Gender at the Crossroads of Knowledge: Feminist Anthropology in the Postmodern Era 0520070925, 9780520070929

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Table of contents :
Contents
Foreword by Louise Lamphere
Acknowledgments
Introduction: Gender, Culture, and Political Economy: Feminist Anthropology in Historical Perspective by Micaela di Leonardo
PART ONE: GENDER IN COLONIAL HISTORY AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL DISCOURSE
1. Carnal Knowledge and Imperial Power: Gender, Race, and Morality in Colonial Asia by Ann Laura Stoler
2. Original Narratives: The Political Economy of Gender in Archaeology by Margaret W. Conkey with the collaboration of Sarah H. Williams
3. Interpreting Women in States: New Feminist Ethnohistories by Irene Silverblatt
PART TWO: GENDER AS CULTURAL POLITICS
4. Between Speech and Silence: The Problematics of Research on Language and Gender by Susan Gal
5. Baboons with Briefcases vs. Langurs in Lipstick: Feminism and Functionalism in Primate Studies by Susan Sperling
6. Organizing Women: Rhetoric, Economy, and Politics in Process among Australian Aborigines by Elizabeth A. Povinelli
PART THREE: REPRESENTING GENDERED LABOR
7. Female Farming in Anthropology and African History by Jane I. Guyer
8. Women, Technology, and International Development Ideologies Analyzing Feminist Voices by Kay B. Warren and Susan C. Bourque
9. Mujeres in Factories: Race and Class Perspectives on Women, Work, and Family by Patricia Zavella
PART FOUR: CONTENTIOUS KINSHIP: RETHINKING GENDER AND REPRODUCTION
10. Rethinking the Sexual Division of Labor: Reproduction and Women’s Work among the Efe by Nadine R. Peacock
11. Sexism and Naturalism in the Study of Kinship by Harold W. Scheffler
12. Moral Pioneers: Women, Men, and Fetuses on a Frontier of Reproductive Technology by Rayna Rapp
Notes on Contributors
Index
Recommend Papers

Gender at the Crossroads of Knowledge: Feminist Anthropology in the Postmodern Era
 0520070925, 9780520070929

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G E N D E R ATTH E

O F LEKNOWDGE

CROSROADS

FEMINIST ANTHROPOLOGY

IN THE

POSTMODERN ERA Micaela di Leonardo EDITED AN D WITH AN INTRODUCTION B Y

Gender at the Crossroads of Knowledge

Gender at the Crossroads of Knowledge: Feminist Anthropology in the Postmodern Era

E D IT E D A N D W IT H A N IN T R O D U C T IO N B Y

Micaela di Leonardo

U N IV E R S IT Y O F C A L IF O R N IA P R E S S B e rk e le y

L o s A n g e le s

I^ondon

University of California Press Berkeley and Los Angeles, California U n iversity o f C a lifo rn ia Press O xfo rd , E ngland

Copyright © 1991 by The Regents of the University of California Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data t. Anthropology— Philosophy. 2. Feminism. 3. Women. 4. Sex Gender at the crossroads of knowledge : feminist anthropology in the postmodern era ! edited and with an introduction by Micaela di l.eonardo. ji.

cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-500-0709.2-5 (alk. paper).— ISBN -j2

59 )

G E N D E R IN A N T H R O P O L O G IC A L H I S T O R Y T h is se n se o f a n th ro p o lo g y ’ s e d ific a to ry p la c e in A m e ric a n life, o f seein g o u rse lv e s th ro u g h se e in g o th ers, wra s in fact n ot an in v en tio n o f 19 7 0 s fem i­ nists but w a s rooted in the history o f A m erican an th ro po lo gy an d , indeed, in

INTRODUCTION

4

the d is c ip lin e a s a w h a le . T h e m a le V icto ria n B ritish e v o lu tio n a ry th e o rists w h o w o u ld b e la b eled ‘ 'a n th ro p o lo g ists* ' o n ly in the t8 8 o s w ere c o n c e rn e d to ta x o n o m iz e a ll k n o w n h u m a n g ro u p s, to p la c e H o tten to ts, a n cie n t R o m a n s , a n d c o n te m p o ra ry E u ro p e a n b o u rg e o ise s on a stra tifie d scala naturae a c c o rd * in g to th e ir re la tiv e ly s a v a g e , b a r b a r o u s , o r c iv iliz e d c h a r a c te r is tic s . A l­ th o u g h , a s G e o r g e S lo c k in g ( 19 8 7 ) d e m o n stra te s, m u ch o f the im p e tu s b e ­ hin d V ic to r ia n a n th ro p o lo g y la y in these m e n 's efforts lo e sta b lish a n d to m a k e se n se o f a d e sa c ra liz e d u n iverse, m o ral a n x ie tie s in a n e w ly G o d le s s re a lm d id not c o n stitu te the w h o le o f ih e ir co n cern . V ic to r ia n B r ita in w a s the m a jo r w o rld im p e ria l p o w er; it sa w the g ro w th o f a v ita l, m ilita n t w o m a n m o v e m e n t led b y the d a u g h te rs o f its b o u rg eo isie. V ic io r ia n a n th ro p o lo g y , th en , w a s n a tu ra lly en g a g e d in a tte n d in g to— le g itim a tin g but a lso prote stin g — the co lon ized sta tu s o f th ird -w o rld o th e rs. It a lso e n g a g e d , as E liz a b e th F e e ( 19 7 4 ) h as sh o w n , in a dialogue in absentia w ith the w o m a n m ovem en t. A c e n tral ten sion o f m id -V ic to ria n e v o lu tio n a ry d e b a te s w a s the p ro b * le m a tiz e d sta tu s o f m ale ru le o v e r w o m en . H a d w o m en o n ce ru led a n d been d ep o sed * a s B a ch o fen a sse rte d ? O r w ere w o m en now less e x p lo ite d (e s p e c ia l­ ly s e x u a lly ) th an in the p a st a n d a m o n g p rim itiv e s th o u g h t to b e “ liv in g h is to ry ” ? A sse rtio n s o f m a le lu st, fe m a le p u rity o r lic en tio u sn ess, m a le a n x ­ ieties o v e r p a te rn ity , a n d fem ale cu p a c itics for m o ra l u plift w ere d e e p ly w o v e n in to these a cco u n ts a n d found th eir w a y in to the e v o lu tio n a ry s c h e m a ­ ta o f th o se m a jo r la te V ic to r ia n s M a r x a n d F reu d . In the y e a r s in te rv e n in g b etw een the V ic io r ia n ev o lu tio n ists a n d the 19 7 0 s fe m in ists, a n th ro p o lo g y esta b lish e d itself, p rim a rily in

B rita in

and

the

U n ite d S ta te s , a s a m a jo r a c a d e m ic field . S o c ia l a n th ro p o lo g y in the U n ite d K in g d o m a n d c u ltu ra l a n th ro p o lo g y in the U n ite d S ta te s je ttiso n e d e v o lu ­ tio n a ry th o u g h t an d esta b lish e d the le n g th y , in tim a te , d a ily liv in g w ith an d o b serv in g o f p eo p le in a n o th e r c u ltu re — fie ld w o rk — a s the c o n stitu tiv e p r a c ­ tice o f the d isc ip lin e . B ritish a n th ro p o lo g ists, e sp e c ia lly R a d c liffe -B ro w n ( •9 6 5 ) , cra fte d stru c tu ra l-fu n c tio n a lism a s a th eo retical fra m e th ro u g h w h ic h liv in g so cie ties co u ld be seen to m a k e sen se. S o c ie tie s w ere e n v isio n e d th ro u g h an o rg a n ic a n a lo g y : in stitu tio n s su c h a s k in sh ip a n d m a r r ia g e , p o litic s, e c o n o m ic s, an d relig io n w ere d e m o n stra te d , a g a in an d a g a in , to fu n ctio n in tan d em w ith o n e a n o th e r, lik e the in d iv id u a l o rg a n s in a b o d y . A lth o u g h T a la l A s a d ( 1 9 7 3 : > 0 3 - 1 1 8 ) h as noted th a t s tru c tu ra l-fu n c tio n a lis t a sse rtio n s in B ritish A fric a fu n ctio n ed th em selv es a s le g itim a tio n s fo r in ­ d ire c t ru le , the th eo retical fra m e w a s a lso o n e s tra n d o f the g r o w in g h e g e ­ m o n y o f e th n o g ra p h ic lib e ra lism . ( J a m e s C liffo rd ’ s u sefu l term d e n o te s a “ set o f ro le s an d d is c u rsiv e p o ssib ilitie s” (19 8 8 : 7 8 ] th ro u g h w h ic h e th n o g ­ ra p h e rs a tte m p te d to d e a l w ith th e ir u su a lly a m b ig u o u s ro les b o th a s a d v o ­ c a te s o f p a rtic u la r g ro u p s an d a s c itiz en s o f co lo n iz in g states.) A m e ric a n c u ltu ra l a n th ro p o lo g y fo cu sed la rg e ly on the A m e r ic a s a n d the

INTRODUCTION

5

P a c ific u n til a fte r W orld W a r I I , an d its p r im a r y e a r ly tw e n tie th -c e n tu ry c o n ccrn w a s the d o cu m en tatio n o f v a n ish in g N a tiv e A m e r ic a n c u ltu re s an d la n g u a g e s . A m e r ic a n e x term in atio n o r fo rced re lo c a tio n o f N a tiv e A m e ric a n g r o u p s p re v en ted the exten sive u se o f the stru c tu ra list-fu n c tio n a list fram e. A m e ric a n a n th ro p o lo g ists ten d ed , in ste a d , to p ra c tic e “ s a lv a g e ethn og* r a p h y ” — th e co llcctio n o f a n y an d a ll in fo rm a tio n w ith a h e a v y e m p h a sis o n v a n is h in g la n g u a g e s. T h is A m e r ic a n e m p h a sis on e u ltu re (m e n ta l bag* g a g e ) — r a th e r th an society (o b se rv a b le , p a tte rn e d b e h a v io r )— w a s fueled a ls o b y c o n te m p o ra ry A m e ric a n p s y c h o lo g y 's high sta tu s an d c o n se rv a tiv e , e s p e c ia lly ra c ist p resu p p o sitio n s an d a p p lic a tio n s . L ib e r a l A m e ric a n a n th ro ­ p o lo g ists w e re , th en , d c u b lv in clin ed to w a rd the p sy c h o lo g ic a l a r e n a (R o s e n ­ b e rg

19 8 2 ; S to c k in g

19 8 2: 200 fT.)— th u s the “ c u liu re an d p e r s o n a lity ”

th eo retical le a n in g s o f the tw o b est-k n o w n w o m en a n th ro p o lo g ists o f the ear* ly tw en tieth century'. M a r g a r e t M e a d an d R u th B e n e d ic t w ere stu d en ts o f F r a n z B o a s , the n o ta b le G e r m a n -b o r n C o lu m b ia U n iv e r s ity a n th ro p o lo g ist. G iv e n th eir g re a t fa m e a n d at least M e a d 's h ig h ly p o p u la r d id a c tic w ritin g s on the crossc u ltu r a l m a lle a b ility o f “ n a t u r a l" sex ro les, one w o u ld a ssu m e th at w o m en h a v e been p ro m in en t in A m e ric a n a n th ro p o lo g y a n d that a n th ro p o lo g y h a s been a p ro g re ssiv e forc< in p ro v id in g e m p iric a l fo d d e r fo r a rg u m e n ts in fa v o r o f g e n d e r e q u ity . In fact, d e sp ite the a d m ira tio n an d e n v y o f fem in ists in o th e r field s, w o m en h iv e h isto ric a lly d o n e p o o rly in a n th ro p o lo g y d e p a r t­ m en ts: M e a d n e v e r hold an official d e p a rtm e n ta l p o sitio n , B e n e d ic t w a s p a sse d o v e r a s c h a ir for a m an w h en B o a s re tire d , an d E lsie C le w s P a rso n s a c h ie v e d h e r in flu en ce th ro u gh the u se o f a n in d ep en d en t fo rtu n e to fin an ce h e r o w n a n d o th e rs’ fie.d trip s a n d p u b lic a tio n s.4 In m ore recen t y e a r s, s tu d ­ ie s h a v e d o cu m en ted fem ale a n th ro p o lo g ists' s ig n ific a n tly lo w e r a c a d e m ic s ta tu s (S a n je k 19 8 2 ). F in a lly , not un til the 19 7 0 s d id so m e a n th ro p o lo g ists b e g in to a p p r o a c h w o m en 's an d m e n 's d ifferin g e x p e rie n c e s a s to p ics on th eir o w n term s. M o st o f the n o ta b le th eo retical m o v em en ts o f the 19 2 0 s th ro u g h the 19 6 0 s— a n d p a rtic u la rly th o se b e a r in g on to p ics o f d ire c t r e le v a n c e to w o m e n ’ s sta tu s, su ch a s k in sh ip a n d m a rria g e o r the se x u a l d iv isio n o f la b o r — ig n o re d o r n a tu ralized se x u a l d ifferen ce. S tru c tu ra l-fu n c tio n a list w o rk o n k in sh ip in A fr ic a , for e x a m p le , a ssu m e d n a tu ra l m a le d o m in a n c e in its c o n sid e ra tio n s o f k in sh ip an d m a rria g e p a tte rn s, w h ile the lin g u istic sin sp ire d k in sh ip a n a ly se s o f the 19 6 0 s g e n e r a lly ig n o red s e x u a l d ifferen ce a lto g e th e r. S o g re a t w as p refem in ist in sen sitiv ity th at W a rd G o o d c n o u g h , a w e ll-re sp e c te d k in sh ip th eo rist, cou ld w rite a p p r o v in g ly o f a T ru k e s e m a n ’s b e a tin g o f h is d a u g h te r: “ A go o d h ard jo lt w a s ju s t w h at sh e d e se rv e d ” (19 6 5 : 1 2 ) . ( C h a n g e h as not co m e sm o o th ly . A s la te a s 19 8 5 , a fo rm e r m a le c o lle a g u e w o u ld a s s u r e m e th a t the a n th ro p o lo g y o f g e n d e r w a s “ ju st triv ia l m e -to o ism .” ) N e v e rth e le ss, p refem in ist a n th ro p o lo g y

w a s not lik e so

m a n y o th er

INTRODUCTION

6

b ra n c h e s o f k n o w le d g e , su ch a s literary' c ritic ism , w h ic h s im p ly rep resen ted a la rg e ly m ale u n iverse. A lth o u g h o n e c o u ld — an d m a n y d id — c la im th at few w o m en h ad b een im p o rta n t n o v e lists o r poets* it w a s m u c h m ore d ifficu lt to re p resen t fu n ctio n in g so cieties w ith o u t fem ale in h a b ita n ts . S im ila r ly , a p e a n d m o n k e y p o p u la tio n s a re o n e -h a lf fe m a le , a s a r c p re h isto ric b u ria ls. It is fo r th is re aso n th at fem in ist a n th ro p o lo g ists h ad little d iffic u lty in sw itc h in g e a r ly on fro m the a n th ro p o lo g y o f w o m en to th a t o f g e n d e r a s th eir rc sc a rc h fo cu s. P re fe m in ist e th n o g ra p h e rs o ften p ro v id e d rich e th n o g ra p h ic in fo rm a ­ tion on g e n d e r. O fte n tim e s, the w o m a n in h u sb a n d -w ife te a m s sp e c ia liz e d in "w o m e n ’ s a ffa irs,” an d su ch in fo rm a tio n w a s w o v e n , a n o n y m o u s ly , in to the e th n o g ra p h ic text. O th e r w iv e s w ro te in d e p e n d e n t, in sig h tfu l a n a ly s e s o f fe m a le w o rld s in a v a r ie ty o f th ird -w o rld co n texts: M a r y S m ith on the life o f B a b a , a H a u s a w o m a n in K a r o ( 1 9 8 1 ) ; E liz a b e th F e r n e a (19 6 9 ) on v illa g e w o m en in I r a q ; M a rg e ry ' W o lf (19 6 8 ) on p e a sa n t w o m e n in T a iw a n ; M a r ily n S tra th e rn ( 1 9 7 2 ) on the M o u n t H a g e n w o m en o f P a p u a N ew G u in e a . In m a n y c a s e s , in fo rm a tio n in su ch w o rk h as been re in te rp re te d b y su b se q u e n t g e n e ra tio n s o f sc h o la rs. E . E . E v a n s -P ritc h a r d , fo r e x a m p le , w h o se 19 4 0 s w o rk on the N u c r o f then A n g lo - E g v p iia n S u d a n h a s the c la ssic sta tu s o f M a lin o w s k i’ s w ritin g s, o v e rtly sta te s th at N u c r fa m ily life is c h a ra c te riz e d b y the “ u n c h a lle n g e d a u th o rity o f the h u sb a n d in the h o m e ” ( 1 9 5 1 : 1 3 3 ) . B u t E v a n s -P r itc h a r d a ls o p ro v id es e x tr a o r d in a r y v ig n ettes o f o b se rv e d b e h a v io r w h ic h a llo w us to a rg u e fo r m o d ificatio n s in th a t p re su m p tio n : jSJhou ld she (a Nuer wife] in a quarrel with her husband disfigure him— knock a tooth out, for exam ple— her father must pay him compensation. I have m y­ self on two occasions seen a father pay a heifer to his son-in-law to atone for insults hurled at the husband’s head by his wife when irritated by accusations o f adultery. ( 19 5 1: 104) A s I h a v e o b se rv e d elsew h ere, [P ro p rie ta ry rights lose much of iheir powerful "o w n ersh ip ” connotation when we note that in this case, Nuer husband might say to his wife, " I have rights in you: if you insult me or knock my teeth out I can run to your father and make him pay me in cattle." (1979: 630) T h u s it w a s th at fem in ist a n th ro p o lo g ists, d e sp ite h a v in g been train e d in a d is c ip lin e lite ra lly s a tu ra te d w ith g e n d e r, h ad the fe e lin g o f d isc o v e rin g the to p ic for the first tim e. T h e y — w e — stra p p e d on the w id e v a r ie ty o f th eo ret­ ica l o x y g e n tan k s a v a ila b le , took d e e p b re a th s, an d p lu n g e d in.

W R IT IN G G E N D E R IN T O A N T H R O P O L O G Y T h e s e n ew fem in ist v isio n s o f a n th ro p o lo g y ’ s g e n d e re d se a s w e re focused th ro u g h

both

e x o g e n o u s— p o p u la r

c u ltu r a l— a n d

e n d o g en o u s— p ro fcs-

INTRODUCTION

7

s io n a l— len ses. T w o m id -19 7 0 s a n th o lo g ie s, R a y n a R a p p R e ite r ’ s T ow ard an A nthopology o f Women ( 1 9 7 5 } an d M ic h c lle R o sa ld o a n d L o u ise L a m p h e r e ’ s Women, Culture, and S o a tty (19 7 4 )* resp o n d ed to p ro fe ssio n a l an d p u b lic in ­ terest in b rin g in g to geth er m u ch o f th is now w o rk . T h e s e tw o v o lu m e s fu n c ­ tio n ed a s the “ b ib le s” o f fem in ist a n th ro p o lo g y fo r the e n s u in g d e c a d e .5 A s I h a v e n oted , A m e ric a n a n th ro p o lo g y 's c d ific a to ry tra d itio n an d s e c o n d -w a v e fe m in ism ’s p en c h an t lo r fresh q u e stio n in g led fem in ist a n th ro ­ p o lo g ists to p r o b le m a t ic se x u a l re la tio n s to d e g re e s u n k n o w n sin c e the tu rn o f the c e n tu ry . P h y sic a l a n th ro p o lo g ists a n d zo o lo gists c h allen g ed the d o m i­ n an t “ M a n th e H u n te r ” m o d el, w h ich p o sited a n a lo g ie s b etw een m aled o m in a n t A fric a n s a v a n n a b a b o o n s an d the e v o lu tio n o f m a le -d o m in a n t h u m a n so cie tie s, a n d h e ra ld e d c o o p e ra tiv e m a le h u n tin g a s th e key s p u r to h u m a n e v o lu tio n . T h e lm a R ow t II ( 1 9 7 2 ) , S a lly S lo c u m ( 1 9 7 5 ) , a n d o th e rs p o in ted o u t, m a k in g use o f a lr e a d y a v a ila b le in fo rm a tio n , th at g e n d e re d p r i­ m a te so cial b e h a v io r v a r ie s g r e a t ly — a n d in a n y c a se , b a b o o n s a r e m o n k ey s a n d a re th u s fa r m o re g e n e tic a lly d ista n t from h u m a n s th an a re a p e s like c h im p a n z e e s, g o r illa s , a n d o ra n g u ta n s. A p e s ’ so c ia l b e h a v io r , a lth o u g h v a r ­ iou s, e v in c e s less v isib le m a le -fe m a le a n d in tra -m a le stra tific a tio n . F e m i­ n ists also noted that in apotheosizing m ale hunting a s the ea rly h u m an activity p a r e x c e lle n c e , “ m a n -th e -h u n te r” th eo rists ign o red k e y e v id e n c e fro m c o n ­ te m p o ra ry h u n tin g a n d g a th e r in g , o r fo ra g in g , so c ie tie s: w o m en d o so m e h u n tin g , an d fem a le -g a th e re d food s a c c o u n t fo r m ore th a n h a lf a n d at tim es n e a rly all o f w h at is e a ten . (U n fo rtu n a te ly , these fin d in g s h a v e h ad little effect on p o p u la r c u ltu re m o d els o f e a r ly h u m a n life , su ch a s the stillu b iq u ito u s c a v e m a n [j»V] c arto o n s.) P rim a to lo g y an d p h y sic a l a n th ro p o lo g y h a v e been b r o a d ly in flu en ced b y th e 19 7 0 s fem in ist c ritiq u e s. S tu d ie s o f g en d ered so c ia l b e h a v io r o f p rim a te s in the w ild , o n c e the realm o f p ro jec tio n s o f u n iv e rsa l m a le ru le, a r e now se lf-c o n sc io u sly c a re fu l to n ote v a ria tio n s b etw een a n d w ith in sp e c ie s. A s w e ll, p rim a te stu d ies h a v e e v o lv ed to c o n sid e r “ p r im a te s in n a tu re ” (th e title o f A liso n R ic h a r d ’ s 19 8 3 v o lu m e )— to see n o n h u m an p r im a te s less a s R o r ­ s c h a c h b lo ts for h u m a n so cial a n d p o litic a l co n cern s a n d m o re a s a n im a ls e x is tin g an d re p ro d u c in g in a v a r ie ty o f flo ral an d fa u n a l en viro n m e n ts. T h e “ w o m a n -th c -g a th e rc r” c h a lle n g e to the m a n -th c -h u n te r m od el in ­ sp ire d N a n c y T a n n e r an d A d rie n n e Z ih lm a n 's { 19 7 6 , 19 7 8 ) fem a le-fo cu sed m od el o f h u m a n e v o lu tio n . T u r n in g m an the h u n ter on its h e a d , T a n n e r an d Z ih lm a n p o sited , for e x a m p le , th e key im p o rta n c e o f g a th e re d food stuffs an d th u s the e x iste n c e o f “ lo st” fe m a le to ols— fib e r c a r r y in g n ets a n d bask ets w h ic h , u n lik e sto n e im p le m e n ts, w o u ld not fo ssilize. T h is m od el in turn s tim u la te d co n sid e ra tio n o f fo o d -sh a rin g ra th e r th an h u n tin g a s a k ey s p u r to h u m a n ev o lu tio n , a n d m ic ro w e a r stu d ie s on fossilized p re h u m a n a n d h u m an teeth to d e te rm in e p ro p o rtio n s o f m eat a n d p la n t food s in p re h isto ric d ie ts .0 F e m in ists a ls o atte m p te d to re v ie w a n d re c o n sid e r g e n d e re d so c ia l rcla-

8

INTRODUCTION

tio n s in p re h isto ric state so cieties. M a n y m a d e u se o f E n g e ls ’s p resu m p tio n th a t the “ w o rld -h isto ric d c fc a i o f the fe m a le s e x ” cn in cid cd w ith the rise o f p r iv a te p r o p e r ly a n d the sta te . S o m e , su c h a s E le a n o r L e a c o c k ( 1 9 8 1 ) , used e th n o h is to ric a l e v id e n c e to a r g u e fo r pre-V V estern c o n ta c t an d p re -sta te e g a ­ lita ria n so cieties. O th e rs, such a s R a y n a R a p p { 1 9 7 7 ) , c o n c en trated on u sin g th eo ries o f p r c -s ia tc an d s ta le g e n d e r r e la tio n s to reth in k the m e a n in g o f k in sh ip a n d its in te rre la tio n s w ith d ifferin g e c o n o m ie s an d p o litic s. In gen er­ a l, th o u g h , a rc h e o lo g ists w ere slo w to resp o n d to the fem in ist c h a lle n g e , an d th is la c k o f resp o n se stu ltified d e v e lo p m e n ts in both field s (see c h a p s. 2 an d 3 , th is v o lu m e ). A t the sa m e tim e, p o p u la r c u ltu re a b h o r r in g a v a c u u m , n o n a n th ro p o lo g isi fem in ist w rite rs th ro u gh o u t the 19 7 0 s a n d 19 8 0 s w e re p ro ­ d u c in g v o lu m e a fte r v o lu m e o f in fe re n tia l h isto rie s o f g e n d e re d h u m a n k in d , m a n y p o s itin g p rio r m a tria rc h ie s. F ro m E liz a b e th G o u ld D a v is 's The First Sex { 1 9 7 1 ) to E la in e M o r g a n 's The D esctnl o f Woman ( 1 9 7 2 ) , th ese p o p u la r w o rk s m e rg e d w ith o th ers re c o m m e n d in g the “ re tu rn ” to G o d d e ss w o rsh ip o r h e r a ld in g the corn ing o f a n ew “ w o m a n 's e r a ” o f n u rtu ra n c e a n d n o n ­ v io le n c e . A t first, fem in ist a n th ro p o lo g ists a d d r e s se d th is issu e in p o p u la r fe m in ist c u ltu re . P a u la W e b ste r ( 1 9 7 5 ) e x p lo re d the n otion o f m a tria rc h y s y m p a th e tic a lly , n o tin g its m ille n a ria n a p p e a l an d d e v e lo p m e n t th ro u gh V ic t o r ia n k in sh ip d e b a te s. J o a n B a m b e r g e r ( 1 9 7 4 ) a n a ly z e d S o u th A m e r ­ ica n In d ia n m yth s o f p rio r m a tria rc h y a s le g itim a tio n s o f m a le ru le. M o re recently*, h o w e v e r, w ith both in c re a sin g sp e c ia liz a tio n in fem in ist sc h o la r ­ sh ip a n d the in stitu tio n a liz a tio n o f r a d ic a l o r c u ltu r a l fem in ism a s a c o u n te r­ c u ltu re , the g a p b etw een fem in ist a n th ro p o lo g ic a l k n o w led g e an d so m e p o p u ­ la r fe m in ist c u ltu re h a s g ro w n . I w ill e x p lo re th is issu e, below'. E a r l y so c ia l-c u ltu ra l fem in ist a n ih fo p o lo g is is resp o n d ed e n th u sia stic a lly to the c h a lle n g e o f rew ritin g a n th ro p o lo g y a s i f g e n d e r r e a lly m a tte re d . O n e o f th e ir first an d m ost im p o rta n t ta sk s w a s th e rec o n sid eratio n o f e n tire su b d is c ip lin e s in the ligh t o f fem in ist in sig h ts. J a n e C o llie r ’s key 19 7 4 p iec e on p o litic a l a n th ro p o lo g y , fo r e x a m p le , re d re w th a t d is c ip lin e 's m a p to in clu d e w o m e n 's k in sh ip stru g g le s, w h ic h a re c o n c c rn e d , a fte r a ll, w ith the d is trib u ­ tion o f w h a t e v e r d o m estic p o w e r is a v a ila b le to w o m en an d often a lso e n ta il fe m a le in flu e n c e s on m a le p u b lic p o litic a l a c tio n s. L o u ise L a m p h e r c { 1 9 7 4 ) s u r v e y e d a w id e v a r ie ty o f so cieties to c o n sid e r the p u b lic p o litic a l ra m ific a ­ tio n s o f w o m e n 's c o o p e ra tiv e a n d co n flic tu a l n e tw o rk s, a n d S y lv ia V a n a g is a k o { 1 9 7 9 ) w ro te c o m p e llin g ly o f the a n th ro p o lo g ic a l tra d itio n o f d ich o to m iz ­ in g “ m a l e " p u b lic k in sh ip an d “ fe m a le ” d o m e stic k in sh ip — a n d , o f co u rse, o f p r o v id in g o n ly “ thin d e sc rip tio n s” o f the la tte r. A n u m b e r o f fem in ist e th n o g ra p h e rs , a m o n g

them

P a m e la

C o n s ta n tin id c s

{ 19 7 9 )

c o n sid ered

w o m e n ’ s s tra te g ic u se o f in stitu tio n s an d ro le s w ith in o rg a n iz e d re lig io n s in o rd e r to g a in p o w e r, a u to n o m y , o r w ealth . S o m e fem in ist a n th ro p o lo g ists o f th is p e rio d d id restu d ies o f p o p u la tio n s w e ll-k n o w n th ro u g h e a r lie r w o rk . A n n e tte W e in e r ( 19 7 6 ) , for e x a m p le , re ­

9

INTRODUCTION

tu rn e d to M a lin o w s k i's T io b i ia n d Isla n d s to c o n sid e r w o m e n ’s liv es in g re a t d e ta il. J a n e G o o d a lc 's i9 6 0 e th n o g ra p h y o f the T iw i o f M e lv ille Isla n d ( M e la n e s ia ), e a r lie r stud ied b y C . W . M . H a rt an d A rn o ld P illin g ( 1 9 6 0 ) , w a s p e rh a p s th e m ost in stru c tiv e o f th ese w o rk s. H a rt a n d P illin g h a d been fa sc in a tc d b y m en ’ s n a r ra :iv c s o f stra te g ic a c q u isitio n o f y o u n g w iv e s a s a form o f p r o p e r ly a n d l a d been u n in terested in w o m e n 's p ersp e c tiv e s. G o o d a lc d isc o v e re d th at T iw i k in sh ip w a s e n o rm o u sly c o m p le x , b u t th at the k ey a ffin al re la tio n sh ip w as am brinua, the la b el b y w h ic h so n -in -la w an d m o th e r-in -la w referred to one a n o th er. T h e s e T iw i m o th e rs-in -la w , h o w e v e r, u s u a lly c o n tra c te d an a m b rin u a re la tio n sh ip a s y o u n g a d o le sc e n ts. E a c h g ir l’ s a m b rin u a w o u ld then la b o r lifelo n g lo r h e r an d e v e n tu a lly b e a llo w e d to m a r ry h e r d a u g h te r. A n o ld e r w o m a n , fa r from b ein g a “ to oth less o ld h a g ” (H a rt a n d P illin g i9 6 0 : 14 ). held c o n sid e ra b le p o w e r an d p re stig e a m o n g the T iw i. O th e r fe m in ist e th n o g ra p h e rs stu d ie d th ird -w o rld p e a sa n t p o p u la tio n s, o v e rtu rn in g in the p ro c e ss a n th ro p o lo g ic al p e a sa n t stu d ie s’ ten d en c y to fo cus o n the la b o r , p erc ep tio n s, an d d ecisio n m a k in g o f o n ly m a le h o u seh o ld ers a n d to a ssu m e (hat p ea sa n t w o m e n 's a c tiv itie s an d th o u g h ts b elo n g ed to a “ tim e le ss’ ' d o m e stic realm . A n n a R u b b o ( 1 9 7 5 ) d o cu m en ted r u r a l C o ­ lo m b ia n w o m en ’ s a b ility to m a n a g e sm a ll su b siste n c e fa rm s w ith o u t the a s s is ta n c e o f a d u lt m en . W ith c a p ita l p en etratio n a n d d e v e lo p m e n t, h o w ­ e v e r, a n d th e s ta te 's in tro d u ction o f G re e n R e v o lu tio n seed s an d p e stic id e s, w o m en lo st th e ir fa rm in g au to n o m y a n d w ere fo rced in to u rb a n m ig ra tio n as la rg e la n d o w n e rs in creased th eir h o ld in g s a n d tu rn ed to fa c to ry fa rm in g . S u s a n B r o w n ( 1 9 7 5 ) co n sid ered p o o r w o m e n 's a n d m e n 's liv e s in the D o m in ­ ic a n R e p u b lic an d n oted the p o litic a l-cc o n o m ic re a litie s b eh in d the c o m ­ m o n , a n d c o m m o n ly d ecried , p attern o f fe m a le se ria l m o n o g a m y . P o o r w o m en s tr a te g ic a lly a llie d w ith an d b ro k e w ith p o o r m en , from w h o m th ey co u ld re c e iv e little fin an cia l su p p o rt, w h ile re ly in g on fe m a le kin a n d o ld e r c h ild re n to fo rm n e tw o rk s o f eco n o m ic c o o p e ra tio n fo r s u r v iv a l. In the p ro cess o f rew ritin g su b d isc ip lin e s a n d e th n o g ra p h ie s, fem in ist a n th ro p o lo g ists w e re a lso rew ritin g th eo ry. C o llie r 's an d L a m p h e r e ’ s e m ­ p h a sis on the in te rp e n e tra tin g d y n a m ic o f k in sh ip a n d p o litic s is in p a rt an im p ro v e m e n t on R a d c liffe -B ro w n . Y a n n g isn k o ’ s fo cu s on the s y m b o lic realm in k in sh ip is a fem in ist revisio n o f the c u ltu ra l a p p r o a c h to k in sh ip e la b o ra te d b y D a v id S c h n e id e r. R u b b o a n d B ro w n , lik e m a n y fem in ist a n th ro p o lo g ists sin c e , m a d e u se o f a tran sfo rm ed M a r x is m . T h e in flu en tial e ssa y s o f M ic h e lle R o s a ld o , N a n c y C h o d o ro w , a n d S h e r r y O rtn c r, a s w c sh a ll se c , reflected W e b e ria n , F r e u d ia n , a n d L e v i-S tra u ss ia n fra m e w o rk s, re sp e c tiv e ly . A n d the m a v e ric k G a y le R u b in ( 1975), w h o se c o in a g e the “ se x -g e n d e r sy s te m ” h as g r e a tly in flu en c ed su b seq u en t w o rk o n se x u a lity , e m p lo y e d a w ild b ric o la g e o f reo rien ted F r e u d , M a r x , L e v i- S tr a u s s , an d L a c a n . W h a te v e r ih e o ro iie a l fram e ih e y w o rk ed w ith in ,

h o w e v e r,

fem in ist

10

INTRODUCTION

a n th ro p o lo g ists w e re (breed lo d e a l w ith a k ey c o n tra d ictio n b etw een th eir fe m in ist c o n v ictio n th at m a le d o m in a n c e o v e r fe m a le s, in a n y c u ltu r a l set­ tin g , w a s fu n d a m e n ta lly ille g itim a te , an d the re ig n in g n o tio n s o f w h a t w o u ld tu rn o u t to b e the la st g a s p o f e th n o g ra p h ic lib e ra lism .

