribute valè what kind mess Attributes following the head come this order An adjective indicating characteristic quality is

kind

' '

kalité



ki or

An

'

';

Brer Rooster msyé Déroch Desroches exocentric adjective phrase consisting

kòk

'

Mr



Ristil Brother

Frè

';

.



Sê -

-

a

(

'a

lit .

a

you

';

Dr Dorsinville

Doktè Dòsêvil

';

tailor

';

' a big

gro madâm

gro

'; be

to

nèg malê



'; ); ,

.— (

'

ti -

’;

';

clever man

'

’; , '

‘a

English man

an

âglé

you nòm

'

family

‘ lit .

. 21 .1 .e :

3

in

=

';

' '

m '; té -

a

for

saj

,

,

a

most adjectives except for those discussed fam midwife wise woman chat marô brown cat cat that has run wild roch jòn yellow pebbles you soulié nwa black shoes majistra kominal communal magistrate responsible réspôsab you fâmiy big fund sufficient for me sifi pou chwal

mèg

'.

'

thin horse

'



yo

up

';

'a

‘a

place fixed for daughter

rélé Jan

,

';

koté

la

pi

ti -

ôn

'a

' ';

distant road lidé lwê

this side

si

koté

-

236

);

(

SCT

: 51 . ,

farther

'

idea

)

a

lit ,

little

chémê lwê this country

you

'.

, (

'

';

a

' 'a

little bit that side

earth

pié

';

vomiting fever

';

pié ,

vomiting



mâjé

houses

-

by



fever characterized

of

( lit .

'

'a

la

of

‘a

-

';

-

';



a

of

,

,

,

,

,

).

',

]

[3

. 11 .2 .a

'

,

)

';

card for taxes

(



tax card

bwat alimèt match box

'

,

(

Purpose kat kôtribisyð :

.

ii

'[

diférâ kalité

kamiô chwal diférâ kalité shops autos trucks horses enumerative phrase with common attribute different kinds modifying the several heads

,

,

'

kinds

of ]

';

boutik

different

oto

-

';

silk

house

-

-

)'

;

plant

' ' ;

plant pié balé savan field broom plant bwa tree wood you rob ròz swa métié tayè the tailor trade rose colored dress big enormous fellow the height gnou gro kokên gasô rotè kay the

balé broom

).

or

to

which the noun attribute refers the sub part container quantity Among the

which the head indicates

(

,

Partitive construction

a

stance

in

.

iii

)

'.

for matches

of

box

gro mézô kat étaj big four story

'

:

lafyèv vomismâ

the following

:

indicating one

Characteristic

of

,

noun

A

‘ '; i. c.

food

(

a

,

lit .

.

b

An

'.

called Jeanne adverb indicating characteristic road far off pei isit the country here

you

fi

'

';

-

pou

sa

'

'; ';

-

'

ak

(

'

';



divê mélé avèk kola

’;

') '

( lit .

“ a

-

fèt

fèk

ti -

):

. ; 4. d

(

51 . 2.

)

you âdwa dispozé who were invited wine mixed with cola

'

the people

that

on

Under this category come also the participial adjectives formed verbs just made kabrit little kid just born SCT pwa ground corn 286 mai moulê ground corn mai moulê kwit âsâm cooked together with beans mâjé paré the meal prepared moun êvité 322

now

. AMERICAN

white (MEMOIRS , 74

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION



' rès '; '; ‘

of

‘a

copper

'a

:

value

of

worth

's

'a

bit

this same type

measure

kòb tout bagay

,

';

Of ;

.

)

a

to

you





,

265



';

.

51 .

of

' ';

touf maniók

of

(

, ‘ )' no ; . lot '; . ‘ .

spoonfuls

'

';

of

salt

rest

quan

volim

three

of

222

'( you

in

';

'; .. '

;

)'

'



'; a,

(

'

'a

SCT

;

's

a

twa kiyè mâjé

the head refers

which

worth

pwên

glass volé flight

milk and potatoes pile yellow pebbles

roch jòn single person

constructions copper

a

"

'a

you

single

food

plate

of

';

pil

of

are partitive sèl



’;

avèk

you pyès moun

kòb

piece

patat

';

of

clump

‘a

asièt

manioc

earth

you

piece

touf

moso mâjé

you

';

food

clump

pyès

ti -

.

Thus

bit

bag

sack

lèt

'. you:

,

';

sak

,

remainder tity lot

'pé ' ; ';

"

pakèt

'

piece

' lot ';

‘ '

'; ';

tin

nouns occurring as heads in constructions of this type are : asièt 'plate ' ; bou grên bit gout ' piece '; boutèy 'bottle '; bwat 'box ' ; chaj ' load ' ; fèblâ ' can drop kâtité quantity kiyè spoon ful kras crumb mamit kettle moso



'.

one foot around beating every day

five cents

kòb chak

'

you kal chak jou

';

Rate

pié àtouraj

you

'a '

:

Extent

:

. '. v. iv .

'.

everything

each

objective

)

the noun head

.

'

the

Thus

'; '. ; ,

of

of an

the coffee harvest pitit rwa king children

coffee

's

‘a

'; ' ;

=

'

of

ti -

'yo

lòt

:

with noun attributes rékòt kafè the harvest mâjé moun the food the other children

ncluding

by

(i

,

to

'

d

A

or

pronoun indicating possession noun genitive referring the object action implied

‘ ;

)

';

’.

Saint Ristil

.

's

',

his mother house kay French chez =

li '(

at )

-

acquire quasi preposi

which

in

indicating

-

of ] to

(

,

'

',

'

'

=

(

'

-m

of

,

, ‘

( lit . [ at ]

is

)

b

+

(

'

=

'

ou

where your father the kay true preposition is a

-

's :

house

chez



form

son

come

kay mâmâ

papa ka

. . . ';

.,

.

The

in

'



of ';



of



'

'

( at of )

in

)'

of

this type koté

Joram

side place

my godmother

your father

the possessive attribute

pa

property

the possessive

construction

that

is

of

A

special example

in

).

222

.

(2

house

,



at

the

place

phrases

etc '

kay marên mwê

as

's

li ‘



in

:

of

is

of

tional function

of

'

ou

li

's

yo

'

ti -

lòt



ti -

type personal names phrase used parent the name the Jorâm Ristil The nouns kay house and koté

'

' -m

:

:

as



';

li

'. ti -

my mother plat mwê my little dish With pronoun attributes mâmâ kay piti your his house kouzê little cousin With nominal possessive kay phrases attributes mâmâ his mother house head kay house preceding phrase examples and attribute mâmâ his mother mâmâ my father pataj papa kouze mwê my little cousin mother fear mâjé moun the distribution the food the other children This

which the noun

yours

N

' li ' (

, his ,

a

pa

' ,

-a ); -m ) 's -pa ; . ou pa -l

-

nou

my father

in

'

'

. . . , . . . 's ', kin

' -a ,

-

papa

kin m

,

N

' pa

(

in

(

the North

ours

;

a -

kin

nou

)yo ‘

pa

, ,

'

mine

'

m

N

(

'

'

theirs

pa ,

. '

-a , -1 ); : -npa -pa

). yo kin

pa

,

Thus

to

)

(

'

in

,

;

MH

; (N

oul

-a -

,

'

(

SCH

hers kina

its 67 ;

or

)

'

in

the West and South and kin possession the meaning thing belonging North are used the with follow ing noun pronoun attribute After the possessive attribute follows directly after kin the definite article follows and then the possessive attribute share

Phrases thus

HAITIAN

HALL ]

CREOLE

'

by or

,

'

'

at

'I 'll

ti -

glas

had looked

'I

-

kò nâ m

kòm

kò -m

';

yo

yo

-

; ' - m; te - -a '; m

a

)

bit

'

by

to

all

to to

describing

)

,

31

(3

' . .

a

preposition

a

by

';

to

a

to

'



';

'

'

he

phrase introduced

exocentric

'



:

of

to

'

-



. tâ . ‘ . ':





in



'

-

';

'.

An ‘

proché

gadé

'.

,

A

.

e

rwa The phrase meaning had already iron

food

f.

pou

for they love them gout draw near

rêmê kadav

dwa kôbit the right make combite buy corru eat the rice achté tol time kaché tout mâjé the king had had time hide have time such construction comes have the had already hidden all food

diri the right

dwa mâjé nâ gated

little

mirror indicating purpose verb

in

myself



he



approach myself a

.

lit

(

li

ralé

tèt

selves

against Laline herself

Lalin

killed himself withdraw yourself

ou

touyé

'; ' ;

li

:

reflexive meaning

myself

tèt

' sou -

a

to

'

tèt

constructed may then be used as appositions following other nouns ( cf . below , 3. 21 . 4 ) . Similarly , the nouns kò ' body ', kadav 'body ' (emphatic ) , and head are following possessive attribute phrases with emphatic used with form

in

a

at )

‘(

sa

kô -



)

;

'

in

of

'

dé -



-

0

old

ak

ô

';

yo



; nâ -

(

)'

';

:

on

'

'

51 .



lòt

:



'.

a

-

'

a

,

).

(

'

the dependent clause

:

the verb

of

as

:

a

Introduced relative element subject The relative pronoun

of

by

:

,

A

another place SCT 232 clause with descriptive meaning

ki ,

A

. i. h.

in

lived



'; .

A

g

eyes

an

gnou tôtô bab blâch man with white beard predicate with descriptive meaning latè pousé earth which grew frè mêm mâmâ rété koté two brothers by the same mother who

’;

like that

an

(

'

=

in

-

'

a

';

'a

is

referred

lèt

the head avèk patat milk with potatoes rwa king with two children twa pitit abitâ lavil the inhabitants the jwèt town chwal games horse back mwê the name my name probably attempted Gallicism me time

what

-

'a

of

'

-

m

ak

yo

' it ' s

-

ki té

ki

';

';

ti - ti - l -l

ou

to

or

-

mêm

li

ki

pòté mâmâ papa nâ simétiè he who will carry his mother his father the cemetery moun rété mâmâ the children who stayed with my mother you frè rélé Éjèn little brother hers who

séli

'; to

I

at

)

or (



'

'a

Lalin





as

té -

m



-

mâmzèl

rare and Gallicizing little fight when was school the certainty that they were going when

lékòl

Miss Laline

'.

to

get married

such



ak

ti -b

you

marié

y



'

sètitid

subordinator atay

,

Another that

,

which

' -ap :

.

B

'.

was called Eugene

in

,

,

'



I

had loved

emphatic reflexive construction

with cors body

.g .

the little sister you call

'e,

Jilièn

little girl

I

' ' a

-







rélé

lékòl



the Old French

ou

ti -

';



-

fi



school

mwê

li

at

I

-

was

meaning

.'

'

m

ti -

rêmê dépi

to

Similar

son cors himself

of

(

:

mwê

')

ti -

;

to

do '

time in

2

since the

you

of

,

in

or

is

on

ii .

as

used

of

With zero relative pronoun indicating that the action the verb the dependent clause exerted the referent the head the noun phrase either direct indirect object traditional terminology object relative pronoun understood tout dézòd könê all the little naughtinesses

the

'

-m -

kouché pou

mété





fwa

-m

prémié

li

;

)'

J.

lit .

' '.

sleep alone

to

you call Julienne ( first time she put me

(MEMOIRS , 74

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

her

AMERICAN

';

-

m



of

make the proposal

to

'

’:

'

'

-ap

l-

';



-

I

they had come

when

,

of

by

'

,



'

,

réprézâtasiô

-a

vin

-



lò fè

I

at

yo





to

be

of

as

'



The nouns the time and the hour the time are especially frequent phrases accompanied dependent clausal attributes heads this type nearly quasi subordinators meaning when and thus come rivé the time arrived when arrived krié when she was crying

of

'.

be

)

a

+

yo

‘( ) at )

';



-a

’;

';



'

-a

';

sa

'

sa

yo

One instance

that time

that house tout this construction without

of

yo



definite article giving plural

131

kay sila

these houses

: '.

or all

'



yo

moun sila

2

1

(

',

'

or

or

'

';

kay those people

this house

sa a

kay

'; '

-a

sa

)

' :

(

.

2

.

'

a

sa

:

of

the three following combinations Demonstrative this sila that usually giving singular meaning plural pronoun 211 meaning rwa pitit this king this child

( sa 2 -a .

by either

,

in

a

or

or

'

'

-m

m

-

yo



';

';

voyé

in

.

A

34

mâmâ

to

lakwizin when my mother sent me the kitchen mésié rivé when the gentlemen arrived noun noun phrase containing one more attributes the types may and the positions described the preceding sections followed

marriage

'; ’;

'

a

'.

of

';

to

or

a

'

-a

.

51 . . . . ) , .

is

'

-a

';

la

,

'

';

ti -

-

no

-a

).

(6

'

I a ‘

-

(

'



:

number reference and frequently occurs with forms the zombies soulié the little shoes kêz goud

in

'

the

my

'

la

or

';

yo

-vil



mine

the inhabitants the children who stayed with

yo

the

yo

na

,

-

the two little sisters

of

,

tout moun

'

yo

whether preceded

speech

slow

in

yo

abitâ

';

ti sè -m

avèk

animals mâmâ

-m

rété

';

's

ki

dé -a

:

all

the people

my father

moun

giving plural meaning

tout moun

(

),

.

(2

or



‘ )yo

131

not

nominal phrase

in

a

,

or

ti -

,

nine like

,



divê

, :

,

wine liqueurs nâ

reception

to

eight

résépsió

:



yo

'

,

';

yo

é

pitit moun

a

'

ak

,

,

tât

, - ti

lòt

:

it

';

msié madam

,

, -

nèf moun

the mistress and the children pwa they held bânân viân diri

'; , , ,

bôbô

or

by

,

- of

';

wit

the master

,

pê — ,

,

, ,

kola

cousin

a

,

'

my

child

people

in

or

or

-

3

,

may further

be

.

4

A

constituted described above sections followed another noun nominal phrase numeral equivalent phrase apposition with ma mwê mâmâ kouzê mwê my little cousin my aunt the mother moun kouzin mwê the other

1

noun

as

'.

';

town mother

ti

bèt papa

yo

- -m -

tout moun

la

definite article

by

'.

.

c

yo

'

'; 22 .1

-



li



li

-

la

-

:

by

of

the definite article has plural meaning zôbi the fifteen gourdes The form

' sa ‘

la

is



-a

’;

.

:

b

definite article attested koté that place mâjé Definite article mêm périod the same period the food évâjil nou prémié rété our Gospel koté the place she had first stayed proper pou mêm amou mwê the same love had had for her With any phrase accom noun Adélin Adeline SCT 236 The meaning panied things referred specific thing the definite article the

,

',

'

'.

of

-

-l

';

'

+

pa

,

yo

'

,

,

of

,

,

papa kaptên bread candy bananas meat rice and beans her February father the Captain dêmê wit févrié tomorrow the eighth usually Of this type are phrases consisting noun share property cola

HAITIAN CREOLE

.

HALL ]

pa

.

:

,

by

'I

-té

m

';

rouj

gnou

was

).

(

'

ka

quite

small

bie

'

mò three quarters

too young

well

bouché

'

'

’;

piti

jên tou

'; trò

'

frightened

:

:

,

pli

piti smaller

'

' '

' '; '

'

tou

rouj your

face

is

lltou

'

ou

figi

':

passably

-

')

:

'

onby ( 50 . of )'

'.

is

'plê

' ( :

sa a

;

is

'

for of )

for



,

+

,

-

';

sa

ou

(

'

~

figi

,

fairly

,

slightly

/! \/

tou



',

';

, '

red

rouj

gravmâ malad seriously the adverbs plis more mwês less and tròp too much The adverb with emphatic stress and rising pitch

is

A

. .

bad

rouj your face quite red nòm lltou rich fairly rich pitit alltou bèl that child almost pretty Head Attribute the latter being réspôsab you noun with réspôsab responsible and full

somewhat that man a

‘a

';



')

)'

-

's of

all +

or

: pè

15

. 2 .

'

) , .

somewhat

cf

have

(

.

In

';

tèlmâ this position

so

An

b

adverb

means

'

extremely

SCH the attribute being nominal phrase indicating extent twa

stoppered

3

' he ' 46 s

,

li

A

noun

over Head

dead

ill ’

is )

(

a

lit .

. (

blushed

Attribute

. '. a. 2.

gnou mové

mové

:

I

=

person

22

meaning red

(

;

money share your pitit my child moun good who one own Adjectival Phrases are the following structures Repetitive the head being repeated preceded gnou giving emphatic

1

. .3

friend

-mpa

‘ your money '

lit . ‘

but not always accompanied by a pronoun or noun indicating possessor (cf. 3 .21 . 2 . c ), and giving a meaning of emphasis to a possessive phrase : lajâ pa ou

:

an

';

. . .) ',

to

to

a

yo

ak the

'

m ti - -

bouké rété

moun

li

pa

(

),

'I 'm

li 'I

to

to

back into the good make thought you

';

-t - of

-



ou

't 't

'I

'

te -

m



go ou



;

-

';

m

to

as 22 .2 it . fè b ) sa ,

ka (3 .

pli

';

more able than me

li

')

inasmuch adjective

+ ) ,

classed

mwê less

'

is

’.

'

usually or

' 'he s '

more

kapab pasé mwê

that than me

it

as

‘ (

pli

( H ),

pli

verb (

,

not

a

to

li

do :

verb



';

';

'

â

-

'

of an

is

following

more able

adjective

bouké

glad

the children

him

the type attribute

to

't





in a

' he 's a

he it bô nâ



-tpa -l -

of l-



';

ou

m

li

’;

';

'I 'm 3

without mwê

able phrase

100

',

'

or

'

forms kap before

'(



sorry

faché

with shortened

a



he

li

. . ; pa .)

- ':

of

(



ou

as

Kapab

head

give

pil

â

':

so



or

.

)

pré ready

able

kapab toûnê lakwizin see you she wasn able kapab moyên you kitchen yet wasn able you can pull kap chiré average kwé kab off fatigé voyajé when travelling could read was tired staying with you madâm tired faché bay sorry

visié

much

voiceless consonant and kab before voiced consonant SCH pwé rivé tired was ready arrive kôtâ

woman wasn

li ),

).

(

or or

2 d

21

'

'

re

yo

46

'

as

pwé

kapab

',



. .) ',

the adverb sitâ

'.

so

glad

kôtâ

. 21 .2... d )),,

an an

=

'

‘ ‘

wild after such adjectives sitâ

19 .

[3

+



as as

lèd

SCH very

(

yo

';

ed

(

'

re

'

brigâ

( , of '; .

A

.

fatigé tired

'

or

',

'

' ' he 's ' verb



thievish

C

.

extremely lazy you The adjective âpil much

very



';

a





li b

kôt nou



plê family 261 The noun SCT fâmiy responsible blood full appropriate kôt account either alone followed and strengthened the appropria the possessive expression pronoun pronoun alone has either attrih adjective the meaning very when used attribute following volè very thievish they excessively ugly kôt kôt nou parésé

pab

can occur even pasé

ANTHROPOLOGICAL

An exocentric phrase, of the structure : Preposition + Object . Phrases introduced

d.

(MEMOIRS , 74

ASSOCIATION

for

'; plê

occur malad

full

'

'

';



';

)'

(

;



';

'

'

for introduces phrases modifying such adjectives

'

pou

. ' ; ak

for in of

mai full

',

etc

'

',



in

ple

raysab

té -

m

of

-

m



si

a

:

the following types

of

the

Gallicism

:

a



katré

-

in

only

' '. '-

'



kat

1000

':

)

' '

100

twenty



mil

or ,

modifying

a

numeral sâ

is



four score

-

.

lit

(

Use

'.

'

attribute

The





)

lé ( x

is

'.

,

'

all



':



is

:

+

a

. lé -

b

400

his

')

+

of

(

'

-



'

-a

';

(

+

'

mêm

head the indefi the same thing tou

)

all '



sa

)

tou

'

'

,

'

,

sa

-

: or of :

'.

of

an

(

1

-

'

-l



zâmi one friends Pronominal phrases are constructed adjective like mêm same Attribute thing something that nite demonstrative

ob '.

or

:

yo

or

+

)

:

of

. 3. : b. 24 . An

a

(

a

of

2

A

. .

a

,

yo

,

Head Attribute the latter being noun name month either the definite article the pluralizer forming February eighth date name wit févrié wit févrié the preposition among phrase exocentric formed often +

tou



both

ject yoû

; ,

all ’ all

yo

ba

yo

'

’ ‘I :

yo

yo

maré

us ' -

alone nou tout we tout tied them



',

each

' ‘

’,

chak

are dry

of m;

them

sèl

:

all



tout

of

as

,

you alone

the latter being

all

tout chèch



of

.

a

all yo dé ou

sèl

yo

+

Head Attribute adjective such

‘ ' us '; An

.

2

.

all that



sa

to

structures

carry

carrying you

Attribute Head The attribute the adjective tou all tou two both preceding French definite article the numeral after tou

eighty

'. ';

in

willing

'

pòté

ou

'. ':

kôtâ

of

+

'

an

to =

, ‘ '



am

I

]

[



'; to , '; li in -ap lit , ' '; té . .





be

liv



. - 34 .1 ) :

3

(



,

willing

glad

kôtâ

Numeral phrases occur with

.

games

m

nâ -

to

nâ -

it

if

ii .

A

.

e

,

lit .

. 1. 3.

clause after willing that

23

you

corn

jwèt interested

';

to



li ‘ ‘

ak

mwê she was réspôsab you hateful me êtérésé sifi pou fâmiy enough for me family responsible posib pou marié get married avèk was possible for me her object indicating term The verb pasé surpassing than com piti pasé mwê smaller than me parison small surpassing me my books pli êtérésé jwèt pasé games than mwê more interested

';

with fever



' ' ,

,

as



', sick

,

'

lafyèv

ak

other preposi Thus malad

:

itil

useful mal hard posib possible sifi enough tions also occur such after êtérésé interested good

as

The preposition

nâ ' ’ ‘

'

'.

hateful

raysab bô



,

'

’;

'

as '; :

by ak with , of , adjectives angry after such bouké tired faché kôtâ pleased nasty sick mêm like similar mové towards ônèt polite

i.

';

AMERICAN

;

,

;

,

';

one

. . . ',

of

.

The numeral

a

)

'(

'

us '

of

'.

of



a

nou tou both phrase meaning not

';

the two individualizing

us

of us

' ' '

nou

an

:

'

makes



ak

lèt

A

.

b

numeral

one

'

youn

li



,



nou chak

them

yo

each

of

';

we each each chak vâsé chak came forward and they gave them each two pennies everybody should pull their own chair bay nou chak pou ralé chèy plate patat she gave chak you asièt each milk and potatoes kòb

HAITIAN CREOLE

is

a

lit .

them

.

” ?

'

single

'

to

to

'.

'

. . .' :

yo

na

-

ki ki

-

';

every

di

'



sa

tou to

’;

moun

yo

'

m

-

I



kôn

krêt

you



-l

sa sa

'; ';

to

-



ou

yo sa

- ' la ; to

vil

-



pòv

that which you wrote me take for the inhabitants

used

everything you want

vlé

ou

ékri

what

' , it 's or

object pronoun papa simétiè or

ou

as

pòté mâmâ

li

ki

'

,

dékwa bwè some

said

verbal

(

attribute

+

the structure head

prâ

plat

ti -

';

ocusin

aj look for

-s

' '

chaché fam

ak

plâ

my little

remember

have fever mâjé mâjé

equivalent phrases

a

of

.



ti -

kouze lafyèu

';

:

Direct object sôjé mwê took my little dish

forms

';

as

,

'; ' a. 1.

The classes

verbal complements are with the meaning

of ' '( : I) :

.

3

.

Noun

Complements

of

Types

251

occurring

or

).

3

. 25 .

Verbal phrases are complement

of

all

'.

';

sa

tou

-



fear



was

a

)

that which

kôn prâ pou abitâ

the town thing the people

one

of

not

chè métrès

,

sees a

-pa

yo

'

li ki

or -

mêm

'

'll

'

what

mwê

a one of them

carry his mother his father the cemetery ay what the poor used have was little houses

( ti -k lit .

gêgnê

rélé

'

:



relative element

who

him

dear mistress

, , ';

.

no A

.

d

with

see

't

calls me

wè 'not

pa

youn

verb after the indefinite dékwa something drink dékwa jété something throw away subject clause either with who which

to A

c

thing

of sa

doesn

them

mine

';

, of lit .

one

negative phrases : yo youn

in



used

-m

HALL

mid

is

).



(

51 .

of

yo



ti -

ti -

ou



of

';



';

to

wife kouvri cover plants frè eat the food piga their little brothers and sisters look out for yourself SCT 223 This the meaning nouns and pronouns used after the impersonal verb mê

'

'.

li

'



yo

';

';





-

-a

sa

sa

',

'

as

as

';

became day

it

jou

a

to

'

li

'; -l

pral nwit when his horns pou sèvi



'

':





',

of



,

a

’,

's

';

's

is



';

serve

vini

bridle

tôbé

-



ki

:

désad

rélé

'.

Atamise kay mâmâ

li

al :



time when

li

'

or

,

meaning

who was called

rélé Atamiz

whence

passive

-

of

'.

';

,

whither

medio

ki té -

,

with verbs

or

of

burglar

health

Daniel

called

Place where

pou sèvi kòn

the horse

result

,

.

d

'

Danièl who was

ill as

'

.

c

Complement



)

, . . to . ', be

on as go



to

serve

they fell into

kôvalésâ

the man stopped being

become night

'

-

brid chwal

la

it

was going

to

that time

from



volè

'

be

. . . . ', . .

',

.

b

. , . . ‘ ',

';

ti -

(

. . .

.

is

,

'

is

':

here Lat ecce mê mâmâ there mamma mê pêi nou this country you our mê lòt jwèt akò here still another little game complement Predicate with number verbs such kité cease being pralé stay rété remain rivé arrive can sèvi serve tôbé fall vini become dépi nòm kité behold



m

'

';

's

of



to

a

';

li

-

';

's

'; '

's

at

';

-m

'I

down

li

goes

to



to

he

his mother house mâmâ lavil my mother went you town désâd mòn she went down hill rivé kay matât mwê she my châjé change arrived aunt house lòt savan another pasture mwê my father kay papa courtyard kouri tout lakou ran all around the when

she came

'.

'

li

:

-

ou a



' ' ;

of

'; I

-



,

.

2

';

m

house sòti lékòl came out the school vini you dimâch matê one Sunday morning mouri démê when you die tomorrow Adjectives with the following meanings

AMERICAN

Predicate complement , after the verbs mentioned

.

a

(MEMOIRS , 74

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

.

. . :

m -rété

3 251 1 b

in

of

'I

sis

he



-l

li

:

nèt who

blié chikata

'

';

ki

strong

'I ' -m

ll

ou

they

'

m

him

li

: m -

di -

yo



lagé

zôbi prâ

';

to

-

-

she said

kêbé

';



ap

m

or

';

';

pa

him

l'

li

';

di -

called

indirect object mwê she saw me

wè an

me

li

a

of

direct

she carried

li ‘ ‘

li

';

ou ou ) la

to (

pòté mwê

me mâmâ rélé his mother make the zombies get you you don me mwê

lit

have

him

. of

go

let



'I

grabbed

li

.

3

’; ,

'.

forgot the chiggery one entirely Pronoun with the meaning

lit .

sang loud

,



châté

he



li ' .

.

i.e

firmly

Manner

:

.

b

,

bridled

a

by

'.

six

-

vêl

mwê rézoli ' I remained less resolute' ; rété trâkil 'keep quiet '; m -vin malad ' I became sick ’; li rivé bâda ‘he arrived very elegant’ ; sa pa - sa fèt 'that can 't twenty be done ' ; m -te -vini dézièm sou élèv had become the tenth out adjective may scholars The also indicate the condition resultant from the action indicated transitive verb bridé biê bridé bridled him well

ou

';

[ it ] ( to )

pou

or



't :

'I

-pa

of

'.

know anybody Verb indicating purpose

-

’;

't

'I

m

,

-pa

)

.

'

to

to

be

't

if

'

1 . 4



for bâ

si

';

-





-

m

-tpa -



'(

sa

yo

kapab kônê said me you môtré able know that which they showed you pèsôn there Luk When the negative indefinite pronouns âyê nothing nobody are the object the negative prefix always precedes the predicate gêgnê âyê âkò hadn gotten anything yet kônê pèsòn don give

to

is

' '; , ' ; .. . . . ' ' . ' ' it ’ to ; ' ( is ; ; '; , . .. (i ' , ' ' ; '; )' ' ' , ' ba ) '; '; ()y , , ; . . . '; ‘

to

)

. '; . . '; ‘

'

'; '

';

Gallicism

koûmâsé

kômâsé

'

';

. . ,

'; .

suc

réisi

stop

come

sòt

'

vépa

';

see

'.



voyé send



' ,

'; ‘

,

will

sésé

chance happen

want wish

';

';



'

. . ' . , ; . , ';

to

to

, ..

be

';

trouvé

. vlé . ' .

to

'

sa

';

be

, ' ‘

' '

(i )

shall many

can

they

's

sa



';

-pa té - of

ou go

to

'I

';

fè l

kafé

'

-m

ou



went into my mother kitchen you papa dwé sòt isit forbid out here look out for his children dwé jouré

complement

.

ti èf -

la

-

fin

';

li

a

li

'; -l

,

-l

do

-

these verbs before

a

some

of

(

us



of

. 2 .

to

ti - to

141 for variant forms

li

Cf

all ) to

't

’;

m

plâté édé have cursed him like that kômâsé édé séklé plant and help him little weeding nou give him our little cups godé nou she had tiré bèf help him

ba

began



. . . .' . ; . ,

,

to

';

défân

father should

able

you shouldn

4

' 'go ;

é

‘a

fall come

tôbé

-

';

coffee

going

lakwizin mâmâ m

y

:

make

sôjé pitit

'I '

édé help necessary

fòk

is

'

of

,

'

ki ) té '

';

. . . '; . . ' vin ; ‘

'

Thus

- to al .

have just

not want

tout

, it ,



(

pral catch stay rivé arrive

rété

from

to

be

prâ

. , '; ..

to

allow ceed

ought

dwè

the habit kôtinié continue lâvi want desire feel mâké fail not quite almost mênê lead take mèt can oblijé oblige pèmèt permit mété put môtré show how vigorously enthusiastically piga take care not pito prefer pézé kônê

like can

forbid have just

défân

finish

necessary that take care let allow kôdwi lead take kôfié trust

' ' .. '; '; ; be ; .' ; ‘ ‘ ' do ‘ '; ‘

'

begin

';

stand

down

chita

cause

in

kâpé

make

'; ‘ .. '; . sit )' ; '; fin ( i) ifò ' ' (k '; ' )

of



'; ';

gêgnê swê

' . ' .

that

try

try

.

éséyé

, ';

,

seek

'

chaché

to

(

'

,

, :4 be al (

.

of

,

or

,

of

by

.

4

,

result condition the action referred complement extremely the head the verbal phrase This type fre quent especially after the following verbs âpéché hinder bijé oblige give obliged for the purpose blié forget

's

to

-ap

can

);

101

zôbi kâpé

';

let

to

't

' li 't '; ';

'I

in

to

piga

pézé

vizé don we prefer

caught

of

'

pou lalibèté

to

';

was worth

mouri

walk

';

on

show

down

he

her how the terrace

‘ to

-l

-

pito

-l

-pa ' t

m



';

'I ' 've

ba -m

ap

-

fin

nou

; 't

'

-

me

fry

mwê prâ pral châté going 26

bréjé

;

for

all

-

his heart

don

m

fri -

all

maché

to ap -

he

with

pou môtré

'; ,

dâsé

téras

'

sou

';



-m

'

m

-

m

sit ' -

'; to

la

pézé disân

'

nâ -

jwé she didn used me play let me call Ilya kôfié pôté wasn kôn médsin my mother was the just now almost slipped fèk mâké glisé

the bird swooped



zwézo

danced pîga take aim

la pé

prà

,

( a

'up’n;

SCH

kill

ri, ‘ m - he p -ap

- ‘ p - he

-

';

' 't t li

m

li

) , I,

mèt

-

ifò

';

'

he

li

';

of m

-

shut

won

kité

kôn

té -m

to

';

on

li

advance

Malice

eat

vâsé

'

'go ;

-



let

alé

-l

him

the ground rélé Ilya carry her mâmâ trusted habit giving me medicine mété chita she put me

for liberty

won

laughing

to

(i

'

kills me

had

the zombie was standing there under the granary waiting

âba galata apé tân

kité

mâjé mâmâ Malis stay mèt touyé

can

-pa

';

even though though you fall

even

you

mèt rété

I

ou

milking the

.e .

me

cow

'he finished mother too

m tou

HAITIAN CREOLE

HALL )

up

to

li

bwè

'.

Charestin

(y let its :

as

ba

abbreviated nou bwè give té

in

as

vlé

-pa

mwê

he

'



him

frè

't ';

'

'



, -m

;

let

.

)

.1

2

' let 's

a

'I ' ' ve I'



to

ki

'I

li

-

';



';

to

bear two other children

'(

li

it '

drink

of

to

't

want

to

in

m

'I

';



-l

]' li

,



m

-

,

; to m vin

-

(

'

pli

ta

'; In

she came

wè lévé Charèstê saw me lift construction this type the verb kité let usually English 141 has the same imperatival meaning

té , a

'I

to

bear another child didn

form

visié

m

' he '; 's

li

(A

'; '

a



-l

sa

';

)

him the act being thievish going sing mwê pral mouri just met die nou wè we may see him sòt kôtré you fâm lwa crying woman who has loa African spirit tôbé krié fell Lédâ vépa vini he doesn trouvé mouri Brother Lédan chanced die want come mâmâ vini lòt pitit zòt pitit later my mother came

die

',



:

. .' as

)

or

as

';

'

to



' go ;

to

' 'll

ou

?

';

to



with

he

-

ou

ak

the hills lavil we

from

al

go

sa



=

'; ,

in

'

-ap

-

n

';

Satyag

Take that Baconoir

down

to



he

(

town was

lit .

of

from

jwên mâmâ

li

alé

ap

to -

l-

)'

; ‘

my mother came home mênê

)

'(

as

,

a

in

-5

'll

'

?

al

'

la

he



]

( lit

(

-m

,

:

after leaving town

his

Lakoup

rivé

you

You think cross over there are trees around the house SCH 131 complement series each the the pre

arrive

( vin to ) bå



?

'

jâbé

Often several verbs occur ceding one mâmâ vin rivé sòt lavil

[ to ]

Did

they bring these things Furcy rout

-

- l-a

ou



?

';

';

to

you the town kwé Santiago bwa âtouré kay

came

Pòté

':

'

=

mòn

up-



sòt

yo

came

around

rivé Bakonwa

désân

to

';

âtouré

=

+

';

'

you

'

Fisi

té to

';

vin

yo

pòté bagay

môté

sa ou

'

Pétionville

. .. ,

to

' to

( lit .

to

’.

=

coming

=

vini

) to for .

).

the

(

'

to

a

ou

-

la

ba

, '

-l -



bâ -m

a

’;

drink vini come SCH 103 The verb meaning pòt verbal complement has come have bring give me véso tiré bèf vessel for me milk the cow for you Certain verbs referring motion are frequently used verbal complements and have special meanings this position such alé more English away object going towards less rivé sòti out from

vin

l-

sòt

)'

;

to

( ) lit ; . ';

go

to

a

to

to

) ' (

' , he

kòk

)

(

a

li

him

mâké

fè m to

mother was going take find his mother pèdi pitit mwê he almost made me lose my child fèk rivé kéyi gnou mwê has just gathered nut for me has just come arriving gather nut give me from come SCH 141 kouri rivé

take

come

arrive

the market

)

run

at

(

to

to the market

to

li ' run

maché pou

(MEMOIRS ,

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION lit .

AMERICAN

56

74

for

take care greatly

kôtrolé tròp

,

here

'

came

'I

: of

'. :

very

';

Adverb mwê môté isit careful

5

be

up

' . .

her

'

by -

yo

he

'; -l

té -

mwê karésé

m

don

-pa

li ' I

';

)

a

't li

sa -

vlé

gêgnê

them

al

yo

-pa

)

.

:

l-

. '+ 50

li

';

)

sa

pitit

the matter with

' 's

';

he

go

-

';

.e .

(i

vépa

kônê

';

a

I

't

know



li



ak

which was sweet vomiting you vomismâ he saw wèmwê had hope that that will happen the way you say kôn wè zôbi they were telling me they used see didn

'

to

'I

a

' di ;

m

yo

di -

-ap

ou



sa

'. .38 ) ;

1

(

rivé

yo

swété

Luk

208

was strict

play

pa

I

( lit ,

-

to

to

-



ki

ès

l-

ki -

manioc and sour manioc

'I

m

-

'

(

'

SCT

'

go sé

ou

:

't

't

'

know what these children have what maniòk dous maniòk amè mwê

à

';

li 'I la

-

more than any child

Direct object kwè rèd you believe play want me that she doesn want me caress her mwê kôn

jwé they didn



:

-pa

to

, '.

a

';

ak

-

: it

loved indicating



,

Clause

‘ a. 7.

-

m

';

pitit

pasé okên

he

.

'

b

-

'



on

's

of

,

in

.

a

+

m

.

6

,

Exocentric phrase the types Preposition object stay kouri dèriè ran after him rété taking peace keep quiet okipé bèt papa kômâsé started my father animals débat pitit struggle along with the child care jwé nâ play the ground object greater extent than Verb pasé surpassing rémé

di , to



;

" }

:

said

a

such

were

.

” ?



li

': li di -l a

” “

ou ”

fi

- ‘

ou

ll

prâ a

Gadé

They

daughter for you

]

zôbi

pou

I'

leave

They

'

'

,

ké -m

m “

.

(

moso mâjé

little

that occurs before

you

-

m

kité



-

m

:

,

'

,



-ap lit ,

'.

di -

yo “

:

"

';

to ”

ll

papa

make the zombies

mété mâjé sou tab pou

al

-



-

-

,





li



';

he

'

m

vlé

-pa

go

-ap

)

on



li

-

li

-m

she sent the tell my father she had put the food the table jwé the children were crying krié play mêm want me âvâ nòm nâ toune

should

they didn

set aside

di

,

moun

of

go

' “

he

't

]

(

-

li

to

';

him

because

ti - ( lit ,

for

tell

my

Jorâm

manner

moun yo

voyé

';

get you

ti

.

b

,

"

always telling me Joram Result purpose child

direct quotation dear stop

Look

Occasionally

ké “

:

kôn

food

to yo

parâ

clause

him

me

-ap of -a or , di lI' -m

Give me

She said

Let piece

'

-



He said

m ”

Lagé

me

”pé

rété

,

-



this type are clauses with the meaning

chè

â



yo a

Of

zombies

I

';

at

I

to

)

sou

he

plip

'

volé

li

;

li

!'

,

he

'

bip

fell wham

verbal phrase when more than one com normally that indicated Figure

.

3

,

Complements

in

present

in a

Order

, of ’.

at

:

form

him

is

plement

is

.

252

.

3

clause

-

Minor

plop

flew

!

, 8.

'.

'(

û

vin

of



-

-ap

,

li

pil

tôbé

he

â

m

-

-

li



';





in

la

-

the animal

so

the same way had done before that the man had turned into papa paské toujou mwê rélé sou mwê was very my father because much afraid was always yelling me kôtinwé dòmi gêgnê kêz sleep together until was âsâm jiskaské mwê we continued fifteen years old bèt

HAITIAN CREOLE

HALL )

FIGURE

3

STRUCTURE OF CREOLE VERBAL PHRASE + (ADVERB Or EXOCENTRIC PHRASE , emphatic ). + (NOUN or PRONOUN , indirect object ) + (NOUN , PRONOUN or CLAUSE , direct object ) + (NOUN or ADJECTIVE , result of action ) + (VERB ) + (ADVERB or ADJECTIVE , manner ) +

HEAD

(EXOCENTRIC

,

PHRASE ) + (NOUN

Examples

the order indicated

of

or time

place where

Figure

in

when ) + ( CLAUSE )

:

3

Adverb or exocentric phrase ( one or more ) with emphatic meaning , before direct object (and possibly further complements ) : mwê gê kou - l- yé- a present twenty two years twenty two years old déz have mâjé papa papa rétiré dabò she first took out food sou mòn piti mi potatoes patat mai had the hill little millet and corn mwê achté

used

’;

-

a

as

po

ti -

sòt

ti -

maché

glass

),

broken

as

-

-m

.e .

moso



-



yo

-



pou vésèl

take when my mother went out

the

I

,

hope

,

-



chè

môtré bòs



yo

';

fellow

a

’ a ' di - ; 'I ll m li

‘I

child

done

My dear

gave them

-

yo

ba

-

m

ou

ba

-ap

';

-

't it

,

to



me

was well

give you

mâjé

my

give you



'I

They said

me

can

the boss how

sa



to

it

he

:

+



li

ou

pitit mwê

kal

you

that you

found gasoline un all my children thoroughly



he left

'

to

plê

he

jwên mwê êdispozé

tin

a

li

:

débouché

'

yo

blâ

ti -

moun mwê

byề kalé

result

make the belly

li '

ou

,

';



jwen tout bagay chè

'

nou

, or

)

(

:

't





pa t--

';

.

plat

ti -

more

prâ

. 4 .

.

3

251

one

): li

phrase

or

exocentric

given

(

see examples

or

adverb

:

verb

in

)

.

51 on

+

)

.

48

223

+

(

all ' )

SCT

Direct object Direct object

noun indicating place where extent mwê mét jénou ground the chimiz kras miyèt there wasn

+

. .

5

any shirt 6

(A

put my knees at (

I) .

'(



bréjé Direct object

years

4

four

' ‘

â

for

'

';

)

232

;

kalé

51 .

’;

(

SCT

she beat

, of .ie of .

Jiliền

gazolin

Julienne well beaten we found everything dear rélé you Jilièn call her Julienne lasâblé nasional nômê Jénéral Nisaj Sajè prézidâ pou kat the National Assembly named General Nisage Sagère president

li

full

vât tout

-

'; l-

kité



';

stoppered

complement

you



indisposed

of

.

” ?

+

.

3

me

ba

-

ou



li

will

direct object gave back

showed

kôtinié continue like this Direct object

swété

-

m

he sa

‘ -pa

m

the food kòmâ biê

fèt

'; ';

li

.

2

Indirect object beating rémèt mwê

m

'.

market

a

'; -



-

la

nâ in

(i

of

glass

kòm

to

tax cards

fragments

gift

the house little pieces

mâmâ



m

té -

,

';

‘I

,

pieces

-

, ’;

m

.

'I

-

am

,

's i.e

-

’;

a

,

,

é

,

ti -

little

dishes

money little pieces

to

'

had

hat

chez

of

they

as

,

kom

bought for the girl kay moso

mwê prâ pou ònémâ

I



ékla

chapo

you

radio took for ornaments tables beds cupboards and chairs radios lajā moso kat kôtribisyô kôn prâ -

as

,

,

of

leather

mâjé

gad

of

a

-

kabân

you rob ròz swa

silk dress and

rose colored tab

kado

kòm

é

'I

ti fi -

pou

on



-

at

â

,

-

'I

vêt

.

ak li

1

58

AMERICAN

(MEMOIRS , 74

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

'

;



an

)

on

of

'.

on

-

by li ‘

-

'

(

to

a

lit . of

-

-a

ti -

li

on

-

-m

li

'; ';

to

na

a

-

li

’; -

‘ ti -

ti -

to

for

mwê âkò ‘ he took my little dish again '; grâgou - a prâ - l mal 'hunger took him badly ' ; m -a - prâ -n pou - ou ‘ I'll get it for you '; l- achté piti soulié nwa pou - mwê abiyé mwê pou mênê ‘ she bought little black shoes me nâ chapèl she dressed me take me the chapel mété soulié nâ pié mwê avèk you my feet with little pink pair kilòt ròz she put the little shoes shorts pié pull my pou rétiré soulié mwê off the little shoes from feet mété mâjé sou tab pou she put food the table for him Use

.2 : ),

'(

S

(

.

3

to +

-

m



-

or

of

' at

house

the

side

clock

in

o

eight

'; ,

chair

's

my aunt

time

Jaklin

plato

at

-

's

of

rivé

li

here



where

in

place

at

sit

to

on

, ';

to

they arrived

my mother

front

a

)

(i

she

swa

ak

kò -

té -

m

:

';

lay

+

put me

' '

rivé isit wit

di -

yo

';

you chèz koté chè è

sou

'

in



( it )

li

l-

chita

-m

li

mété

'. .e .

(

of ]



â

-m

: .

8

or

-m

's ak -

jiska wit we slept papa mâmâ down eight years and father bed until the age phrase Adverb exocentric noun indicating when alé avèk lakay he went with his house kay matât mwê she arrived the Jacqueline plateau the pulpit

,

of

a

in

or

'.)



-

yo

dlo a

of

be

a

-

'I

ti -

.

7

or

'

yo

:

is of an

-

a

' to '

exocentric phrase introduced construction this type instead the normal construction the type indirect object direct object 252 giving water bay evident Gallicism bèt the animals writes bay bèt dlo would Creole Two more adverbs exocentric phrases dòmi pou lòt slept apart with moun the other children nou kouché dévâ kabân

the

;

that Gallicizing



biê vivâ a

bréjé

30

(A

paské



,

la la -

pousé âkò

very much alive

'

it

-

:

rasin

the food immediately

mâjé

yo

ba

-

m

:

of

complements

to

gave

as

touswit zôbi prâ have the zombies get me

types

the above

of

More than two

-pa

.