E T H N O G R A P H IC L I B E R A L I S M A N D T H E F E M I N I S T C O N U N D R U M B y a n d la rg e , a n th ro p o lo g ists in the m id -tw en tieth c e n tu ry h e y d a y o f e th n o ­ g r a p h ic w o rk ten ded to fu n ctio n a s a d v o c a te s fo r “ th e ir " g ro u p s, m a k in g se n se (W estern sen se) o f a n d ju s t ify in g th eir “ e x o t ic " life w a y s— righ t u p to the b o u n d a rie s o f state p o w e r. W h eth er that a u th o r iiy w a s c o lo n ia l (m ost o ften ) o r th a t o f a n in d ep en d en t c a p ita list o r (r a r e ly ) c o m m u n ist s ta te , it b e h o o v e d the e th n o g ra p h e r w h o w ish ed to b e a b le to retu rn to a v o id c riti­ c ism o f g o v e rn m e n t stru c tu re s an d p o licies. A s w ell, a n th ro p o lo g ists te n d e d , in the g re a t tw en tieth -cen tu ry d iv isio n o f the p ic o f k n o w led g e into lu c r a tiv e d is c ip lin a r y , p ro fe ssio n a l, an d d e p a rtm e n ta l slices, to la y c la im to so c ia l o r g a n iz a tio n beneath state stru c tu re s. T h u s the lib e ra l id e o lo g y o f c u ltu r a l re la tiv ism co u ld d e cre e th at a n th ro p o lo g ists ju s t ify c ro ss-co u sin m a r ria g e , ritu a l sc a rific a tio n , b e lie f in w itc h c ra ft, o r se p a ra te sp h eres o f exchan g-e but not p ro test a g a in st c o lo n ia l d o m in a tio n , state-en fo rced ec o n o m ic a n d r a c ia l stra tific a tio n , o r the in te rn a tio n a l econ o m ic p re ssu re s (su ch a s a u s te r ity p la n s im p o sed b y the In te rn a tio n a l M onetary- F u n d ) th at m a y h a v e been d ire c tly re lated to the co n tin u ed o p e ra tio n o f these c u sto m s. T h u s the p r o lif­ e ra tio n o f lib e ra l c u ltu ra l rela tiv ist (an d se x ist) textb o o k titles in the 19 6 0 s a n d e a r ly 19 7 0 s: E very M an H is Way ( 19 6 8 ) , M an M akes Sense ( 19 7 0 ) , M a n ’s M any Ways { 1 9 7 3 ) . F e m in ist a n th ro p o lo g ists in this p e rio d , th en , w ere faced w ith a c o n u n ­ d ru m : h o w co u ld w e a n a ly z e c r itic a lly in sta n c e s o f m a le d o m in a tio n an d o p p re ssio n in p re c ise ly those so cieties w h o se cu sto m s a n th ro p o lo g y w a s tra ­ d itio n a lly p led g ed to a d v o c a te ? I h a v e d isce rn e d at lea st six se p a r a te m o d es o f s o lv in g the c o n u n d ru m , a lth o u g h o f co u rse m a n y w rite rs in p ra c tic e c o m ­ b in ed tw o o r m ore a rg u m e n ts. W h a t fo llo w s, th en , is a so m e w h a t sc h e ­ m atize d ty p o lo g y o f a c o m p le x tw o d e c a d e s o f fem in ist a n th ro p o lo g ic a l th e o rizin g . T h e first, an d m ost tra d itio n a l, resp o n se is to a r g u e th at w o m en in a p a r­ t ic u la r so cie ty a c tu a lly e n jo y a less o n ero u s life o r h ig h e r sta tu s— h ig h e r th an o n e m ig h t h a v e exp ected o r h ig h e r th an c o n te m p o ra ry W estern w o m e n . M a r g a r e t M e a d , o f c o u rse, is m ost w e ll k n o w n fo r h er 19 2 8 a r g u m e n t that S a m o a n a d o le sc e n t g irls d id not e x p e rie n c e the a n x ie tie s an d u n c e rta in tie s o f th e ir A m e ric a n c o u n te rp a rts d u e to v e ry d ifferen t c u ltu ra l c o n stru c tio n s o f s e x u a lity , a d u lth o o d , a n d p a re n th o o d . E liz a b e th F c rn e a , in h e r 19 6 9 a u to ­ b io g ra p h ic a l e th n o g ra p h y Guests o f the Sheik, a rg u e d th a t seclu sio n a llo w e d v illa g e I r a q i w o m en the o p p o rtu n itie s to e n jo y o n e a n o th e r’s c o m p a n y , offer

INTRODUCTION

11

g e n u in e e m o tio n a l su p p o rt, a n d , m ost im p o rta n t, to a tta in sta tu s th ro u g h sp e c ia liz a tio n a s re lig io u s o r m c d ic a l p ro fe ssio n a ls, a s m en h a d to a v o id in ti­ m a te c o n ta c t w ith u n related seclu d ed w o m en . S u s a n C a r o l R o g e r s a rg u e d th a t w o m en in p e a sa n t societies w o rld w id e , ‘ 'a c tu a lly w ield c o n sid e ra b le a m o u n ts o f p o w e r,” w h ile b o th se x e s p e rp e tra te “ the m yth o f m a le d o m i­ n a n c e ” ( 1 9 7 5 : 7 5 2 )- A n n ette W e in e r, in h e r 19 7 6 re s tu d y o f the T r o b r ia n d Is la n d e r s , a rg u e d th a t T ro b r ia n d w o m en held h igh s y m b o lic sta tu s a s re p ro ­ d u c e rs o f so c ia l m ean in g . I d isco v e re d — in a 19 7 9 re v ie w o f the W est A fric a n e th n o g ra p h ie s cited b y W ard G o o d c n o u g h a s u n d e rw ritin g a p re su m p tio n o f w o m e n ’ s u n iv e rsa l lo w er s .a tu s — that th e o rig in a l (an d all m a le b u t on e) w rite rs h a d d o cu m en ted e x tra o rd in a ry in sta n c e s o f fe m a le s e x u a l a u to n o m y , w iv e s ’ rig h ts to h u s b a n d s ’ la b o r an d se x u a l se rv ic e s, a n d w-omen’ s eco n o m ic p a r it y (an d so m etim es su p e rio rity ) to m en. M a k in g

the “ n a tiv e w om en

b e tte r o f f ”

a rg u m e n t affo rd ed

fem in ist

a n th ro p o lo g ists a n u m b e r o f a d v a n ta g e s . It fit w ell w ith the a d v o c a c y stan ce o f e th n o g ra p h ic lib e ra lism , th u s n e a tly so lv in g the fem in ist c o n u n d ru m . It fu n ctio n e d to epater c o m p lacen t W estern ers* sin ce one m a jo r le g itim a tio n o f W e ste rn im p e ria lism , after a ll, h a d been th at “ th ey a rc b ru tish to th eir w o m e n ." T h e r e h a v e b een , a s w ell, n u m e ro u s th ird -w o rld c o m p la in ts a b o u t u n in fo rm ed W estern fem inist d e p re c a tio n o f n o n -W estcrn g e n d e re d p r a c ­ tices. A n d fin a lly , d e p e n d in g on o u r a g re e d -u p o n s ta n d a r d s fo r c ro ss-c u ltu ra l c o m p a riso n , to a rg u e th at w o m en in a p a rtic u la r p o p u la tio n e x p e rie n c e d c e rta in fre e d o m s o r sta tu s u n a v a ila b le to sp ec ific g r o u p s o f W estern w o m en w a s so m e tim es s im p ly to tell the tru th . O th e r fem in ist a n th ro p o lo g ists retu rn ed 10 ih e M a r x is t e v o lu tio n ist m od el E n g e ls h a d put fo rw a rd in The O rigin o f the Fa m ily, P rivate Property, and the State (18 8 4 ) . T h is w o rk h ad key s a lie n c c in the e a r ly 19 7 0 s for s e v e ra l rea so n s. F ir s t w a s the re n a sce n ce o f A m e r ic a n M a r x is t th o u g h t a fte r the p erio d o f M c C a r t h y ite c e n so rsh ip . A n th ro p o lo g ists su ch a s E r ic W o lf a n d S id n e y M in tz w e re p a rtic u la rly a c tiv e a s w rite rs an d teach ers in th is e ra , a n d c o n ­ cern o v e r th e V ie tn a m W ar a le rte d m a n y y o u n g a n th ro p o lo g ists to the need fo r a r a d ic a l re th in k in g o f their th eo retical p re m ise s. R e tu r n in g to M a r x led se c o n d -w a v e fem in ists to the text on w h ic h he a n d E n g e ls w o rk ed to g eth er an d th a t E n g e ls h ad finished a fte r M a r x 's d e a th in 18 8 3 . S e c o n d , M a r x an d E n g e ls relied on the exten sive rese a rch a n d w ritin g o f a m an w h o h a s been n am e d the first A m e ric a n an th ro p o lo g ist. L e w is H e n ry M o r g a n . M o r g a n , a ra ilro a d la w y e r in N e w Y o r k , b e c a m e fa sc in a te d first b y S e n e c a In d ia n life a n d then , m ore g e n e r a lly , b y h u m a n k in sh ip la b e lin g sy ste m s a ro u n d the w o rld . C o o d V ic to r ia n th at he w a s, M o rg a n lin ked d ifferin g te rm in o lo g y s y s ­ tem s to e v o lu tio n a ry sta g e s o fh u m a n k in d . M a r x a n d E n g e ls a sso c ia te d these k in tc rm in o lo g y /so c ia l-lc v c . sta g e s to p a rtic u la r m od es o f p ro d u c tio n , a n d to a n o r ig in a lly e g a lita r ia n so cial stru c tu re th at tip p ed lo m a le d o m in a n c e w ith th e e m e rg e n ce o f p r iv a te p ro p e rly an d in stitu tio n a liz e d so c ia l stra tific a tio n

12

INTRODUCTION

(se c T r a u t m a n 19 8 7 : 2 5 2 IT.). F e m in ist a n th ro p o lo g is ts , w h o w ere liv in g in the m id st o f re v ita liz e d d e b a te s in k in sh ip th e o ry , fo u n d p ro v o c a tiv e this sy s te m a tic lin k a g e o f k in sh ip a n d ec o n o m y . L it e r a lly , the fem in ist slo g a n “ the p e rso n a l is p o lit ic a l" c a m e a liv e in th eo ry. F in a lly , E n g e ls w a s a sin g u la rly a ttr a c tiv e th in k er lo sc c o n d -w a v c fem i­ n ists, a m o d e rn -so u n d in g a d v o c a te o f w o m e n ’ s rig h ts w h o b elie v e d stro n g ly in the a r r iv a l, w ith so cia list re v o lu tio n , not o n ly o f w o m e n 's e q u a l rig h ts but o f a n ew form o f e g a lita ria n ro m an tic lo ve: W hat w r can now conjrrturc about the w ay in which sexual relations will be ordered after the impending overthrow o f capitalist production is mainly o f a negative charactcr, limited for the most part to what will disappear. Dut what will there be new? T h at will be answered when a new generation has grown up: a generation o f men who never in their lives have known what it is to buy a w om an’s surrender with money or any other social instrument o f power; a generation o f women who have never known what it is to give themselves to a man from any other considerations than real love or to refuse to give themselves to their lover from fear o f the economic consequences. W hen these people are in the world, they will care precious little what anybody today thinks they ought to do; they will make their own practice and their corresponding public opinion about the practice o f each individual— and that will be the end o f it. (1972 [18 8 4 ]: 14 5)

S e v e ra l fem in ist a n th ro p o lo g ists, m ost n o ta b ly K a r e n S a c k s { 1 9 7 5 ) , re­ tu rn ed to E n g e ls ’ s m od el to test a n d refin e it. S a c k s a n d E le a n o r L e a c o c k , w h o w ro te the p re fa c e fo r a 19 7 2 e d itio n o f Origins* m a d e stro n g c la im s for s e x u a lly e g a lita ria n fo ra g in g an d e a r ly h o rtic u ltu ra l so cieties w h ic h then m o ved to m a le d o m in a n c e w ith in c re a sin g so cic ta l stra tific a tio n an d the a c c o m p a n y in g p riv a tiz a tio n o f k in sh ip . W h ile th is th e o re tic a l fra m e w o rk w a s e x p lic itly used alm o st e n tire ly b y sc h o la rs c o n cern ed w ith e th n o h isto rica l re c o rd s o f p re h isto ric sta te so cieties {see c h a p . 3 , th is v o lu m e ), it h a d w id era n g in g cffccts on fem in ist a n th ro p o lo g ists in g e n e ra l, p a r tic u la r ly th o se w h o w e re c o n ce rn ed w ith the im p a c t o f c o lo n ia lism on th ird -w o rld p o p u la tio n s, wfh ich often in v o lv ed the ra p id im p o sitio n o f sta te str u c tu r e s on n o n state so cie tie s. In co n trad ictio n to the reig n in g W estern id e o lo g y that c o lo n ia l ru le h a d , w ith o u t e x c e p tio n , e x te n d e d th ereto fore u n k n o w n rig h ts a n d p riv ile g e s to w o m e n , these sc h o la rs a sse rte d th a t, w h e th e r the c o lo n izer-co lo n ized re la ­ tio n sh ip w a s the S p a n is h a m o n g the six te e n th -c e n tu ry In c a , the Q u a k e r s a m o n g the e ig h te e n th -ce n tu ry S e n e c a , o r the F re n c h a m o n g the tw en tieth c e n tu ry B a u le o f the Iv o ry C o a s t, su c h ru le h a d c le a r ly w o rse n e d w o m e n ’ s sta tu s a n d m a d e th e ir liv e s m ore o n ero u s (see E tie n n e a n d L e a c o c k 19 8 0 ). J a n e t S is k in d ’ s p o w e rfu lly e v o c a tiv e e th n o g ra p h y o f th e S h a r a n a h u a In d ia n s o f P e ru te llin g ly c o n tra sts the c a re fre e a n d so c ia lly s a tis fy in g liv e s o f In d ia n w o m en in the forest both to mestizos in the p io n e e r to w n o f E s p c r a n z a a n d to

INTRODUCTION

13

In d ia n w o m en w h o slep t w ith P e ru v ia n m en a n d in so d o in g e x p e rie n c e d the m iso g y n o u s b r u ta lity o f the c o lo n izer fo r the first tim e ( 1 9 7 3 : 1 6 9 - 1 8 9 ) . O th e r fe m in ist a n th ro p o lo g ists, less in flu en ced b y M a r x is m a n d m o re in ­ terested in s y m b o lic s tru c tu re s, took d ifferen t tack s. S h e r r y O r tn e r , in a tourd e -fo rc e 19 7 4 r e re a d in g o f L e v i- S t r a u s s 's stru c tu ra l d ich o to m iz a tio n o f h u ­ m a n th o u g h t in to “ r a w ” an d “ co o k ed ” c a te g o rie s, a sse rte d th a t, w o rld w id e , fe m a le s w e re th o u g h t to b e n a tu r a l— c lo se to the e a rth , tim eless, u n th in k in g , n fe rio r, u n to u ch ed b y h u m a n c re a tiv ity — w h e re a s m a le s w ere c u ltu r a l— ra n sce n d in g e a rth ly b o u n d s, liv in g in h isto ry , in tellig en t a n d c re a tiv e , s u ­ p e rio r an d rep resen tin g h u m an n ess. O r tn e r ’s fo rm u la tio n , w h ic h seem ed 10 o rd e r a n d e x p la in s o m u ch in c o n te m p o ra ry sex ist id eo lo g ies o f w o m en ’ s in fe rio rity , h ad w id e sp re a d in flu en ce a m o n g fem in ists a c ro s s m a n y d is c i­ p lin es. M ic h e lle R o s a ld o { 19 7 4 ) a lso p o sited a sin g le k ey e x p la n a tio n fo r w o m e n ’ s lo w e r sta tu s , b u t, a s w o u ld befit a s c h o la r m ore in flu en c ed b y W e b e r an d B ritis h an th ro p o lo g ist M e y e r F o rte s th an b y L e v i-S tr a u s s , h ers w a s both s y m b o lic a n d in stitu tio n a l, a n d v a rie d a c ro ss c u ltu re a n d a c ro s s tim e. T h u s , w h e re a s fo r O r tn e r fe m a le :n a tu r e , m a le r c u ltu r e w a s a h u m a n u n iv e rsa l, R o s a ld o a ssu m e d that h er k ey, an d th u s w o m e n 's lo w e r s ta tu s , w o u ld be m o re o r less p resen t in d ifferen t so cieties. R o s a ld o 's focus w a s the re la tiv e s e p a ra tio n o f d o m e stic an d p u b lic d o m a in s, the w o rld o f h o u se h o ld , re p ro ­ d u c tio n , a n d m a in te n a n c e o f c h ild re n an d a d u lts, an d the w o rld o f e x tra h o u se h o ld la b o r, c itiz e n sh ip , p u b lic c u ltu re , a n d the sta te . R o s a ld o a rg u e d th a t so cie tie s w ith v e r y rig id p u b lic-d o m e stic d istin c tio n s, su ch a s Is la m ic so cie tie s th a t p ra c tic c se c lu sio n , o r p re re v o lu tio n a ry C h in a , o r V ic to r ia n E u r o p e a n d the U n ite d S ta te s, w o u ld d e v a lu e a n d d is e m p o w e r p r iv a te s p h e re s an d th u s the w o m en w iih w h o m th ey w ere a sso c ia te d . F e m in ists c o n ce rn e d w ith the d e v a lu e d , p o w e rle ss, an d yet c r u c ia lly re sp o n sib le ro le o f the W e ste rn h o u sew ife found R o s a ld o ’ s fo rm u la tio n in trig u in g . H isto ric a l w o rk on the re la tiv e d iv isio n s b etw een h o u seh o ld a n d p u b lic life in W estern h isto ry , a n d w o m e n ’ s ro les in b o th rea lm s, g re w o v e r the 19 7 0 s an d 19 8 0 s. N a n c y C h o d o ro w ( 19 7 8 ) a lso offered a k ey e x p la n a tio n fo r w o m e n ’ s lo w e r sta tu s w o rld w id e . U s in g a re v ise d F r e u d ia n lo g ic, sh e a rg u e d th at fem ale c h ild r e a r in g led lo m a le re xem m en i o f fe m a le a u th o rity , w e a k fe m a le ego b o u n d a rie s, an d th u s the te n d e n c y to m a le ru le. F in a lly , tw o g r o u p s o f fem in ist a n th ro p o lo g ists e sc h ew ed both M a r x is t e v o lu tio n ism

and

th e g ra n d -th e o re tic a l searc h

fo r k e y e x p la n a tio n s o f

w o m e n ’ s lo w e r sta tu s. In th e tra d itio n o f W e b e r’ s ca ll fo r s o c ia l-sc ie n tific Verslehen, the sy m p a th e tic e n tra n c e in io the c u ltu ra l w o rld s o f o th e rs, so m e e th n o g ra p h e rs w ro te a s clo se ly a s p o ssib le from in sid e the m in d s o f th eir fe m a le in fo rm a n ts— w ith o u t, h o w e v e r, p ro fferin g la rg e r th eo retical p o in ts c o n c e rn in g w o m e n ’ s sta tu s. M a rg e ry ' W o lf ( 19 7 4 ) on v illa g e w o m en in

INTRODUCTION

14

T a iw a n , L o is P a u l ( 19 7 4 ) on G u a te m a la n p e a sa n t w o m en , a n d L iz a D a lb y ( 1 9 8 3 ) on g e is h a rep resen t th is tren d . S o m e fem in ist a n th ro p o lo g ists, su ch a s P e n n y B ro w n ( 1 9 8 1 ) an d N ic o le -C la u d c M a th ic u ( 19 7 8 ) , h a v e a rg u e d that c ro ss-c u ltu ra l c o m p a riso n s o f w o m e n 's sta tu s a r e im p o ssib le in a n y e v en t, the a r r o g a n t im p o sitio n o f p h ilistin e W e ste rn g rid s on d e e p ly d iv e rg e n t c u ltu ra l u n d ersta n d in g s. T h e seco n d g ro u p o f e th n o g ra p h e rs, m a n y o f w h o m w e re B ritish o r from c o m m o n w e a lth sta te s, w e re stro n g ly in flu en c ed b y M a r x is t th e o ry but d id n ot u se M a r x an d E n g e ls fo r ev o lu tio n ist g r a n d th eo rizin g . In ste a d , th ey fo cu sed c lo scly on w o m e n 's liv e s in p a r t ic u la r g ro u p s an d on se e in g those liv e s in h isto ric a l an d p o litic a l-e co n o m ic c o n te x t. T w o ed ited c o llec tio n s, P a tr ic ia C a p la n a n d J a n e t B u jr a 's Women U nited, Women D ivided ( 19 7 9 ) an d K a t e Y o u n g c t a l.’s O f M arriage and the M arket ( 1 9 8 1 ) , a m o n g m a n y o th er w o rk s, e x e m p lify th is tren d in sc h o la rs h ip . I he th read u n itin g the fo rm e r c o lle c tio n is the e x a m in a tio n o f m a te ria l c o n d itio n s th a t m a y o r m a y not lead to s o lid a r ity a m o n g p a r tic u la r p o p u la tio n s o f w o m en in p a r tic u la r c u ltu ra l c o n te x ts. T h e la tte r v o lu m e c o m b in ed th e o re tic a l o v e rv ie w p ic c c s , su c h a s D ia n e E ls o n a n d R u th P e a r so n ’s { 1 9 8 1 ) s u m m a tio n o f first- a n d th ird -w o rld w o m e n ’s in tersectio n w ith th e in te rn a tio n a liz a tio n o f fa c to ry p ro d u c tio n , w ith e th n o g ra p h ic a rtic le s lin k in g , fo r e x a m p le , the p o litic s o f d o m estic b u d g e tin g in B r ita in w ith la rg e r p o litic a l-c c o n o m ic sh ifts (W h ite h e a d 19 8 1 ) . B o th v o lu m e s a c tiv e ly sp e a k to fem in ist s c h o la r ly c o n cern s o u tsid e a n th ro ­ p o lo g y . T h e c a se stu d y a n a ly s e s o f c o n tin g e n t w o m e n ’ s s o lid a r ity p a ra lle l w o rk a m o n g fem in ist la b o r h isto ria n s an d so c io lo g ists on w o m en ’ s resistan ce v s. w o m e n ’ s co n sen t in the w o rk p la c e . O f M arriage and the M arket's c o n trib u ­ to rs sh a re the M a r x ist-th e o re tic a l fra m e o f m a n y o th e r so c ia l sc ie n tists an d h isto ria n s in th eir efforts to d e sc rib e w o m e n ’ s v a r y in g h o u seh o ld a n d e x t r a ­ h o u se h o ld ro les in the e v o lv in g g lo b a l e c o n o m y . D e sp ite th is in te rd isc ip lin a ry lin k a g e , s tu d ie s in th is v e in h a v e not h ad as m u ch in flu en c e on fem in ist th o u g h t a s a w h o le a s h a v e o th e rs, for a n u m b e r o f re aso n s. F ir s t, a lth o u g h th ey n a rra te w o m e n 's liv e s in o th e r so cieties, they d o so fu n d a m e n ta lly in term s o f eco n o m ic a n d p o litic a l c o n texts. T h a t is, in o rd e r to u n d e rsta n d M a th a r e V a lle y sh a n ty to w n w o m e n ’s liv e s (N elso n *979)» o n e b a s to u n d ersta n d the p o litic a l-e c o n o m ic p ro c e ss o f the d e v e lo p ­ m en t o f s h a n ty to w n s in th ird -w o rld sta te s, p r e v a le n t k in sh ip stru c tu re s, an d K e n y a n sta te p o licies. A m a ss in g th is e c o n o m ic an d in stitu tio n al k n o w led g e in p re p a ra tio n fo r the Verslehen m om ent is a fa r c r y from p lu n g in g in to N is a 's first-p e rso n n a r ra tiv e o f h e r th o u g h ts a n d e m o tio n s su rro u n d in g life p a ssa g e s (S h o sta k 1 9 8 1 ) . S e c o n d , W estern fem in ist th o u g h t h a s m o ved p ro g re ss iv e ly a w a y from ec o n o m ic -h isto ric a l c o n sid e ra tio n s o v e r the p ast d e c a d e a n d to­ w a rd u n iv e rsa liz in g p sy c h o lo g ie s, a ten d en cy co m p o u n d ed b y A m e r ic a n s ’ h is to ric a l p e n c h a n t fo r p sy c h o lo g iz in g a n d re la te d re lu c ta n c e to th in k eco­ n om ically ab o u t social processes. F in a lly , these studies take a stan ce critical o f

INTRODUCTION

15

a l l— n ot o n ly m a le -fe m a le — stra tific a tio n . T h u s fem in ists u n c o m fo rta b le w ith c ritiq u e s o f p rio r W estern c o lo n ia l o r c u rre n t p o stc o lo n ial p o lic ie s, o f th ird -w o rld sta te c o rru p tio n , o r o ven o f c la ss a n d ra c e stra tific a tio n in an y s ta te h a v e d ifficu lties w ith w o rk in th is v e in . I o n ce faced a m in o r stu d en t re b e llio n in a Y a le a n th ro p o lo g y se m in a r: the y o u n g w o m en o b je c te d to tw o Women U nited, Women D ivid ed e th n o g ra p h e rs' c ritic a l a n a ly se s o f the elite, c la s s -m a in ta in in g a c tiv itie s o f B r a h m in w o m en in T a m il N a d u (C a p ta n 19 7 9 ) a n d o f u p p e r-sta tu s C re o le w o m en in S ie r r a L e o n e (C o h e n 19 7 9 ). In a n in te re stin g illu stra tio n o f c la s s in terests uber a lles, the stu d e n ts felt th a t w o m en lik e th e ir o w n m o th ers w e re b e in g in su lted . W ith in the d e c a d e o f the 19 7 0 s , m a n y o f th ese a p p ro a c h e s to th e fem in ist c o n u n d ru m b e g a n to a p p e a r less sa tisfa c to ry to a n th ro p o lo g ists. E v o lu tio n ist M a r x is t e x p la n a tio n s w ere h am p e re d in tw o w a y s. F ir s t, th ey e m p lo y e d the h o a ry V ic to r ia n a n th ro p o lo g ic a l c o m p a r a tiv e m eth od : c o n sid e rin g c o n te m ­ p o ra ry c u ltu re s a s th o u gh th ey w ore liv in g h isto ry . S in c e a ll so cieties e x ist in sid e the sa m e h isto ric a l stre a m , h a v e e x p e rie n c e d the sa m e n u m b e r o f y e a r s in w h ic h to a lte r, th is p e rsp e c tiv e is both illo g ic a l a n d s u b tly d e p r e c a t­ in g to th o se c o n sid ered less e v o lv e d , ev e n w h en “ less e v o lv e d ” is in terp reted a s “ b e tte r fo r w o m e n .” B u rg e o n in g in terest in the a r r o g a n c e o f the W e st’ s re p re se n ta tio n s o f the rest, o f the p o w e r d y n a m ic s o f n a m in g “ o th e rs,” e n ­ h a n c e d this c ritic a l p ersp e c tiv e . S e c o n d , the e th n o g ra p h ic reco rd d iv u lg e s too m a n y c o u n te re x a m p le s to the M a r x - E n g e ls m od el o f s e x u a lly e g a lita ria n s m a ll-s c a le so cieties. S o m e N o rth A m e ric a n N a tiv e A m e ric a n p o p u la tio n s su c h a s th e S c n c c a a n d the P u e b lo s seem 10 h a v e b een c h a ra c te riz e d h is ­ to ric a lly b y re la tiv e ly h igh fe m a le sta tu s a s e v id e n c e d b y fe m a le p o litic a l in flu e n c e o r a u to n o m o u s m a rita l d e c isio n -m a k in g (B ro w n 19 7 5 ; B en ed ict * 934 : 7 3 —7 6 ). O th e rs, su ch a s the P la in s In d ia n s, w h o h ad le ss-c o m p le x , lc ss-sta tc lik c so c ia l stru c tu re s, w ere c h a ra c te riz e d b y m u ch lo w e r sta tu s for w o m en . W o m en in so m e S o u th A m e ric a n h o rtic u ltu ra l g r o u p s (th e Y a n o m a m a , the M u n d u r u c u ) e x p e rie n c e d the th reat o f g a n g r a p e .7 A n d w o m e n ’ s liv e s in m a n y P a p u a N e w G u in e a so cieties in v o lv e m u ch m ore a r d u o u s la b o r th an d o m e n ’ s, w h ile th ey a r e c u ltu r a lly c h a ra c te riz e d a s d istin c tly in fe rio r b e in g s. W o m e n a m o n g the G a in j, fo r e x a m p le , even e n g a g e in ritu a liz e d re v e n g e s u ic id e to e sc a p e th eir o n e ro u s, u n sa tisfa c to ry liv e s an d to h au n t a b u s iv e h u s b a n d s— a c u sto m w ith strik in g p a ra lle ls to p r e re v o lu tio n a ry C h in a ( Jo h n s o n

1 9 8 1 ) . S im p ly too m a n y “ p rim itiv e ” w o m en h a v e been

re c o rd e d a s e x p e rie n c in g ex tre m e e x p lo ita tio n an d o p p re ssio n at the h a n d s o f m en in th eir o w n so cieties to len d c re d e n c e to the a rg u m e n t th a t W estern c o n ta c t, c o lo n ia lism , o r c a p ita l p en etratio n a r e a lo n e re sp o n sib le for a ll ine g a lita r ia n g e n d e r re la tio n s in fo ra g in g a n d h o rtic u ltu ra l so cieties. A s R a p p p o in ts o u t, w e n ow k n o w th at “ c h a n g e s b ro u g h t a b o u t b y c o lo n ia lism , o r, la te r, c a p ita list p ro d u c tiv e re la tio n s, a r e not a u to m a tic a lly d e trim e n ta l to w o m e n ” ( 19 7 9 : 5 0 5 ).

16

in t r o d u c t io n ;

S im ila r ly , O r tn e r ’ s c o m p e llin g v isio n o f w o m e n ’ s u n iv e rsa l sy m b o lic a ss o ­ c ia tio n w ith in ferio r n a tu re loses fo cu s w h en w c c o n sid e r c le a r W estern c o u n ­ te r e x a m p le s : the V ic to r ia n “ an g e l on the h e a r th ” w h o e n a b le d b a se m en to tra n s c c n d the c o n ta m in a tio n o f th eir o w n b r u tis h n a tu re s th ro u g h c o n ta c t w ith th e “ an gel**’ s s p ir itu a l, a rtis tic c a p a c itie s . O r th ere is the p re v a le n t A m e ric a n m yth o f the cow b o y civilized b y the sch o o lm arm , classically em bo d ­ ied in a ’ ‘ p rim itiv e ” th ird -w o rld la n d sc a p e in the film A frican Queen (R o g e rs 19 7 8 : 1 3 4 ) . T h e c o n trib u to rs to C a r o l M a c C o r m a c k a n d M a r ily n S tr a th c r n ’ s re sp o n se to O rtn e r, X ature, Culture and Gender { 19 8 0 ) , p ro v id e d tw o o th er c o u n te ra rg u m e n ts. They noted first, in a n u m b e r o f se p a ra te eth n o g ra p h ic e s s a y s, that not o n ly is the a sso cia tio n n a t u r e :c u lt u r e to fe m a le :m a le not u n iv e r s a l, but that n a tu re /c u ltu re a n d fe m a le /m a le a r c not e v e n n e c e ssa rily d ic h o to m o u s p a ir s in n o n -W estern c u ltu re s. F u rth e r, M a u r ic e an d J e a n B lo c h a n d

L . Jo r d a n o v a

esta b lish e d

the a m b ig u o u s , h ig h ly p o litic a lly

c h a r g e d h isto ry o f th e c o n cep ts o f n a tu re , c u ltu re , an d g e n d e r in the la te e ig h te e n th c e n tu ry . F a r from b ein g W estern sy m b o lic g iv e n s, these c o n stru c ­ tio n s w e r e fo rg ed in the E n lig h te n m e n t c r u c ib le a s c a te g o rie s o f c h a lle n g e .11 R o s a ld o ’s d ich o tim iz a tio n o f p u b lic an d d o m e stic sp h e re s h a s a lso seem ed less s a lie n t o v e r tim e. F em in ist h isto ria n s h a v e n oted the iro n ie s a n d a m b i­ g u itie s o f s e p a r a te sp h e re s rh c to ric in n in e te e n th -c e n tu ry E u ro p e a n d the U n ite d S ta te s. M a n y w o m a n m o vem en t a c tiv is ts , a fte r a ll, m a d e u se o f d o m e s tic , fe m in in e, “ m o ra l m o th e rh o o d ”

r h c to ric to a r g u e for w o m e n ’s

rig h ts to en ter the p u b lic sp h ere. J a n e A d d a m s ’ s c o in a g e o f “ so c ia l h o u se ­ k e e p in g ” is a c a se in p o in t. A s w ell, in c la ss- a n d ra c e -stra tifie d so cie tie s, verys e p a r a t e sp h e re s a m o n g o n e g ro u p m a y b e q u ite p e rm e a b le for o th ers. D o m e stic a te d la d ie s co e x iste d w ith w o m en m in e rs an d fa c to ry o p e ra tiv e s — a n d s tre e t p ro stitu te s. A n d o f c o u rse fo r d o m e stic se rv a n ts , the la rg e st g ro u p o f e m p lo y e d w o m en in V ic to r ia n B rita in a n d the U n ite d S ta te s , h o u seh o ld a n d w o rk p la c e w ere p ro fo u n d ly in te rp e n e tra tin g in stitu tio n s.9 R u th B o rk c r ( 19 8 5 ) h a s a lso p o in ted o u t th a t the fo rm u la tio n d o m estic / p u b lic d is g u is e s a la rg e n u m b e r o f s e p a r a b le p h e n o m e n a — a c tu a l liv in g sp a c e s, s p e c ific so c ia l fu n ctio n s, p erso n n el, lin g u istic c a te g o rie s. R o s a ld o h e r­ s e lf re tu rn e d to h er m odel in 19 8 0 to in te rro g a te h e r o w n a ssu m p tio n s an d to lin k them to the h e rita g e o f d u a listic n in e te e n th -c e n tu ry so c ia l sc ic n cc fra m e w o rk s . T h us the d o m e stic /p u b lic d ic h o to m y h a s b een d em o ted fro m a key e x p la n a t o r y fa c to r to a rese a rch to o l, a p h e n o m e n o n th a t m a y e x ist in m u ltip le fo rm s w ith m u ltip le m e a n in g s. C h o d o r o w ’ s d ic h o to m iz in g F re u d ia n m o d e l a s w e ll, a lth o u g h in flu en tial in fem in ist lite ra ry c ritic ism , a p p e a re d to a n th ro p o lo g ists sim ila rly a h is to ric a l a n d o v e r ly u n iv e rsa liz in g a s th e d e c a d e w aned. W c a r e left, th en , w ith the “ n a tiv e w o m en b e tte r o ff,” Verstehen, an d h isto r­ ic a l M a r x is t p e rsp e c tiv e s a s so lu tio n s to th e fem in ist c o n u n d ru m . N a o m i Q u in n , in a [9 7 7 e s s a y o n a n th ro p o lo g ic a l stu d ie s o l w o m e n ’s sta tu s, p o in ted

INTRODUCTION

17

o u t th a t “ s t a tu s ” is in ac tu a lity a p o rtm a n te a u c o n c ep t, e n c o m p a ssin g at d ifferen t tim es r e la tiv e sh a re in p ro d u c tiv e a c tiv itie s, co n tro l o v e r re so u rc e s, s e x u a l a u to n o m y , p o litic a l p o w er, a n d m a n y o th e r fa c to rs. M o re o v e r, these d iffe rin g p h e n o m e n a a r e n c n c o m p a ra b le : h o w m u ch w e ig h t d o w e a tta c h to a b se n c e o f g a n g ra p e versu s r e la tiv e co n tro l o v e r the food s u p p ly v e rsu s fre e ­ d o m to ch o o se se x u a l a n d m a rita l p a rtn e rs v e rsu s p u b lic p o litic a l v o ice? T h u s the p o sitiv e o r n eg ativ e e v a lu a tio n o f w o m e n ’s liv e s e lse w h e re w ill al w a y s b e p a rtia l a n d selective. T h e r e a r e , o f c o u rse, o v e r a r c h in g g r id s o f c o n ­ c re te , c o u n ta b le , m a te ria l p h en o m en a, su c h a s the U n ite d N a tio n s sta tistic s o n w o m e n ’ s v e rsu s m e n ’ s ca lo ric in ta k es an d e x p e n d itu re s , the r e la tiv e p re s­ e n ce o f fo rm s o f v io le n c e a g ain st w o m e n , sp ec ific state p o lic ie s s e c u rin g o r h in d e rin g w o m e n 's rig h ts, an d so o n . B u t su c h fig u re s a re n e c e ss a rily c ru d e , su b je c t to re p o rtin g b ia s and d e lib e ra te s la te o b fu sc a tio n . A lth o u g h a g g r e ­ g a te fig u re s c a n b e used to b ru sh la rg e stro k es— fo r e x a m p le , w o rld w id e , w o m en w o rk h a r d e r th an m en for le ss r e w a r d — w e c a n m a k e o n ly p a rtia l, p h e n o m e n o n -b y -p h en o m en o n c o m p a riso n s a m o n g so cieties on th is b a sis, an d th ese c o m p a riso n s d o n ot at a ll atte n d to the v a r y in g w a y s in w h ic h w o m en th e m se lv e s p erceivc th eir s itu a tio n s .10 T h e S trath ern -V V ein er d e b a te is a c a s e in p o in t. A s w e ll as m a k in g c la im s c o n c e rn in g T r o b r ia n d w o m e n 's h ig h sta tu s, W e in e r took M a rily n S tra th e rn to task fo r not h a v in g atte n d e d p ro p e rly to M o u n t H a g e n w o m e n ’ s s y m b o lic tra d in g a n d its m e a n in g s for w o m e n 's (h ig h ) sta tu s (19 7 6 : 13 ) . S tra th e rn rep lied th at a lth o u g h M o u n t H a g e n w o m e n , lik e T ro b r ia n d w o m e n , d id h a v e th eir o w n sy m b o lic tra d in g n e tw o rk s, su c h tra d in g sim p ly d id n ot b e a r the c u ltu ra l m e a n in g s W e in e r c la im e d fo r the T ro b r ia n d s : “ W hut it m e a n s to b e a w o m a n in th is o r th at situ a tio n m u st rest to som e exten t on the c u ltu ra l lo g ic b y w h ic h g e n d e r is c o n stru c te d ’ " (S tr a th e r n 19 8 1: 6 8 3 ). O n e c a n n o t, in o th er w o rd s, s im p ly read o u t fro m in stitu tio n s to their c u ltu ra l c o n stru c tio n s. In the en d (e x c lu d in g the sp e c ia l p ro b le m s o f fem in ist p h y s ic a l a n th ro p o l­ o g y a n d a rc h e o lo g y ), the carefu l a tte m p t to d isc e rn the m e a n in g s o f g e n d e r in o th e r c u ltu ra l w o rld s a n d ihe b rin g in g to g eth er o f e th n o g ra p h ic , h isto ric a l, a n d p o litic a l-e co n o m ic kn r.w lcdgc o f p a r tic u la r p o p u la tio n s seem the m ost fru itfu l m o d es o f fem in ist an th ro p o lo g ic a l p ra c tic e . B u t w c a r e n o w p r a c ­ tic in g a n th ro p o lo g y in a strik in g ly c h a n g e d p o litic a l, s o c ia l, an d s c h o la rly c lim a te . T h e e r a o f eth n o g ra p h ic lib e ra lism , an d thus o f the v e r y raiso n d 'e t r e o f the fem in ist c o n u n d ru m , h a s e n d ed . It is to the sh ifts o f the 19 7 0 s a n d 19 8 0 s th at I n o w tu rn .

F E M IN IS T A N T H R O P O L O G Y A N D T H E P O ST M O D E R N ERA T h e se c o n d -w a v e A m e ric a n fem in ist m o v em en t w a s a lm o st im m e d ia te ly c h a lle n g e d b y b a c k la sh . N o so o n e r w ere re p ro d u c tiv e rig h ts, e n try in to fo rm e rly m a le jo b ? , rig h ls 10 lesb ian e x p re ssio n , m a le s h a r in g o f h n n srw o rk

18

INTRODUCTION

an d c h ild c a rc , o r p ro test a g a in s t v io le n c e a g a in st w o m en esta b lish e d a s p rin ­ c ip le s th an th ey w e re atta ck e d a s u n w a rra n te d — even im m o ra l— a tte m p ts at s o c ia l e n g in e e rin g , even a s im p ro p e r tin k erin g w ith h u m a n n a tu re . T h e s e a tta c k s, a n d th eir in stitu tio n alized fo rm s, su c h a s P h y llis S c h la fly ’s C a g le F o ru m a n d the M o r a l M a jo r ity , w ere d ire c tly co n n ected to a la rg e r ‘ ’ n ew c o n s e rv a tism ” in the U n ite d S ta te s . N e w R ig h t a c tiv is m , in c o rp o ra tin g a n ti­ fe m in ism , p ro -U n ite d S la te s im p e ria lism , a n d a n t i- c iv il- r ig h t s a n d g a y rig h ts sta n c c s, c u lm in a te d in R o n a ld R e a g a n 's 19 8 0 p re sid e n tia l e le c tio n an d h a s h ad c o n sid e ra b le in flu en ce on n atio n al p o litic a l p o w e r th ro u g h o u t the d e c a d e .1 1 P a ra lle l d e v e lo p m e n ts took p la c e a c ro ss the A tla n tic . M a r g a r e t T h a t c h e r took p o w e r in the U n ited K in g d o m in 19 7 9 , a n d the g o v e rn m e n ts o f F r a n c e , W est G e r m a n y , I ta ly , an d S p a in (a lth o u g h so m e w ere n o m in a lly s o c ia list) a lso took r ig h tw a rd turn s. T h e A m e ric a n r ig h tw a rd sh ift, co u p led w ith d e m o g ra p h ic flu c tu a tio n s a n d the R e a g a n a d m in is tr a tio n 's c u to ff o f m a n y so c ia l p ro g ra m s, h a d im m e d ia te effects on A m e ric a n c o lleg es a n d u n iv e rsitie s. S o c ia l sc ie n c e (e x c lu d ­ in g e co n o m ics) a n d lib e ra l a rts p ro g ra m s lost stu d e n t e n ro llm en ts to b u sin e ss m a jo rs an d to p ro fessio n al sch o o ls a s u n d e rg ra d u a te s a n d g r a d u a te s re­ sp o n d e d to ec o n o m ic in se c u rity a n d r ig h tw a rd sh ift th ro u g h a tte m p ts to g a in “ p r a c tic a l’ ’ tra in in g . A n th ro p o lo g y d e p a rtm e n ts in p a r tic u la r e x p e rie n c e d th e loss o f q u e stin g stu d e n ts seek in g to u n d ersta n d the liv es o f th ird -w o rld p o p u la tio n s an d the effects o f A m e r ic a n a n d o th e r im p e ria lism s on th o se liv e s . A t the sa m e tim e, rig h tw a rd sh ift an d fu n d in g c ris e s led a n th ro p o lo g y d e p a rtm e n ts to fo cu s on sta ffin g “ tr a d itio n a l” field s an d to p ic s, a n d th u s to n eglect fe m in ist, M a r x is t, an d A m e ric a n -fo c u se d re se a rc h . F e m in ism (a n d M a r x is m , b ut th a t is a n o th e r s t o r y ) 12 n e v erth eless e s ta b ­ lish e d it s e lf in the A m e r ic a n a c a d e m y , h a v in g p a rtic u la r in flu en c e in lit e r a ­ tu re a n d h isto ry d e p a rtm e n ts b u t a lso th ro u gh the m a in te n a n c e o f m o re th an fo u r h u n d re d w o m e n ’ s stu d ies p ro g ra m s n atio n w id e. A c a d e m ic fe m in ists, h o w e v e r, a lm o st a t o n ce w ere fo rced to g r a p p le w ith the q u estio n o f “ d iffe r­ e n c e ” — the m u ltip le r a c ia l, e th n ic, c la s s , s e x u a l, ag e , re g io n a l, an d n a tio n a l id e n titie s o f w o m en — a s th ey noted th eir o w n restricted d e m o g ra p h ic r e p r e ­ se n ta tio n a n d re se a rc h in terests. M u c h fem in ist in te lle c tu a l w o rk o f th e tw'o d e c a d e s w o u ld a tte m p t to red ress this im b a la n c e , w h e th e r th ro u g h re s e a rc h fo cu sed on

w o rk in g -c la ss, n o n w h itc , th ird -w o rld , o r le sb ia n w o m e n o r

th ro u g h efforts to a lte r fem in ist a c a d e m ic p erso n n el th ro u g h a ffirm a tiv e a c tio n h irin g a n d the rec ru itm en t o f m in o rity an d w o rk in g *c la ss (th o u g h not n e c e ssa rily fem a le) stu d en ts. T h e s e fem in ist a c a d e m ic efforts, h o w e v e r, took p la c e in a r a p id ly a lte rin g in te lle c tu a l e n v iro n m e n t, o n e w e can o n ly c h a ra c te riz e a s sc h iz m o g e n e tic — m o v in g d e c isiv e ly in o p p o sin g d ire c tio n s. O n the o n e h a n d , sc h o la rs o f m a n y so rts m a d e ren ew ed c la im s th at the h u m a n w o rld w a s c h a ra c te riz e d b y o r d e r a n d r e g u la ritie s, a n d asserted the p rim a c y o f sc ie n c e — o r the scie n tific s ta tu s

INTRODUCTION

19

o f n o n -h a rd -sc ie n c e d iscip lin es. O n the o th er h a n d , sc h o la rs o f o th e r strip es m a d e re v ise d a rg u m en ts for atten tio n to h isto ry ra th e r th an stru c tu re , for the re c o g n itio n o f sh o rt-term , n o n re cu rre n t h isto ric a l re g u la ritie s o r o f s h e e r ran ­ d o m n e ss in h u m a n a ffa irs.13 T h is h isto ric a l fra m e w a s o ften tied to a d e ­ th ro n in g o f sc ie n c e s’ c la im s to su p e ro rd in a tc sta tu s to w h ic h a ll o th e r d isc i­ p lin e s sh o u ld b e rela tiv iz e d . C r itic s in ste a d v ie w e d sc ie n c c a s in trin sic a lly s o c ia lly c o n stru c te d : a s e x p re ssin g , in d ifferin g h isto ric a l e ra s, re ig n in g no* tio n s o f p ro p e r h u m an so cial life in its re p re se n ta tio n s o f b o th h u m a n an d n o n h u m a n w o rld s. G a th e r in g in the ‘ sc ie n c e a n d o rd e r” c o rn e r in the 19 7 0 s w e re a n u m b er o f s tra n g e in tellectu al b ed fello w s. L c v i-S tr a u s s ia n stru c tu ra lism h ad p erco ­ la te d o u tw a rd ac ro ss d isc ip lin e s (E h r m a n n 19 7 0 ) a n d w a s tak en u p an d fu sed w ith M a r x is m

A s p ra c tic e d p a rtic u la rly b y L o u is A lth u s s e r (19 6 9 ,

1 9 7 1 ) , s tru c tu ra lis t M a rx ism p ro m ise d to set M a r x is t a n a ly s is o n ce ag ain u p o n a scie n tific footing, to a llo w the c le a r ta x o n o m y o f so cieties a c ro s s tim e a n d s p a c e b y m o d e o f p ro d u c tio n , a n d to in c o rp o ra te su c c e ssfu lly th eo ries o f b o th sta te a n d id eo lo g ica l fu n ctio n in g w ith in o n g o in g c a p ita list econ o m ies. A lth o u g h stru c tu ra list M a r x is m w a s stro n g ly rep resen ted in a n th ro p o lo g y b y s c h o la rs o f A fr ic a , such a s B lo c h ( 19 8 4 , >985) a n d M e illa s s o u x ( 1 9 8 1 ) , few fem in ist an th ro p o lo g ists (one e xc ep tio n w a s B rig id O 'L a u g h lin ’ s 19 7 4 work on the M b u m ) m a d e u se o f its in te lle c tu a l fram ew o rk . S tr u c tu r a lis m h ad a v e r y stro n g in flu en c e on a n th ro p o lo g y , h o w e v e r, in te rm s o f the s tu d y o f sy m b o lic sy ste m s. W e h a v e seen the fem in ist reflection o f th is tren d in S h e rry O r tn c r ’s w o rk . A s w e ll, a d ifferen t b ra n d o f stru c tu ra l­ ism e n te re d a n th ro p o lo g y v ia s tr u c tu r a lis t lin g u istic s an d stim u la te d antiL e v i-S t r a u s s ia n , h ig h ly e m p iric a l w o rk on the lin g u istic o rd e rin g o f n ative c o n ce p tio n s o f the n a tu ra l w o rld , o f k in sh ip , la w , h e alth , a n d d ise a se . T h is sc h o o l, la b e le d co g n itive a n th ro p o lo g y b y its p ra c titio n e rs, c la im e d statu s a s a “ fo rm al sc ie n c e ” offerin g “ co m p le te , a c c u r a te d e sc rip tio n s o f p a rtic u la r c o g n itiv e s y ste m s”

( T y le r 19 6 9 :

14 ). M o re re c e n tly , a n th ro p o lo g ists in ­

terested in co g n itio n h ave tak en a less sc ie n tistic a n d u n iv e rsa liz in g tack an d h a v e jo in e d w ith co g n itiv e p sy c h o lo g ists to c o n sid e r v a r y in g h u m a n con­ stru c tio n s o f “ so fte r,” m ore c m o tio n -la d cn (from a W estern p ersp ective'' in ­ stitu tio n s su c h a s m a rria g e . N o t c o in c id e n ta lly , e x p lic itly fem in ist w o rk look­ in g at the g e n d e re d c h a ra c te r o f co g n itio n h a s co m e to the fo re in th is U tter p erio d (see H o lla n d a n d Q u in n 19 8 7 ). A n d C a th e r in e L u t z ’s p io n eerin g w o rk on em o tio n on Ifa lu k p ro v id e s a fem in ist m e ta *c o m m e n ta ry ir. its e d ific a to ry c o n clu d in g p o in t: w c in the W e st fa lse ly u n iv e rsa liz e o u r related set o f d ich o to m ie s, th o u g h t/em o tio n a n d m ale /fe m a le . S u c h d iv is io n s d o not o b ta in o n Ifa lu k yet a re a p a rt o f an o v e ra rc h in g id eo lo g y th at co n strain s b oth o u r re se a rc h on g e n d e r an d o u r efforts to b rin g a b o u t so c ia l ch an ge (L u tz 19 8 8 ). T h e a sse rtio n o f w id e sp re a d stru c tu ra l re g u la ritie s a c ro ss tim e a n d sp ace

INTRODUCTION

20

also a ro se in b io lo g y a n d “ s o c io b io lo g y .”

p h y sic a l a n th ro p o lo g y w ith the fo u n d in g o f

E n to m o lo g ist E . O . W ilso n , in th e 19 7 5 v o lu m e o f th at

n a m e , a sse rte d th a t all liv in g b ein g s o p e r a te in so m e se n se in te n tio n a lly in o r d e r to m a x im iz e rep ro d u ctio n o f th eir o w n g e n e tic m a te ria l. T h u s a ll pat* tc rn e d b e h a v io r , W ilson a rg u e d , fro m b eeh iv es to B a u h a u s , c a n b e e x p la in e d in term s o f re p ro d u ctiv e stra te g ie s. W ils o n 's n o to rio u s c h a p te r 2 7 a p p lie d so cio b io lo g ic a l re a so n in g to h u m an p o p u la tio n s w ith resu lts w h o se a b s u r d ity w a s q u ic k ly n o ted . U s in g a lre a d y d isc re d ite d “ m a n -th e-h u n ter” m o d elin g a n d a c le a r ly c o n se rv a tiv e p o litical p h ilo s o p h y , W ilso n asserted the g e n e tic b a sis for ra c ia l o r o th e r I Q d iffer­ e n ce s. fo r ‘ ‘ n a tu r a l’ ' m ale d o m in a n c e a n d “ n a tu r a l” c la s s s tr a tific a tio n .14 L a t e r so cio b io lo g ists w ould both m a k e few er c la im s a b o u t th e fu n c tio n in g o f h u m a n s o r ir t ir s a n d w 'ltild attem p t to set the school u p on a scie n tific b a sis. S o m e fem in ists b e c a im in terested in re v isin g so cio b io lo g y th ro u g h a tte n d in g to its n eglect o f the a g e n c y o f fe m a le a n im a ls. T h e s e w r ite r s d e v e lo p e d d e ­ s c rip tio n s o f fe m a le re p ro d u ctiv e stra te g ic s an d stu d ied fe m a le p rim a te s w ith th e p re su m p tio n th a t they w o u ld d is p la y th eir o w n c o o p e ra tiv e a n d c o m p e ti­ tiv e b e h a v io r (H r d y 1 9 8 1 ; a n d c h a p . 5 , th is v o lu m e ). D u rin g the sa m e d e c a d e s, the “ h isto ry a n d c ritiq u e o f s c ie n c e '’ c o rn e r w a s a ls o in c re a s in g ly p o p u lated . T h e r e w a s a re d isc o v e ry o f the refu gee M a r x is ts o f the F ra n k fu rt S c h o o l, w h o h ad la b o re d to use p h e n o m e n o lo g ic a l in sig h ts on the so c ia l co n stru ctio n o f k n o w le d g e to e x te n d M a r x 's n o tio n s o f c u ltu re a n d id e o lo g y (see J a y 19 7 3 ) . P re v io u sly , so cio lo g ists E r v in g G o ffm a n ( 1 9 5 9 ) , A a ro n C ic o u r e l ( 1 9 6 4 ,1 9 7 4 ) , H a ro ld G a rfin k e l { 1 9 6 7 ) , an d o th e rs a lso m ad e u se o f p h e n o m e n o lo g y to found sy m b o lic in tc ra c tio n ism an d eth n o m eth o d o lo g y , sc h o o ls o f th o ugh t fo cu sin g on an a n tip o sitiv ist a n a ly s is o f the effects o f v a r y in g so cial c o n texts— in tim id a tin g q u e stio n n a ire s a d m in iste re d to p o o r p e o p le b y m id d le -cla ss p eo p le, fo r e x a m p le — on the k n o w led g e g a th e re d w ith in

th em . W 'ork in a n th ro p o lo g ic a l so cio lin g u istics

p a ra lle le d

these

sch o o ls in so cio lo g y th ro u gh its e m p h a sis on c o m m u n ic a tiv e c o n te x ts— c o u rtro o m , c la ssro o m , stre e tc o rn e r— a n d the im p o rta n c e o f in d iv id u a ls ’ ra c e , c la ss, a n d g e n d tr sta tu se s in both c o n stra in in g a n d e n a b lin g th eir sp eech stra te g ie s (see c h ap . 4, th is v o lu m e). S o c ia l s c ie n tists w ere a lso g r e a tly in flu en ced b y h isto ria n o f sc ie n c e T h o ­ m a s K u h n ’ s The Structure o f Scientific Revolutions ( 1 9 7 0 ) . K u h n a rg u e d a g a in s t o fficial W h ig h isto ries o f sc ie n c e , p o in tin g out th at in a se rie s o f k e y c a se s k n o w le d g e g re w n ot th ro u gh u n c o n tro v e rsia l a d d itio n to a c c e p te d m o d els, b u t th ro u g h (he c la sh o f e n tirely o p p o se d p a ra d ig m s an d the fin al triu m p h o f o n e . A lth o u g h K u h n did not in ten d h is w o rk to a p p ly to so c ia l s c ie n c e , his h is to ric a l p o in t— th a t rec eiv ed w isd o m is the resu lt o f con flict a m o n g c o m ­ p e tin g p ra c titio n e rs — w as w id e ly a p p re c ia te d an d exten d ed the so cio lo g y -o fk n o w le d g e tra d itio n b egu n in the w o rk o f K a r l M a n n h e im ( 1 9 3 6 ) . C r it ic s o f so cio b io lo g y a n d o f o th e r re d u ctio n ists (su ch a s the " I Q is g e n e t­

INTRODUCTION

21

ic ” sch o o l) used a rg u m e n ts from the so cio lo g y o f k n o w led g e, M a r x is m , a n d p h e n o m e n o lo g y lo p o in t o u t th at th ese sc h o la rs w e re sim p ly seek in g to la y c la im to th e m a n tle o f scien ce fo r the leg itim a tio n o f the sta tu s q u o . Step h en J a y G o u ld a n d o th e rs d o cu m en ted the W estern h isto ry o fs c ic n t ific “ p r o o f ” o f the in fe rio rity o f r a c ia l o th ers, w o m e n , a n d the p o o r, a n d th u s o f th e in ­ h e re n tly id e o lo g ica l c h a r a c ie t o f scie n tific p ra c tic c. H isto ria n K. F . T h o m p so r., w h o se 19 6 3 v o lu m e The M aking o f the E n glish W orking C lass h ad set the fram ew o rk fo r the n ew “ from th e b o tto m up” c u l­ tu ra l h is to ry , a lso jo in e d the a n tistru c tu ra lis t fr a y . T h o m p s o n (19 7 8 ) an d o th e rs a r g u e d th at A ith u sse ria n s tru c tu ra lis t M a r x is m a llo w e d fo r n eith er th e v a g a r ie s o f h isto ric a l c h an g e n or the ro le o f h u m a n a g e n c y in effecting th at c h a n g e . C u ltu r e , in the itr u c tu r a lis t v isio n , red u ced to the "id e o lo g ic a l sta te a p p a r a t u s ” an d co u ld not a c c o m m o d a te the c o n testatio n o v e r m ean in g s o e v id e n t in th e h isto ry — p a rtic u la rly the la b o r h is to ry — o f W e ste rn c a p ita l­ ist s ta te s a n d th eir co lo n ies. Fem in ist h isto ria n s fo u n d th e c u ltu ra l h isto rical fra m e c o n g e n ia l, a s it allo w ed (b u t h a d not been u sed for) the in clu sio n o f d iffe rin g a n d so m e tim e s co n testin g w o m e n ’ s p e rc ep tio n s o f ev e n ts an d in ­ s titu tio n s. H isto ria n s o f black A m e r ic a n s a n d o th er ra c ia l/ e th n ic p o p u la ­ tio n s, a s w e ll a s th o se n e w ly con cern ed w ith the h isto ries o f h o m o se x u a l a n d h e te ro se x u a l e x p re ss io n , also jo in e d

u n d e r the g e n e ra l c u ltu ra l-h isto ry

ru b ric . A lth o u g h stru c tu ra l M a r x is m h ad stro n g ly affected a n th ro p o lo g ic a l w o rk on A fr ic a , o th e r an th ro p o lo g ic a l M a r x is t tra d itio n s c o n tin u e d th ro u gh o u t the 19 7 0 s an d 19 8 0 s. T h e L atin A m e ric a n a n d C a r ib b e a n re se a rc h o f E r ic W 'o lfa n d S id n e y M in tz , in its con cern w ith the p e rc e p tio n s a n d c o n tc stativ e a c tio n s o f p e a sa n t p o p u latio n s e x p e rie n c in g c o lo n ia lism

and

c a p ita list

p e n e tra tio n , in flu en c ed a g en eratio n o f a n th ro p o lo g ists w o rk in g in all a re a s o f the g lo b e . T h is tre n d , in co n ju n ctio n w ith a re n a sc e n t u rb a n a n th ro p o lo g y , e n c o u ra g e d r a d ic a l stu d ie s o f third w o rld d e v e lo p m e n t. F e m in ist an th ro ­ p o lo g ists, e s p e c ia lly th o se w o rk in g in L a tin A m e r ic a , jo in e d w ith fem in ist h is­ to ria n s a n d o th e r so c ia l scien tists to c rc a tc a m a ssiv e a n d con ten tiou s field fo cu sed on “ w o m en a n d d e v e lo p m e n t” (see c h a p s. 7 an d 8 , th is v o lu m e). R a d ic a l a n d h isto ric a l visio n s a lso in flu en c ed the fra m in g o f the d iscip lin e itself. A n th ro p o lo g ists b e g a n to look c r itic a lly at th e rise o f a n th ro p o lo g y as a n a u x ilia r y to B ritis h a n d o th er s ta te s ’ c o lo n ia l v e n tu re s. T a la l A s a d ’ s 19 7 3 ed ite d v o lu m e , Anthropology and the C olonial Encounter, offered c a se stu d ies o f su c h c o m p lic it e th n o g ra p h y . M o re im p o rta n t, th o u g h , A s a d a n d h is co n trib ­ u to rs d o cu m e n te d the d isto rtio n s o f v isio n in v o lv e d in ig n o rin g the p h e ­ n o m en o lo g y o f a n th ro p o lo g ic a l k n o w led g e p ro d u ctio n . T h e c o lo n ia l en co u n ­ te r itself, the in tera ctio n b etw een the p o w e rfu l a n d the p o w e rle ss, w a s the se e m in g ly n eu tral c o m m u n ic a tiv e c o n tcxt th ro u gh w h ic h a n th ro p o lo g ists h is to ric a lly h ad g a in e d v isio n s o f o th e r c u ltu re s. In the U n ite d S ta te s, the 19 7 2 a n th o lo g y Reinventing Anthropology rep resen ted th is h isto ric a l and self*

INTRODUCTION

22

re fle x iv e tren d . C o n tr ib u to rs n oted p o o r o r a b se n t w o rk on N a tiv e A m e ric a n s an d b la c k A m e r ic a n s , p lu m b e d the h isto ry o f A m e r ic a n a n th ro p o lo g y fo r p o sitiv e a n d n e g a tiv e rese a rch trad itio n s, an d laid o u t r a d ic a l rc sc a rc h p a th s fo r the fu tu re. F in a lly , E r ic W o lf 's m o n u m e n ta l Europe and the People Without H istory ( 19 8 2 ) a tte m p ts to set the sp ec ific h isto ries o f the p eo p le s s o often seen o n ly in the tim e le ss “ e th n o g ra p h ic p re se n t” — the p e a sa n t an d trib a l p e o p le s o f the th ird a n d fo u rth w o rld s— in the c o n text o f E u ro p e a n co lo n iz a tio n , c a p ita l a c c u m u la tio n , the rise o f g lo b a l c a p ita lis m , an d in te rn a tio n a liz a tio n o f la b o r. In fo cu sin g on the in tim a te h isto ric a l in terc o n n e c te d n e ss o f p o p u la tio n s, on the flu c tu a tin g la b e ls a n d self-id en tities o f p o p u la tio n s th e m se lv e s, W o lf also a r g u e s stro n g ly fo r a n th ro p o lo g y ’ s re le a se from the “ b o u n d s o f its o w n d e fin i­ tio n s” { 19 8 2 : 18 ) in to a M a r x is t p e rsp e c tiv e th at reu n ites the su n d ered so cial sc ie n c e s w ith h isto ry . N o n e o f the a b o v e w o rk s, h o w e v e r, r e a lly in clu d ed g e n d e r a n a ly s is in its n e w ly h isto ric a l a n d se lf-re fle x iv e c o n sid e ra tio n s. A n e w g e n e ra tio n o f fem in ist sc h o la rs o f e m p ire (see c h a p . 1 , th is v o lu m e ) h a s tak en u p th is task. J u s t a s s tr u c tu r a lis m 's su n w a s se ttin g , h o w e v e r, a n ew set o f in te lle c tu a l tendencies, soon labeled poststructuralism , arose. W h ereas stru ctu ralism o rig­ in a te d in w o rk in lin g u istic s a n d fo lk lo re, sp re a d in g a c ro ss d isc ip lin e s v ia L ^ v i-S tr a u s s ’ s a n th ro p o lo g y , p o ststru c tu ra lism w a s fra n k ly lite r a r y fro m its in ce p tio n . T h is w a s e n tire ly a p p ro p ria te , a s p o sts tru c tu ra lism ’ s k ey c la im w a s th e s u p r e m a c y not o f so c ia l life, o r even o f la n g u a g e , b u t o f texts. P o sts tr u c tu r a lis t w rite rs (an d h ere I a m a b r id g in g m e rc ile ssly ) ten d to fo re­ g ro u n d te x tu a l art an d to see a ll texts (n a r ra tiv e h isto ry , scie n tific re p o rts, p o e m s, n o v e ls, a d v e rtise m e n ts) fu n d a m e n ta lly a s m ore o r less p e rs u a siv e fictio n s. M a n y e x c itin g in sig h ts h a v e fo llo w ed fro m th is ico n o c la stic sta n c e . R e la tio n s a m o n g d ifferin g te xts a re c le a re r to u s, an d th is b o u n d a ry -b re a k in g fu n ctio n o f p o ststru c tu ra lism h a s e n a b le d fem in ists an d a n tira c ists , fo r e x a m ­ p le , to ra n g e w id e ly a c ro ss g e n re s in re d e fin in g w o m e n ’s a n d m in o rity w rit­ e r s ’ lite ra tu re . T h e y h a v e a lso a rg u e d th at “ c a n o n ic a l te xts” — th o se c o n sid ­ ered to b e h igh a rt o r k ey sta te m e n ts in W estern civ iliz a tio n a n d th u s m ost o ften ta u g h t— h a v e b een h isto ric a lly selected an d reselected , in F o u c a u ld ia n fa sh io n , to en fo rc e rec eiv ed w isd o m an d to le g itim a te the sta tu s q u o . T h u s “ e x p a n d in g th e c a n o n ” to in c lu d e te xts b y a ll w o m en a n d r a c ia l m in o rity a n d n o n -W e stern m en c h a lle n g e s h eg em o n ic id e a s a b o u t w h ic h so c ia l g ro u p s h a v e p ro d u ce d w isd o m . O u ts id e lite ra tu re p e r se, H a y d e n Wrh ite’ s e a r ly ( 19 7 8 ) Tropics o f D iscourse> w h ic h tre ate d h isto ric a l n a rra tiv e s as rh eto ric al a rt, h ad a m a jo r in flu en ce. D o n a ld M c C lo s k y ( 19 8 5 ) in ec o n o m ic s an d J . G . A . P o co ck ( 1 9 7 1 ) in p o liti­ c a l th e o ry m a d e a n a lo g o u s a rg u m e n ts a b o u t w ritin g in th eir re sp e c tiv e d is ­ c ip lin e s. A n d a s im ila r sch o o l a ro se in a n th ro p o lo g y , a g ro u p I la b e l the e th n o g ra p h y -a s-te x t sch o o l a fte r a 19 8 2 a rtic le o f th at title b y G e o r g e M a r c u s

INTRODUCTION

23

a n d D ic k C u s h m a n . E th n o g ra p h y -a s -te x t w rite rs, p a rtic u la rly the p ro lific J a m e s C liffo rd , fo cu s a w a y from sp e c ific h u m a n p o p u la tio n s, a w a y from the e th n o g ra p h ic c x p e ric n c e , onto an a n a ly s is o f e th n o g ra p h ic te xts them * s e lv e s .1"4 C liffo rd ( 1 9 8 3 , 19 8 8 “ a n d o th ers w ere a b le to d e m o n stra te the rh e ­ to ric a l stra te g ie s used b y e th n o g ra p h e rs to len d a u th o r ia l p riv ile g e :o texts c la im in g to d e sc rib e th e lifew ay s a n d c u ltu r a l w o rld s o f o th e r h u m a n gro u p s. W e in sc rib e “ fa b le s o f r a p p o r t," n a r ra tiv e s d e s c rib in g the p ro c e ss through w h ic h w e b eco m e a c c e p te d in a n o th e r c u ltu re — n a rra tiv e s in ten d ed to c o n v in c e the r e a d e r o f o u r h a rd -e a rn e d e x p e rtise . W c se le c t a n d d e scrib e “ co m m o n d e n o m in a to r p e o p le ," in d iv id u a ls w h o sy m b o liz e “ n o r m a l” u n d e r­ s ta n d in g s a n d a c tio n s am o n g the “ X . ” A n d w c stru c tu re e n tire texts for sp e c ific effects— a s a lle g o rie s o f lost p a ra d is e o r o f in n a te ly b ru tish h u m an n a tu re , fo r e x a m p le . E th n o g r a p h y a s te xt, then, h a s h ad a b ra c in g , epater I ’elhnologiste effect in a n th ro p o lo g y , p a in tin g ru d e m u sta c h e s on so m e o f o u r m ost sa c re d M o n a L is a texts. I t is u sefu l to rem em b er that w h ile w c a r e a tte m p tin g to c o n v e y w ith scie n tific a c c u r a c y the facts a b o u t a p a r tic u la r h u m a n g r o u p , w c a re a ls o , i f o n ly b eh in d o u r ow n b a c k s, in v o lv e d in c o n stru c tin g p e rsu a siv e fictio n s fo r a p a rtic u la r, u su ally W estern a u d ie n c e a b o u t so m e asp e c t o f the m e a n in g o f h u m a n c u ltu ra l difference. A n d e th n o g ra p h y -a s -te x t w riters tend to b e v e r y a w a r e o f a n th ro p o lo g y ’s h isto ric ro le in in sc rib in g the lives o f co lo n ized o r le ss-p o w e rfu l others. C liffo r d ’ s w o rk on the e sta b lish m en t o f e th n o g ra p h ic lib e ra lism a n c on the W e ste rn c o n stru c tio n a n d e x p lo ita tio n o f the n otio n o f p rim itiv e art, the “ re stle ss p o w e r an d d e s ire o f the m o d ern W est to c o lle c t th e w o r ld ’ 1 (19 8 8 : 19 6 ) , atte st lo th is c o n c e rn . E th n o g ra p h y -a s-te x t w rite rs, h o w e v e r, g e n e ra lly h a v e h ad d iffic u ltie s a tten d in g to g e n d e r in a n y c o n te x t, w h e th e r a s a c a te ­ go ry in the ethn ographies they an aly ze o r a s a construct in the m odern W est. In d e e d m a n y e th n o g ra p h y -a s-te x t w rite rs fin d fem in ism it s e lf p ro b le m a tic , d e e m in g it, u n lik e th e ir a u to m a tic a n tic o lo n ia list p e rsp e c tiv e , to b e a cu ltu reb o u n d id e o lo g y to b e h eld at a d ista n c e a n d a n a ly z e d c r itic a lly . C o m m e n ta ry on M a r g e r y S h o s ta k ’s N isa illu stra te s th is p o in t. C liffo rd a sse rts th a t “ N isa is a W e ste rn fem in ist a lle g o r y , p a n o f the re in v e n tio n o f the g e n e r a l c a te g o ry ‘ w o m a n ’ in th e (9 7 0 s an d tjjfios” (19 8 6 : 10 4 ). M a r c u s a n d F is c h e r allu d e to “ S h o s ta k ’ s q u e stio n s d e riv in g fro m

c o n te m p o ra ry A m e r ic a n

fe m in ism ”

(19 8 6 : 5 8 ), w h ile M a r y P ra tt re fe rs to “ c u rre n t W estern c o n cep tio n s o f fe m a le s o lid a r ity a n d in tim a c y ”

in S h o sta k (19 8 6 : 4 5 ) . P a u l R a b in o w ,

h o w e v e r, s im p ly relies on sy n e c d o c h ic m isid e n tific a tio n in h is ro u n d d e c la r a ­ tion th at “ a n th ro p o lo g ic a l fem in ists w o rk a g a in s t an o th e r c a st a s esse n tia lly d ifferen t a n d v io le n t” ( 19 8 6 : 2 5 7 ). H o w can w e u n d e rsta n d the th eo retical a n d p o litic a l sh o rt-sig h te d n e ss o f these w rite rs? W h y d o th ey insist on h o ld in g fem in ist p e rsp e c tiv e s at a r m ’ s le n g th , in sist on fe m in ism ’ s h isto rical c o n tin g e n c y , its sta tu s a s a c u rre n t

INTRODUCTION

24

in te lle c tu a l a n d

p o litic a l m o v e m e n t, w h ile e x p e rie n c in g no d ifficu lty in

stro n g ly re p ro b a tin g , fo r a ll tim e, c o lo n ia list, ra c ist m e n ta litie s? Im a g in e M a r c u s a n d F is c h e r refe rrin g , in the 19 6 0 s, to “ M a r tin L u th e r K in g , J r / s q u e stio n s d e r iv in g from c o n te m p o ra ry A m e ric a n a n tira c is m / * C e r t a in ly one in te rp re ta tio n w o u ld p o in t to the an tife m in ist b a c k la sh so u b iq u ito u s in p o litic s a n d sc h o la rs h ip in the 19 8 0 s. B u t the full a n sw e r, I b e lie v e , is m ore c o m p le x a n d u ltim a te ly m u ch m ore in te re stin g . T h e full a n s w e r e n g a g e s w ith the p ro b le m a tic s o f the lo gic o f p o s tstru c iu ra lism its e lf.1* P o ststru c tu ra list a rg u m e n ts , b y th eir v e r y n a tu re , a tte m p t to d e sta b iliz e re c e iv e d c o n c e p tio n s o f scien ce, o rd e r, so c ie ty , a n d the self. P o ststru c tu ra lism is a n tisc ie n c c , a n tith c o ry ; it le v e ls o u r d istin c tio n s a m o n g tru th a n d fa lse ­ h o o d , sc ie n c e an d m y th . It d en ies the e x iste n ce o f so c ia l o r d e r o r real h u m a n se lv e s, d e c la rin g the d e a th o f the su b je c t. P o ststru c tu ra lism e n ta ils, then, w h a t P e te r D e w s ( 19 8 7 ) term s a “ lo g ic o f d is in te g ra tio n ” : it c a n n o t affirm a n y tru th o r c la im a n y p o litic a l sta n c e . It can o n ly d eco n stru ct. C liffo rd re c o g n izes the p o ststru c tu ra list c o n u n d ru m , w h ic h w e c a n see is s tr u c tu r a lly p a ra lle l to the fem in ist c o n u n d ru m , in h is a n a ly s is o f E d w a r d S a i d 's O rientalism . H e id en tifies w ith S a id ’ s d ile m m a : Should criticism work to counter sets o f culturally produced images such as those o f Orientalism with more "au th en tic'’ or more "h u m an ” representations? O r i f criticism must struggle against the procedures o f representation itself, how is it to b eg in ?___T hese are fundamental issues— inseparably political and cpistem ological— raised by Said ’ s work. {19 88: *59) In o th e r w o rd s, th ere is no p la c e fo r a n y m o ra lly e v a lu a tiv e o r p o litic a lly c o m m itte d sta n c e w ith in the d is in te g ra tin g lo g ic o f p o sts tru c tu ra lism . It is fu n d a m e n ta lly n ih ilist an d g iv e s p e rm issio n to w h a t P e rry A n d e rso n term s " a fin a lly u n b rid le d s u b je c tiv ity ” ( 19 8 3 : 5 4 ). Iro n ic a lly , g iv e n its so m etim e asso c ia tio n w ith ra d ic a l p o litic a l sta n c e s, p o ststru c tu ra lism d o e s n ot c h a l­ le n g e the sta tu s q u o in an in c re a sin g ly re tro g ra d e e r a .17 E th n o g ra p h y -a s-te x t w rite rs sim p ly fail to su b jec t th eir o w n d e e p ly held re p re se n ta tio n s to the sa m e o p e ra tio n s th ey p e rfo rm o n fem in ism . U n in te rro g a te d c o n v ic tio n s in e v ita b ly co m e in the b ac k d o o r. W h a t w e n e e d , th en , is an a c k n o w le d g m e n t o f p o ststru c tu ra lism s' d eficien cies. It is r e a lly o n ly a re se a rc h sta n c e , a set o f to ols fo r g ro u n d -b re a k in g , p c rsp c c tiv c -a ltc rin g w o rk . B u t the in te lle c tu a l fra m e w ith in w h ic h th e re se a rc h is o rie n te d , w h eth er a d m itte d o r not, w ill d e r iv e from o u tsid e p o ststru c tu ra lis m ’s clo sed sy ste m , w ill in v o lv e so m e m ean s o f c o m in g to term s w ith the (c u ltu r a lly c o n stru c te d , b u t n e ve rth e less) a c tu a lly e x is tin g m a te ria l w o rld . T h u s so m e fem in ist sc h o l­ a r s ’ n ew te n d e n c y to d e fin e “ fem in ist th e o ry ” a s a to tality in lite ra ry posts tru c tu ra lis t term s both ig n o res a ll o f m a te ria l, so c ia l life (a n d the fem in ists w h o atte n d to su ch ) a n d le a v e s o u t o f the e q u a tio n a n y m e a n s fo r ju s t ify in g a fe m in ist-th e o re tica l stan ce.

INTRODUCTION

25

F e m in ist p o ststru ctu ralisrr., in d eed , is p a rt o f a la rg e r a c a d e m ic t u r f w a r , in w h ic h lite r a r y c ritic s an d others jo s t le fo r o w n e rsh ip o f (n c lo n g e r so c ia l o r p o litic a l) “ th e o ry .” T h o s e o u tsid e lite r a r y c ritic ism , su ch a s fo rm er c o g n itiv e a n th ro p o lo g ist S te p h e n T y le r , m u st d e c la r e the su p e rio rity o f th e ir to p ics: “ E th n o g r a p h y i s . . . a su p e ro rd in a te d isc o u rse to w h ic h a ll o th er d isc o u rse s a r e re la tiv iz e d a n d in w h ic h they find th e ir m e a n in g a n d ju s t ific a tio n ” { 19 8 6 : 12 2 ) . B u t fo r p o ststru c tu ra lists in a n th ro p o lo g y a s in o th er d isc ip lin e s, th eo ry is n o w o n ly d isc o u rse th e o ry , so o n ly d isc o u rse s m ay b e stu d ied . T h e lo g ic is th is: sin c e w e c u ltu r a lly con stru ct so c ia l a n d m a te ria l realities, to s tu d y the “ m a te ria l w o r ld ” in a d d itio n to o r in ste a d o f d isc o u rs e on m a te ria l life is to c o n s id e r a fictio n . S c y la B c n .ia b ib n otes th a t “ c o n te m p o ra ry fe m in ism h as sh ifte d its atten tio n from so cial a n a ly s is to d isc o u rse a n a ly s is, fro m p o w e r it s e lf 10 the p o l i t i c o f its le p ii'x e iiia iiu n ” (19 8 9 . 3 / 0 ) . 18 T h u s w h ile fem in ist k in sh ip th eo rists J a n e C o llie r an d S y lv ia Y a n a g is a k o p e rfo rm a g r e a t se rv ic e in their recen t h is to ric a l co n te x tu a li2 a tio n o f a n th ro ­ p o lo g ic a l k in sh ip stu d ie s (19 6 7 ), th ey a ls o th reaten lo " l i p o ver” in to a r a d i­ cal idealism that w ould d en y an y connection betw een cultural con struction s o f k in sh ip p ro c esses, h u m a n b io lo g y, a n d v a r y in g ec o n o m ic system s (see c h a p . t t , th is v o lu m e ). It is p recisely the p ro c e ss o f m o v in g betw een c o n tin g en t a c c e p ta n c e o f c u rre n t W estern u n d e rsta n d in g s o f b io lo g y an d ec o n o m ic s an d r a d ic a lly n o n -W estern co n stru ctio n s o f k in sh ip that h a s p ro d u ce d fem in ist a d v a n c e s in u n d e rsta n d in g the m u tu a l in ic rp e n c tra tio n s o f g e n d e r, s e x u a lity , k in sh ip , a n d p o litic a l eco n o m y a t h o m e a n d a b ro a d (e .g ., Y o u n g ct a l. 1 9 8 1 ; S ta c k 19 7 4 ; R a p p 19 8 7 ; L in d e n b a u m 19 8 7 ). P o ststru c tu ra lism is a lso associ* a te d w ith the so -called “ p o stfe m in ist" e r a , in w h ic h c la im s that w o m en h a v e a lr e a d y a c h ie v e d

e q u a lity jo s tle a g a in st co n tin u ed j o b

se g re g a tio n , in ­

c re a s in g ly fem in ized p o v e r ty , little in c re a se in m a le ch ild c are o r h o u sew o rk , a n d h ig h ra te s o f m a le vio len ce a g a in s t w o m en . A ll o f th ese p h e n o m e n a a re in tim a te ly p a rt o f E u ro a m e ric a n k in sh ip p ro c e sse s, both a s m a te ria l re a litie s a n d a s id e o lo g ica l tro p es. W t c a n n o t a n a ly z e them i f w e d en y th a t in tim a te co n n ectio n . P o ststru c tu ra lism in recent y e a r s h a s been seen in co n n ectio n to a n o th e r te rm , p o stm o d e rn ism . P o stm o d ern ism o r ig in a lly aro se a s a d e sc rip tio n o f a s p e c ific a rc h ite c tu ra l s ty le , one th at b o th d e lib e ra te ly esch ew ed th e c le a n , m o n u m e n ta l su rfa c e s o f m od ern ist a rc h ite c tu re an d w h ic h also m ix ed s ty lis ­ tic e le m e n ts o f d ifferen t h isto rical e r a s (p a stic h e o r b ric o la g e ). I he term r a p id ly g a in e d c u rre n c y in the U n ite d S t a le s an d E u r o p e as it w a s a p p lie d , in e v e r-w id e n in g c irc le s, first to a ll g r a p h ic a r t, then to all o f lite ra tu re , a n d fin a lly to so c ia l life an d p o litic s in th e W est (see Ja m e s o n 19 8 4 ). E a c h fu rth e r a p p lic a tio n d ilu te d m ean in g ; a n d fin a lly p o stm o d ern ism a n d p o st­ s tru c tu ra lis m b eg a n to be used in te rc h a n g e a b ly to d en o te both o u r e ra , its art and

p o litic s, a n d

p o ststru c tu ra list in te rp re ta tio n s th em selves. S in c e

p o stm o d e rn ism /p o stsiru c tu r& lism h a s b eco m e an a c a d e m ic in d u stry , it is

26

INTRODUCTION

d iffic u lt to d iscc rn an a r e n a o f a g re e d -u p o n c h a ra c te riz a tio n s. B u t P e rry A n d e rs o n ( 1 9 8 3 , >987), E d w a r d S a id ( 19 8 7 ) , F re d e ric Ja m e s o n (19 8 4 ) an d T o d d G itlin ( 19 8 9 ), at lea st, e n d o rse the u n d e rsta n d in g th a t p o stm o d e rn ism e x p re s s e s the “ c u ltu ra l lo g ic o f la te c a p it a l” ( Ja m e s o n ) , a “ m o m en t in the h isto ry o f A m e r ic a n e m p ire ” (S a id ). A n d e rso n a rg u e s stro n g ly th a t p o stm o d ­ e rn ism e n ta ils an “ e m b ra c e o f co m m o d ific a tio n , a N ie tz sc h e a n e m b ra c e o f the in sta n t, a tr iv ia l an d lig h th e a rte d rejectio n o f p o litic s.* '10 G itlin n otes that p o ststru c tu ra lism /p o stm o d c rn ism

e m b ro ils a d h e re n ts w h o w ish to hold

p o litic a l o p in io n s in a fu n d a m e n ta l co n trad ictio n : T h e im pulse toward this sort o f unmasking is certainly political: it stemmed from a desire to undo the hold o f one system o f knowledge/language/power over another. It followed from the 1960s revelation that various systems o f knowledge were fundamentally implicated in injustice and violence— whether racist o r sexist exclusions from literary canons, or the language and science o f m ilitarism and imperial justification. But the poststructuralist move in theory has flushed the Archim edean point aw ay with the sewage o f discourse. (1989:

357 )

S a id re m in d s u s, h o w e v e r, th a t even the se lf-c o n tra d ic to ry p o ststru ctu ra lism /p o stm o d e rn ism sta n c e is its e lf in n a te ly so lip sistic. It e x p re sse s the a n x ie tie s a n d o b se ssio n s, th e p o litic a l in a ctio n an d w o r ld -w e a r y e n n u i, o f a n a rro w , p riv ile g e d , c la s s frac tio n o f W e ste rn e rs, ig n o rin g the fact th a t the p re se n t e r a h a s a lso seen the re c m c rg e n ce o f n o tio n s o f the “ tr a d itio n a l, the n a tiv e , the a u th e n tic ” — an d the retu rn o f re lig io n , e s p e c ia lly in its se e m in g ly u n p o stm o d e rn fu n d a m e n ta list fo rm . W e sh o u ld , th en , d is e n g a g e p o stm o d e rn ism , a n in te lle c tu a l a p p ro a c h , fro m the p o stm o d ern e r a , a d e s c rip tiv e term fo r o u r c o n te m p o ra ry p e rio d — w h ic h h a s a p p a r e n tly o b lite ra te d all m o d e rn ist c o n c e p tio n s o f lin e a r e v o lu tio n a ry c h an g e. J u s t a s th e p o stm o d ern e r a h a s h osted the re n a sce n ce o f fu n d a m e n ta list re lig io n s a t h o m e a n d a b r o a d , so it h a s w itn essed the c o n tin u a tio n a n d e la b o ra tio n o f c u ltu ra l fem in ist e sse n tia lism . T h e p ro p o sitio n th a t w o m en a re , a c ro s s tim e a n d sp a c e , a sin g le o p p re sse d an d v irtu o u s cla.s, a n d its e n tailed re fu sa l to re co g n ize the tra n sh isto ric a l an d c ro ss-c la ss e x iste n ce o f w e a lth y , p o w e rfu l, an d e v il w o m e n , h a s re m a in e d p o p u la r a m o n g m a n y W estern fe m in ists. T h e d ich o to m iz in g , e sse n tia liz in g th re a d s in 19 7 0 s fem in ist e v o lu ­ tio n a ry m o d els to d a y w e ig h , to p a ra p h r a s e M a r x , lik e a n ig h tm a re on the b r a in s o f liv in g fem in ists. B o th fem in ist e sse n tia lists a n d c o n se rv a tiv e a n ti­ fe m in ists h a v e co n tin u ed to d r a w on the n in eteen th -cen tu ry' sto re h o u se o f m o ra l m o th erh o o d sy m b o lism , stre ssin g w o m e n ’ s in n a te id e n tity w ith a n d n u rtu ra n c e o f c h ild re n an d n a tu re .20 P o p u la r v o lu m e s w ith b o th fem in ist a n d an tife m in ist in ten t c a ll on w o m en to rec laim “ the G o d d e s s ” in th e m se lv e s a n d to e n v isio n a n ew fe m a le an d n u rtu rin g e r a to co m e. R o sa lin d M ile s , for e x a m p le , offers u p a p o tted c o m b in a tio n o f w o m a n the g a th e re r, lu n a r c y c le s, an d g o d d e ss w o rsh ip :

INTRODUCTION

27

F o r wom an, with her inexplicable moon rhythms and power o f creating new life, was the most sacred mystery o f the tribe. So m iraculous, so powerful, she had to be more than m an— more than hum an. As prim itive man began to think sym bolically, there was only one explanation W oman itoif the prim ary symbol, the greatest entity o f all— a goddess, no less. (M iles 1969: 17} E v e n fe m in ists w ith n o interest in sp c c io u s e v o lu tio n a ry reaso n in g h a v e fa lle n v ic tim to the v isio n o f a n in n a te ly n u rtu ra n t, m a te rn a l w o m a n k in d . G e r m a in e G r e e r , w h o se p rio r lite r a r y a n d a rt-b a se d sc h o la rsh ip w a s re s­ o lu te ly lib e ra l fem in ist, recen tly ( 19 8 4 ) c o n v e rte d to a p ro n a ta list fem in ist e sse n tia lism . In the u ltim a te exp ressio n o f p riv ile g e d W estern n a iv e te , G r e e r c e le b ra te d the liv e s o f v illa g e w o m en in In d ia a s the m o d e ls fo r u s all a n d sin g le d o u t the c lo se m o lh e r-in -ia w /d a u g h lc r-in -la w re la tio n sh ip fo r sp e c ia l a p p ro b a tio n : a ll th is in a n era w h en In d ia n fem in ists a r c a c tiv e ly p ro testin g u b iq u ito u s, m o th e r-in -la w -sa n c tio n e d b rid e -b u rn in g .ai B o th A n d e rso n a n d P e te r D ew s c a ll fo r th e so lu tio n to the p o ststru c tu ra list p a ra d o x in th e rec o g n itio n o f its n c g lc c ic d a n te c e d e n t, th e c r it ic a k h c o r y trad itio n in M a r x is m F ra n k fn rl S r h o o l a n d o r h rr sc h o la rs rrrn g n irc d th r n eed to d e v e lo p m u ch m o re realistic se n se s o f the c o m p le x o p e ra tio n s o f c u l­ tu re a n d co n sc io u sn e ss w ith in p a rtic u la r p o litic a l e c o n o m ie s a n d w ere eq u al* ly a w a r e o f the n eed to tak e la n g u a g e se rio u s ly a s m ore th an a tran sp aren t re p re se n ta tio n a l m ed iu m . A t the sa m e tim e, h o w e v e r, th ey d id not take the “ tu rn to la n g u a g e ” so fa r a s 10 en v isio n it a s “ a sy ste m o f flo a tin g sign ifiers p u re a n d s im p le , w ith n o d e te rm in a b le re la tio n to a n y e x tra lin g u istic ref­ e re n ts a t a l l” (A n d e rso n 19 6 3 : 4 6 ). T h e y affirm ed th e e x iste n ce o f a real m a te r ia l w o rld , o f liv in g b ein gs, o f h u m a n s liv in g in v a r y in g so c ia l fo rm a ­ tio n s, o f p o litic a l s tru g g le in h isto ry o v e r the c o n to u rs o f p o w er. T h e so lu tio n to the p o ststru c tu ra l p a ra d o x , th en , is v e ry lik e that to its fe m in ist a n th ro p o lo g ic a l co u sin . It w a s n e c e ssa ry to b re a k o u t o f the clo sed sy ste m o f e th n o g ra p h ic lib e ra lism , to re c o g n iz e th at no e th n o g ra p h y is e v e r e n tire ly n o n e v a lu a tiv e , th at e th n o g ra p h y its e lf is a g e n re m a d e p o ssib le b y o n g o in g W e ste rn im p e ria lism . J u s t s o is it im p e ra tiv e th a t w e se c la n g u a g e a n d id e o lo g y a s im p o rta n t in an d o f th e m se lv e s a n d a s p a rt o f the ev o lv in g m a te ria l, s o c ia l w o rld . A n d in d eed , “ la n g u a g e a n d p o litic a l ec o n o m y ” re ­ s e a rc h in a n th ro p o lo g y is g ro w in g r a p id ly (see G a l 19 8 9 ).