10

.

[S ])

,

because

is

clause

+

.

9

Complement

root will still grow construction



'.

evening

so

-

it

).

(A

:

of

more

( lit .

'

plis even more

by

no

pli



no

)

'.

well

pi

’; be :

';

trè biê very



' .

ta

pli

+

:

.

later

more

you

78

' , '

-

-l

of

a

-

in

. . 26 .

3

1

An adverb

a

nâ he

'I

té -

pou afè lémôn âtié jété tout pèp sou latè nâ lagè

li té

ak

them

môtré

of



,

â

'; m



not momâ difisil pil lAlmagn léJapô had showed for very difficult moment when Germany and the affairs the whole world Japan had thrown all the peoples bréjé the world into war Adverbial phrases occur with these types structure Attribute Head The attribute may pou

as

,

(

'

,



'



:

pi

';

de

of

or

)

— ?

':



'

à

,

than

t

'

=

'



of

'.

:

’:



,

+

Head Attribute the latter being The adjective âpil much lwê âpil very far exocentric phrase consisting the verb pasé surpassing An

b

a

. . .

2

'.

';

A

.

c

of

.

b



The negative more neither Gallicism shown pli instead normal plis space kêz jou apré noun indicating extent time fifteen days apré two years later afterwards déz kilomèt lwê two kilometers farther

HAITIAN

HALL ]

CREOLE





-

tou

as

far

in

', as



tou

object ( 3. 34. 1) , indicating term of comparison : pi ta pasé mwê ' later than me'. 3. 27 . Prepositional phrases are rare and in general Gallicisms. Their struc ture is that of head preceded by attribute , which latter may be : very near the prè very near prè gazolin 1 . An adverb :

on

-

:

&

favè

(

.

)

'.

28

'

be 3 .

subordinator

phrases are likewise rare and appear ) ( , as '. ké ' or

or

:

Gallicisms

to

object

of

behalf Conjunctional

+

exocentric phrase with the structure preposition



'.

,

as

up

'

to

jouk

a

:

A

preposition

An

3

. 2.

'.

gasoline



:

')

as



or

of as

.g .

(e

of

:

dé -

-

'; ‘

-

a

';

or

aprè

';

the ground midi noon jiska laj kilt after the service thirteen years zôbi about

on

'

-

'; :a

at

:

,

to

up

plate

the little



or

'

ti -

dé -

equivalent phrase

with

la

A

noun plat

of -

of

.

+

. 31 .

.

'

in

or

:

is

)

in

.

.33

3

1 avèk

'.

+

' .

( ) lit

ou



)

(

+



';

.

2



';



.

(

1

pâdâ Attribute preposition adverb head that kou aprè after alè kou when then Head attribute adverb biê else indeed Exocentric phrases are those whose function the utterance any attributes other phrases not determined by the form class their constituent elements They are the following types structure Prepositions Object the latter being

while





-

à



-

';

:

a

â



-

rivé légliz

on

’;

li ‘

after



mâjé before eating chapèl take me

'

him

'.

'; '.

li '

for

-

';

pou

him

'

';

-m

it ';

of

avâ

)

.

';

:

)

?



-

à

a





in

sa

:

or

equivalent phrase

that

.'

,

in

of



an

-

to

:

chaché you

té -

-m

mâmâ

? , ';

to

Creole the

';

the coffee harvest

or

)

,

prepositions in

by

-l -

si

';

vini

pou

nouns verbs or

(e

you

I

am

' ‘

yé a

translatable

do is

as

,

fè ?

what

happen

of .g . ',

the cow

for

-

to

milk

little calabash for me

his ';

to

a

-n -

of

other form classes rékòt kafé the time

'

-

though

,

‘ at

about

to

's

ki

';

sa

-

mwê pou

la as in ba lò ou



as in of

. . . ', a



tiré bèf

-

';

in

,

,

'

as

to

,



'

,

',

'



,

.

ba (y )

for

mwê my mother got





-

m

-

-

go

'; to

Armes immediately rivé when something

the time

lò = ‘ at to

e in .g

pou



forms which

the noun give verb

ti -

mênê

included under this head are certain French are actually members or

6

Not

English

kalbas

pou

.7 , ) or :

.

to

bagay

gnou



the Place

d

(

a

4

of

come

'

-l

jwên mâmâ

,

pou

the church

in

the chapel sleeping and find her mother dòmi English implication sleep The preposition pou for has near futurity obligation phrase used command when introducing the center predicate every soldier 121 tout solda pou vini laplas kou

'. al

arriving

spite

yelling

kriâ

to nâ -

at

A

';

malgré

.4 .b .

2

(

a

's

on

‘ -â

in

all ' (p

by â -

’;

en

'

verb

.

sa 2

3



' .A

: â -ba l

,

all

be

may also erhaps preceded tout Gallicism tout plérâ crying all the while the while tout criant tout pronoun underneath avè with me dèriè like that

m

'; ti -

on

-



a

';

)

';

to

I

a

+

'.

)

of

';

'

,

-

â

‘ ‘ on ,

(

' ‘

of

-

â

do

(



lit . of

â

‘ ‘

trèz

pâdâ

all

';

ou

the age twelve during time pou tout meanwhile dézòd kône for the little naughtinesses used sou you chèz chair wit age towards eight years Under this heading belong phrases consisting during while noun derived from verb 321 vii falling phrase châtâ while singing mâkâ chwal the horse such

douz zombies

,

(MEMOIRS

come immediately pou dòmi mêm

74

nou tout go

if

ja

90

I

'

?

.

(

)

SCH

he tab

'.

?

)

the same way

';

a -

( , lit . m

';

to

,

as

-

';

m

die

to

I

:

just long for always

sleep

pou toujou

An

. .

to

'

,

An adverb

4

to

bed

kouché bonè

'

all



we are early will have

pou mouri

ASSOCIATION

come tell her

going

she

if

touswit

's

vin

di-l

ANTHROPOLOGICAL

si - to

AMERICAN

60

-pa

-a -

:

(

'

in

'

)

( lit .

as to

.

lit

so

,

,

.

)'

the past

té -

'; ,

,

)

:

12

pa , -

li

to

‘ all

-

of

li

-jis

. '.

up

(4

A

to

.

6

at

';

at

5

object kou exocentric phrase the structure preposition like table pou rivé lakay the way his house for until arrived his house predicate pou kôtré avèk lougarou zôbi zòbòp for mâjé pou not meet with werewolves zombies sorcerers eat

to

in



-

la

he

=

or

-

to as



'

so

‘ -prâ m

'



-l ) -ap

';

an

single

'.

lòt

-

on

bagay

a

â

ni '



with themselves

dédâ

à

ak

-yò

:

its

1 – 7

’;

with ashes rubbed





grên

of

+

by

from any non nominal element free the prefixation the indefinite article gnou you you prémié októb 223 the suffixation the definite article 211 you bêgnê first October such one une telle the day the bath the bathing soté ròd the jumps the jumpings were extraordinary tròp pou mwê this walking maché too much for me

, (

-

of



-

â

of

:

.

jou

the

-â - ‘

gra

voyé

a

mwê

t-

';



:

to

di -l

-

mwê

-pi



is

;

)

( lit .

';

' '

,

-

-



yo

la

-

)

(2

of

a

'

a

-

of

'

-



yo

jumpings were extraordinary

thus nominalized

clauses

la

-

'

-

la

-

-

+

?

what kind

of a

valè bagay

'

' ki '

?

':

what kind

ki

of

,

ki

in

noun head valè kalité things kalité traka what kind

( , to the of a of )

ki

3

as

m

: ';

]

. ”

).

51 .

(

'

A

(

)

I

during



I

pâdâ told her the fact that would send ask for her malad plaf plaf the time was sick minor clause nominalized the plop plopping 220 SCT Adjectival phrases are formed the interrogative what

-li a

pou

the fence

ròd

Examples

. 33 ' . ( ‘I . ki ,

formed

tèl

'; sa

';

-

la

lâtouraj

soté

biggest

are

by

clause

';

(

'a 'a '

by or

phrase

form

),

3

Nominal phrases

any

,

in

addition

- in kò

or

,

ak -

'

,

preposition

may further be followed subsections meaning avèk pil exocentric phrase limiting

adjective adverb âkò with many other things eye inside sân froté sou 2 , . , . 32 lit . . of ) of it or , ';

constituted

of

this type

,

of

'.

boiling the potatoes An exocentric phrase the objects enumerated

-pa

m -

old (

or

ten

'

à

be

I

to

';



';

(

)'

;

yo

-

m



.1 ) :

(4

A

lit .

.

7

major clause papa könê without my father knowing pou without my father not know zôbi not have pou them make the zombies get me maché nwit for me walk the night nèf dis kômâsé towards the time nine ten years began when pâdâ bouyi palat years came nine while was

+

of

a

)

)

Ti - '(

in )

'

,

:

'.

,

a

,

'

,

' '(

';



.

:

(

1

3

, . .34 ';

mess following structure Adverbial phrases have greater extent than until object The verb pasé surpassing noun pronoun exocentric phrase clause and often indicating term comparison pasé mwê more pasé okên pitit than me more than any

fin

li

-pa

'; li

Ti -

't



'. nâ ‘ liv

of

-

';

my books pasé child mwê than chaché Malis pasé mâjé rès viân he didn look for Malice until he had finished eating the rest the meat

HAITIAN

HALL ) 2.

noun

CREOLE

(2 . 322 . 4 . d ) or exocentric phrase ,

verbal participle

in the meaning ‘at the time when . . . , with . . . ' (the ‘ nominative absolute ' con struction ) : mâjé paré , mâmâ - m réini tout asièt 'when the meal was ready ( my mother got together eing prepared the food the plates dimâch + a

';

),

bèt

]

when Sunday had arrived my father had the animals toujou when the sun had set she was still there Sheep went back home with tears Moutô toûnê lakay dlo na his eyes Prepositional phrases consisting exocentric phrase itself

,

'.

below

'

ba

-

â

=

in

,

an

of

'; , of

on

'

ro

-

â

â o

:

consisting

-m

li

of

-a

yo

sa

yo



'; ‘

.

l'

wè -

’:

)

(

yo

sa =



phrases

'.up

lévé Charéstê

that

yo

' ';

they looked

top

the verb phrase immediately after gadé immediately after immediately after they saw her direktè wè when the director saw me lift Charestin

did



sa ,



3

. lit 36 . .

+

preposition substantive Conjunctional subordinator

'. ';

,

,

'

, , '



3

. 35 .

li

,

';

,

-

sélé

li ‘yo la

solèy kouché



saddled

,

rivé papa

m

[b

all

lit .

A

4 . CLAUSE

THE maximal

unit

Creole , of which at least one is present have the structure major ; those not having this structure ,

utterance

of

-STRUCTURE

in

of

(

‘ of lit .

or

:

'

. 't rôt

fè m

;

me

cause

The more

an

fè pa m

ou

-

take care

rôt don

equivalent

or

(

of

(S ).

an

is

. ) 11 : .

milk the the Lord with

pîga

the use

kriyé shame else with the negative prefix emphatic piga contains implied threat normally one The subject the following forms 4

me

to

for

)

a

be

by

pîga pa

don

'

krié

formed

cry

question

command

of a

a

,

,

'



ou

ou in

-

la

ba



Lé - -m

. ). . A . :'

don

statement occasionally

Boli bring vessel May the Lord with you

negative command piga

meaning

the texts

or

. '; .. ,

lest

tiré bèf

Ségné avèk

1 ' 't .28 ;

(

')

Boli pòt véso cow for you you Luk

ou

.

cf

have

examples below and passim

6 – 8

Clauses normally

4 1

is

. . Major

termed

-:pa ';

.

minor (

will be

predicate

let

+

't

subject

the

in every utterance , is the clause . Those clauses which



-ap -

were always talking

-m

ti -

-m

'; yo

gadé

pale

-

-

my mother

the children who stayed with



rété avèk mâmâ

kouzê

toujou

m

ki

moun

town

to

lavil my mother went



al

-m

looked

';



cousin

ti -

my little dé -

mâmâ

noun

:

.

1

A

phrase



-m

, i. e .

yo

alé

of

it

ou

-

n

he

-

ti -

-m

';

te -

m

I

had come

'

,

are

for me

';

him

they

it s

;

be

will ,

was

for ,

is ,

,

it

not

'

he

- '

“ it s

-

mwê

,



pou

-



of -

pou

li,

-pa

-

etc

.' :

were will



be ,

, 4.

'.

]

-

, li,

was that

(

'

her

fi

li ‘

get

was smaller than me avè admirasiô pou vini rêmê lòt for



fè -

m

-tpa -

pasé mwê

that which made me not have any admiration love another girl The equational subject form she

to

-a -

m

l-

' ' he ;

to

I

-pli '

piti

sa k



'; té -

house mêm they went with me

';

li 'I

m

:

-

A

his

it

'; '; li -

.

3

his friends who had helped him cut down the tree was there with him pronoun prâ pou kouri dèriè ran after him crying lakay you for mwê tôbé krié fell alé avèl went with

to

' li I'' . ' ll

la



-a

-l

-



ki

yo

-l

:

-

'.

on

:

A

mymother

' ,

'.

in

-

';

m

ak

'

as

.

2

pra lévâjil

papa

to

me about zombies mâmâ and my father took Especially proverbs verbs nominalized with zero suffix also the Gospel subjects méprizé gêgnê act kônê having despises knowing the wealthy man looks down the teacher koupé bwa numeral yoû nâ zâmi édé avèk one zôbi

'.



ou

ap

-

-

'd

' it ' s



-

t-

a

-

k



'

: it

ou



it -pa

a

him

to )

was

for

it

should

( ) lit .

he to ' (3

. .31 3

by

'

ké -a

‘ -'

-

it

ki

-m sé -

';

ki sé

';



nâ - by sé -

prâ moso

'. li

the tail



's



'. -

pou

-



of

:

a

sa

to

-

-



sé -

';

an

piece

-

;

s





of

,

'

“ it s

or of

obligation

take



he '

ou

tèt

-



your coffin lapli the head tôbé pâdâ lanwit was during night rain which fell the sové was that which saved me gives emphasis Often use the predicate Jézu Kris kôdwi leading you Jesus Christ who mwê not me you papa be seeing Dié tôtô was the Good Lord our Father accompanied predicate consisting that the old man was The subject pou exocentric phrase introduced indicates near futurity sèkèy

HAITIAN

HALL )

63

CREOLE

' it ' is used to lè 'there came

Anticipation of Subject is found when the pronoun li subject following the center of the predicate : rivé you

4 . 111 .

li

refer to a a time '.

4 .112 . Recapitulation of Subject occurs with the following types of recapitu latory forms : 1 . A pronoun , especially after an emphatic form or a lengthy phrase : , ou -mêm ou pa -jâm fè sa 'you yourself , you never do that'; ou -mêm , ou pa -sou kôt Satâ ‘ you yourself , you are not under the power of Satan ’ ; kouzin , li kôtinwé

‘ (as

kouché

for

tônèl ,

my)

,

cousin

kept

she

' ; kèk

moun nâ -katié - a , yo vini the neighborhood , they came to

sleeping

on

'

pou -môté pou - koupé bwa some people in put up a shed for dancing , and to cut wood '; mwê-mêm

ak madam mwê , épi my , myself by nou sòti ‘ and wife then wewent out . As shown the last example , the recapitulatory pronoun is in the lowest numbered person present in a compound subject . 2.

lated

:

sé -,

The equational subject form chèz sé-kou - a -tab ' the chair,

‘that manioc , it

giving emphasis to the subject recapitu was like at table ’ ; sé -maniòk -la sé- te -dous

it

'

s

,

it '

( lit .

'

. , . , .) '; it ,

,

té -



in



yo

-

sé -

a

'

yo

la

vil -

pil for -ti

of

-





-

in

'. -

-



ou

's ' ;

'

-

'; '; ti -

of of

a

a



sa

I

'

ti -

you was sweet ; sa mwê té-kôn prâ pou -abitâ nâ pil roch piti what was taking the habit the inhabitants the town pile you was little pebbles kazèn roch jòn the barracks pile yellow pebbles gad was roch jòn the yellow pebbles they guards you you you nòm sérié were the are serious man tròp that too much -

'

ou

fè -m

be

an

of

the following

';

forms

or

be

.

a



'

of

,

.

the center

is

verb

of

as

is

to

or

action when

'.

'

'

or

is

of

'

of

.

.

4

ou

:

'.

,

a

normally that the predicate equation otherwise that location 121 Centers the predicate may of

meaning

of

It

'.



-pa

,

of

of by

4

is

. 12 .

an

of

.

3

,

you gras The subject itself repeated after the clause mêm performed yourself grace act towards me negativized The Predicate that part utterance which can prefixation normally not refers what said about the subject phrase any type referent and can have free form its center The

phrases

you krêt

-

or

-



coffin

ki

of

it

begin

';

-

-

m

)

.3 .a

a

.

fè ( 2

'

'

re

I



â

-

gasô

m

A

:

] to

did was

(

'

the first work

your

was when had five seven you not regular fellow nominalized verb 321 can occur prémié travay kômâsé édé papa sèt pa

';

)

god

’.

't

a

isn

girl

the head

ou ou

' 's

ou



sêk

equational meaning

I

plâ

he

seven years old

'a

or

-



-

, -yô

pa

(

with

center

té -

fear

was five dié

kouvri

sé sé - té tèt lò m

'

fi

as -yô

'; :

was

which

years

:

,

Nouns with meanings Equational sèkèy a

.

a

.

1

:

classes

helping my father cover the

]

(

ple



li

with equational mean vât his belly was

.4 '; .d ),

, 2 . '.

at

I



he

'

(i

:

m

té -

lékòl was school ncluding participles 322 grâ pasé mwê was bigger than me

adjective -pli

:

ing

Locational té An -

2

b

li . . '.

seeds

AMERICAN

li

êvité

-

of ki

';

té té -







stoppered

their eighth

Febru

mother

ou

li

his father

the

to

:

carry

pòté mâmâ

or ki

mêm

li -

his sé

'.

,

'

'I

jèn

'up '; ;

’;

'

- té -



was well

which

will

himself who

simétiè

-

ki

'I

a

of

-t a -



-pi

m

';

' , ' it 's

A



biê bouché

who were invited for tomorrow

which was well done with equational meaning

fèt

ki té -

biê

-

';

.

-l

yo ' ' ;

'

was lost

wit févrié pronoun

papa

ki -a

the money

pou démê

3

'I 'm ’;

was called

ary



-

'

-

-

gad

mother was pregnant ’ ; mwê té âkò was still too good would be better âtouré avèk pile guards they were surrounded with rélé Danièl who pèdi lajâ Daniel kay boulé the house was burned

‘my

té -âsêt

trò

you

pil';

young

m

full ’ ; mâmâ - m

(MEMOIRS , 74

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

'.

cemetery

bâ -m

-m

lòt

bò a

la

-

';



-

â

is

li

'; ' ;



e g

, ‘ .. , li

in

':

a

ke

ma -

pa

-

';

-

';

isit

li she

pa

too

L

'

Ange lived was

there

ou

[ be ]

'

place where

that you

]

'

the

âpil

lwê

necessary

[

-a

rété

tou “ it s

la



Lâj

koté

ou

:

'.

't



their hearts

in

,

-

yo



ma

'.

yo

,



s

;

it '

in

)

(

well

too much

's

'

';

far

off

-t

.

very well figi biê good their faces but they weren

-

-

: , lit . sé

. 5.

a

sé b

'

Locational

'

-

ko

,

-

,

ou

ko

-

ou

li

.

the

'

-



-a

;

at

'

all ’

at

-

'

la

she was

tou

rékréasiô

-

lafièv

avèk

'; l-

at

:

it



-



' di -

té -â

table

who was without anything we were recessº mâjé difé

âyê

, '.

t--



pa

fè -m

k

'

fi

te -

you

sa

:

with equational meaning admirasiô lòt that which made me not have any admiration

clause

vin rêmê

ti -

m A

on

.

:

b

8 li, .

-

ki

-a -

sé -

,

.

';

,

i.e

had fever

Locational nou food was the fire

full

went

'.

An exocentric phrase with meaning Equational kou tab was like

with fever

pou

occasionally

oo

-

co

,

-

oo

-

,

form

:

clause

:

a

. 7.

-

, .

00 6

A

minor

ko

'.

' 's

not here co

sa

ròp that

very

co

sweet potatoes

adverb with meaning Equational tre bie

they were good

for

plate

: of

An



a

patat Miroté prepared

he

he

,



to



ou





' ti he ; -

'

,

A

.

4

of

passim papa verb with meaning action our texts rou my father gave me little hoe mâmâ fièv mother had fever koté frè where your brother mênê youn Frâs kité plat isit took one France left the other hereabouts Miroté paré

you

ki

sa

he

if

ti -

se

:

]

[

,

his

,

li

ou

li, of

,

.

4

in

'.

Figure

4

ADVERBIAL MODI

(

TENSE

+

PREFIXES

)

FUTURE

(

+

OF

TENSE

predicate

PREDICATE

)

+

of (

pa )-

+

)

(

PAST

,

in

,

a

shown

FIGURE ORDER

NEGATIVE FIER CENTER

he

off

',

is

's

' he it

e

Predicate Prefixes

is

Order

of

i.

is ,

. sé -

a

'.

122

li

’;

ti -

-

, ), li to

, yé

. ‘ it ' . sa

4

li

to

had come

[



ou

]

li

‘ li,

ou

si

(

pòt

I

pasé love another girl métié chak moun ânik kouri nâ you chémê lwê baré wété tou gêgnê his trade was everybody that passed front door saw you he simply ran stopped you and he took from little road far you all you had After the clause has emphatic meaning moun only child he child her was that

dévâ

HAITIAN CREOLE

HALL ]

Any predicate may be preceded by a modifying element , usually an adverb (occasionally a noun or an adjective ) , and usually referring to time or extent , with emphatic meaning : li toujou ap - rélé sou mwê he was always yelling 1

.

atme'; mwê 'my mother

'

a

-

';

-

I -

';



"

all

yo ‘ '

)

.

( lit

of

';

yo m

té -pi

a

t-

-ap

'I

so

for

m

ap - véyé



‘ I was always watching ; mâmâ -m té-gâ tâ abitié long had time been accustomed tèlmâ rêmê métié much loved the trade mâjé rêmê the food most liked tout gasô prâ bou chak mekrédi makak avèk kòk the regular fellows every Wednesday take their sticks macaque wood and their game pieces -

té toujou

',



-pa



' -

't

sa



-pa

ou

a

va

'; :

lit .

-

la

ouvri pòt

ava

-

li

.1

.

2

in

'

m

run

';

,

it

ve

'

ll

he

'

-m

-

as a

to

in

as

.

)

(2

.1

va

-,

-,

a



';

-ap -ap ri

-

' ‘ '; ; he ' l- ou ll

,

be

av av be -

a

'.

a

)

,

lie

(

'

-l

-

-

,

y

ll

I' , m I 'll

travay

come out

-

142

désân

ava néyé

'

ou av a ap

ava sòti

'll ' -

-ap -

,

m

:



'll

'

grabbed

the man who lies will Before verb provided with the the future tense prefix makes future progres âjé when you come down eating working you when come mâti

moun

he '

'I 'll

lò m lò m -a av - ou a

vini

you

-map

,

soon

drown him durative prefix form

a

or

'; lò ) - - - '; '; l- . (2 lap ‘ a . as , l- .2 - k , be ) in a ' av ou - , ‘ -

(p

-

-l

-

-

n

kouri

open the door

they

( é )

'.

)

'.

-

.

' he 'll

kroké

ava

sive

:

4

-

do

)

2

(

(

,

cf lit . .

in

,



-

li

';



prémié rété she had first stayed With the adverb jâm never normally position negative predicate prefix which occurs this the not always occurs also you don jâm below sub section ever never that may immediately precede The future tense prefix ava 224 modifying predicate rovided not with element described the pre ceding sub section examples given Thus addition the 224 stop rété rivé rélé when arrives you call me sito

cocks

(

ap

is

p -

-

k a

't ';



-

.n

';

-

't

to

be ‘

-

't

he -

ap

p

:

)

‘ li

87

re

.

'

,

I

be

ap

sa

-

-

, 't

p

- ' ; -ap li

( é ) (

by

a



you

89 )

laughing when smiling wryly will châté singing rivé she when arrive SCH automatically But after negative the future tense predicate prefix ap placed stop SCH rété he won kabicha we drivayé drag along moun sleep won won able madé grignê



';

-



ki

sa

’.

s

it '

-

-

sé -

li ‘I ' ' ;

-

te

m

'; -

,

of

-

va

and the future prefix combine certain parts the South the

in

-



the past tense prefix conditional compound prefix

:

a

form

';



-

it

'I

-

';

'; m -

te sé té

‘I

a

, ‘

-

-



(

â



-

.2 ) :



.

-

3

'

.

(2

li to

Used together

compound prefix

'.

,

-l

néyé

'

yo p

the man who asks forgiveness they won drown him Before the future tense prefix may come the past tense prefix you 224 mwê twaz had three years was three years old slept happy krêt that which was fear dòmi kôtâ was pli piti he was smaller pou mêm mwê was me for him padô

elsewhere would Some speakers perfect use the extended form ava conditional would have others use for both conditional and perfect conditional meaning and use ava you lagé for emphasis SCH Thus leave me kwè pral vini thought you would come dis would have been

'.

t-

té as

send

ask

auxiliary

est tué he

s '

'

but

il

être for avoir

tué he killed

to

m

';

li sèt 'I â‘ I

that



a to

:

il

nature

French

would

of

-



'

'd

m

-

-t a -

a

t-

standard

in

?

;

-

t m a

voyé mâdé pou

somewhat similar

reflexive verbs

in

substitution

mwê

';

years

ou



. . . ';

-

'

a

t-

,

.'

himself

ou

:

.

'I

An automatic

of

1

to

-

in

have seventeen

the perfect tenses

killed

)

(

87

-

a

t-

a

t-

going

'

va -,



a

as

-

t-

has the form

66

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

li he

for

AMERICAN

(MEMOIRS

,

74

be

'I 'd

-m

';

't

he

'd -l' I '

'.

3

‘ no ti - if . at 2,

apparently

all

-pa



-

not

. . ') ’, :

nâ -

ou

-

li

-

a

-

in

pwê

(

'

-

pa

negative predicate prefix not and also occurring only pwê the fixed locution -

of

-t -

-

m

: t-a t m -

-

,

m

-

' ‘I . -

t-

-

-

';

be

-pa

to ta

'

-

-t -

ou

I'

yô m

';

fè -l

.

4

t-

li

d

,

to

';

t-

'

-

t-

a

li

';

kapab her would able mwê apé mênê avè taking you with me toujou pou péyé vân wouldn pay me have still sell him With ava ava rêmê would have loved him ava kwè ava vini would have thought you have come pakèt things for him bagay ava she would have made lot may come the Before the tense prefixes mentioned sub sections

't ';

't sé he

Pipirit

t

't

in

' isn t

m

-pa



-

â

âyê

mêm

-

nobody

as

:

him

'.



saw

'

di

-pa

')



li

Pipirit

in

a

is

[é ]

(

li ’;

pa



-

pèsòn

';

't

or

')

got anything

't



'I

hadn

say anything

himself didn

';

is

ap pa

sa

-

p

-

' ‘ he - -

-

ou



-tpa ; s - li - '

li

'; -



';

is

't

'I

(

';

-tpa ' .' -

gêgnê ûyê

m

'; it '

't

to

't

'it

pa

-

li 'I

t-( é )-



';

to

-

pa

vlé

' it 's

in

there mwê you don stop mwê wasn me rété gadé gasô mwê bwè didn want drink wasn any going keep the little boy more könê didn know any harm pwê mal rêmê banan didn like bananas there negative prefix always present negative pronoun that The when there nobody âyê nothing pèsôn jâm adverb never the utterance

not me

:

is

to

,

,

is

of

.

)

25

,

'

ap

- , ap -lap -

: ).

to

';

-

m

zo

' ' ;

't



pa , -

-a

in

to

-



[ it ] sa

that la

or ' .

yé +

of

or

)

,

noun adjective interrogation

(

complement

emphasis instances predicate takes the place

-

'; ti -

a

on

-m

predicate

of

,

locational

as in a

'

)

' .

or

equational

of

as

Sp

(

'

an

in be

located estar takes exposed position

an

of is

;

use

's li

'

-

.

;

(4 .3 .2 )

,

otherwise complement

her

sousé

plat lâdémê môté lakay mâmâ avèk my mother pafwa house with the little dish sometimes the children would eat chair complement place phrase used time to

up

he or



2

The verb only when the latter

,

li

,

'

li

ba

-ap

-

p

';

m 51 .

I'

]' (

[

't



.

nominal be

.

2

'

went

kôn mâjé sou chèz

Noun

the

King

223

Adverbial complement

moun 3

SCT

any

the next day

ti -

]

'

is ba

;

isn

'

(

,

la



't ou

sa

yo

in

to

-

ki



)'

;

mariaj Rwa gods parèt pou mâdé mê tout young men who appeared marriage the order ask her hand give didn want mêm kôsèy even advice they wouldn you give mwê what have there me kodên turkey eggs sucking grasèt pasé pwê plumper than what

all

(

vlé

nâ -

to

to

'

-



it

yo

'

-l

-ap

mâjé

,



,

apriè whatever prayers they used mâjé pou apézé lwa whatever appease the loa African eat they gave eat

k

apriè

k

:

jen

to

';

they prayed give they used

to sa sa

:

is

pray

there

of

in

is a



an

an

of

.?

by

or —

.

found with

Direct object

it

, .

1

.

Creole

It

it

.

4

by

'

of

ous parts utterance by their occurrence outside normal position anticipation exposition either Exposition placing 131 element utterance advance normally frequent syntactic device for emphasis where would occur

in

.

3

an 21

of 3.

cf .

,

it

up (

,

in

a

of

4

in

. 13 .

major clause Elements follows normally the subject predicate the whose elements are the order customary for the phrases various which make for structure nominal phrases and verbal phrases respectively Emphasis given however and vari Order

precedes

predicate

HAITIAN périod - la , mâmâ - m

sleep alone

's ”;

to

krié the



-

m

nâ ,

kouché pou

mété



,

-



for



’;

,

I

kò -m -

-

put me

pou

prémié fwa

he

pra

I li ou ‘ i(. ). e : ' . . m

An I ‘ at

cried

,

first time she

for you

to

ll

,

I'

get

it



house



-

that time

désâd kay mâmâ

the

- -

bagay pou mwê

the same period , my mother time was very small sila was the most beautiful thing me goes down when his mother

al lavil ‘ at

, at

-

lò a m lé

li ’; m ‘at -a

bèl

pli li -

went

piti

-n

to town ';

tou

( 3 . 251. 1 . d ) : mêm

CREOLE

it

HALL )

on



-té

m



, -m

li

; ,

)'

sa

-

';



'

and followed

by

.

-

she was

a



Aisyê

li

:

element



a

clause



- '

sé is

it

form

): ‘

pa or - [

by the equational

sé -

)

.

by

Preceded

51 256 ké

SCT

(

'

.

b

-

,

'.

by

:

A

a

. .

5

'

therefore was greatly afraid predicate any introductory Not preceded

Haitian



sit

to +

.

(

,

.

4

obj exocentric phrase prep rivé légliz mété chita apré kilt Pastè Pozi the church she put me seated me prâ mwê after the service Pastor Pozi took me pou krêtif âpil

arriving

yo

-

all

';

-

li



Ti - pi -

it '

sé s

';

a

it

he

to



di

sa

he

ou

no -

sa

it





's ';

he

kô ' - ; sa Ti -sé ké yô , li i.e - yé a ‘ . - jou

- ]

li -'

li



(

that

li

not introduced fini kaba tout viân chaché mâmâ was only when had finished finishing the meat kapab pou that looked for his not for that that you say that gro vwa can say that that reason for you trouvé greater voice than happened pasé Malis that had Malice introduced

'

it s

'; is

)

an

li ' it 's

vân

-pa '.

ou

's

a

he

(

to

, sé i . - e.

to

i.e, .

of ' . an

':

too

it '

to s



is

he



it

yo

'

.

.

4

't

-

-

sé “ it s a



of

:

is

,

before they started the people Predicate adjective

(

.

)'

,

lit .

(

'

yo

yo

)

:

.

1

,

,

is

(

in

later the utterance often anticipatory repetition the same element likewise frequent with emphatic meaning and found with Subject pronoun preceding the predicate and the subject which then follows the predicate avâ kômâsé moun before the people started )

occurring

up





rivé dévâ Rwa thus that one day they came before the midnight before they arrived jouk minwit rivé was you dyab devil that devil This construction obligatory with domaj domaj kapab bad mwê too bad you can sell him me Anticipation emphatic element referring 132 use element

King

's

-



is

li in

+

'

is

' it





ala

the little boy

did

.

!'

good time

. . . ! :

ala

how

how



la

a

-

ti -

,

or !'

;

is

'

té -

fouyé

-

,

-l

as



rivé kôprân

,

rivé m

'; wè

té -

me wè

m

come see

ou

giving the meaning

had finished eating

';

,

you have arrived

I

soon

as

mâjé

'

fini

as

,

:

soon

m

fini

as -

':

' .. as .

- as m

,

4







-

sa -a

';

he

-

's '

la

ti -

,

an

, -



';

).

46

with

bâboché Did we ever have

n

!'

bâboché

verb anticipated bway ala fouyé

Verb anticipated Standing alone immediately before the subject

a

vin

soon

ala

3

Predicate adjective how good this girl

fi -a

dig

se

':

)

's

it

's

, ( lit lit . .

.

2



. . ; bô . '. ‘ ‘ (

SCT

slow

in

anticipatory clause with kat very bway four times kat frôté frôté the little boy solent four times insolent the little boy insolent kat dous very dous she very sweet kat mizadò fâm mizadò that woman very

to

say

85 )

-p

as

prâ



soon

'

. na

,

as

va -

,

Lâj

'

Brer Snake has come

ask

Ange

'

pou

L

mâdé

for tou

yo

(

SCH

'.

kôpè Koulèv

nou

ati

-

, ,

dòmi

bwè

to

sé -

leave

vin

,

-

n a

’;

,

talk

=

mâdé

about asking

kouché

pitit

too

as olé

by

'.

)

I

,

:

a

In

.

b

is

[

pou

we

MEMOIRS , 74

ASSOCIATION

kouché take you bwè

will

have finished drinking

phrase

asking marriage

understood

sleep

bed

'll ';

go

as

saw

ANTHROPOLOGICAL

di

as

you

the children

in

it

I

soon as

soon

to

' as

him

AMERICAN

-

-

m

: sé ‘ -

is ’ sé

-

ap

l- -‘

- -a-

,

m

'.

as

'

la

'.

a

ou

li

,

si

li

'

sa

tou

ki

li

to a

'.

,

a

form

-

ou

,

,

clause

,

yo

,

li

:

yo

';

'.

volé

of

:

-

to

do

of as

of

:

in



'

,

Rich

poor

yo

.

,

â

,

,

kay

is

to

kêu â

‘ if

gêgnê

kôn

the ti

ki

pou

partially

'; ';

to

-

ou

to

, ' ;

]

oto

Sa

,

behind

yo

,

di

old

( if ] I[

will walk

a

resulting

zero

li

pou

-

paròl

in

parallel construction girl say mwê biê mwê mêm the had anything anything say yoû gêgnê had her lòt trèz one the other thirteen years maché dévâ mwê dèriè walk

replaced

or

,

fouré

conform the major clause type following the main types which element the preceding linguistic

not

an

by .

those

in

e

.

They are

i.

,

Elliptical

fifteen years

, I

li

of

,

!

Clauses are such

predicate

gê is

4

ti , fi -a me

,

-

'

-a

-

. . ‘ 21 . + .

4 2

Minor

subject

context

flop

-

dlo



continuation

rivé

'.

;

indeed ou

-

wi wi

( lot lit ' .

a

'

à

mêm

,

moun

ti -

:

yo

:

déniè

,

l- ,

,

)

-

;

la

as



ve

'

'

ou

li b.

-y kò

With

little

)

an

minor

floup the interrupted construction poup poup poup She she dived into the water they plop plop plop they flew away

alé

to si

wè every

gêgnê

you had

usually

the preceding clause

for

of

he

, if

element

onomatopoeia

all

of ,

another

you

wété

pòt

you he simply ran

saw

(

li :

of

,

baré

pasé dévâ

the last little children they sure were crying crying they indeed were nòm tiré wi tiré the man pulled completely you wi rivé arrived vous êtes tout fait arrivé krié

front

it



sé -

,

sé -

';



-l -a -

';

'I

,

yo

-

ti -

-

'

indeed

With repetition

a

of

,



in

intercalation or

wi . . y as -ap '

2

wi

such

almost killed

construction and beginning

chak moun

front his door stopped you he took from

he

off ,

that passed With

off

or

the breaking

Without other rhetorical devices you ânik kouri chémê lwê

far

they

:

,

.

1

li

to in

'm ' ll

I

'

it s

,

.

.

4 a

on

,

ou

Anacoluthon occurs

133

touyé touyé bourik they killed the donkey

kòm

like killing

new tack

person

wi

lit .

an

of

in

grâgou mwê grâgou was very hungry Also with phrase exocentric the latter acting the predicate

equational clause

the donkey

';

: an '; in , sé , sé - I he 't -

'

he

'

a -

'I

was only just tasting the anticipated verb

road

to

a

they didn

m

yo

c

-pa.

as vlé In

clause introduced the equational form mâjé open mâjé louvri want kou râtré really eating soon comes back start rivé kouché apé gouté sèlmâ get going right gouté kouché when bed separate

gro méző

,

, ,

, ak

,

to

,

at



meat and bananas

]

us

she would give

, ,

ti - ,

ba

-

,

ak

-

'

,

sometimes

(

little food

,

a

give

us

ak

a



; - [

The rich

, ]

,

.

houses

of

little

,

kamiô chwal diférâ kalité What used have was had big four story houses shops autos trucks horses mâjé pafwa viân different kinds midi mâmå kôn nou bânân paswa mai moulê kwit âsâm pwa piti mi pwa noon mother would

kat étaj boutik

some

HAITIAN

HALL )

60

CREOLE



of

-

à

in

,

A

,

'.

'

, o

;

'

!'

-o

:

!'

, ,

'

sa

,

!

'

oh



by

I

-

?

?

'

';

sa

ki

: ‘

or -

:

.

i.

e

,

.

!

bộ

,

!”

;

.

p



sa

-ap

:

or

-

,

,

in

a

'; ';

Mamma mamma

do

I]

to

linguistic context first person subject the practical remember my little cousin mâmâ mâmâ akò

'[

kouze

ou

m

-o

,

';

child

Non

-

-

29 ) '

,

hey

Referring

sôjé

at

';

, ,

ti -

ou



o

is

.

1 4 . . ti 23



'! (

SCH

gyab

msié bwè dévâ mwê drink that front your appearance you little rascal voca hey mésié Oh Mister madâm Oh

look

rayi vyân moutô Oh mutton meat hate phrases pou why that vocative free forms good poor chap Predicate Alone without subject has several meanings

pitit

';

you

malvéyâ

followed

often

Missis

keep quiet

dear

,



';

tive

gadé

o

my

look

me

Sir

,

chè

times (she would give us ] ground corn cooked together with beans , [or ] little millet and beans '; “ Sa ou t- ap -di sou -mwê ?” Mwê di- l: “ Â yê ” ( “ What were you saying about me ?” I said to her : “ [ I was saying ) nothing " . 4.22 . Individual Free Forms or Phrases occur frequently as the sole con stituents of clauses , either as vocatives or with independent meaning : mâmâ , li prâ ti- plat mwê 'Mamma , he 's taking my little dish '; gadé , môrété

la

-

-

-

-a

fi

va

-

â

’;

I

came





two years

to

]

they

(

'

's

father

bed

'.

of

in

when

m

-

papa

my

be :

or

'.

at

yo

a

up

to

of

(

)

at





)'

,

in

(o

(

is ,

behold

. . is . '

there



y a



nly the locution demonstrative trouvé tròp plât nâ âjé man over there

',

il

is ,

there





vwala



'

as

there

not

. . . ') ,

is

pwê there



:

Impersonal

Such verbs gê

,



';

to

I]

'[

)

2 , . â

dòmi avè mwê dévâ kabân they slept with me front

' a. 3.

';

on

't

I]

' - [ a

déz

old

ou

,

[ ]1

'[ '

,

won that any more pito kou kasé sou chwal prefer your neck had been broken répôn the horse paryé mwê bet the girl will answer me kôtinwé dòmi âsâm jiskaké mwê gêgnê sleep together until we continued was fifteen years old lanwit révéyé midnight night we woke minwit Referring following preceding clause the subject vini would

-

gê a

-

';

nâ or

to

a

in

of

on

be

to

in

'

’;

al -

-

a

-

la

'

k

';

a

)





in

]

- [ la

lie

is

'; '

in

lit .

(

-

.

.

237

)

50

-

ki





-

it

'

is

sa

-



harm going

';

-



(

pou

no



’;

pwe there that can still give prômênê there that vwala Bouki you jou who went for walk trouvé sou pié kénèp you gro koulèv big chanced that under the quénèpe tree there was snake toujou rété pwa mamit there always remain some beans the pot

mal there was Bouqui one day

SCT

bay âkò



-r

';

a

';

-

'

gê ô

-



'

-

ou



a

';

'

na



pwê mâti

no

people



-k



';

yo kôn

-



in



's

a

la -a

' '

':

it

you nôm chanced there king there are too many plants the row rwa there was you gro pié kénèp sou lariviè there was big quénèpe tree the edge the family you fâmiy river chak kay there used each house ay kôn wit nèf moun the houses there used be eight nine

'go ; la

-

ak -

'

'.

'; -l

'.

s

it '

to

:

a

'



'

ou

-

à

'; pé !

' ';

'

ba

la -

or

';

s

'

' ',

as

it '

'

,

';

'

go

.

4

m

-



of

b

meteorological condi cho hot frèt cold referring tions isit cho tròp here too hot âba frèt down yonder cold plural meaning kité alé let him Imperative either singular pitit lagé stop let me gadé look rété little débat struggle along with the child bouch shut your mouth The negative

: .

Such adjectives

70

AMERICAN

ANTHROPOLOGICAL

(MEMOIRS , 74

ASSOCIATION

is normally a phrase consisting of piga ' take care not to . . . ' t ( 3. 251 .4 ) or of pa - ‘not preceding a verb : forms the negative of an imperative : pa -krié ‘ don 't cry '; pa - râmasé - m 'don 't pick me up '. phrase gives a 5 . A center consisting of pou - introducing an exocentric meaning of obligation or futurity : ki sa pou - m fè ? 'What am I to do ( what

imperative

lit .

(

to

'

give you

?

I

am

ou ?

ba

-m -

;

to ?

of

;

';

,

)

T

H

'

't

(

'

:

well now matter

.

!'

'

it

';

,

number padô

a

and

,

.

16

in

2

as

those enumerated

' .

in eh

,

eh

'

’;

ho

-

èvè

,

';

, oh



'

How much

minor clauses Further examples atò pwi please nêpòt tâpri doesn tâ

4

,

. 24 .

Special Forms such

others occur only pardon excuse me

ò _ ò

kôbyề pou

give you

'.

me

)

how much for

do ')

thing for me

to

lit .

clause

(

1

. .2 ) ,

,

in

,

is

of

-r

a

ak

ki

sa a té ? “

?

';

is

'; ?

t

-pa

t-

ki ou

ki

-

'; ?



'; ?

I

do

ou

ou

'; ?

to

kalité

you get people

is

'.

?

)

be

as

of

nominal made

:

of

.

)

'. it

'

't

.

3

; cf .

is

?

in

21 ( by

ou

?

. ? . ' .?

or

a

it

of

'; ‘ is ?

'

?

(

.

25

dependent clauses verbal phrases the function complements following attributes and verbal The observations may concerning special features subordination 3

sa -a

sa

:

's

are

'

't

' ?

ou

of

for

in

as

4 4

? ?

:

. . 3. . . .

that

and

ap

mété moun Into what kind mess interrogative particles èské apa that not apa you glad èské kôtâ Are you glad kôtâ Aren accomplished Subordination clauses Creole their incorpora dependent elements phrases especially nominal phrases

The

tion

nô ès

or =

ye ?

ou

z

';

it ?

is

di

-



vin

traka

pitit other verbal complement what the matter with this child

you prâ biskwit kômâ How koté eating you get you pou Where did the biscuits were Why didn you listen what told you

li '

kouté

this name

'.

interrogative direct object What does this child have

what

mâjé

What

?

An

ou ? “

sa

gêgnê

? ou sa ?yo yé “ m - “

.

2

lidé

is

ou ? “

what was sweet and sour manioc your idea What

amè

ki

-

1 ' .

'; : ki ki -l

:

or

by

of

by

.

4 .3

,

or

Interrogative Clauses whether major minor structure have either sharp ising intonation the normal order elements accompanied 81 special interrogative element which are introduced one the following An interrogative subject pronoun maniòk dous maniók

to

.2 .h

yo

òm

'

fè m

-pa

vlé

-



, ie. .

by

)

.