F E M IN IS M , C U L T U R E , A N D P O L IT IC A L E C O N O M Y E n v is io n in g la n g u a g e a n d p o litical ec o n o m y a s m u tu a lly co n stitu tiv e e x e m ­ p lifie s the la r g e r “ c u ltu r e a n d p o litic a l e c o n o m y ” te n d e n c y in an th ro D o lo gy. “ C u lt u r e a n d p o litic a l e c o n o m y ” is a p h ra se tra c e a b le to P e te r an d J a n e S c h n e id e r ’ s 19 7 6 Culture and P olitical Economy in Western S icily. I t is n o w used to d e n o te , lo o se ly , n ew w o rk in a n th ro p o lo g y th a t atte n d s both to econ o m ics a n d p o litic s a n d to the w a y s in w h ic h th ey a r e c u ltu r a lly c o n stru e d by d iffer­

28

INTRODUCTION

in g so c ia l a c to rs in h isto ry (see R o s e b c r r y 19 8 8 ). M a n y a n th ro p o lo g ists are n o w w o rk in g in th is gen era) a r e a , a n d a la rg e su b g ro u p o f these fo re g ro u n d s the issu e o f g e n d e r in rese a rch an d th eo ry. W e c a n su m m a riz e the fra m e w o rk o f fe m in ist e u ltu re a n d p o litic a l c co n o m y in five k ey po in ts. F ir s t is the r a d ic a l rejectio n , fo r the seco n d tim e in a n th r o p o lo g ic a l h is­ to ry , o f so c ia l e v o lu tio n ism . G e o r g e S to c k in g h a s e sta b lish e d th a t in V ic ­ to ria n a n th ro p o lo g y “ a p e r v a s iv e e v o lu tio n a ry ra c ism c o n trib u te d to the d e h u m a n iz a tio n a n d o b je c tific a tio n o f a n th ro p o lo g y ’ s su b jec t m a tte r” ( 1 9 8 7 : 2 7 3 ) . A lth o u g h so c ia l an d c u ltu ra l a n th ro p o lo g ists s u m m a r ily rejec ted e v o lu ­ tio n ism in th e e a r ly tw en tieth c e n tu ry , it rem a in ed a s a n o r g a n iz in g p rin c ip le o f “ o rig in s re se a rc h ” in arch eo lo g y {se e c h a p . 2 , th is v o lu m e ) a n d a s a s u b ­ text in s y n c h ro n ic e th n o g ra p h ic a c c o u n ts, 'l'h u s S h o sta k p o rtra y s th e !K u n g a s liv in g a s P a le o lith ic h u m a n s m u st h a v e in o rd e r to u se N is a ’ s o r a l h isto ry a s an e x e m p la r , n ot o f o n e w o m a n 's life in a m in u te fo ra g in g g ro u p (a g r o u p w ith , in a n y e v e n t, a n o n fo ra g in g p a st), but o f U r -w o m a n , h e r life c y d c an d em o tio n ( 1 9 8 1 : 5 - 6 ) . It is not S h o s ta k 's fem in ism , then , th at is th e p ro b le m : it is h e r e v o lu tio n a ry fra m e w o rk .22 W e h a v e seen h o w re su rg en t M a r x is m in the 19 6 0 s in flu en ced fem in ist a n th ro p o lo g ists o f the 19 7 0 s to en te rta in e v o lu tio n a ry m o d els, an d th e w a y s in w h ic h these m o d els lost sa lie n c e o v e r the d e c a d e . R e la te d ly , m a n y M a r x is t th e o rists a b a n d o n e d sta g c -th c o ry ev o lu tio n ism a n d s tru c tu ra lism o v e r th is p erio d in fa v o r o f the stu d y o f the u n iq u e h isto ries o f sp e c ific so c ia l fo r m a ­ tio n s. T h is is n ot to s a y th a t o n e sh o u ld n e v e r c la im the e x iste n ce o f s tr u c tu r ­ a l re g u la ritie s a c ro ss tim e a n d sp a c e — o f, fo r e x a m p le , efforts b y c a p ita lis ts to d riv e dow’n th e c o st o f la b o r p o w e r, o r o f the lik elih o o d o f p re v a le n t id e o lo ­ g ie s le g itim iz in g the lo w e r sta tu s o f stig m a tiz e d so c ia l g ro u p s. B u t n o h u m a n g r o u p on e a rth re p re se n ts “ liv in g h is to ry ” : n o m a tte r h o w r u d im e n ta r y its te c h n o lo g ica l le v e l, e v e r y h u m an

p o p u latio n

h a s e x p e rie n c e d

as

m any

th o u sa n d s o f y e a rs in w h ic h to a lte r its la n g u a g e , its re lig io u s id e o lo g ie s, its s o c ia l a r ra n g e m e n ts a s h a s e v e ry o th er. T h u s fem in ist a n th ro p o lo g ists c a n n o t lo c a te the “ k e y '’ to m a le d o m in a n c e o v e r w o m en in sm a ll-sc a le so c ie tie s. W e c a n , h o w e v e r, a sse ss the ra n g e o f p o ssib le h u m a n g e n d e r a rra n g e m e n ts an d th e ir co n n e ctio n s to h u m an

b io lo g y th ro u g h c o m p a r a tiv e e th n o g ra p h y

(c h a p . i o , th is v o lu m e ). W e c a n c o n sid e r the m a n y h isto ries, in a ll ty p e s o f so cie tie s, o f c h a n g in g g en d ered so c ia l life an d its p o litic a l-e co n o m ic c o r r e ­ la te s, a n d jo in w ith o th er fem in ist so c ia l sc ie n tists, h isto ria n s, a n d lite r a r y c ritic s to re se a rc h the m u tu a lly in flu e n c in g h isto rie s o f c h a n g in g g e n d e r a r ra n g e m e n ts a n d id eo lo g ies in W estern sta te s a n d th eir co lon ized te rrito rie s o v e r th e p ast c e n tu ries (see c h a p . 1, th is v o lu m e ). S e c o n d , in te g r a lly co n n ected to resp ec t fo r h isto ry is the re c o g n itio n th at th o se in stitu tio n a liz e d p e rc e p tio n s a n d p a tte rn s o f b e h a v io r w e m a y c o n c e iv e a s in n a te ly h u m a n o r at lea st a s w e ll-e sta b lish e d a r e m ost lik ely n e ith e r. T h e n ew h isto ria n s o f se x u a lity , for e x a m p le , h a v e c h a rte d the c o m in g in to b ein g

INTRODUCTION

29

o f the so c ia l la b e ls “ h ete ro se x u a l” a n d “ h o m o se x u a l” in E u r o p e a n d the U n ite d S ta te s o v e r the n in eteen th cen tu ry', a n d the w id e ly v a r y in g p o ss ib ili­ ties lo r fe m a le a n d m ale se x u a l ex p re ssio n a c ro s s tim e a n d sp a c e . W e now k n o w th at ra c c an d eth n icity a r c not im m u ta b le c h a ra c te ris tic s o f in d iv id u a ls b u t e m e rg e n t a n d sh iftin g so c ia l c a te g o rie s, c a te g o rie s th at can a n d d o be* c o m e th e o b je c ts o f inten se p o litia l s tru g g le . M a r x first e sta b lish e d the h isto r­ ic a lly co n tin g e n t c h a ra c te r o f c la s s d iv is io n s in d e v e lo p in g c a p ita list sta te s. C o n tin u in g M a r x is t d eb ates o v e r the e m p iric a l m e a n in g s o f c la s s in so cieties a ro u n d the w o rld in d icate the co n tin u ed e v o lu tio n o f v a r y in g c la s s d iv isio n s. A n d , o f c o u rse , h o w w o m en a n d m en a r e th o u g h t to b e like a n d u n lik e o n e a n o th e r a s h u m a n b eings, w h a t th ey c a n an d can n o t d o , a rc r a r e ly gi> ^ns, b u t h is to ric a lly a n d c u ltu ra lly c o n tin g en t. F em in ist a n th ro p o lo g ists w c .k in g in M e la n e s ia in p a rtic u la r h a v e r la b o r a tr d on V m ith rn in a serie s o f ca re fu l stu d ie s o f r a d ic a lly n on -W estern co n stru c tio n s o f g e n d e r ( P o o le 1 9 8 1 ; S tr a th e m 19 8 7 ; E rrin g to n an d G e w e r tz J9 8 7 ). T h e s e c u ltu ra l lo g ics v a r y w id e ly b u t a rc lin ked in th a t ihey d o not c o n tain n o tio n s o f in d iv id u a l, d e v e lo p in g se lv e s o r o f the m ale ach iev em en t o f se lf-w o rth th ro u gh the co n tro l o f fe m a le o th ers. A ll o f these u n d e rsta n d in g s m a y b e su b su m e d u n d e r th e g e n e ra l r u b r ic o f so c ia l c o n stru c tio n ism o r a n tie sse n iia lism . S o c ia l c o n stru c tio n ism c le a r ly im ­ p lie s a resp ect for h isto rical d ifferen ce a n d c h a n g e , but it a lso e n ta ils an u n d e rsta n d in g o f the h u m an u se o f h isto ry — o f co n stru c tio n s o f the p a st— to le g itim iz e o r to con test the sta tu s q u o . T h u s a n tife m in ists refer to “ tr a d i­ tio n s” o f m a le d o m in a n c e an d fem in ists c o u n te r w ith a lte rn a te tra d itio n s an d w ith h isto rie s o f w o m e n 's stru g g le s fo r e q u a l rig h ts. R e c e n tly , M a r x is t h is­ to ria n s h a v e p a id p a rtic u la r atten tio n to the h isto ries o f s la t e a n d p o p u la r in v e n tio n s o f tra d itio n (H o b sb a w m a n d R a n g e r 19 8 3 ). A m e r ic a n a n th ro ­ p o lo g ists h a v e follow ed w ith a se rie s o f in v e stig a tio n s o f so c ia l scie n tific c o n stru c tio n s o f im agin ed p a sts in first a n d th ird w o rld s ta te s — p a sts w h ic h , e v e n w h e n th ey a r c Ck r c e iv e d r o m a n tic a lly to c o u n te r d ep recato ry' im a g e s o f the o p p re sse d , m is c o m n v e th eir a c tu a l h isto rie s, p e rc e p tio n s, a n d actio n s (R o s e b c r r y a n d O ’ B rie n 19 9 1 ) . T h u s , fo r e x a m p le , I follow the c o n stru ctio n o f the n o tio n s o f A m e ric a n w h ite eth n ic c o m m u n ity a n d w h ite eth n ic w o m a n in the 19 7 0 s , n ote both th eir c o m p e n sa to ry fu n ctio n in m a k in g u p fo r d e ca d e s o f n e g a tiv e im agery’ an d th eir re lia n c e on b la c k c iv il rig h ts rh e to ric , an d d e m o n stra te the w a y s in w h ic h the c o n stru c ts w ere not o n ly e m p ir ic a lly false b u t w e re , a n d a r e , used in both r a c ist an d a n tife m in ist p o litic a l rh cto ric ( 1 9 9 1 ) . A s R a p p w arn ed in 19 7 9 , “ w e m u st n ot a llo w o u r o w n n eed fo r m o d e ls o f stro n g fem ale c o lle c iiv itic s to b lin d us 10 the d ia le c tic o f tra d itio n ” ( 19 7 9 : 5 1 3 ) . S o c ie ta l b o u n d a rie s th em selv es, not ju s t e th n ic an d ra c ia l c a te g o rie s, a re h isto ric a lly co n tin g en t co n stru ctio n s a s w e ll. B en ed ict A n d e rso n ’ s 19 8 3 stu d y o f the rise o f E u r o p e a n a n d then third w o rld n a tio n a lism s c o m p c llin g ly p o r ­

30

INTRODUCTION

tra y s th e re p e a te d co n stru c tio n s o f “ im a g in e d c o m m u n ity " w h ic h atte n d e d the c rc a tio n a n d re d ra w in g o f n a tio n a l m ap s. A n y a ssertio n o f u n c h a n g in g d ia c h ro n ic g ro u p n e ss, in effect, d en ies th is c o m p le x h isto ric a l p ro c e ss. T h u s so m e a n th r o p o lo g is ts ' co n tin u ed ten d en cy to c o m p a re “ c u ltu re s” — stu d ied at v a r y in g p o in ts in tim e— lik e so m a n y c h e ck e rs p ic c e s c a n n o t b e ju stifie d . T o re tu rn to m y d isc u ssio n o f c o m p a ra tiv e w o m en ’ s sta tu s: w ith in the term s o f sy n c h ro n ic e th n o g ra p h ic lib e ra lism , w o m en in so m e sm a ll-sc a le so cieties seem to h a v e h ad a p o o r tim e o f it. B u t the term s th e m se lv e s m u st be in te rro ­ g a te d . N o t o n ly a r c Q u in n ’ s d isa g g re g a te d co m p o n e n ts, a s sh e p o in ts o u t, n o n c o m p a ra b le a p p le s an d o ra n g e s ; b u t eac h p o p u la tio n m u st a lso b e c o n ­ sid e re d in term s o f its p la c e in re g io n a l, n a tio n a l, an d g lo b a l h isto ry . “ W o m e n ’s sta tu s a m o n g the A '” c o n ta in s not o n e b ut th ree p o rtm a n te a u term s: sta tu s , w o m en , a n d X . A s p o p u la tio n s (A es) sh ift w ith c h a n g in g p o litic a l-e co n o m ic re a litie s, so d o th eir fe m a le c o m p o n en ts a lte r b o th d em o g r a p h ic a lly an d in term s o f th eir co n n ectio n s to th o se re a litie s. A n d o u r k n o w le d g e o f p a st re a litie s is d ep en d en t on p a st o b se rv e rs w h o se c u ltu ra l len ses m a y b e u n c lc a r to us. A s L a m p h c r c n otes: “ In so m e se n se , w e re a lly w ill n e v e r k n o w w h a t it w a s lik e to be a n Iro q u o is w o m a n in the sixteen th c e n tu ry o r a N a v a jo w o m a n in th e e ig h te e n th ” ( 1 9 8 7 : 24 ). A lth o u g h so c ia l c o n stru c tio n ism c a n s h a d e in to p o ststru c tu ra lism , it c a n ­ not, w h en il is lo c ated in sid e h isto ric a l a n d so cial scien tific a n a ly s is , d e g e n e r­ a te in to a n ih ilist sta n c e h o ld in g c ith e r th at th ere is n o tru th o r th a t, in F o u c a u ld ia n lo g ic , w e a re a ll tra p p e d in the p riso n h o u se o f la n g u a g e . S o c ia l c o n stru c tio n ism n eed not, a s S tep h en H o rig a n (19 8 8 ) p o in ts o u t, stan d a g a in s t th e m a te ria l w’o rld an d the e x ig e n c ie s o f b io lo g y . T h e v e r y a c t o f ta k in g su ch a sta n d p e rp e tu a te s the fa lse d ic h o to m ie s th a t p o ststru c tu ra lism tells u s a r c u b iq u ito u s a n d fa lsify in g W estern tro p es. A lth o u g h w e reco g n ize th a t o u r A rc h im e d e a n p o in t m a y b e h isto ric a lly c o n tin g e n t, it is n o n eth eless re a l a n d w e sta n d on it a s w e m o v e the w o rld . T h e th ird a n d related in sig h t is the e m b e d d e d n a tu re o f g e n d e r, both a s a m a te ria l, so c ia l in stitu tio n a n d a s a set o f id eo lo g ies.23 A s w e h a v e seen , one o f the first d e v e lo p m e n ts o f 19 7 0 s fem in ist sc h o la rsh ip , in c lu d in g fem in ist a n th ro p o lo g y , w a s the c o n ten tio n th at w o m en co u ld n ot b e stu d ie d a d e ­ q u a t e ly in iso la tio n . B u t re c o g n iz in g the e m b e d d e d n a tu re o fg e n d e r in v o lv e s a s w'ell a n u n d e rsta n d in g th a t w o m en m u st b e seen not o n ly in re la tio n to m en b u t to o n e a n o th e r. In a n y p a rtic u la r p o p u la tio n , m a jo r so c ia l d iv i­ s io n s — ra c e /e th n ic ity , c la ss, re lig io n , a g e , se x u a l p referen ce, n a tio n a lity — w ill c ro ssc u t an d in flu en c e the m e a n in g s o f g e n d e r d iv isio n . “ E m b e d d e d ­ n e ss” d e te rm in ed m y atten tio n to the c o n stru ctio n a n d p o litic a l u ses o f “ w h ite e th n ic w o m e n ” a s it d id C a p la n ’ s ( 19 7 9 ) a n d C o h e n ’ s ( 19 7 9 ) a n a ly s e s o f B ra h m in an d u p p e r-sta tu s S ie r ra L e o n e a n w o m e n . A s s u m in g e m b e d d e d ­ n ess in a ll fem in ist a n a ly s e s c o n stru c ts “ d ifferen ce” in sid e the lo g ic o f a n a ly ­ sis rath er than ap p ro p ria tin g it a s an in organ ic addition . T h u s fem inist schol­

INTRODUCTION

31

a r s c a n in v e stig a te both w o m en ’s a n d m e n ’s d ifferin g ec o n o m ic activ itie s a n d c u ltu r a l c o n c e p tio n s o f gen d ered la b o r, both h u m a n s e x u a l b io lo g y a n d v a r y in g an d c h a n g in g cu ltu ra l c o n stru c tio n s th ereo f. E m b e d d e d n e ss fo llo w s d ire c tly fio m so c ia l con sttu ciiu u i& iu , b u t w c co u ld a lso h a v e d e riv e d it fiu m a n th ro p o lo g ic a l tra d itio n , from F re d e ric k B a r t h ’s (19 6 9 ) a n a ly sts o f the c o n stru c tio n o f e th n ic ity at its b o u n d a rie s — o r from M a r x 's e p ig ra m to The C ritique o f P o litica l Economy- ‘ It is not the c o n sc io u sn e ss o f m en [sic] th at d e te rm in e s th e ir e x iste n ce , b j t th eir so c ia l e x iste n ce th at d ete rm in e s th eir c o n sc io u sn e ss” ( 1 9 7 0 [ 18 5 9 ] : 2 1 ) . G e n d e r e m b e d d e d n e ss en tails the fo u rth p ro p o sitio n th at a ll fo rm s o f p a t­ tern e d in e q u a lity m erit a n a ly sis. S tra tific a tio n is v isib le in the re a lities o f in d iv id u a ls ’ a n d g r o u p s ’ u n eq u al a c c e ss to the m a te ria l g o o d s a v a ila b le in p a rtic u la r so cieties. It is also m a te r ia lly p resen t, a s R a y m o n d W illia m s (19 8 0 ) a r g u e s , in th e w a y s in w h ic h so c ia l re a litie s a r e e x p re sse d an d c o n ­ tested in la n g u a g e . T h u s the h o a ry a n th ro p o lo g ic a l s h o rth a n d , “ th e A' s a y ” m u st be re p la c e d w ith gen u in e atten tio n to w h a t v a r y in g p o p u la tio n s a m o n g the X s a y . M u c h w o rk h a s been d o n e in th is a r e a b y h isto ria n s, so cio lin g u ists, a n d a n th ro p o lo g ists tout court. B re tt W illia m s ’s ( 19 8 8 } e th n o g ra p h y o f a g en trify in g in n e r-c ity W ash in g to n , D .C . n e ig h b o rh o o d , fo r e x a m p le , c o n trasts the a c tio n s a n d sp e e c h o f black a n d L a tin ren te rs to the n ew w h ite o w n ers. D iffe re n tia l v isio n s o f the uses o f p u b lic sp a c e , c o m m u n ity re sp o n sib i.itic s— e v e n o f fa v o rite te le v isio n p ro g ra m s— a re lin ked to v e r y d ifferen t econ o m ic a n d p o litic a l reso u rc es a n d to the m a te ria l a n d c u ltu ra l re a litie s o f ra c ia l d iffe re n ce in A m e r ic a . A larg e new' g r o u p o f stu d ie s o f im p o v erish ed a n d w o rk in g -c la ss w o m en w o rk ers in first a n d th ird w o rld sta te s a ls o exam in es the in te rsectio n o f c la s s , cu ltu re, a n d g e n d e r in the w a y s w o m en p erc e iv e a n d respond to their situations. W hether they a re M o x ica n a maquila w orkers getting th e ir o w n b a c k o n the m a le w orld b y h a ra ss in g a lo n e m an on a b u s, n a tiv e w h ite a n d P o rtu g u e se g a rm en t w o rk e rs in P ro v id e n c e m a in ta in in g la b o r so li­ d a r it y th ro u g h " fe m a le ” ce le b ra tio n s o f b irth d a y s, m a rria g e s , a n d b irth s, o r M a la y s ia n fa c to ry o p e ra tiv e s b eco m in g h y s te ric a l an d “ p o sse sse d ” au d thus d is ru p tin g the a s s e m b ly lin e, w o m en w o rk e rs’ actio n s c a n n o t b e a n a ly z e d s im p ly a s “ fe m a le ," “ w o rk in g -c la ss ,” o r “ c u lt u r a l.” 24 T h e y o c c u p y sp ecific lo c atio n s in n e x u se s o f m uhi|>lc stra tific a tio n s {se e c h a p . 3 , th is v o lu m e). F in a lly , a n d a g a in rela te d iy , w e need to atte n d to an d to in v estig a te a c tiv e ly th e m u ltip le la y e r s o f c o n text— o r, in a n o th e r fo rm u la tio n , so cial lo c a tio n — th ro u g h w h ic h w c p e rc e iv e p a rtic u la r c u ltu ra l re a litie s. T h e first la y e r fo r e th n o g ra p h e rs, o n e upon w h ic h m u ch ink h a s been sp ille d , is the p o w e r-la d e n e n c o u n te r betw een re se a c h e r an d re se a rc h e d . F e m in ists w h o h a v e c la im e d the e x iste n ce o f s p e c ific a lly fem in ist m e th o d o lo g ie s ir. so cial re se a rc h u s u a lly refer to th is face-to -face le v e l.25 S u c h c la im s ig n o re the h is­ to ry o f p h e n o m e n o lo g ic a l work on p re c ise ly th is issu e, not to m en tio n the lo n g -ru n n in g “ e th ic s” colu m n in the A m e r ic a n A n th ro p o lo g ic a l A sso c ia ­

32

INTRODUCTION

tio n ’s N ew sletter an d the v a s t self-co n scio u s lite ra tu re o n p o w e r d y n a m ic s in fie ld w o rk . A lth o u g h m u ch o f th is w o rk lia s not atte n d e d to g e n d e re d p o w e r d y n a m ic s , to d o so is not to in v en t a n ew m cth d o lo g y b u t to e x te n d an o ld .26 R o g e r K e e s in g ( 1 9 8 5 ) . fo r e x a m p le , h a s w o rk ed w ith the M e la n e sia n K w a io sin c e 19 6 9 . H is in itia l p ro je c t w a s to c o n trib u te to c o g n itiv e a n th r o p o lo g y ’ s “ g r a m m a r o f c u ltu re ,” an d to th is en d he elic ite d kasiom (cu sto m ) from sen io r m e n . O v e r tim e , an d p a rtic u la rly a fte r he b eg a n w o rk in g in the field w ith S h e lly S c h re in e r, a fem ale c o lle a g u e , K e e s in g b eg a n to re alize th at “ m u te d ” K w a io w o m en w ere in d eed c a p a b le o f lo n g, in tric a te , fo rm al n a rra tiv e s re fle c tin g on w o m e n 's liv e s a n d th eir c e n tra l ro les in p re se rv in g k asto m . T h e b re a k th ro u g h c a m e w h en sen io r m en , in th e ir efforts to “ m a in ta in co n tro l o v e r the c o d ifica tio n o f w o m e n ’ s ru les an d ro le s” ( 1 9 8 5 : 30 ) s ta g e d a recita l fo r K e e s in g b y a sen io r w o m a n . S h e w a s a g ita te d an d n e rv o u s, a n d felt th at a sc c o n d , p r iv a te sessio n w a s n c c c ssa rv to m ak e u p fo r h er p o o r sh o w in g . T h is sessio n led to a se rie s o f “ a u to b io g ra p h ie s” b y K w a io w o m en o f a w id e ag e a n d sta tu s ra n g e , m a n y o f them w ith stro n g th em es o f w o m e n 's u n iq u e c u l­ tu ra l v irtu e s a n d c o rre c tn e ss in th eir o p p o sitio n to k in sm en . L e s s atte n d e d to a re the m o re a b s tr a c t an d h isto ric a l c o n te x tu a l fo rces, th o se o f p ro fe ssio n a l a n d la rg e r in te lle c tu a l lo catio n . T h e re se a rc h e r’ s s e lf exists not o n ly in the “ g a rru lo u s, o v c rd e te rm in c d , c ro ss-c u ltu ra l e n c o u n te r sh o t th ro u g h w ith p o w e r re la tio n s a n d p e rso n a l cro ss p u rp o se s” (C liffo rd 19 8 3 : 12 0 ) , b u t a lso w ith in n etw o rk s o f p ro fessio n al c o lle a g u e s, a n d in h isto r­ ica l dialogue in absentia w ith p a r tic u la r W estern tra d itio n s. S o m e tim e s it is the a b se n c e ra th e r th an p re se n ce o f c o lle g ia l n etw o rk s, the c le a r so c ia l b o u n d ­ a r ie s p a st w 'hich k n o w led g e h a s n ot y e t m o v ed , th at a rc m ost tellin g : w itn ess the sta te m e n ts o n fe m in ism b y e th n o g ra p h y -a s-te x t sc h o la rs c ited a b o v e . B u t in a ll c a se s w e d o in te lle c tu a l w o rk w ith in p a r tic u la r c o lle g ia l c o m m u n ic a tiv e fra m e w o rk s , fra m e w o rk s that a r c not im m u n e to c u rre n t p o litic a l sh ifts. W e n eed to be a w a r e o f the w a y s in w h ic h th ey tend to c h a n n e l a n d sh a p e o u r n o tio n s o f w h a t k n o w led g e is a n d w h o m it sh o u ld se rv e . G e o r g e S to ck in g , J a m e s C liffo rd , D o n n a H a r a w a y , a n d o th e rs h a v e la b o re d to b rin g to lig h t p a st a n d p resen t in te lle c tu a l fra m e w o rk s in a n th ro ­ p o lo g y a s a w h o le a n d to d e m o n stra te the th read s that tie them to m a te ria l in te re sts (o r less d ire c tly , to scd im en ted stru c tu re s o f th o u g h t a n d feelin g) co n n ected first to B ritis h an d co n tin e n ta l E u r o p e a n a n d la te r to A m e ric a n im p e r ia lis m .27 A s S to c k in g su m m a riz e s, “ . . . w h e th e r o r not e v o lu tio n a ry w ritin g s p ro v id e d sp ec ific g u id e lin e s for co lo n ial a d m in istra to rs a n d m is­ s io n a rie s, th ere c a n b e no d o u b t th at so c io c u ltu ra l th in k in g offered stro n g id e o lo g ica l su p p o rt for the w h o le c o lo n ia l e n te rp rise in the la te n in eteen th c e n tu ry ” ( 1 9 8 7 : 2 3 7 ) . C liffo r d ’ s d issectio n o f the reign o f e th n o g ra p h ic lib e r­ a lis m a n d H a r a w a y ’ s (19 8 9 ) w o rk in lo c a tin g p o s tw a r p rim a te stu d ie s w ith in th e p o litic a l eco n o m y o f A fric a n d e co lo n iz a tio n , sh iftin g W estern g e n d e r c a te g o riz a tio n a n d the h eg e m o n y o f A m e ric a n im p e ria lism , h a v e a lso h elp ed

INTRODUCTION

33

to e x te n d th is se lf-re fle x iv e , so cio lo g y -o f-k n o w led g e h isto ry o f the d iscip lin e itself. R o g e r K c c s in g h a s m a d e use o f th ese n e w in te lle c tu a l c u rre n ts in his in te r­ p re ta tio n o f K w a io w o m e n 's an d n u n 's talk . l i e iiuw ic i u g i u i c a ilid i in fie ld w o rk “ the g e n re s a n d con texts w e c re a te to g eth er a r e a lie n a n d in so m e se n se s p u r io u s " ( 1 9 8 5 : 3 2 ) and th at, O u r ethnographic cncountcrs take placc not only in contexts o f the internal politics o f the "so ciety” we study but in wider historical and political contexts, in which we ourselves arc inextricably situated. I have suggested (hat in the K w a io case the w ays in which women stepped into the role o f ideologues in articulating accounts o f their culture can only be understood in (he historical context o f colonial domination, the K w a io struggle for autonom y, and the elevation o f ‘Vulture” to the level o f political symbol. . . . Perhaps w eshould go on to ask whether the cultural accounts male informants have constructed to ethnographers o f tribal societies through the years must sim ilarly be under­ stood partly as artifacts o f the historical context o f colonial domination. (1985:

37 )

T h e p o stm o d ern e r a , a s E d w a rd S a id h a s n o ted , c o n ta in s b o th so c ia l g ro u p s w h o seem to h a v e lost p o litic a l w ill an d those w h o a r c ju s t fin d in g it. I t is n ot r e a lly a p erio d “ beyond id e o lo g y ” but o n e o f very’ sw ift and co n ­ fu sin g m o v e m en ts o f c a p ita l a n d la b o r a ro u n d th e g lo b e , a n d o f e q u a lly ra p id id e o lo g ic a l sh ifts an d re a rra n g e m e n ts. M a n y fem in ist sc h o la rs a r c a tte m p tin g to d e sc rib e th is m o v in g s tre a m , k n o w in g a ll the w h ile that w e a r e m o v in g w ith it, a n d k n o w in g a s w e ll th at o u r d e sc rip tio n s— an d a ll d e s c rip tio n s — a re p ro fo u n d ly id e o lo g ica l. T h e e a r ly fem in ist a n th ro p o lo g ists s a w n o c o n tra d ictio n betw een th eir sc h o la rsh ip an d a n th ro p o lo g y 's tr a d i­ tio n al e d ific a to ry ro le in the W e st. T h e y felt th a t th e ir w o rk w a s d irectly re le v a n t to A m e r ic a n a n d E u ro p e a n life a n d p o litic s. R a y n a R a p p d eclared b o th th a t h e r a n th o lo g y h a d ‘‘ its ro o ts in th e w o m e n ’ s m o v e m e n t” an d th at the a n th ro p o lo g y o f w o m en w o u ld “ h e lp fem in ists in the s tru g g le A g a i n s t se x ism in o u r o w n so c ie ty ” ( 19 7 5 : u ) . R o s a ld o a n d L a m p h e r e lin ked th eir ed ite d v o lu m e to the effort “ 10 u n d e rsta n d o u r p o sitio n a n d to c h an g e it” ( 1 9 7 4 : 1 ) . E v e n N a o m i Q u in n , in c h id in g o th e r fem in ist a n th ro p o lo g ists for fa u lty re a s o n in g a n d in c a llin g for m ore rig o ro u s, less id e o lo g ic a lly b ia se d sc h o la rs h ip , c e le b ra te d “ the so cial fo rces w h ic h in sp ired a n th ro p o lo g ic a l in ­ terest in w o m e n ’ s s ta tu s ” ( 19 7 7 : 2 2 2 ). M o st o f us a r e n ow m o re ch asten ed in o u r p re su m p tio n s a b o u t the im m ed iate u tility o f o u r w o rk , w h ile (h at w ork is w o rld s m o re so p h istic a te d . B u t n e ith e r h u m ility n o r s c h o la r ly so p h istica tio n is a re aso n fo r ig n o rin g Q u in n 's so c ia l fo rces, fo r w ith d r a w in g fro m an th ro ­ p o lo g y 's c o m m itte d ro le. O u r n ew k n o w led g e sh o u ld b e b r o a d ly sh a re d . It sh o u ld affect the w a y s in w hich w e se c a ll w o m en an d m en , in clu d in g o u rse lv e s.

34

INTRODUCTION T h e d o ze n a rtic le s g a th e re d h ere rep resen t th is rccen t so p h istic a tio n in

fe m in ist a n th ro p o lo g ic a l w o rk not o n ly in d iv id u a lly but c o lle c tiv e ly , n ot o n ly in w h a t th e y sh a re b ut in the w a y s in w h ic h th ey d iffer. F ir s t, the w’riters th e m se lv e s, th o u g h a ll a n th ro p o lo g ists a n d a ll fe m in ists, a rc n ot, a s w e re the c o n trib u to rs to th e tw o e a r ly b ib les o f fem in ist a n th ro p o lo g y , a ll w o m en an d a ll w h ite . A s w ell, w e rep resen t an o ld e r c e n te r o f g r a v ity . W e a r e n o lo n ger la rg e ly d issid e n t g r a d u a te stu d en ts a n d e m b a ttle d y o u n g p ro fesso rs, w ith the a d d itio n o f n ew ly v a lu e d w iv e s o f w ell-k n o w n o ld e r m a le a n th ro p o lo g ists. T h e b u lk o f u s a r e so lid ly esta b lish e d in o u r field s. N e x t, the c o n trib u to rs h a v e self-c o n sc io u sly ch o scn a v a r ie ty o f g en res th ro u g h w h ic h to e x p re ss th eir p o in ts: re v ie w e s s a y ( G a l, W a rre n an d B o u rq u e, C o n k e y ), historical n arra tive (S to lcr), straigh tfo rw ard eth n ograph y (P o v in e lli, R a p p ) , sin g le -issu e c ritic a l e s s a y (S c h e flle r, S p e r lin g ), a n d e leg an t g e n re c o m b in a tio n s a s w ell (G u y c r , P e aco ck , S ilv e r b la tt). T h e n co m es the m a tte r o f s u b d isc ip lin a ry sp e c ia liz a tio n . U n lik e so m u ch rccen t sc h o la rsh ip , b o th fem in ist a n d n o n fem in ist, a n d in a retu rn to the fem in ist p io n e e rs, these w rite rs sta n d s q u a r e ly in th eir field s a n d ye t sp e a k to a u d ie n c e s fa r b eyo n d a tin y g ro u p o f sp e c ia lists. M o re o v e r, b e fittin g the b o th /a n d sta n c e o f fem in ist c u ltu re a n d p o litic a l ec o n o m y , th ey a c k n o w le d g e b o th m a te ria l re a litie s an d c u ltu ra l c o n stru c tio n s. A re h e o lo g ist M a r g a r e t C o n k e y “ sp e a k s” p o ststru c ­ tu ra lism w h ile r e m a in in g c lo se ly in to u ch w ith b o n es, sto n es, a n d sh a rd s. S o c io lin g u ist S u sa n G a l a rtic u la te s p o litic a l-e co n o m ic c o n texts fo r g e n d e re d la n g u a g e u se a ro u n d the g lo b e . C u ltu r a l a n th ro p o lo g ist R a v n a R a p p h elp s u s to p e rc e iv e the m a te ria l w o rld o f a m n io c e n te sis te stin g — th e w h ite ro o m s, th e n eed les, the p re g n a n t w o m e n ’ s b o d ies— an d the v a r y in g co n stru c tio n s o f th a t e x p e rie n c e e x p re sse d b y N e w Y o r k e r s a c ro ss c la ss, co lo r, a n d g e n d e r lin es. T h e c o n trib u to rs a lso sp eak to o n e a n o th e r. A lth o u g h th ey m a y d isa g re e (a n d d is a g re e w ith m e }, th ey d o not talk p a st o n e a n o th e r, d o not u se d is c i­ p lin a r y s p e c ia liz a tio n to retreat from co m m o n in te lle c tu a l p ro jects. I o r ig i­ n a lly o rg a n iz e d the p ieces in a c la ssic lin e a r C o m tc a n fa sh io n , s ta r tin g w ith th e p h y s ic a l a n th ro p o lo g ic a l “ b a s e ” a n d e n d in g w ith s y m b o lic a n d lin g u istic stu d ie s.

But

w h ile

th is stru c tu re

has

the v irtu e s o f co n v e n ie n ce an d

fa m ilia r ity — a n d a ls o illu stra te s fem in ist a n th ro p o lo g y ’ s b ro a d c o v e ra g e o f to p ics in a ll fo u r fie ld s— it ten d s to d isg u is e co n n ectio n s a m o n g the stu d ies a n d th e ir fresh resp o n ses to the p o stm o d ern era. O n e k e y c o n n ectio n is an e m p h a sis on the p o litic a lly co n stitu ted n a tu re o f k n o w le d g e p ro d u ctio n , an d its h isto ric a l em b e d d e d n e ss. In P a rt I , G e n d e r in C o lo n ia l H isto ry a n d A n th ro p o lo g ic a l D isc o u rse , th ree sc h o la rs o r ig in a lly tra in e d in ec o n o m ic a n th ro p o lo g y (S to le r), O ld W o rld a rc h e o lo g y (C o n k e y ), a n d N e w W o rld e th n o h isto ry (S ilv e r b la tt) co m e to g eth er in tra c in g the h is­ to ries o f g e n d e re d m e a n in g s p ro m u lg a te d both b y c o lo n ia l p o w ers a n d in a n th ro p o lo g ic a l su b d isc ip lin e s. R e c o g n itio n o f the p o w e r a n d c n ta iim c n ts

33

INTRODUCTION

o f g e n d e re d rep re se n ta tio n also tics th ese p ie c e s to o n e a n o th e r. In P art I I , G e n d e r a s C u ltu r a l P o litic s, a so cio lin g u ist ( G a l) , b io lo g ic a l a n th ro p o lo g ist (S p e r lin g ) , an d c u ltu ra l a n th ro p o lo g ist (P o v in c lli) c o n v e rg e in a n a ly z in g h is­ to ries o f the re p re se n ta tio n s o f g e n d e re d w o rld s, w lic ih c i iit li i c i a i y c iiiic is m a n d lin g u is tic a n th ro p o lo g y , :n p rim a to lo g y , o r a m o n g w o m en a n d m en on an a b o r ig in a l re serve. E a c h piece is sim u lta n e o u sly co n sc io u s o f th e c u ltu ra l p o litic s o f re p re se n tin g g en d er in s c h o la r ly d isc o u rse a n d in p o p u la r cu ltu rc. S e r io u s atte n tio n to the w a y s in w h ic h w o m e n 's liv e s in tersect w ith la rg e r e c o n o m ie s c o n stitu te s a th ird point o f c o n v e rg e n ce . In P a rt I I I . R e p re se n tin g G e n d e re d L a b o r , G u y e r , W arren a n d B o u r q u e , an d Z a v e lla d escrib e both w o m e n ’ s an d m e n ’s econ o m ic a n d k in sh ip liv es in p a rtic u la r so c ia l fo rm a ­ tio n s a n d lo c a te o u r efforts lo d o so p o litic a lly a n d h isto ric a lly . T h u s th ey c a r r y se lf-re fle x iv e h isto ric a l a n a ly sis in to the too-often re d u c tio n ist a re n a o f ec o n o m ic stu d ie s. E a c h w riter, a s w e ll, a d d s to o u r k n o w le d g e o f v a ry in g W e ste rn re p re se n ta tio n s o f “ O th e r s ,”

w h eth er A fr ic a n

fe m a le farm ers,

a g g re g a te d th ird -w o rld w om en , o r C h ic a n a s in the w estern U n ite d S la te s. In th e fin a l sectio n , P a rt I V , C o n te n tio u s K in s h ip : R e th in k in g G e n d e r a n d R e p ro d u c tio n , co n trib u to rs re w o rk o ld d e b a te s an d b re a k n ew gro u n d . P e a c o c k , tra in e d in b io lo g ica l a n th ro p o lo g y , uses h e r w o rk w ith E fe in Z a ir e to re th in k a r m c h a ir fem in ist sp e c u la tio n on the b io lo g ica l c h a n n e lin g o f se x ­ u a l d iv isio n s o f la b o r. S ch effler lo c a te s c u rre n t p ro b le m a tic fem in ist len d en c ic s in k in sh ip stu d ie s w ith in a n th ro p o lo g ic a l h isto ry . A n d R a p p , rev ersin g p o p u la r c u ltu ra l ten d en c ies 10 fo cu s on the A m e ric a n w h ite , m id d le -cla ss “ n o rm ,” re p o rts on h er p o ly v o c a l, c ro ss-c la ss, m u ltira c ia l s tu d y o f a m n io ­ c e n te sis te stin g in N e w Y o r k C ity . T h e c o n trib u to rs s p e a k to one a n o th e r, a s w ell, b eyo n d these sa lie n t c a te ­ g o rie s. G u y c r , S ilv e r b la tt, an d S to le r to g e th e r e n g a g e n e w d e b a te s j n h is­ to rio g ra p h y a n d g e n d e r. G a l W a rre n an d B o u rq u e , a n d S ch e ffle r u n ravel ra g g e d a rg u m e n ts in c o n te m p o ra ry fem in ist th eo ry both in sid e a n d o u tsid e a n th ro p o lo g y . R a p p , a n d W a rre n a n d B o u r q u e , s h a r e a c o n c e rn w ith the in te rse c tio n s o f tech n o lo g y an d w o m e n 's liv e s, >vhilc R a p p a n d Fcaco ck sp e a k to g e th e r on fe m a le b io lo g y a n d re p ro d u ctio n a c ro ss m a jo r cu ltu ra l d i­ v id e s. S ilv e r b la tt a n d P eaco ck w rite e x p lic itly o f the p ro b le m a tic h eritag e o f e a r ly 19 7 0 s fem in ist an th ro p o lo g ic a l m o d e ls, w h ile C’ o n k c y , S p e rlin g , an d S to le r c o n v e rg e in e x a m in in g W estern co n stru c tio n s o f h u m a n se x u a lity w o u n d in to o u r in te rp re ta tio n s o f p rim a te s, p re h isto ry , a n d th e colon ized th ird w o rld . Z a v e lla , S to le r, an d C o n k e y a ll c o n stru c t r a c ia l d ifferen ce w ith ­ in , not a s a n a d d itio n to, their a n a ly s e s . P eaco ck a n d P o v in e lli, a t o p p o site en d s o f k n o w le d g e ’ s C o m tean sc a le , n e v e rth e le ss b o th d e m o n stra te fo r the re a d e r th e h is to ric a lly con tin g en t, so c ia lly c o n stru c te d n a tu re o f “ g a :h e rin g d a t a .” F in a lly , a ll o f these w rite rs a r e se lf-c o n sc io u sly a w a r e o f th eir location in the m in g lin g s tre a m s o f a n th ro p o lo g y , fem in ism , in te lle c tu a l a n d p o litical-

INTRODUCTION ec o n o m ic h isto ry , a n d o f ih e in e v ita b le reflectio n s o f c o n te m p o ra ry A m e ric a n c o n c e rn s in th e ir w o rk . R a p p ’ s an d Z a v e lla ’ s p ieces a r e the m ost o b v io u s, a s th e y a re s p e c ific a lly al>out g e n d e r, ra c e , ec o n o m y , a n d fa m ily in the c o n tem ­ p o r a r y U n ite d S ta le s . B u t C o n k c y , S p e r lin g , an d P c a c o c k a lso sp e a k d ire c tly to the id e o lo g ica l u ses o f a n th ro p o lo g ic a l th eo ry in c o n stru c tin g co n tem p o r a r y , p o litic iz e d m e a n in g s o f g e n d e r. A ll the w o rk in th is v o lu m e , in fa c t, s ta n d s o n th at b ed ro ck o f a w a re n e ss. E v e n J a n e G u y e r ’ s p icce on c h a n g in g g e n d e re d a g ric u ltu ra l p ra c tic e a m o n g the W est A fric a n B c ti, w h ich w o u ld se e m to b e a s e x o tic a lly fa r a s it cou ld b e from c o n te m p o ra ry g e n d e r c o n cern s in the a d v a n c e d c a p ita list U n ite d S ta te s , le a d s us to an a w a re n e ss o f cro ssc u ltu ra l s tru c tu ra l p a ra lle ls an d o f th e ir lim its. In both the B e ti c a se a n d in the last tw o d e c a d e s o f A m e ric a n life, c h a n g in g p o litic a l eco n o m ies h a v e led , on a v e r a g e , to an in c re a sin g ly a ssy m e tric s e x u a l d iv isio n o f la b o r a n d in te n ­ sified fe m a le w o rk effort. B c ti w o m e n ’s d o u b le -c ro p p in g an d a d d e d tra d e a c tiv itie s e v o k e A m e ric a n w o m e n 's d o u b le d a y in the h o u seh o ld a n d the p a id w o rk fo rce . A n d in eac h c a se , w o m e n 's in c re a se d re sp o n sib ilitie s a n d efforts to a m e lio ra te them h a v e led to co u rt c a se s an d to p iec em ea l le g isla tio n — a n d to th e s tra te g ic p o litic a l use, b y a ll in terested p a rtie s, o f the la n g u a g e o f “ tr a d i­ t io n ." N e v e rth e le ss, a s G u y c r in d ic a te s, ev e n in tra -A fric a n h isto ric a l c o m ­ p a riso n s c a n m isle a d . I f su ch n a rro w ly g a u g e d a n a lo g ie s a r e fa u lty , even m o re sh o u ld w e tread c a re fu lly an d use se e m in g ly p a ra lle l c a se s to su g gest p o ssib le in sig h ts, n ot to d eterm in e m ean in gs. A n y c o lle ctio n o f a rtic le s on a la rg e to p ic suffers fro m g a p s . A lth o u g h this v o lu m e re p re se n ts a ll fo u r field s in a n th ro p o lo g y , m a n y s u b fic ld s, a n d re­ se a rc h in the U n ite d S ta te s , E u r o p e , A fr ic a , S o u th e a st A s ia , L a tin A m e ric a , an d M e la n e s ia , it c a n n o t— fo rtu n a te ly — co n tain the rich n ess o f a ll c o n tem ­ p o r a r y fem in ist w o rk in the field . M a n y im p o rta n t a re n a s, su c h a s g en d ered re lig io u s p ra c tic e , a r e to u ch ed on (b y P o v in e lli, S ilv e r b la tt, R a p p , an d S to lc r) b u t not s q u a r e ly a d d re sse d . O th e r s , su c h a s g e n d e r a n d a r tis tic p ro d u c tio n , a rc e n tire ly ab se n t. N e ith e r an a th c o rc tic a l e n c y c lo p e d ia n o r a n a rro w s a m p le , th is v o lu m e offers a b ro a d a n d co h eren t rep re se n ta tio n o f th e c u rre n t n exu s o f fem in ist c u ltu re a n d p o litic a l ec o n o m y in a n th ro p o lo g y . N O TES Susan G a l. Bill K elly, Fitz Jo h n Porter Poole, Susan Sperling, Ju d ith Stacey, and especially Adolph Reed helped me to clarify the arguments in this piece. i. M ajor bibliographic reviews o f the field include Stack et al. (19 7 5 ), Lam phcrc (* 977)’ Q uinn (19 77). R ap p (1979 ). Rogers (1978), Atkinson (19 82), M ukhopadhyay and H iggins (1988). See also Sandra M orgen’s edited teaching module (1989). M oore's recent (1968) volume provides a narration o f feminist shifts within British social anthropology alone. Her discussion o f work on the interpenetration o f kinship and economy, however, is very helpful. Although this piece focuses on all four fields o f

INTRODUCTION

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Am erican feminist anthropology, the discipline is genuinely transatlantic. T h u s I include important British— and some French and third world— work as well. 2. O n the Am erican suffrage movement, see D uliois (19 78 ), and Flexner (1974). On early twentieth-century third world feminism, see Ja yaw a rd en a (1986 ). O n con* tinued Am erican feminist activity in the "qu iescen t” period, see C ott (1987). 3. T w o contem porary documents suffice to illustrate this revolutionary verve: M organ (1970) and Gornick 2nd M oran ( 19 7 1) . On the early history o f the second w ave, see Evans {19 79 ). 4. See Howard (1984) on M argaret M ead; Modell (19 8 3: esp. 2 5 6 -2 5 8 ), on Ruth Benedict; and Rosenberg (1982) and Lam phere (1989) on Elsie C lew s Parsons. See also G old e (1986) for w om ens first-person accounts o f fieldwork experiences, and G acs et al. (1989) for short biographies o f selected women anthropologist*. 5. See Lam phere (1987) for a first-pcrscm account o f the m aking o f Women, Culture and Society and for a history o f Am erican feminist anthropology with slightly different emphases. 6. See Potts and Shipm an '19 8 1) , Shipm an (19 8 3 ), Isaac (19 8 3). 7. Sec Shapiro 0 9 7 )» Murphy {19 85). 8. O rtner, with Harriet Whitehead, later altered her position to an assertion that “ the cultural construction o f s?x and gender tends everywhere to be stam ped by the prestige considerations o f socially dominant male actors” (19 8 1: 12). See C ollier and Y an agisako for one set o f criticisms o f this formulation {19 8 7 : 27 ff.). 9. See I,erner (196 9 ), Bloch (1978), Ryan (1979 : 7 5 - 15 0 ) , H ewitt, (1985). to. See Seager and Olsen (1986: to8, 1 13 ) for statistical summaries. 1 1 . Sec C raw ford {1980), Piven and C low ard (1982), Phillips (1982). t2. See Ja c o b y {19 87). 13 . See also Vincent (1986) for an account o f shifts from “ system ” to “ process” analysis in legal, ecological, ard sym bolic anthropology. 14. See also Sahlitt's (19761 extended critique ofsociobiology. 15 . Precursor to ethnography as text was Clifford G eertz's interpretive anthropol­ ogy that envisioned cultures a* texts. See Rabinow and Sullivan 1979. 16. See M ascia-Lees et al. (1989) for a spirited feminist critique o f “ the postmod­ ernist turn in anthropology” from a very different set o f presuppositions. See also work by two Ja m e s Clifford s:udents, Gordon (1988) and Visweswaren {19 8 8 ), for attempts to read gender into the eihnography-as-icxi framework. Fin ally, see Strath* cm (1987, 1988) for interesting juxtapositions o f anthropology and feminism from within the poststructuralist framework. Strathern, unlike the contributors to this volum e, takes it as paradigm atic that feminism seeks to portray all males as Others. She is R abinow 's source for a similar assertion cited above. 17 . Sec Policr and Roscberry (1989) for a somewhat separate set o f critiques o f the ethnography and text school. See also my review o f Ja m e s Clifford and Clifford Geertz. 18. Some exam ples arc Fiax (19 8 7), Scott (1988). An interesting m easure o f Am erican feminist theory's sh.ft away from analysis o f the actually existing world is the difference in content between the 1 9 8 3 ^ ^ Reader and that published in 1989. Sec Abel and Abel (19 8 3), M alson et al. (1989). See T aussig 1989, for a poststructuralist anthropologist's criticism o f M arxist historical anthropologists for choosing research

INTRODUCTION

38

topics not am enable to discourse analysis; and see Nlintz and W olf (19B9) for an em brace o f culture and political cconomy research. 19. Unpaginatcd quotations from Anderson and Said arc from talks given at “ Postmodernism: Practice, Politics, Performance,” W hitney Humanities C enter, Y ale U niversity, February 2 1 . 1987. 30. For critiques o f feminist essemialism see Sayers (1982: 18 7 - 19 2 ) , Echols (198 3), Cocks (1984), di Leonardo (19 8 5), forthcoming. Further exam ples o f popular feminist csscntialist writing includc Eisler {19 8 7 ), Andrews (19 8 7), C oocy ct al. (19 8 7), H arris (1989). 2 t. See Shirley Lindenbaum ’s (1984) insightful review o f G reer, K ish w ar and V anita (1984) for Indian feminists' protests against bride-burning. 22. Contra Shostak's assertion o f the IKunjjj’s “ traditional value system ” ( 1 9 8 1 : 6) see Schrire {1980) and Pratt (1986). 23. Naom i Quinn made this formulation, 1986. 24. See Lam phere (1985), Kemandcfc-Kelly {19 84 : 243), Ong (19 8 3: 4 3 5 -4 3 7 )25. Sec O akley (19 8 1), Bowles and D uelli-Klcin (1983). 26. And, as Ju d ith Stacey (1988) notes, even self-conscious feminist rescaxchcrs find themselves complicit in the researcher's inevitable exploitation o f subjects’ friendship for privacy-invading information. 27. See also K uper (1988) and Fabian (1983).

B IB L IO G R A P H Y A bel, Elizabeth, and Em ily K . Abel eds. 1983. The signs reader: Women, gender and scholarship. Chicago: University o f C hicago Press. Althusser, Louis. 1969. For Marx. New Y ork : Pantheon Books. --------- . 19 7 1. Lenin and philosophy and other essays. New Y ork: M onthly R eview Press. Anderson, Benedict. 1983. Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread o f nationalism. London: Verso. Anderson, Perry. *983. In tht tracks o j historical materialism. Ixjndon: Verso. Andrew s, Lynne V . 1987. Crystal woman: The sisters o f the dreamtime. New York: W arner Books. A sad, T a la l, ed. 1973. Anthropology and the colonial encounter. London: Ithaca Press. Atkinson. Ja n e . 1982. Anthropology: Review essay. Signs 8: 2 36 -2 58 . Bam berger, Jo a n . 1974. The myth o f matriarchy: Why men rule in primitive society. In Women, culture and society, M ichelle Zim balist Rosaldo and Louise Lam phere, eds. Stanford: Stanford University Press, pp. 26 3-280. Barth, Frederick. 1969. Ethnic groups and boundaries: The social organization o f cultural difference. Boston: Little, Brown. Benedict, Ruth. 1934. Patterns o f culture. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Benhabib, Sevla. 1989. On contem porary feminist theory. Dissent (Sum m er): 3 6 6 -

37 °-

Bloch, M aurice, ed. 1984. Aiarxist analyses and social anthropology. Ix>ndon: T avistock. --------- . 1985. Marxism and anthropology. O xford: Oxford University Press. Bloch, M aurice, and Je a n Bloch. 1984). Women and the dialectics o f nature in

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cightccnth-century French thought. In N atan, culturt and gender. C arol M acC ormack and M arilyn Stralhem , eds. C am bridge: C am bridge U niversity Press, pp. 25-4

Bloch, Ruth. 1978. American feminine ideals in transition: T h e rise o f the moral mother, 1 7 8 5 - 1 8 1 5 . Feminist Studies 4 (2) (Ju n e 1878): 10 1- 2 6 . Borkcr, Ruth. 1985. Domesticipublic Concepts and confusions. Paper presented at the Am erican Anthropological Association M eetings. W ashington. D .C . Bowles, G loria, and Kenate Duelli-Klein, eds. 1983. Theories o f women's studies. Lon* don: Routledge and K egan Paul. Brow n, Ju d ith K . 1975. Iroquois women: An ethnohistoric note. In Toward an anthro• poiogy o f women. R ayn a Rapp Reiter, ed. New York: M onthly Review Press, pp. 235- 25>■ Brown, Penelope. 19 8 1. U n iv e rsa l and particulars in the position o f women. In Women in society: Interdiscip/marv essays. C am bridge W omen’s Studies G roup. Lon ­ don: V irag o Press.

Brown, Susan E. 1975. Love unites them and hunger separates them: Poor women in the Dominican Republic. In Toward an anthropology 0 / women. R ayn a R app Reiter, ed. New Y ork: Monthly Review Press, pp. 3 2 2 -3 3 2 . C ap lan , Patricia. 1979. Women’s organizations in M ad ras C ity , India. In Women united, women divided: Compcrativt studies o f ten contemporary cultures. Patricia C aplan and Ja n e t M . Bujra, eds. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp. 9 9 -12 8 . C ap lan , Patricia, and Ja n e t M. Bujra, eds. 1979. Women united, women divided: Compara­ tive studies often contemporary cultures. Bloomington: Indiana U niversity Press. Chodorow, Nancy. 1978. The reproduction o f mothering: Psychoanalysis and the sociology o f gender. Berkeley: University o f California Press. Cicourel, Aaron. 1964. Method and measurement in sociology. New Y ork: Free Press. --------- . 1974. Theoiy and method m the study o f Argentine fertility. New York: Wiley. Clifford, Ja m e s. 1983. On ethr.ngraphic authority. Representations 2: 1 1 8 - 1 4 6 . --------- . 1986. On ethnographic allegory. In Writing culture: The poetics and politics o f ethnography. Ja m e s Clifford and G eorge E . M arcus, eds. Berkeley: University o f C alifornia Press, pp. 9 8 - 1 2 1. --------- . 1988. The predicament %f culture. Twentieth-century ethnography, literature and art. C am bridge: H arvard University Press. Clifford, Ja m e s, and George K. M arcus, eds. 1986. Writing culture: The poetics and politics o f ethnography. Berkeley, L 15 ). F o r the In d ie s “ it w a s je a lo u s y o f th e d u s k y s ir e n s . . . but m ore lik ely so m e s a y . . . it w a s . . . p lain fe m in in e sc a n d a liz a tio n a t free a n d e a sy se x re la tio n s” th at c a u se d a d eclin e in m isc e g e n a tio n (K e n n e d y 19 4 7 : 16 4 ). S u c h b a ld e x a m p le s a r e e a s y to fin d in c o lo n ia l h isto ries o f se v e ra l d e c a d e s a g o . R c c e n t sc h o la rsh ip is m ore su b tle b ut not s u b sta n tia lly d ifferen t. In the E u r o p e a n c o m m u n ity on the F re n c h Iv o r y C o a s t , e th n o g ra p h e r A la in T ir e fo rt c o n te n d s th at “ the p resen ce o f the w h ite w o m a n se p a ra te d h u sb a n d s fro m in d ig e n o u s life b y c re a tin g a ro u n d th em a zo n e o f E u r o p e a n in tim a c y ” ( 19 7 9 :

19 7 ) . G a n n

an d D u ig n a n sta te s im p ly th a t it w a s “ th e c h e a p

s te a m s h ip ticket fo r w o m en th at p u t an en d to r a c ia l in te g ra tio n in B ritish A fr ic a ” ( 1 9 7 8 : 2 4 2 ; a ls o see O ’ B rie n 19 7 2 : 5 9 ). L e st w e a ssu m e th a t su ch c o n c lu sio n s a r c con fin ed to m e tro p o lita n m en , w e sh o u ld n o te the In d ia n p y s c h ia tris t A s h is N a n d y ’ s o b se r v a tio n — ty in g w h ite w o m e n ’ s ra c ism to the h o m o se x u a l c ra v in g s o f th eir h u sb a n d s— th a t “ w h ite w o m en in In d ia w e re g e n e r a lly m o re ra c ist b e c a u se th ey u n co n scio u sly s a w th em selv es a s the se x ­ u a l c o m p e tito rs o f In d ia n m e n ” ( 19 8 3 : 9 - 1 0 ) . W h a t is m ost sta rtlin g h ere is th at w o m e n , these o th e rw ise m a rg in a l a c to rs on the c o lo n ia l sta g e , a re c h a rg e d w ith d r a m a tic a lly re sh a p in g the face o f c o lo n ia l s o c ie ty , im p o sin g th eir r a c ia l w ill o n , a s in the case o f A fr ic a , a c o lo n ia l w o rld w h e re “ re la tiv e ly u n re stra in e d so cial in te r m in g lin g . . .h a d b een p re v a le n t in e a r lie r y e a r s ” (C o h e n 1 9 7 1 : t2 2 ) . S im ila rly , in M a la y a the p re se n ce o f E u r o p e a n w o m en put a n en d to “ fre e an d e a sy so c ia l in te rc o u rse w ith [ M a la y a n ] m en a s w e ll,”

re p la c in g “ an iro n c u rta in o f ig n o ra n c e

. . .b e t w e e n the ra c e s” (V e re A lle n 19 7 0 : 16 9 ). E u ro p e a n w o m en a re not o n ly the b e a re rs o f ra c ist b eliefs b ut h a rd lin e o p e ra tiv e s w h o p u t th em in to p ra c tic e . E u ro p e a n w o m e n , it is c la im e d , d e stro y e d the b lu rre d d iv isio n s b e­ tw een c o lo n izer an d co lo n ized , e n c o u ra g in g c la s s d istin c tio n s a m o n g w h ile s w h ile fo ste rin g n ew r a c ia l a n ta g o n ism s, fo rm e rly m u ted b y s e x u a l a c c e ss (ib id .: 16 8 ) .20 A r c w c to b elie v e th at s e x u a l in tim a c y w iih E u ro p e a n m en y ie ld e d so cial m o b ility an d p o litic a l rig h ts fo r co lo n ized w o m en ? O r even less lik e ly , th at b e c a u se B ritish c iv il se r v a n ts b ed d ed w ith In d ia n w o m e n , so m eh o w In d ia n m en h ad m o re “ in c o m m o n ” w ith B ritish m en an d e n jo y e d m o re p a rity ? C o lo n iz e d w o m en co u ld so m etim es p a r la y th eir p o sitio n s in to p e rso n a l p ro fit an d s m a ll re w a rd s , b ut th ese w e re individu al n e g o tiatio n s w ith n o s o c ia l, le g a l, o r c u m u la tiv e c la im s. E u ro p e a n m a le se x u a l a c c e ss to n a tiv e w o m en w a s not a le v e lin g m ech a n ism fo r a sy m m e trie s in race, c la s s , o r g e n d e r (S tro b e l 19 8 7 : 3 7 8 ; D e g lc r 19 8 6 : 18 9 ). M a le co lo n izers p o sitio n ed E u ro p e a n w o m en a s the b e a re rs o f a red efin ed c o lo n ia l m o ra lity . B u t 10 su g g e st th at w o m en fash io n ed th is ra c ism o u t o f w h o le clo th is to m iss the p o litic a l c h ro n o lo g y in w h ic h n ew in ten sities o f

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r a c ist p ra c tic e aro se . In the A fric a n an d A s ia n c o n texts a lr e a d y m e n tio n e d , th e a r r iv a l o f la rg e n u m b ers o f E u r o p e a n w iv e s, an d p a rtic u la rly the fe a r for th e ir p ro te c tio n , follow ed fro m n ew term s a n d ten sio n s in th e c o lo n ia l con* tra c t. T h e p re se n ce an d p ro tectio n o f E u r o p e a n w o m en w a s r e p e a te d ly in ­ v o k e d to c la r ify r a c ia l lines. I t c o in cid e d w ith p e rc e iv e d th re a ts to E u ro p e a n p re stig e (B ro w n fo o t 19 3 4 : 1 9 1 ) , in c re a se d ra c ia l co n flic t (S tro b e l 19 8 7 : 3 7 8 ) , c o v e rt c h a lle n g e s to the co lo n ial o r d e r , o u trig h t e x p re ssio n s o f n a tio n a list re sista n c e , a n d in tern al d isse n sio n a m o n g w h ites th e m se lv e s (S to le r 19 89 0: >47 - 149)I f w h ite w o m en w ere the p r im a r y fo rc e b eh in d the d e c lin e o f c o n c u b in a g e a s is o ften c la im e d , th ey d id so a s p a rtic ip a n ts in a m u ch b ro a d e r ra c ia l re a lig n m e n t a n d p o litical p la n ( K n ib ie h le r an d G o u ta lic r (9 8 5: 7 6 ). T h is is not to su g g e st fh a t E u ro p e a n w o m en w ere p a ss iv e in cHis p ro c e ss, a s the d o m in a n t th em es in m a n y o f th eir n o v e ls a tte st ( T a y lo r 19 7 7 : 2 7 ) . M a n y E u ro p e a n w o m en d id o p p o se c o n c u b in a g e — not b e c a u se th ey w e re c a te g o r­ ic a lly je a lo u s o f, an d threaten ed b y , A s ia n w o m en a s o ften c la im e d (C lc r k x 1 9 6 1 ) , b u t, m ore lik e ly , b e c a u se o f the d o u b le sta n d a rd it co n d o n ed fo r E u ro * p e a n m en ( L u c a s 19 8 6 9 4 - 9 5 ) - A lth o u g h so m e D u tch w o m en in fact c h a m ­ p io n ed the c a u se o f the w ro n g ed n rai, u rg in g im p ro v e d p ro tectio n fo r n o n p ro ­ v isio n e d w o m en a n d c h ild ren , th ey r a r e ly w en t s o fa r a s to a d v o c a te fo r the le g itim a tio n o f these un ion s in le g a l m a rria g e ( T a y lo r 19 7 7 : 3 1 - 3 2 ; L u c a s >986: 9 5 ). T h e v o ic e s o f E u ro p e a n w o m e n , h o w e v e r, h ad little re so n a n ce until their ob jection s coincided w ith a realignm ent in racial an d class politics in w h ic h th e y w e re strateg ic to b oth.

R A C E AND T H E P O L IT IC S O F S E X U A L P E R IL T h e g e n d e r-sp e c ific req u irem en ts fo r c o lo n ia l liv in g , referred to a b o v e , w ere c o n stru c te d on h eav ily ra c ist e v a lu a tio n s, w h ic h p iv o ted on im a g e s o f the h e ig h te n e d s e x u a lity o f co lo n ized m en (T iffa n y a n d A d a m s 19 8 5 ). A lth o u g h , a s w e h a v e n o ted , in n cv c ls a n d m e m o irs E u ro p e a n w o m en w ere c a te g o r ic a l­ ly a b se n t fro m the sexu a l fa n ta sie s o f c o lo n ia l m en , the v e r y sa m e m en d e e m e d th em to b e d esired an d s e d u c tiv e fig u re s to m en o f c o lo r. E u r o p e a n w o m e n n eed ed pro tectio n b c c a u se m en o f c o lo r h ad “ p rim itiv e ” se x u a l u rg es a n d u n c o n tro lla b le lu st, a ro u se d b y the sig h t o fw 'h itc w o m en (S tr o b c l 19 8 7 : 3 7 9 ; S c h m id t 19 8 7 : 4 1 1 ) . In so m e c o lo n ies th at se x u a l th re a t re m a in e d an u n la b e le d p o te n tia l; in o th e rs it w a s g iv e n a sp e c ific n a m e . T h e “ B la c k P e r il” re fe rre d th ro u g h o u t A fric a a n d m u ch o f the B ritish E m p ir e to the p ro fesse d d a n g e r s o f se x u a l a ssa u lt on w h ite w o m en b y b la c k m en. In S o u th e rn R h o d e sia a n d K e n y a in the 19 2 0 s a n d 19 3 0 s p re o c c u p a tio n s w ith the “ B la c k P e ril” g a v e rise to the cre a tio n o f c itiz e n s’ m ilitia s, la d ie s ’ rifle ry c lu b s , a n d in v e stig a tio n s a s to w h e th e r A fric a n fe m a le d o m e stic se r­ v a n ts w o u ld not b e sa fe r to e m p lo y th an m en (K ir k w o o d 19 8 4 : 15 8 ; S c h m id t

CARNAL KNOWLKINJK AND IMPKRlAf. i'OWKK

68

19 8 7 : 4 1 2 ; K e n n e d y 19 8 7 : 1 2 8 - 1 4 7 ; H an sen 19 8 9 ). in N e w G u in e a alle g e d a tte m p te d a s s a u lts on E u ro p e a n w o m en b y P a p u a n m en p ro m p te d the p a s ­

sage o f the W hile W om en’s Protection O rdinance o f 19 26, which provided “ th e d e a th p e n a lty fo r a n y p erso n c o n v ictc d for the c rim c o f ra p e o r a t ­ tem p ted ra p e upon a E u ro p e a n w o m a n o r g i r l " (I n g lis 19 7 5 : v i) . A n d in the S o lo m o n Is la n d s a u th o ritie s in tro d u ced p u b lic flo g g in g in 19 3 4 a s p u n ish ­ m en t fo r " c r im in a l a ss a u lts on [w h ite] fe m a le s” ( B o u tilic r 19 8 4 : 19 7 ). W h a t d o th ese ea se s h a v e in com m on ? F ir s t, the r h c io r ic o f s e x u a l a ssa u lt an d the m e a su re s u sed to p rev en t it h a d v ir tu a lly n o c o rre la tio n w ith a c tu a l in cid e n c e s o f ra p e o f E u ro p e a n w o m en b y m en o f c o lo r. J u s t the c o n tra ry : th ere w a s o ften no e x post fa c to e v id e n c e , n or a n y at the tim e, th at ra p e s w ere c o m m itte d o r th at ra p e a tte m p ts w ere m a d e (S c h m id t 19 8 7 ; In g lis 19 7 5 ; K ir k w o o d 19 8 4 ; K e n n e d y >987; B o u tilic r 19 8 4 ). T h is is not to su g g e st th at s e x u a l a s s a u lts n e v e r o cc u rre d , hut th at th eir incidence* h ad little to d o w ith the flu c tu a tio n s in a n x ie ty ab o u t th em . M o re o v e r, the ra p e law-s w e re rac cs p e c ific ; s e x u a l a b u s e o f b la c k w o m en w a s not c la ssifie d a s ra p e an d th erefo re w a s n ot le g a lly a c tio n a b lc , n o r d id ra p e s co m m itte d b y w h ite m en lea d to p ro se cu tio n (M a s o n 19 5 8 : 2 4 6 - 2 4 7 ) . I f these a c c u s a tio n s o f s e x u a l th re a t w e re not p ro m p te d b y the fact o f ra p e , w h a t d id they s ig n a l a n d to w h a t w ere th e y tied? A llu s io n s to p o litic a l an d se x u a l su b v e rsio n o f the c o lo n ia l sy ste m w en t h a n d in h a n d . T h e term “ B la c k P e ril” referred to s e x u a l th re a ts, b u t it a lso c o n n o tc d the fe a r o f in su rg e n c c , o f so m e p erc e iv e d non a c q u ie sc e n c e to co lo ­ n ia l co n tro l m ore g e n e ra lly (v a n O n selen S tro b e l

1987;

K ennedy

1987: 12 8 - 14 7 ) .

1982;

S c h m id t

1987;

In g lis

19 7 5;

C o n c e rn o v e r p ro tectio n o f w h ite

w o m en in ten sified d u rin g real an d p erc e iv e d c rise s o f c o n tr o l— p ro v o k e d b y th re a ts to the in tern al coh esio n o f the E u ro p e a n c o m m u n itie s o r b y in frin g e ­ m e n ts on its b o rd e rs. T h u s c o lo n ia l a c c o u n ts o f the M u t in y in In d ia in

1857

a re full o f d e sc rip tio n s o f the se x u a l m u tilatio n o f B r itis h w o m en b y In d ia n

men despite the fact that no rapes were recorded (M e tc a lf 1964; 290). In A fr ic a too, a lth o u g h the c h ro n o lo g ies o f the B la c k P e ril d iffe r— on the R a n d in S o u th A fric a p e a k in g a full tw en ty y e a r s e a r lie r th a n e lse w h e re — w e c a n still id e n tify a p a tte rn e d sequence o f ev e n ts (v a n O n se le n

1982).

In N ew

G u in e a , the W h ite W o m e n ’s P ro tectio n O r d in a n c e fo llo w e d a la rg e in flu x o f a c c u ltu r a tc d P a p u a n s in to P o rt M o r e sb y in the 19 2 0 s. R e sista n t to the c o n ­ s tr a in ts im p o sed on th eir d re ss, m o v e m e n t, a n d e d u c a tio n , w h ites p erc e iv e d th em a s a r r o g a n t, ' ‘ c h e e k y ," an d w ith o u t resp ect ( I n g lis

1975:

8 , n ) . In

post-W ro rld W a r I A lg e r ia , the p o litic a l u n c a se o f p ieds rwirs (lo c a l F rc n c h settlers) in the fac e o f " a w h o le n ew scries o f [M u s lim ] d e m a n d s ” m an ifested it s e lf in a p o p u la r c u ltu re n e w ly in fu sed w ith s tro n g im a g e s o f s e x u a lly a g g re s s iv e A lg e ria n m en (S iv a n

(983: 178).

S e c o n d , ra p e c h a rg e s a g a in st co lo n ized m en w ere often b ased on p e r­ c e iv e d tra n sg re ssio n s o f so cial sp ace. "A tt e m p t e d r a p e s ” tu rn ed o u t to be

CARNAL KNOWLEDGE AND IMPERIAL POWER

69

“ in c id e n ts11 o f a P a p u a n m an “ d isc o v e re d ” in the v ic in ity o f a w h ile re si­ d e n c e , a F ijia n m an w h o entered a E u ro p e a n p a tie n t’ s ro o m , a m a le serv an t p o ise d a t the b ed ro o m d o o r o f a E u ro p e a n w o m a n a sle e p o r in h alf-d rcss (B o u tilie r 19 8 4 : 19 7 ; In g lis 19 7 5 : 1 1 ; S c h m id t 19 8 7 : 4 13 ) - W ith su c h a b ro a d d e fin itio n o f d a n g e r in a cu ltu re o f fe a r, a ll co lo n ized m en o f co lo r w ere th re a te n in g a s se x u a l an d p o litic a l a g g re sso rs. T h ir d , a c c u sa tio n s o f sexu al a s sa u lt fre q u e n tly fo llo w ed u p o n h eigh ten ed te n sio n s w ith in E u ro p e a n c o m m u n ities— a n d ren ew ed efforts to fin d con sen ­ s u s w ith in th em . R a p e a c c u sa tio n s in S o u th A fr ic a , for e x a m p le , coin cid ed w ith a rash o f strik e s b etw een 1 8 9 0 - 1 9 1 4 b y both A fric a n an d w h ite m in ers (v a n O n s e lc n 19 8 2 : 5 1 ) . A s in R h o d e sia a fte r a strik e b y w h ite r a ilw a y em * p lo y c e s in 19 2 9 , the th reat o f n a tiv e re b e llio n b ro u g h t to g eth er con flictin g m e m b e rs o f th e E u ro p e a n co m m u n ity in c o m m o n c a u se w h e re “ so lid a rity fo u n d su ste n a n c e in th e th reat o f r a c ia l d e stru c tio n ” ( K e n n e d y 19 8 7 : 13 8 ) . D u r in g the la te 19 2 0 s w hen la b o r p ro tests b y In d o n e sia n w o rk ers an d E u r o p e a n e m p lo y e e s w ere m ost in ten se, S u m a t r a ’ s c o rp o ra te e lite e xp an d ed th e ir v ig ila n te o rg a n iz a tio n s, in tellig en c e n etw o rk s, an d d e m a n d s for p o lice p ro te c tio n to e n su re th eir w om en w ere safe a n d th eir w o rk e rs “ in h a n d ” (S to le r 19 8 5 a ). W h ite w o m en a rriv e d in la rg e n u m b e rs d u rin g the m ost p ro fita b le y e a r s o f the p lan tatio n e c o n o m y but a lso a i a tim e o f m o u n tin g re sista n c e to esta te la b o r con d itio n s an d D u tch ru le. In the c o n text o f a E u r o p e a n c o m m u n ity th at h ad been b la ta n tly d iv id e d b etw een lo w -ra n k in g p la n ta tio n e m p lo y e e s a n d the c o m p a n y elite, the c o m m u n ity w a s stab ilized a n d d o m e stic situ a tio n s w ere r e a rra n g e d . In S u m a t r a ’ s p la n ta tio n b elt, su b sid iz e d sp o n so rsh ip o f m a rrie d cou ples re p la c e d the re c ru itm e n t o f sin g le In d o n e sia n w o rk e rs a n d E u ro p e a n stafT, w ith n ew in c e n tiv e s p ro v id e c for fa m ily h o u sin g an d g eiin v o m in g (“ fa m ily fo rm a tio n ” ) in both g ro u p s. T h is reco m p o sed la b o r force o f fa m ily m en in “ s ta b le h o u se h o ld s” e x p lic itly w eed ed o u t p o litic a lly “ u n d e sira b le elem en ts” a n d the so c ia lly m alc o n ten t. W ith the m a rria g e re stric tio n fin a lly lilted fo r E u iu p c a n s t a ff in the 19 2 0 s , yo u n g m en so u g h t w iv e s a m o n g I)u tc h -b o rn w o m en w h ile on le a v e in H o lla n d o r th ro u gh m a r ria g e b ro k ers bv m ail. H ig h e r s a la rie s , u p g ra d e d h o u sin g , e le v a te d b o n u se s, an d a m o re m ediated c h a in o f c o m m a n d b etw een colon ized fie ld w o rk e r an d c o lo n ia l stafT serv ed to c la r ify b o th n a tio n a l a n d ra c ia l affin ities a n d to d ifferen tiate the p o litical in ­ terests o fE u r o p e a n from A sia n w o rk e rs m o re th an e v e r b efo re (S to le r 19 8 5 a ). W ith this sh ift, the v o c a l o p p o sition to c o rp o ra te an d g o v e rn m e n t d irec tiv es, su sta in e d b y the in d ep en d en t U n io n o f E u r o p e a n E s ta t e E m p lo y e e s ( Vakveretrtiging voor AssislenU n in D e li) fo r n e a rly tw o d e c a d e s, w a s effectively d is so lv e d (K roniek /££ ?: 8 5 ). T h e rem ed ies so u g h t to a lle v ia te se x u a l d a n g e r e m b ra c e d n e w p re s c rip ­ tio n s for s e c u rin g w h ile con tro l; in creased s u r v e illa n c e o f n a tiv e m en, n ew la w s s tip u la tin g se v e re co rp o real p u n ish m e n t fo r the tra n sg re ssio n o f se x u a l

CARNAL KNOWLEDGE AND IMPERIAL POWER

70

a n d so c ia l b o u n d a rie s, a n d the c re a iio n o f a r e a s m ad e r a c ia lly ofT-lim its. T h e s e w en t w ith a m o ra l re a rm a m e n t o f the E u ro p e a n c o m m u n ity a n d reasse rtio n s o f its c u ltu r a l id e n tity . C h a r g e d w ith g u a r d in g c u ltu ra l n o rm s, E u r o ­ p e a n w o m en w e re in stru m e n ta l in p ro m o tin g w h ite s o lid a rity . It w a s p a rtly at th e ir o w n e x p e n se , a s th ey w e re to be n e a rly a s c lo se ly p o liced a s co lon ized m en (S tro b e l 19 8 7 ).