(3

'

are

are

',

I



la

where had introduced

by

,

located

are

.'

,

-

tó -

jwên kòb

however be

predicate complement with

it s

I

,

if ]

‘[

of m -t a -

sa -a

koté

clauses

m

’;

goes down

Many dependent

prâ

on

')

'

is



,

' '. he

', '

jên

‘yé be ;

'. a

use

of

for

2

Cf . fn .

-t -a -

m

I'

lè d

'

when

found the pennies 3

ou ou

,

'; :

désân





:

pendent

li

('



introduced actually nouns

were you apparently take This true also clauses that and when and koté where quasi conjunctions which are time the place which the following clauses de the

by

to

make me marry not that young man

,

in

.

4

. 41 .

Parataxis and Hypotaxis Many subordinate clauses Creole par modifying directly juxtaposed those nouns 212 are the parataxis element they modify the relationship being shown the juxtaposition itself moun maryé avèk the people you wanted ticularly

HAITIAN

HALL ]

CREOLE

elements , such as relative pronouns : ki té -rélé Krisiâ ‘who was called Christian '; ki

té gê

,

'

-

or

lwa who

-ap

ou

-pa

or adverbs

subordinators loa

specifically subordinating

-

be

,



,

ou

:

,

'.

him

'plê

li li

';

'; 't

at

I

as



tense prefix

a

)

.3

-, .4

t-

a

,

122

don

't

‘I

kôtâ

-

a

nou

t-

si

-

kônê

know

':

. . .

to

=

s

a “

ought

you

to

-

a

,

if ';

a

pakèt

barbecue pleasure

be

)

him

up

t-

fè -l

t-

,

to

make but

ou ou

pasé brid mwê

make

( lit .

things that would give

ava

li



'

L

,

if

he



-

t-

a

li

si

babako

wanted

yô go

-

t-

a

bô ,

a

,

in

si

':

ké to

vlé

Lando that

nâ -

ou

Lâdo said

of

a

lot ‘

-l

he

plézi

him bô

if

di ‘

now



-t - do ki t- let ata a -pifor -

'd

he

bagay

a

sièl kou

right

heaven



'; li li -yé

nâ -

'

môté

conditional prefix the main clause giving meaning Kôpè Koulèv fact Mâmzèl Lâj mèt Ange could Brer Snake was good Miss to

contrary

situation

si

of

.

a

C

'.

-

ought

to

,



it

giving the meaning should necessary you should see

it '

',

that Brer Snake Together with

see

mwê

'.

'it 's

ifò

necessary

kôpè koulèv

sa

-

t-



After a

ou

ifò

.

b

'd

be

:

indirect question content

whether you

pa

an

In

.

a

:

'(

of

:

-

specific

,

In

of

conditional

The

the following instances

subordinate clause past and future prefixes combination a

found

Tenses the predicate

of .

is is

4

42

Sequence

used with

.

-ap ba -l

an -

m

'.

. , .

by

’;

'

because

1



he

s

-

';

a

if

you don stop paské toujou rété rélé sou mwê was always yelling me jiskaské vật until his belly was mâjé gave full amézi food The subordinator may asépté since my followed intercalated minor clause piské pitit mwê child you accept

had



-

I'

,

d

-

-



m

him

. ' . .1

to

listened

ba

-

a

the to -t -

,

m

,

,

d

I' vlé

-

I'd

I

if

die

in

:

)

?

to -

-l

'I 'd

I

kouté

si

'.

'd (a

he

]

t-

-m - 'yo té - if

-

t-

-t a -

m

';

a

si

by

of

a

,

.

)

mouri

, ta

’;

in

, ou [ ‘

-

to

t-

a

li , li

-l

.2

2

(

-

call them

kou

si

-m

-

a

my

pass

ou

li, 'd

ou

me

t-

m

better yoûn bridle over your neck sizoka give him you môtré sèvi case you wanted one Occasionally and you would teach him read and serve you sub ordinate clause introduced has simply the past predicate prefix 224 the conditional instead Gallicism wè you moun nâ kèk kanòt mwê rélé were see some people some canoes you

kité

as he

as

-ap

)

as av -

' ‘ as

gnou

li ‘

he

's

m

some

ak - ':

, ki

'

=

'

who

ki '

, ki

ak -

ki

blâ

occur introduced

by

)

-

a -

n

-ap

w

yo ,

, -

l-

-a n aor - -a (2 -

w

-l av - : . -ap lò

).

’ . av - -ap ; .2

be

' '; lò; l89 – av l 90 - -

'll

he

'.

(

'll

on

Distributive Clauses kolyé rouj

ki

laprosésyô

of ak -

4

'll

. , 43 .

,

'll

,

is

he

'

,

.

(2

in

it

,

to

.

2

The subordinate clause has the future predicate prefix 224 when the main clause has both referring the future One both clauses may mâjé have the verb the durative 142 Thus désân eating when you come down koû tiré vâsé soon shooting we advance niché plat rélé when licking the dishes you call me sito dérivé soté sou soon jump turns we him SCH

'

or

,

-

ak

,

,

-



-

,

ak

,

223

).

(

SCT

51 .

,

‘a

ti -

ak

ti -

fi

bidô bokit kalbas girls with red necklaces some with gasoline procession mamit tins some with canteens some with buckets some with gourds small pots

osnô

gaz

TEXTS

B. 5

THE

. SAMPLE

TEXT AND ANALYSIS in

,

,

of

of

to

. . ,

5 3

In

)

.

2

but not thereafter

are

,

construction

.

or

of

(

.

1

on 92 . the

superscript numerals at the end of each sentence refer to the corre sponding analysis The texts are given 1 section of the McConnell Laubach orthography references the appropriate section any part speech form the grammar are given the first occurrence The following special abbreviations

:

used

=

= =

=

,

=

al

,

= = = =

,

=

I

=

=

=

,

al

m

=

n

pl

=

sg

vb 72

three

You

,

la

-

·

second

he

li

-

dézièm

yo

nâ -

a

mésié

( pl :say :di .)

goat

Trouvé Happen

gentlemen

A

in

-

kabrit

goat the

-

twa

One

kabrit

tail

time

the la ? ? ” » 4

.)-

Youn

-

. .3

-ap

m

(

take

and

. .

volè

dur

donkey

tâ ?

twa

prâ

épi

nâ -

all

-

behind

thief

bourik

on

ti -

.)

dim

(

tout

look

three

you



-

-

a

)-

(

bell

turn

.)- -

dur ap

(

kloch

dèyè

parié bet

with

gadé

I-

nou



.



Sa

What

before

hang

viré

dévâ

you

come

pass

descend

-

Li

.)

you

He

.1

- -l -( -pa t. -) pasé



vini

di :say :

not past need

avèk

koké

past

bézwê

maché

into market

goat



verb

-

dur

)(

past

désân

kabrit

pou

him

subordinator

universal

Translation

-ap

peasant

t-

A

. .

abita (

=

=

Text and Interlinear

5 1

pronoun pronominal

singular

impersonal

You

you

predicate prefix

subord

univ

exocentric

impers

=

= =

durative equational

person phrase

plural

pref pron

diminutive

object

=

,

-

-

,

= = = =

=

=

phr

=

exoc

-

pers

direct

= =

=

dur

for

obj

coordinator compound

pred

dim

noun nominal numeral

num

definite demonstrative

dem

eq

combination complement

indefinite interrogative

minor major

maj

tive

center

def

a

attribute

imperative

=

,

,

=

=

cl

coord

dir

interr

clause

comb compl

ctr

atory

article

attrib

cpd

indef

-

=

antic

art

impv

adverb ial anticipation

=

adv

al

adjective

=

adj

HAITIAN

bourik - la .

-

5

.

donkey

take

the ”

- prâ

he

so

,

's

in

'I : . ll ' It

you bet

do

What

the three men said you get the goat

get

I' ll

to

,

get the donkey

.'

of

:

A

second said

'

?

' If

.

three thieves One

the goat

a

to

A

.

of

front

dur

to

.

a

. .

5 2

to

need

m - ap

self

peasant was going down donkey Free Translation market with goat He had hung goat little bell the tail that would not keep turning look behind all the time chanced that he passed

a

and

mwê-mêm

-

goat -

(

take

I-

you

kabrit - la ,

I-

prâ

,

“ If

ou

the

Si



73

CREOLE

.)

HALL )

)

12

pred

.

‘a

'n

phr

(4

peasant

you abitâ

+

11 )

.

(4

nâ -

)

subj

=

cl (4 . .1

t. ap 1 5 21 .3 .1 a = . .d

Analysis

maj

'

. 31 )

'

compl Exoc phr +

.

(3

exoc phr goat exoc phr

vb +

)

.

.

(2

descending



-ap

a

=

to

(2

n



'

'

‘a

)

) t-

.3

=

to 25 ) .

(4

a

was

) .2 .

'

21

+

.

(

3

N

)

.

' .

(3

.

n

'

'

a

=



+

'

to

'

'



' ‘a



'

',

'

'a

.

)

(2

+

'

'a

N

ti -

all



nâ -

-ap

'

all

the time -



'

's

)

; 3 . 21 .4 la .b ' ) .

the

-

la

’.

kabrit

subj negative =

maj

cl

(

tâ 2 .

211

. . pa . -

bézwê pred pref



+

'

' ' a ké

3

the def art

-tpa - '

viré

indef art head bell Exoc phr kabrit the goat



-

l-

obj

compl

bézwê

, . 21 .2 .d

ossessive

the

head koké

=

-l -tpa - +

n



to

n

obj

'

kloch

kloch

little bell

a

-



vb



to



.. .

phr

behind

look you

+

)

,



+

)

.

be

to

a +

=

attrib

you

behind

look

phr little bell compl pou

la

(p

koké

had hung

koké

on +

be

.1 in

'

(2 nâ - .

'

for

attrib +

+

n

attrib

' '+ -

-tpa -

pred

+

ti -

'

a

ti -

'

prep pou

+

=

goat



kabrit pred

311

dim

prep

head

tail

pred

turning

turning

little bell



' ' ' =

tail

to

need

head

. . .

exoc phr

'

to

ti =

pref

2

-ap

)

of . him

not kloch

131

ctr

kloch

the goat

+

=

need

you

.1 .a

you

n

251

(

' he '

not

pers

viré gadé dèyè tout

past tense marker

's

'

=



phr

Exoc phr pou pers pron

l' ' .3 he

té so

,





for

'

N

n

n

phr

'

tail goat

la

kabrit

the goat

phr little bell

' .

ti -

kloch

on

exoc phr

obj

the tail

gadé dèyè tout

should

l-pa he -t li -

cl =

on +

la vb

-

kabrit

dir

' '=

hang



la

-

tail pred pref

time

pron

bézwê

pou

's

on

kabrit the goat

(3



nâ -

2

=

.

'

subj

+

'

maj

‘a

tn

donkey bourik coord 221 épi and phr you bourik donkey and you kabrit goat donkey respec goat indef art heads bourik kabrit you

'.

“ a

goat

a

'

a

'

,

in



.

)

2

(

=

phr

n

)

=

'

(3

désân

'a

. 12 .2 ' .a +

avèk

attrib you

=

prep

you

kabrit

you

tively

.

(2

vb nâ -

)

.

'

to

-

Exoc phr avèk with type

head

the market donkey and

obj maché market 222 épi you donkey goat prep bourik kabrit with and obj you bourik épi you kabrit donkey and goat univ comb

market

'

maché

both

(3

'

you

phr

vb

=

.. .

compl

+

)

.

(2

14

désân

avèk



phr kabrit 251 maché bourik épi you kabrit with

-ap

ctr

'

a

'a '

)

. . .

-

ap

t-

(3

épi you kabrit was going down désân maché avèk market donkey and goat phr phr peasant you abitâ with attrib you indef art 223 head abitâ peasant 111 Pred past tense marker pred pref désân kabrit 122 224 you bourik

be vb



tâ tô

. . .

'

n

=

'

be

'

all vb





'

-

=

-

ap

)

+

'

'



+

=



.4

vb

.

(3

'

to

' '



+

vb

'

'

. . .

t-

+

vb

'

bézwe

pref

to

'

)

.4

; .

122

=

4

+

(

.

2

vb

not past tense marker ctr bézwê phr compl head bézwê need 251 viré gadé dèyè tout turning phr turning look behind all the time head ap viré compl gadé dèyè tout phr look behind all the time head compl dèyè behind adv compl tout gadé look the time 224

-ap

Vb

.

+

obj

.

n

'

the three men

phr

num

'

What

do



' '



of

yo

'

+

)

.

+

+

compl pasé

'

=

=

'

12

2

(

head volè thief

twa mésié one prâ kabrit

-

parié

ou

Sa

pred

num

youn

-ap

subj



=

attrib twa

cl

23 4 ) = +

maj

= “ '' di

n

volè

vb

'

of

'

in

to

'

twa

phr

. . .

pred vin

+

)

.3

, .

141

2

(

form

to vb

.

he

‘ . .

)

' he '

li

pers pron

abbreviated

volè

came

vb

. 23 .3 .a

4

(

trouvé

pasé dévâ twa volè

phr pass twa volè front three thieves head pasé pass compl dévâ twa volè before three thieves exoc phr prep dévâ before

dévâ

pref

=

n

'





viré

74

.

'

subj

=

time

(MEMOIRS

vb

+

li

vb



cl

'

+

vb

,

=

' '

of



come

vin

compl

maj

three thieves

head

=

head

vin

)

.2

chance

trouvé

front phr

adj

simple form viré turn pred alone impersonal



+

(4

)

=

head

vb in

pass volè

dur

cl -

.1

m

=

.

(2

3

phr

'

attrib ( 3 .21.1.a ) tout

=

142

ap

phr

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

all '

AMERICAN

74

you

+

-

)



,

'

+

-

'

yo yo



. 23 .2 .b

(3

‘ in ,



.

)

+

12

2

(

=



of

yo “



? ”

'

la

- -

m

.

' 21 sir .4 ' .c



n

=



'

? ”

=



vb

ll

I' ' ‘

'

.

(3

bet phr Num phr youn twa mésié one the three one num attrib nâ twa mésié obj twa mésié among the three men exoc phr prep among phr the three men attrib twa three num head mésié men gentlemen

get the goat men head youn

said

'

ll

)

(

I' I' .2 ll ll

+

I'



la

- ‘

'

dir la

la

=

-

ll

,

I'

suffix

+

(

'

vb

num +

'

'

two

say

dir obj

si



Si

di



'

+ -ap

' ‘

=

get

nomi

the

(

will

pron

cpd

+

emphatic

'I

- -

mêm

)'

-

la

‘ if

'

,

'I ll

If

you take the goat take you take nou prâ kabrit

la

si -

-

=

base

prâ

nou

take the goat indef art with

a di ' déz '

you

head

Vb vb

.

If



you

obj kabrit will take

prâ

pred

+

n

'

la

-

)

mwê

di '

=

-

- -ap

' ' =

'

la

ap m

-

am

, vb .

''

-

)

-

'

-

m

+

+

vb

la

-

'

'a

la ”

7 . b

-

-ap. . prâ. . 1 132

phr

attrib

adj

bourik

251

'

la =

'

do

. .



' -la

sa

of

'

'

. ‘ .

di . -

said

prâ bourik

(3 (4

+

-

di . “

Vb N

yo

. .pl

)

n

' +

m

attrib

=

cl

-

mêm

second

ap

Vb

dézièm

antic subj pers pron pred cl

second

prâ bourik phr you dézièm

phr

taking

the def art

take

ap

dézièm

-

. N

).

mwê

maj

maj

-ap



-

-

'n

‘ m

la

-

'

the donkey

'I '

ap m

=

)

, .3

.

(2

'th '

ièm

-

322

nou prâ kabrit

the goať subj

=

-

+

=

cl =

you

head

+

'



vb

-

,

-

la

effect

attrib

prâ

form

subj

=

cl +

simple

kabrit mwê mêm phr the donkey nalizing

)

, 4 .

(

vb

'

'

' ' '

dur

will take

prâ head goat

head kabrit

maj

=

5

phr

vb

-ap =

n

phr

base

m

sa

cl

?

'

goat

pref

-

+

dir

' +

form

(

+

n

'

)

(

.)pl

(

vb

attrib

bound

sié 3 .

prefix mé my mésié gentlemen phr say kabrit head obj you bet prâ kabrit nou parié what take the goat maj interr 132 dir obj what indef dem pron 133 subj nou you pers pron pred parié prâ kabrit rest bet take phr prâ kabrit the goat head parié bet dir obj take subj pers pron pred ap prâ kabrit the goat maj will take the

ironical

.

+

-

-

la

dir

+

'

.

vb

'



la

-

' '

+

)

=

.

.2

2

(

vb

(

=

in

vb

'

' ‘

if



'



' '

, .

vb





‘ ' '+ '

-ap

+

'

=

+

=

'

I‘, '

-

=

'

-

ap n

'

-

la

=

)

Vb

.

'

'

+

la

.

) ' -ap 2(

Vb

333 head mwê me pers pron attrib mêm same self prâ bourik prâ will take will take the donkey head phr dir obj bourik the donkey head bourik donkey attrib ap prâ pref simple form prâ take the def art dur

.

vb la

-

mphatic phr

+

la

-

=

n

(e

'I

adj

la

+

‘ if '

si

)

4 ' .

-

la

, si

'I '

-

cl m

goat phr take Maj introductory element you take the goat nou prâ kabrit subj nou you pers pron hypotaxis pred 41 subord 226 phr obj kabrit prâ kabrit take the goať head prâ take phr head kabrit goat attrib thedef art Pron cpd mwê mêm bourik

6.

;

to

;

he

I

he

.”

:



,

to

:

's

go

's ;

his

. I

.”

to

old

.

,

it

I I' ll

]

[

,

:“

.”

s

it '

,

he

let

]

. ]

[

,

to

and

she

; ]

,

feet

, .

pink shorts the

She

hill and Jacqueline

a

she went down

she arrived

then

my

on

to

[

,

then

me

church

shoes

on

carried

little pair

,

with

me of

to

take

,

,

he

fell me

"

.

the house

of

my aunt the my little cousin She put mother me down My little cousin looked pull the grabbed me saw me and

Then his mother called him

and

!.

]

[

,

go

.

I of

to

little shoes off my feet Then crying and said Let

to

plateau



.” .

-1

-

.

me

she put the little

:

-

pè ,

li â

kal

dressed

he

-

m

you

jwê mâmâ avè Nâ rivé

town

bought little black shoes for me She came one Sunday morning and she

of at

,

-m -



ti -

ou

,



légliz

tôbé rélé

years

At the same period

.

,

li

,

-

-m Ti -

.

Épi

-m

rété

ti -

pou rétiré

Épi mâmâ Gadé mô chè rété

Lagé

-

-pa

pié mwê

Épi kou pati Mâmâ -l

kêbé

al ba -

di -1 di : :" a

é

ti -

ou li

- li, s

tè .

wè mwê

soulié

krié

mâmâ kouze kouzê

-

, .

li

Limété

-c

-



,

ma tât mwê

gadé



m

-



a

“ ti nâ zê , -m m . m li é - - , -m - a , n ap Li - . li -

li ti -

li

abiyé mwê pou mênê hapèl épi mété pié mwê avèk soulié you pòté mwê kilòt roz désân platô Jaklin you mòn épi rivé

get

my mother went

,

la ,

ti -

achté soulié nwa you dimâch matê

with the little dish mother for you was con

Other Memories

a

.

-

lavil

Li

,

mwê

périod

Mêm

, ni l- .

-m

mâmâ

vi -

al

.

2

souvni

him

goes down

was three

.

soled

Lòt

,

's

I

]

.

's I

[

,

, [,

té -

M

.

-

M

.

â

house

mwê

little

house and

was smaller than me and said not his mine My mother came and she said He your little

's

li

-l

,

li

ou .”

-

kôsolé

cousin

kay

to

he

-m

ou ”.

-

-p



pou

when

pou

my

came and took

went with it

up

he

It

li

,

.”

ti -

ou mwê Mâmâ piti kouze kité alé désâd kay mâmâ



-

li

-





,

di :

.

,

li

-

-

m

li,

m

la

-

,

li



, li -pa ti -n - di : té





plat

-a -

m

plat mwê prâ pli piti pasé mwê

pou

prâ



;

dish

and took the little dish then ran after me and took my little dish crying saying again fell Mam ma he taking my little dish And

vini

twaz

little cousin

Épi

Mâmâ

mêm

avèk

Childhood

my then the next day came mother house with the little dish grabbed him then ran after him

, -

prâ

my

épi kouri dèriè kêbé plat épi kouri dèriè mwê plat mwê âkò Mwê tôbé krié

ti - ti -la -

é li - di - li, ti :

plat prâ

Memory . I remem little cousin . My mother had given me a little dish for eating . My

First

ber

his

(Premier souvenir d 'enfance .] Sôjé mâmâ - m té -bâ - m ti- plat pou - té -mâjé . Ti-kouzê - m -nâ vini prâ ti-plat mwê , l-alé avèk lakay li épi lâdémê li môté lakay mâmâ - m avèk

.

1

ti-kouzé ,

he

where

French were

St.- Ristil. This



,

INFORMANTS

text , autobiographical in by young dictated to Métraux a man of Marbial . Chapter head , given by cited in Creole were Joram ; those cited in standard by added Métraux .

nature , was ings

TEXTS FROM

Autobiography of Joram

6 . 1.

she

,

my little

join”

.

Then

. .

[ lit . On

.

If

his

I

.

of

of

tle

all

do for

he

I , ,

,

the

he

beat

,

of



:

I

it

drank

Then

immedi

Watch your behavior

,

:“

't

,

me

in

.

he

.

front

and

afraid

He said

ately

to be

mother would didn want Young beat me He said

drink man drink that was

I I

on to

.

let .

my

When

giving me medicine

."

.

ground

't

]

[

,

to

little misdeeds me For that was very much afraid He used beat me and wouldn me play the

I

."

s

,

My Father

,

-

ti -

me

used

it,

li

sa

-

é

,



.)

to

li,

-

,



mal

ou

-

Gadé

at



ti - -

,

pa

-

m

kôn

vlé bwè

Msié bwè dévâ krêtif bwé

m

di :

-pa té

sa m

-

. Lò

di : , tè . gê “

-

. Li

. Li

.”

kôn

you

who father

When was lit my was very much afraid father because was always yelling Fear

,

,

té -

m

,

li



.

Li

,

li

m

-



m

bâ - m

mwê

touswit veyâ

toujou dézòd

kôn bat mwê mâmâ

médsin

bat mwê Épi mwé

li

piti mwê

paské

mwê pou tout bat mwê Pou

-

sou

krêtif âpil jwé kité ap

.

-m



pè .

3

- -ap té

m

rélé

kônê

-



it '

!"

coffin

die tomorrow would carry his mother the cemetery

he (

your

or

of

.

the head

he

,

]

(

"

He

's :

said

should

âpil

a

.

,

after the service Pastor Pozi he kissed me Then Struggle along with the child

Then

Papa

put me

beside the pulpit

chair

took me and

papa

cousin

His mother arriving

me

she seated

a

on

]

dear stop give you

,



:

t'

;

if to

at

church sit

“ ”

simétiè

stop

don

went his mother left for church with me to

-l

a

, : !. di

pòté

li -

ou

Débat

my

Look

'Ill

you little beating

to

,

Pozi ou ak

said

.)

ou

chèz

-

.

li

you

mêm

papa



la

-

-

a

mâmâ

li



.

tèt -m

sèkèy

pitit mouri démê

(MEMOIRS , 74

ASSOCIATION

pastè

sou

Épi

,

Sé - li

chita

apré kilt

bo

, .

koté chè prâ mwê

Épi

ki ( Lò

li mété -m

légliz

ANTHROPOLOGICAL

him

AMERICAN

76

to

a

they

so

, ."

make the zombies the food immediately

I

[ it ]

give me get you

't

you don

piece

,

complained

,

I

:

to

:“



.

.”

to

I

,

of

'Ill

was eat

Give me

I

,

meet

]

not

to

so

I

,

.

years when had was always afraid as

13

to

12

lit

walk

meeting

night

[

the age

at of

.

a

't

that they wouldn make the zombies me And what was fear until get



:

yo

moun

di

mwê

me

gave them

to

,

-

ti - pa



,

m

kôn

-m -

.

mâmâ

When

me

of

douz

food

If

-a

said

nwit

zombies And when

see

ing they said

Épi

kôtré avèk Pafwa lakwizin kôn zòbòp

who stayed with my always talking mother were me telling about zombies me they used The children

to

m

bâ nâ

.

de

-

. -pa ,

pou

mwê mâjé

m

yo

-

M

ba pa -

ou

.”



-

-

ap

,

dé -

Si



:

-m

ak

-



kò -m -m

,

-m

ré -

maché

M

té -

m



pa

krêt

toujou lougarou zôbi voyé mâmâ vlé alé pou

zôbi prâ jiska laj

pou

, pè ,



, té

â

ki

you

- ou . fè ”

zôbi prâ

-ap

m

sa

-

a

trèz

m

mimiré

ki

lò m

-m

di -

yo

:

-m

touswit pou

di -m

fè , " yo Bâ

.

yo té -

rété avèk mâmâ palé toujou zôbi mâjé kôn wè zôbi Épi mâjé moso

,

ap - -m - , di ap m yo , - yo

-ap ki

Ti -

.”

little rascal moun

HAITIAN

HALL )

Ân-alé avè mwê, m -ap ba ou kiyé mâjé .” Epi yo alé avè -m .

twa



CREOLE

with werewolves , zombies , sorcerers . Sometimes when my mother sent me

,I

the kitchen

to

I

alone .

go

not to want to two children who

used

knew

with my mother , I said to Come [ let with me give you three spoonfuls food

,

.

's to

in

to

to

I I

,

]

,

to

of

,

of

.

is

.

and present

have two

lit

and the other

went

and got on

,

cousin

a

.)

,

the age seventeen

at ſlit

to

go

I

am

to

(I

.

-

,

under the back

. a

the

put pillows under our heads

.

]

[

and

of

she put

cloth bed

it

,

's

of

]

in

[

stretched

it

out the my mother bed ground front She stretched out the mat she took and

: .

,

a

he

;

And then my mother and father took psalm the Gospel said and then hymn and then prayed sang praying we said When finished he a

,

-

[

.

in

,

At

)

]

tle

li, di

, .

. di :

,

e

.” "

di :





répôn bôswa mâmâ Épi nou tout kouché Bôswa pitit Kouzin Bôswa ma tât bôswa

At night my mat

he

,

Li

; .

li

yo



di :

Épi

épi lapriè Bôswa papa

yo

nou

tân

do

à

nou

lévâjil

châté kâtik

,

lapriè

tèt prâ

ba .

- -m

,

ba li

-m -

épi ak

papa

li

-m fin

li

â

li

-

zòréyé

mâmâ you sòm





,



-

la a ,

nat mété

dévâ kabân mâmâ prâ twal mété

.

old

old

.

I

,

to

.

until

the age

her mother twenty two years old sisters one fifteen

étân

con with

cousin

the bedroom

sisters

find

thirteen

in

a

(

My

cried

sleep

she left our house

nat

me and the living

The first time she put me

tinued

alé prâ

came

my mother for

.

â

, -

sè ,

ti -

.

)

's

(



sleep alone

-

(I

, , .

old

-l

room

When

little frame bed sleep apart

seventeen

kouzin mwê

.” ,

.

of

.

,

in

's



li

put me

ak

she

.) .

years

my two little

Lânwit

We con until came

bed

to

-m

. li

bought

â

-

M

they

fifteen years fifteen

bear

bear two came be slept with me

sleep together



m

nâ - A

.

â

.

4

lòt trèz

to to

m

m

-

li

nâ ,

mété

be be

tinued

,

â

al dis -

, â

gâgnê kêz

I

kouché

came

she came When they

my father

to of

.



-

.

-

â



- . kò -m , a

vết dez

).

-m

dé ta

-

â

vin .

.

-m

â

,

yo

,

li



-l -

youn

bé -

,

sè m

ti - li gê

kou

old

ti -

ak -pli

m

té -

Li

té -

.

-

-m fè

vin

nâ -

pa

mété

kouché pou krié Kouzin kôtinué kouché châm jiska sèt dis sèt jwên mâmâ sòti lakay pou Mwê

my mother

Later

another child other children two years

front

Prémié fwa

salo

father

achté you

mâmâ

Shewas older than me We my mother front and bed until was eight years

cousin

slept

(

kò -

, -té

M

.



-

m

- ti - Lò

pou mwê

kad

a

kêz

my

go

'Ill

of

went with me slept alone with the other child

Then they

domi pou lòt grâ pasé moun kouzin mwê mwê Nou kouché dévâ kabân jiska wit mâmâ Pli mâmâ vini lòt pitit zòt pitit laj déz vini dòmi avè mwê dévâ kaban papa Kôtinué dòmi jiska ké mwê vin gêgnê kêz âsâm

]go



's

:

lit .

stayed them

all

.

'

o

at

night we

midnight my mother

got

,

us

, it

,

to

.

made

she sent tray she my served father and then she had give her our little cups her

;

coffee

cup and

a

get

for

all

to us

,

someone

,

to

mother

and my the kitchen and

got

]

my mother Then father they went

(

[

,

When

got

and then we and went my father day became and he prayed again up

sleep

urinate

bed again

to

back

]

she had

went

my

At

clock

sleep

sleep

to

.

awoke

eight

Then

to

.

to

we went bed We went immediately We went seven

Good



.” :

;

,

,

.

to

My cousin said good night uncle

to

plâ

night ,

father ; good

;

kouvri

bed

up

ki

,

-m

kômâsé fouyé trou mâmâ

nou

went

night aunt

all

,

-

, li épi

-m li,

-l



li .

Si

é

kômâsé

night ,

mother , ” and they answered , saying “ Good night , children . ” Then we

at or

m

; .



ti -

prâ plâ

.

.

plâté avèk

voyé

fini bwè kafé apli

Li

,

li

l-

,

li

tôbé pâdâ lanwit

kafé

sèvi papa godé nou pou

.



ba

li ,

li

kabaré nou tout sèvi nou kafé Papam pati alé wè bèt

li

-

-m

,

ak

prâ



lakwizin mâmâ tas

y

al

-

m

li

-m

ak , .

épi

-l

,

li

, ,



nou pisé épi nou rékouché nou dòmi Lò vini jou lapriè papa lévé nou tout âkò Épi mâmâ papa lévé mwê lévé

“ Good

,

Épi nou kouché . Nou dòmi touswit . Nou t - alé dòmi a -sèt ou -wit · è . Lanwit révéyé a -minwit , mâmâ - m

up

nôk . ”

âkò

(MEMOIRS , 74

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

. us

AMERICAN

;

If ,

seeds

[ by

[

,

.

[ lit

my

]

,

a

]

I

cow

,

had

a

,

my father

he

].

on

the

;

.”



a

for

he

it

]

[

]

: [

cup

a

kettle and

a

it

]

it

on

its

,

to

him and then the calf take mo pulled until

[

udder

it

had

,

ther

mother

finished

)

and milked milked the and

My

]

my

had

[

called

cup

the

.”

her

I'

he

cow

took

When

he

cow

ve

the

.

tied

he

(

,

made the milk come down and then he pulled the little animal away and



:

my father

:

di -l

-lèt lèt - -la la la ,

covered

went and washed which she brought

it;

,

fin

li

Lò lèt

avèk

mai moulê

-

ak

lèt

bay

li



-1

. li , -l

li

-

,

li

. li

,

mété

bay nou chak you asièt

Pafwa

lèt

prâ

patat la ,

li

fin



-

patat

-

li

-

, m

vini

bouyi avèk mété kwit avèk patat

a

. li

-

la

,

-

mâmâ m

rélé

Mâmâ

-

fini

la

ti -

li

, a, -l .” li li

la -

-

“ M

-

béf

la

fè ti -

-m

li, li

li,

prâ tété bèf jiskaské mâmâ ralé lèt désân épi prâ ralé bèt maré godé tiré bèf Lò tiré

and

the cow and tied before his door and called my mother said her Let Boli bring vessel me My mother milk the cow for you

's

li

li

-m

li

ba

épi papa

Sometimes

to to

, bâ -m

rélé

mâmâ tiré bèf Mâmâ alé pòt lavé you chodiè avèk you godé

hole

the dirt

pulled

,

li, , li li

maré

ralé

dug

.

to

by

digging

to



-

-l : -l -m ou “ .”

vach

dévâ pòt Boli pòt véso

ba di

-

vach



papa

- la - m , , la ; li

Pafwa

took seeds

plant He first

and began

mother and tramping

rain had

he .

went his animals fallen during the night began

he

)

see

to

he

]

(

.

us

coffee When my father drinking finished ſhis coffee left serve

said

mother

HAITIAN CREOLE

.

lit

]

At

sweet gave the morning and

she

[

.

,

Sometimes and ground corn

in

of

milk

potatoes

milk

she gave each

and

. us ]

the ground plate us

viân

.

,

,

,

diri pwa

yam

the milk had boiled with the sweet potatoes , she put the milk down [ on

ak - pwa . Lé -dimâch li kôn kwit bânân ,

came and got the milk , [and ] she put it to boil with sweet -potatoes . When

], of [

. A -midi, mâmâ kôn ba nou , mâjé pafwa viân ak bânân , pafwa timai moulê kwit âsâm ak -pwa , piti mil lé -matê

a

HALL ]

us

my mother would give little food sometimes meat and ba nanas sometimes ground corn cooked

,

,

a

,

noon

with beans little millet and On Sundays she would cook bananas yams rice beans meat

,

-

, ,

,

together

.

lit

,

.

[

, .

's

it

.

ate the

in

mat

the

children

the chair was

mother went into said

lit .

and

[

got

.

father

up

to

a

or

a

on

my

.

join

a

.

, .

)

]

[I

sheaves

at

coffee

harvest

the gather go

corn

.

gather

coffee in

tie

beans

the

, ,

,

sweep the house

time

to

to

,

the

a

to



,

,

,

banân

out

carry water little calabash for me jar put bring and into for me sprinkle water house would of

té -

-

dlo

was food

short prayer before eating My mother got me Occupations

,

-m

broté

sâblé kafé pwa maré mai

mâjé bouyi

ti -



.yo

,

al ,

-

ti -

moun

,

ja

sâblé

-

kafé

makòn

pou

m

-m



.]

ti -



. ,

dlo

Balé kay

pou

came

Father ate

a



Mâmâ mwê

kalbas

mèt

pou

â

,

li

-m

. . [O

4

ccupations

rozé kay

rékòt

priè avâ

chair

My

tell

food

the children on

room

;

at

table

the house My father made

chaché you pòté

.

to

him

a

it

like

kout

she covered

she took out her own food the living

she

,

,

the table

she had

go

,

food

and then she sent child my father she was putting the My father the table for and sat down Meanwhile she dishing out the other children When she had finished dishing

would eat

lévé

plates

the

the kitchen else courtyard sometimes

Papa mâjé

,

)

(

all

's

put

on

it

]

sent

in in

.

)

(

first served father

,

m

Mâmâ

-

.

-

a

tab

-m

-

,



chèz chèz kou lakay jwên papa

yo

la sou

al -

-

-

-

kwizin bić sou nat pafwa moun kôn mâjé



,

ti -

-

ou

moun

collected

.

ti -

,

li

la

-



salô

.

,

lòt

.

-m

-

fè fè

-

Papa mâjé ti -

,

kou

chita

pataj mâjé moun pataj rétiré mâjé



.



li l -



fin ap

-

pa yo l- .

mâjé

vini

Papa

my

the food was prepared

When

mother

on

li li

li li,

,

pou

tab

Pâdâ

-m

al

ti -

,

li . di li

,

li

-m

paré mâmâ réini tout voyé rétiré dabò mâjé papa voyé épi mèt sou tab kouvri mâjé papa moun mété sou

and

beans bananas and beans only

, .

Mâjé

asièt

little millet

evening

the

-

bânân

In

,

pwa

-

,

-

A

ak -

ak

piti mil

swè

pwa sèlmâ

,

,

.

beans

and

ANTAROPOLOGICAL

, ,

,

or

]

to

I

.

do a

.

,

of

I

him

him

.

I

,

or

.

to

I

. do

't

,

[

,

be

up

lit .

.

I

if

,

,

me

,

!.



,

.

at to

come

my

help

and

to he

up

to

to

,

come

night

,

,

;

to

house

During

have stomach

get the midwife

took

care

,

)

,

.

in

mother childbirth She gave birth she bore my first little sister Ancen was happy and played with

little sister

the

you

I

.

]

.

call her Julienne carry her My trusted

.

my godmother

.

,

Then

of

to

]

at

[

lit .

]

[

to

was not father took me away from the house put me pass went and sent make fifteen days the house ]

,

to

,

it

)

-m

our

li

,

went

vin

dé fè sè m

,

dé ,

li, li

ti -



di :

she

didn

she hurried

Hurry

the fever she came pains my father got

called

-

l

fè m

dandled When

mother had the fever

[ lit

-

li, -m m

,



ti -

Lò -

li .

-

li

,

,

la

-

. -m

m

-

fè -m

li

,

me

me

quick

ite . . I I

,



M

.

li

-m

,

-

li

,

fè .” l-

maché



think

her

vini pou môtré prâ dé mê

she

me

little rascal The first thing that was done you

.

al

,

ou

M ti - sè

fè li . li,

jwé avè maché

"

té -

jwé avèk okipé rélé Jilièn kôfié poté Papa rétiré lakay mété kêz jou kay marên mwê Épi kez jou apré papa vini chèché désân avè mwê Apré mâmâ gadé pòté lévé kité kêbé kôtâ

thing

to

said

mother

caressed

quickly

[ lit he

ou

fèt ,

l-

fam

-m . .

,

chaché

- li . l- -pa M ti . al - sè té ,

li ,

Li akouché

trâché

vini akouché mâmâ prémié Âsnit fè

-

,

saj vini lakay

vini

li

té -

ki

sa

Pâdâ lafièv

lévé lânwit

m

papa

.



la

fièv

, .

me

begin

cover seeds

My

: hit a “

told

was

did

me to

kissed

,

me

make Prémié

]

a

Mother

twelve years

do

to

,

, ,

vit -m



ti - li

m



di -

li

,



!.

my father

help

My

she sôjé mâmâ

's

of

to

[ (

I

,

to fè

-

m

, -l -m

kalé

Présé



li

m

, si -

di -m pa : -fè

.

-m , ,

dodiné mwê you

wood for

the same work

doing

The first work

édé

.

.

-m

.

-m

présé



-

.

la

-

-m

Mâmâ bo karésé mwê Lò bagay vit 5

Mâmâ

dézòd

kômâsé

helped

burn

Towards eleven

mêm

continued

Prémié travay papa kouvri plâ

to

]

.

of

(

a

,



.

,

kôtinié

m

â

ôz

douz

ten

father gave help him

went with little bundle

carry

my mother Vè

nine

my

began

began me little hoe plant help him little hoeing Sometimes when he went into the garden

travay

time

the

age

]

m

Towards years

to

-l

-

,

ti - nâ -

-l



m m

-l

-l

M

-

-

li,

.

.

-

ti - ti -

kômâsé édé plâté édé pral jadê mwê séklé Pafwa pòté pakèt bwa alé avè édé pou mâmâ brilé rou

bath

give the horses

,

bâ -

, -m

kômâsé papa

,

nèf dis

à



ing them

to

cutting grass

of (

,

-b

Towards eight years (of age ) , I be my father ani gan take care giving mals water the animals changing them other pastures to

,

yo

-

a



food , boil bananas for the

make a little children .

[

bêgnê

-

.yo ,

ta

dlo

Vè wit â , m -kômâsé pa -okipé bèt papa -m yo , bay châjé bèt ay pou lòt savan zèb chwal

(MEMOIRS , 74

ASSOCIATION

,

AMERICAN

80

fifteen

days

HAITIAN

HALL )

81

CREOLE

he went down with mother got up , she

my

me [and ]

to get

me. After my

let

later , my father came

me watch

over it

.

dé .

, ,

to



,



) of

,

to

.

to

,

I

, do , ]

in

do ,

, lit .

by [

,

do



.

.”

,

for

,

to

of to

's



all

)

.

child

make

food

,



I I

,

to

go

said

what

's

the matter with what that child has Keep little slap said

[

or

bananas milk When she left the took

would lit

spoon

I

,

little broth

a

.

before

for them

I

with

a

up

it

a

or

;

it

left would malanga tea

bananas and

prepare

would leave

.

to

)

mother

be

My

lit .

."

"

.

I

,

"

].

lit .

quiet

,

and

play

:

know

I

don

,

made

mash

all

,

:

!.

[ lit

want me

gesture

]

didn

the time crying that

were

[

they

children

I -

.

[ lit

he

.

I

the

't

when

little

made

games behind the house

or she

yo ou

,

,

li

la

-

bânân avèk you kiyè

kiyè mwê mété jiskaské vât plê

ti -

you

bouch pitit

. ti -

-l

mwê krazé

ak

,

l-

kité

ou





té . sé -

ou

,

-m



nâ -

Mwé

prâ

-l

malâga bouyô

:

,

]

's

to

her legs played

a

trâkil

When

There mam They ran and



,

to

or [

custom

when

[

Rété

mâjé kité pou kôn bânân lèt

kôn

of

the children Mar their mother went town they garden the when looked and when they saw her they The

bial

that child gave him

Mâmâ âvâ pati

in

I

't

'll

,

cry

her two

Do Your mother

town gone bring you she bread lest the wild cat get you

a

al ,

vlé m

"

Mwê Mwê

ba , -l

.”

di :

yo

-

pa

ti -

ap

sa -a

Mwê

little sister

,

town

't

pitit

gêgnê "

.

.” . ti -

pitit

mwê

di :

tap

kôn

jès ,



sa

you

,

.

,

I

wait

ran and they said ma there mamma

krié

take

your mother has gone

jwèt dèriè kay sitou

you

,

of

grasped her her little hands said

to

-

yo fè

, ti - Lò

-pa



moun jwé mwê

turned

his work let me watch over the baby When the baby cried took

care

clung

mwê

my father

When

, , [ ]

, di : ,

yo

, Yo

.”

kouri

li .

jâm

yo

sa



yo

,

,

-1

tout kouri

mâmâ

,

“ y

al

maré nâ

yo

-j

,





Mê mâmâ mê

mâmâ gadé



moun Mabial adê

ti ou

yo

fè al sa

yo yo

lavil



,

"

:

,

.

dren

don Koutim

dé ,

to

went town she the care hands my father myself and the other chil

,

ap

-

do

-

ou do ,

-pa -



,

-

ou ".

prâ ou ,

li,

,

do , m



ou

-

l-

a

,

ou

, -l la .

l-

-m

m

-

di : -

m

,

sè .

,

ti -

, -

do nâ

ti - -

la

li

,

, li

ti -

moun Lò papa viré okipé travay véyé pitit kité prâ Lò pitit krié kêbé dé mê mwê Do tâdé Mâmâ mâmâ alé pòté pou lavil alé lavil piga krié pou chat marê

mymother

When

left the child

do ,

la

-

,

-

m

li

, al

lavil kité pitit mwê mêm avèk lòt

.yo - -m

Lò nâ

mâmâ

mê papa

,

of

,

,

]

[

little sister take hold her carry her play with her When showing her how came walk she had me take her two little hands she had me say Dé

the baby

's

in

was full

was full

[

, , I

the ground

on

sit

her stomach

sa ”

:

,

I



I

. I

would Apali play with her said The baby would laugh As was giving her food was thievish and was eating ]

her

.

until her stomach

When

lit .

it

I

]

[

put

set

mouth

and

I

,

.

yo .

spoon

put

(MEMOIRS , 74

ASSOCIATION

to

.

sa ”

, . sè

ti -

ti -

ti -

mâjé mâjé

moun

tou

la

-m

âjé

frè ak dâ

ap

m

li, m

-

visié

-

ri .

-

ap - ap fè la

m

-

m



di -ap :“ ba -l

mwê mété -l chita a -tè, Apali jwé avèk mwê mâjé mézi

Pitit

plê ,

li

vât

ki , A-



ANTHROPOLOGICAL tle

AMERICAN

'

'

.

thereof also There are children who eat their little brothers and sisters of

all

.

in

said

My mother

,

]

[

and

), a

]

mat

and then

my

he put me ,

.

]

in

'

o

at

up

.

I

. .

.

town he

to

go a

to

for

,

for

her

donkey

,

,

,

,

go

he

,

on

.

)

a

-

where

(

our land goes out potato garden into our sweet He had boy who was called left me with Christian but the boy was very bad left

.

, li

â

-

jadê

-





alé

father saddled

set her road and then he returned came home took his spade and

,

ti -



,

gasô

[ it ] .

in

,

[

'

o

tea

gasô

clock

my father took mymother

to

té - ti - nâ -

ou

mê gasôâ visié jadê maniok dous

my

my mother

Then

her

three

They made coffee which

drank

Then

he he

,

-

-a

ak -y

tè m

-

té -

kité

té -

, m

-m

li -l .

,

vin

-m

,

Li al li

.

koté

ti -

amè

papa

rout épi prâ makout jadê sòti nâ

-m , lli al

-m

li

li, li

ki

. -té

avèk

Épi

lavil mété lakay

rélé Krisiâ

âpil Papa

pou

bourik

sélé

pou

patat nou

on

put her the kettles

dishes

of

.