P O L IC I N G E U R O P E A N W O M E N A N D C O N C E S S IO N S T O C H I V A L R Y A lth o u g h n a tiv e m en w ere the o n es le g a lly p u n ish ed fo r a lle g e d se x u a l a s s a u lts , E u ro p e a n w o m en w e re fre q u e n tly b la m e d fo r p ro v o k in g th o se d e ­ sire s. N e w a r r iv a ls from E u r o p e w ere ac c u sed o f b e in g too fa m ilia r w ith th eir s e rv a n ts , la x in th eir c o m m a n d s, in d e c o ro u s in th eir sp e e c h a n d in th e ir d ress (V e liu t

19 8 2 :

10 0 :

K ennedy

19 87:

14 J;

S c h m id t

19 87: 4 13 ) .

In P a p u a N e w

G u in e a “ e v e ry o n e ” in the A u s tr a lia n c o m m u n ity a g re e d th at ra p e a ss a u lts w e re c a u se d b y a “ y o u n g e r g en eratio n o f w h ite w o m e n ” w h o s im p ly d id n ot k n o w h o w to treat se rv a n ts (In g lis

19 7 5 : 80).

In R h o d e sia a s in U g a n d a ,

s e x u a l a n x ie tie s p ersisted in the a b se n ce o f a n y in c id en ts a n d restric ted w o m en to a c tiv itie s w ith in the E u ro p e a n e n c la v e s (G a r tr c ll

19 8 4 : 16 9 ).

The

im m o ra lity a c t o f 1 9 1 6 “ m a d e it an offen ce fo r a w h ite w o m a n to m a k e an in d c c c m su g g e stio n to a m ale n a tiv e ” (M a so n 1 9 5 8 : 2 4 7 ) . E u ro p e a n w o m en in K e n y a in the

19 2 0 s

w ere n ot o n ly d issu a d e d from s ta y in g a lo n e on th eir

h o m e ste a d s but stro n g ly d isc o u ra g e d b y ru m o rs o f ra p e from ta k in g u p fa rm ­ in g on th eir o w n ( K e n n e d y

19 8 7: 14 1).

A s in th e A m e ric a n S o u th , “ the e ti­

q u e tte o f c h iv a lr y c o n tro lle d w h ite w o m e n ’s b e h a v io r e v e n a s [it] g u a rd e d c a ste lin e s” (D ow 'd H a ll

19 8 4 : 6 4 ).

A d efen se o f c o m m u n ity , m o ra lity , an d

w h ite m a le p o w e r w a s a c h ie v e d b y in c re a sin g co n tro l o v e r a n d co n sen su s a m o n g E u r o p e a n s , b y re a ffirm in g the v u ln e ra b ility o f w h ite w o m e n , the se x ­ u a l th reat p osed b y n a tiv e m en , an d b y c re a tin g n ew sa n c tio n s to lim it the lib e rtie s o f b oth. E u ro p e a n c o lo n ia l c o m m u n ities in the e a r ly tw en tieth c c n tu ry a ssid u o u sly c o n tro lle d the m o v em en ts o f E u ro p e a n w o m en a n d , w h e re p o ssib le , im p o sed on them restricted an d pro tected ro les. T his is not to s a y th at E u ro p e a n w o m e n d id not w o rk ; F re n c h w o m en in the se ttle r c o m m u n itie s o f A lg e r ia ran fa rm s , ro o m in g h o u ses, an d sh o p s a lo n g w ith th eir m en (B a r o li 19 6 7 : 15 9 ; O ’ B rie n 19 7 2 ) . O n the Iv o r y C o a s t, m a rrie d E u r o p e a n w o m en w o rk ed to “ s u p p le m e n t”

th eir h u sb a n d s ' in c o m es (T ire fo rt 19 7 9 : 1 1 2 ) , w h ile in

S e n e g a l th e “ s u p p le m e n ta ry ” s a la r y o f F re n c h w iv e s m a in ta in e d the w h ite s ta n d a r d (M e r c ie r 19 6 5 : 2 9 2 ). A m o n g w o m en w h o w ere p o sted th ro u gh o u t the c o lo n ia l e m p ire s a s m issio n a rie s, n u rse s, an d te ac h ers, so m e o p e n ly q u e s ­ tio n ed the se x ist p o lic ie s o f th eir m a le su p e rio rs. H o w e v e r, b y an d la rg e th eir ta sk s b u ttre ssed r a th e r th an con tested the esta b lish e d ra c ia l o r d e r (R a lsto n 19 7 7 ; K n ib ie h le r a n d G o u ta lie r 19 8 5 ; C a lla w a y 19 8 7 : 1 1 1 ; R a m u s c h a c k n .d .).

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P a r t ic u la r ly in the colon ies w ith sm a ll E u ro p e a n c o m m u n itie s a s o p p o sed to th o se o f la rg e -sc a le settlem en t, th ere w ere few o p p o rtu n itie s fo r w om en to b e e c o n o m ic a lly in d ep en d en t o r to a c t p o litic a lly on th eir o w n . T h e “ revo lt a g a in s t c li i v a li y ” — the p io le s l o f A m e r ic a n S o u th e rn w h ite w o m en Cu ly n c h in g s o f b la c k m en fo r alleg ed ra p e a tte m p ts— h ad n o c o u n te rp a rt a m o n g E u r o p e a n w o m en in A s ia a r d A fr ic a (D o w d H a ll 19 8 4 }. F re n c h fem in ists u rg e d w o m e n w ith s k ills (and a d e sire fo r m a rria g e ) to se ttle in In d o c h in a at the tu rn o f th e c e n tu ry , b u t co lo n ial a d m in is tra to rs w ere a d a m a n tly a g a in st th e ir im m ig ra tio n . T h e y not o n ly c o m p la in e d o f a su rfeit o f rcso u rceless w id o w s b u t a rg u e d th at E u ro p e a n se a m stre sse s, flo rists, a n d c h ild re n ’ s o u t­ fitters co u ld n ot p o ssib ly com p ete w ith the c h e a p an d sk illed la b o r p ro vid ed b y w e ll-e sta b lish e d C h in e s e firm s (L a n e s s a n 18 8 9 : 4 50 ; C o m e a u 19 0 0: 1 2 , 1 2 ) . In T o n k in in the 19 3 0 s , “ th ere w a s little room fo r sin g le w o m e n , be th ey u n m a rrie d , w id o w e d o r d iv o rc e d ” (G a n te s 1 9 8 1 : 4 5 ). A lth o u g h so m e co lo ­ n ia l w id o w s , su c h a s the ed ito r o f a m a jo r S a ig o n d a ily , su c ce e d e d in th eir o w n a m b itio n s, m o st w ere sh .p p ed o u t o f In d o c h in a — r e g a rd le ss o f sk ill— at the g o v e rn m e n t's c h a r g e .21 F ir m ly re je c tin g cxp a n sio r. b a se d o n the “ p o o r w h ite ” (petit b lan c) A lg e ­ rian m o d e l, F re n c h o fficials in In d o c h in a d issu a d e d colons w ith in sufficien t c a p ita l fro m e n try a n d p ro m p tly re p a tria te d those w h o tried to re m a in .22 S in g le w o m en w e re seen a s :h e q u in te sse n tia l p etit b la n c ; w ith lim ited re­ so u rc e s an d sh o p k e e p e r a sp ira tio n s, th ey p resen ted the d a n g e ro u s p o ssib ility th a t stra ite n e d c irc u m sta n c e s w o u ld lead them to p ro stitu tio n , th ereb y d e ­ g r a d in g E u ro p e a n p re stig e at la rg e . In the S o lo m o n Isla n d s lo w e r-c la ss w h ite w o m en w e re o v e r tly sc o rn e d a n d lim ite d from e n try (B o u tilie r 1 984.: 17 9 ) . S im ila r ly , an In d ie s A r m y h igh c o m m a n d e r c o m p la in e d in 19 0 3 to the g o v e rn o r-g e n e ra l th at lo w e r-c la ss E u ro p e a n -b o rn w o m en w e re v a stly m ore im m o d e st th an th e ir In d ics-b o rn c o u n te rp a rts an d thus p osed a g re a te r m o r­ a l th re a t to E u r o p e a n m en iM in g 19 8 3 : 8 4 - 8 5 ) . S ta te o ffic ia ls th em selves id en tified E u ro p e a n w id o w s as a m o n g the m ost e c o n o m ic a lly v u ln e ra b le an d im p o v e rish e d seg m en ts o f the In d ie s E u io p e a n c o m m u n ity ( I l e t P a u p c rism e o n d e r d e E u ro p e a n e n 1 9 0 1 : 2 8 ) . P ro fe ssio n al co m p e te n c e did n ot le a v e sin g le E u r o p e a n w o m en im m u n e fro m m arginai>7.atinn ( K n ib ic h lr r an d G o u ta lie r 19 8 5 ). S in g le p ro fessio n al w o m en w e re h eld in con tem p t a s w e re E u ro p e a n p ro stitu te s, w ith su rp risin g ­ ly s im ila r o b je c tio n s.23 W h ite p ro stitu te s th re a te n e d p re stig e , w h ile p ro fe s­ s io n a l w o m en n eed ed p ro te c iio n ; both fell o u tsid e the so c ia l s p a c e to w h ic h E u r o p e a n c o lo n ia l w o m en w ere a ssig n e d : n a m e ly , a s c u sto d ia n s o f fa m ily w e lfa re an d r e sp e c ta b ility , an d a s d e d ic a te d an d w illin g s u b o rd in a te s to, an d s u p p o rte rs o f, c o lo n ia l m en. T h e rig o r w ith w h ic h these n o rm s w ere a p p lie d b e co m e s m o re c o m p reh en sib le w h en w e se c w h y a E u r o p e a n fa m ily life a n d b o u rg e o is r e sp e c ta b ility b e c a m e in c re a sin g ly tied to n o tio n s c f ra c ia l s u r v iv a l, im p e ria l p a trio tism , a n d the p o litic a l stra te g ie s o f th e co lon ial s la te .

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CARNAL KNOWLEDGE AND IMPERIAL POWER P A R T I I I : W H IT E D E G E N E R A C Y . M O T H E R H O O D , A N D T H E E U G E N I C S O F E M P IR E

de-gen-er-ate (adj.) (L . degentralus, pp. o f degenerate, to bccomc unlike one's race, degenerate < dtgtner. not genuine, base < de-, from + genus, race, kind: see genus]. 1 . to lose former, normal, or higher qualities. 2 . having sunk below a former o r normal condition, character, etc.; deteriorated. 3 . m orally corrupt; depraved* (n.) a degenerate person, esp. one who is m orally depraved or sex­ ually perverted- (vi.) -at'ed, •at'ing. 1 . to decline or bccom c debased m orally, culturally, etc. . . . 2 . Biol, to undergo degeneration; deteriorate. ( Webster's Ntw World Dictionary 19 7a: 3 7 1) E u ro p e a n w o m en w ere essen tia l (o (he c o lo n ia l e n te rp rise an d (he so lid i­ ficatio n o f r a c ia l b o u n d a rie s in w a y s w’h ich re p e a te d ly tied th e ir su p p o rtiv e a n d s u b o rd in a te p o stu re to c o m m u n ity coh esio n a n d c o lo n ia l se c u rity . T h e s e fe a tu re s o f th e ir p o sitio n in g w ith in im p e ria l p o litic s w ere p o w e rfu lly rein ­ fo rced a t the tu rn o f the c c n tu ry b y a m e tro p o lita n b o u rg e o is d isc o u rse (an d an e m in e n tly a n th ro p o lo g ic a l on e) in ten sely co n cern ed w ith n o tio n s o f “ d e g e n e r a c y ” (L e B r a s 1 9 8 1 : 7 7 ).** M id d le -c la s s m o ra lity , m a n lin e ss, a n d m o th e rh o o d w e re seen a s e n d a n g e re d b y the in tim a te ly lin k ed fe a rs o f “ d e g e n e ra tio n ” a n d m isc c g e n a tio n in s c ie n tific a lly co n stru ed ra c ist b eliefs (M o s s c 19 7 8 : 8 3 ) . ^ D e g e n e ra tio n w a s d efin ed a s “ d e p a r tu r e s from the n o r­ m al h u m a n t y p e . . .tr a n s m itte d th ro u g h in h e rita n c e a n d le a d [in g ] p ro g re s­ s iv e ly to d e stru c tio n ” (M o re l q u o ted in M o s sc 19 7 8 : 8 3 ). D u e to e n v iro n ­ m e n ta l, p h y sic a l, an d m o ra l fa c to rs, d e g e n e ra c y cou ld b e a v e rte d b y p o sitiv e e u g e n ic selectio n o r, n e g a tiv e ly , b y e lim in a tin g the “ u n fit” a n d / o r the e n ­ v iro n m e n ta l an d m o re s p e c ific a lly c u ltu ra l co n ta g io n s th at g a v e rise to them (M o s s c 19 7 8 : 8 7 ; K c v lc s 19 8 5 : 7 0 - 8 4 ) . E u g e n ic d isc o u rse h a s u su a lly been a sso c ia te d w ith S o c ia l D a rw in ia n n o tio n s o f “ s e le c tio n ,” w ith the s tro n g in flu en c e o f L a m a rc k ia n th in k in g re se rv e d fo r its F re n c h v a r ia n t (S c h n e id e r 19 8 2 ). H o w e v e r, the n otio n o f “ c u ltu ra l c o n ta m in a tio n ” ru n s th ro u gh o u t the B r itis h , U .S ., F re n c h , an d D u tc h c u g c n ic tra d itio n s (R o d c n w a )d t 192O ). E u g e n ie a rg u m e n t* used 10 e x ­ p la in th e so c ia l m a la is e o f in d u stria liz a tio n , im m ig ra tio n , an d u rb a n iz a tio n in th e e a r ly tw en tieth c e n tu ry d e riv e d fro m n o tio n s th at a c q u ire d c h a r a c te r ­ istics w e re in h e rita b le an d th u s (hat p o v e rty , v a g r a n c y , a n d p ro m isc u ity w e re c la ss-lin k e d b io lo g ica l tra its, tied to g e n e tic m a te ria l a s d ire c tly as n ig h tb lin d n e ss an d b lo n d e h a ir. A s w e sh a ll see. th is L a m a rc k ia n fe a tu re o f e u g e n ic th in k in g w-as c e n tra l to c o lo n ia l d isc o u rse s that lin ked r a c ia l d e g e n ­ e r a c y to the s e x u a l tra n sm issio n o f c u ltu ra l c o n ta g io n s a n d to the p o litic a l in s ta b ility o f im p e ria l ru le. A p p e a lin g to a b ro a d p o litic a l a n d scie n tific co n stitu e n cy a t the tu rn o f the c e n tu ry , E u r o -A m c ric a n c u g c n ic so cieties in clu d ed a d v o c a te s o f in fa n t w e l­ fa re p ro g ra m s, lib e ra l in te lle c tu a ls, c o n s e rv a tiv e b u sin essm en , F a b ia n s , an d

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p h y s ic ia n s w ith so c ia l c o n c cm s. B y the 19 2 0 s , h o w e v e r, it co n tain ed a n in ­ c re a s in g ly v o c a l n u m b e r o f those w h o c a lle d fo r an d p u t in to la w , i f not p r a c ­ tice, the s te riliz a tio n o f w h at w ere c o n sid ered the m e n ta lly , m o r a lly , o r p h y ­ s ic a lly un fit m e m b e rs o f the B r itis h , G e r m a n , a n d A m e r ic a n u n d ercla ss (M o s s c 19 7 8 : 8 7 ; S te p a n 19 8 2: 1 2 2 ) .26 F e m in ist a tte m p ts 10 a p p r o p r ia te this rh e to ric fo r th e ir o w n b irth -co n tro l p ro g ra m s la rg e ly fa ile d . E u g e n ic s w’as e s s e n tia lly e litis t, ra c ist, a n d m iso g y n ist in p rin c ip le a n d p ra c tic e (G o rd o n 19 7 6 : 3 9 5 ; D a v in 19 7 8 ; H am m erto n 19 7 9 ). Its p ro p o n e n ts a d v o c a te d a p ro n a ta list p o lic y to w a rd the w h ite m id d le a n d u p p e r c la ss c s , a rcjc ctio n o f w o rk ro les fo r w o m en th a t m ig h t co m p ete w ith m o th erh o o d , a n d “ a n a ssu m p tio n that reproduction w a s not ju s i a function but the p u rp o s e . . . o f w om en’s life” (G o r d o n 19 7 4 : 13 4 ) . In F ra n c e , E n g la n d , G e r m a n y , a n d the U n ite d S ta te s, e u g e n ic s p la c e d E u ro p e a n w om en o f " g o o d sto ck ” a s “ the fo u n ta in h ead o f r a c ia l stre n g th ” (R id le y 19 8 1 : 9 1 ) , e x h a ltin g the cu lt o f m oth erh o o d w h ile s u b je c tin g it to the sc ru tin y o f th is n ew scie n tific d o m a in (D a v in 19 7 8 : 12 ) . A s p a rt o f m e tro p o lita n c lass p o litic s, e u g e n ic s re v e rb e ra te d in the c o l­ o n ie s in p re d ic ta b le a s w ell as u n e x p e c te d fo rm s. T h e m o ra l, b io lo g ica l, an d s e x u a l re fe re n ts o f the n otion o f d e g e n e ra c y (d istin c t in the d ic tio n a ry c ita ­ tion a b o v e ) , c a m e to g e th e r in the a c tu a l d e p lo y m e n t o f the con cep t. T h e “ c o lo n ia l b r a n c h ” o f eu gen ics e m b ra c e d a th eo ry a n d p ra c tic e co n cern ed w ith the v u ln e ra b ilitie s o f w hite ru le a n d n ew m e a su re s to s a fe g u a rd E u r o ­ p e a n s u p e rio rity . D e sig n e d to c o n tro l the p ro c re a tio n o f th e “ u n fit” lo w e r o rd e rs , e u g e n ic s ta rg e te d “ the p o o r, the co lo n ized , o r u n p o p u la r stra n g e rs” (H o b s b a w m 19 8 7 : 2 5 3 ) . T h e d isc o u rse , h o w e v e r, reach ed fu rth er. It p e rm e ­ ate d h o w m e tro p o lita n o b se rv e rs v iew ed the “ d e g e n e ra te ” life -sty le a f co lo ­ n ia ls, an d h o w c o lo n ia l elites a d m o n ish e d the b e h a v io r o f “ d e g e n e ra te ” m e m b e rs a m o n g th em selv es ( K o k s 1 9 3 1 :

1 7 9 - 1 8 9 ) . W h e re a s stu d ies in

E u ro p e an d the U n ite d S ta te s focused on the in h eren t p ro p e n sity o f the im ­ p o v e rish e d c la ssc s to c rim in a lity , in the In d ie s d e lin q u e n c y a m o n g “ E u r o ­ p e a n ” c h ild re n w a s b io lo g ica lly lin ked to the a m o u n t o f “ n a tiv e b lo o d ” c h ild re n b o rn o f m ix ed m a rria g e s h ad in h erited from th e ir n a tiv e m oth ers (B ra c o n ie r 1 9 1 8 : 1 1 ) . E u g e n ic s p ro v id e d not so m u ch a n e w v o c a b u la r y as a n ew b io lo g ica l id io m in w hich to g ro u n d the m e d ic a l an d m o ra l basis fo r a n x ie ty o v e r the se c u r ity o f K u ro p ean h eg e m o n y an d w h ite p restige. I» re­ o p e n ed d e b a te s o v e r seg reg ated re sid e n c e an d e d u c a tio n , n ew s ta n d a rd s o f m o r a lity , s e x u a l v ig ila n c e , an d th e rig h ts o f certain E u r o p e a n s to ru le. E u g e n ic in flu en ce m an ifested itself, not in the d ire c t im p o rta tio n o f m etro ­ p o lita n p ra c tic e s su c h a s ste riliz a tio n , b u t in a tra n sla tio n o f the p o litical principles a n d the so c ia l v a lu e s th a t e u g en ic s im p lie d . In d e fin in g w h at w a s u n a c c e p ta b le , e u g en ic s a lso id en tified w h a t co n stitu ted a “ v a lu a b le life” : “ a g e n d e r-sp e c ific w o rk a n d p ro d u c tiv ity , d e scrib e d in s o c ia l, m e d ic a l an d p s y c h ia tric te rm s” (B o c k 19 86 : 2 7 4 ). A p p lie d to E u ro p e a n c o lo n ia ls, eugen ic sta te m e n ts p ro n o u n c ed w h at k in d o f p eo p le sh o u ld rep resen t D u tch o r

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F re n c h ru le , h o w ih c y sh o u ld b rin g u p th eir c h ild re n , a n d w ith w h o m th ey sh o u ld so cia liz e . T h o s e c o n ccrn cd w ith issu es o f r a c ia l s u r v iv a l a n d r a c ia l p u rity in v o k e d m o ra l a rg u m e n ts a b o u t the n a tio n a l d u ty o f F re n c h , D u tc h , B r itis h , a n d B e lg ia n c o lo n ia l w o m en to fu lfill an a lte rn a tiv e se t o f im p e ria l im p e ra tiv e s : to “ u p lift” c o lo n ia l su b je c ts th ro u g h e d u c a tio n a l a n d d o m e stic m a n a g e m e n t, to a tte n d to the fa m ily e n v iro n m e n t o f th eir c o lo n ia l h u sb a n d s, o r so m e tim e s to rem a in in the m etro p o le a n d to s ta y a t h o m e. T h e p o in t is th a t a c o m m o n d isc o u rse w a s m a p p e d o n to d ifferen t im m e d ia te e x ig e n c ie s o f e m p ire a s v a r ia tio n s on a g e n d e r-sp e c ific th em e e x a ltin g m o th erh o o d a n d d o m e stic ity . I f in B r ita in r a c ia l d e te rio ra tio n w a s co n ceived to b e a resu lt o f th e m o ra l tu rp itu d e a n d the ig n o ra n c c o f w o rk in g -c la ss m o th ers, in the co lo n ics the d a n g e r s w e re m ore p e rv a siv e , the p o ssib ilitie s o f co n ta m in a tio n w o rse. Fo r* m u la tio n s to se c u re E u ro p e a n ru le p u sh ed in tw o d irec tio n s: on the one h a n d , a w a y fro m a m b ig u o u s r a c ia l g e n re s a n d o p en d o m e stic a r ra n g e m e n ts, a n d on the o th er h a n d , to w ard an u p g ra d in g , h o m o g e n iz a tio n , a n d a c le a re r d e lin e a tio n o f E u ro p e a n s ta n d a r d s ; a w a y from m isceg en atio n to w a rd w h ite e n d o g a m y ; a w a y from c o n c u b in a g c to w a rd fa m ily fo rm atio n a n d le g a l m a r ­ r ia g e ; a w a y fro m , a s in the c a se o f the In d ie s, m estiz o cu sto m s a n d to w a rd m e tro p o lita n n o rm s ( T a y lo r 19 8 3 ; V a n D o o m 19 8 5 ). A s stated in the b u lle ­ tin o f the N e th e rla n d s In d ie s ’ E u g e n ic S o c ic ly , “ c u g c n ic s is n o th in g o th e r th an b e lie f in the p o ssib ility o f p re v e n tin g d e g e n e ra tiv e sy m p to m s in the b o d y o f o u r b elo ved motdervoiken, o r in c a se s w h e re th ey m a y a lr e a d y be p re s ­ e n t, o f c o u n te ra c tin g th em ” (R o d c n w a ld t 19 2 8 : 1). L ik e th e m o d ern iz atio n o f c o lo n ia lism itself, w ith its scie n tific m a n a g e ­ m en t a n d e d u c a te d te c h n o c ra ts w ith lim ited lo cal k n o w led g e, c o lo n ia l c o m ­ m u n itie s o f the e a r ly tw en tieth c e n tu ry w ere re th in k in g the w a y s in w h ic h th e ir a u th o rity sh o u ld be e x p re sse d . T h is re th in k in g took the fo rm o f a sse rt­ in g a d istin c t c o lo n ia l m o ra lity , e x p lic it in its re o rie n ta tio n to w a rd the ra c ia l an d c la s s m a rk e rs o f “ E u ro p e a n n e s s,”

e m p h a siz in g tra n sn a tio n a l ra c ia l

c o m m o n a litie s d e sp ite n a tio n a l d ifferen ces— d istillin g a homo europeaus fo r w h o m su p e rio r h e a lth , w e a lth , a n d e d u c a tio n w ere tied to r a c ia l e n d o w m e n ts an d a W h ite M a n 's n orm . T h u s P u ja rn isc le , a n o v elist an d p a rtic ip a n to b s c r v e r in F r a n c e ’ s c o lo n ia l v e n tu re , w ro te: “ o n e m ig h t b e su rp rise d th at m y pen a lw a y s re tu rn s to the w o rd s blanc (w h ite) o r “ E u r o p e a n ” a n d n ev e r to ‘ 'F r a n ^ a is ” . . . in effect co lo n ial s o lid a r ity an d th e o b lig a tio n s th at it e n ­ ta ils a llie s a ll the p e o p le s o f the w h ite ra c e s ” ( 1 9 3 1 : 7 2 ; a ls o see D e la v ig n e tte

1946: 4 1). S u c h s e n sib ilitie s co lo red im p e ria l p o lic y in n e a rly a ll d o m a in s w ith fears o f p h y s ic a l c o n ta m in a tio n , g iv in g n ew c re d e n c e to fears o f p o litic a l v u ln e r ­ a b ility . W h ite s h ad to g u a rd th eir ra n k s— in q u a lita tiv e a n d q u a n tita tiv e te rm s— to in c re a se th eir n u m b e rs a n d to en su re th at th eir m em b ers b lu rre d n e ith e r the b io lo g ica l n or p o litic a l b o u n d a rie s on w h ic h th eir p o w e r re ste d .27

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In the m c tro p o le th e so c ia lly a n d p h y s ic a lly “ u n fit,” the poor, th e in d ig e n t, a n d the in sa n e , w ore c ith e r ta b e ste rilized o r p rev en ted frcm m a r ria g e

In

the co lo n ie s it w a s th ese v e ry g ro u p s a m o n g E u r o p e a n s w h o w e re e ith e r e x ­ c lu d e d fro m e n try o r in stitu tio n alized w h ile th ey w e re there a n d e v e n tu a lly se n t h o m e (A rn o ld 19 7 9 ; V e llu t 19 8 2 : 9 7 ). In s u s ta in in g a visio n that g o o d h e a lth , v ir ility , a n d the a b ility to ru le w e re in h e re n t fe a tu re s o f “ E u ro p e a n n e ss ,” w h ites in the co lo n ies h ad to a d h e r e to a p o litics o f exclu sio n th at p o lic c d th eir m em b ers a s w e ll a s the co lo n ize d . S u c h c o n c e rn s w ere n ot n ew to th e 19 2 0 s ( T a y lo r 19 8 3 ; S u th e r ­ la n d 19 8 2 ). In the 1 7 5 0 s the D u tch E a s t In d ie s C o m p a n y had a lr e a d y taken “ d r a c o n ia n m e a su re s” to con trol p a u p e ris m a m o n g “ D u tch m en o f m ix ed b lo o d ” (Encyloptdie van K eder'and-lndie 19 1$ '- 3 6 7 ). In th e sam e p e rio d , the B ritis h E a s t In d ie s C o m p a n y le g a lly an d a d m in is tr a tiv e ly d issu a d e d lo w erc la ss E u ro p e a n m ig ra tio n and settlem en t, w ith the arg u m en t th a t it m ig h t d e stro y In d ia n resp ec t for “ the su p e rio rity o f the E u ro p e a n c h a r a c te r ” (q u o te d in A rn o ld 19 8 3 : 13 9 ). P a trio tic c a lls to p o p u la te J a v a in the m id 18 0 0 s w ith p o o r D u tch farm e rs w e re a lso co n d e m n e d , b u t :t w a s w ith n ew u rg e n c y th a t these p ro p o sa ls w ere rejected in th e fo llo w in g c cn tu ry a s su c c e s­ siv e c h a lle n g e s to E u ro p e a n rule w ere m o re p ro fo u n d ly felt. M e a s u r e s w e re tak en both to a v o id p o o r w h ite m ig ra tio n and to p ro d u c e a c o lo n ia l p ro file th at h igh ligh ted th e m a n lin e ss, w e ll-b e in g , an d p ro d u c tiv ity o f E u ro p e a n m en . W ith in this e q u a tio n , p ro tectio n o f m an h o o d , n a tio n a l id e n tity , a n d r a c ia l s u p e rio riiy w ere m esh ed (L o u tfi 1 9 7 1 : : 1 2 —1 1 3 ; R id le y 1 9 8 1 : 1 0 4 ) . T h u s B ritis h co lo n ial a d m in is tra to rs w ere retired b y the a g e o f fifty-fiv e , e n s u rin g that no O riental was ever allowed 10 see a W esterner as he ages and degenerated, ju st as no W esterner needed ever to see himself, mirrored in :he eyes o f the subject race, as anything but a vigorous, rational, ever-alert young R aj. (Said 19 78 : 42)

In the tw e n tieth c e n tu ry , these “ m en o f c la s s ” an d “ m en o f c h a r a c te r ” e m ­ b o d ie d a m o d ern iz ed a n d ren o v ated im a g e o f ru le; th ey w ere to s a fe g u a rd the c o lo n ies a g a in st p h y sic a l w e a k n e ss, m o ra l d e c a y , an d the in e v ita b le d e ­ g e n e ra tio n w h ic h lo n g resid en ce in the co lo n ies e n co u ra g e d , an d a g a in st the te m p ta tio n s th at in te rra c ia l d o m e stic situ a tio n s h a d allo w ed . G iv e n th is id e a l, it is n ot su r p r is in g th a t c o lo n ia l co m m u n ities stro n g ly d is c o u ra g e d the p re se n c e o f n o n p ro d u ctiv e m en . C o lo n ia l a d m in istra to rs e x ­ p re sse d a c o n sta n t co n cern w ith the d a n g e rs o f u n e m p lo y e d o r im p o v e rish e d E u r o p e a n s . D u rin g the su ccessio n o f ec o n o m ic c rise s in the e a r ly tw en tieth c c n tu ry , r e lie f a g e n c ie s in S u m a tr a , fo r e x a m p le , o rg a n iz e d fu n d ra ise rs, hill* sta tio n re tre a ts, a n d sm a ll-sca le a g ric u ltu ra l sc h e m e s to keep “ u n fit” E u r o ­ p e a n s “ fro m ro a m in g a ro u n d ” (K roniek 19 17 : 49 ). T h e colon ies w e re n eith er o p e n fo r retirem en t n o r toleran t o f the p u b lic p resen ce o f poor w h ite s. D u rin g

76

CARNAL KNOWLEDGE AND IMPERIAL POWER

the 19 3 0 s d e p re ssio n , w h en ten s o f th o u san d s o f E u r o p e a n s in the In d ie s fo u n d th e m se lv e s w ith o u t jo b s , g o v e rn m e n t a n d p r iv a te re so u rc e s w ere q u ic k ly m o b ilized to e n su re th a l th ey w ere n ol " r e d u c e d ” to n a tiv e liv in g s t a n d a r d s (C o o l 19 3 8 ; V e e r d e 1 9 3 1 ; K a n to o r v a n A r b c id

19 3 5 ) . S u b s i­

d ized h ealth c a r e , h o u sin g , a n d ed u catio n co m p lem en ted a rig o ro u s a ffirm a ­ tion o f E u r o p e a n c u ltu ra l s ta n d a rd s in w h ic h E u ro p e a n w o m a n h o o d p la y e d a c e n tra l ro le in k ee p in g m en civilise.

T H F. C U L T U R A L D Y N A M IC S O F D E G E N E R A T IO N T h e colon is, in a common and etymological sense, a barbarian. He is a noncivilizcd person, a “ new-m an,” . . .it is hr who appears as a savage. (D upuy 1955: 188) T h e sh ift in im p e ria l th in k in g that w e c a n id en tify in the e a r ly tw en tieth c e n tu ry fo cu ses not o n ly on the O th e rn e ss o f the co lon ized b ut o n th e O th e r ­ n e ss o f c o lo n ia ls th em selv es. In m e tro p o lita n F ra n c e a p ro fu sio n o f m ed ical a n d so c io lo g ic a l tracts p in p o in ted the c o lo n ia l a s a d istin ct a n d d e g e n e ra te s o c ia l ty p e , w ith sp e c ific p y sc h o lo g ic a l an d ev e n p h y sic a l c h a ra c te ris tic s ( M a u n ic r 1 9 3 2 ; P u ja r n is c le 1 9 3 1 ) .29 S o m e o f th at d ifferen ce w a s a ttrib u te d to the d e b ilita tin g resu lts o f c lim a te a n d so c ia l m ilieu , from sta y in g in the c o l­ o n ie s u k > long: T h e clim ate affects him, his surroundings affect him, and after a ccrtain time, he has become, both physically and m orally, a completely different man. (M aunier 1932: 169) P e o p le w h o s ta y e d “ too lo n g ” w e re in g r a v e d a n g e r o f o v c rfa tig u e ; o f in d i­ v id u a l a n d r a c ia l d e g e n e ra tio n ( L e R o u x 18 9 8 : 2 2 2 ) ; o f p h y s ic a l b re a k d o w n (not ju s t illn e ss); o f c u ltu ra l c o n ta m in a tio n an d n eglect o f th e c o n v e n tio n s o f s u p r e m a c y , a n d o f disagreement a b o u t w h a t those co n v e n tio n s w e re (D u p u y • 9 5 5 : 1 8 4 - 1 8 5 ) . W h a t w e re id en tified a s the d e g ra d e d an d u n iq u e c h a r a c te r ­ istic s o f E u ro p e a n c o lo n ia ls— “ o s te n ta tio n ," “ sp e c u la tio n ,” “ in a c tio n ,” an d a g e n e ra l “ d e m o ra liz a tio n ” — w ere “ fa u lts” co n tra c te d fro m n a tiv e c u ltu re , w h ic h n o w m a rk e d them a s d e c iv ilise (M a u n ie r 19 3 2 : 17 4 ; J a u r e q u ib e r r y i 9 2 4 : 2 5 )-3n C o lo n ia l m ed icin e reflected an d affirm ed th is slip p a g e b etw een p h y s ic a l, m o ra l, a n d c u ltu ra l d e g e n e ra c y in n u m e ro u s w a y s . T h e c lim a tic , s o c ia l, an d w o rk co n d itio n s o f c o lo n ia l life g a v e rise to a sp ec ific set o f p sy c h o tic d is ­ o r d e r s affectin g V equilibre cerebral a n d p re d isp o sin g E u r o p e a n s in the tro p ics to m e n ta l b re a k d o w n (H a rte n b e r g 1 9 1 0 ; A b a tu c c i 1 9 1 0 ) . N e u ra sth e n ia w a s the m ost co m m o n m a n ife sta tio n , a m en tal d iso rd e r id en tified a s a m a jo r p ro b le m in the F rc n c h e m p ire a n d a c c o u n tin g fo r m o re th an h a lf th e D u tc h re p a tria tio n s from the In d ie s to H o lla n d (W in c k c l 19 3 8 : 3 5 2 ) . In E u r o p e an d A m e r ic a , it w a s “ the p h a n to m d ise a se . . . the c la ssic illn ess o f the la te 19 th c e n tu ry ,” e n c o m p a ssin g v irtu a lly all “ p sy c h o p a th o lo g ic a l o r n e u ro p a th o -

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77

lo g ic a l c o n d itio n s,” an d in tim a te ly lin k ed to s e x u a l d ev ia tio n a n d to the d e stru c tio n o f so c ia l o rd e r its e lf” (O ilm a n 19 8 3 : 19 9 , 2 0 2 ). W h e re a s in E u r o p e n e u ra sth e n ia w a s c o n sid e re d to b e a c o n se q u e n c e o f “ m o d e m c iv iliz a tio n ” a n d its h ig h -p itc h cd p a c c (S h o w a lte r 19 8 7 : 1 3 5 ) , in th e co lo n ies its e tio lo g y took the reverse fo rm . C o lo n ia l n e u ra sth e n ia w a s a lle g e d ly c a u se d b y a d istana from c iv iliz a tio n a n d E u ro p e a n c o m m u n ity , a n d b y p ro x im ity to the colon ized . T h e s u sc e p tib ility o f a co lo n ial (m a n ) w a s in c re a se d b y a n e x iste n ce ‘ ‘ o u tsid e o f th e so c ia l fra m e w o rk 10 w h ic h he w a s a d a p te d in F r a n c e , iso la tio n in o u tp o sts, p h y sic a l a n d m oral fa tig u e , an d m o d ifie d food re g im e s” ( J o y e u x 19 3 7 : 3 3 5 ) .3I T h e p ro life ra tio n o f h ill-statio n s in the tw en tieth c cn tu ry reflected these p o litic a l a n d p h y s ic a l con cern s. In v e n te d in the e a r ly nin eteen th c e n tu ry as site s fo r m ilita ry p o sts a n d sa n a to ria , h ill-sta tio n s p ro v id ed E u ro p c a n -lik e e n v iro n m e n ts in w h ic h c o lo n ials cou ld re c o u p th eir p h y sic a l a n d m en tal w 'ell-b ein g b y s im u la tin g the c o n d itio n s “ at h o m e” (S p e n ce r an d T h o m a s 19 4 8 ; K in g 19 7 6 : 16 5 ) . Iso lated at re la tiv e ly h igh a ltitu d e s, th ey took on n ew im p o rta n c e w ith the co lo n ial p re se n ce o f in c re a sin g n u m b ers o f E u ro p e a n w o m e n a n d c h ild re n w h o w ere c o n sid e re d p a rtic u la rly su sc e p tib le to a n e m ia , d e p re ssio n , an d ill-h e a lth .32 V a c a tio n b u n g a lo w s a n d sch o o ls b u ilt in these “ n a t u r a lly ” se g re g a te d su rro u n d in g s p ro v id e d c u ltu ra l refuge a n d re g e n e ra ­ tion (P ric e >939). S o m e d o cto rs c o n sid e re d the o n ly treatm en t to be te retour en Europe ( J o y e u x 19 3 7 : 3 3 5 ; P u ja rn isc le 1 9 3 1 : 2 8 ). O th e rs p rescrib ed a lo c a l set o f re m e d ie s, a d v is in g a d h e re n ce to a b o u rg eo is e th ic ot m o ra lity a n d w o rk . T h is in c lu d e d s e x u a l m o d eratio n

a “ re g u la rity a n d re g im e n ta tio n ” o f w o rk ,

a b ste m io u s d ie t, p h y s ic a l exe rc ise , a n d European c a m a ra d e rie , b u ttre sse d b y a so lid (an d sto lid ) fa m ily life w ith E u r o p e a n c h ild re n a n d & E u ro p e a n w ife ( G r a il 19 0 8 : 5 1 ; P ric e 19 3 9 ; also see K e n n e d y 19 8 7 : 1 2 3 ) . G u id e s to c o lo n ia l liv in g in the 19 2 0 s a n d 19 30 s re v e a l th is m a rk e d sh ift in o u tlo o k ; D u tc h , F r e n c h , an d B ritish d o cto rs n o w d en o u n ced the u n h e a lth y , in d o len t life ­ s ty le s o f “ o ld c o lo n ia ls ,” exto llin g the en e rg e tic a n d en g ag ed a c tiv itie s o f the n ew b re e d o f c o lo n ia l h u sb an d an d w ife (K a p tc h in s k y 1 9 4 1 : 4 6 ).33 A s w o m en w e re c o n sid e re d m ost p ro n e to n e u ra sth e n ia , a n e m ia , an d d e p re ssio n , th ey w e re e x h o rte d to a c tiv e ly p a rtic ip a te in h o u seh o ld m an a g em en t a n d c h ild ­ c a r e , an d d iv e rt th e m se lv e s w ith b o ta n ic a l c o llec tio n s an d “ g o o d w o rk s” ( C h iv a s -B a r o n 19 2 9 ; F a v r e 19 3 8 ).