.

father got

they

rétouné pati

first

come

at to in

[

to

had

They started front his horse they arrived come down here eight clock the evening They made and we drank with slept My mother and cassava Then

papa

mâmâ

didn

,

on

]

and

father took me

she

forced her

[

to

where

[

her

the morning

kôdwi mâmâ

my

't

.go ”

's

,



.

to

enameled

he

tresses

took

my Épi

to he

a

,

On

.

My father

lived

, ,

,

accustomed

lévé

. m

-

è

my

loaded

bwè

My

mother was crying be mother had already gotten

donkey



,





Yo

. du

m

-

Let

My

rivé bwé

Yo

matê

cause

he

the last trip

.

,

,

yo

-m

li

,



- . -

nou

dòmi Mâmâ

twaz

a

-m

yo

-

kafé

to

: té - -l

-

m

-

-m





.

.

,

, li,

Yo di -

li .

,

-

ak ak

papa

built

mother

mâsé désân

swa

my they

father moved his things down here the Post into little house had

-m

m

-

-a

té -

li

m

è

.

-

Épi

chwal isit wit kasav

father and my mother when lived the Kay Jacqueline hill

want

mété sou you bourik chajé chodiè matla asièt émayé épi papa prâ mwê mété dévâ

li, li

prâ

vlé Mâmâ abitié Papa fòsé té -

-m

.”

krié paské mâmâ prémié rété koté

li

li nâ -

,

-pa

-

la

-

.

" A

di ti -

-m



yo

.

Papa

Mâmâ

alé

-ap -

té -

-



m

rété sou mòn broté tout zafè kay désâ isit Pòs vwayaj bati Dènié mâmâ

Kay Jaklin

The moving

evening

.

m

papa

-

. yo

.

ak - 6

mâmâ

Délòjmâ

swaré

An .

food You

HAITIAN CREOLE té -mâniok

dous

.

he

,

of to

in

, he of

(

)

(

he

,

,

a

I

.

he ])

(

,

a

I

to off

he

he

had

conscious when my father arrived ran

he

,

lose

,

,

was weak

I

.

,

to

it

I

came

eat

finished

manioc

he

Then

saw

had

to of

ness he

as if

to

as

me

, , I

given

as

,

.

,

he

or

.

him

.

Just soon the little piece

took

.

up

again

looked

he

,

the house

,

he

,

he

ran

he he he to

-

he

;

,

,

got idea ran went the manioc garden when arrived saw the manioc dug toes

look

on

it

it,

-

he

an

at he

While

boil sweet potatoes for me was boiling the sweet pota

he to

the fire

,

he

.

I

,

a

he

on

,

he

thought me was hungry He laid me down the bed and then ran put took kettle washed

it

he

he

was going

to

saw

I

he

it,

.

made me drink drinking left

When finished me lying but

,

,

he

it

he

me

,

to

gave

I it

,

.

ill ,

found me knew that was manioc the boy had given me He took syrup brewed with tea

die he continued making little medi had

,

and then

I

saw

I

he

he

says cines and then vomiting below and above

.

I

prayed God

and

,

he

knelt

,

he

covered

,

it

's

,

that what saved me was purged When was over when was re

,

s

dé -

squatted cooked the manioc down beside too Then was cook ing the manioc would break give little pieces me for him try and see whether that manioc was sweet manioc was bitter mani

,

-

fè -m

li

Li

,

ba

li a ké - - -m di m . â li , pa li - , Lò ro ,

li, li -

glwa

that time

to

,

li , , ,

-

la

la

-

- , , sé

l-



kônê ké prâ siro

sové jénou mété

li

sa

réfè

ki

-

â

rân

sé , -

,

-

vini

,

Dié

He went

oc

,

la

-



-



. li .

-m

,

li -

al

li l-

la

, -

li ,

gadé âkò

.

bâ li

m

-

m

fin



what

know

-



-

-

-



,

,

-l



té ,

ti -g



.

mouri

patat gadé jadê

mwê

didn 't

he

and bitter manioc was .

sweet manioc

patating

wé mâniok

ap

, gê

lò m

,

li l-

prié

chodiè

kité mwê pral mouri rémèd épi wè you vomismâ kòm bwè



épi mwê dêbôdé

fini

bouyi

mwê

fè li ti -

.

mwê

bouyi

êdispozé

asôâ

li

kouché kôtinié

pou

-ap

l-

li

, , .

-

li

,

li

mwê

mâniok brasé avèk

bwè

Fini

kouché

prâ

rivé kouri lakay

la

f- Ô -

li

-l

,

lavé mété difé pou mwê Pâdâ lidé kouri

jwen

m

,

li li

mété

kouri

nâ -

-

li

.

épi

sou kabân

maniok fouyé

la

ti -

-

-



si

ti li

Li

grâgou

, [but]

garden

grated manioc some manioc took manioc went the kitchen he squatted front the fire

mâniok amè moso mâniok

li

kouri mwè

father had a garden of sweet and bitter manioc ; the boy went into the

boukânê mwê mà

kroupi

mwê vin pèdi konésâs Épi rivé wè kâgou prâ mwê grâgou kwè sa

papa



, -m -a

,

-

m

niok dous fine mâjé

mwê



-

si

ou

l--

pou

,

-

la

kasé moso éséyé wè mâniok

My

and took me with him was quite small seven years old clump He went into

-

-

-

-

a

l- .

-

-l

koté maniok

lakwizin boukânê

Mwê mâm Épi mézi

tou la .

mâniok

li

difé

ap

l-

dévâ

a , -l m li -ap -a

akroupi



,

li prâ you mâniok

vin

ak -mâniok amè. L -alé , li mênê -m avè - li . Lò- a m -té - tou -piti ( sèt â ) . L -alé nâ -touf mâniok , li graté mâniok ,

,

ki-l- ès ki

pa - t -kônê

83

At

HALL )

94

AMERICAN

(MEMOIRS , 74

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

my not having died . my mother arrived from told my father she wasn

he

he 't

,

in

;

to

to

he

]

m

I'

"

:

to

said



,

his

the

to

have

to

,

)

poor

.

to be

and

(

formed

streets there used

there used Those who were poor used rich

a

.

,

line

I

a

)

lit .

to

[

in

.

In

.

be

on

's

I

.

I

pebbles

fifteen

have

in

to

.

I ,

[

,

.

of

,

, ]

The rich had big four story houses shops autos trucks horses various kinds But what used take for the inhabitants pile the town was little pebbles family There used each little houses

of

yo

kôn gêgnê Nâ ay kôn

take

The little town used

four streets

,

you dé

.

-

gê la

yo



sa

mwê

used

them

town

to

, ,

kamió

put

He Was

Games When

Joram Child

a

yo la

, ki

gro

yo

,



-

-

Ti -

,

.

-

kay vil



-

gro

pòv

vil piti Kôn

roch

chak

yo

yo

.

ti -

,

prâ kôn you pil



kalité pou abitâ

ti -

fa sé

- té té -

,

diférâ

oto

,

kay

mézô kat étaj boutik

miy

Sa

-

Rich

kòn gêgnê pòv

gêgnê

chwal

.

ti -

. -ri -a vil .

ri .

,

gêgnê rich kòn

.

ti -

roch



,

té -

kôn



l-

I

té -

sou lign

Mwê

moun

Mwê mété mwê fòmé you vil kat Nâ kòn

kônê prâ kêz

yo



wèt Joram

.

7

.

child

him

mother take this young man almost made me lose my

going

again

took

to

mother

not

took him

and

[

him

any more his mother then put him front his

my father

the boy

him

,

)

(

to

keep

take

should

; ,

li

she

going

he

-l

pèdi

town

,

,

li,

-l : fè -m



Mwê

mâké

When

of

,

li



ti -

li, li

, di

, li,

mâmâ

.”

-

p

kêbé msié âkò pitit mwê -

âkò épi

mâmâ mété dévâ kôdwi

ap

-l

bay mâmâ

-ap

p

-

alé

prâ

-m

papa

jwên

li

ap

mênê

-

l-

-

li

m

papa

rivé sòt lavil gadé gasô

di

vin

gave thanks for

Mâmâ- m

.

.

in

In

:

a

.

a

,

,

In

. . I It

old

I

]

went

to

,

a

and

boy and

I

]

was

used

[

,

of or

a

I

to

six

[

graté

cardboard

would cut out two children girl and dressed them

. I

mwê

Another Little Game years

when was five piece take a

pitit

Is .



Here

-



mwê

,

-

kay papa

m

Mwê abiyé

kôn prâ

,

. ,

fi

-

é

pano

-



you

Sé -

té -

Mwê

yo dé ,

â

.

ti . -

jwèt âkò

sèt

ou

lòt

of

.

a

It ,

.

a

,

,

ants captains sergeants Then there was palace the palace there was president ministers deputies mag pile istrates was surrounded by guards

moso katô mwê tayé

you gasô alé

you

sêk

ti -

you



.

8

m

té -



of

,

In

;

.

. .

gad

the town first you found pile barracks the barracks was yellow pebbles pebbles The yellow were the guards There were lieuten children

a

,

âtouré

,

,

to

be

.

in

-g



.



prézidâ

Li

a

be

to

;

yo sé -y

-

.

majistra

a

,

to

,

,

-k

nâ la

-

-

,



la

-

-

,

pil

,

avèk you

-a

.

dépité

minis

: .

-

-

Nâ pale

palè

.

gêgne

Ti - , yo , .

-

a

yo ti . -

é ou -



otorité nèf moun Msié Madam pitit moun prémièmâ Nâ vil house they used have two big au ou pilthorities jwen kazèn kazèn the town the houses ad eight roch jòn roch jòn there would nine people Gêgnê liétnâ kapitên sèjà Aswit the master the mistress and their

wit

father s

of

'

; I

house

wattle daub for for ornaments

in

took

, as '

house

my piece

I

their

of

, . off a

scraped

of

the house little pieces skin cupboards and chairs tables beds

to

]

[

,

of

as

as

radios They had dishes little pieces fragments money glass and of

m

-

the wall

,

. , . té vè

,

,

-

é

ti -





kôn prâ

moso ékla moso kat kôtribusiô mâmâ sòti maché -m

kòm

pou vésèl

ti -

lajâ

-

té -

Yo



-m

,

,

pou -ònémâ nâ -kay - la ti-moso po kòm tab kabân gad âjé chèz radio

85

,

yo . Mwê prâ

pou -kay

ti-masố

you

CREOLE

.

HAITIAN

HALL

take the

A

.

He

's

an

,

over his table

arm

's

passed

.

cut

far

as

go

as

,

who was

to

so

ting leather Saltrou

as

]

,

a

his

)

leaning

(

priest

it

a

go

to

his a

by

.

,

trip along and make the coast At that time was the most beautiful thing for me when

I

:

a

man passed with cock under arm When the man left for his cock pit remained less firm and said

I .

yo fè

One

oungan

my father house with cock under He was chatting with my father who was vaudou

[



di : -

sa ?

Child

,

pa

al

- -

[ lit .

to

go

?

fellow

My

said

, us :

he

shuddered

, . ”

, he

,

My

.

do

,

]?

regular

a

re

not

father stopped

étènèl

a “

re

,

the

'

all ,



';

low

you

'

yo le

, yo

.

,

-a

di : li

,

,



yo

répâtâs

.” -

-j

dézòd

wa

Was

morning

la

.' rélé

la

sila

nâ -

le

nâ pa ap - - -

Tout moun libèté

When

their arms and they the cock pit You never that Why not Why that Daddy why not But

'

d

toi



Father

Wednesday

His

Towards

regular fel Father but you not regular fellows every Wednesday take their sticks and their cocks they put them under

pou

rété frémi évâjil nou porte entrer dans large chemin donne

viv

-

k

bra

jam

Boldness

nâ -

, -m m ,

Papa

Papa

gasố

makak

li -ki

-

-

pa ba -t

yo

ou à

,

mêm

éternel

Dié

-ap

t-



,

,

-

yo

-

bou mété

Joram

-

, -l

-m

-



pati pou tout

gasô

prâ

Ou

?

-

.” ki sa

.

-

: -pa “ ,

car

râtré

p

pa

ou

,

:

to “

me

child

;

,

in

in

.



to

our Gospel tells Try gate enter into the narrow highroad gives for the broad eternal sorrow All those people are people who are living license disorder

Mwê

kôn prâ

to

jwèt

. I

.”

,

the good Lord does not call them they will not enter into repentance bliss eternal Another little game used take

to if

lòt

.

.

10

You

ti -

yo

sa di -m ou .

'

- si sé -apbô

nòm

Pitit mwê

Efforces

moun

ki

li,

alé

.



-

-l nâ

gadiè

étroite chagrin

you

mwê rézoli mwê

mèkrédi avèk kòk

gasô

bèl bagay

pasé avèk

nòm

chak

Pou

Saltrou

rété

-l

ba

-

-

â

mwê mê

Papa

sila

you

bra

avèk you

-pi



sé -

ati

gadiè “

-

L

â

po pa -m

sou

you lakòt pou mwê

alé

papa

apé kozé avèk koupé tab

bra

pou

kòk

mèkrédi matê

kay

ap

l-

kòk

You

-

pasé

you

avèk

jis té -

moun

oûgâ

Papa

Joram

ti ki ba li . té . té -p la - li.



- 9.

Radiès



.

I

of

little pieces tax cards used when my mother came from market

I

.

sticks

.

underneath

for

its

for

.

four little

Then

its

-

as

ba

â

mâmèl

.

-

é

-

pli piti pou

kat

to its

la

-

-

.

pou pié

[i. e. make ? ] a cow 's horns with a put four little sticks un grapefruit der form feet Two little sticks point the serve horns to

pié



pou sèvi Dé bwa bòk Âswit kat piti bwa

li

kòn

ti -

li

.yo

kat ti-moso bwa â -ba -l

it

. Mwê mété pou - fòmé

bèf ak you -chadèk

kòn

( MEMOIRS , 74

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

on

AMERICAN

86

feet and four smaller ones

a

on

's

as

all

of

, I I all

on

a

in

a

I

.

,

I

;

it

in

I

used

it I .

When

to

; I I

it .

as

dishes

I it .

in

I

)

a

it,

in

I

]

[

,

to

it, (

tops

I

,

]

.

ha

me

prised

I

little syrup into my hand immediately my father sur Ah

Then

went and syrup

a

emptied

of I

.

,

her table

.

of

a

on

.

.

[

,

it

,

I

all

syrup had bottle which was well stoppered unstoppered the bottle



ve

I'

!

I

acting like mother

,

belt

and

]

piece

(

My of

me with

re

' .” ,

:

a

Since you you

beat

.”

grabbed

,

.”

to

a

is

me



.

,

ll him

that

,

said

:

to

,

said me thief When your mother comes tell her When my mother My dear this came said her young man thief just now caught being thief My mother

caught you

a

.

to

it

ti di : .

padô

bottle

he I'

:

ap

-

-

ou

,

mâdé

little

was

piece

the food was cooked took the fire dished out and gave the children Little Theft One day my mother

, ,

,

di -m

-m m

mwê

,

sa

ya

kalé avèk you you bèl kal

covered

When

to

,

.”

-

,

mwê

took

I

cola

I'

ou

ap

-di l

lè di - -l: m -ki “ lè

ou

li

,

a

kô -

-m m



-

mâmâ

chè

.

I

of

serve

,

ti -

-

, , a , a . .”

li

mwê

,

-m

Ma

kêbé

-m

t--

bou sêturô Pâdâ bat

l-



ap

, -ap , -m

Mâmâ

Mâmâ

prâ

Mâmâ

-

-

ou fè -

-l



Pwiské

Mwê vini

a

-m

,

visié visié

prâ

sipri

m

.

“ A

m

you

ap sé -

-

.

msié

.

ki

-m

-

a

visié Lò mâmâ mâmâ vini



ou ”

siro

-

m

di -

, li

: .

-



siro

mwê



li

.

Mwê vidé you mê mwê Épi osito papa

boutèy

When

Food

little stick and brewed

had brewed

A

vis

.

bić

the

coconut skin and urinated when had urinated took put little earth the urine took

ll

.

,

ti -

.

gê 13

té - té -

You jou mâmâ boutèy siro sou tab bouché Mwê alé débouché

You you

the

habit rider mounts

is

a

when

,

-a

,

li

.

-

-



-



.

yo

made

house

horse

Make Earth making earth food

a

-

li .

Mwê

sèvi pou asièt bouchô kola mâjé kwit mwê désân sou difé pataj bay mwê mwê tou pitit moun kôn

horseback

off

po

-ap fè

-

m

tè m

.

toufé

-l

,

,

-

mwê

-l

mèt

bwa brasé

ti -

,

brasé

fini

, Lò

prâ you

moso

, ti -



-

la





pé lò



,

fin a

you

mwê prâ you

m

-

la

-

m



-

-

pisé

pi

,



,



pisé



.

12



mâjé

prâ

to

I

.

to

,

's

father

making

Mwê kôn mâjé mwê kokoyé mwê

a

I

.

of

my

gestures

he

you



mwê





mwê

.

-

a



Apre

Horseback Game used take put little pole little cord the head the pole serve the horse bridle After that bestrode the horse ran around the courtyard

, I .

, la, la .

jès

, -m

sa

-

la

- .

kòd gòl pou sèvi brid chwal mwê pasé pié sou chwal kouri tout lakou kay papa

of

you

you chwal kôn tout kavalié môté chwal

tèt

nâ -

té ti -

kôn prâ you

M

-

Mwê mété

gòl

ti - ti -

chwal

a

Jwèt

.

11 .

.

teats

HAITIAN

HALL )

-p -ap -fè sa âkò . Padô mâmâ , m - p ap - fè sa âkò .” Mâmâ- m lagé -m , mwê kouri , m -al krié avèk you ògèy dèyè kay - la . M

CREOLE

me a terrific blow . While she was beating me, I said , “ Mother , mother , I beg your pardon . I won 't do that any more . Excuse me , mother , I she gave

that any more .” My mother cry me and ran went

'

to

,

I

]

(

.

.

,

I

a

I

In

.

at

all

.

in

to

on he he

.

he

I

),

.

to

[

,

he

.

to

he

as a

, “

:

, ,

by

-

not

,

I . ;

,

:

“ B

be

the

the rest my father said know

Ah

Then

said ba

,

lesson

me

, : , a, “ of [

,

didn

stopped

I

I

began

and then

cause

. ]

!”

I ca, :“ I ”

Begin

he to

do

because to

he

to

,

I

.”

(

,

,

,

to

me a

book

was going

came with the book

When

c

my

get

)

re

'

),

that good little come and take your les stupid son went crying all the

[

, ,

la

-

sa ."

m

you

pulled me Unintelligent

boy

!” Lò

.



,

Ânou

saying

't

ou nâ

,

la

A

tapé

ears

knew what

Épi

rès

Li komâsé

-

,

lésô

from

stupid

while

-

-

M

ak

kôn

, m

-

.”

krétê

wè lizé



boy

games

beat me

father

my

épi

Kômâsé

di m : - :“ “ -pa

rété

mwê

pral

liv -

.”

M

kômâsé

m

- - -

m

vini

lésô

kriâ prâ

krétê alé tout paské mwê kônê

papa

prâ

vin

?

.

in

't

he

,

me

My

my

When playing put me standing punishment

I

.

ti -

, , Sâ a , li ki â - ou a sa - , -pa ba di , ; -m li rès ap li sé , , :“ -m di a -m , . -â fè “ -m -m liv . ka ,

:



-pa



-m

bat mwê ralé êtélijâs krétê mwê sila

I

,

of

away went prevented me one foot

gasô

.

to

gê lò

.

,

-m

li

-m

of

di -

ap

-

-j

-



al

m

,

li

my books games than permit play He didn me spite that was always watching when went away When went for

-



-

té -

sa

-m l

.

li

my

grabbed

Papa

In

- té té -

.

m

m

-



-tpa -

-

té -

li

baré kêbé mété kâpé sou you pié kòm pinisió

zòrèy

used

That makes me re was seven years old

often

interested

jwèt pasé pemèt mwê mwê jwé tou Malgré toujou véyé mwê pati pati Kou wèt mwê



me

beat

My father

Games

member when beating father gave me almost Why per day Because was more

Paské mwê

sa ?

ki bâ - fè -

prèské you kal

Interested

liv

êtérésé

kôn

lò -m m

Sa nâ -

in

anger behind the house

.

pli

Li

Pou

.

chak

Papa sôjé

-

.jou -

â

papa



.

souvâ

m

14

, -m .

Etérésé

tapé sèt

jwèt

go

let

won t do

tell me the rest imbecile He began hit me Let see read me that

."

,

's

.

I

)

I

The

was when

(

I

Remember

gave mother old

My mother was five years pregnant she had put pot the fire and she went the house When she got the house felt indisposition and she wasn able

on

tea

she

an

't

to

]

,

to

.

to

a

of

.

was

,

alé prâ

first help

[

li

âkò

,

lakwizin pitit mwê



êdispozisiô

,

.

li

-



mété you lakay Lò

The First Help

;

Prémiè

gêgnê sêk

,

.

- té -

li



,

l-

,

,



al

té -

li nâ -

toune

:

di -m

sâti you

Joram

sôjé

, -

-pa li

kapab

âsêt

difé

,



-

.

â

m

Mâmâ mamit rivé lakay

sèvis

mâmâ

rân

m m

Prémiè

-

sèvis

m

.

15

.”

.



to

'll

,

you

,

.

to

of

to

to

.

to to

I

.

all

]

[

-u

,

it

tie

,

,

, ,

you

)

]

's

rain

it

,

While the

I

.

stone

,

a

it

it .

, [

broom

to

)

do

(y

a

, I

I

took

And

prevent the my mother plant tied then

, . I [ , on C it , , . ] D .” to

came and passed over

School

.

Little

Fight

When

One morning

at

You

she

and

got

me

She

B

and

I

“ A

a

,

,

.

to

mother dressed me took me school When school the teacher kissed took chair she set me then she had me read

gasô

ti - .

I

To a

six

m

,

I'

.”

all

prevented

My

A

kâ -m lé -

lékol gêgnê you

-

rékréasiô



matiné

batay

ti -

.

17

You

run you

't

(

=

tied

.

. épi



).

D

,

C

, B ,

A

li Li

. -m

bo

la li

-m

sou

dé (

, -m

chita



,

, li



,

mété

“ a

li

-

,

-

chèz

fè -m

,

-m

-m

m



li

you

prâ

you

plant a

it

grown

rain

lékol

a

At

I

I

of

A

.

to at

child

field broom

put under rock and the ups won beat you because

you

[

a

beat

to a

take

and put beneath was preventing the mênê

Of

,

to

used

going

house

Mâmâ rivé lékol mèt

Get AC

Six Years

remember that the who stayed with my mother say when grown ps were

the same thing ou rain ran towards below

abiye

a

,

in

I

a

. .

Jo ”

to

I

came

children

you

.

,

,



,

, at

:“ to

while

)

épi-

-

-1 -

m

vin

ap

,

Go

take me school rain was getting ready morning fall that said My friends myself not going Crying school today the

'

ba pié

kay mâmâ

took

get ac The first time went quainted with school was first years One October the age my morning mother got me ready Age

ve

m

-

ap

-

, -

ou â

pou maré



sa

-

you

it

I

carried

for me little The First Time quainted With School

,

, -

-

â

di

,

-l

-

pa â

-a .

-a

you

balé

paské

you balé maré you roch Pâdâ ké épi lapli pasé

,

-

ba

-

â

-l

maré lapli

piébò

.

, m .

nâ -a

-

m

prâ

yo

mété bat

-1

ou

Epi mêm maré lapli Mwê kouri mété

pa -

-

â

ou ou

, , yo

-l

maré moun

bat

you

prâ

ba

ou lò

,

,

roch

grâ moun

kouri

grâ ou

,

savan

-m

-m

.

, .

.”

ki

di

ti -

-a

yo

kôn moun

ti -

Tout rété avèk mâmâ

tou

té -

moun

-

“ di -

-



sôjé

:

jodi

mwe pral lékol plérâ mwê vin

.

in

the kitchen

her She said Oh thanks Good Lord you have done me favor have child help me today Go cup and get and

]

the

to

-

té -

sé -

m

-

pou tôbé Mwê Méz âmi mwê

matê mêm



m

â

, .

-

a

.

â

sis

-

a

sis

pral Prémié fwa you prémié oktob konésâs lékol préparé You matê mâmâ pou mênê lékol You lapli préparé lékol

.

to

a

I

,

I

which there was

.

kônésâs



.

16

Prémié fwa mwê pral

said

go and get

I up ,

tea

of

took

,

child

for me hurry went the kitchen little leaf from flower plant ran

[

prâ

-

-

â

quick

.”

té -a



,

“ O

,

m

-

Jo ."

.

dédâ

me : “ Joram the pot

,

Li ou

Âtré

-a

,

pitit

-

m

mèsi Bô

mêm

, my

, 74

(MEMOIRS

the kitchen ; she

to

to

tea

ba

jodi

sèvi

you tas

gras

ti

,

Dié pou

bâ -m fè -m l

ou

mwê broté

.

li . nâ

koujin

again

go back

a

flè

ti- fèy nâ -you pié Mwê désân

you

gêgnê

lakwizin -nâ. Mwê

m - al

nâ -

prâ

kouri

di :

Mwê

mwê, présé , vit."

pou

,

, té

té -a

mamit

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

off

AMERICAN

ki

,

88

Was At

recess

there

HAITIAN CREOLE

at

.

,

of ]

I

,

[

an

him

.

to

I

,

, a

.

's

me

threw

the

to

and

blows with my hand We He the one who

of

:

me

lifted

six

us "

.

of

]

,

cried

the

in

the flat and we said

gave each

ruler

me lift

saw

throw

he

and

down

boxed our ears and made back When we got inside

go

he us

threw him

the schoolmaster

Then

Charestin

[

and

]

up

him

[

lifted

I

, I I

,

up

.

I

and threw me down When got that had attack anger got underneath Charestin

ground

"

-

I

,

li

li

di : .

-t

sis

,

tè .

.

a

li

behaved While we were was standing and Charestin

,

sa tè

,



-

-

. -l

m

-m -m

ki té -

frapé

who was called who was very

a boy

came and grabbed me he lifted me

a

-a

.

,

,



-

â







,

,

li

souflèt souflèt nou râtré Lò nou bay rivé dédâ nou chak kou pla mê féril Nou krié nou lévé

recess

-l

,



m

wè -

-

-l

a

-

â

-

m

Charèstê

; he was

, ,

, Lò vin

.



-

a

-m

-

mwê lévé mwê frapé Dirèktè frapé lévé Charèstê râtré

badly

,

ba

-

m

m

-m , ,

li

,

m

,

-

m



sa

-

sézi

little boy

a

Charestin

kâpé, épi Charèstê frapé lévé gêgnê you kolè lévé

li

, mwê

rékréasiô

was

té - â -

did up

ti-gasô

té -rélé Charèstê , sé-té -you té - dézòd âpil. Pâdâ ké nou

ki

ki

on

HALL )

To

to he

]

,

[

at

up

I

I

,

in

In

.

in

'

o

I

.

to

,

.

]

,

[

it

he

of

,

'

to

to

,

it

,

serving the coffee and came clock the pupils went

be

;

us

it to

and he was day

became day had coffee when they had finished

o

,

è

. Lò

until

I

.

a

, I .

a

to

't

I

in

I

,

.

to

go

to

us

to

the fact that

great shock

average

good

they had done

.

study

got

,

was

up

day

I

.

One

I

and

,

were zero

ing ceaselessly

.

to

I

.

my marks

an

I

a

.

I

to

study While favor started studying good was never got average came make effort All

me

a

dé - kô -

m

sou

despite

I

-

ap

-

m

not

.

mwê

composition class had wasn able make

bòn

. , m -t -ap

efò

-a

-

served

Fernand

waited

Tout

.



-

m



.

lafê

dézièm

and

school Fernand went with me and my father for school When we got the school went into the composition class While was the

mové sila

my father got the morning and

Uncle

house stayed



-m

.

la

-



fè -m

yo

-t -

. fè



- -k -té



,



m

.

prâ

nòt

vini

té -

-

,

la

m

al

pa

-

bèl



pa



you

you

School

went

got me down town When the gate my father went into the

seven

favè

gêgnê

A

yo



.

kapab

épi dépi apré

-

you

you zéro épi You jou lévé

-pa

Mwê

sa , “

-

kô di :

-



sès

vêt sis élèv -

sa jâm

M

.

nòt mwê étidié

mâsé trimès

,

la

-

M

- pa - -té - até vin té -

-a

moyèn

Pâdâ

etidié

m

étidié

m -n

m

-

. nâ -

-

m

kômâsé

-

M

moyèn malgré

kapab

town

clock

took

When

pou avék papa alé lékol ôpozisió nou rivé lékol kôpozisiô you Pâdâ grâ émosiô

school

Went

The first time

Town

two to

,

-p

li

vin sèt

akôpâgné

Fènâ

First Time

The

.

-m



li

rété sèvi nou

,

, , li

sèvi kafé

lékol

-m

,

li

,

Fènâ

jou

-a

pral

.

élèv

fin



yo .

kafé

Tôtô

vini

l-

; li m



jou

alé

-

râtré kay

papa

mênê òtal

-

.

m

di -

matê rivé



lékollavil

lékol lavil papa



lavil

désân tân

m

déz

a

lévé

fwa

-t al

fwa

è

.

Prémié

Prémié

m

18

.”

ground

ANTHROPOLOGICAL

[and ] I said : “ I like that , " and

I

on

can then

at

In

to

.

to

.

.

,

m

.

I

I'





s

-

It '

's I

So

- ."

That

up

.

School

After

I I

."

I

here

left

.

,

town

he

's

,

work My father went down went Dr Nerva house

.

came

of to

I

hard

after one month to

big sickness

.

was

]

[it

to

.

I him

with

to

,

Left

came

.

you

Apré you mwa

I

,

at

or ]

,

, [

I

to

be



:

to

, .”

have he



al

l-

,

.

pou mwê

of to

.

A

a

at

to

So

that

When ar my father put me weeding

,

rived

,

di .

m

-

.

ravay

When

school

,

.

-

-l

Avè maladi apré you Papa désân lavil séklé

,

of

at

I

used

families

a

-m -

rivé

-

.



kité

you gro

kay dòktè Nèva

kosiltasiô



m

.

-

-m



dé -t vin

m

mété



Apré

môté isit

-

l-

al

mwa

m

, 21 .

M

té -

-

papa

kité lékòl

mwê

was the peo

come love me Their always liked me Their par telling me Joram ents would keeping daughter for you would They

them and want And then they said right my boy



. at of

to

to

of

.

]

to a

I

's

.

system

young man

dances looking

a

.”

came not

the

became

to

m

tèl

yo .

-

-

m

Sé -y

,

sa "

That

ple who were dancing going girls talking visit their homes with telling them that them loved them

say

lékòl

a

to

.

I

,

of

,

,

that time

,

fi

-

yo

, m m - .

yo Sé - :

di

"

I

vizit

-

ti -

-

di

yo ,

When

at

te ap

m



. nâ

al

, “

-

M

yo di :

gasô

contain

the first

townspeople when country children stay come their houses Young Man When Became always

ké mwê

used food

[

at

me

gadé

kôn rivé rêmê avè oujou rêmê Parâ ké Joram kité you ou kòn

Épi

mwê vlé

bal

rân

té -t

m

.” ou .” di -

-

pou



jèn

- té - té -

m



,



Yo

ap

kòn

dâsé

kozé avèk

rêmê Fâmiy fi

yo yo k , - m yo . ap -

.

20 jèn

moun lakay

vin

care

weeks they took good care me but after two months they had come make me suffer and my father was obliged pay money restaurant for

vin

At

I

of

It

's I I

provision

various kinds

suffer any more

toujou

.

six

I

at the

was well taken

a

, yo ,

-

me Each

s

Sé nâ - .

.

ti -

lakâ

.yo



sistèm

when

,

-m

-

-pa

m

té -

rèstorâ pou mwê sila vin soufri âkò dotié moun lavil moun pagn désân lakay



bay lajâ

Sé -

nâ -

,

fè -m

vin

-

m

té dé -o

, -

â

.

té - té -

yo yo

té -

proviziô kòn gêgnê plizie mâjé prémié kalité Nâ sémên bić okipé mê apré mwa blijé soufri papa Chak

marks. At the

I had

When had just gone live Magloire house my father sent provisions for every week load

.

.

-

pou mwê

.

proviziô

-

abité oyé chak

that time

from

was the house man Magloire called The house beginning had just gone live

.

.

they

fèk



fèk -té -

m

Jacmel

It ' to

.

té -

yo

té té - -

m

abité

té -v

,

papa

chaj

you

sémèn

rélé Maglwa

-m Lò

.

- -

O

-té

kay Maglwa

Jakmèl

m

té -

m

komâsmâ biê okipé

m



19 té - .

Sé -

Kay

désân

marks

get bad

,

become the pupils out of twenty Stayed Where When Was

tenth nòm

't

started to get good

end of the semester ,

Koté kay you

(MEMOIRS , 74

ASSOCIATION

:

AMERICAN

went

HAITIAN

CREOLE

- vin réfè , épi papa - m mênê- m Pòt0 - Prês . Lò m -rivé Pòt - o - Prês, papa - m

to have month ,

akôpagné - m avèk Danièl

father

m

it

.

au to -

at

to he

it

: , a



of

's

to a

cousin

him

,

find

-

Port Prince learning tailoring

he .

me

to

tailer

trade

.”

put me into the tailor

good master

Dad

without

remain

Then my father talked mine named Daniel for

came

farming

said

to

Then

trade

him

I

,

two months

.

with my father not going

me

continue

left school

I

did

handed

:

,

I

,

after

Then

here

hope you

'

thus

boy

he

said

I

My dear

they

and

'll

me

to

back

a

When he had looked

took was done

it

,

at it,

show

it ;

was very good the boss how well

said

called

at

he

looked

to

worker

He

,

of

I a

.

Boss Magloire

I I I

,

of

a

[ it ]

to

a

I

it .

sewing they

me

.

left with mediately

]

,

Then Daniel found the boss ſand found the place for me and my father

- , au , -

.

soustré pâtalo

showed

, one cutting cloth pants and so much

little pair When finished

for Port Prince im arrived my father

When

I

maré dwèt

sewed

piece

set

Lò ak - .

,

-

la

plézi

took

cut out

I

-ap

- . ”

bô m m

-

,

la

-

m

-

li

avèk

.

-m nâ -

dé ,

la

-

-

boutik

résévwa

-

-m



,

li

-o -

m

-

achté you

mwê

Prês touswit akôpagné

m

-

m

-

yo

-

,

m

fè m

, ,

bòs

-

rivé

papa

é

pou mwê

-

plas

la

.

jwên

l--

-

, -o

Pòt Epi Danièl chèché bòs

tayè

the trade

loved

it

kô -

,

-p

kouzê

-l

tayè

:

m

di - l

yo

m

,

nâ -

you

chaché you Prês pou mété

pati avè pou Pòt Lò rivé papa Danièl mênê

]

they

got

I

.

to

[

,

and Daniel went with me and took me the shop When

,

to

a

house

my

,

Daniel

's

was

at

While

I

m

papa

-

,

Danièl

la

kay

-

Pâdâ

té -

.

,

,

,

there the boss received me with pleas ure had me buy thimble he tied my fingers and he set me basting pants m

m

ou

- ké dé

-m

té -

-m

palé avèk

rélé Danièl pou

aprân

li





di :

,

.

-

m

,

sâ - m

papa

bòs

li

m



dè m

li

ré -

li

,

- -l



.”

sa

ki

Épi

.

li

môtré bòs kômâ biê fèt Lò fini gadé épi mèt mwê Mô chè swété kotinié Épi kité lékol mwê môté isit mwê mwa kiltir avèk Épi papa Papa rété métié mété métié tayé

I

cut. day

.”

li .

-

,

li



di

-l

,

li

Li

yo

li

,

fin

m -koud li. Lò m koud mwê mộtré you ouvrié rélé Bòs Maglwa gadé prâ trè biê

they sewed , [and how ] they

look how

,

ak

idea when I was was always taking little pieces of cloth [and ] making little pants , little shirts and little vests (at 15 years) . I always went to the shop of Nòmil Pozi (pastor ) to

I

he

M

Port -au -Prince .

to

little (was that]

it

ti-



-ti - vès ( a -kêu â ). nâ -boutik Nòmil Pozi (pastè) pou - gadé koumâ yo koud, y -ap - tayé. M -té - tèlmâ rêmê métié - a , you jou m - prâ moso rétay twal , mwê tayé you ti-pâtalô épi pâtalô

a

my

and then

My

Ambitions .



, ti-chémiz toujou - té alé

té -

up

ti-moso

,

m

m - té -

twal,

took me

I'

piti-m

. Lidé lò

ap -prâ

consultation for me. After got well again

When I went to Port -au - Prince , my father and Daniel accompanied me .

for

22 . Abisiô

toujou

.

a

I

to

HALL ]

thirty

gourdes

.

five gourdes

they gave noon they

me

they

beans

ba

, .

, I

sleep

slept

I

a

on

-

.

-

.

, I

to

us

,

in

to

.

a

I

.

]

and

[

the hill little millet and corn sweet potatoes have two little on

.

have

-

ti -

dé -

Land have one quarter carreau land cultivate unknown beans and little millet and addition we have habitation for cultivate bananas and big irrigation beans of



-

é

mòn

sou



-

M

-

. .M

,



-

é

mai patat

ak

pou

piti mi plis nou pou kiltivé bânân n - -

abitasiô

karo

-

ka



-

you

gro pwa larouzay

piti mi kabrit

used

mat afterwards

I . ;

té -

m

,

,

M

Tè .

23 .

-

m

, -

O

gêgnê

the beginning

frame bed

kiltivé pwa koni avèk

At

,

,

.

.

kômâsmâ kôn dòmi sou nat apré dòmi sou kad

,

they

Sundays

,

evening

me broth gave me chicken and rice nanas ground corn gave

beans

the

, ,

corn

On

ground

,

of

.

coffee and biscuits gave me food bananas

a

went

on

before

Every morning

the shop

to

cost

a

the laundry

At ,

him

month for me food , and

,

them

In

,

-

, .

moulê

gave

father

.

yo

-

A

, .

-

-

é

bâ -m

,

-m



yo

,

A

yo -

poul

midi

mai moulê kôsomé Lé dimâch diri pwa bânân mai

,

m

té bâ - -

kafé biskwit mâjé bânân pwa

, .

bâ -m

ak

té-bay yo trât goud tou -lé -mwa pou mâjé mwê , lésiv té -kouté li sek goud . Tou - lé -matê âvâ m -al nâ -boutik , yo

swè

(MEMOIRS , 74

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

to

AMERICAN

I

.

92

old

. ]

,

(

I

.

I

.

. I

a

to

I

of

,

my mouth

;

said

he

and Where

: [ “

,

clothes

saw biscuit crumbs

and

]

on

my

he

of

I

,

;

]

on

on

of

.

I

,

on

[

,

front

he he

was had

him

mother

]

[

it

I

I

of

my

Then

and had gotten

I

whack

's

terrific

made me tell him where the pennies Then told pennies

Since you

, .”

I'

said



he

me

a

gave

ll

tell me

beat you

,

Then

.”

biscuits

lie

: 't

I



:

did you get the biscuits you were eat ing eating any said wasn

.

mâdé

father looked the

I

li

ou .

Piga

my

a

é

ou



ou

Épi Épi mété

-

-

té -

sou

-

m

prâ dis kòb mâmâ you pié débou prâ afè mâmâ

-1 ” ou m sé di

bèl kal

kòb

li .”

you

bat

- fè -m di -l

m

mâti

jwên

di : di :

yo “

? ”

la , . . m di -m , - .” pa - : ap li " li m

Épi

koté

-ap

pa

-t ou té ba ou - -m ap ba - t-

Pâdâ

m la

"

-

“ M

li

li

,

prâ wè kras biskwit Koté mâjé biskwit Mwê mâjé biskwit Épi

the way ate the biscuits my Crumbs the biscuits stayed mouth and they fell the front my clothes then when got home set out

at

m

ou

di : -

,

ak

-

-

,

lò m

-

,

nâ -

épi

? ”

.

ak

,

yo

, .yo -

chémê

Kras biskwit

was five years when stole ten pennies from my mother My mother had sent me buy sugar girl who was called Atamise from bought the sugar and two biscuits with the ten pennies Then when Theft

ten

dis m

-

-té

-nâ

-

sòti

m

-

,

m

â

ki ak

Atamiz biskwit

rélé



bouch mwê tôbé dévâ rivé lakay papa bouch mwê dévâ rad mwê

rad mwê

gadé



.

-



yo

-

la

Épi dis kòb mwê mâjé biskwit rété

- sêk té - m

-





. -

la

-

-

sik

-

a

you

vòlò

voyé

Mâmâ fi

sik

achté achté

M

m M

mâmâ

-

kòb

.

.

24

.

goats Vòlò

CREOLE

93

taken

.

Then he made me stand on one

foot,

and

her .”

to

to

to

]

to

at :

,

said

't

allow the what the

At

.

, of

I

on

[I ]

I

,

afraid

so

the

I

: . “ ”

I

.”

't

]

I I ,



:

to



:

[



]

,

I

[

: .” “ I

.”

,

on loa a [

a

I

At

the

I ”;

am

.”

I

] ] .

a

-

at

;

in

I

.'



[



m

:

I

looked prefer

Lord won

,

]

[

to

a

I

,

.

to

the woman told me neck would get broken

the horse

My

grandmother said to

me

my grand

woman who

and

my

.”

to on

a

loa she hoped

said

just met

walked

the garden

to

, I I



I

, I '

has

arrived

a

I

di .

you said

would

went away

that ran the horse got little way until :

"

was

said

woman had said me that she preferred my neck had been broken

When

.”

-

She

had been broken stopped shivered

The Good

mother

kônê

answer

she said

Then

Jézi

-

Mwê

didn

did answer

horse

-di l:



Satâ

she answered and said good morning

me and your neck her that time

said

]

t-

sa ”

-



kôt

pou

Yes

me Good Good morning

woman said

you

and

[

,

- -

m

,

m

? ”

Mwê

pèmèt

m te -di l

:

sou



pa

ti -

-

di -

la .”



di pa -l

-

ou

Bô Sa

pas

Dié

kôdwi

pito

Grân

me “

-

,

.

m



-

chwal

ou .

-

pa k

-

mêm

“ “

di

mwê

-ap ou

Grân mwê

fâm

sou

-

té -

mwê

sòt kôtré you



,

lwa

: :

di -m

-m

grân

fâm

,

-m

.

Mwê

kasé

mwê

-



nâ : - la,

mwê gê

ki

kou

Kris



m

té di

grân

fâm

déské

kasé mwê jiska mwê maché jadê rivé mwê

kouri chwal mwê rivé

Épi

sa ”

-ap ,

p té - -

pèmèt

tèlmâ pito kou

di -ap nâ alé . l: -

chwal

,

-m :

di

.”

-m

gadé

sou

and morning

to

-

.”

-pa , li

té -

kasé

Loa One day was going Larat join my father planting when arrived the Dispinos mapou tree met woman who had African spirit the time was horse

[

-

m

-



a



ou

répôn

wi .”

,

ou

Mwê

Bôjou

:



ou

-

di

li la “

M

: di "



-a Bô ”; di : di -m "

you

sou you

répôn

répôn

Pito kou

Dié

ou

mwệ

mwê rété mwê frémi mwê



“ M

-

, t lò a

di , -m -Lò

.

"

di :

-

chwal fâm Bôjou madâm bôjou Mwê

Mwê

rivé kòt

mwê râkôtré

's

Joram Meets A Woman Who Has A



pral Larat

Li

jou gê

lwa nâ

té -

, kị

Dispinos

ki

fâm

plâté

-

-m

papa

mapou

fâm

mwê nâ

lwa . You jwên

ak -you

jwên

Joram

li

.

25

to me : “ Don 't take things without asking

said

your mother

ve

HAITIAN

HALL )

I

? ”

I

's

,

I

.”

.

Food

The

food

I

."

't

I

:



to

liked

,

-

but girau

,

milk

,

bread

like bananas

( or ]

didn

't

I

and meat

,

potatoes

;

rêmê mâmâ

The Best

said

best was little millet and beans sweet ter

patat

-m

m

-pi

té -

pwa

- bè lé ; -

Tou

, -tpa m -

.

ak -

Mâjé

jou

pi



ki

jiromô

.

,

bânân

lèt ,



,

-

ak

viân

piti mi

té pê , -

.

26

Mâjé

rêmê

'

:“

Jesus Christ that will lead you her didn know

it s

,

ſif ]

to

't

.”



:

to



:

What did you say her my grandmother said The Good My grand Lord won allow that mother said me That why told you you pass near Satan

. Every

mon

she prepared

.

sweeping

One

, .

clock

'

o

Lord

my

the porch

, ,

on

.

my mother was sweeping angel coming from the sky he

,

,

an

five

I

to

's he

to

,

he

( .” )up

He

played

Lord

me

with

, ;

,

[

the Good

Then

and

to

,

,

he

!”

.

I

Lord

.

Good

:

;

to

),

(

,

"

:

"

see

,

He

on

he

had finished playing with me sent me back again put me the

when

At that time

was small

and

,

old

remember

a

I

in

.

I'

.

going

:

her

When

you

m

I

,

love

very

her

telling

my

send

to

seventeen

I' I

Zouzoun

was ten years

loved

always

was to m



much

the time always

, , I

old

, I .