C H I L D R E N O N T H E C O L O N I A L D IV ID E : D E G E N E R A C Y A N D T H E D A N G E R S O F M E T IS S A G E [Young colonial men] arc often driven to seek a temporary companion among the women o f color; this is the path by which, as I shall presently show, conta­ gion travels back and forth, contagion in all senses o f (he word. (.Ylaunicr 1932: 170

CARNAL KNOWLEDGE AND IMPERIAL POWER

78

R a c ia l d e g e n e ra c y w a s th o u g h t to h a v e so c ia l c a u s e s an d p o litic a l c o n ­ se q u e n ce s. b o th lie d to the d o m e stic a rra n g e m e n ts o f c o lo n ia lis m in sp ec ific

w ays.

M U im gje

(iiucrracial unions) generally,

an d c o n c u b in a g e

in particular,

re p re se n te d the p a ra m o u n t d a n g e r to r a c ia l p u rity an d c u ltu r a l id e n tity in all its fo rm s. T h ro u g h se x u a l c o n ta c t w ith w o m en o f c o lo r E u ro p e a n m en “ c o n ­ tra c te d ” not o n ly d ise a se but d e b a se d se n tim en ts, im m o ra l p ro c liv itie s, an d e x tre m e s u s c e p tib ility lo d c c iv iliz c d sta te s (D u p u y I 9 5 & 19 8 ). B y the e a r ly tw en tieth c c n tu ry , c o n c u b in a g e w a s d e n o u n c e d fo r u n d e r­ m in in g p re c ise ly th o se th in gs th at it w a s c h a rg e d w ith fo rtify in g d e ca d e s e a rlie r. T h e w eig h t o f c o m p etin g d isc o u rse s on lo cal w o m en sh ifted e m ­ p h a sis. A lth o u g h th eir in h eren tly d a n g e ro u s, p a ssio n a te , a n d e v il c h a r a c te r s p re v io u s ly h ad b een o v e rsh a d o w e d b y th eir ro le a s p ro ie c tric e s o f E u ro p e a n m e n 's h e a lth , in the n ew e q u a tio n th ey b e c a m e the p r im a r y b e a re rs o f ill h e a lth a n d sin iste r in flu en ces. A d a p ta tio n to lo cal fo o d , la n g u a g e , a n d d re ss, o n c e p re sc rib e d a s h ea lth y sig n s o f a c c lim a tiz a tio n , w e r e n ow the so u rc e s o f co n tag io n a n d loss o f (w h ite) self. T h e b en efits o f lo cal k n o w le d g e a n d se x u a l re le a se g a v e wfa y to the m o re p re ssin g d e m a n d s o f r e s p e c ta b ility , the c o m ­ m u n ity ’ s s o lid a rity , an d its m en tal h ealth . In c r e a s in g ly , F re n c h m en in In ­ d o c h in a w h o kept n a tiv e w o m en w o re v iew ed a s p a s s in g in to “ the e n e m y c a m p ” (P u ja rn isc le 1 9 3 1 : 10 7 ) . C o n c u b in a g e b e c a m e th e so u rc e not o n ly o f in d iv id u a l b re a k d o w n a n d ill-h ealth , b ut o f the b io lo g ic a l a n d so cial ro ot o f r a c ia l d e g e n e ra tio n an d p o litic a l u n rest. C h ild re n b o rn o f these u n io n s w ere “ th e fru its o f a re g re tta b le w e a k n e ss” (M a z c t 19 3 2 : 8 ) , p h y s ic a lly m ark ed a n d m o r a lly m a rre d w ith “ the d e fa u lts an d m e d io c re q u a litie s o f th eir m o th e rs” (D o u ch e t 19 2 8 : 10 ). C o n c u b in a g e w a s not a s e c o n o m ic a lly tid y an d p o litic a lly n eat a s c o lo n ia l p o lic y m a k e rs h ad h o p ed . It w a s a b o u t m ore than s e x u a l e x p lo ita tio n an d u n p a id d o m e stic w o rk ; it w a s a b o u t c h ild re n — m a n y m o re th an o fficial s ta ­ tistics often r e v e a le d — a n d a b o u t w h o wfa s to b e a c k n o w le d g e d a s a E u r o ­ p e a n an d w h o w a s not. C o n c u b in e c h ild ren p osed a c la s s ific a to r y p ro b le m , im p in g in g on p o litic a l s e c u rity a n d w h ite p restig e. T h e m a jo rity o f su c h c h il­ d re n w e re not reco g n ized b y th eir fa th e rs, n or w e re th e y re a b so rb e d in to lo cal c o m m u n ities a s a u th o ritie s often c la im e d . A lth o u g h so m e E u ro p e a n m en le g a lly a c k n o w le d g e d th eir p ro g e n y , m a n y r e p a tr ia te d to H o lla n d , B r it a in , o r F ra n c e an d cu t o if ties a n d su p p o rt to m o th e r an d c h ild re n (N ie u w c n h u y s 19 5 9 : 2 3 ; B ro u 19 0 7 ; M in g 19 8 3 : 7 5 ). N a t iv e w o m en h a d re­ s p o n sib ility for, b u t a tte n u a te d rig h ts o v e r, th eir o w n o ffs p rin g .34 A lth o u g h the le g a l system fav o red a E u ro p e a n u p b rin g in g , it m a d e n o d e m a n d s on E u ro p e a n m en to p ro v id e it. The m ore so c ia lly a s y m m c tr ic an d p e rfu n cto ry the re la tio n sh ip b etw een m an a n d w o m a n , the m ore lik e ly the c h ild ren w ere to en d up a s w a r d s o f the sta te , su b jec t to the sc ru tin y a n d im p o sed c h a r ity o f the E u ro p e a n -b o rn c o m m u n ity at la rg e . C o n c u b in e c h ild ren in v a r ia b ly co u n ted a m o n g the r a n k s o f the E u ro p e a n

CARNAL KNOWLEDGE AND IMPERIAL POWER

79

c o lo n ia l p o o r, b u t E u ro p e a n p a u p e rs in the la te -n in e te e n th -c e n tu ry N e th e r ­ la n d s In d ie s c a m e fro m w id e r s tr a ta o f c o lo n ia l so cie ty th an th a t o f con c u b in c s a lo n e (H e t P a u p e rism e C o m m is s ic 19 0 3 ). M a n y I n d o -E u r o p c a n s , in c lu d in g c re o le c h ild re n b o rn in the In d ie s o f E u r o p e a n p a re n ts, h a d b e­ co m e in c r e a s in g ly m a rg in a liz e d from s tr a te g ic p o litic a l a n d e c o n o m ic p o si­ tio n s in the e a r ly tw en tieth c c n tu ry d e sp ite the fa c t th at n ew e d u c a tio n a l fa c ilitie s w e re su p p o se d to h a v e p ro v id e d n ew o p p o rtu n itie s fo r th em . A t the tu rn o f the c e n tu ry , v o lu m e s o f o fficial rep o rts w ere d e v o te d to d o c u m e n tin g a n d a lle v ia tin g the p ro life ra tio n on J a v a o f a “ r o u g h " a n d “ d a n g e ro u s p a u ­ p e r e le m e n t” a m o n g (In d o -)E u ro p e a n clerk s, lo w -level o fficials, a n d v a g r a n t s (Encyclopedic van N ederland-Indie ^9/9: 3 6 7 ). In the 19 2 0 s a n d 19 3 0 s In d ie s b o rn a n d c d u c a tc d y o u th w ere u n c o m fo rta b ly sq u eezed b etw een a n in flu x o f n e w c o lo n ia l re c ru its from

H o lla n d a n d

the ed u cated inlander (n a tiv e )

p o p u la tio n w ith w h o m th ey w e re in d ire c t co m p etitio n for jo b s ( M a n s v e lt

•932: ags).35 E u ro p e a n p a u p e rism in the In d ie s reflected b ro a d in e q u a litie s in c o lo n ia l s o c ie ty , u n d e rsc o rin g the so c ia l h ete ro g e n e ity o f the c a te g o ry ‘ ‘ E u r o p e a n ” itself. N o n e th eless, c o n c u b in a g e w a s still seen a s its m a jo r c a u s e a n d a s the p rin c ip a l so u rce o f blanken-halers (w h itc -h a te rs) ( B r a c o n ic r 1 9 1 7 : 2 9 8 ). C o n ­ c u b in a g e b e c a m e eq u a te d w ith a p ro g e n y o f “ m a lc o n te n ts,” o f “ p a r a s it ic ” w h ite s, id le an d th erefo re d a n g e ro u s. T h e fe a r o f c o n c u b in a g e w a s c a r r ie d y e t a s te p fu rth er an d tied to the p o litic a l fe a r th at su c h E u r a s ia n s w o u ld d e ­ m an d ec o n o m ic a c c e ss, p o litic a l rig h ts, an d e x p re ss th eir o w n in te re sts th ro u g h a llia n c e w ith (an d le a d e rsh ip o f) o rg a n iz e d o p p o sitio n to D u tc h ru le (M a n s v e lt 19 3 2 ; B lu m b e rg e r 19 3 9 ). R a c ia l p re ju d ic e a g a in st metis w a s o ften , a s in the B e lg ia n C o n g o , “ c a m o u fla g e d u n d e r p ro testatio n s o f ‘ pity* fo r th eir fa te , a s i f th ey w ere 'm aiheureux' [u n h a p p y j b e in g s b y d e fin itio n ” (V c llu t 19 8 2 : 10 3 ) . T h e p ro te c ­ tion o f metis c h ild re n in In d o c h in a w a s a c a u se c c le b re o f E u r o p e a n w o m e n a t h o m e a n d a b r o a d . T h e F re n c h a sse m b ly on fem in ism , o rg a n iz e d fo r the c o lo n ia l e xp o sitio n o f 1 9 3 1 , d ev o ted a m a jo r p a rt o f its p ro c e e d in g s to the p lig h t o f metis c h ild re n a n d th eir n a tiv e m o th ers, e c h o in g the c a m p a ig n s fo r la recherche depaU m ite b y F re n c h fem in ists a h a lf-c e n tu ry e a r lie r ( M o s e s 19 8 4 : 2 0 8 ). T h e a s se m b ly c a llrd for “ the e sta b lish m e n t o f c c n lc rs (iti the c o lo n ie s] w h e re a b a n d o n e d y o u n g g ir ls o r th o se in m o ra l d a n g e r c o u ld b e m a d e in to w o rth y w o m e n ” ( K n ib ic h lc r a n d G o u ta lic r 19 8 7 : 3 7 ) . E u ro p e a n c o lo n ia l w o m en w e re u rg ed to o versee the “ m o ra l p ro te c tio n ” o f m etis y o u th s , to d e v e lo p th e ir “ n a tu r a l” in c lin a tio n to w a rd F re n c h so c ie ty , to tu rn th e m in to “ collab o rato rs an d p artisan s o f Fren ch id eas an d influences” instead o f rev­ o lu tio n a rie s (C h en et 19 3 6 : 8 ; K n ib ic h lc r a n d G o u ta lic r 19 8 7 : 3 5 ; S a m b u c 1 9 3 1 : 2 6 1 ) . T h e g e n d e r b re a k d o w n w a s c le a r: m o ra l in stru ctio n w o u ld a v e r t s e x u a l p ro m is c u ity a m o n g m ctisse g ir ls a n d p o litic a l p re c o c ity a m o n g m etis b o y s w h o m ig h t o th e rw ise b ec o m e m ilita n t m en.

80

CARNAL KNOWLEDGE AND IMPERIAL POWER O r p h a n a g e s fo r a b a n d o n e d E u ro p e a n a n d In d o -E u r o p e a n c h ild re n w e re

a p ro m in e n t fe a tu r e o f D u tc h , F re n c h , a n d B r itis h c o lo n ia l c u ltu re s. In th e N e th e rla n d s In d ie s b y the m id -eig h teen th c e n tu ry , sta te o rp h a n a g e s fo r E u ro p e a n s w e r e e sta b lish e d to p reven t “ n eg lect a n d d e g e n c ra c y o f ih e m a n y fre e -ro a m in g p o o r b a sta rd s an d o rp h a n s o f E u r o p e a n s '' (qu o ted in B r a c o n ie r 1 9 1 7 : 2 9 3 ). B y the n in eteen th c c n tu ry , c h u r c h , sta te , a n d p r iv a te o r g a n iz a ­ tio n s h ad b ec o m e z ealo u s b a c k e rs o f o rp h a n a g e s , p r o v id in g so m e e d u c a tio n a n d stro n g d o s e s o f m o ra l in stru c tio n . In I n d ia the m ilita ry o rp h a n a g e s o f the la te e ig h te e n th c e n tu ry e x p a n d e d in to a n in etc cn th -c en tu ry v a r ia n t in w h ic h E u r o p e a n an d A n g lo -In d ia n c h ild re n w e re c a re d for in c iv il a s y lu m s a n d c h a r ity sc h o o ls in “ a lm o st e v e ry to w n , can to n m c n t a n d h ill-sta tio n ” (A rn o ld 19 7 9 : 10 8 ). In F rc n c h In d o c h in a in the 19 3 0 s v ir tu a lly e v e r y co lo ­ n ia l c ity h ad a h o m e an d so ciety fo r the p ro tectio n o f a b a n d o n e d m etis y o u th (C h e n e t 1936-; S a m b u c 1 9 3 1 : 2 5 6 - 2 7 2 ; M a llc r c t 19 3 4 : 2 2 0 ) .56 W h e th e r th e se c h ild ren w e re in fa c t “ a b a n d o n e d ” b y th eir A s ia n m o th e rs is d ifficu lt to e sta b lish ; the fa c t th at m etis c h ild r e n liv in g in n a tiv e h o m e s w e re so m e tim e s sought out b y sta te a n d p r iv a te o rg a n iz a tio n s a n d p la c e d in these in stitu tio n s su g g e sts a n o th e r in te rp re ta tio n

( T a y lo r

19 8 3 ).

P u b lic

a s s is ta n c e in In d ia , In d o c h in a , an d the N e th e rla n d s In d ie s w a s d esign ed n ot o n ly to k eep fa ir-sk in n ed c h ild re n from r u n n in g b arefo o t in n a tiv e v illa g e s b u t to en su re th at the p ro life ra tio n o f E u r o p e a n p a u p e r se ttle m e n ts w a s c u r ­ tailed a n d c o n tr o lle d .37 T h e n eed fo r sp e c ific k in d s o f re lig io u s an d s e c u la r e d u c a tio n a n d so cia liz a tio n o f c h ild ren w a s s y m p to m a tic o f a m o re g e n e ra l fe a r; n a m e ly , th at these c h ild ren w o u ld grow* in to H ollander-haters, p a tric id e s, a n d a n tic o lo n ia l re v o lu tio n a rie s; th at a s a d u lt w o m en th ey w o u ld fa ll in to p ro stitu tio n ; th a t a s a d u lt m en w ith la stin g tic s to n a tiv e w o m en a n d in d ig e ­ n o u s so c ie ty ih e y w o u ld b e c o m e en em ies o f the sta te , verbaslerd (d e g e n e ra te ) a n d d eciv ilise{ B r a c o n ie r 1 9 1 7 : 2 9 3 ; A n g o u lv a n t 19 2 6 : 10 2 ; P o u v o u rv illc 19 2 6 ; S a m b u c 1 9 3 1 : 2 6 1 ; M a llc rc t 19 3 4 ).

E U R O P E A N W O M EN , R A C E A N D M ID D L E -C L A S S M O R A L IT Y A man rem ains a man as long as he stays under (he watch o f a woman o f his race. (G eorge H ardy quoted in C hivas-Baron 1929: 103) R a tio n a liz a tio n s o fim p e r ia l rule an d s a fe g u a r d s a g a in st r a c ia l d e g e n c r a c y in E u r o p e a n co lo n ies m erg ed in the e m p h a sis on p a rtic u la r m o ra l th em es. B o th e n ta ile d a reassertio n o f E u ro p e a n c o n v e n tio n s, m id d le -c la ss re sp e c ta ­ b ility , m o re fre q u e n t lie s w ith the m e tro p o le , a n d a restatem en t o f w h a t w a s c u ltu r a lly d is tin c t a n d su p e r io r a b o u t h o w c o lo n ia ls ru led an d liv e d . F o r th o se w o m en w h o c a m e to jo in th eir s p o u se s o r to find h u sb a n d s, th e p re ­ sc rip tio n s w e r e c le a r. J u s t a s n ew p la n ta tio n em p lo y e e s w e re ta u g h t to m a n ­

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a g e the n a tiv e s, w om en w e re sch o o led in c o lo n ia l p ro p rie ty a n d d o m estic m a n a g e m e n t. F re n c h m a n u a ls, su ch a s th o se on c o lo n ia l h y g ie n e in In d o ­ c h in a , o u tlin e d the d u ties o f c o lo n ia l w iv e s in no u n c e rta in term s. A s “ a u x ­ ilia r y fo rc e s” in th e im p erial effort th ey w e re to “ c o n se rv e the fitn ess an d so m e tim e s th e life o f a ll a ro u n d th e m ” b y e n su rin g th at “ the h o m e be h a p p y an d g a y a n d that a ll tak e p le a su re in c lu s te rin g th ere’ ' ( G r a il 19 0 8: 6 6 ; C h a illc y - B e r t 18 9 7 ). T h e K oloniaie School voor M eisjes en Vrouwen, e s ta b ­ lish ed in T h e H a g u e in 19 2 0 , p ro v id e d a d o lesc en t an d a d u lt w o m en w ith e th n o g ra p h ic le c tu re s an d sh o rt c h ild b e a rin g c o u rse s to p re p a re th em for th e ir n ew liv e s in the In d ies. P r a c tic a l g u id e s to life in the B e lg ia n C o n g o in stru c te d (an d in d eed w a rn e d ) la fem m e blancht th at sh e w a s to k eep “ o rd e r, p c a c c , h y g ie n e a n d ec o n o m y ” ( F a v r e 19 3 8 : 2 1 7 ) , “ p e rp e tu a te a v ig o ro u s r a c e ,” w h ile p re v e n tin g a n y “ la x ity in o u r a d m in is tra tiv e m o re s” (ib id .: 2 5 6 ; T r a v a u x d u G r o u p e d ’ E tu d e s c o lo n ia le s 1 9 1 0 : 10 ). T h is “ d iv isio n o f la b o r” c o n tain ed o b v io u s a sy m m e trie s. M e n w e re c o n ­ sidered m ore susceptible to m oral turpitud e than w om en , w-ho w ere thus held re sp o n sib le fo r the im m o ra l sta te s o f m en . E u ro p e a n w o m en w e re to sa fe ­ g u a r d p re stig e , m o ra lity , a n d in su la te th eir m en from the c u ltu ra l a n d s e x u a l c o n ta m in a tio n o f con tact w ith the co lo n ized ( T r a v a u x . . .C o lo n ia le s 1 9 1 0 : 7 ). R a c ia l d e g e n e ra c y w ould b e c u rta ile d b y E u ro p e a n w o m en c h a rg e d w ith re g e n e ra tin g the p h y sica l h e a lth , the m e tro p o lita n affin ities, a n d the im p e ria l p u rp o se o f th eir m en (H a rd y 19 2 9 : 78 ). A t its h e a rt w a s a reassertio n o f ra c ia l d ifferen ce that h a rn essed n a tio n a list rh e to ric a n d m a rk e rs o f m id d le -c la ss m o ra lity to its c a u s e (D e la v ig n e tte 19 4 6 : 4 7 ; L o u th 1 9 7 1 : 1 1 2 ; R id le y 1 9 8 1 ; M o s sc 19 7 8 : 8 6 ). G e o r g e M o sse h a s c h a ra c te riz e d

E u ro p e a n

ra c ism

as

a

“ scaven ger

id e o lo g y ,”

a n n e x in g

n a tio n a lism a n d b o u rgeo is re sp e c ta b ility in su c h a w a y th at co n tro l o v e r s e x u a lity w a s c e n tra l to a ll th ree ( 1 9 8 5 : 10 , * 3 3 - 1 5 2 ) . I f the E u ro p e a n m id d le -c la ss so u g h t re sp e c ta b ility “ to m a in ta in th eir sta tu s a n d self-resp ect a g a in s t the lo w c r-c la ssc s, a n d th e a r is to c r a c y ,” in the co lo n ics re sp e c ta b ility w a s a d e fe n se a g a in s t the co lo n ized , a n d a w a y o f m o re c le a r ly d e fin in g th em ­ se lv e s (ib id . 19 8 5 : 5 ) . G o o d c o lo n ia l liv in g n ow m ean t h a rd w o rk , no slo th , a n d p h y s ic a l e x c rc isc ra th e r th an se x u a l re le a se , w h ic h h a d been one ra tio n a le fo r c o n d o n in g c o n c u b in a g e a n d p ro stitu tio n in an e a r lie r p erio d . T h e d e b ilita tin g in flu en ces o f c lim a te co u ld b e su rm o u n te d b y r e g u la r d iet a n d m e tic u lo u s p erso n a l h y g ien e o v e r w h ic h E u ro p e a n w o m en w e re to tak e fu ll c h a r g c . B r itis h , F rc n ch , a n d D u tch m a n u a ls on h o w to ru n a E u ro p e a n h o u seh o ld in th e tro p ics p ro v id e d d e ta ile d in stru c tio n s in d o m e stic scien ce, m o ra l u p b rin g in g , an d e m p lo y e r-se rv a n t re la tio n s. A d h e re n c e to s tric t c o n ­ v e n tio n s o f c le a n lin e ss a n d c o o k in g o c c u p ie d an in o rd in a te a m o u n t o f w o m e n 's tim e, w h ile c lean lin ess it s e lf se rv e d a s a “ p ro p to a E u ro p e a n n e ss th a t w a s less th an a ssu m e d ” (R id le y 1 9 8 1 : 7 7 ). B o th a c tiv itie s e n ta ile d a

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c o n sta n t s u r v e illa n c e o f n a tiv e n u rse m a id s, la u n d ry m e n , a n d liv e -in se r­ v a n ts , w h ile d e m a n d in g a h eig h ten ed d o m e stic ity fo r E u r o p e a n w o m en th em selves. L e is u r e , go o d s p ir it, an d c re a tu re c o m fo rts b e c a m e the o b lig a tio n o f w o m e n to p ro v id e , the r a c ia l d u ty o f w o m en to m a in ta in . S e x u a l tem p tatio n s w ith w o m e n o f c o lo r w o u ld b e c u rta ile d b y a h a p p y , gezellig (co zy) fa m ily life, m u ch a s “ e x tre m ist a g ita tio n ” a m o n g J a v a n e s e p la n ta tio n w o rk e rs w a s to be a v e rte d b y sele c tin g m a rrie d rec ru its a n d p ro v id in g fa m ily h o u sin g so th at m en w o u ld feel scnang (h a p p y /c o n te n t) a n d “ at home** (S to le r 19 8 5 a : 4 2 - 4 4 ) . M o r a l la x it y w o u ld b e elim in a te d th ro u g h the e x a m p le an d v ig ila n c e o f w o m en w h o se sta tu s w a s d efin ed b y th eir s e x u a l re stra in t a n d d e d ic a tio n to th e ir h o m es an d th eir m en.

IM P E R IA L P R IO R IT IE S : M O T H E R H O O D V S. M A L E M O R A L IT Y The European woman [in Indochina] can only fulfill her duties to bear and breast-feed her children with great hardship and dam age to her health. (Cirall 1908: 65) T h e p e rc e p tio n s a n d p ra c tic e th at b o u n d w o m e n ’ s d o m e stic ity to n a tio n a l w e lfa re a n d r a c ia l p u rity w ere not co n fin ed to c o lo n ia l w o m en a lo n e . C h ild re a rin g in la te -n in e te e n th -c e n tu ry B rita in w a s h ailed a s a n a tio n a l, im p e ria l, an d r a c ia l d u ty , a s it w a s in F r a n c e , H o lla n d , the U n ite d S ta te s , a n d G e r m a n y at th e sa m e tim e (D a v in 19 7 8 : 1 3 ; S m ith -R o se n b e rg 19 7 3 : 3 5 1 ; B o c k 19 8 4 : 2 7 4 ; S tu u rm a n 19 8 5 ). In F r a n c e , w h e re d e c lin in g b irth ra te s w ere o f g r a v e c o n c e rn , fe c u n d ity it s e lf h ad b c c o m c “ n o lo n g e r so m e th in g re stin g w ith c o u p le s ” bu t w ith “ the n a tio n , the sta te , the r a c e . .

( L e B r a s 1 9 8 1 : 90).

P o p u la r c o lo n ia l a u th o rs su c h a s P ie rre M ille p u sh ed the p ro d u c tio n o f c h il­ d re n a s w o m e n ’ s “ e sse n tia l c o n trib u tio n to the im p e ria l m issio n o f F r a n c e ” ( R id le y 1 9 8 1 : 9 0 ). W ith m o th erh o o d a t the c e n te r o f e m p ire -b u ild in g , p ro n a ta list p o lic ie s in E u r o p e fo rced so m e im p ro v em en t in c o lo n ia l m e d ic a l fa c il­ itie s, the a d d itio n o f m a te rn ity wfa r d s , a n d in c re a se d in fo rm a tio n a n d co n tro l o v e r the re p ro d u c tiv e c o n d itio n s o f b o th E u ro p e a n a n d co lo n ized w o m en . M a te r n a l an d in fa n t h ealth p ro g ra m s in stru cted E u ro p e a n w o m en b o u n d for the tro p ics in the u se o f m ilk su b stitu te s, w et n u rse s, an d b re a stfe e d in g prac* tices in a n effort to e n c o u ra g e m o re w o m en to s ta y in the c o lo n ies a n d in re sp o n se to the m a n y m o re th at c a m e (H u n t 19 8 8 ). B u t th e b e lie f th a t the co lo n ie s w e re m e d ic a lly h a z a rd o u s fo r w h ite w o m en m ean t th at m o th erh o o d in th e tro p ics w a s not o n ly a p re c a rio u s but a co n flicted en d ea vo r. R e a l a n d im a g in e d co n cern o v e r in d iv id u a l re p ro d u ctio n a n d r a c ia l s u r ­ v iv a l c o n tain ed a n d c o m p ro m ise d w h ite c o lo n ia l w o m en in a n u m b e r o f w a y s . T r o p ic a l c lim a te s w ere said to c a u se lo w fe rtility , p ro lo n g ed a m e n o r­ rh e a , a n d p e rm a n e n t s te rility (R o d c n w a ld t 19 2 8 : 3 ) . 38 B e lg ia n d o cto rs c o n ­

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S3

firm ed th a t “ th e w o m an w h o go es to liv e in a tro p ica l c lim a te is often lo st for th e re p ro d u ctio n o f the r a c e ” (K n ib ie h le r a n d G o u ta lic r 19 8 5 : 9 2 ; V c llu t 19 8 2 : 10 0 ) . T h e c lim a tic an d m e d ic a l c o n d itio n s o f co lo n ial life w e re associ* ate d w ith h igh in fa n t m o rta lity , such th at “ the life o f a E u ro p e a n ch ild w a s n e a rly c o n d em n ed in a d v a n c c ” ( G r a il 19 0 8 : 6 5 ). A lo n g list o f c o lo n ia l ill­ n e sse s ra n g in g from n e u rasth en ia to a n e m ia su p p o se d ly hit w o m en an d c h ild re n h a rd e st (P ric e 19 3 9 : 20 4 ). T h e s e p erc e iv e d m ed ical p erils c a lle d into q u estio n w h e th e r E u ro p e a n b o rn w o m en a n d th u s the “ w h ite r a c c ” cou ld a c tu a lly re p ro d u ce i f th ey re­ m a in e d in th e tro p ics for an e xten d ed p erio d o f tim e. A n in te rn a tio n a l co lo ­ n ia l m e d ic a l co m m u n ity c ro ss-referen c ed o n e a n o th e r in c itin g e v id e n c e o f r a c ia l s te rility b y the secon d o r th ird g e n e ra tio n (H a rw o o d 19 3 8 : 1 3 2 ; R ip le y q u o te d in S to r k in g 1968: 5 4 ; C ra n w n rth q u n trd in K r n n r d y 19 8 7 : 1 15 ) . A lth o u g h su ch a d ark v ie w o f c lim a te w a s not p re v a le n t in the In d ie s, p sy c h o lo g ic a l an d p h y sica l a d a p ta tio n w ere n e v e r g iv e n s. D u tc h d o c to rs re­ p e a te d ly q u o te d G e rm a n p h y sic ia n s, not to affirm the in e v ita b le in fe rtility a m o n g w h ites in the tro p ics, but to su p p o rt th eir con ten tion that E u ro p e a n b o rn w o m en an d m en (to to ks) sh o u ld n ev e r sta y in the co lo n ics to o lo n g (H e r m a n s 19 2 5 : 1 2 3 ) . F ren ch o b se rv e rs co u ld fla tly sta te th at u n io n s a m o n g c re o le D u tc h in the In d ies w e re ste rile a fte r tw o g e n e ra tio n s (A n g o u lv a n t 19 2 6 : t o t ) . M e d ic a l stu d ies in the 19 3 0 s , su c h a s that su p p o rte d b y the N e th e rla n d s In d ie s E u g en ic S o c ie ty , w e re d esig n ed to test w h e th e r fe rtility ra te s d iffered b y “ rac ial ty p e ” b etw een In d o -E u ro p e a n an d E u ro p e a n -b o rn w o m en an d w h eth er “ ch ild ren o f c e rta in E u ro p e a n s b orn in the In d ie s d is ­ p la y e d d ifferen t r a c ia l m ark ers th an th e ir p a re n ts” (R o d e n w a ld t 19 2 8 : 4 ). L ik e the d isc o u rse on d e g e n e ra c y , the fe a r o f s te rility w a s less a b o u t the b io lo g ic a l s u r v iv a l o f vwhites than ab o u t th eir p o litic a l v ia b ility a n d c u ltu ra l re p ro d u c iio n . T h e s e co n cern s w e re ev id e n t in the e a r ly 19 0 0 s, c o m in g 10 a c re sc e n d o in the 19 3 0 s w h en w h ite u n e m p lo y m e n t h it the c o lo n ics a n d the m e tro p o le a t the sa m e tim e. T h e d e p re ssio n m a d e re p a tria tio n o f im p o v e r ­ ish e d D u tc h a n d F ren ch c o lo n ia l a g e n ts u n re a listic , p ro m p tin g sp e c u la tio n a s to w h e th e r E u ro p e a n w o rk in g -c la sse s co u ld be relo c ated in th e tro p ics w ith o u t c a u s in g fu rth er r a c ia l d e g e n e ra tio n (VVinckel 19 3 8 ; P ric e 1 9 3 9 ) .39 A lth o u g h w h ite m ig ratio n to the tro p ics w a s reco n sid e re d , p o o r w h ite se ttle ­ m e n ts w e re r e jc c ie d on ec o n o m ic , m e d ic a l, a n d p sy c h o lo g ic a l g ro u n d s. W h a te v e r the so lu tio n , su c h issu es h in g ed on the re p ro d u c tiv e p o te n tia l o f E u ro p e a n w o m en , in v a siv e q u e stio n n a ire s c o n c e rn in g th eir “ a c c lim a tiz a ­ tio n ,” an d d e ta ile d d escrip tio n s o f th eir c o n ju g a l h isto rie s a n d s e x u a l lives. Im p e r ia l p ercep tio n s a n d p o licies fixed E u ro p e a n w o m en in the colon ies a s “ in stru m e n ts o f ra c e *c u llu re ” in w h a t p ro v e d 10 be p e rso n a lly d ifficu lt an d c o n tra d ic to ry w a y s (H a m m e rto n 19 7 9 ). C h ild r e a r in g d e cisio n s fa ith fu lly fo l­ lo w ed the so rts o f racist p rin c ip le s (h at c o n stra in e d the a c tiv itie s o f wro m cn c h a rg e d w ith c h ild c a re ( G r im s h a w 19 8 3 : 5 0 7 ). M e d ic a l e x p e rts a n d w o m e n ’ s

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o rg a n iz a tio n s re co m m en d ed strict su rv e illa n c e o f c h ild r e n 's a c tiv itie s (M a c kin n on >920: 944) a n d c a rc fu l atten tio n to those w ith w h o m th ey p la y e d . V i r ­ tu a lly e v e ry m e d ic a l an d h o u seh o ld h an d b o o k in the D u tc h . F re n c h , an d B ritish co lo n ies w a rn e d a g a in st le a v in g sm a ll c h ild re n in th e u n su p e rv ise d c a rc o f lo cal se rv a n ts . In the N e th e rla n d s In d ie s , it w a s the ‘ 'd u t y " o f the kedendaagschf blanke moeder (th e m o d ern w h ite m o th e r) to tak e the p h y sic a l an d s p ir itu a l u p b rin g in g o f h e r o ffsp rin g a w a y from the babu (n a tiv e n u rse m a id ) a n d in to h e r o w n h a n d s (W a n d e rk e n 19 4 3 : 17 3 ) P re c a u tio n s h ad to b e tak en a g a in st “ s e x u a l d a n g e r ,” u n c lc a n ly h a b its o f d o m e stic s, a g a in st a “ stu p id n e g re ss” w h o m ig h t le a v e a ch ild e xp o sed to the su n (B a u d u in 1 9 4 1 ; B c r e n g e r -F c r a u d 18 7 5 : 4 9 1 ) . E v e n in co lo n ies w h e re the c lim a te

w as

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c h ild re n s u p p o s e d ly

th riv e d w e ll “ o n ly u p to the ag o o f s ix ” (P ric e 19 3 9 : 204 ) w h en n a tiv e c u l­ tu ra l in flu e n c e s c a m e in to stro n g e r p la y . T h u s in la te -n in e te e n th -c e n tu ry H a w a ii, fo r e x a m p le , n a tiv e n u rse m a id s c o m m o n ly looked a fte r A m e r ic a n c h ild re n u n til the a g e o f fiv e at w h ic h p o in t “ p r a ttle r s ” w ere co n fin ed lo th eir m o th e rs' s u p e rv isio n , p rev en ted from le a rn in g th e lo cal la n g u a g e , a n d kept in a “ w 'alled y a rd a d ja c e n t to the b e d ro o m s. . .fo r b id d e n to H a w a iia n s ” (G r im s h a w 19 8 3 : 5 0 7 ). In the N e th e rla n d s In d ie s, w h ere cd u catio n aL fa c ilitie s for E u r o p e a n c h il­ d re n w e re c o n sid ered e x c e lle n t, it w a s still d e e m e d im p e ra tiv e to sen d them b ac k to H o lla n d to a v o id the “ p re c o c ity ” a s so c ia te d w ith the tro p ics a n d the “ d a n g e r ” o f c o n ta c t w ith Induche y o u th s not fro m “ fu ll-b lo o d e d E u ro p e a n e le m e n ts” (B a u d u in 1 9 4 1 : 6 3 ). W e Dutch in the Indies live in a country which is not our o w n .. . . We feel instinctively that our blonde, white children belong to the blonde, white dunes, the forests, the moors, the lakes, the snow. . . . A Dutch child should grow up in Holland. T here they will acquire the characteristics o f their race, not only from mother’s milk but also from the influence o f the light, sun and water, o f play­ mates, o f life, in a word, in the sphere o f the fatherland. T h is is not racism. (Bauduin 1 9 4 1 : 6 3 - 6 4 ) S u c h p a trio tic im a g e s c u ltu r a lly cod ed r a c ia l d istin c tio n s in p o w erfu l w a y s. D u tc h id e n tity w a s rep resen ted a s a co m m o n ( i f con tested ) c u ltu ra l s e n sib il­ ity in w h ic h c la ss c o n v en tio n , g e o g r a p h y , c lim a te , se x u a l p r o c liv ity , a n d so ­ c ia l c o n ta c t p la y e d c en tral ro les. In m a n y c o lo n ia l c o m m u n ities, sc h o o l-a g e c h ild re n w e re p a ck e d o ff to E u r o p e fo r e d u c a tio n a n d so c ia liz a tio n , b ut this w a s ra re ly an u n p ro b le m a tic o p tio n . W h en c h ild ren co u ld not be left w ith fa m ily in the m ctro p o lc , it m e a n t le a v in g them fo r e xten d ed p e rio d s o f tim e in b o a rd in g sc h o o ls o r, w h en th e y atte n d e d d a y -sc h o o ls, in b o a rd in g h o u ses c a te rin g to In d ie s y o u th s. M a r r ie d E u ro p e a n w o m en w e re c o n fro n te d w ith a d ifficu lt set o f

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c h o ic c s th a t e n tailed sep aratio n e ith e r from th eir c h ild re n o r h u sb a n d s (A n g o u lv a n t 19 2 6 : 1 0 1 ) . F req u en t trip s b etw een c o lo n y an d m ctro p o lc not o n ly s e p a ra te d fa m ilie s b u t also b rok e u p m a rria g e s a n d h o m es (M a iic rc t 19 3 4 : 16 4 ; G n m s h a w 19 8 3 : 5 0 7 ; C a lla w a y *987: 1 0 3 - 1 0 4 ) . N o t s u r p r is in g ly , h o w a n d w h e re E u ro p e a n c h ild re n sh o u ld be p ro vid ed w ith a p ro p e r c u ltu ra l lite ra c y w a s a m a jo r th em e a d d re sse d in w o m en 's o rg a n iz a tio n s a n d m a g a z in e s in the In d ie s a n d e lse w h e re righ t th ro u gh de* c o lo n iz a tio n . T h e rise o f specific p ro g ra m s in h o m e e d u c a tio n (su c h a s the CUrkx-methode voor H uisonderwijs) m a y h a v e been a resp o n se to th is n ew p u sh fo r w o m e n to a c c o m m o d a te ih c ir m u ltip le im p e ria l d u tie s; to su rv e il th eir h u s b a n d s a n d s e r v a n ts w h ile re m a in in g in co n tro l o f the c u ltu ra l an d m o ra l u p b rin g in g o f th eir c h ild re n . T h e im p o rta n t p o in t is th at su c h co n flictin g re s p o n sib ilitie s p ro fo u n d ly affected the so c ia l s p a c e E u ro p e a n w om en (not o n ly w iv e s) o c c u p ie d , the tasks fo r w h ic h th ey w e re v a lo riz e d , a n d the eco­ n o m ic a c tiv itie s in w h ic h th ey co u ld fe a s ib ly e n g a g e .