At

I

;

had

.” a

's

It



:

,

[? ]

I

, [ ]

[

to

.”

'

'd

it s

,

Jo

to

go

to

your father for you father She was always saying me not me you see other pretty girls there are But never telling stopped talking her and ]

't

on of



:

I

of

.

,

her

I

One day when school with her said little brother hers named Eugene you doesn The shirt

her loved came out

I

ou

.”

li

di

,

Li

sa di -m , ou . : li ”

la

papa

school

lie ,

ap , lò

-m Kâ - m -m di al - li: té

â

rélé

sâblé

-

ti -

pa ki - té -

l

-

- ti - , ou -a frè - m

sòti lékòl

frè

âpil

.

-

m

tâdé jouré

gêgnê

-l

avè

chémiz

di

sâblé

toujou

mwê

sou

-m

,

li

,

Zoun

faché

li

Épi

Chémiz

ou

:

chémiz



li,

di

.

-l

mwê rêmê You jou you avèk mwê Éjèn

.

palé

ki -pa Li

ti -

lòt bèl

fi -sé

.”

pou

sésé

ou

-

m

,

Jo - -ap , ou

voyé papa

My wife was girl had loved since the time was

a

-



.

-té tê -

jâm

rêmê

mâti

-

"

-pa

, -

m

valè

toujou

m

sèt



:

ap

di m -

a

t-





ou â,

-

papa

koté

âpil

mwê

,

Zouzoun

dis



-

n

.

toujou rêmê gêgnê

gêgnê dis

a m

lékòl

-

mwê Madâm mwê rêmê dépi mwê

mwê

Lò -

fi

ti -

you

to

Mariaj

té té -

.

28

.

I

was three years that My Marriage

,

.

porch again

I I

: al Bô Pé di .

·



,

â

.

to

He came and took me while was taking me crying fell said My mother Mamma mamma taking you said Be quiet the Good Lord Then the an gel took me and flew went heaven with me took me the took me

sa

-

I

,

di :

,

l,

-m

.



twaz

saw

The Good

towards

was

while

and

go

a

-mprâ ,

-m .

al

-

té -

iti mwê

,

té -p

é

li

,

mwê sôjé

A

,

-

-

.

ou



ap

vin

-

, li,

-

,

li

mênê

m

l-

-m

-

-a

-

voyé mwê galri âkò Lò

mwê

sa

ap

jwé avè mwê âkò mété sou

,

Dié prâ mwê

.”



li

fini

tounê

Mâmâ

mênê prâ mwê

lâj

sièl avè

mother

pâdâ

Mwê

Visit

afternoon

mwê wè

wè volé bay Bô Dié jwé avè

Épi Bô

é

.

-

-

.”

,

Mâmâ mâmâ

bouch Épi Dié

balé

tôbé krié

m

,

-

sièl

Li -ap

m

-



nâ sot

âj

-ap

prâ

ou



l-

you

t-

,

è

épi pâdâ mâmâ

balé sou galri

me

giraumon

one she cooked other food for me

To

;

eat evening

apré midi

You

she didn ' t force

me. Giraumon

.

-

lòt



Dié

mâmâ

-m



.

27

Vizit

day

tea , morning

Mâmâ- m té -kön fòsé -m mâjé bânân , si- m - pa -mâjé -l li kalé- m . Jiromô li pa - t - fòsé mâjé , si li paré jiromo you mâjé pou mwê swaré , li kwit

sêk

74

my mother gave (me] and evening . My mother used to force me to eat bananas ; if I didn ' t eat it , she beat

té matê é- swa .

]

bay

(MEMOIRS ,

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

if

AMERICAN

94

HAITIAN

HALL )

Kôtrolé trop pîga ou fè sâ -lèspri ou avè- m .” Épi déz ou twa mwa apré papa -m rétiré -m d - isit , li voyé - m al lékòl nâ - lékòl lavil.



CREOLE look like your shirt , it looks like your

father 's shirt . ” And Zoun heard me that

say

,

gry

she

't :“

to

.

It

Jo

,

.”

,

ll

up

At

peanuts

for

I'



:

I

to

I

't

;

,

]

to

[ lit .

a

,

month later the girl came found me she said me Ex cuse me for that wasn my fault won scold you any more And said her excuse you Then

.

me

,

roasted

all

brought

.

I

to

,

.”

Zouzoun She went each descent into town she always came see me where was staying She

)

(d

to

]

,

[

.

espite and bread But the admiration she came have for yet for her What me had nothing made me not have any admiration sweets

for

.

as

m

-

.

-

to act

two or three

Then

I

,

a

fè m

li

- . te Sa - k

-

môtré

-



sa

-

li li m,

vini rêmê lòt

toujou

m

.

fi

deal.

great

me : “ Take care not

,

m

wè - .

- m -tpa - -pa t gê -

,

Mê tout admirasiô

li

admirasiô pou Malgré

ou ou Jo . ,

,

-

koté griyé

gêgnê âyê âkò pou

li ti -

sa

,

ti fi -a

ta

-

-

Chak

toujou pasé pòté pistach

Li

-

yo -

éskuzé

vin gêgnê pou mwê

rêmê

jouré

môté

pou mwê dous sa

ap m

p -

li

,

, nâ .

désân

m

vini

li

.”

lavil

“ M

Li

Zouzoun désân

mwê

jwen

.pê

.”

âkò

Éskizé

m

,

li

pa

fòt

t--

-



di -m

you mwa

Épi

to

with me.”

an

she got

a

months afterwards , my father took me away from here [and ] he sent me to go to school in the school in town .

: di -l , " : m pli

Épi mwê

me

scolded

She said foolish

,

her brother

to

.

,

I

]

(

to

was that had come love another girl Despite that she always

,

her



yo

:

.

,

, I

to

for

.

,

on

I

to

,

, :

to

,

.

I

be

, ,

,

sisters

be

(

to to

it

. I

I

.

said

and the children

to

nou

,

Kômâ

got home

I

When

told her

to

I

.” ;

]

I ;

di

an

.

a

was going

would send ask for her Then slowly came end went down with my father seventeen

rété

-

-

ti -m -

moun

that time

ak

ki ,

-

ak m

papa

to

't

"

.”

,

-

â

ge

li -

t-

Épi

dear

At

mwê

fini mwê désân avèk rivé lakay mwê

-

-m

ak

.

ti -

mâmâ

yo



sè -m m

lâtémâ papa

dis sèt voyé pou

, a-

m

mwê vin

té -

di -l a



ta -p

my ral

;

to

.

a

had had her caused me love her even more Then when she was crying said her cry Zouzoun quiet wait Don love

come

tâdé chéri

later her grandmother

my father and my came die the wake with mother took me saw the girl When arrived them her crying little white dress with Then the same for her grandmother

I

krié

she loved me

I

-ap

plis

, .

:

,

Pa pi -

di -l

ou

"

fè m

bouch

ti fi -a -a

-

l-

li,

-

m

,

vin rêmê

me

Two years

,



-m

-m

Zouzoun

mwê

amou

mêm

,

, l-



-

a

ap li

Epi

krié mwê

pé -

gê -

-



pou

mouri

mênê lâmò rivé mwê wè krié rob blâch sou

li - Lò . ti

you

pou grân

Épi

li

,

â

avèk avèk

grân

mâmâ

.yo

,

-m

papa

apré

vin

showed

Déz

my little

who stayed

to I .

[? ]

's

If

see

m

I

,

, I

.”

to

to

for

"

I'

:

I

!”

a

,

be

d

,

I' to

. :

I be

, ,

, .

am

.

I

If

; if

I

it

't

I .

in a

hat

:



the Here are these in

I

,

to

, it .”

to

I

to

a

,

I

up

s

it '

I'

m

If

a

is



him

them

stayed

who

child

said

put

at it : ; .

]

[

I

,

.”

;

in

little papers which are the hat take one therein Then the child took one took the paper and looked

I

.





I

saw Yes and was glad said The Good Lord has answered my prayer Then the next day was

came

met the girl was just nam

her

Oh look

.

I

, , I I

the Akos hillock

said

appeared

]

I

I

( lit .

as

;

going down

Oh



,

:

to

to

.”

"

?

I

her

also

He

"

-

:

told

'll ' t

won

] til

[ ) .” St .

Ris

be be :

to

"

:

She said

Brother

he

willing

.”

her

to

, ( :

in “ , .” Jo I' , m I

marriage

Ah willing

to a

a

put those words into

to

well that she

love

very much

and

I

but

I]

,

child

,

)

(

only

[

Zouzoun

a

.

I

you this line

is

I

,

Father

to

hasten write tell you my thoughts towards little Zouzoun know very “

the letter

I

;

my father

to

I

]

it

I

, ,

give

."

loves me greatly Then the following Sunday wrote gave letter and little boy because

:

,

you

[

li

, -

mwê

-

pou

me

,

ké la

-

li



,



-



.

l

sa

biê

di -

,

la

-

té -

li

-

li

fi a

pa ti -

t-

-

âkò

-l

al

ou

m

,

.”

ri ,

sâ m

dépi

house

I

je

"

.

,

ti -



moun mê mwê rêmê Zouzoun prié pou rété sou kôt prâ lèt gadé mwê Papa paské palé avèk grâ kônê papa

called

wish

papers

little

Jo

, té

,

pour vous raconter ma pensée envers petite Z012011n Mwa kon trè bie âpil

them

the

,

,

-

“ nâ L -

, : lèt ,

dimâch

wrapped

:“

:

-

"

“ A

Jo

Frè

vlé

wrote

:

wi ” ,

,

“ O

di ap M -m ap , - - : “ -di l O

? ” M

voyé

Then

draw draw

mwê baying your name She said me mwê mèt what were you saying about me Nothing Papa said told her going écrire cette ligne also send and ask for

:

sila vous

gadè

know

marry her

lots

you wish know you don

yes



de

presse



-

Akos

-m

parol

"

-ap

-

m

Li :

ou ”

:

:

m

l di -

Épi

you

bay papa

:





di -l ti -

. -

M

âkò

yo

- la

em



.

,



-

Li

-

m

.”

.” di -

ou .”

âpil

désân

mòn

âkò

M

.” -pa

ap

l-

rêmê

Dié rêpôn

mwe

sou

vini mwê ékri

lèt ti -

-

k

Mwê

gasô

’ nâ -

m

nô .

t - m di -ap ti - -p fi -a li di

ap

ou

-

s

-t -

m

Jo yè ,



lòmê

mâdé pou Til vlé

you

démê

arèt

mwé kôtré

paské



.”

,

ba

-

â

di :

.

-

m

-a

Épi

kou

Ariê

mwê

-1

,

papié mwê gadé épi kôtâ Mwê priè mwê

dâ .

la

-a

-

la

ti -

,

nâ -

ki

yo

sa



papié rété lakay mwê Mê chapo prâ youn Épi prâ youn moun Mwê prâ

me

for

draw

.”

di li :

ti - ti

moun

possible

going

to

rélé you

the house knelt and said Father Good Lord Thy will done girl putting before you Here entered

‘ ' no ', ', I I'll I'll

-

,

mwê mété

my father : " How Zouzoun she beau and

because love her very marry girl like glad much that tomorrow told them pray the Lord going the Lord give her me Then went and

tiful

I

, , fi

.



ékri

you girl

do

I I

:

yo

di

-

fè m

ti -

-m

m

si -

,

yo

.”

Épi

-p

ou

pa

-

rézô

m

. -

-

ou

, .

-



Mwê

pou

you

vlé

yo ,

-

m

-



Si . -sé

ou

posib

kônê vlé papié mwê vlopé chapo

Bô -

m

Dié

you





pral tiré

m

li,

,

-

Papa

fèt

kônê

m

-m , Si

wi

prâ

ki yo ti -



épi

Dié âtré lakay

di :

,

-

tè ,

mèt jénou mwê ké vòt volâté swa mwê mèt dévâ marié avèk

M

.”

sa

alé

Dié pou

m

-l

.”

-

“ M



-

fi

ti -

ak -

mwê rêmê- l âpil , mwê t - a -kôtâ marié you kôn démê

my mother

with



wè Zouzoun . Si sé - so bèl ti- fi, paské

pral prié Épi kado

(MEMOIRS , 74

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

on

AMERICAN

96

beg

me

.”

for

her

he

the letter looked laughed because

took

,

father

he

at

and ask

go

to

My

he

you

for

CREOLE

he

for

,

I

,

.

to

he

,

I

Jo ,



ve

I

:

to

I'

I

to

's

.

she accepted

)

either

my

if

(

,

and

know

didn

't

she

an

girl came and

The

my letters

,

swered

I

to

was serious

but

.

-

was sick my saw what you

already arranged that wrote me for you The girl parents were very happy Then came start writing letters the girl show her that

.

si

-l -té

li

kôt mwê

rété sou

me

to

,

la

-

li .

-



pli

pou

During the time

father said

.” .

yo

ti - té fi -a

biê

fever

.

m

té -

Jo , .



a

sa

.

di -m ak -

:

réglé

fi -

ti -





-tpa -m -

kônê

-

m

-

Pâdâ

mwê mêm sérié répôs lèt

palé avèk papa



,



Mwê

.

-

té -

.

kônê

,

asépté

Apré kèk

lafièv

Parâ kômâsé ékri

li li

vini

âyê

vin

-

-l



pou

m

Épi

kôtâ

papa

ékri

déja

Ti - lèt -fi ." a

pou

-

la

ou

ou sa



, di m

,

papa

m m

vin

-

,

m

malad

malad

-

m

jâm

li

Épi jou

-pa

.

a

, ' s

a

knew

,

it it [

and long time that was had been talking with the girl father for quite long time me without my having told him that yet And never said anything me fell sick with After some days ]

HAITIAN

HALL

,

I

's

I

I

,

to

.

I

]

[

a

]

[

,

I of

in

, ,

I

Hello



:

,

chair and the girl and

to

, [

.

sit

.”

She said

]

Her mother took me next

she had

)

(

kissed her too

I

and

a

went

to

I

;

.

to

a

them

, ; a

]

[ it ]

and

to

,

,

they went they made coffee they came and served me with bread while they were making then

's

the people

]

:

I

.”

house

went

to

,

when

I

.”

that

parents

said

was right be had run away

]

knew

my

passed over

stay

I I

I I

cause from

can

't

No

(

have completely

. ,



a

,

,

to to

.

(

heavy rain fell the coffee When the rain had just passed they said me Stay while wait for the rain

,

:

m

.”

-sé

-t al

m

,

pa

-

m

went her and kissed where the girl was

Jo

ak

fin

di -

fi -



- -a

pasé

was sewing dresses father and mother

[

yo ,

m

.

li a

-

ti -

-l

gro

yo

,

, li

you

sèvi

found the girl sitting over table with machine front her and she

:

-



.

yo

-a

m

-m

.

you épi

kap rété kônê ké sové lakay

yo té -



,

,

di : parâ

yo





tou

prâ

After she had made the answer away from my father house and went see them without my got there father knowing When ran



la

,

-1

,

lapli

rézô paské

-

,



tân

a

-

toujou

Mwê





Té - .



Jo .

-m

- fè -ap

y

pasé

té -

m

kafé

vini

vin

sové

moun

machin

Mâmâ

chita koté

kafé

.

Rété

you

mwê âbrasé

ti fi -a



li

yo

alé

pê , yo

mété

pâdâ Lapli lapli nèt

yo -

,

-

m

-ap

-

ak

-l

, di :

-

m

alé koté Bôjou

chèz

jwên

mwê

tab

koud Mwê jwen mâmâ mwê âbrasé

l-

li,

dévâ papa

"

rivé

m ti fi - pa a -

sou you

sové kay papa

mwê

-



chita



rob ak

kônê

Li

répôs



m

al

. m , li

fin

Apré papa

.

to

be

father had spoken with her father for her mine

and

]

, 74

While

apprenticeship

for

to look

put me into went

I

master tailor apprenticeship

he

Port-au - Prince , he went

to

, . ,

into

took my mother and some relatives and they went my make the formal request half He arrived and called the girl parents

be to

he

a

,

,

ve

, .

I'

I

,

a

ve

m

];

[

.

my

Til

I ,

,



, :

I

do

;

to

say

do

to

to him

,

in

to

I'

a

;

I'

for

,

it

. If

a

would

I

, ,

because

decide

't

hand what marry the

.

's

you

you may

So ,

dear fellow

to

my

,

)

child and couldn say something like that

go to

of

me

him

he

' , '

to

a

yes



fellow

he

and

[

My dear

, at ]

father answered

said

present

ll

,

held

reception

, :

they

I'

-

is

Then

a

.”

he

is

;

eighteen years old the young man twenty one marry him

when

when

they

,

,

took

their leave

,

Then

.

,

Lorâ rélé Zouzoun

,

yo



éskizé

, ,

,

candy wine liqueurs cola bread bananas meat rice and beans

.

Épi

dear fellow accept you because

my daughter

:

to

him

off

-

pwa

you

? ”

My

,

, ak

,

,

bânân

, -ap â,

-

â

,

m

marié divê likè viân diri

:

résépsió

pê bôbô



:

di -l

,

li

a yo

, fè é -

,

kola

,

.”

li

Épi

alò

you

people

that what

? ”

(

to

ask

,

So

and

Mô chè

dis wit

yoûn

gêgnê vêt

-l -

kou

msié



-yé m

n -

kou

]

.

:“

he '

me

.

.

only

children répôn

her

with

grown

request

said a

,



s

-

never have

m

-

]

of to .

I'

make such

time would Papa

marry

speak

know that you are serious man had been little Joram who had come

to

sa

-

very glad

come

âployé

you

Loran said m

, ou

ki



. -pa jâm té -l - di , ti fi wi -

-

-

â

vin

mô chè

pou

desidé

-

yo n -t ? ” -a



al

la

ki

paské

kapab

paròl kôn Alò travay kôsékâs

-

ti -

kôn

sa

you

moun

kôdisiô

li -pa yé , té ap li -

moun

mèt

biê

mô Si sé , m té - -ti

ou

.

Joram

you

m

,

ti - m

di -m sé

Til

-

prézâté

dévâ

ou

sérié

nòm

vin

Alò



:

di

-ap

m

té - sé - -

you

chè mwê kôtô paské kônê

]

]

,

so

What

aksépté

[

of

loves have come seriously like two Joram

accept

Lora

long time since was always been friendly

small and with you You are serious man coming you consult with you your girl Zouzoun favor whom [

fi

ti -

-

,

sa



di

ou

.

Sa



-

-

â

ké -

,

ou alò

? ”

sa

ou

-

l-

,

,

la

ou -

-

m

kôsilté avè favè Zouzoun Joram rêmê pou grâ moun marié kòm vini palé avè sérièzmâ aksépté

you

known

I[]

ou

dévâ

they arrived they went out the house and went into room My they and consulted each other My dear Lorangèle father said When

[

di :

-

lôtô Ou

dé -

mwê

alé

.

ou ou m

-

,

vin

sérié

nòm

ou

,

you

pou

-

m

sé -



-m -

,

-

,

Papa kôsilté Lorajel Mô chè mwê kônê dépi piti toujou biê avè châm

é

-

sòti

la

kay

.yonâ -

yo

rivé yo





's .

[

,

on

[

]

,

. Li

- -m

(MEMOIRS

month later , my father traveled

A

a

nâ -

al

.

m

nâ -

Pâdâ

prâ mâmâ avèk kèk prézâté pou mwê rivé

ti fi -a

li

rélé parâ

bòs tayé ,

.yo

yo

-a

métié fâmiy

vwayajé

chaché you

métié

, -m

mété

al li

li

Pòt - o- Prês , l-al

ASSOCIATION

[

apré , papa -m

mwa

You

ANTHROPOLOGICAL

he

AMERICAN

98

HAITIAN CREOLE

a

is

.

I

he

of

-

on

,



:

.

a

man

so

I

(

)

,

future and answered him your behalf Are you agreeable saying Zouzoun answered Yes father whatever you wish wish with

? ”

,



I

,

,

here

the boy that

, :

."

ou .” ou

,

gadé

come

behalf

,

Lorâ

asépté

child

,

di :

,

tou

you

called Joram know serious man and the boy

is

? ”

ou

,

di :

,

-



.”

,

in



:

.”

,

Loran said Since my child you accept keep your word your heart also

,

-

who

Wi papa

tou

-

,

pitit mwê kè nâ

, ou



vlé

m

vlé

ou

sa

Piské paròl

mwê kôtâ



-

-

-

Zouzoun répôn

for

Mrs.

and

My

Saint Ristil has

Brother ask

said

is

alò

Loran

a

davéni Eské

Zouzoun

called

Loran to

you nòm pou

li -



gasô

- ti - nâ .

sérié

gasô

Loran

é

- ki

Jorâm

kônê

répôn

-l -

rélé

you nòm

pou

sé -

Mwê

mâdé

-ké ti

ou

-

pou

pou

la

Ristil



li ou .

Frè

vin

-Mâdam Lorâ . Lorâ di: " Pitit mwê ,

ak

99

on

HALL ]

: .

I

,

to

]

[

,

to

Jo

.

]

[

,

[

I

,

on



to

't

,

.

I'

on m

,

So

.

to

I

:

,

,

.”

ar

finished

[

,

and

.

,

beans and rice

]

and

]

,

serving meat milk

[

liqueurs

served

by

,

us .

.

's

.

,

my mother one for me We set out When we house for Lorangèle rived we found everybody sitting and waiting They served coffee for

,

a

to

.

to

.

ll

I'

the people When Sunday came my father had one the animals saddled one for him to

,

,

.jèl

sèvi likè

diri lèt

pwa avèk

,

,

sèvi kafé

,

.

nou



chita

.

Yo

.

tân

fini sèvi viân

here

my dear boy don shame me well going get me before the people ready your house start work buy cor next week have time rugated iron cover your house Sunday take you make visit

for

yo



mwê Nou mété kay Lorâ rivé nou jwen tout moun

-ap

n

-m

-

-

li,

,

-m

Dimâch rivé papa sélé bèt youn youn pou mâmâ youn pou pou

traveled

father called me and said me My dear the place you told me your behalf went there The people were very glad and received

to

tol -

m

.” -

yo



-

ap



. ou

Two months later

My go

, .

ou

M

.yo

nâ -ap -

pral kay

mèt mê gê

bie té - Jo

kôtô

té m fè - -m



-

biê

ou

-v

di -m : alé

-

te

isit

chè

, -a, -

m

,

yo

.

al

ou

-

pou

-m - la al -

.

m

-

lòt

ou

mênê



achté Dimâch rân moun vizit

sémên

kouvri kay

pou

wayajé

chè pîga

moun pou

dévâ

préparé



Alò

M

rôt

-m

Moun

résévwa

li

,

-m

té -

di -m

-

ou m

alé .

koté

apré

rélé

,

Dé mwa Papa

paròl mêm

.

us , ;

,

,

,

, :

,

.

's

finished

,

had

mother came and bread When they they served liqueurs

and then the people went out into the courtyard and talked they left me

;

biê mwê

]

é

coffee and

,

,

the girl

served

ti fi -a

gê ak

-fi yo a

talking

sèvi likè lakou

,

mwê

ti fi -a

pou

si -



kité mwê mêm

Correction When we arrived we kissed the girl her mother her father when we had finished they seated they talked and While they were

[

yo

,

n

. -

,



ap

-

-

ti -

yo

sou

-

di

-

li

salô

fini

sòti

ou

nâ -

,

palé

yo

y

-ap

moun

rété pou



yo

-

-p

ak -

kafé âswit

.pê a,

ap

-

y

,

y

-l

-l

,

-fi a

-

: , ]

(

ti -

n

Correction Lò rivé nou âbrasé papa mâmâ fini palé mété nou chita Pâdâ alé mâmâ vin sèvi

), ).

.

't a

I'

'



,

it .

at s

:“

m

I

,

to

(t

to [

to

I

be or ( if ]

to

in

us to

,

I

.

.” ,

:

blessed

,

to

God for our being

"

)

to

said

,

be

get to

in “

I

, :

's

to

to ”

(

;

Til to

give thanks

)

a

. he ”

,

.

a

do

to



(

:

him

to

thanks Afterwards everybody was happy and thanked him We

.

.

they

liberty

have complete

in

.

came

our

,

once again we took we went away After that to

,

leave

]

,

[

all

kissed

for he

and

]

with me

,

father went

was ready We had the furniture prepared then

;

.

-

au

and make the Port Prince -

to

house and we got ready wedding purchases

at go

say

.

he

went

[

up

.

set

.

in

.

I

to

went visit them every Sunday second the month Then the two years which they had My holding the wedding arrived their house

]

[

They came and they examined what things we needed for the peo kind present who would come wedding got to They they the came gether the money and they traveled

at

be

to

,

]

. [,

.

Prince

-

Port

au

, ki

m

-

.

a

fi -

:

Then gave

to

ap ki

Sa

yo k -

ti -

.

-

we came

leave my father

of

-m

-o -

la

-

,

o -



when

my name Very well

thing which was good He Great Lord we bless Thee prayer and then he said

-

yo

té -b



li

.

.

nou

said

able sang

ple

lé -

â

Papa paré Nou

to

sa

:“



di :

Him

ay

Nou

,

. -

-

,

, n

-

ap

" N

for

-

o -

-

, nâ

fi a

They

We shall

yo

,

.

-

la

-

n -a

yo

ti -

mwê mêm kamió

receive the young man

them

dézièm

you

the girl

When we had finished eating

ready

.

-

n

, di



al

. -n

,

té -

voyajé

table

libèté lakay

alò

them

my father said the girl parents No matter what time come here

Brother

kòmisiô nòs Pòt Prês Yo vini ekzaminé valè bagay bézwê pou moun vini kôplété asisté nòs Yo vini lajâ voyajé Pòt Prês Papa voyajé pou Pòt Prês papa

I

Sé -

"

Li

.

, l, -

alé

told

Afterwards

âbrasé tout Apré

vini rivé mèb

;



vin

sa

-

n

yo : fin

ti - . fi -a

-

a

yo

bô li

ki -

. . , . ”

-n

yo

.

fèt la



pou

:

di

m

-

té -

di -l

di -

môté avèk mwê préparé kay

déz

did

mother came and set the places

alé

tout

everything

person

rân

pou

vizit tou

Épi

la

-

nòs

di li :

.”

",

-

a

fè yo

-

mwa

dimâch

Nou

gêgnê

-



]

mèsi

eskizé vin

béni

to

see

nou châté Grâ lapriè Aswit Apré tout moun

bénisô

alé rân

trè biê préparé

nou

[? ]

m

di

-

Yo

dé , -

,

n -

[ M ?

.

pou

lagras

li

nou

, ,

âkò yo yo

vini isit résévwa msié



-

kôtâ

parâ

vini

Dié bagay

Dié nou épi rân

pou

.”

ou

è m m

,



alé papa

kapab

, la .

-

-

m



yo

vin

m

fi -a

ti “

pou

0

Frè

mwe Til nou

glwa

-tpa -

- sé fè - m -l

,



- di fi té - -a di :

nèg sérié tou Ou wè Apré mâmâ wè râjé kouvè tab Lò

stay in the living girl room case the had any words say me had any for her ogether for able talk girl everything The told me the people they had said when had come make the request because wasn there told the girl You see serious girl

the

and

I

. Ti- fi- a rakôté- m yo tou sa moun té -di lò yo té réprézâtasiô paské Mwê pou -nou kapab palé

mâjé papa Nêpòt kèl

(MEMOIRS , 74

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION



AMERICAN

100

Those

who trav

HAITIAN CREOLE

HALL )

101

to Port-au -Prince were : My , father the girl 's father , myself , the girl. We went in a camion . When we got to Port - au - Prince , we everything dear . The girl 's found

eled

,

for

a

a

,

as

.

I

]

. ,

a a

,

.

all

,

,

a

]

a

,

of

,

's

to , ,

,

,

-

to

a

. .

,

8

It

,

of

)

,

to of

to

up

,

(

,

of

's

's

to

.

.

,

,

the evening

towards the girl

]

the

seven

, 's

of

On

.

to

[

a

up

,

in

)

(

in

February

par

ents her father and her mother came the house she was going live

.

in

to

they arrived unloaded their they animals took their bundles their

,

,

They

little trunks

]

]

a

in

[

,

[

,

and some chickens they put had brought and everything down place prepared for that Then they sat down Many they

.

yo

prâ

seventh clock

during the day

them

,

té - jèn

Yo , -

ké -

yo

a

minwi

matê

di -

è

pou

pastè

receive

.

-

yo tè

,

.

sa

-

Arivé

-



.

-

violô

kabân twaz

-

.

ti -

somèy

A

yo

yo

you

, -té

mizik you kôpagné

-

a

vini démwazèl tout nwit

.yo

té -

Délak répozé

yo

,

châté

gêgnê kòm

êvité pou démê



yo



wit févrié

ki

Apil moun yo

.

chita

to

,

di -

è

yo

,

,

nâ -

-p

a

yo



yo yo ,

yo

,

yo

.

-a

pral abité déchajé bèt rivé prâ pakèt malèt kèk poul òté mété tout Epi you âdwa dispozé pou

,

-l

yo

swa

vini lakay

.

yo

.

-

,



sèt

mâmâ

,

-1

papa

Yo

.

,

-

a

parâ

-a

-

-



Sèt févrié

ti - fi â

lajounê

help father and my mother came neighborhood people too Some the dancing shed and came set cut wood They prepared food to

-a

katié

pou môté tônèl pou koupé bwa mâjé pou résévwa pâdâ

vini Yo

'

pou

February all the people girl family the and some the girl relatives came during the day housekeep help the girl set my family ing Relatives and seventh

o

,

.

Parâ

vin

got

,

and then bull calf the invited persons was February 1947 On the

to

, a

-

.



-

m

fâmiy papa mâmâ okipé tou Kèk moun

yo

-

ajounê

yo

,

fi -a

ti -

vin

pral abité

a a

,

kèk

pou okipé -

nâ yo -l

tout moun

parâ

-m ti , -fi

ti fi . -a



té -

Sé -

Sèt févrié

sèt

karât fâmiy

rum

beans rice little millet

receive

wit févrié mil nèf

cola

anisette

,

and bananas ground corn

liqueurs

,

bread candy

,

,

-

,

,

.yo ti - ,

,

,

,

-

pou résévwa moun êvité

When we arrived here they gether the money and bought

, , ,

lajâ

,

kôplété

bôbô like anizèt pwa diri piti mi âswit you toro bèf

,

moulu

,

,

-

é

mai

,

-

n

rivé achité kola épi bânân ròm

yo

pê , isit



.

.

,

's

for

a

The girl

to

-

nou

,

Yo

,

.

kouti épi

a

a

fi -

achté you

hat

(

fi a

, ti -

(

-

- .

-m ti -

father bought girl shoes the hat and blouse My father bought for me two pair suits shoes hat shirts undershirts shorts They sent the suits the tailor and then we traveled here and

pair

kalsô

,

,

yo





, .

é

father bought for her two silk dresses . One the married girl one for the bought girl who carried her train girl pink gift for the silk dress

you

you soulié

chémizèt

mété tout kostim voyajé pou isit

-

Papa

bous

kostim

chémiz

,

pou

soulié

you

-

chapo

-

pè é -

achté you pou mwê

Papa

you chapo

rob ròz swa chapo

a

fi -

ti -

marié , youn pou - ti- fi-a lévé nòs li. Mwê achté pou kòm kado you

. of

rivé Pòt-o - Prês nou jwen bagay tout chè . Papa ti- fi - a achté pou -li dé rob swa , youn pou - ti- fi -a Lò nou

for

;

,

a

in

,

a

up

'

o

,

.

they

,

they

started

set beans along with many other well When day came they

,

fire

started

arrange the church

Mean tak

.

to

.

]

he

,

.

in

[

to

to

ing

,

Her her

The girl finished dressing with veil and then dressed myself when had finished dressing the pastor came

.”

I ,

help

he

,

to

I

;

a

,

.

they

:

.

,

fire

;

li

yo

.

sòti

to

,

they got they made everyone Then

received

killed the bull

the things

to

to

]

on

up

they

little

the morning

to

they

light

on

all

8

,

.

(

.

,

coffee

as

,

they woke

clock

-a

nâ -

é

âbrasé mwê épi nou

the

midnight

take

went

li

.”

le

.

yo

madâm

At three

came

beds

while they started dress those part the wedding While were dressing the girl she cried father appeared and said you know my temper Stop

l-



-

ak

Mwê mêm

lâmê

invited

wit

you kômâsé marié lòt Lò fini marié nou Épi bay Béni soit lien

tout lamarié

rested

on

é

,

m

-

nâ -

-

,

pastè

gêgnê

-

-a



,

-

chita

When they

.

.

.yo

.

-

.

ou

a

-

-

é

nou

marié



lpa

vwal

fini abiyé sèvi bwa épi dmi wit

marên égliz avèk tout asistâ

légliz

-

:



châté

sleep

pastè



jis

;

mariaj

è

la -

al -

,

-a

.yo

pou

Rivé

kômâsé râ

A

.

l-

al

-a

,

akôpagné

parên

kòn bout

lò m

févrié

nòs

they

abiyé avèk

âswit mwê abiye pastè vini légliz sèt

yo

édé - fin " m

Sispân

them

Papa

krié

li

; ,

Ti - li fi -a di -l :

ap

y

, -

.”

mwê

nòs

la

yo

li

yo



li

abiyé

kòmâsé abiyé

Pâdâ parèt

pa ti - - alé fi -a

-



lòt

,

kômâsé alimé difé komâsé mété pwa bagay âkò difé avèk âpil râjé légliz Pâdâ Kâ vini jou

people who had been

February next day came the young ladies and young men sang night They had for music violin accompanied which Pastor Délak

a

yo

-

.

la

yo

Épi

tout moun

kafé , yo résévwa touyé bèf

yo fè

,

lévé ,

yo

yo

,

révéyé

(MEMOIRS , 74

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION



AMERICAN

102

30

on

. , 7

At

to

all ]

go

[

8

,

.

to

them serve drink and then went the church Febru ary the wedding party accompanied the godmothers and godfathers

.

to

at

;

]

[

at

to

church with the witnesses On arriving the church we sat per down and the pastor began marriages form that time there

Then

to

be

the bond hands with all the

Blessèd

shook

.”



:

sang he

he

us ,

.

he

to

row

;

were eight marriages the pastor be marry from one gan the other row When finished marrying

all

us , to

house and then when we arrived they

;

in

us

[? ]

us ,

-

house

of



-n



yo :

as

, ”

êvité

bôjou

té -

y

,

nou épi nou rivé nou épi akôpagné lòt nòs al

the church was near the people the other wedding parties followed put our

,

di

yo

,

-

-

lò la

-

lòt nòs

lakay mwê

pré nou tout moun kay swiv nou mété

yo la

kòm

n

sòti té

nou légliz

Pâdâ

al

.

.

brides and kissed them My wife and myself then went out my When we went out we went

of

a

.

It

to

.

,

When they were go godfather toast the made speech The pastor made speech and then there was the communal magis

mixed with

.

cola

a

a

,

made another speech

and toast the peo all the other drinks candy and other things Then

,

,

,

then they started ple with cola and

bread

all

trate

he

ing

, .

.

-

bwè alé

classmate

to

yo fin

yo

,

rété

eskizé

yo



.

té -

-



mâjé gêgnê divê épi apré tout moun

.

mâjé

é

,

yo

-

é

lòt sèvi moun

been

who was called Oraniel He prayed God and then they started toasting the bride was wine

he

-

kola

yo yo ki

.

ak

,

bôbô

Tout moun



-

-pa li

,

la

-

yo

,

râjé tab

mâjé

yo



yo pê ,

yo

-

yo lòt

bwasô





-a

.



-



tout moun

épi tout Épi apré

mine who had

mine

to

.

nâ li

yo

.

-

kola

Pâdâ you diskou Pastè you diskou épi majistra kominal you épi lòt diskou kômâsé résévwa

.

lama -

divé mélé avèk pral résévwa parên

,

pa - résévwa

kòmâsé

of

yo

Sé té

-a

rié

Dié épi

“ good -by ” to us and they went accompany to the other wedding par ties which had invited them . Before the people began , I had a little friend

said

by

Avâ yo kômâsé moun yo , mwê té- gê you ti-zâmi mwê ki té-kôdisip klas mwê ki té -rélé Oranièl . Li priè yo - a .

103

CREOLE

,

HAITIAN

HALL ]

]

.

[

afterwards they set the tables and they served the people food All the they

When

.

ate

had

eaten

, ,

people

, ,

my

re

it

mother and the other relatives who remained later When became night they took their leave There mained the house only myself and in

.

-k

. -la



li

.

ta

Té -

-

yo

té . -

pral lòt parâ rété pli ay nwit eskizé vin rét sèlmâ mwê mêm avèk madâm mwê

of

mâmâ avèk



ki

gêgnê rès fâmiy

.

Té -

yo ,

.

[it ]

there was wine which was left over they drank and then everybody took their leave and departed There was the rest the family

At

He

.

a

he

]

(

,

good

a

supply

He wouldn

.

't

to

get was able money get married

on

up

to

let

to

I

,

.

I

,

got

to

be

't I

I I

until

and that working

me keep

to

li, -m

lajâ

too young

was

would have

I

.



marié

the time married was still young didn have big enough resources family responsible for for me my father and told put that him

sa

,

té pa

vlé asépté

l-a -té -

. fin

-

m

,

-

marié



-m di -t m m

pou

Li

jiskaské

Our Life During Six Months

of

, .

-m té -

di l-

.

,

m

m l - -



,

jèn

sifi pou Mwê mété

mwê mwề trò kité mwê travay toujou kapab vin gêgnê you bèl

-

dévâ papa

Li fô

gro

you fâmiy

âkò mwê -

gêgnê you

réspôsab



mwa



mwê

jèn sis

,

-a

m

marié

té -

nou



Vi

-pa té 29 té - - .

.

my wife

pâdâ

mwê résévwa vizit lòt moun mwê mâjé avèk madâm mwê apré vin lajâ âkò fini papa

After had got married there was only twenty gourdes capital With the twenty gourdes

got for

had

I

]

and

[

heeded him

I as , I

,

I

,

and

when

give me money

would

.

married

me

told

he

.

to

work

.

la

-

li

.



-pa ,

li

,

.

di -m

-m

married got

té -

fin

-

m



.

,

agree

I

me



ravay épi mwê kouté mwê marié Apré marié sèlmâ kòm vêt goud Avèk vệt goud pou

of

to

I

to

' ve s

, I' for

I



:

.”

I



? ”

to

consult with my

to

.

to

I

to

:

.”

with my

and consulted

My

he

he

You

He told

gourdes

I

he

't

90 to

50

leather

gourdes

tan

,

worth

my wife

gave

,

to

[? ]

gourdes

it

.

no

paid

,

agree father wouldn attention sent me 150 gourdes With the 150 gourdes bought gourdes and spent bought fatten Afterwards

father

do



-

me

am

as to

.



Fen

I

m -

pou

came

of

.

po

Uncle

to to

l-

went down uncle

my

find out what start the work

10

,

-

-

m

mwê

-

m

bay madâm

.

sa

-

-

-

m

tânê épi bézwê

have

for him

a

.

m

-

la



li





sêkât goud mwê Avèk sêkât goud achté you kochô Apré âgrésé pou sêkât goud goud pou achté kat vêt dis

He

100

it .

, .

-

sa

pa

asépté

,

-

li ak -

-

é

vlé

pa

Li

-m

papa mwê gadé

me

would

father

Papa voyé

him

uncle

to

la

to to

give

needed



said

:

house

me

vin

so

work She agreed Then the town went

should

môté

told

money

borrow

I

:

Fernand

my

the house

come for you lend memoney work He asked How much give you told him

-

-

was going

up

-l

valè

I

her the situation was bad , (and that ]

,

kônê

bézwê pou kômâsé travay

my wife , [and ]

called

,



ki fò l- di .

li

:

.”

pou

Mwê

I

money .

to

Li mâdé

di -m

?

ou

."

apa mwê

ap

vin

m

goud

prété

poucou

travay

-

-

sâ m

bâ -m

-a -

pou

-

“ “ W

ak -p -

mwê

pou

ba

mwê Kôbiê

lajâ

m

mwê désân

Li ”

,

Tôtô Fèn



. Épi

asépté

the visits of other people , I my and wife ate , and after it was used up , my father told me he had no more

pig .

Li

m -al kay tôtô mwê . Mwê di- l:

lavil ,

, 74

(MEMOIRS

received

.

Fènâ pou - m

travay .

l

mové , mwê pral

situasiôâ

mwê

mwê , mwê di kay tôtô prété lajâ pou -mwe -

madâm

. I

rélé

I

Mwê

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

to

AMERICAN

104

and

what

,

to

; I ,

and

get the

spent

a

I

.

her

sick

lot

order take care get better While

.

to

to in

in

to

a

.

, . I

was with

Dr

]

;

,

.

[ lit

she had

the fever

sent ]

to

)

she died

all

despite

.

finally

to

. , ( ill ,

and

,

ment

speech

]

power

of at

,

.

[

.

to

Claude come and examine her Dr Claude examined her and said she was seriously take her town the hospital When she ar rived the hospital she lost the to

for

,



vini

went

better she became better looking and plumper then she fell sick again with vomiting fever While she was

[

.

li

mouri

pèd

her She came

of

of

,

la

li

,

li

vin

-l

-l



,

Arivé lopital laparòl malgré tout médikamâ

, , -l

vin

-

l-

,

.

-v

m

li di . li lopital

of

,

vin

, li

-a

vomismâ Pâdâ avèk lafièv oyé chèché dòkté Klod kôsiltasiô Doktè Klod kôsiltasiô gravmâ malad pòté lavil

bit sickness doctor take care money cash

.

-



,

l- -

vini

pli bèl pli Pâdâ réfè épi vin malad âkò avèk lafièv

. li

, . -

la

kob

pou kapab swagné

gro



,

had

swagné réfè

li

,

chaché dòktè pou dépâsé âpil lajâ

li

Mwê

During that time she fell

you

. Li

al

m

, -a,



maladi

vin malad

li .

gro

- li

.

ever she needed

Pâdâ

treat

HAITIAN

CREOLE

105

for

HALL )

to

of

.

or

;

in

(

)

of

or

the Haitian counter Tiger are given first

.

)

]

I

say

't

doesn

Oh

Howdy

he he

(



.

my brother and

he

to

he I

's

he

,

:“ 's

you



, !”

's

what

,

brother ways once know my brother telling me doesn answer he well Bouqui said Brother give me

,

answer

the

but Do

[

",

,

't

answer

)

, (

a

;

he

a

"

:

howdy

,

.”

have there The zombie answer Oh once my brother telling me doesn answer take Bouqui went into the what find zombie attic and took some salted meat Every day that what Bouqui went didn

s

to

he '

's

the

't

to

]

(

,

.”

, he

he "

't

if

,

:

he

's

(

's

,

to he

.



,

? ”

is

't

for to a

to

]

to

-

li

.



li

,



:

di

-

â

meat The zombie she went into the attic the meat

.

she took

, ]

,

[

.” I'm

; of

:



to

a

't

and

.

,

,

in

,

."

piece

answer

didn

]

li

,

li

sa

fouré

you

[



, . : ”

-

a

li



tân pièj

to

-pa

li la

-

répôn

li



di -

li

-



,



-

.

sé -

-

-j

Every

doesn

me

galata

mâjé zôbi dlo pou zôbi kônê sous pou ibiè Kou Boukinèt

Bouquinette

zombie house but said thing you ask the zombie

prâ pralé chaché

Zôbi

viân



li

,



pa di li alé

.”

alé

fini

Mwê

wife his house and he told was taking her the

answer know that he says yes Bouqinette went fact When she arrived she was hungry and she hungry give said the zombie

zôbi

mwê moso

,

.

viân

grâgou

Lò , li

répôn

-

pa

grâgou

li li

,

rivé

, li

ou

di

ou

, si

ni

kay zôbi mê mênê Tou répôn mâdé zôbi kônê wi Boukinèt éfè

him

He went



sa

Boukinèt

l-a

di

li, li , li

Li

alé lakay

,

's.

,



:

't

ba

at

-

pa

-

? ”

!"

zombie One day Good this can be your wife brother where The zombie didn answer Ah once my telling brother doesn answer bring Bouquinette give her me and did Bouqui said

,

sa ka



sé -





ou

A

di

mwê mênê Boukinèt

pou madâm

-

li

alé

Zôbi kôpè mwê

"

, li

répôn

-

pa

. . ,

zôbi You jou Bouki kôpè koté madâm répôn you fwa

pa

Bouki

di :

jou

sa

Chak

sé -

.

.”

' 's I t

prâ viân

brother

didn

, .“

li

,

salé .

prâ

.”

jwên

zôbi

Howdy

zombie

?

-

",

!”

.”

!”

bâ li



la

mwê

galata

-

Bouki âtré

sa

di

“ A



répôn

li

.

-pa -pa :“

,

sa

-

di li

pa

li ou di

,

?

li

“ A

Bôjou kôpè kôpè mwê kônê bout mwê you fwa répôn mwê biê Bouki Kôpè mwê Zôbi you fwa kôpè mwè répôn répôn

said

't

al

k



di



di :

li

-pa

.

-rpa

,

li

li

-ap , . ] fè

k

zôbi bôjou

There was Bouqui one day out walking place where passed saw zombie making ropes and

!”

(B

Bouqui

and

prô Vwala Bouki you jou pasé you koté wè zôbi Bôjou kôpè kòd kôpè mwê épôn Mwê

nette mênê

't

,

Zombie

-

ouqui

.

1

6

. 21 .

.

,

of

.

of

Bouqui and Malice their interest variants Tales parts Brer Rabbit and Brer Fox Anansi and and then other tales Bouqui and Malice Stories

,

as

as -

in

in

or

6 . 2. Folk Tales . These stories were the most part dictated Métraux his assistants by informants near Marbial Some them are the subject matter same those printed SCT they are reproduced here for

When

she

go

she

it

;

to

,

he

't

.

in

off

.

:

,

I'm up

,

,

into the attic he

he

;



Bou

saw

its

big brightly

him

He yelled

.

at

's

get

to

,

.

it

in

going

he

as

]

appeared

Hoy Look how the scoundrel killed my child now big post He took

quilia

he .

,

yelled

Bouqui Bou

, ,

, ,

,

lisse

ran

Bouquissine

up

Bouquicia

he

he

]

in

his courtyard

him

was nearly arrived “

it

behind the zombie away hurried The

behind

left

when

;

and

's ,

a

!”

,

,

zombie

[

with

and then

head

he

li

Howdy brother something ran appeared and quinette head with shining eyes looking

he let

.

a

-

Bouki rivé

tou

The next

Bouqui

early

go

,

-

,

galata

grêpé galata



kouri môté

!”

,

ap

-

,

-

k

,

Boukisin Boukilia môté galata mê kôpè zôbi vini pou dévoré nou Madâ Bouki pitit Bouki tout moun

and put morning

zom

her head

!

li

lakou Boukisia

,

,

Boukilis

-

li

,

pré rivé



li,

li

, .

li

li

kouri

rélé Boukilis “

li, li

,

kouri



ral

épi

she fell into the

The zombie cut the attic

trap

go

Li

!"



-

touyé pitit mwê nô lagé dèyè tèt zôbi kité Zôbi kité dèyè

prâ you grâ poto

her calabash

bie

ran

koumâ

finished

get water

in

ap

-

gadé

!



:

gadé

,

said she would prepare food the zombie didn answer but the zombie knew was the spring that had set his trap for game As Bouquinette dipped

had

's



li



-

ak

tèt

li

li

,

-g

-

biê kléré

Roy

kouri



(MEMOIRS , 74

ASSOCIATION



. “

, :

-

,



,



Li

rélé

a

li .

salopri

grâ

Bôjou

li

mété

matê nè Bouki parèt kôpè mwê pralé prâ kichoy alata kou parèt môté Boukinèt

Dêmê

galata

[

nâ -pièj zôbi . Zôbi

nâ -

tèt

li tôbé li

li ,

kalbas

koupé

ANTHROPOLOGICAL



AMERICAN

106

,

's

to

's

he

,

a

let

it

he

!,

, [

;

he ]

.

go

and

when

said

the roof

the house

.

the zombie

I

standing

of

a

But

find

beam

he

!,

from



,

the attic

The zombie

another

dropping all the planks had the people hang on he

finished

he

;

myself

burdened

,

a

.

kept standing Bouqui Oh what mess brother here ,

had

head

's let

the he

on

,

;

the

zombie

kept standing the zombie kept

:

.”

-a

,

.

ak

zombie stood there under Bouqui took attic waiting plank wham wham fall

li la

-



.

A

-a

di : nâ -

-





pân moun fétay kay you trêg zôbi kâpé Bouki Ala traka kôpè mê salopri mwê trouvé mwê âtravé

li

plâch galata

,

tèt zôbi Zôbi kâpé zôbi kâpé fini lagé

arrived too

the

into the attic

Well

of

li , -

li

,

vip

li

vip

ba

, . , lò

lòt , sou

li

apé

galata

yo

tout

-

la

,

lagé

lagé you

â



with

this

During this time Bouqui smallest

's

,

-

piti pitit Bouki

ya

-pi



-

Pâdâ



.”

scoundrel

,

li

,

tân

plâch

Bouqui

when

.

attic

climbed

zôbi kâpé Bouki prâ you

,

's

to

; ,

us

!"up

's

,

into the attic here coming Brother Zombie who eat Bouqui wife Bouqui chil dren everybody ran climb into the

HAITIAN CREOLE

go

!

go ,

let

he

.”

my .”go

,

I'

to

going

m

hand hurts me

let



:

!

, .

bam broke her neck Daddy Later Bouquicia said

,

Li



.”



lagé

ap

-

,

m

mê mwê mwê

,

- di :

ta

Pi fè

mwê mal

Papa

pip

see

let

I can 't [hold on ) any more .” Bouqui answered : “ Well then , what the scoundrel will Bouquissine and the

zombie

Boukisia

: “ Daddy , I'm

said

tired out , to

!

li

zôbi

107

, Bouquissine ,

child

as

pip



lagé

Boukisin kasé kou

.

li

krap

li



va .fe

Boukisin di: “ Papa , mwê bouké , mwê pa -kapab âkò .” Bouki répôn : " É bê , lagé kò ou pou -wè sa salopri -ya

do so

HALL )



:

]

[

,

.

the

Bou

jam

."

a

in

m

I'

it,

resigned

]

Misfor

and

!

bip

broke her neck n

he d

] [

,

[

't

to

!

say

himself

, ,



,

, ,

Yes

ll

,

;

"

,

on

I'

m

let

I'

:



,

bigger than him Well myself fall him and then he bip he dropped onto the zombie the zombie pulled his body and bam ing

!

.

he

got

,

's

!

]

.

[

,

, !”

Bouqui

she fell

he ,

la

-pa té -

ki

- , ki ti

a



pa t- li -a -

li

adê

Then

!

"

:

ap

-l

!



lè -



-j

ravaj

she said

-

!"

Bouqui

.”

,

Finally

sa





-a

zôbi

t

tlè



si

pa

. té -

,

li li

-

chaché bwa

alé

,

, li .

-

a

di

li

-

m

li



li

li,

-

,

-

li

,



,

di :

!

li : “

li

,

di li

,

,

-

-

li

A

-

zombie qui said

bam



tâ li,





,

li

pa

li

.

li

more tune

épi krap zôbi zôbi ralé kasé kou Bouki Dépi yoû Bouki akò Bouki sou

,

Bouki Wi fout mwê âtravé lafê Bouki rezîyé Bô agé mwê gro nèg pasé misié épi bip lagé kò mwê sou

Pâdâ

go

She let and the zombie bam broke her neck During this time Bou Bouqui quilia wife tired from continually changing hands and finally she couldn hold out any

li

zôbi krap kasé kou Boukilia madâm Bouki châjé mê châjé mê bouké lafê Bouqui Malè kapab âkò Épi tôbé bip zôbi krap kasé kou lagé

.

'

little Bouqui who had gone

there

when

the garden

look

who wasn was making

't

in

for wood

to t

a

if

't

,

on

's

he

broke Bouqui neck From that there wouldn have been any Bouqui any more there hadn been

time

the zombie

,

,

,

-

,

how

both when

we

re

and when

Malice

'



you

,

carry

Oh

.”

on

to

be

,

.” 're

going

only you

return

he

,

,

When Bouqui had spoken like that called his wife before Malice

he

:

li

rélé

di

,

sa

li

li

ing

, kô -

ni

d



ni

é

we

Bouki fini palé dévâ Malis

Madâm

prayer meeting your back

Bouqui answered glad

I'

kôtâ

-

m



al -

- , ap

-

n



ni

,

ou

Malis

.”

tounê

Le

m

:

répôn

pòté

n

- ap - -ap

Bouki

“ O

carry me

'll 're

to

,

a

-m

.

-

ap

-

-

,

ou .”

going

to

nou

pòté

"

chè

sèlmâ

,

Bouki mô

Bouqui and Malice had never been nor had they been friends either One day Malice said Bou qui Bouqui my dear fellow we enemies

:

,

ni

.]

jâm

.

jou

plis

,



:

Bouki

lélmi You

zâmi

you priè

do

-

sou

t- -

jâmak

di t-

pralé

Saddle Horse

Malis

w

[

Malis

nâ -

-pa

yo

Bouki

nô -pa

Bouqui As

.

2

.

that havoc

't

'll , .

it

,

a

'll

,

,

he

got

on

.

his back spurs the prayer his

,

and

, [

stood

saddled

a

ever

Bouqui how cay under ,

.

,

Malice had

a

When they arrived good time for himself

all

.

-

â

ba

li .

,

Lè rivé Malis bâboché kôt you Bouki mêm kâpé tou sélé pié kaimit

,

yo

.

to

and they set out meeting

go

Bouqui with

pricked

to

-

.

the hot water

you

his mouth

Malice

-a

priè

alé

the way

burn

When Bouqui had finished talking put the bridle Malice saddled him in

do li

ni

li, ,

épi

zéprô

nâ -

yo

pati pou

môté sou

ak - li

nâ -

bouch

Malis piké Bouki -

. yo li

mété brid

sélé

li,



Bouki fini palé Malis

so on

out

won

he

boulè

cho

kettle , with water put there big noise When come you hear put the kettle you the fire you

(it )

gro difé

.”

pou

ou

you

sou

]

dlo

-a -



-a -

w

sòti

ou ."

- - tâdé

w a

chodiè

-a

mété

w

,

- -vini

m ap

-a

la . Lè

bri

, mété li

dlo

'

fill

lavé gro chodiè -a , plê li

difé,

gro

'

I

lime you

Alò swa

to her : “ Wife , I m going to take trip ; when I come back I ll bring something for us to cook . Then in the evening, light a big fire , wash the big said

a

of

kuit .

-pòté

'll

-

m ap

,

- - tounê

nou

you rout , lè you bagay pou

mwê pral fè

Madâm

m ap

-pa



(MEMOIRS , 74

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

get

AMERICAN

108

; , :

of

he

.

ran

,

of

.”

.

a

it

to

on

,

to

on

,

house

ready

.

] to

all

casting

he

, ,

[

he

he of

He

Malice into

was Bouqui who fell into the boiling water

.

of it if

as

were

his

, it. on

.

water was

.

]

[

like that that Bouqui died who had been

to

's he

,

Malice

court

daughter for some days also loved the king spoil Bouqui decided

's 's .

It

fi

ti -

Sa

li . l-

sa

-

té -

t-

daughter

li

.

was Bouqui

ing the king

l-

-

ki



.]

s

It '

.

sa



-a

but

As

kô -

.

-a

Sé -

- ( té -

.

3

fi

the kettle

kettle

Bouki mouri Malice Rides Bouqui lign apé Bouki dépi jou rwa kèk Kòm Malis rêmê prâ désiziô pou gaté rwa tou pasé sou afè Bouki pou

and

thought Malice kept

was still his back and running When got

it,

-

chodiè

meat

a

he

dlo



flew

Bouqui however

did

ni , .

dâ -

-

la

do

-

li



.

té -

-a

dlo

tôbé



ap

-

ki

l-

Bouki bouyi

tou paré

Malis

lagé

rivé

Li

Malis kôtinié kouri kôprâm

chodiè

si

kòm

li

,

sé - fè

lakay

li,

li

mêm

sou

clung

Bouki

a

piece

over the road

toujou

he

,

.

-

ve

I'

,

found piece

meat Malice made Bouqui gallop for himself When found branch which was hanging found

he

,

li ki

li

-

Wife ve

:

-ap

.

l-

â

-

-

li .

maré

Towards midnight they came back Malice gave Bouqui two big kicks with the spurs Bouqui After left the prayer meeting called

I'

,

-a

,



volé sou

ak -

té -p

chémê

li

li

âdié

.

li

.”



,

.

li

t-

,

Vè minui rétounê Malis bay Bouki dé gro kou zéprô Bouki kouri Dépi kité priè rélé Madâm mwê jwen you viân mwê jwên you viân Malis galopé Bouki kôt Lè jwên you brâch bwa



yo

.

mite tree

he

't

I

he to

,

it '

can

[? ]



:

do

,

Bouqui who you especially guerite that was

),

,

him

But knows anything

everyone

fellow

(

did

he an

).

would like

told

.

dear

and was dying for

notice that Mar the girl name doesn hate the young man Malice answered And show you

)

.”

I

,

if



:

have mounted Bouqui just like my horse told him Well my dear

,

that

bridled

,

in

that Among

to

I

,

.

's

,

truth well the girl yours other things invite you

big

a

you

see

I

do

:



The king

? ”

,

saddled

all

at

's

I

;

King

I

é

,

how

the girl and how marry her The king

fellow

.

him

(

:

“ A

di -l , sa



showed

my

her

so

't

ou



-

m

,

ou

,

(

ap



li

-

rétounê

asked

,

-

“ É

grå bâboch babako mwê sémên prochên Malis rémèsié rwa épi

-

)

a .”

vré mwê êvité

as to surpass him [ in What Malice was the king for audience

business

affections

,

fiy di - a

-pa

-

M

-

m

.

: )

.

-

ou a

nâ fiy -

-

Âtròt

gro

avèk sèvis pale

mwê wè

pour

ou

. . .

si

mô chè , -

pa

,

? ”

tâkou

ou



mwê môté Bouki sélé bride chwal mwê Rwa

rwa



fi a

( sé - -



, .”

répôn

rémaké

rayi msié

si

,

ba -a

-

ou

sutou

Magrit tou Malis

kênê kapab

moun

sou

pou





âgnê

biệ

tou

chè

- l: - ké fè sé , du

.

-t

-l

ki mô - a -

Mê Bouki

109

. . . , if

,

he

fè , li mâdé Rwa you lodiâs épi li fè - l kônê jâ l-apé -mouri pou épi jâl vlé marié avè Rwa

Malis

CREOLE

for

HAITIAN

HALL ]

)

."

I'

m

in

(

-

barbecue big blow out with service holding next week the palace

Malice thanked the king and went to

of “

,

of

is

I

I

'll

we

,

go

They

. K .”

“ O

:

at

.

Malice

the immediately

well covered

get him

he so

person

,

sick to

a

of

)

neither made two nor three

pose

took

that when

would find under the blankets

.

,

they parted the party

of

the day came

Bouqui came him

]

[

and

to :

him

,

am

I

.

you must

.”

.”

's

lit .

[

li li,

When

king his

“ O

if

;

,

in

me You know that the palace when feel

and wherever

"

.

l: li

-l

.

.

? ”

ou

-

â

biê kouvri dra Bouki gêgnê kôpè Malis

:

to

to

;

like

Malis

sa

-a

,

, ka -

rivé

prâ pòz malad pasé prâ jwên

di -

ba

Bouki

rwa

the

But

that

be there too Malice answered Well Brother Bouqui Bouqui said gether

séparé

li

ni fèt



ni



fè Lò

-

sé - pa

pou

twa

he

,

he

to

.

,

't

taken you with

come and

shook hands jou

tell you

I

:

forgot

simply

go

ou

di -l

Bouki

tried

Brother Malice the guest honor myself since yesterday the king hadn told you that would have

,

-m

-a



la lò

-a

ou

- nâ yé ,

yo

,

.”

“ É

.” ni : m

al

Yo av -

n

âsâm

bay lamê

Oké

arrived

it,

di

pa . té -

si

;

-

m

t-

,

.”

,

Bouki

biê kôpè

soon

Bouqui give him the news barbecue Bouqui said him see

I

di .

-a

té -

,

m

sé -

-l



:

-

d



-

sa

,

épi tout koté répôn

Malis

tou

Ou

as

ak

li

,

ba

l-

babako Mê blié blié kôpè Malis prémié êvité

di -l

, ,

sa

ou

-

ou sé

chaché wè

nouvèl

ayè mêm rwa mwê apé mênê avè palè âtré sòti

vlé

-

m

pou

mwê

kônê



rivé

li

-

A

pên

Bouki Bouki

As .

back

ANTHROPOLOGICAL

ASSOCIATION

Bouqui said

bad ,

"

rwa

do, my dear man ?” you expect me What chap resign dear we have



chè

"

'I

.”

-

,

sa

pa

di

"

M

di

ou

,

selves

my

,

_

,

chè

-

rwa





,

-

,

,



" Sa ou mwê pou nou rézigné nou

. . .

vlé

mô-chè ?”

do

sé -pou -sa ou vlé fè ,

to

k -ap - tân nou ka -rwa , sa rèd pou - m pa -kapab alé. ” “ Kôpè Malis o , pa - di sa , mô- chè,

wab . . . I with fever . . . OW . . . ow . . . ow . . . what good food is awaiting us at the king 's, it 's tough that I can 't go . ” “ Brother Malice, don ' t say that , my dear fellow , what do you want to

our

tell you not

say that

my dear

,

gê bộ mâjé



to

...

way

very

passed the whole night

.

...

Malice ?”

ow ”

m -pasé tout lâ -nuit ak - lafièv

74

, what ' s the

Oh

dear fellow , it 's

my

, , do ,

... way

matter with “ Ah . . .

:"

him

ow

rwa

...

mêm,

pa - bô

sa

ow

mô- chè,

. ..



“ A

to

,

(MEMOIRS

you , Brother

to

AMERICAN

110

d

,

to

him

sold

.”

of

,

he

up

.

to

,

I'

d

,

back

put my

to

for

. . .

seated be

,

't

]

(y

our

brother

? ”

!

,

do

. . . on

dropped

well me

wasn

you were willing

saddle

he

's

neck

wham you feel

I

Ah



What



If

-

S

sou

.”

m

t

mwê mété sèl mwê alèz

do ou ,

. . .

pa

-

m

,

té frè - ?"

ou

Sa

-t -a- “ -a A - vlé . -pi ..

chita

to

on

up

on

Bouqui

the ground

biê

get

.”

" let

tè li ,

-

a

li

kò a-l li

,

li

,

-

!

climb his back Malice but hardly had he got set

him

climbed tled

sâti

grab hold

Let me try Bouqui helped Malice

môté

pên

you could

you

."

d

,

carry

I'

'

.”

m

-

if



-m

me

séyé

do li .

-

Well

. . .

té -

ou

. . . si

kroké

kapab

ou .”

É

t-a -p “



"

try

I I'

lot

.” òté

m

"

biê

Bouki édé Malis lévé lésé Malis môté mê lagé êstalé sou kou Bouki vip

here

mount him but you know the other day

jou

sou

If

"

ta -

mwề vấn

my horse was ,

tone

éséyé

ni

-1

mộté

ou





chwal mwê

m

té la ,

Si ,

."

fellow

more

I .”

he

]

[

,

I'

.

have

a

me pass

d

let

]

to

? ”

(

;

you

any harm

that

,

if

see

neck

feel good

in

't

don

'd

be

grab hold

you

.”

to

d

I

and

.

do

you feel now

really beginning

But better my bridle over your “

,

sa

-

kôpè Malis

,

.”

,

I' Im'

"

-





-t -a nâ - pi -

m

wi .

How

place

wè mal

Bouqui

saddled him

of

.

? ”

ou bô



pasé brid mwê kou koté pou mwê kêbé nâ

Mwê



t

-a -

-

-m

kité

atò

?

"

then

Malice

-l

li

môté

ou

ou



sâti

koûmâsé

mwê



Bouki

mounted

t- a

ou ou si " ." , ou M



Ki

sélé

,

Malis

't if

But had but known that why didn you tell me that once Put on

pa

té -



it

-l

-

,

m

pou

ou

Mété

kôn

.” ki

sa

you fwa

?

m

sa

di - “



té -

comfortable

,

put it

on

;

back

him

again

of .

you

him

got back

on

)

Well

's

off

thoroughly

he

put the bridle

had

. . .

-

,

on

Time ' s passing ." Bouqui Malice got down

...

(

.

the force

know

feel my feet uncomfortable without spurs didn tell you you don hesitant with me you need Hurry you should finish started

,

;

up

!”

.. .

.

a

,

'

re

'll

:

, “[ If ]

to

,



.”

go

.

up

a

him

's

,

],

to

. . . . . he

!

!

"

to

!

.

be

to

to

us it

be to

?

, for

for ourselves

.”

to

like

able

,

witness

both

that

sides

scene

the

the

of

, on

arrived found

they

a

street

to

guests standing

they

:

courtyard

at

,

When

palace

the

two ] .

to

gallop footed horse doing his best belly Everybody held their sides laughing dis When Malice for

[ lit .

-

Do

li .

pfft

.



-

yo

, )

,

get food

. . .

sèn yo

-ap

, k

kêbé vât pou

sé -

a

plédé

has

Bouqui went pfft Malice spurred Malice whipped Bouqui went

. . .

. . yo .

.. .

dé -

pié

désân bravo molmèk bat bravo âpil pou alè désélé vini yo

(

bò yo

,

dé -

Malis

sètadi mèstik

-p



ri .

.

galopé

rivé

jwên nou évité lari pou asisté

chwal Tout moun

nâ yo

:

sa a

you

Malis

pwèt



,

,

nâ -

lakou palè kâpé soulé

: do

to

Brother Malice my dear man burning

have time

Malis zéprô Bouki fwèt Bouki pwèt

? ”

.

. . .

!

he

, ,

that

farted

I' Ah , m

"

- -

.”

boulé

m

sa ,

-



fòk

sé -

,





-

pou nou

we

eat well my

Bouqui reared pfft pfft pfft me like What are you doing the whip

. . .

,

sa

m



kô -

-ap fè -

w

sa

sa

“ A

,

? ”

“ O

kôpè

jwên mâjé pou nou

chè

he

,

his

. . .

get something

Bouqui we must faster trot When they were nearly ready arrive then Malice there belly dug his spurs under Bouqui gave zing crack and began

that



still get

dear man

with

Malis

Brother

you think we eat Malice

,

-

still

got halfway

they

My

dear

.

pété

pwèt

't

,

,

-

kou

. . .

you

When

said

Malice something to

mô - :

. . .

,

biê



-pi yo â

msié voltijé !

!

!

ou

,

o

? ”

. .. . . .

pwèt pwèt

vât Bouki

pasé

Bouki

fwèt

. t. .

zéprô

li

épi

prèt pou rivé ba

-

.

Malis fouré

tiouk

li

atò



vit . é

,

-

sé -

koûmâsé troté

Bouki

Bouqui

to

-

-

n -a

, -a -

“ N

pou maché

chè

they left

[ lit



yo

. .



di :

yo

li

ni ,

fin

pasé zéprô mâdé difikilté épi Bouki asépté pati Kâ rivé mwatié rout Bouki Mô chè kôpè Malis jwên mâjé toujou Malis kwè jwên mâjé toujou

on



Malis

If . . .

,

now

around fwèt

' ' ve t

. . be .

I

't

Ah

to



hurry we fool find any food left we won When Malice had finished putting whip Bou spurs asked for qui agreed without difficulty and then

,

-

-

p

ou

nô !”

. . .

Si

sé -

, vit



nou

apé jwên mâjé âkò

up

-pa

ou

ou

di

.

, ..

fini

mizé nou

bézwê

pou

koûmâsé nô ,

jènê avè

vit

. . .

ou -pa

.”

I

-

. . . Put it

Brother Malice on

habit

.”

-

Fè m m , -pi

sâti

zéprô



m

111

when

âkò

m

ou

,

li

sou

kônê labitud

mêm

“ A

-pié“

. . .

Atò jênê

Bouki , li bride -1

sou - do

rémôté

li

Malis disân biệ bridé

ap - pasé . ”

. . . Lè



nô , mété

. . . Mété

CREOLE

he

HAITIAN

HALL )

him

[ lit .

him

,

,

,

,

ve

I'

s

it '

,

a

-

to

finished

he

celebrate

the

,

had

had

,

,

to

.

of

night

fellow

on

lasted poor

.

all

he

, in

. . .

,

which

son

her officially

dance

work

But

when

,

long time paying any attention

he

to

stayed

he

't

and weren

fool

,

But Bouqui must have been

a

,

he (

,

him went out and when had broken the rope with which they had tied him then ran away

,

rwa

I' ll

-

big

a

.

When

my

Marguerite

called

betrothed

they

saw

the

spec such you cer

get meanwhile started pile potato peelings he the

yo

-

l

pédi

's

to

he

.”



.

pa

ki . fè -

sa

that was what made him lose both daugh food and party and the king

's

,

-a

fi

-

ni sé

, ,

Bouki sòt bâboch

ni

A

ni

fòk

mâjé

witnessed

Bouqui however

-

la

-

yo

,

.

li

sòt

li pi

,

li

li

, -

-l -l

prâ rété biê lôtâ sòti kasé kòd épi sové maré

,

.

,

to

Then

]

[ po té -

,

,

-p

ak

yo l

té - ka kô



five years

dear fellow tainly deserve become

engagement

il



:

!

ve

My

tacle

threw

débrouyé

,

to

a

him

.

. . .

In

first time

Malice

kômâsé âtré patat Mê

in

a

of

As

on

's

the twenty

he to

.

ploma

been governing this country

I'

.

ou

-a

ak - li ou

,

.”

among The king said him My dear man since other things you showed me that what you said give you your di was true

ments

and

pòv

the gentleman

himself they carried him their heads take him before the king They held fine reception especially for The king the king daughter wife the king everyone fell making him compli

law

Bouki mêm

had

tree then they potato skins

.

yo



sa

ou

-g -

m

di - -

:

di -l

ba

-l

bucket

they

when

for Malice

.

.

,

li

,

-

m

-a

. - .. fi

ofisièlmâ pété you grâ bal diré tout lânwit

li

,

fini

fiâsay

Épi

ki

pou fété

parèy

asisté

mwê



vin

fiâsé

l-

.



diplom

ouvèné péi

dévâ mérité

chè

mérité pou rélé Magrit

Malis

m





fwa

li

.

spektak

, - -

-p

-

â

rémié

pou



!

-a

sêk

vên

la



-

m

vré

Dépi sé

fi

, ou

.

kôplimâ dépi

Rwa

spésialmâ

rwa tout moun tôbé Rwa âtròt Mô mwê wè

. . .

-l



rwa

,

chè

pou

-

bèl résépsiô madâm

you

front

.

.

-

-l

pou mênê dévâ rwa



pòté

tèt

sou



a -

mém

Yo

Malis

ou

Kât

sé -

set

big

finished

).

Bouqui; tying

unsaddled

to

po

)

bokit

gro

.

bwa épi yo patat dévâ msié .

mounted , big bravoes (that is to say they applauded very much ) for him . The servants in the palace came, they

a

mété you

for

fini maré msié nâ- you pié

yo

to a

Bouki, lò

(MEMOIRS , 74

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

of

AMERICAN

to

112

Lando

,

King

's

The

he

With

much that every day

loved

it

In

Love

Child Bouqui loved Lando so

Lâdo tèlmâ Lâdo bèl

litani

Bouqui

.



.

Bouki sé -

rêmê

sèl

Rwa



jou

Pitit :

chak

s -ô

,

rêmê Lâdo

Rêmê

li

.

4

.

ter

Bouki

was

HAITIAN CREOLE

Lando is a beautiful is a little angel. ” In the

didn

any speech

't

know

yet

, "

of

,

for

of

off

to a

, it

, ,

a

't is

,

see

he

.

't

he

, ,

didn

and he

to

]

[

he ,

ate

he

,

's

he

house

he

all

byto

his affairs

Bouqui

,

he

he

everything did like that during five had

On

;

.

't

so

,

to

to

] he

up

,

.

hungry

he

, him ,

sòti

Little Malice was

he

l-

li



volè

when finish

days the sixth day however met Little Malice going his house and started tell him how things were bad with was

, [

-pa

li yô

gêgnê

]

,

[

a

on

, li, li ki bô

sêk

found

.

sa

-

,

touni

volé tou



komâ afè

li

-

-a



li

tou

li

mêm

everything

,

ki t- sis , -ap ki jou

passed

jou

môté kay

ti -

,

li

li li

grâgou

diré

outside

li

, ti -

sa



ki

.

sa li

tou

li

, sa

kô -

kòm

One day

fini

pou

déò

l , -



jou

ak -



Malis

râkôtré Malis tâmê rakôté amizé

he

,

;

.

's

to

,

,

to

at ]

is

,

to

(

't

listen

kept shady character was and making little visits Lando se cretly Malice wouldn know

tout bagay pasé kay Bouki mâjé gêgnê tout bagay Jou

." I'd

[ he ] to

to

a



:

it on

was

a

li .

ti -

lot work dissuade Uncle get his mind order the girl since beautiful girl who has money too

who began

boot like Lando can love man ugly and who who without any thing all like Uncle But Uncle

.

-

pa

,

-

-

time

Malice

didn

jwên

her

found

was quite natural took Lando house From that

in





sé -

vizit

movè zafè kôtinié Lâdo chat pou Malis kônê

â

nèg

kou Nôk épi nèg

wè tâ -

,

pa rân -

li

,

tâdé



ki

fi

di -



li

-

-pa yô

li -pa - ,

ki

Mê Nôk

lajâ âkò

rêmê

tou

-a

ki lè

.

-

s ô

,

fi a -

é

âyê

lidé

wété

kapab

Lâdo

sa

,

sé -

,

-

li

,

lèd

tâkou

bèl

question Uncle but this Lando yours must be beautiful person

,

that Malice



dékôséyé Nôk piské



like you introduce me Uncle was only too glad

pou

,

,



.

to

make her Malice however day who heard every Lando finally Lando asked this little

rêmê mwê kônésâs Nôk trò kôtâ trouvé ké tou natirèl mênê Malis kay Lâdo Dépi pakèt afè pou Malis tou tâmê sou

to

he

:“

,

-

,

yo

-a

ou

ak - t .li -a

,

litany

, Lando



,



,

:



dwé

ou -

mêm

sa

tâdé chak pozé Lâdo fini Nôk mê Lâdo bèl moun mwê

,

“ ti -

késiô

-pa jou

ki

mêm

” sa -a yô “ “ yô

Malis Lâdo

113

a single

person end

moun , Lâdo sé-ti- zâj.” O -bou - d -kôt li pa -kônê kilès mo pou - li ba li âkò .

"

HALL ]

he by

he

a

,

was stark naked there was thief who was amusing himself stealing everything had when

kòm

vlé

;

in If

"

ve

,

' :

to

all

him

if

a

to

me

said

that they terrific big dinner as

re

'

vited

you go

I

to

't

ll

,

take you but remember got any horse that haven Uncle quickly answered that he

want

I I, '

li

.”

-



ti -

Malis

yô li



vit

chwal pou mwê alé kapab sèvi

",

-

,

ou sa

.

had gone out Little Malice hungry you

on

-

si kô

,

m

,

ap

-

-

ou

sôjé

-

ou

Si

"

li :

-



-pa

Nôk répôn chwal Mê

.

grâgou

kokên chên dinê mênê mê

ti -

m

ké -

mwê

nâ di

Ti -

êvité

a - m

yo vlé

Malis

réfizé , mê ti-Malis wè ké li nâ -tèt jwèt li , li désidé mèt kouvè li avâ

Malice

acted

grâgou kêbé li .

wanted

to

could

that

saw

mind

in

decided

make

to

set his

to

.

m

:

; I "I '

if

to he

;

ll

his to

I'

't

,

all

'

i( , 't .e. he ." 't

he .

't

in

isn

he

,

to

,

to

;

]

as ); he [

do

say

of

't

,

because

' at t

,

go

. . to

on

to

that subject with Lando all Bouqui Mayi was going stay there But the very day for them to

-

Then

stopped

the barbecue that Mal Uncle for himself had suggested

ice

to

,

the barbecue

he



,

li

hear

Uncle

Malice was almost he couldn ask get that and he couldn

himself

di

,

a

t-

Malis vini

kab

Lando

that she preferred words from the lips

onto

, -fè li l-

ki

,

paské

saw

hasn

hungry

answered those

Uncle

razè biê kôtâ

kab kouté

torn

that thing into her face told her outright but that didn make Lando wanted Lando

li

li

,

-a

babako

get

can

smacked

go

li di

-

-y al

mêm

see

from

pants are completely anything eat Well when one day

, .

, ké fè

li -pa

-

-

.

fè -li

vlé

-pa -

,

a

he if

of

a

to

do

,

,

.

him

she

to

said Lando that wanted have barbecue things that would for her lot to



sa té

ki

l

ti -a -

yô li

si

fè - ké

. -

alé yo

-

-

a

Malis

pakèt bagay

li

li

di



yo

,

sa

-

ak li -pa

é

-a

, la .

vini sou bagay Bouki Mayi

jou pou

jou

kôbê lajâ pias twa âpil moun

-

ak

he

if

Uncle tell Lando that Uncle can make love shape All because away

to

tou

,

. -pa ,

di - sa li

-



té -

t

-

ava plézi Lâdo

mâdé

had

, he

her

li

figi

babako babako ké propozé Nôk pou

Lâdo

he him

he he s

li,

tèt

,

Lando

wè Lâdo sa

-

rêmê pâtalô

.

yô pa -

mâjé

li

a

l-

kab

Lâdo

tou

rété

as

, but Little Malice

make this plan

Nôk

Lâdo maché pou Lâdo répôn préféré tâdé paròl sila bouch Nôk mêm Alèkilé Malis prèské baré piské kab mâdé Nôk pou sila

somewhat

refuse

table before hunger seized He had another thing which passed through his mind going said to

sa a

-pa

kab

mézi Tout

sila

pou

sou

li, -l ,

bagay

Nôk nâ jou gê

li



.”

plaké

nâ -

ki fè

pa -â ké

li

chiré

plâ

Lâdo

-a -

m

, , li

li

fin

Lâdo paské Bô

m

-

ak

dékolé

grâgou

li

pasé



. lòt



m li - li ap di : Li di si “ gê

bagay

Mwê pwal

bagay

as his horse . But Little

serve

sport of



(MEMOIRS , 74

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

him

AMERICAN

114

Lando who but very happy asked him how much money that might cost Malice told her three hun might come dred gourdes because

,

]

displeased

;

up

to

find

to

that the found any horse

at

hadn

him

,

present

Malice went

told

't

and

]

,

Uncle

in

,

all

.

of

a

]

[

the meanwhile

he

ou

li

li

déja

Ou

people lot Lando made her preparations and she was waiting for Malice

with

[

-pa

jwên

di :“

mwê

-pa

.

Nôk répôn

tân

li,

mêm

-l -yé a

ké â

tou

,

-

toujou

Malis

jouk kou

râs di -

li

chwal nâ

jwên

pâdâstâ

li

,

Nôk

di

;

Malis

tout préparasiô



Lâdo

l al -ap

,

he

;

't

wasn

[

.

,

would give her pleasure

115

all .

mwe ? "

'



:

I

't

to "

,

I

be

to

.

of

,

set

is

is

at ,

]

to [ ?

all

feel

't

didn

at

[

he

,

to

] to

.”

, ,

,

without but Uncle Bou

spurs

;

.

he

't

on

of

put

could

Thereupon

, ,

he

.

tire himself out anything wanted

needn

him

]

he

, at ] he he

.

,

).

Malice ,

Uncle firmly come and see displèased

,

was

the next day Malice

married

,

I

a

. ]

[

's

that what went see and they gave me kick and sent me

;

Lando

(

,

on

to

him

was

to

]

Lando

When

courtyard he

's

he

(

.

fiancé

and

[

he

]

[

,

dismounted tied and called Lando

her

]

,

,

.

he

he

spur

Lando where

't

so

When was arrive made Uncle woozy

ready

[ did

's

house

much came into didn know

on

wanted

with the guided him

him

he

to

where

, lit .

then

Lando

[

( or ]



-

under

from

climbed

to

,

,

zou zou

spurs

had

kick with the then when quit and Malice a

!; he

.

After

gave Uncle spurs ouap from Uncle lay down

went

he

,

on

his spurs

on

put

,

Little Malice went back into the bush put and the bridle saddle

he

't

qui didn understand anything things He told Malice

those

he all

;

,

without

nearly

isit

-m

saddle

at he

, ,

-

pié

yo

ak

kou

t-

m

ba -



yo

,

t. al -



sa m

lé sé - -

voyé

say that

comfortable without bridle

"

li

li .

,

li

, .

-

,

li

lakou Lâdo kônê Malis maré Nôk biể maré rélé êdispozé Lâdo vin wè fiâsé Lâdo lâdémê Malis marié Lâdo désân

plain

;



Lè li

li

-l

koté

but

]

-

sa -a





.

li

zéprô

-pa

, li

li

,

,

li

-a

sa

-a

li

-



Nôk âtré

zouzou

dirijé

pwè rivé kay Lâdo

tâ k

gaga

Malis

ba

,

li

.

li



vlé

kité

dépi

Nôk

sou

dépi

,

,

,

li

lagé

âba zéprô

pié

wap



Nôk

pasé

zéprô

,



.

-l

pasé

li

Dépi

zéprô

out immedi after they were under Brother Malice began com

way

[

pa

di

ti -

li

,

a

sa

-

li

, .

li

sa li

bézwê fatigé mèt mété tou vlé Nâ tou Malis râtré nâ rajé mété brid sèl mét

where

the house

They

fiancée

,

ap

-

-

,

Bouki Malis

taken

understand why Malice be give this caution Uncle Where

on



,





tou

brid

Li

.yo

sa

li

,

nâ -

-

tou

mê Nôk

pa

-

di ap -

,

yo

sâ -pa

, li



sèl kôprâ âgnê sâ

alèz

zéprô

mount you you must be

let yourself

the barbecue

pati mê dépi your chémê diately kôpè Malis kômâsé plêyê sâti

m

I'

gins

able

,

, -

sa a

, - . ”



,

If

.

-

ki ,

m

la

ki

-ayé

-jou a

"

-

wish

koté vlé kôprân pou tout moun Malis kômâsé bay prigad Nôk kay Koté babako fiâsé Jou

he



,

ou

kapab kité kôdi

pou sa nâ -

mwê môté

pou

ou

Si



?

mount me

re

Uncle answered You you you still joking didn tell could

,

W- a -môté

CREOLE him

HAITIAN

]

HALL

he

Uncle had

,

and

the best clothes

]

Sunday

, [

was on

,

li



Voilà

Bouqui put

a

.]

,

-

bèl rad

Nôk

gêyê

! It

té -

you dimâch



Bouki mété

,

,

,

Vwala

-pi sé -

(

.

5

here

Bouqui Malice and Monkey

,

jar

!

,

It

.

't .

if

de he

he

,

.

to

he

[

,

to

he

At

it

]

,

.

set

.

a

at

;

he

,

of

,

, a

he

he

up

oh

oh

a

!-

in

,

,

:

]

[

as

? "

,

Oh

's

't

it

a

isn

,

,

oh

;

,

he

a

a

so

"

,



answer

it do , (

.”

to

:

he

? ”

an it

;

Bou

:

earth

Then Uncle

"

he

by ,

he

He was

Howdy

Brother

his tail

]

to

out

of

't

he

get him

him

Uncle Bouqui told

the give

it

do

,

to

,

would grab and get Brother Monkey who little innocent hastened the hole

,

hole

to 't , .”

way for

him

,

,

I'

ll

's , it

something me yes for me now return the favor you one day Brother Monkey said he couldn didn see any

,

Monkey

eye

said

. he

-

hole have

big

came

the hole with said How

saw

which grows eyes qui hastened

him



.

li

as

. a

can

.

,

sé -

- di -kap ké -a

lighting

over heels into Monkey

eye inside

astonished

out was

p

tree

Brother

Now

single

Kôpè Makak

-

big

Bouqui heard ran and ran he lost his way he went

passing

ap maché diskité wè vwé ké



li

,

,

Diskité

,

nâ -

li

, li

li .

-



laké

sa



-

la

.

,

prâ moso êposib

saw

li, di :

ki

-

l-

.

, li li

a

-

li

,

fin

kôpè Makak

li

li



di

pou

déò

bole

of



yo

-a -

-l

Kôpè

soon

a

,

pa -m “

,

.” fè





,

.” pa

li -

pou

Nôk Bouki épi ava sòti

kêbé

-

li

Li ,

yô nâ

li, -la



trou

Kôpé

Kôpé Makak

jou

,

déò



li

li

li

,

-ap

-



â

-

sa

kapab

ba

Épi Nôk

Little Malice dis

flash

and said Bouqui With The Oh Burned Buttocks that the king been looking for for three days climbed

and fell head

Makak mêm inosâ pwésé rân Bouki sèvis dépi lôjé ké Nôk plotonê plotonê plotonê ké Makak mê

ti - -

nâ trou

sézi

répôn

wi

mwê

ou sé

,

mété

li

pwésé

-

li

pa

-

a

.”jé



latè mêm

rân

m di li di -



ak

-a

Bôjou

Bouki Makak

tèlmâ pousé

like

and ran until

"

di :

li “

gêgnê

plip

appeared

ni . li .

trou

day



-y

gro

pasé Vwala kôpè Makak vini grên wè trou dédâ Koumâ you trou kap

for

di :

yo

,

li

,

A

,

li

,

ou



töbé

l-

alé

,

li

li

,

? ”

rap rwa chaché dépi twa jou Nôk Bouki tân kouri kouri pèdi chémê bout pou kouri jouk

bout

that

hunt

Malice Malice went into hiding but he

. -



li

yo

pa

li

sé -

Boulé ké

Bôda

out

set

him

ti -

li

,



-

a

-

t

“ O

Bouki

and

kill Malice

trap for Uncle Bouqui One Uncle Bouqui came upon Little Malice rice swamp flew

Nôk Bouki kôtré Malis lagô diri volé plip sou Malis disparèt kou kou gro pié bwa zéklè môté jou

returned

had happened

clared had very time



sa a

li

a - Yô , , yô o , ap , , ti ,

sé -

.

.

mêm

the butter box

all

Bouqui

Uncle

what

to

li

,

tâ fè

mété chaché Malis Malis mêm tôbé pièj kaché mê tân Nôk Bouki -



touyé

opened

finished

When

la

,

déklaré ifòk

li

di -

Malis



Bouki tounê

Nôk

kôstasiô

li



[

and

.

he

,

went off

]

he

.

.

get married with Uncle had bought But Little Malice acted he didn Bouqui understand When Uncle

as

.

, li

-a

he took care to tell Malice not to waste his butter You understand well You understand butter was big five pound butter which

to

li

, tâ li -

viré

but

-

,

liv



.



sêk

Malis

ti -

li

-



tâdé Kou Nôk Bouki ouvri bwat bè kaba tout

kou

-



marié

pa

-



bè !



pou

Nôk achté

li pa Ou tâdé

pou biê

bè li. Ou tâdé gro mamit

.

di Malis

gê prékosiô

gaspiyé

.

li

(MEMOIRS , 74

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

a

AMERICAN

116

117

;

he

he

as

on

)

Brother piece the

said

was

im with

get along

he

it

of

a

to

he

't

,

. he

was

told

.

to

back

he

all

,

Mon

I

,

eh

let

foot

.

to

take

-

his

,

.”

,

Uncle any have sense

tail

if

,

take the tail who never was Eh go

:

Uncle



said you

to

foot

,

when Little Malice tree following this

,

a

take

't

want

to a

go

was going

doesn

have thought that Brother departure was wind that

air ], [

stayed

passing

saw

.

Bouqui

Uncle

up

Brother

Little Malice

above

in

's

a

Monkey

lit .

would

(

's

to

he

game

,

the usual who was

able key

good deed returned

a

was

it

that

,

,

soon

take

couldn

with evil

conversation

la

rété

rivé

had

in

.

Apa li

. li



,

,

li

solèy

stretched

out his tail After much discussion saw

sé -

-

,

kouri

li

? ”

,





,

li

-ap di :

-

k

, ,

-

le a

â

jou

-a

-pa

ap



.

li

-

-a

,

pasé

rwa chaché Rap Bouki tân

Boulé

kouri

ki li

he as



possible

,

tail Brother Monkey

,

té -

(

-

a

-pa

Monkey

péi

-



but out

tail

completely

Éé

Bôda

dépi twa

Monkey

Nôk mêm léspri lagé ké kôpè pwâ pié vwé mwê

Ti -

Bouki

for Bouqui

service

out his tail and immediately Uncle pulled and pulled pulled and

-a

-

jâm

this

;

t-

,

li

si ap ti li -

,



pié



a

vlé

Makak pou pati kwè kôpè Makak kôpè Nôk Bouki wè Malis mêm rété

kouri

tout

suiv

Nôk

ki ou

ké -

pa

pwâ kap

mêm

,

sa nâ a



ki

lodiâs pwà

pwalé

Malis

.”

-

nâ fè - , , yô li di :

rékôpâsé

jwèt kôsâti pié bwa yô “



mal

biê

râtré

CREOLE

's

HAITIAN

HALL

,

? ”

's

it

Isn 't

:“

he

]

Bouqui the and said With Burned Buttocks that the king been looking for for three days Im mediately Bouqui heard he ran and he came the has no sun he

when

,

which

re

ran

country

to

and

;

ran

to

a

he

,

on





.”

:

I

?

he

:

him

this very

you don

find

get

I

'll

,

die

said

that

't

you

see

if

evening

,

Uncle

to

,

same person

The

Well

to to

I

a

,

is

little rascal have kill him for me kill

to

a

him

on

to

]

and

[

afraid

immediately

he

.”

is ,

out where your brother good terms with him But Uncle got

,



.

-m

tle Malice way find

.”

,

-

a

ré li

li

-

Why are you still him the outs thought with Little Malice was your brother Uncle answered Lit

,



Ti -

p -a -t

- yé -ap lè ki -

mouri

poucou

he

.

mained there One day when was walking along person who said heard





li

ou

, m

-



li :

sòti

, ,





ouyé

Êbê Nôk

pè , ou w

a

-

di

,

la li

-

Nôk

jwên

Malis pou kosilié twa mouvmâ kôtré Fwè mwê biê avè

Li , ti di :

.

A



li .

-

ak

-

chaché dé

sa

p -a : - “ té -

,

-

ki



ap -

mêm

-pa

-

swè

pou

chaché koté fwè

Malis

ti -

a

s -Ô



moun

Mêm

ou

si

ap

l-



mwê

fòk

touyé

pou

tâdé toujou

kwè ké Malis

Nộk répôn

mwê wè ké biê

Malis mwê

polisô

môyê

li .

ak

kôt fwè

di , ou .” -ti ké li : l

ki jou

Yô sé nâ - - té -ti -

moun

maché Pou

was

, in

Mal

on

good

good terms

do on

I'

m

, , if

Well

be

Little Malice an to

,

be

,

on

't

wasn



.

him

,

-

swered

times

The Eternal Master

I .

you

me

die .”

with

isit

he lit .

[

:“

to

terms with me said



My

said

recon

met Little brother

)

He

get

two

to

for

.

three movements

, : I'd if

,

li . di ifò

Little Malice Instantly

ciled

toujou m

voyé

looking

yo

yo

-t al

yo sa m

pié

t-

-

ti

ou

Ti -

té -

li .”



.

tèt

kou

avèk

Mésié Sé

you tèt yô

-m - .”

-a -

sa si

té a - tou

nâ bâ -m -

Dépi

-bié

Malis répôn

Nôk pwésé dèyè tèt

mwê vlé

wè lâmò

lè li

ka



tou

pou

si mwê pa

biê

mouri

ou , m,

Êbê



ou li : wi ,

avèk

.

di mwê ,

nô . Létènèl mèt

(MEMOIRS , 74

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

ice

AMERICAN

118

thick

.

]

[

.

cy

,

a

of ,

on no

it

he

.

was

go

[

he

. ]

[

,

to

,

to

,

a

him

said

to

kill to

says

one

kill

Uncle Bouqui

take the one who that because his

is

He

'

;

Well we

'll

fattest

save another

.”

,



:

said

to

one

we ll

,

to

find meat

have our mothers the Good Lord them

both

we

in

us

of

"

:

,

.

to

if

;

want

you

a

make

evening

them

the .

One

for

to

.

of

to

's

,

mother was thin but Little Malice big hulk mother was woman Little Malice said nothing him a



, té yô

l

ba -

li

kômâsé

li

li ti - .

biê avèk mâmâ vini sou pwê

tion

.”

yo

.

Malis

swa pou dépi lajounê Malis tân kô Nôk Bouki sòti You

,

to

;

to

]

,

: di di :

Li

.

,

fâm

- Ti -

piès

was tired

them settle that matter He said Uncle Bouqui Uncle my dear fel the same situa are low both

,

-

-t

a ”

-

gra

-pi

ki

ap

-

n

,

di

mèg mê mâmâ

té -

sa

li gro

mêm

said

and that eat meat

business

Little Malice who knew that Uncle Bouqui was tricky customer said that there was only one way for

of



sèl



.

di

li

,

ou

-

si

ka ,

,

bô gê gê



Nôk

youndi

ké li,

tafia

nou

Bouki

o

mété



di , li - li la li li, , té -

ti

-pa -

sakrifis râjé zafè li

prâ

âyê

chè

Nôk

paské mâmâ

Malis

lit





n

,

Êbê

sa



lévé

sila

tou vlé mâjé viân ouyé mâmâ nou mamai touyé youn pou touyé Dié

a - lòt .

-

yôn

yo ,



-

-

nou moun tou dé

Bouki



di

li

,

yo

-



nou

nâ - :

mêm



Nôk

Li gê



ki

Ti jâ sé -

kôné

nèg movè zafè pou réglé bagay

nou

,

,

,

Bouqui

Uncle

,

, ,

,

there was terrific clone which lasted fifteen days and clone which addition that one found any thing green eat was avocados and little inferior bananas that every body got along One fine morning

ing out

Nôk

gave

they

and

One day

that

Bouki

That

thieves

little kick and sent me here

in

, -



-

.

-

li

li

-b

li





.yo

di

-d

li -





ti -

ap

,

pouyak zaboka vèt bânân tout ébouyé moun matê agay sila Nôk Bouki bouké mâjé pou mêm déò viân

Malis

Since

have

.]

mâjé



-

siklon

siklonn pèsôn

,

-

âyê pou

jwên

chên

chên

sa a

yo nâ -

épi

tou

jou

,



jou



[

Yô .

6

ki pa

diré kêz

Own Mother

kokên kokên

,

.[

see

I

to

went

a

me

Bouqui Eats 6 Bouqui Bab

].

been

n

ways

as

these gentlem

.

[i

both

,

then

what

death was

impending

's al

saw

.e .

behind his head

his

he

for

,

to

.”

I

yes

say

to

terms with you you have everything want Uncle hastened

good

)

he

(

, ,

his

,

it to

a

he go

,

;

.

was towards seven the evening more less Uncle Bouqui had not yet returned he was still out But

,

his

.

,

he turned her out

yes

so

. (

Little

doll

said

!"

Little Malice

Un

Yes

,

,



:

that When

to

he

appeared

Uncle

Malice

yarn

rag

a

a

hank big

Uncle

stuffed

of

then

mother with she was like

]

he

,

,

and

,

bed

mother

's of to

Little Malice shifted another bed

"

."

was

When

in

Ti .



ké -ap

-

n

-a

Wi Nôk

in

-y

:

-

a

sôjé



extent that she began since three clock the afternoon

,

ak

ti -

- .” -pi“

Ou

gra





di

di

li

,

-



.”

Nôk

,



Wi

fini

got heard Uncle Bouqui out gave her well with his mother liter taffia she got drunk the

of

-

.

,

li



,

li

té ”. -

Malis nou mâjé

,

Ti

-a

,

li

li,

li

li

rété déò mêm châjé mâmâ kabân wi dékouché ou bân épi bouré mâmâ Nôk kotô kou you gro popé magotôn Lè Nôk parèt Malis râtré

sacrifice , Little Malice since daybreak had been arranging affairs when

'



-ókò

p

o

Bouki Malis

or

kô - sa , Nôk

he

Lè li

té -twaz - è apré -midi .

di- swa

119

in

li

dépi sèt è

CREOLE

it

HAITIAN

HALL )

remember

.”

,



,

sleep

he

ah

her

's

to

,

tle

.

,

,

]

[

,

.

off

"

:

's

.”

,

he

head

.

's

]

[

,

and

woman upon

he cut off Immediately

the

,

crying

came with the machete little hypocritical burst

of he t'

to

,

,

his

old

they set

of

]

left the

.

He

't

didn

look

for

Little Mal

,

.

When Uncle got man who was always -

was

he

the rest

place a

he

in

greedy

his

and

[

,

Bouqui with

Uncle meat

the

sky

her

hid

he

,

his mother

shook

went and

in

he

or

.

it

,

eating

.

's

on

of it,

body By the old woman meat Uncle became drunk When was towards mid night more less Little Malice got

dint

as

,

pa

ré pa - -

li, li Li

gave

,

al ,

sa

li

,

fin

li

,

al

l-

gadé tèt wè ké

cry

,

, .

dâ nâ

,

l-

-l

li .

, -la

,



-

pèsôn

rélé

Lit

used

your mother machete cut head yourself Little Malice didn

up

,

,

t-

, -

-

-

Li

li



ti -

-

rob

pèsôn

!

li

ké nâ

mâyê sispèk

-

-

grâ moun

tout kay rélé Malis ak

.

pôn

mâjé

fini kaba tout

chaché mâmâ



Li Li

.

répôn

pasé

li



-

mâmââ

-

viân

Malis Sé

viân

chaché

. -ti

rès -pa

-

s -ô

ki

-

-

ak

li



,

li

.

minwit

souké mâmâ kaché sièl kité Nôk Bouki rès viân nâ koté Lè Nôk lévé toujou goumâ kòm nôm

mother

Little Malice He called Little Little Malice come with the

called

Malice

,

ti -



nôk mâjé viân





lévé

mété

fòk vè -

,

li .A

-a

. -

sou

Malis

-

vini

Mésié



moun

yo

grâ

Malice

went and felt flesh felt that the young lady was plump He

up

.

-pa tèt Ti



Ti -

,

li

la

-

sa

li, li tâ



Dépi

li

la

-

mâmâ krié

Malis

.”

Li

li

l-

,

-

:

.

rélé

Malis

mâchèt kou krié koupé tèt grâ moun

-

ipokrit

ti - li nâ -

mâchèt pou koupé

mêm

-

,

ou

vini

gra

Malis

rélé

-

ak ou ak

vini

Li

a

li

, ,

sâti mâmzèl

-ti

ti ti -

Malis

kônê koté mâmâ mâyê alé

kouché

kôn

-

Bouki

Nôk

Malis

viân

ki

.”

it



cle ? ”

that we just said that was the fattest that we would eat Yes Uncle Uncle Bouqui who knew where You

,

[

,

saw

it

; he -

He

look

.

and her was his own

head

's

oh !

oh

-

woman

He was

went

to

,

the old

he his

but Little

]

he

;

that called

called

answered he

no

;

one

suspicious

somewhat dress

He

answered

.

one

Malice

74

(

he

It

all the meat

throughout the house

mother no

eating the had

was when

for his mother

looked

at

MEMOIRS

finished

.

li

,

finished

.

ti -

tou

until he had the meat

rest

up

Malis

-

â

mâjé mâmâ

ifò

li .

té -m

li

li

,

-



âjé Nôk Bouki mâmâ vlé fou ké Bô Dié fân kat

ASSOCIATION

of

pa

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ice

120

AMERICAN

]

to

he

.

't

food

had

a

clever

the sky often

;

up he to to

go

he

he

was

had tricked Uncle like

didn

he

,

;

that

when

take and give

his mother whom called Pruden put cine and little sister whom the sky just for her able look after his mother Each time he needed see mother started

,

)

(

s

,

, it '

."

oh

."

he

let the chain from me Malice

,

-

oh

:

Prudencine

above down below

-o

-

sing



mi

â -o

-o

" sé

mwê Malis

chên

-

lagé

Prudâsin

ba ,

to

to

his

.

to

in

to

be

he

his

]

[





ti -

li

after

]

-

li li ,

-

li

châté

:

li

mâmâ

prâ

li .

-

li





mâmâ ké rélé Prudâsin kapab mété sièl tout pou okipé mâmâ Chak fwa bézwê wè

Little Malice

But man

[

pa

,

dépi

môté sièl mâjé pou pòté bay

,



-

,

li li



souvâ

gê sa - -sé a

nèg malê

-nâ li

Malis

ti -



paté Nôk kou

fin

's

,

in

(

.

had eaten Uncle Bouqui though went mad even the Lord split him four had eat Mal ice mother too mother

pou

Malis

-

chêm

Prudencine let down the chain

.

Prudasin lagé

for

he

he

;

on

[ lit .

,

),

it

,

]

. , [

to

's

went

.

]

an he

;

let

.

a

to

(r

discouraged

the blacksmith have ing put around his throat

iron

Mean

Little Malice was communicat with his sister and mother the

while

Malice

little

voice

was

so

sky

in

ing

's

-

A

down the chain Uncle

,

.”

. o

Malis

did not

Bouqui was not

,

-o

mwề pou

-

sé "

vwa Malis bèl lagé Prudâsin

chên

she





-

ak

Ti -

épi

Malis Prudâsin lagé chên Malis lagé

happened Prudencine too but bigger voice than Little Malice Prudencine recognized his voice and

had

,

.

li .

-

Pâdâstâ

Now one day Uncle Bouqui was standing watching sentry duty he heard the singing called

.



gro



-

lap nâ

-

: .

ba ,

-pi



,

.

-



kominiké

ti -

,

yayay

Nôk Bouki kay machoket

,

Prudâsin

li

chên

-

épi

Prudâsin vwa

rékonèt vwa

gòj

sièl prâ

mi

li



sa

mâmâ

â – o

mêm

-

ti -

Malis

li

sé -

alé

,

-



pou pasé

rélé

Prudâsin chên

-

li

pa

lagé dékourajé

li

t-

,

tâdé trouvé

mê Malis

-pa

li,

pasé

ti -

,

tou

Nôk Bouki

jou

châ

,

li

Vwala you faksiô

-ap

.

Malice

the

,

s

,

,

he

[

to

.

,

he

,

so

.

he

was almost

,

espe

throw

to

taken care

him

't

's

go

a on

,

all

he ,

,

,

hot

his

Bou

beautiful roasted the ground which

Uncle Bouqui saw that wasn able leave the potato picked bent down but im mediately his voice changed When

he

;

,

!”

:

,

and

he returned

to

,

to

run

blacksmith the blacksmith jumped Uncle he told him was stop rascal told him didn picking things the business

called

too

his

he

voice

Prudencine

off

al on of

a

.

the road

Bou ]

,

,

bent down bread and

. [

then

the piece

He

was

spoiled

but

Prudencine

[

picked

be

.

to

care

the middle qui forgot everything

he

another Little Mal drop piece

him

, of

ice had taken

yet

saw

thing which tempted bread

't

]

,

most arrived

he

(

,

in

he

put the hot iron when Uncle Bouqui had

smith gave him

' . t

,

wouldn ever able the sky The black

up

climb

up

if

to he of

ground

the

for

,

he

,

on

's

;

the

?

's

that Uncle

Pru

the voice she said voice Op Uncle

[

't

Isn

started

he

up

called Prudencine

dencine recognized

]

as

,

arrived

he

.

,

he

,

to

.

't

he

for

it

cially

,

,

up

,

his

for see

let

.

-

,

sièl mwê koupé chên

when

found

up

-

ti - .

-

nâ t- , ap li

véyé

but

told

shouldn

his mouth clear Uncle

into

remain

had

;

.

ba ,

li

-

lagé

Malice

brought

he

shop

straight

in

ré -



li

la

-

mi

sa -a

ti -

should

qui left there potato



, - -t la -

, - té . li â. gê

,

li

â o

li

prâ

,

, ;

Malis

him

a



,

prâ

;

pa

li

Ti -

li

-

, a

-

la

chên

pou rivé

-

.

-Sé li,

"

di

âkò

vwa Nôk



li

-



pwét

Nôk

Malis



,

,

pou

A

.”

pa

chên

rékonèt

-

dâsin

rivé

Prudâsin lagé chên kou mêm Pru

-o

mwê Malis

lòt

Nôk



li .



, -âpê ,

al

li

-a

:“



kay machokèt

réisi Prudâsin lagé

pou Malis

li

a

-





fin

ki



oblijé

sa

li .

Li

Li rélé Prudâsin



bagay

tout

ramasé moso

jâm

mitâ chémê bésé gaté tou vwa Prudâsin kouri dèyè

moso

blié

li

,

-pa

, li

li

,

. tè di -a si

la

-

-

s ô

li, li



lage

Bouki

Fwa châté

li

-a li

op

!”

sa ?

li

,



bagay râmasé kapab môté sièl Machokèt zignê pasé pou cho Bouki preské rivé wè bagay âkò tâté Malis

he

,

li .

li,

,

.

li

li

,

li

,

, li

di : di

bôdé sou Nôk kité métié

mêm

visié

and

Pru

Little

Uncle Bouqui had just

Now when

-

fèk

nâ li -

sé -p

li

di

li

té -



li

.

kapab

chain

left the blacksmith

voice could

cho

soon

the

her

put anything

tou

down the chain

into the sky

mother

Nộk

kité patat bésé râmasé mê châjé Lè rivé kou sito vwa rélé Prudâsin Prudâsin rékònèt vwa Apa vwa Nôk Nôk kouri rétoûnê kay machoket



down

jwên

jété espwèsmâ



li

-

boukânê

Malis Nôk Bouki wè

machokèt

climbed

to



-tè a

a

pou

bouchli

rété klè pwé rivé



patat

bèl

alé drèt

,

-

you

sòti kay

-pa

li, ké li -

kapab

, li

vwa

Bouki pati mê



pou

Nôk Bouki ou âyê mété

li

sé -

pou

Malice and food

pa

Vwala

machokèt

dencine

from

me Malice

go

Prudencine Ayayay

Pruden



chain

( as

oh .”

let

,

above down below for Malice

:

began

down

]

cine -oh ,

as ]

beautiful , and he

he

pòté

of he

li

]

li ,

mâmâ

121

let

al wè

môté nâ - sièl mâjé pou li.

CREOLE

it '

HAITIAN

HALL )

go

me

the

down

, Ah ,

.

to

,

let

,

above

,

down the chain from Malice Prudencine

.

let he

.

's



arrived Prudencine

it 's ,

him

.

;

sing

This time

he

the

started

obliged

again

when

:

t-

pié

He was

blacksmith

succeeded

to

.

yo sa

- ti -

kou

ran after

he to

tou Nôk

, Sé

Prudâsin

moso

â

-m

,

yo

.





isit

m

-t - al m

tôbé wè

voyé

vwé miyệt



Bouki

.

k -ap -môté ”



-

nâ , sé Nôk koupé chên

(MEMOIRS , 74

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

sa -a

AMERICAN

122

's

s

to

in

.

.

,

to

That

gave

me

a

it '

,

up

.”

I

bits

they

and they sent me here

.

,

little kick

's

Bouqui and Malice Get Bird

[

.

cut the Uncle

Thereupon

Bouqui fell smashed what went see 7

Uncle who

Prudencine

truth

in

,

chain

's

me cut the

climbing chain

's ,

It 's



, ,

s

it '

to

.

.

let

]

[

't

.”

Malice

,

for

like that Pru dencine didn recognize Uncle voice and she down the chain for him But Little Malice was watching When Uncle was ready arrive sky the Little Malice said him chain

up

,



, if

,

do

'll

for

,

re

'

it s

see

' to , let 's ,

:

he

a

's ,

,

not

you

(

all

,

,

up

for go

but

greedy

too

a

of

.

all

to

to

have time was only

'll

.” ,

fill

of

'

so

or

if

go

.

in

it

is

is

for

, 's

,

s

a

it ' a

on

is ]

s

[

It ' )

.

'

o

so

it

o

we

eggs

Uncle

." at re

real its

bird had had time

was

to

went

fly In

that

it

,

at

clock that they

.

Which made

'

seven

to

.

fused

it

up

,

'

o

:

to

at

]

go

[

,

and said Malice better seven clock But Malice who knew that the bird might not be yet that hour

We

the o

-

ak

,

ti -

Lè mê kalité Malis tân

nine clock our too happy

'd

.

li té -

ôz è zé

-

ap

yo ba k -

tân

what we you

Uncle

know well not thing big that tree there country bird which the size laying day busy eggs which But the time come towards ten clock the morning Which makes that we after seven about you

eat

gê sèt



a té -

pa

, à-

, , .yo a zé

mâjé

you

,

si

sa

-

a



ki

Sé -



yo

bwi pié bwa prâ trâblé

pié

and

should

ity

.”

-a -

parèt

pèsôn

jwen

kouri mộte

rété mâjé

mêm

blié

zwazo



Malice got beauti

and came out dolled fully called Uncle Bouqui place you decide there

a

pié sé k



- fè



-

dépi

one day Monday

Voilà





yo

volè

a

.

Malis

Mésié



,

sa

-

vini

Réèltémâ zwazo yo

"

ké lè , yoa, ki

réfizé

li . . -pi ,

è

yo . a



jouk

bagay

bwa plédé pôn

nou Nôk kôtâ nou alé Mê kônê ké zwazo kap pòko

Pito

volé nich Bouki toujou



a

,





- . .

di kô -



pou nèvè

alé

bwa

pou

péi pou

ki



matê

Malis Malis tâ è -a

yô gro

-ô -

grosè

joune

mâjé kôt

lévé

-ap

-

sa n

,

Sé -n

ki

tout

sèt

li la -



,



diz zé

zwazo

désidé



âgwé kônê biê

li

ou ân

.yé trò al



lêdi lévé Nôk Bouki

rélé

,

gê li

ki

-



Vwala Malis sòti bèl paré Nôk koté

, jou - sé si ap li pa n trò n sèt - , - -pa ou è ap .” - alé ki gê sé , gê vè yô ou ou , , : di tâ



.]

Eggs

),

when

of

;

up ;

he

he

to

it

a

,

huge rock and

it

,

with

then

dropped

.e . .

[i

to

the man drink water

the Mistress

the

of

-

took

Bouqui had begun drown

arrived

rope and tied

a

, ,

in

tied

,

tyou boom

he

flew

was going

When

took

but

escaped

, it

,

.

death

Jacmel Bay Bouqui firmly which

him

told

he

,

him

drop

un

.

,

a

to ]

shake

Little Malice heard and the bird caught Bouqui with

it

,

'

o

(

,

the bird ap kind noise

clock

such

the tree started

]

that

[ lit .

.

for

)

was about eleven peared but with

to it

,

-t -

ate eggs they ate eggs forgot themselves When

he

-

they

he

pa

al fè

li

,

-m

t-



voyé

gentlemen

him

, yô

-

, sé - di :

,

ou

sa yo m

pié

kou

li

,

ou

- La , sé

.” -ti -

,

li

déò

tou

to climb the tree . Malice stayed below waiting the eggs They the

til

yo

-

.



tou

mété

li

kité sót lèspri pou moso

123

nest, [and ] they didn 't find anybody . Bouqui, always the more thievish , ran

[

prâ

li

épi





-

la

la

-

,

-

-

tèt



déò

la

. bâ -m ,

yo

Bouki isit

li

dlo



mété

m

chaché

-



pou

mété promèt mwê ou

-

ou

,

Bouki

-ap lè

,

-ap



bwè

pou

maré tiou lagé nèg Bouki kômâsé métrès dlo parèt

roch

li

kokên boum

prâ

, ,

Bouki biê maré

maré

yo

li

li sekou , zwazo prâ Bouki , li volé ak li, li di li li pwal lagé li lâ -lâmò . Lè li rivé lâ -lâmè Jakmèl , li prâ yo kòd , li maré Bouki biê maré , li kòd

CREOLE

at

HAITIAN

HALL )

of ,

bit

.”

in

little your head There a

also look

put

to

sense

for

you must

a

'll

ise

I'

ll

,

:



,

Bouqui Water and said put you out but you must prom me you leave off being fool appeared

she did something for Bouqui put she him out that what went see they gave me kick they sent

,

,

I

's a

,

to

;

,

upon

.

me here

.]

,



:

,

' .

]

put

said

:

into

(

certain

]

he you

a

at

Bouqui what know

answered

:

to

[

and

? ”

you need

the sack

and

throw

Bouqui to

was

at .

wasked

] [ of

,

m

On

I'

,

back going

Malice

.”

Why

Malice

his

, on

)

place

lifted

arriving

sea

place

the mouth

tied he

,

him

[

Malice

the

in

he

.”

I'

ll

,

re

,

he

a

firmly

,

? ” gê

-

di :

sack

do he

.

la

-yé a

tli

,

sa

pestering me too much Bouqui took finish with you today sack made Malice get the you

"

,

, li

bò -

ti -

Bouki tâdé

ou

tèt

-

pou

Malice was always annoying Bou qui One day Bouqui said Malice



li

li sak ,

,

la

ki A



fè ou ou

,



di : “

Sa

-

"

,

.” -

bézwê mâjé

rivé you

bézwê kônê pou tèt you pié mâgo





di :

plên

lévé Malis Malis mwê

ou

:

Sé -

,

nâ -

ki

Malis

répôn

maré

li

- li di . : ,

li

,

lâmè

koté Malis mâdé Bouki

Bouki

avèk

-

-

sak

biê maré

ou

-

do la

bouch sak mété sou pralé voyé

Malis

fini

you

dédâ

â

âtré

Bouki m

Bouki

Malis

,

jodi

-a

tròp

prâap

You

âbété



.” -m .

Bouki

jou

ki

-ap

[

.

8

Big Klaus and Little Klaus toujou Vwala Malis âbété

Malice

on

).

-

a

(

in

on a a

. of

,

be

to

a

,

in

in

to

a

's



:

? ”

,

s

,

It '

on

his ”

.

a

if

;

on

:

,

off



.

I'

out

.”

got

Mal

getting

:“

;

,

. 's

the

all

the sack

he

,

in

Malice tied the firmly and then the Spaniard mule he went

on

got

in

ished

of

.

of

Malice

,

on

it

into

the

: :

m

said

I'

today

. of "

you

fool

sea

Bouqui arrived

throw

he

-

going When

Bouqui

,

acting like

yelling

started

a

,

You

Spaniard

Carajo

!"

The

Carajo

]

,

[

back

he

with cows When Bouqui came down from the mango tree put took the sack and his

at



:

ou ? ”

ba

Open

The Spaniard

sack

to



-

la

li

, ,

âtré épi

the

The

ani

mouth

li ou

, ou

" O

Paré bay

What

the ground me Malice doing you the ground

self

,



di :

di :

you

asked

your the Spaniard Get When the Spaniard had fin

said

.

épi - li la

chèché

-m li

t-

;

lâmè kou

lè li

bouch

mwê

Malis maré pòté Bouki rivé mâdé Bouki Kôbié pou batô Bouki sak

Malis

.”

Bouki

.”

sak

Wi

dâ .

ou

-

-m

.”

Bouki Malis

di : fè

t-

batô

dlo

,

- :

, li

-a



-ap “



-

di : tâ

la

té - .

twa mil goud alé voyé tou

jwên ân



voyé

sak “

-m

âvâ

nâ -



twa kou

-

ou é

mêm

-

mwê

ki Lè

.

-

ki -

té sé sé - - -

Malis

Bouki Malis ?ge ”

ak - nâ

li

Pâgnòl

said

and

tounê fini mâjé Apa

cows

herd

some magic give you piece too want Spaniard said yes and got mal Malice told the Spaniard opened

t-

.”

-

Malis

jwên

bèf

Bouki

Malice

the mouth

!

Lè -a

ou

-

“ W

ap

di : la

-

.

-

!” li

do

Pâgnòl rélé Bouki mwê pral voyé

passing

.

, Lè

la

prâ

,

li

prâ sak

The Spaniard

sack

that turning itself “

di : :

.

.”

-

.yo -

-

tout bèf

-a

milèt

sou

'



-



li

môté

was

there

was going sell time The Spaniard saw thing shaking itself

:

li

ou

m

ba

,

k

, ,

si

:

-

é

ou



mêm

who came was leading

[ it ]

ap a - -

? ”

a

li

sou

li

,

that

kalaro

dlo

Spaniard

mule

sòti

lâmè Bouki rivé lâmè bay pâgnòl twa kou batô épi

jété

eating mangoes

was

Lagé bouch

ak

épi

head , and beautiful little mango tree loaded with fruit He put Mal down and he climbed the mango And the time that Bouqui

Bouqui turned his

ground . ”

he well

Malis

, , :

li

la ;

,



Âtré

pié mâgo

jodi

bétizé

désân

alé

di

biê fin

la

-

li

mété

Kalaro

koupé

Malis maré bouch

maré

pâgnòl

"

lagé

âtré

Bouki désân

li

Pâgnòl

Pâgnòl Pâgnòl

la ”

Pâgnòl sak

di

.”

. .

- -la

Malis

Malis

di ou

, ,

â

tè -a

-



sak

vlé

wi

Pâgnòl

moso tou

Malis épi-

-

Malis

mwê mêm you pwê

bèt

. -tè a



-l

-

viré

-

k

Sé - Sa





ap kò

souké

you

Mal

it ? "

is

afterwards , Malice again asked Bou qui where he was. Bouqui told him . Malice said : “ You can put me on the saw

bèf ké li pral vân bagay k -ap Pâgnòl mâdé you sak

lavil. Pâgnòl wè

: “ Where

ice answered : “ You can keep on walk ing .” Then Bouqui continued with Malice on his back . A little moment

a

ki

pâgnòl

l-ap -kôdwi you -bân

need

.

ap -mâjé mâgo , gê you vini ap - pasé sou -you -milèt,

Bouki

É - tâ

should

he

a - tè .” Bouki viré tèt li, li wè ti-pié mâgo biê chajé . Li mété Malis a -tè épi li môté sou -mâgo -a .

mété -m you bèl

is in

he

" Ou mèt

you

a little man the plain , in case Bouqui to eat . ”

account of

on

to

di:

Malis

: “ It ' s

heard [and ] said

ice

li.

êdiké

-

go tree which

.”

Bouki

said

ll

mèt

Ou

re

:“

répôn

off

Malis



ki bò li yé ?”

maché toujou .” Épi Bouki kôtinié ak -Malis sou - do li. Yô ti-momâ apré, Malis rémâdé Bouki ki bò li yé .

MEMOIRS , 74

ASSOCIATION





ANTHROPOLOGICAL

ice

AMERICAN

124

the edge

HAITIAN CREOLE

eat the Spaniard

me myself

Yes

it '

s

said

,

't

Malice

.

's

cows you Malice that

,

used

Aren



said

be

completely

Bouqui



with

to

to

When Bouqui returned Malice who had had time

.

into the

he met

,

sea

the sea , he gave the Spaniard three blows with a stick and he threw him

:

,

and the three blows with

me before you threw the water made me find three said

:

.”

's

go

let

,



Bouqui

gourdes

thousand Oh

and throw me too Get your sack ready give

Mal

a

sack

,

;

the Bouqui

asked

many blows with

sea

edge

:

he

the

arrived

of

Bouqui

he

carried when

to

he

.

it

in

Malice tied the sack and then

of

the mouth

to



:

Malice said Bouqui looked for ice and then he got

." ."

in

a

stick you gave

me

in

: “ Ou mèt bâ -m vên .” Malis fè Bouki kôté dépi youn jiska vêt kou t -batô , épi li voyé Bouki nâ -lâmè.

répôn

125

? ”

HALL )

a

:

give you

,

stick

a

blows with

he

to

.”



? ”

I



stick shall Bouqui answered You can give me twenty Malice made Bouqui count from one twenty How

and then

threw

's.

,

all

a

It

't

.

to

all

to

On the day they were

go

it .

's

it

to

;

.

They clothes went order new clothes made for themselves but happened that was one and the they went without one same tailor knowing whether the other was there get their

happened

Malice meanwhile said Uncle you say you

're

How

,

the tailor him

it

measured

,

that Uncle Bouqui met with Little Malice

clothes

's

,

to

. .

y

-a - -a di .



? ”

tou

w

,

Kòmâ Nôk

Tailor One day wedding but Brother Malice and

The

Bouqui

Brother Dog also chanced that these gentlemen didn have any good



al



alé

yo

;

la

Jou pou trouvé Nôk Malis kay tayè

Bouqui

they invited they found

:

yo

Yo

. .



yo



tout

trouvé

.

sèl



tayè

mêm

é ti - -sé lòt

si ak yo



li

isit

ou

kôn vin

di :

rad

Bouki râkôtré Malis pâtâ

-

méziré

la

yo

kônê

rad

yo

jou



, .

-

-tpa -

-

ak



sé -

-pa

yôn

pou

trouvé Trouvé

At

.

-

.

-



.

9

ké al ké

tout mésié rad nèf kay

greedy and The Spaniard died for loving

stupid magic

Kay Tayè mariaj mê êvité Bouki kòpè Chê tou kôpè Malis Bouki

bay

Pâgnòl

sòt

to at

Bouki mouri pou saf mouri pou rêmê wâga

, .

ak -

.

Bouqui into the sea Bouqui died for being

AMERICAN

126

- - -mariaj

ki

mwê

the habit of coming here too ? ” .

in

Yes , Malice , but it 's the it's (the fact that ] I 'm going “

first time,

wed

to a

ding that makes me come here and yourself ;



(MEMOIRS , 74

ASSOCIATION

? ”

-

ou

;

-

é

-

la

isit

mêm

fwa,

sé -prémié

mwê pwalé

sé n ô

vin

, mê

Malis

? ”

Wi,



ANTHROPOLOGICAL

re

I '

put out Dog

I

,

much

meet Brother

to

in



very

like

shouldn

.”

-

too

Oh



-pa t-

,

la

-a -

-

a

“ A

,

m

kôtrarié âpil mwê vlé kôtré kôpè Chê isit mêm

Well we both here for the same but think that Brother Dog

reason is

."

tou



,



-

-

la

chê

it , 't , , I 'm . ."

kòz

pou mêm

la

-

"

,

Ebê nou tou dé mê mwê kwè ké kôpè

,

.”

to

,



find the boss tailor just tell me what

:

,

to

Uncle ran dear man

My

,

s

he '

upon

Brother Dog coming here The tailor who didn know too much to

on

time

(

,

'

.” , all

I

he s a

,

,



:

!

a

at

to

, ,

't

,

,

to

at to

for

? ”

't

Dog

he left

say

full

to

it .

to

,

,

he

;

in

going

to

worms

;

of

.

goat full

Bouqui saw that his heart hurt he

he

in

him

,

called the little goat asked what had put that condi

;

- :

-t -

him

him

sa

-l

li

m

apé

Malice Bouqui came

his turn

,

l

when

in

kè sa

-

,

mâdé

répôn

was Bouqui who had something

settle with

a

It

.

-

ak

li

-

Ti - ,

you

to

ak

.] gê

-



ki

's

-

Malis

meet

kabrit

jadê Malis

-

li nâ

,

kâ sa ti -a .

kabrit

éta

,

Nôk

-mpa



-l

kimété

kôt

Bouki wè

rélé

him

Goat

râkôtré sou tour vè ,

plê vin

Bouki



- . té - [B

Sé 10

-l



ouqui

coun Well

never went back the again lost everything for that wedding Uncle never

succeeded

Bouki kabrit mal

.”

for

as

't he

,

to

.

[

] as

,

sa -a

-

's ,

,

tailor and

li

Nôk

wait

he

li pa

-

li di

,

mariaj

li

,

a

-a

pou

,

jâm

-pa

speed

réisi alé

man

you want dear fellow why don Brother Dog what does that see

to

-pa

,

li

pèdi krak kâta

behind saying

plop

out

you matter Uncle didn anything more

kôpè

myself

who was hidden

jumped

my

plis Chê bagay jâm kité tout boulin pèdi krik toûnê kay tayè âkò

Nôk

he

a



Dog

,

-



time ter



-

ki -

wè tè : té .”

-

A

di

pa

ou

Êbê kôpè

he may

meet At the finished saying that Brother

ou ? ”

-

kaché

-

-

,

ki ,

volé plap

come tomorrow But wouldn like

tân

Chê

kôpè chê



, -



tou

kôtwa pou

l- ,

dèyè

sa chè yô

fin

vlé râkôtré

nôm

s ô

mêm

,

mêm

vlé a

mwê

li

mwc

di t-pa sa a -a - -



Mê pou

him

:

said

isn

't ,

should answer man who may come today like

He

=

what

or ]

he

't

,

? ”

is

time



.”

démê

You better talk with the boss for going come right soon There

's





, -

sa

kap

di

-

? ”

-ap

vin -pa

li

kòm

-a

,

-



-

“ S Ô

ki

ki

,

-pa



-ki

jodi

vin

kap

di li :

, -a

a

,

:

-a

trouvé mèt tayè Mô kôpè Chê mwê vini isit Tayè mêm pou tro kônê répôn nôm

li li

-a

,

Nôk kouri chè mâyê



li

ka

,

-a

tou

-

ak

patrô

La

talè

.”

pwal

palé

ou

vin



right here Pito

bop !; he said

he

,

",

up .

,

he he to

,

,

[ lit

.

to

.”

since

. . .

"

,

, m

it



Well

right

say was since Bouqui had meeting that with the little goat that he took the decision never seek quarrel again with Malice They

a

.]

a

;

,

when the sorcerer came he able heal the girl but

,

said he

to

;

sorcerer

made for her she get well They sent for

.

to

able

]

(

,

as

a

,

wasn

be

-

li

li

t

li

-a -

t



,

-



di

fè ba -a -

.

a

sa yo

, -a

li

.

ti - ti fi -

they

remedies

'd

,

tôbé malad

pou kapab tout rémèd voyé you géri Yo chaché bòkò kapab géri bòkò vini you lâg mê fòk pou jwên makak Tou rwa

king who had Voilà there was daughter beautiful the moon one day she fell sick and despite all the

't

fi

ti -

gê s

you

a

yo

you

-pa té -

, té -

rwa



Vwala bèl kou lalin

Tongue

'

and Monkey

li, jouki li li té -

Malice

[

.

11

.

.

it

,

I .

up ,

:

to

all

it it 's

him

today

eaten

to

Malis

-

ak

sa -pa a

désiziô

pou

l--



-l -

-ti

ak

kabrit ké

prâ

chaché kôt âkò

jâm

râkôt

sé -

di

dépi Bouki

s

,

it '

food for you Malice answered

Yo

As

has ended going make be

I'

]?



. . .

"

waiting

tell me

he a

,

quarrel we had

:

little

you

mad dog went his hand

around his neck and Brother Malice that

said

to

him

passed his arm

stopped

I I

.

all

.” I



:

he he

Malice

arrived gave him

.'



soon

said

Thanks brother

ran home like

and

that

heard

m

ou

dépi

, -m

-l

-

“ É

biê

jodi

di - -a

M

âjé

Bouqui

the little goat

to

:

-

ti -

,

-o ?

li

pou

sé -

-l



li

,

pra

diseased

When

, as he

ou

ti -

di

li

,

li ,

tâdé

ni :

répôn

biê

chê

he

,

so

.

I .I

,

all

,



Malis

li li

A

-

mâjé pou

rivé

kaba

ou



té -

gêgnê

li

"

:

-l

ba

di -l li

épi

li

,

Malis

kou

kouri

maché sou lâmê pasé bra kou Kôpè Malis kôt nou pên

-



li . ",

Mèsi frè

fou lakay

sa

épi

Then

.'

' ll

see

it

on

three times and

continued mine When felt crushed that went bed right away That day night The next had bad dreams morning when got found my

body kabrit

't

,

.

]

:

you

“ [ ?

"

,

he

me

to

.” -

m

-



spat

I

-

,



-

,

m



-

a

-

Lé -

.

m

m

sa

.

.

m

touswit Jou mové rèv tout lânwit lâdmê matê lévémwê malêg jwên tout kò mwê

went his way got home

said

the

”,

I

,

bed your pardon won any more Nevertheless said goat

tâdé

do

: 'So that 's the way you , goat do it little .' ' Oh , oh ,' I answered , by papa , I was only tast him : 'Good -

rivé lakay sâti kòm mwê tèlmâ krazé ké mwê alé kouché

Kà Bouki

: " My

The little goat answered

uncle , in Malice 's garden I was walk ing , I was hungry , I stayed to eat a little leaf of sweet - potato . Malice came [and ] stopped me. He kicked me ,

he

.

-

-l



-pa

li



pa

baré-m . Li frapé pié -l sou mwê, bop ! li di: ' Sé-kô - sa ou fè -l, ti kabrit . ' ' Â , a ,' m - répôn ni: ‘Adié papa , sé - gouté apé gouté m - tsèlmâ , m - mâdé ou padô , m -p -apé -fè sa âkò .' Malgré sa ," di kabrit -la , “ li kaché sou mwê twa fwa , li di: ' Tou fèSatâ w -a - wè -l .' Épi rout Mwê mêm kôtinié

.

tion

127

ing

kò- m , mwê té- grâgou , m -rété you ti- fèy patat . Malis vin

pasé

mâjé

CREOLE

I

HAITIAN

HALL ]

ANTHROPOLOGICAL

ASSOCIATION

a

;

he

,

fell

,

queen

,

;

mon

of

a

friends

left

gather

d

provide

I'

:

My

] lot to !”

,

began

there were

,

keys he said

he

,

]

,

a

big [

in

saw

he

forest

queen

onomatopoeia

fwêk

The monkeys when

and

(

,

queen



:

little entertainment for you you don know whether

'd ,

but

't

be I

to gê

,

-

!”

a

.

's

]

arrived singing Dance

when

that

heard

mandoline

a

-

:

t-

pa

-



di

ti - li si



-

t-

a

,

, li



Makak koûmâsé sâblé wè âpil makak Mé zami mwê you amizmâ pou nou mê mwê kônê nou kôtâ

Malice



li , o

,

When his little

he

-

o

,



:

rèn

, to

got

]

he

, .

he

's

a

to

.

his fortune half his kingdom the person who would bring him tongue little monkey

(

ti -

nâ -

li

,

sa

li

;

rèn

!”

fwêk

Rên balêsé



li

ni ,

tôbé châté

mâdolin

grâ bwa

, 74

a little mon (Despite ] all the king tongue find little monkey Finally promised wasn able

key ' s tongue

half

Malis tâdé chaché pati you rivé

(MEMOIRS

they 'd have to give him

't

li .

ti -

ba

you lầg ti -makak li pa -kapab . A -lafê li promèt mwatié fòtin li, mwatié rwayòm li bay moun ki pòté lâg makak

he did

AMERICAN

128

to Oh ,

All



a

.

'

o

( or )

he

.

to

he

,

,

,

.

, , few

a

and

He fell

to

returned

.

he

his

,

-

his frock coat

days later

the unlucky went away lawyer a

himself

ran away

[? as ],

)

(

,

.”

is

]

, ya

-

with

and Damn

Well

me

disguised

he

li

Li

person

[

li

dégizé

épi kèk koma jwé tôbé violô mê salopri

said

"

Malice

dévên

-

â

nèg

li

,

li

li,

makak toûnê âkò

“ A

yo

di :

.

li

play :

]

's



[

.”

,

ing the violin but the monkeys said Ah here that scoundrel come back

,

â

avoka rédâgot jou apré toûnê

alé

,

Tônê

,

Bô “

di :

, .”

- sé -

Malis mwê

ala

monkey escaped

he it, he

,

.

's

on

he

ti -

.

kouri

turned around turned around put his foot blop the little mon key neck The little monkey yelled and by turning quickly the little !

.

ti -

viré rap

,

,

Ti - li

li

,

li



makak makak

-

,

,

li

kou

viré

,

in

,

sou

pié mété makak rélé chapé

, ti -

you minwi makak alé blap dòmi Malis viré viré

a

. Vè

a

)

,

in

!"

be

:

the monkeys answered pleased we Then Malice fell playing his mandoline and little moment the monkeys fell into circle Towards midnight one clock sleep little monkey went Malice (

.



nâ -

-

“ O

:

nou Épi Malis tôbé jwé mâdo momâ makak tôbé

ti -

!”

t

, -

lin -a

kôtâ you

répôn

'd

yo

!”

pleased

Tout makak

,

heads

;

'

it s

-

,

by

they

dressed man

all right

,

:

one when

well s

they

they said

a

saw

one

It '

,

,

looked and

of

their

"

as

they liked music very much out just the little tips

stuck

]

yo

-

"

di :



,



pa

li,

sé -

lè ,

,



But they

[

,

ti -

-



, di :

, ,

sèlmâ abiyé Gê proché piti piti épi Malis yo lè

yo yo

té -

rêmê mizik pwet tèt gadé wè you nèg biê youn

yo

yo

youn

â

Mê kôn

parèt

yo

.”

again

âpil

not

"

:

bit ,

]

on

you

like

'd

know

if

don

't

I

(

a

's

I

a

is

,

,

but

They

We

it a

'd



:

like

a

,

a

not

coming

to

I'

,

my friends

m

,

he

!”

: ' “ s

a

us to

,

.

answered

towards midnight

the little monkeys went sleep but Malice put stayed awake and he wham his foot the neck little monkey

]

he

!,

[

,

,

on

of a

]

[

,

to



;

dance

pulled out his machete quickly he put cut off his head his bag and then left When was nearly home he put the bag down went

,

he

in

,

.

he it

he

,

he

,

into the bush have bowel move poor man who was passing by took the bag looked saw was little monkey head took the

ment

it

he

was

]

the battle

(

.

he

, ,

the moment Malice was

When

(

out

coming

]

tongue just

at

's

a

,

he

a

.

;

a

to

épi

la

-

you

it ”

ki li

,

la

-

biê

chaché

yo

sòt

My

thing friends music know you like very much that what makes me stay play little the violin for

I,

-

li



,

, ,

-

,

,

rwa

ak

fi

ti -

.”

marié

mwê

arété Malis pòv



Yo



lwê

ap

t-

,

ti -

:

“ Â

la

-



-a

t

sé -

li

pé pasé prâ makout prâ låg wè tèt makak momâ Malis sòti Batay maré pòv rélé mwê mê Malis vlé

prâ lâg makak

said

li

,

pré rivé

âtré you pòv gadé

. li -la la , , a

-r

-

li



li,

mété makout ajé pou alé poupou

li

mété



nâ -

ralé mâchèt

- li

kay

li

li li

,

tèt

li -

ti -

makak koupé épi makout kité

Malice

great deal but the other day there was man who came break little monkey neck for Malice an vagabond but swered Oh was

-

,

li . , , , li li li

,

",



-

,

!”

-

-pa

pié sou kou

rap

bit by

came nearer



kôt nou Malis répôn vagabô mêmwê mêm mé zâmi mwề vini dâsé minwi makak krap alé dòmi Malis véyé mété sou

they then

to

you

makak

;

no ” and

he

vin pou kasé kou

,

him

129

]

-

,

répôn

jou

:

-

t-



biê kôtâ

té - -

ki t-a



nòm

kôtâ

a

si -

nou

Nou

: ti Yo , -ti " - té li , A gê

violô

.

kônê

nou mwê

pou

ti -

you

lòt ”

jwé

pa

ki

,

zami, mizik sé - you bagay mwê kônê nou rêmê âpil , sé-sa fè mwê rété

CREOLE

[

HAITIAN

HALL )

the poor man yelled out Woe me here Malice trying take the monkey tongue was fool get They had Malice far away

:“

go

to

to

.

[

and

he

to

to on

disease cast

an

a

means disappear

he went

Then

]

. a

,

he

's

had

people

the

arranged

's

to

a

it

with the oungan that was with poor man tongue they had treat

[

and

]

the oungan

,

When

he

the girl fell sick they

the girl

sent

for .

-

's

, Lè

,

,

the country daughter



found

the poor

king

vini

to

he

]

, ,

and

all [

Malice make from

Yo

voyé chaché Malis

the

the poor man Well after some time they released

oungan

, li di li

.

pa

yo

yo

, ,

.

fi

li ti -

youn

they married

then

you

voyé rélé roûgâ tôbé malad mâdé you lâg pòv chaché tou patou jwên Malis

a

.”

so

it

rwa

and

daughter

's

li

roûgâ



yo yo

-

yo

-

li

ak



voyé you maladi sou râjé kôbinézô rougâ lâg pòv pou trété

pòv

tout

you

,

kay

li

,

lagé Malis

disparèt

ti ti - sé fi fi -a ak . -

l-

-a

Épi

.

nâ -

péi

king

-a



kèk

alé

,

Bô apré

yo

arrested

chaché mwayê

I

's

,

's

,

is

,

joined

called

tongue They looked for poor man everywhere but they couldn find any Malice said there was one they

.

; 't

]

he

(

).

[

,

's

a

nâ -

rété

fi -a .

,

sé -

i-a

pòv

ti -

li deklaré sé -you pé mari

(MEMOIRS , 74

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

ki

sèl

AMERICAN

130

,

.

's

, ,

tongue

]

[

and when the girl got well they married her Mal took

to

Malis

they

his

-

,

ti fi -a



yo

di

pòv

prâ ak

yo

marié

li

touyé

géri

prâ msié

lâg

li,

yo

Yo . ni ,

,

it

in

,

sent for Malice came and declared there was one poor man left the country was the girl husband They took the man they killed him

by

:

if

,

, to

't

]

[

to

lit .

a

he

lie .

to

he

]

[

,

to

it .

of

.

a

]

,

a

of

It

,

(

to

invited

spend

you

take you your feet

to

to

when

we

But the chiggery Go back tell

,

,

them

? ”

chiggers

one followed

"

's

are full

house

us

you expect

people

.

do

How

the

.

to

,

.

two days The three children were very happy but there was one who didn want take the chiggery one

The chiggery

of

at

he

one followed them until arrived the king they place the devils When arrived where the healthy ones went the secretly

The

fine

re

,

had

a

one stayed down below

king was very glad

he

chiggery

.

,

up

.

ception them but they didn give the chiggery one food the same table and chairs There was one sister chiggery one com who forgot

't

on

-

his house

,

yo

,

come

of

.

sèl té -

ak - -pa

yo

them

One day

the .

.

knew

'

la

-

ti -

,

ki

yo



chikata mâjé sou mêm tab Gê you blié chikata nèt lòt détâzâtâ lagé you moso viân bay

never

for

-

yo

môté

li ,

.”

ki ka

-a

-

égâm



Rwa bić kôtâ bay mê

- - ba . yo

sa

rivé

pou



,

yo

ou

di

jis

li â

bèl résèpsiô

swiv

Chikata swiv rwa diab

yo .yo ou

-

.

ou

? ”

,

“ â

yo -

rivé koté chikata rété



chikata

whom

't



Toûnê nou kachèt

was

.”

yo

plê



chikata Koûmâ vlé kay moun pié

mother who had three chil two were healthy one good friend was chiggery They had who was king the devils but they dren

"

, yo gê

té -

-te

ou pa

,



.

ki ti -

li

.



li

te -

,

té -

.

,



-

pa

té -

yo

nou mênê

la

's

't



I

.]



Yo

ki té -

té -

té -

té Sé -



you

chikata you zâmi rwa diab jâm kônê You jou êvité jou Twa vini lakay pasé moun youn bie kota mê êgâm

chikata

give you this

.

of

Devils and Children twa pitit

you mâmâ

ki

22 .

(

1

. 6.

little

chik

tell

Stories

Other

vlé mênê

ever have happened gave me little kick there

came

]

[

and

King

to

I

,

,

I

;

,





A

li la

ou

,

la

you

.

li

mâti

voyé

that wouldn

"

-pa té -

ou

-a -

t ti - -

ti -

kou mwê vini ba nou m

rivé

jâm

pié

passed said the poor man you Ah since you were ambitious monkey tongue hadn stolen the

lầg

vòlò

sa a

pa -t

sa

, ou

si -

âbisié

makak bâ -

mwê

, ,

ou

-k -



pasé

la :

.

ice

Mwê

131

.

.

he

."

to

.”

: .

't

,

I



,

,

no .

"

,

my

sleep

,

't

I

,

:

,

't



:

,

to no

,

of

,

him



:



in

of



, :

,

it

he

't

't to

one

want

you

."

to

.

time was passing When the one finished eating fell singing All through the night

I

,

"

,

,

'.

,



't

, ,

:"

sleep want He my house when "

?

I

,

river

, fill

to

her The king to

to

.”

my feet

the for

to

mother goes basket water

come and wash

night seeing

He

could

000

. . .

. . .

spent

the whole the basket

.

onomatopoeia

fill

,

the water ran out yoo

00

a

the river with basket dipped the basket Each time he

ran

eat kalalou Chiggery one

of

she fills

he

.

At

:

sleep

mel my

sleep

to

you

don

said

:

don

't

he

a

't

aléba

Then

Sleep



sleep

Mel

hear

I

answered

,

, ”

no . can

no ,

sleep

,

't

, :"

to

can

son

it .

.

-

mouri

Then

one answered can

chiggery

[

é

.

-a

yo

, pa

yo

moun

alé

Why don

time

:

Li -a,

.

- ..

ou

a

t-

-

ti -

yo si li

ou

. . ap .

ti - la

chikata

-a -

. li . .

-y

-

li

ak

.”

-a

li

li

-

.

-l

gras

tou lévé

sleep

child

for the chiggery

look

All

Mel

mother cooks rice and beans for me The devil ran cook rice and beans chiggery the one During this

answered

plê panié

my

house when

vidé

wè moun

all

,

to

to

a

,

I



:

to

my

hear

the devils answered

now

The chiggery

"

sleep

why

tout nuit Avâ jou

go

.

ing In

to

,

'."

he

came said

singing

eat kalalou

don

,

aléba

The king

pasé

fell

Sleep

Ogakana klwa sleep The

didn

sleep

) he .



, - :

singing

dlo

pa

Li



di :

one can

The king

mel

-pa

? ”

li

chiggery

night

plê you panié mâmâ lariviè pié pou vini lavé mwê Rwa ou panié pou kouri alé lariviè plê plôjé panié Chak fwa dlo you

children



, : .

-



'.

,

-

fi

,

lè -pa nô .”

alé



,

ou

sa

-

ki



,

'

mwê tâdé mèl mèl Rwa répôn Dòmi dòmi mô dòmi aléba Épi mâjé kalalou Chikata pou répôn vlé dòmi Lakay mwê kapab mwê dòmi

answered

the

Then

?

-

ap

,

-





-pa

li



.



maché Kou chikata fini mâjé tôbé châté Tout nuit mwê kab dòmi Pâdâ

But

the machete

,

-

pwa bay

ak

sé -

chikata

diri

kuit

alé

.”



ak

,

- -pa

:"

? ”

-

la

kouri

kitchen

to he

Lakay Chikata répôn kapab mwê kou mwê dòmimâmâ mwê kuit pwa diri mwe Diab vlé dòmi

sharpen

was word said make the Ogakana children sleep was Every time said that the chiggery one who was lying the center the there

At

!

.

, ou li

-

ki

fi, ”



,

Pou

one

started

"

nâ -

-

-

la

répôn

dòmi Épi

nô .

,



time time meat for the

the evening when they were sleep the king arranged his affairs eat the children His servant

for

ti -

.



.” li

-pa





,

,

diab

li di li :

-mpa “

:

,

dòmi

Tout nwit mwê tâdé

âjé kalalou

jwên chikata

.yo

ti -

yo "

ti -

-

Rwa Dòmi nô

'.”

,

'

-

â

pa

moun



pa

mèl

aléba

vini

di

té -

ki



tôbé châté kapab dòmi

.”

Chikata

châtâ



Chak kouché Ogakana

:

-

répôn

Épi

mèl

mâchèt pou

Ogakana

klwa

mwê

filé

té -

-: li

,

lakwizin

sân



chikata nâ

,

sa

di

li

moun kou

koûmâsé

mo dòmi

you

yo

li



-té

Dòmèstik

li



tout zafè

li li

-

A

swè

yo

chiggery

pralé dòmi rwa râjé mâjé pou moun

other from little piece

a

dropped

of

;

pletely

to

the

CREOLE

if

HAITIAN

HALL )

AMERICAN

132

(MEMOIRS ,

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

74

Before day , the children also got up , they went off, and thanks to the chig gery one the children didn 't die .

a

by

on

.

't

[

in

for

ask

to

),

,

:

she said

mine

there

's

,

[

,

and

]

She ran

in

.

buggy

Mamma mamma my man They ,

.

épi

a

,



yo "

pâ -m -

palé avèk



fi -a

avèk

in



-



,



âtré

.



blâ



ti -

fiâsé

li . Yo

di :

li

Yo

Mâmâ mâmâ mê

.

while the young lady was the bal cony she saw big white man pass

kouri âtré li

-ap

pasé

k

blâ

gle

bògi

-

pâdâ mâmzèl nâ

sin

girl child But every young man who came the girl mar riage the girl didn want One day

, . Li li .

ti fi -

,

ya

tout

There was a mother who had a

vini mâdé pou jou vlé You balkô wè you gro

-pa ki té -

. Mê

ti fi -

fi

ya jên

2. ( Bluebeard : Magical Escape .] Sé - té you mâmâ ki té - gê ou sèl pitit

him

a

"

's

:

]

't

, if

can

makes blood you bleeds water don

.

[

he lit

,

, if

'

,

re

]

,

[

be

bleeds marry

see

The girl pricked the white he bled water but greatly she loved him she told her mother was blood bled Then they got married The white man took she saw

.

far

,

to a

he

far

a

he

,

told the girl

.

kill her

he was go The girl knelt down

,

he

, to

and

begged pardon

.

to

girl did

but the man said eat her What the

,

was going

to

]

and

a

[

let

;

]

(

),

was she asked permission her room and say little prayer then while she was upstairs

house she her When they ran after her she had time climb im

's

window

an

to

.

a

of

tree

.

mense

,

the white man

self out

,

.

of

.

went

the man had kettle sharpened his ma

to

li



yo

môtè you kokên pié bwa

priè

li, kò li li ,

you

he

li

mâdé lapèmisiô

chete ing

go

-

mâjé

,

ro

. -

â

li



-

,

li

di ti fi -a jounou

a

-



di

pou

épi pâdâ kay blâ lagé nâ you fénèt Lò kouri dèyè gể

left

water boiled

in

chodié

ti -

châm

li

.

Ti fi -a



li

alé

mét

ni

li

mâmzèl nâ -

.

li

Sa

-

l-

apé touyé mâdé padô mê msié pou

off country One day

[

bouyi you msié épi mâchèt



li

,

filé

li,

You dlo



jou

,

his wife

,

he

.

it

he

,

,

man

as

.”

marry

,

ou

. di fè

l-

,

alé

the mother

m

-

w

li li

,

li

yo

marié

gave the girl and she said Here this giving you while you talking you with the white man prick him

But

needle

I'

,

fè sa ap

ou

li

dlo

,

pati

.

,

pîga

wè âpil

Épi



â

-



li, . blâ li li li â, fè

rêmê

prâ madâm you péi lwê lwê

-



ba ti si ou fi -a

li,

ou

si

li sâ

-

mâmâ Blâ

kòm

ni

,



pâdâ

té -

Ti -fi -a , â,

-

.”

marié

you zépêg

wè piké

li

ak “

bla

mèt marié

dlo

bay

mwê piké



ou

palé

sa â



di :

li

Mê mâmâ

.

to

.

him

in ]!”

[

=

had the white They talked with man come and then they betrothed the girl

HAITIAN li rélé you ti-diab , pou - li koupé piè

What the king of the devils did , he a little devil , he gave him an

called

fifty

in

:

"

",

.

.

,

.

, 't

,

,

to

of

on

her



's

say

,

anything

pebble

third

But those

)

(

and

say

and

al

doesn

doesn

't

if

',

another

do

]

the

it

a

drop

if



',

sovéba

.

say raléba

anything drop

it

vin -

do

” ”

[

.

drop one and

rach rach

in

as

m

I'



-



, ,

,

ti sa

yo

.”

” “

,

"

fall when the girl her godmother had given three pebbles and had told her the day the wedding Here what giving you gift any trouble tree was ready

-

pa

:

si di li

',

-

é

!

diab

were

remembered



pa

si li

té -

Ai

's

,

,

"

.

, ya

,

ba

- la : “ li

té -

-

ti yo

sa

gro

, ti -

fwa

.

pi

. Li ti

zèl

Bone

The dogs

however the little hacking hacking the

there

devils

âgnê sovéba roch Aléba toujou sou mâm roch lagé youn plap pié bwa



wild they

howled

Out

rach

ti fi -

yo

-

ni

',

nâ -

di '

, ‘

,

- di la

you lòt lagé twazièm

tro

rach

twa roch épi nòs Mê mwê nêpòt kèl âgajmâ lagé âyê lage raléba

jou

kado

youn

ti -

a

té -p

di , li

té -

ou

li

sôjé marên

diab

rèt pou tôbé



ba -

La -

mêm

mother

their chains barked The mother however was talking with friends outside she didn hear They

.

,

li

Trouble Bone Crusher

were absolutely

tâdé

pié bwa

girl

,

-

-â ak yo yo

The Day Breaker

zâmi

-b

-pa

During this time the



ya

m

apé ay odiâs

little devils appear their hands

other

had three big dogs which were called

fini japé

Chê

rélé

,

.

chên



ti fi zo ".

Krazé

Yo

mêm

déyò

Jou

"

té -



Mâmâ



Brizé débôdé

zo , -nâ ” "

chê

:

ki -tâ

grâ

twa gajé

you

,

-

of

ak

ti -

lòt

saw

mâmâ rélé

gave

the axe the little devil

with axes Pâdâ

to cut the tree . Each blow

axe for him

on

na -



.yo

ou wè sêkật

.

ti- diab - la bay diab parèt rach

bwa - a . Chak kou t - rach

, : "

,



rach

't

you

In

li

-

rwa diab -la

ba

133

m

Sa

li

CREOLE

I'

HALL ]

pebbles

were ways the young lady She dropped one plop the tree became many times larger Alas the little devils

'

.

,

.

!

,

on .”

'

Aléba

.

hacked and hacked When the tree was ready

to

:

,

,

,

time

,

that same time the dogs were beside themselves over there ready burst their chains but the mother her conversation didn

,

't

in

,

completely

to



At

débode

.



ini

chên sa

-pa-

pou pété

yo

chế

yo

mêm

odiâs

-

mâmâ

prèt nâ

la

ba -a

-a

Ta

sa

.

to

hacked and from time there were more little devils and

.

fall

another she said Raléba the tree became fifty times bigger The little devils hacked

, .

diab

she dropped ”

ti - yo

diab

gêgnê plis

again



li

-

,



Ti -

gro

détâzâtâ

-

é

rach

,

rach

.

vini sêkât fwa

pi “

,

li

la

di :

lòt -

lagé

pou tôbé âkò pié bwa Raléba té -



pié bwa prèt

When

the tree was ready

to

a

tôbé âkò

-

pié bwa prèt pou

ti fi -

.

see this



fall

ANTHROPOLOGICAL

the

.”

dropped

In

.



m

li

,



-

-a





-

m

sou mâmâ

pété chên

the last peb ble and said Aléba The tree be came hundred times bigger and the dog they called The Day girl

I'

kouri

âgajé

,

again





a

-

Jou

"

rélé

yo

lagé dènié ti-roch -la é-di “ Aléba .” Pié bwa vini fwa pli gro épi chê

(MEMOIRS , 74

ASSOCIATION

a

AMERICAN

134

,

She

.”

in

is



:

let

, to

,

,

on

of

king away

the

When he

.

.

-

she

trouble

loose the other dogs they arrived and they found the tree about fall over They fell the little devils

.

yo

this

saw

they broke their necks too

n

mâmâ

the mother child

My

]

.

kasé kou tou sové épi chê

When said

[



chaviré

. Yo yo

,

rivé

yo

-p

tyo , a

-a ka

ti fi -

ya -

la

-ti

tôbé sou diab Lè rwa diab wè mênê

chê

ral

Pitit mwê

yo

lòt

lagé

li

Li

pié bwa

.”

jwên

sa ,





mâmâ

sa

Lò âgajé

li , di :

.

"

to

Trouble burst his chain and ran the mother

devils saw that ran and the dogs took the girl her mother do

Ah ,

a



:

[ lit .

.

lie

]

]

I

,

't

,

.

be

't

.

In

.

It

a

to

a

as

to

,

he

;

in

for



'

re

I

?

',

:

'

re

in

to

Cat was careful pickled meat

,

not left

leave

a

.

't

the time you Before they

.”go

]

so

(

all

I



, '

,

Brother piece

be

.

,

don

of ]

his larder

eat when they

.

,

all

to

's

in

to

came back pocket but the cat get bis when Brother Dog went violin and Brother Cat ate the meat them

The key was

]

.



-

thievish called

,

li

-



-

-

yo



.

al

,

,





viân

mâjé

was for that reason that Brother Cat took Brother Dog But before they went Brother Cat said You will will be What Did That called you called The People know

[

prékosió

any tolerance there Voilà Brother

thieves

party Cat had been invited place that there was food and drink abundance Brother Dog was get his violin musician went

(

.”



,

-

alé

If

.

m

-

y a gâ ou

-



Sa ,

- ‘

a -

y ou

-

ou

piga

pati kôpè chat

rélé

rélé visié tout

mêm

kônê

, -

M

’.yo rélé

,



.

yo

ki , fè l al

sa

té -

-



di :

mêm

there wasn

wouldn

.



-



-

a

t-

ak -

, yo

sa -a

Sé -

'”,

nâ sa

-pa

yo yo

-

give

.]

té - -pa



té -

pa sé -

(W

li . -



yo



Ou

mwê

gad mâjé marinê toûnê Klé poch chat mê kou kôpè chê chaché kôpè chat mâjé tout viân violô

kité you pou

to

't [

.

sa a 3

Si .

.

ap

-

moun



ki

kôpè chat

Avâ

tell

hy Dog Hates Cat

sitirè vòlè kôpè chat you êvité pati Koté mâjé pay bwésô kòm kôpè chê mizisiê chèché kôpè chat pou tèt violô mênê kôpè chê Mê âvâ alé Vwala

She said me That you She gave me

came

you this little

you you

how

!"

concern

look

to

died

doesn

!”

almost

and



I

ambitious

mâti

kick

said

, :

by ,

be

to

!"

passed

have

mwê

ti -



Li

-

ou !"

gadé

ou

t-

Li

I

"

mwê vini

:

A

di :

pa jâ

pié



mwê you kou

fokou

mâké mouri ba

mwê

Sa

,

âbisièz

di

pasé

gadé

,

Mwê

ou

.

's

,

to

,

the

the

, he

, ]

[

to

to

to

him

it

.

;



, .

ate

he

,

fill

remember

Brother Dog What Did This

ti

krip

,



sang

Ti -

? ”

at

,

for



,

you

they called

he

't

.

the last person had got tired what Brother Cat did he

a

went out front did excrement by the kitchen

,

he

he

),

was

big pile

in

he

conversation

,



of

yo

-



drink his belly full

incomparably

When

[

lò fè

, li

pa la

-



pèsôn

-

li

l-

fini

sòti dévâ koujin



pil okabiné râtré bie pròp

you gro

ay

, lâ -b

rasazié

:

kôpè chat

li

fè fin

, Lò

dènié moun sa

fraz



,





.

krap

call

played

come

of

:

they didn

all He

you

,

-

. li

châté

,

)

all

he

If

]

[ pa

yo

rélé

kôparézô

-



; ti -

jwé

,

. Li

tou

krap



krip

Ti -

di - -

pou kôpè chê

sa ? ”





Sa

ki

Mê dévên “

The People But unluckily

was

was sweating like day long they

took

Brother Cat went and drank his

and

the posture

see

the people

people

the

neck

could

when

Then

were calling

,

his

you

violinist

the

that eat

li .

rélé

around

collar played

.

-ap li

,

té -

yo



yo

li,

.

Moun

135

they arrived at When feast Brother Dog grabbed his violin his

of

-

-

yo



y

nâ -

-

l-

, 1

,



,

vin



-"



- li,

-

bwè

plê vât

sôjé

mâjé moun

Kôpè chat alé bwè kôt bwèsô nou

ou



-

yo ”

.

mênê

mâjé

ap li

li

fo

ou

sa

moun



"

-

.

Si -

li,

Lò yo rivé lâ - fèstê -â , kôpè chế mâché violô kòl kou jwé wè pòz violônè swé kô Alò ké tout lajounê rélé

CREOLE

.

HAITIAN

HALL ]

.

he

of

,

had

sweat

, :

on

,

the

stom

with

[

,

him

] to 't

;

!"

hadn

when even

on (

)

,

even finished speaking the last person fell

he

patted his

me

,

did

!

:“

he

said

It ' he s

left his violin

,

? ”

he



this

ach and

,

ran

,

filth

:

she saw

pile

of

a

.

ti -

,



Ti -



other

Gentlemen What Immediately Brother Dog

said

;

, I :“

,

]

[

firebrands and blows with stones My friends what Brother Dog said did

I to

'



:

with his limping then

,

,

his

arm

all

running

started

violin under

-

he

,

go

!”

on

he

,

dead

[ it ]

to

do

I

you just said Here Brother Cat said Give him the mouth When they let Brother Dog was three quarters

'.”

. l-

ka nâ -

'

li

li

-

â

she

am

-

di



pi ba

l-

,

la

-1

ak



li . '.” ”

yo

di :

,

-m

,

,

li

, !

o

-

: , , , di

, “

di :

-

,

bwa difé

Mé zâmi nou Mê

the

incomparably Well woman who came past by

trap

the kitchen

nou mwê sèlmâ Kôpè chat Ba lagé kôpè chê bouch twa prô kouri mò violô bra tou bwété tân kôpè chat dévâ

mwê

trip

there was

,

li



-pa

;



,

: "

sa

,

-a



t-

sa

kôpè chê

roch

Dog

Brother

hand was quite exhausted poured forth his last drop

li

li

fin

palé

li

, lâ

épi

dèniè moun tôbé sou msié

kou

But

,

Ti -

-l

Hap kôpè chê bat lèstomak

li

? ”

,

mêm

-

-



mwê

Bô “

kô -

-k

sa



ki

Sa

kité violôâ “

,



Msié kouri

. . . koujin

pasé

vin

fâm

pil malpròpté

trip

vwala

li di bò .





you

gout swè ôparézô

déniè

rap

pati

mêm

li

fin

ti -t

rân

figi

li :

him

Kôpè chê mêm

in

had finished came back quite clean without anybody seeing

when

ANTAROPOLOGICAL

ASSOCIATION for

AMERICAN

136

he waited

,

(MEMOIRS

Brother

Cat

74

farther

I to

't

ple

to to

yo

:

,

.”

he

,

he

to

-

:

My brother console he said yourself when we get home pass off our anger onto the pickled meat they arrived When Brother Cat put his hand his pocket took ,

he

he

as

at

;



]!

? ”

,

it



:

,

he

him

lit . .

he

was

]

Cat

stupid

.

doesn

't

Being

Dog

is

. that

[

on

that day

good terms with

:

[

he a

!

; [

at . he ]

When

kill

country

all .

was

at

there

a

now

,

There

.

makes you sweat

a

.

a

where they didn allow women There were only men Each time woman entered there there was big

,

.

la

âtré tôbé sônê

fâm

Brother Dog Brother

went home

't

sèlmâ

little tree raced

gave

-

he

, on

s

,

, ki té .]

-

pa

yo

-

fwa you

kloch

gasô

ki

gro

.

péi

di - té -

sé -

, .



té - té

résévwa fâm gêgnê Chak you

you

tou



[

.

4

The Country Without Women

Vwala

from

Moral you

it

ou



li

,

ou

-

pa

:]

. [

touyé

below

good swearing

never

swé

and

,

up

] a

the tree

down

It '

-

ak

-pa

-

jou

sa a

. Sé -

Sòt

biê

jâm

No

it

.”

to

li .

·

stayed

Cat

Moral

oh ! if

!

into the larder

looked

through chê

he

, a

[

brother



:

raised

What

meat He knew was Brother Cat who must have done that job im mediately set out after until they

flew

dépi

his

somewhat

is

he he

the was look something

came where there was Brother Cat whssht

chat

opened

Oh



:

lit .

;

he

,

's

li

,

yo

fini

.

Dog said

When

Lò l- àba , !



té -

-

-l li

-a

,

.

ti -

al

head

,

sa a



ki

,

li

li

jouré kôpè chat biê jouré lakay

happened

Brother

kôpè chat travay pou jouk pati dèyè rap rivé pié bwa Kôpè chat voup koté you kôpè chê rété volé sou bwa

l- li

in

, - -l :

di

kônê

out the key and when larder the rascal acted surprised said what

sé -

.”

kÔsa gad

-



viân

? ”

Pwên

gadé



tèt

kôpè

sézi kôpé

li

, si ” -

l-





gadé you kichoy

-

yé , “

-

:

a

li

Sa

mâjé

ouvri gad

kòm

Li

! o !

“ O

di :

li

-a

vakabôâ

mâyê soulvé

chê “

prâ klé épi

li

, , li

-



poch

mâjé

kôpè chat fouré mê

rivé

,



li li,

yo

.”

I'

ll

,



,

cry

,

,

rivé

sou viân

nou

: ( , “ as he . if ]

raj

everything was me When Brother Cat wiped his mustache and then left When met with Brother Dog made his face very hypocritical he was ready over

li

-

,

.” m -a - m

kôsolé

pasé



ou

Kôpè

man

peo

the

haven the right take that any ceremony that man has

shamed

li

ak -

li

nou

:

-l



.”

m

fè -

la

l-



-

, ,

.

li

li



di :

ôt

sérémoni nô Lè tout bagay fini kôpè chat souyé moustach épi pati kôpè chê jwên prèt pou krié figi biê ipokrit

lakay marinê

Brother Cat said

Then

okên

:“

-

sa a

moun

-

-a

dwa mênê nòm



di

kôpè chat

gê sa

“ M

- Sé -pa lè

.

along

HALL )

HAITIAN CREOLE

Kou - kloch -la sônê, yo chaché

fâm

that strange

in

was

she began

off

see

]

on

,

of

,

;

in a

is

in

!

s a

it '

I

I

,

,

sus

, !

a

]

saw

,

[

you

they

.

her “

said

:

,

place

number

killed

I

by that

In

you

if

."

to

,

,

were curious curious like that this you ever have happened

been

't

wouldn

then

a

.

't

asmuch

as

of

I

-



passed

sa

di

ou

tortures and

hadn

kou

is

in a

is

in

, ,

!”

,

they

They made her undergo

:

kô - -

“ A

di :

Li

-m



.”

ou

-



t

-é -

pa ou . -

,

la

ou -

si

,

a

-g

Li

woman

say

came and bang they they took her undressed her they they looked and she was

,

picious

yo

li



li .

adé

all .

,

at

;

to

's

,

a

!

. pa ou pa t-

-

k

-

sa



bong soo

soo

she was afraid she was somewhat

woman pasé you kâtité mati épi Yo touye Mwê pasé bò mwê kirié kirié jâm rivé mwê

Sa

an

in

's

,

's

,

coming

,

a

. . .

's

fâm

coming

what

Bong soo bong say woman woman When the young woman heard that

it li

yo jâ

ni ,

you

-



,

yo pè

yo



; of

at

]

woman

,

-

, li

sa

, !

yo

li,

gadé

the

instant the bell coming

What



to

ring

:

started

yo

yo



,

dézabiyé

in

a

),

to

[

,

mwê

you

when

the town

let

]

-a

bêg

prâ

be

to her

't

-

(

,

sé -ap di di -

,

sa k

la

-

but

sou

mâmzèl tâdé bap vini

going

and they her pass she looking what there was

k

-ap

(

la

-



vil - ,

li

-p

li

li

ki

li



li

li,

li,

li



yo

sé -

brother

woman what Bong soo

sispèk

because

her she answered going see her

was

she

sa

-a

that

started

,

. . . !

guards questioned

the town

sou

she kept

the gate

mwê

âtré

afraid

meet any women But she put hand her halfort draught saddle bag she took

bêg

sou

.

,

.

there

,

far

she got

koûmâsé

fâm

[

as a

,

because the country was when she was nearly

very

grog and then

!”

sé - sé -

fâm

gêyê

kloch

òtay

pasé

what there she dis

country

herself man She put pants her her shirt her cane her pipe and then she left She walked guised

,

k

Bêg

prâ you répôn

woman who

a

swore she had to go to

;

One day there was

;

li

[and ] they killed her.

sou

sé -



:

a

-

!

fâm

kité

âtré

fâm

Bêg

fâm



,

Sa

momâ

rivé

,

you

sônê âtré

adé

- ti -g ap , -



kèsioné

li,

pralé wè frè koûmâsé apé

ralfò

sa

,

-

yo

gad

la

lavil

fouré mê kôtinié

li

li



the woman

searched

she didn

grog épi

ringing . When the

to

,

,

,



.

té -

out ,

and walked

.

di -

,

li

té -



-a

li

li

,

li

,

pip maché paské péi âpil maché lwê pré rivé paské koûmâsé râkôtré fâm tou

batô

li li,

.

-

chémiz

-pa li

Pâtalô épi pati

gasô

li Li ,

maské

li â

li

You jou gê you fâm ki fè sèmâ sé pou li alé wè sa ki gê nâ -péi dròl sa -a ,

bell which fell bell rang , they

,

- nâ ,

yo touyé li .

137

- a pou -mwê

She said

me:

to

That doesn ' t con



, I came

you .” She gave me a kick

cern

give

to

there me you this little lie

tell

.

to

]

la

.e .

mwê vini tôbé ti-mâti sa - a .

ou

[i

bay

fall

t - pié ,

(MEMOIRS , 74

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

for

AMERICAN

138

a

to

],

in

[

;

.

's

,

;

it

off .

of

to

he

,



:

to

.

to

a

turned into snake and began the girl He began swallow singing her The girl fell Mother suck

,

,

m

I'

,

I



:

,

!

I

I

!"

I

he

up

,

's

he

to

,

:

's



,

.

,

,

daughter

, oh

! [



My

].

,

:

mother answered

in -

no

].

!"

, [r



”yé o ! ”

swallowed her feet was her knees The girl sang Mother dear mother here the snake swal lowing me epeat The snake an my mother swered No law only caressing her repeat The

:



-m

,

"

-tè fi, -1

m

:

-

-

kô - :

-



jèn

te -

sa “

m

, m

law

in -

,

,

,

].



,

fi

repeat

-

la

la

-

].

].

-

[r

-

[r

-

ma (

-

,

mâmâ mê koulèv

was

was how The snake was swallowing the girl

m

:



fi -a

Ti -

apé valé epeat Koulèv répôn Nô nô apé karésé ma bèl mè karésé epeat Mâmâ répôn Ma chè

My daugh

when

that how was My daugh my daughter when was

I'

Mâmâ

, ,

,

châté

li

ti fi a

ap . -

jénou

-



-jis

li

valé pié

valé

,

m

,

no

!”

oh

daughter

ter young that Koulèv

No



:



young

my

's

té -

my mother

caressing her

The mother answered ter

,

sa m !

-

o

-

o

-té

yé Ma

kô -

fi !”yé , fi,

ma

fi,

-



sé m “

:

jèn sa

té -

sé kô -

jèn

répôn

m

ma



-

- té fi, -

m

Mâmââ

,

No

only

my

careessing

I'

in -

!

!”

-1

her

no !"

,

's

,

!

's

The snake answered only mother law

oh

nô ,

-

,

l!

-

-a

-

m

-a

-

m

,

-

-

,

pé karésé Nô pé karésé bèl mè karésé karésé

-

ma bel





:

-



répôn

la

Koulèv

mè ma

he

a

,

he

a

.

or

a

,

[

that the man was the great the evening the wedding

on

-

: -

;

li

-

.

.

a

;

,

too

't a

on

mother was very happy she hastened marry her daughter But hap to

li

,

la

fine moustache for the girl The girl

]

li

a

-

li -

-

,

chain

came and asked

dear mother here the snake swal lowing me Mother dear mother here the snake swallowing me

!”

-m

-

watch

pened

châté

because

ugly

.

ki



, .

fi -a a. , -Li

, Ti -

ti fi -

.

li

,

!

la

gê té

-

, ti - , li li fi li -a -a té

grâ

lé -



li ,

m

-

-

.



.

a

-



la -

-



-

tôbé

chè mâmâ

apé valé

want

she found them too poor One day there was man who came big brown horse had fine

devil

apé mê koulèv Mâmâ chè mâmâ mê kou

Mâmâ

lèv

Mê trouvé

laswaré koulèv épi mêm koû

nòs toûnê you koûmâsé sousé valé

sou

mâdé

biê kôtâ

kouri vit marié pitit nôm nâ diab

valé



té -

,

,

,

ti fi -

Mâmâ

vini

bèl chên

Rat

the

There was mother who had beautiful daughter But she was very ambitious everybody who came marriage ask for the girl she either

vini

bèl moustach

mâsé

Ambition Kills

didn

you nôm You jou you gro chwal brin

pou

swa

swa trò pòv

lèd

môt

ti yo -fi ,

-

li



pou

trouvé

li

paské

vlé

-

vini mâdé

-



ki

.

fi



trò -pa

moun

té -

ki .

.

5

Âbisyô Touyé Rat you bèl Vwala you mâmâ pitit Mê âbisièz âpil tout

139

CREOLE

's

I

). on

her

swallowed

swallowing her neck

, , ,



,

up

,

he

her

the girl began choke she sang dear mother throat Mother her here the snake swallowing me

;

"

's



:

,

]

to

and

in

-

re

,

(

-m

).

-

la

mâmâ mê koulèv peat

chè

[

koûmâsé

gòj Mâmâ apé valé

-

châté

was young that

epeat

And the snake kept

li

valé

li, li

ti : fi - “ ya

,





, ,

li

trâglé

apé valé



la

jis

kou

rivé

- -

Épi koulèv

when

was

to

daughter

the way

(r

my

I

HAITIAN

HALL ]

no

,



m

I'

's

.”

,

go

up

up

a

;

;

swallowing

[ by a lit .

she pulled her was what saved the girl

tress hair that escape made

by ,

; ,

."

,

I

of

a

[ [ lit . ]

.

"

't ,

to

as a

Ring a

's .

's

Once

beautiful

.

of a

a

a

to

,

he

he hunted

in

,

a

,

the ring ran

see

,

didn

he

it .

't

the rooms didn find Im mediately tell his father that The king set the people looking for the ring the house

in

all

to

-

-a

l-

ké -

-a

nâ - .

-

tell

.

pèdi

Rwa

con and

diamond ring which had cost for tune One morning the prince got up

to

li .

sa

-l

trouvé bag

.

l

-

nâ la -l

vini

chaché pale you

kick

daughter who was called Clauda She was engaged handsome prince present superb who made her

't

-

li

la

,

- .

-pa



nâ di li

-a fi -

.

kay



-

, l- - li al na , pa

la

-

pou

kab rézigné

-t -

pa gro

oûgâ

papa

a

]

â

-l la té -

li

kouri

sa

.



-

ki ki

-

na

wit

mété tout moun bag Alò rwa

Daughter

king who had

.

fiâsé avèk you bèl prês kado you supèb bag diamâ kouté you fòtin You matê bag prês lévé chaché jwên tout châm Tous

Kloda

fall here

King

The

there was

That doesn

this little

.

rélé

all he

ou

té - gê

You fwa bèl fi

you

ki té

.



Fi

Rwa

you

me

she gave me lie so

came

to ”,

I

.

She said

:

cern you

her husband

passed blows Because you were ambitious you almost lost your child rain

to

mwê vini mâti

té -

Li té -

ki

.

6

Bag



look how

sa -a

"

ou ,

said

:

ou

fòs

-

gave her

give rwa

she came back

When

li

ba

“ A

mwê

pie ti - , -pa

t-

kou

Sa

ou



:

you

pou

ou

-a

la

di :

,



di

Li

mwê

tôbé

ba

li

.

bâ a ”

ou -

, ,

li

li

you pli toûnê mari makak mwê pasé mwê âbisièz gadé mâké pèdi pitit gadé mwê

I



.

]

to

,

of

little

she

when

big

snake which the girl only her head was outside

saw

of

tip

,

arrived she was finishing

went

and

;

got

mother

a

n

-

d

,



:

's ;

's

ki ki sa

-

,



li

.

my

caressing

,

, ,

-

.”

â

li ,



-

- ti -

,

in -

[r



la

No

only

mother epeat her But father said The girl you hear the girl singing that she trouble but get and see The the matter with her what in it

ou

di :

ya

you très chévé

chapé

-



ki

,

li

ti fi li -a

fini valé déyò ralé

pitit

tônè âgajé mê gêgnê Mâmâ lévé wè you gro koulèv pwết tèt sèlmâ



rivé



apé châté

, li li

; lè

alé

li

tâdé pitit lévé alé wè

sa

- ti la fi -

Papa

law

:

-

].

(



The snake answered ].

ma bèl repeat

,





-l

-

,



apé karésé

m

me karésé

- :

-

la

Koulèv

,

[

].

repeat

répôn

ANTHROPOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

his son

so

he

.

drew

cards , he rang bells, he cast

where

the ring was . When the king

shells , [but ]

he wasn ' t able

to

find

he

,

he

took

;

die

,

was going he

into his head

prison

in

sorcerer saw himself

to he

in

a

. ,

,

he

't

to

the oungan wasn able make him find the ring was angry great rage got into had the put oungan prison When the saw

him

if

't

to

. noon

,

The

.”

's

the

to



go

in

,

.

.

others

came

another maid has the others because

,

At

hastened

As she

Here one and speak

: to

to ]

.

in

It

al

ki

it

,

to

]

,

[

happened

.”

it

]

the food

to

,

the last

(

.

go

to

.”

's “

I :

carry

see how

us

ve

'

to

't

the ones that really stole you don need denounce

, :

to

's

,

"

at

,

re



'

ring

the

us ,

s

it '

,

Here the third When the maid say oungan heard the that she fell her knees his feet and she said Papa we know you found out

.” :

The sorcerer said see the last

, ”, ”

to

a

at



so

can

,

fêt

said

him

we

pi

At night

Let me

maid

nou

isi ?

talk

the others that

I

-

, , a , a

A

Si



,

mwê avèk

said

al

, li

é

-l

-pa

bòkòa



.”

papa

the prisoner

, li

- lnâ

-

-

-

-



-

li

li t-.” , ou :“ Lò -ap ri

bézwê

ou

li

M

bâ “

la

Wi



vlé sové pòté

,

répôn

vit

oûgâ

food

tened

tâdé

gadé

(

li





-

nâ a, .” a

-

tôbé

couldn

was second one who had carried the food noon and the oungan cried out Here the second The maid away immediately went and tell

dékouvri nou

vré

-

a



eat they

happened that the palace there were three maids who were working When morning came one brought

maid



pié

kill

much

yet

the oungan



mwê touswit Èské nou kodên

Poté bag

-

é

bòn

ba la

sézi

bòn

Kou

jénou

di : ,

tâdé

a

dénôsé nou

nou

twazièm

nou kônê

vòlò bag

-

nou

pati touswit

ou

Papa

krié





di :

jété

sé , - :di “ . , a nâ -â , sa, di , o a ki , sa, ”, di :“ lié , li é - li n-l - li “ ap

oûgâ

oûgâ

swè dènié bòn pou mwè kou

-a

dénié

-



.”

mwê wè

bòn kouri you dézièm

ba A -

.

sa

yo

-

.”

Bòkò

-a

rivé

Bòn pòté

m

Lésé

-



di



-

té -

lòt

anôsé

al

-

paské

pòté mâjé midi

dézièm

âtré oùgâ palé kouri

té lòt la

.

yo , -

A

midi

you sé

lòt

Bòn

.”

.yo

palé



lòt di :



youn

ki



-

-

Kou

-a

-t

t

-

Matê mâjé bay prizonié

-

ap

twa bòn rivé youn pòté

a

pale

Trouvé ravay



. nâ -

gave him

he

in

his

,

to

in

said

,

heart was going many count how times they gave they him food before killed him be they cause mind believed then

.

-l

oungan

that ring , which

find

he

,

-l

-l

ba

âkò

could

he

kôté kôbiê fwa paské tué mâjé âpil

big

a

The oungan worked and worked , he

it

nâ , - où

,

li

wèl pral mouri

yo

yo

si

li

-l

kapab tué

mété

li a

-

mâjé âvâ kwè

-



grâ



.

-

l

li, l-



ba di li -







y

li

yo nâ - alò -ap pa

pâsé

bòkò

tèt

-ap li,

nâ -

mété

,

prizô

kolè



prizô

had

74

wasn 't able to resign himself to losing

Oûgâ - â travay

li râtré nâ -you

,

(MEMOIRS

priest ] come to the palace

( voodoo

, li travay , li tiré kat , , jété li sônê kloch li koki- la li pa-kab bag dékouvri koté -la yé. Lò rwa- a wè oûgâ pa -kab fè -l jwên bag - la , li faché ,

king

the

Then

his

AMERICAN

140

.

HAITIAN CREOLE

HALL )

mal kodên - nâ .” lòt yo

kouri al

Bòn -nâ

jwên

we' ll

for its

of

of

a

it

he

go

lie

(

can

,



:]

place and the sorcerer

you you

down

.”

in

in

he

.

he

,

The next morning the sorcerer had the king told was ready for him They brought him and when ar

a

is : “ of I

of

it

such

to

kind here bring brought They the big turkey

and

,

such

a

see you have

made the cards and said big turkey which

a

big

drawing

he

before the assembly

rived

his

'll

.”

a

]

[

,

"

:

.”

,

me gizzard the oungan said Have opened for me and you find the ring The king had them take knife the gizzard the turkey ring Everyone and the fell out was astonished they applauded The king gave the oungan was happy and

of

open

he

;

and

him

I off , he

it,

going

beating

.



you

without looking behind

hat and

was

I'

,

said

his

.

When to

't

the sorcerer give won

he

,

away

.

went

put

The sorcerer

took m

he

money

big sum



]

his bag

he

of (

.

;

.

]

(

and

a

, -

,

-a

.

mwê

went

your bed

it





la . ”

-

ba

nâ -

, -ap

âjé

turkey swallow and put the

had the

and

Then the people

in

ki tèl di :

li

é

t-

fal

,

-l li

-m

sak

alé

l-

. -a m

glisé

gadé dèyè

-

Pié

sâ sa

é

li

- .

sòti



-a

.



ouvri kodên Tout moun sézi oûgâ kôtâ

Bòkò

pati

li

di :

,

ou

ba

-pa



li, li

chapo

jwên bag

a -

.

-

la

sòt tôbé

bat bravo Rwa

bòkòa



lâ , n, ,

-

prâ kouto

you gro sòm lajâ prâ

oûgâ

;

a

bread

Yo

mwê

di . : ”

-l

,



li



mwê

kat

gro kodên



isi -a



-a

bag

-

é

kodên

li di



ou

“ M

,



-

gro

ouvri fal Rwa

paré rwa rivé dévâ

grâ kou

wè nou gêgnê tèl mênê

mênê

yo nâ

é

fè -

vini ou

-a

l

Yo

tiré

li .

li

-a



Démê matê bòkò

a

,

,

,

ou

kabân

got

you

it

-

nâ li, - “



.

-

-l

,

la

alé nâ -

kouché

turkey

asâblé

the

of being

quantity male turkey and candy jam money then the sorcerer put into piece took the ring

said

pou

When

instead

big

mal



li

la

-

-a



é

yo

al

nou . "

that ,

turkey here” ; the maid answered " Yes , papa . " " If you want to escape , bring it to me quickly , with the biggest male turkey . ” The maid ran to join the others. Later she brought the ring and a

Have

( it ).

li pòté bag -la ak -you gro

nou mèt

you . ”

to

surprised , he fell to laughing : “ Ha , ha , ha !” and he said : " I was watching your pretence ! Bring me the ring im mediately , ” and the oungan said :

kodên é-you kâtité bôbô , kôfitu , lajâ ; prâ bag alò bòkò fouré moso pê kodên valé Épi moun plas mété kodên Nou mêm

it

sorcerer heard



Pi ta

give

As in

gro

141

left

: Money -Giving Lizard .] té-rélé Wadilé té- pòv toujou

day the suffering became ever harder going big He resigned himself

;

he

an

,

ll

I'

it

),

he

.”

.

to he

a

.

in ) ,

. .

to

, a

.

to

to

a

at

-

he

but

.

to

)

of

(

lot

a

,

forgot the

in

of

the pocket the had had Whi