T H E S T R A T E G IE S O F R U L E A N D S E X U A L M O R A L IT Y

T h e p o litic a l e ty m o lo g y o f co lo n izer a n d co lo n ized w a s g e n d e r- an d c la sss p e c ific . T h e e x c lu sio n a ry p o litics o f c o lo n ia lism d e m a rc a te d not ju st e x ­ te rn a l b o u n d a rie s b u t in terio r fro n tiers, sp e c ify in g in te rn a l c o n fo rm ity an d o r d e r a m o n g E u r o p e a n s th em selves. I h a v e tried to sh o w th at the c atego ries o f c o lo n iz e r a n d co lo n ized w ere sec u red th ro u gh n otio n s o f ra c ia l d ifferen ce c o n stru c te d in g e n d e r term s. R e d e fin itio n s o f a c c e p ta b le s e x u a l b e h a v io r a n d m o ra lity e m erg ed d u rin g c rises o f c o lo n ia l co n tro l p re c ise ly b ecau se th ey c a lle d in to q u e stio n the ten uous a rtific e s o f ru le w ithin E u ro p e a n com m uni* ties an d w h a t m ark ed th eir b o rd ers. E v e n from the lim ited c a s e s we h a v e re v ie w e d , s e v e r a l p a tte rn s em erge. F irst an d m ost o b v io u sly , c o lo n ia l se x u a l p ro h ib itio n s w e re r a c ia lly a sy m m e tric a n d g e n d e r-sp e c ific . S e x u a l relatio n s m ig h t b e fo rb id d en betw een w h ite w o m en a n d m en o f c o lo r b u t n ot the o th er w a y a ro u n d . O n the c c n tra ry , in tc rra c ia l u n io n s (an o p p o se d to m a rria g e ) b e tw e e n Eur< p e a n m e . a n d co lon ized w o m en a id e d th e lo n g -term settlem en t o f E u r o p e a n n e n ir. the colon ies w h ile e n su rin g th at c o lo n ia l p a trim o n y s ta y e d in lim ited an d selectiv e h a n d s. S e c o n d , in te rd ic tio n s a g a in st in te r­ racial unions w ere ra re ly a p rim ary im p ulse in the strategics o f rule. Ir. In d ia, In d o c h in a , a n d S o u th A fr ic a in the e a r ly c e n tu rie s— c o lo n ia l co n texts u s u a l­ ly a s s o c ia te d

w ith s h a r p

so cial sa n c tio n s

a g a in s t in te r r a c ia l u n io n s—

“ m ix in g ” h a s been s y ste m a tic a lly to lerate^ an d e v e n c o n d o n ed . I h a v e fo cu sed o n la te co lo n ialism in A s ia , b u t c o lo n ia l elite in terv en tio n in th e s e x u a l life o f th e ir ag en ts a n d su b je c ts w a s b y n o m e a n s c o n fin e c to th is p la c e o r p e rio d . In sixte e n th -c e n tu ry M e x ic o m ixed m a rria g e s betw een S p a n is h m en an d C h ristia n iz e d In d ia n w o m en w e re e n c o u ra g e d b y the

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c ro w n u n til m id -c e n tu ry , w h en c o lo n ists felt th at " t h e risin g n u m b e rs o f th eir o w n m e stiz o p ro g e n y th reaten ed the p re ro g a tiv e s o f a n a rro w in g e lite s e c to r ” (N a s h 19 8 0 : 1 4 1 ) . In eig h teen th - a n d e a r ly n in c te cn th -c e n tu ry C u b a m ild o p p o sitio n to in te rra c ia l m a rria g e g a v e w a y to a “ v irtu a l p ro h ib itio n ” from 18 6 4 to 18 7 4 w h en “ m e rc h a n ts, s la v e d e a le rs an d the c o lo n ia l p o w e rs o p p o se d [it] in o r d e r to p re se rv e s la v e r y ” (M a r tin c z - A lic r 19 7 4 : 39 ). C h a n g e s in s e x u a l a c c e ss a n d d o m estic a rra n g e m e n ts h a v e in v a r ia b ly a c c o m p a n ie d m a jo r efforts to re a sse rt the in te rn a l c o h c rc n c c o f E u r o p e a n c o m m u n itie s a n d to red efin e the b o u n d a rie s o f p riv ile g e b etw een th e c o lo n iz ­ e r an d the co lo n ized . S e x u a l un ion in itself, h o w e v e r, d id n ot a u to m a tic a lly p ro d u c e a la rg e r p o p u la tio n le g a lly c la ssifie d a s “ E u r o p e a n .” O n the co n ­ t r a r y , e v e n in e a r ly tw e n tie th -c e n tu ry B r a z il w h e re m isc e g e n a tio n h ad m a d e fo r a refin ed sy ste m o f g r a d a tio n s , “ m ost m ix in g . . .[t o o k ] p la c e o u ts id e o f m a r r ia g e ” (D e g le r 1 9 7 1 : 18 5 ) . T h e im p o rta n t p o in t is th at m isc e g e n a tio n sig n a le d n e ith e r the p resen ce n o r a b se n c e o f r a c ia l d isc rim in a tio n ; h ie r a r ­ ch ies o f p riv ile g e a n d p o w er w ere w ritten in to the condoning o f in te rra c ia l u n io n s, a s w e ll a s in to th eir c o n d e m n a tio n . A lth o u g h the ch ro n o lo g ie s v a r y fro m o n e co lo n ial c o n text to a n o th e r, w e c a n id e n tify so m e p a ra lle l sh ifts in th e stra te g ic s o f ru le an d in s e x u a l m o r a l­ ity . C o n c u b in a g e fell in to m o ra l d is fa v o r a t the sa m e tim e th at n ew e m p h a sis w a s p la c e d on the sta n d a rd iz a tio n o f E u ro p e a n a d m in istra tio n . A lth o u g h th is o cc u rre d in so m e c o lo n ies b y the e a r ly tw en tieth c c n tu ry a n d in o th e rs la te r o n , the co rre sp o n d e n c e b etw een ra tio n a liz e d ru le, b o u rg e o is r e s p e c ta ­ b ility , a n d the c u sto d ia l p o w e r o f E u ro p e a n w o m en to p ro tect th eir m en se e m s stro n g e st d u rin g the in tc r w a r y e a rs. W estern scie n tific an d te c h n o lo g ­ ic a l a c h ie v e m e n ts w ere then in q u estio n (A d a s 19 8 9 ); B r itis h , F r e n c h , an d D u tc h p o lic y m a k e rs h ad m o ved from an a ssim ila tio n ist to a m o re s e g r e g a ­ tio n ist, s e p a r a tis t c o lo n ia l sta n c c . T h e re o rg a n iz a tio n o f co lo n ial in v e stm e n ts a lo n g c o rp o ra te a n d m u ltin a tio n a l lin es b ro u g h t w'ith it a p u sh for a r e s tr u c ­ tu red a n d m o re h ig h ly p ro d u c tiv e la b o r fo rce; a n d w ith it m o re s trid e n t n a tio n a list a n d la b o r m o v em en ts re sistin g th o se d e m a n d s. A n in c re a sin g ra tio n a liz a tio n o f c o lo n ia l m a n a g e m e n t p ro d u ce d ra d ic a l sh ifts in n o tio n s o f h o w e m p ire s sh o u ld b e ru n , h o w a g e n ts o f e m p ire sh o u ld ru le , a n d w h ere, h o w , an d w ith w h o m th ey sh o u ld live. T h u s F re n c h d e b a te s co n c e rn in g th e need to sy ste m a tiz e c o lo n ia l m a n a g e m e n t a n d d is s o lv e the p ro v in c ia l a n d

p erso n a liz e d s a tr a p s o f “ the o ld -tim e co lo n ”

in v a r ia b ly

ta rg e te d a n d c o n d em n ed the u n seem ly d o m estic a r ra n g e m e n ts in w h ic h th ey liv e d . B ritis h h igh o fficials in A fr ic a im p o sed n ew “ c h a r a c te r ” re q u ire m e n ts on th e ir su b o rd in a te s, d e sig n a tin g sp ec ific c la ss a ttrib u te s a n d c o n ju g a l lie s th at su c h a selectio n im p lied (K u k lic k 19 7 9 ). C r it ic a l to th is r e s tr u c tu r in g w a s a n ew d is d a in fo r c o lo n ia ls too a d a p te d to lo cal cu sto m , too re m o v e d from the lo cal E u ro p e a n c o m m u n ity , an d too c n c u m b c rc d w ith in tim a te n a tiv e

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tics. A s w c h a v e seen in S u m a tra , th is h a n d s -o ffp o lic y d ista n c e d E u ro p e a n s in m ore th an o n e se n se : it fo rb ad e E u ro p e a n s ta ff b o th from p erso n a l c o n ­ fro n ta tio n s w ith th eir A s ia n ficld h an d s an d fro m the lim ited lo cal k n o w led g e th e y g a in e d th ro u g h s e x u a l tics. A t the sa m e tim e m e d ic a l e x p e rtise c o n firm ed the s a lu b rio u s b en efits o f E u r o p e a n c a m a ra d e r ie an d frequen t hom e le a v e s; o f a cordon sanitaire, not o n ly a ro u n d E u ro p e a n en cla v e s, b u t a ro u n d eac h E u ro p e a n m an 2n d his h o m e. W h ite p re stig e b e c a m e red efin ed b y the c o n v e n tio n s th at w o u ld safe* g u a r d the m o ra l re sp e c ta b ility , c u ltu ra l id e n tity , an d p h y s ic a l w ell-b ein g o f its a g e n ts, w ith w h ic h E u ro p e a n w o m en w ere c h a rg e d . C o lo n ia l p o litics lo ck ed E u r o p e a n m en a n d w om en in to a ro u tin ized p ro tectio n c f th eir p h y s ic a l h e a lth a n d so c ia l sp&cc in w a y s th at b o u n d g e n d e r p re sc rip tio n s to th e r a c ia l c le a v a g e s b etw een “ u s” an d “ th e m .” It m a y be, h o w e v e r, th a t wc sh o u ld not b e s e a rc h in g fo r c o n g ru en t co lo ­ n ia l c h ro n o lo g ie s (a tta ch e d to sp ec ific d a te s) but r a th e r fo r s im ila r sh ifts in th e rhythms o f ru le an d s e x u a l m an a g e m e n t, fo r sim ila r in te rn a l p a ttern s w ith ­ in sp e c ific c o lo n ia l h isto rie s th em selv es.40 F o r e x a m p le , w c k n o w that the G r e a t R e b e llio n in In d ia in 18 5 7 set off* an e n tire re stru c tu rin g o f co lo n ial m o ra lity in w h ic h p o litic a l su b v e rsio n w a s tied to s e x u a l im p ro p rie ty an d w a s m et w ith c a lls fo r m id d le-class r e s p e c ta b ility , d o m e stic ity , a n d in creased s e g re g a tio n — a ll fo cu sin g on E u ro p e a n w o m e n — n e a rly a h a lf-ce n tu ry e a r ­ lie r th an in co lo n ics elscw 'hcrc. L o o k in g to a so m e w h a t lo n g e r duree than the c o lo n ia l c rises o f th e e a r ly tw en tieth c e n tu ry , w e m ig h t c o n s id e r B r i.is h re­ sp o n se s to the M u tin y not a s an e xc ep tio n but a s a te m p la te , th e re b y cm * p h a s iz in g th e m o d u la r q u a lity o f c o lo n ia l p e rc e p tio n s an d p o lic ie s that w ere b u ilt on n ew in te rn a tio n a l sta n d a rd s o f e m p ire , sp ec ific m e tro p o lita n p r io ri­ tie s, a n d th a t w e re a lw a y s resp o n siv e to th e lo cal c h a lle n g e s o f those w h o c o n te ste d E u ro p e a n ru le. I h a v e fo cu sed h ere on the m u ltip le le v e ls at w h ic h s e x u a l co n tro l figured in the s u b s ta n c e , a s w ell a s the ic o n o g ra p h y , o f r a c ia l p o lic y a n d im p erial ru le . B u t c o lo n ia l p o litics w as n ot ju s t ab o u t se x ; n o r d id s e x u a l relatio n s re d u c e to c o lo n ia l p o litic s. O n th e c o n tr a r y , se x in the c o lo n ics w as ab o u t s e x u a l a c c e ss a n d re p ro d u ciio n , c la s s d istin c tio n s a n d r a c ia l d e m a rc a tio n s, n a tio n a lism an d E u ro p e a n id e n tity — in d ifferen t m e a su re an d n ot al! at the s a m e tim e. T h e s e m a jo r shifts in the p o sitio n in g o f w o m en w ere not, a s w e m ig h t e x p e c t, sig n a le d b y the p e n e tra tio n o f c a p ita lis m p e r sc b u t b y m ore s u b tle c h a n g e s in c la s s p o litics, im p e ria l m o ra lity , an d a s re sp o n se s to the v u ln e ra b ilitie s o f c o lo n ia l con tro l. A s w c atte m p t b ro a d e r e th n o g ra p h ie s o f e m p ire , w c m a y b egin to c a p tu re h o w E u r o p e a n e u ltu re an d c la s s Dolitics re so n a te d in c o lo n ia l settin g s, h o w c la s s a n d g e n d e r d isc rim in a tio n s w ere tra n sp o se d in to r a c ia l d istin c tio n s an d re v e rb e ra te d in the m ctro p o le as th ey w e re fo rtified on c o lo n ia l g ro u n d . S u c h in v e stig a tio n s sh o u ld h elp sh o w th at

88

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s e x u a l co n tro l w a s both an in stru m e n ta l im a g e fo r the b o d y p o litic, a salien t p a rt s ta n d in g fo r th e w h o le, a n d its e lf fu n d a m e n ta l to h o w r a c ia l p o licies w e re se c u re d an d h o w c o lo n ia l p ro je c ts w e re c a rrie d out.

ACKN O W LED GM EN TS T h e re se a rc h for th is p a p e r w a s su p p o rte d b y an N S K P o std o c to ra l F e l­ lo w sh ip for the Intern ation al E xch an g e o f Scien tists (G ra n t # I N T - 8 7 0 i5 6 i) , b y a N A T O P o std o cto ra l F e llo w sh ip in S c ie n c e ( G r a n t # R C D - 8 7 5 i 15 9 ) , a n d b y fu n d in g from the C e n tr e N a tio n a l d e la R e c h e rc h c S c ic n tifiq u c in F ra n c e . T h e C e n te r for A s ia n S tu d ie s A m ste rd a m ( C A S A ) a n d the C e n tr e d ’ E tu d e s A fric a in c s in P a ris g e n e ro u sly e x te n d e d th e ir fa c ilitie s a n d c o lle ­ g ia l su p p o rt. I o w e p a rtic u la r th an k s to the fo llo w in g p eo p le w h o h a v e read v a r io u s v e rsio n s o f th is text a n d w h o se co m m en ts I h a v e tried to take in to sp c c ia l a c c o u n t here: J u l i a A d a m s , K ticn n e B a lib a r , P ie rre B o u rd ic u , R o b e rt C o n n e ll, F re d e ric k C o o p e r, L in d a G o rd o n , L a w r e n c e H irsc h fc id , M ic a e la d i L e o n a r d o , G c r d a L e rn e r , G e o r g e M o ssc . A m u ch sh o rte r v e rsio n o f th is p a p e r h a s a p p e a re d u n d e r the title “ M a k in g E m p ire R e sp e c ta b le : T h e P o litic s o f R a c e a n d S e x u a l M o r a lity in 20 th C e n tu ry C o lo n ia l C u l­ tu re s,” Am erican Ethnologist 16 (4 ): G 3 4 -6 6 0 .

N O TES ). See, for exam ple, Etienne and Leacock (1980), Haikin and Bay (1976 ). Robert­ son and K lein (19 8 3 ). and Silverblatt (1987). Fo r a review o f some this literature in an African context see Bozzoli (1983), Robertson (1987), and W hite (1988). 2. T h is is not to suggest that there were not some women whose sojourns in the colonies allowed them to pursue career possibilities and independent life-styles barred 10 them in metropolitan Europe at the time. However, the experience o f pro­ fessional women in South A sia and Africa highlights how quickly they were shaped into “ cultural m issionaries'’ or, iri resisting that impulse, were strongly m arginal­ ized in their work and social life (see C allaw ay 1987: 83—164; Ram uschack, n.d.). 3. In subsequent work, I focus explicitly on the contrasts and commonalities in how European women and men represented and experienced the social, psychologi­ cal, and sexual tensions o f colonial life. 4. See V erena M artinez-Alier’s Marriage, Class and Colour in X'intteenth- Century Cuba (19 74 K which subtly analyzes the changing criteria by which color was perceived and assigned. For the Netherlands Indies, see Je a n T ay lo r's (1983) exquisite study o f the historical changes in the cultural m arkers o f European m embership from the seven­ teenth through the early twentieth centuries. A lso see V an M arie's (19 52) detailed description o f racial classification, conjugal patterns, and sexual relations for the colo­ nial Indies. 5. See W inthrop Jo rd a n (1968: 3 2 -4 0 ) on Elizabethan attitudes toward black African sexuality and Sander G ilm an ’s analysis o f the sexual iconography o f Hotten­ tot women in European art o f the eighteenth and nineteenth ccnturics (1985: 7 6 -

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108). O n colonial sexual imagery see M allcret (19 3 4 : 2 1 6 - 2 4 1 ) , Tiffany and Adam s (1985), and the bibliographic references therein. “ T he Rom ance o f the Wild W om an,” according to Tiffany and Adam s, expressed critical distinctions draw n be­ tween civilization and the pr.mitivc, eulture and nature, and the class differences between repressed middle-class women and “ her regressively prim itive antithesis, the working-class girl” (1985: 13). 6. T h u s in Dutch and Frer.ch colonial novels o f the nineteenth century, for exam* pic, heightened sensuality is t ie recognized reserve o f A sian and Indo-European mis* tresses, and only o f those European women lx>rn in the colonies and loosened by its m oral environment (Daum 1984; Loutli 19 7 1). 7. T h e relationship between sexual control, racial vioicncc, and political power has been most directly addressed by students o f Am erican Southern social history: see Jo rd a n (196 8 ), I.erner (1972), Dowd H all (1984), and the analyses by turn-of-thecentury Afro-Am erican women intellectuals discussed in C arb y (19 8 5 ). See Painter who argues that the treatmeni o f rape as a symbol o f m ale power was an interpreta­ tion held by both white and black male authors (1988: 59). 8. F e a r o f trade com petition from E u rop ean w om en is allu d ed to frequently in historical w ork on cigh tecnth-cciuury colonies. In the Fren ch tradin g centers (facto­ ries) o f the M id d le E a st, for exam ple, the M arseille Cham l>er o f C o m m erce went to great lengths to en sure that no m arriages w ou ld take p lace in their trad in g d om ain , fearin g that E u rop ean w om en and children w ould pose a threat to the French m onopoly. In 17 2 8 an y Fren rh nation al m arried in a factory w a s prohibited from trad in g d irectly or in d irectly with the royal govern m en t (C o rd u rie 1984: 42).

9. T h is exclusion o f European-lx)rn women was also the case for much o f the Portuguese em pire from the sixteenth through eighteenth centuries (Boxer 1969: 1 2 9 >3°)in

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Silverblatt, Irene. 1987. Moon, sun, and witches: Gender ideologies and class in Inca and colonial Peru. Princcton: Princcton University Press. Simon, Pierre-Jean. 1977. Portraits C olouiaux des Vietnam iens ( 18 5 8 - 19 14 ) . Pluriel 10: 3 9 -5 4 . . 19 8 1. Rapatries d'Indockine: Vn village franco-indochinois en Eourhonnan. Paris: H arm attan. Sivan. Em m anuel. 1983. Interpretations o f Isalm, past and present. Princeton: Darwin Press. Sm ith-Rosenberg, C ., and C . Rosenberg. 1973. T h e female anim al: M edical and biological views o f woman and her role in nineteenth-century A m erica.. Journal o f American History 60: 2, 3 3 2 -3 5 6 . Spear, Percival. 1963. The nabobs. London: O xford University Press. Spencer, J . E ., and \V. L . Thom as, 1948. T h e hill stations and sum mer resorts o f the orient. Geographical Review 38: 4, 6 3 7 -6 5 1. Stepan, Nancy. 1982. The idea o f race in science: Great Britain, t8flo-ig6o. London: Mac* millan. Stocking, George. 1982 (1968). Race, culture, and evolution. Chicago: University o f C h i­ cago Press. Stoler, Ann. 19850. Capitalism and confrontation in Sumatra’s plantation belt, 1870-1979. New Haven: Y ale University Press. --------- . 19856. Perceptions o f protest: Defining the dangerous in colonial Sum atra. American Ethnologist 12 : 4, 642-658. ----------. 1989*1. R eth in k in g colonial categories: E u rop ean com m u nities an d the

boundaries o f rule. Comparative Studies in Society and History 1 3 ( 1 ) : 1 3 4 - 1 6 1 . --------- . 1989b. M aking empire respectable: T h e politics o f race and sexual morality in 20th century colonial cultures. American Ethnologist 16 (4): 634—660. Strobel, M argaret. 1987. G ender and race in the nineteenth- and twentieth-century British empire. In Becoming visible: Women in European history. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Stuurm an, Siep. 1985. beguiling, Kapitalitme en Patriarchaat. Nijmegen: S U N . Sum atra Post. M edan, Sum atra. Sutherland, Heather. 1982. Ethnicity and ucccss in colonial M acassar. In Papers o f the Dutch-Indonesian historical conference. Dutch and Indonesian Steering Com m ittees o f the Indonesian Studies Programm e. Leiden: Bureau o f Indonesian Studies. Pp. 2 5 0 -2 7 7 . T akaki, Ronald. 1977. Iron Cagei. Berkeley, I o s Angeles, London: University o f C a li­ fornia Press. T aylo r, Je a n . 1977. T he world o f women in the colonial Dutch novel. Kabar Seberang 2: 2 6 -4 1. --------- . 1983. The social U'orld o f Batavia. M adison: University o f Wisconsin Press. T iffany, Sharon, and Kathleen Adam s. 1985. The tvild woman: An inquiry into the anthro­ pology o f an idea. C am bridge, M ass: Schenkman. T irefort, A. 1979. “ Le Bon T em p s” : L a Com m unaute Franchise en Basse C ote d ’ Ivoire pendant I'Entre-D eux G uerres, 19 2 0 -19 4 0 . Troisiem e C ycle, Centre d'E tud es Africaines. T ra v a u x du Groupe d'Etudes Coloniales. 19 10 . La Femme Blanche au Congo. Brussels: M isch and T hron.

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Treille, G . 1 888. De L 'AccHmalalion des F.uropeem dan Us Pays Chaud. Paris: O ctave Doin. Union Geographique International. 1938. Comptes Reiuius du Congres International de Geographic, Amsterdam 1938. Leiden: Brill. Van-H elten, Je a n J . , and K . W illiam s. 1983. “ T h e crying need o fS o tx h A frica” : T he em igration o f single British women 10 the T ran svaal, 1 9 0 1 - 1 9 1 0 . Journo/ o f South African Studies 10: 1, 1 1 - 3 8 . V a n Heyningen, Elizabeth B. 1984. T he social evil in die C ape Colony 18 6 8 -19 0 2 : Prostitution and the Contagious Disease A ct. Journal o f Southern African Studies to (2): 17 0 - 19 7 . Vcerdc, A. G . 19 31- Onderzoek naar den om vang dcr werkloosheid op J a v a (Novem ­ ber tg 3 0 -Ju n e 19 3 1) . Koloniale Studien t6: 2 4 2 -2 7 3 , 5 0 3 -5 3 3 . V ellut, Je a n -L u c . 1982. M ateriaux pour unc image du Blanc dan la societe colonialc du C ongo Beige. In Su'rotypes Nationaux et Prejuges Rariaux aux X IX e et X X e SiecUs. Je a n Pirotte, ed. Leuven: Editions Nauvvelacrts. V ere Allen, J . de. >970. M alayan civil service, 18 7 4 - 19 4 1: Colonial bureaucracy/ M alayan elite. Companth* Studies in Society and History 12: 14 9 -17 8 . W andcrken, P. 1943. Z oolevcn onze kindcren. In Zoo Ltven Wij in Indonesia. Deventer: Van Hoever. Pp. 172- 187. W crthcim, Willem. 1959. Indonesian society in transition. T h e H ague: V an Hoeve. White, Luise. 1988. Book review. Signs 13 (2): 360-364. --------- . 1990. T h e Comforts o f Home: Prostitution in Colonial Nairobi. C hicago: University o f C hicago Press. W inckel, C . W . F. 1938. The feasibility o f white settlements in the tropics: A medical point o f view. In Compies Renduj du Congres International dt Geographic, Amsterdam, vol. 2, sect. I II c . I^eiden: Brill. Pp. 3 4 5 -3 5 6 . W oodcock, George. 1969. The British in the Far East. New York: Athencum.

TWO

Original Narratives T h e Political Economy o f Gender in Archaeology Margaret IV. Conkey with the collaboration o f Sarah H. Williams

A rc h a e o lo g y h a s co m e la te to the fem in ist a re n a . A lth o u g h sig n ific a n t w o rk on g e n d e r in so c io c u ltu ra l a n th ro p o lo g y a n d m a n y s is te r d isc ip lin e s b e g a n to a p p e a r in the e a r ly 19 7 0 s, the first m a jo r re v ie w a r tic le fo r a rc h a e o lo g y w a s p u b lish e d in 19 8 4 (C o n k e y an d S p e c to r 19 8 4 ). In th e sh o rt p erio d sin ce, h o w e v e r, w o rk on g e n d e r in p re h isto ry an d arc h a c o to g y h a s b egu n to d e v e lo p r a p id ly (e .g . A rn o ld et a l. 19 8 8 ; B u m stc a d 19 8 7 ; D c a g a n 19 8 3 ; a ll the p a p e rs in G e r o a n d C o n k e y 19 9 0 ; G ib b 19 8 7 ; M a r s h a ll 19 8 5 ; P o h l an d F e ld m a n 19 8 2 ; R u s s e ll 19 8 7 ; S lig -S « r c n s o n 19 8 7 ; W e lb o u rn 19 8 4 ; Z a g a r e ll 19 8 6 ). In w’h a t fo llo w s I w ill re v ie w the sh o rt h isto ry o f g e n d e r in q u ir y a n d fe m in ist re se a rc h in a rc h a e o lo g y (e sp e c ia lly A n g lo - A m e r ic a n a n th ro p o lo g i­ c a l a rc h a e o lo g y ) a n d then focus on a c ritiq u e o f a p a r t ic u la r d o m a in o f a rc h a e o lo g ic a l in q u ir y — “ o r ig in s re se a rc h .” I w ill s h o w h o w “ o rig in s re ­ s e a r c h ” s e d u c e s a r c h a e o lo g y — a n d p o p u la r e u ltu re , w-hich re lie s on a rc h a e o lo g y fo r n otio n s o f h u m an b e g in n in g s— in to a n u n ten a b le p o sition . O r ig in s re se arch h a s in h erited k e y co n stru c tio n s o f th e m e a n in g o f g e n d e r th at it p e rp e tu a te s th ro u g h its a u th o ria l w eig h t. T h a t is, a rc h a e o lo g ic a l n a r ra tiv e s e m b e d d in g n otio n s o f g e n d e r in p re h isto ry a c t u a lly reflect n otio n s o f g e n d e r in the recen t p a st, w h ile h e a v ily in flu e n c in g o u r co n stru c tio n s o f g e n d e r in the p resen t. K n o w le d g e a b o u t o u r re c o n stru ctio n s o r in te rp re ta tio n s in v o lv in g g e n d e r in the p a st is, o f c o u rse , lin ked to an d d e riv e d fro m the so c io p o litic s o f a rc h a e o lo g ic a l p ra c tic e (e .g . C o n k e y 19 7 8 ; G c r o 19 8 3 , 19 8 5 ; Y e lle n 19 8 3 ). T o d isc u ss the c o n cep ts a n d u ses o f g e n d e r in a r c h a e o lo g y is ju s t a s m u ch an in q u ir y in to the q u estio n o f g e n d e r in a rc h a e o lo g ic a l p r a c tic e , a lth o u g h I w ill not d e a l w ith su c h p ra c tic e d ire c tly . R a th e r , th ere is m o re th an en o u g h to sa y h ere a b o u t w’ hat th e im p lic a tio n s a r e for the a n th r o p o lo g y o f g e n d e r g iv en ho w o u r o b je c ts o f k n o w le d g e — w h a t it is w e w an t to k n o w a b o u t the p a st, 102

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e s p e c ia lly a b o u t “ o r ig in s ’ ' — h a v e been c o n c e p tu a liz e d , in stitu tio n alized a n d , th u s, h a v e stru c tu re d both o u r re se a rc h a n d o u r rec eiv ed v ie w s o f hum an p re h isto ry .

A L IT T L E B IT O F H IS T O R Y B Y W A Y O F IN T R O D U C T IO N ' I n 19 7 7 , the A m e r ic a n A n th ro p o lo g ic a l A ss o c ia tio n 's C o m m itte e on the S t a ­ tu s o f W o m e n in A n th ro p o lo g y sp o n so red a sy m p o siu m a( (he a sso c ia tio n 's a n n u a l m e e tin g s on the im p a c t o f fem in ist re se a rc h in the d ifferen t a n th ro p o ­ lo g ical su b fie ld s. A s the sp o k esp erso n from the c o m m itte e fo r a rc h a e o lo g y , I fo u n d m y task not too d ifficu lt (C o n k e y 19 7 7 ) . T h e r e w ere no ed ited vo lu m es in a rc h a e o lo g y lo p a ra lle l even the ea rlie st o n es in so c io c u ltu ra l a n th ro p o lo g y (e .g . R o s a ld o an d L a m p h e re 19 7 4 ); th ere w r r r n o p a p e rs o r h o o k s m tirled “ G e n d e r A rra n g e m e n ts an d K a r lv F o o d P ro d u c tio n ,” “ G e n d e r S tru c tu re s a n d C u lt u r e C h a n g e ,” o r even “ M e n a n d W o m en in P re h isto ry ” ! Y e t th is d o c s n ot m e an th at little h ad been said o r im p lie d a b o u t m en an d w o m en in th e p a st, a b o u t g e n d e r re la tio n s, d ifferen ces, a n d a c tiv itie s: w h a t had been sa id c a n b e seen from tw o p ersp e c tiv e s. O n the o n e h a n d , n o tio n s a b o u t m a le s/fe m a le s, m e n /w o m e n , a n d ab o u t g e n d e r re la tio n s h a v e a lw a y s b een — a n d still a r e — in jected in to re p re se n ta ­ tio n s a n d re c o n stru ctio n s o f the p a st b y n u m b e rle ss re se a rc h e rs a n d w riters w h o h a v e n ot, h o w e v e r, been p r a c tic in g a rc h a e o lo g ists (e.g. D in e r 19 7 3 ; E is le r 19 8 7 ) . In p a rtic u la r, o f c o u rse , m a n y h a v e e n u n c ia te d v isio n s o f e a r ly sta g e s o r fo rm s o f h u m a n (an d p re h u m a n ) so c ia l life (e .g . C u c c h ia r : 1 9 8 1 ; D a v is 1 9 7 1 ; E n g e ls 19 7 2 ; F o le y a n d L e e 19 8 9 ; L o v e jo y 1 9 8 1 ; M o rg a n 19 7 2 ; P a r k e r 19 8 7 ; R e e d 19 7 5 ) . T h e s e re c o n stru ctio n s h a v e often b een u sed as p a rt o f h y p o th e siz e d sc e n a rio s (so m e o f them fem in ist) for h u m a n evo lu tio n that d o not d r a w on a c tu a l a rc h a e o lo g ic a l field w o rk an d a n a ly s is, i f o n ly b c cau sc v e r y little h a s b een d o n e th at h a s been e x p lic itly d ire c te d to w a rd the a ttrib u ­ tion o r in te rp re ta tio n o f g e n d e r. In c lu d e d h ere w o u ld be the recen t sc h o la rly w o rk s in sp ire d b y the d e v e lo p m e n t o f fem in ist th eo ries in th e 19 7 0 s (e.g. T a n n e r 1 9 8 1 ; T a n n e r a n d Z ih lm a n 19 7 6 ; Z ih lm a n 19 7 8 , 1 9 8 1 ) , w h ic h sim u l­ ta n e o u sly h a v e been lim ited b y the lack o f a rc h a e o lo g ic a l re se a rc h on gen d er th a t co u ld be used to su p p o rt a lte rn a tiv e ev o lu tio n a ry ’ sc e n a rio s. O n the o th e r h a n d , a rc h a e o lo g ists th em selv es h a v e c o n trib u te d to an d p e rp e tu a te d c e rta in lim ited a n d eth n o c en tric (i.e . se x ist) v ie w s on w om en a n d g e n d e r re la tio n s. A rc h a e o lo g y a n d p re h is to ry , in a sen se, h a v e a lw a y s been g e n d e re d — g e n d e re d “ a n d ro c e n tr ic .” T h is p ra c tic e d e riv e s from m a n y so u rc e s: fro m a lack o f e x p lic it so c ia l th eo ry so th at sc h o la rs im p lic itly e m p lo y p re sen t-ist n o tio n s a b o u t g e n d e r; fro m th e d ifferen tial u se o f la n g u a g e in d is ­ c u ssin g the a c tiv itie s a n d b e h a v io rs o f m a le s a n d fe m a le s in p a st so cieties; from the p a r tic u la r w a y in w h ic h sy ste m s th eo ry h a s b een used in a rc h a e o l­ o g y o f the p a st d e c a d e s; an d fro m not h a v in g d e v e lo p e d th e q u e stio n s o r the

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m e th o d s w ith w h ic h to in q u ire in to g e n d e r, a lth o u g h o th e r e q u a lly “ e lu siv e ” so c ia l p h e n e m o n a . su c h a s sta tu s, seem to h a v e re c e iv e d g re a t th e o re tica l an d

m ethodological attention (e.g. Renfrew and Shennan 19 8 2 ),2 O R IG IN S R E S E A R C H A S C U L T U R A L L E G IT IM A T IO N T h e r e is n o d o u b t th at th ere h as been g re a t p u b lic in te re st in the s p e c ta c u la r results a c h ie v e d b y a rc h a e o lo g ic a l research in e x te n d in g the reco rd o f the h u m a n p a st, b u t th is h a s been a t the e x p e n se o f u n d e rsta n d in g the processes b y w h ic h the resu lts h a v e been a c h ie v e d (R o w e 19 5 6 ). T o u n d e rsta n d these p ro c e sse s, o n e m u st tu rn ju s t a s m u ch to an a n a ly s is o f th e p r a c tic c o f a rc h a e o lo g y , a s an h isto ric a lly , c u ltu r a lly , a n d p o litic a lly co n tin g en t en ter­ p rise , a s to a n a n a ly s is o f the n ew te c h n iq u es (e .g . ra d io m e tric d a tin g tech ­ n iq u e s) a n d in n o v a tio n s in th e o ry a n d m eth od . A m o n g the m ost fav o red re se a rc h p ro b le m s a r c th o se th at im p lic itly o r e x p lic itly a d d re ss “ o r ig in s " : fro m the o rig in s o f h o m in id s to the o rig in s o f the sta te ; th e o r ig in s o f a g r ic u l­ tu re, o f ra n k in g , tra d e , sta tu s, fire, a r t, to o lm a k in g , h u n tin g , th e fa m ily , g e n ­ d e r a s y m m e try , la n g u a g e , c o n scio u sn ess, sy m b o lism , p o tte ry , a n d so fo rth .3 F ro m the p rim a c y o f o rig in s research co m es its p o w e r to stru c tu re th e in q u iry o f th e d isc ip lin e , to in flu en ce the c a re e r su c ce ss o f a r c h a e o lo g is ts , to reach the p u b lic , a n d to se rv e a s a v c h ic lc fo r p o litic a l m essa g e s. In th is se c tio n , I w ill d isc u ss so m e fe a tu re s o f o rig in s research in g e n e r a l; in th e n e x t. I w ill c o n sid ­ e r so m e o f the im p lic a tio n s o f o rig in s research fo r a r c h a e o lo g y a n d th e stu d y o f ge n d e r. N arratives and Categories W e d o not even need to in vo k e the recen t e m p h a sis on a n th ro p o lo g y -a sn a r ra tiv e , as-p ro d u c tio n -o f-te x t (e.g. C liffo rd an d M a r c u s

19 8 6 ; S c h o lte

19 8 6 ), to realize that origins research d erives from an d constitutes a m ethod­ o lo g y o f n a rra tio n . L ik e e th n o g ra p h ic

texts,

a rc h a e o lo g ic a l

texts

a r e “ a lle ­

g o rie s o f q u e s t, a lle g o rie s o f c o m p a riso n , a lle g o rie s o f o r ig in ” ( M a r c u s an d C liffo rd 19 8 5 : 2 6 ). N a r r a tiv e s , su ch a s those th at “ te ll the sto ry o f h u m a n e v o lu tio n ,” m u st h a v e a b e g in n in g , a n d th o se w h o w r ite the sc e n a rio s a r e — lik e a ll w rite rs— su b je c t to th eir p referred n a rra tiv e d e v ic e s. O n e p re v a le n t d e v ic e in e v o lu tio n a ry n a r ra tiv e s is th e use o f/d ep en d en ce u pon g a p s ; w e p ro d u c e g a p s a s w e fill th em . W ith e a c h ‘“ fin d ” th a t m a y fill in so m e so rt o f a g a p (in a reg io n a l se q u e n ce , fo r e x a m p le ), a n o th e r g a p is s im u lta n e o u sly c re a te d ; a g a p that is ex p e cte d to be fille d in so m e d a y b y so m e e q u a lly h ero ic d isc o v e ry . T h e r e a r e g a p s in the se q u e n c e , in the record o f fo ssils a n d o f m a te ria ls; g a p s b etw een the a c a d e m ic fie ld s th a t w rite e v o lu ­ tio n ; g a p s b etw een tool u se an d in tellig en c e, b etw een “ m a n ” a n d a p e , b e ­ tw een m a n an d w o m a n , b etw een s e lf a n d c o n sc io u sn e ss. T h e rep re se n ta tio n o f the h u m a n c a re e r is

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conditional upon g a p s ...t h a t must be continually and .simultaneously re­ solved and m aintained. T h? “ missing lin k" must be (and has been) repeatedly found, and can never be found. (W illiam s 1986: 17) T h o s e w h o s im u lta n e o u sly fill an d c re a te g a p s p la y a c c n tra l ro le in the p e r ­ p e tu a tio n a n d co n tro l o f a rc h a e o lo g ic a l n a rra tiv e s . A n o th e r n a r r a tiv e d e v ic c d e riv e d from p rim a c v -o f-o rig in s rc sc a rc h is the g u a r a n te e o f c o n tin u ity . W c u se the sa m e a n a ly tic a l c a te g o rie s fo r phen om * e n a th a t a r e m illio n s o f yea rs a n d m a y b e six b io lo g ica l sp e c ie s a p a r t: th ere a r e flak e s, c o re s, sto n e to o k , site s, so c ia l g ro u p s, a g g re ssio n , te rrito rie s, d iv i­ sio n o f la b o r a n d , for so m e, there a re m o n o g a m o u s fa m ily u n its (e .g . L o v e jo y 1 9 8 1 ) ; p a irb o n d s (m o n o g am y) (e.g. P a r k e r 19 8 7 ) ; o r “ p o ly g y n o u s m ale fa m ily g r o u p s ” (F o le y an d I*ee 19 8 9 : 9 0 5 ). A r c h a e o lo g ic a l n a rra tiv e s o f o rig in s tell o n ly w h a t w e “ kn o w *’ b u t are fram e d in d ifferen tial con texts w h ere the v a r ia b le s — h u m a n n e ss, la n g u a g e , s y m b o lis m , th e s ta te , the fa m ily , d iv isio n o f la b o r — h a v e m u ltip le referen ts a n d a r c e m b e d d e d in con tested a n d e v e r-c h a n g in g a g e n d a s (e .g . T r ig g e r 19 8 4 ). T h e y a r c c u ltu ra lly c o n stru c ted v a r ia b le s — n ot in h eren t esse n tia l q u a litie s — a n d the n a rra tiv e s th at a r e c re ated a r e “ a rc h a e o -lo g ic a l” an d “ m a k e se n se ” n o t o n ly fo r the a v a ila b le a n d p c rc c iv c d a rc h a e o lo g ic a l d a ta b u t a lso fo r the h isto ric a lly co n tin g en t c u ltu ra l c o n texts w ith in w’ h ich th ey a r e s itu a te d . (S e e , fo r e x a m p le , the d isc u ssio n o f the d e b a te o v e r the M o u n d b u ild c rs o f the p re h isto ric U .S . so u th e a st. W ille y an d S a b lo ff 19 8 0 : 1 9 - 2 5 . ) O u r n a r r a tiv e s — in stru c tu re ( L a n d a u 19 8 4 ) a n d in c o n te n t— “ m a k e se n se ” a n d a r c a rc h a e o -lo g ic a l fo r us a s a c to rs in o u r sp ec ific h isto ric a l c o n texts. A n a n e c d o te b rin g s to m ind the w a y in w h ic h a r c h a e o lo g ic a l a n d e v o lu tio n a ry w rite rs w o rk . A C rc c h u n ter c a m c to M o n tre a l to testify in cou rt c o n c e rn in g the fate o f h is h in t in g la n d s in the n ew J a m e s B a y h y d ro e le c tric sch e m e . H e w a s to dcscribi* h is w a y o f life, b u t (a s C liffo rd tells the s to ry , 19 8 6 : 8 ), w h en he w a s a d m in istered the o a th , he h esita te d : “ I ’ m n ot s u r e I c a n tel! the t r u t h . . .1 c a n o n ly tell w h a t I k n o w .” T h is w itn e ss, C liffo rd p o in ts o u t, “ sp o k e a rtfu lly in a d e te rm in in g c o n text o f p o w e r” ( 19 8 6 : 8 ). I t h a s b een a rg u e d th a t c lassific atio n is e th n o g ra p h y 's m e a n s o f c o n stru c ­ tio n , an d w e k n o w th at 11 is a r c h a e o lo g y ’ s m ean s o f re c o n stru ctio n . T h e r e is a s ta n d a r d list o f “ in stitu tio n s” in e th n o g ra p h ic re se a rc h , a n d m u ch in q u ir y is a b o u t w h a t fo rm s th ey take a n d h o w th ey c a m e in to e x isten ce. T h is list p ro ­ v id e s the ta b le o f con ten ts fo r the “ f u ll" d e sc rip tio n : so c ie ta l o r c u ltu ra l w h o le s a r c m a d e fro m th is list a n d e x ist (o n ly ) in te xts ( M a r c u s a n d C liffo rd 19 8 5 ). T h e “ in stitu tio n s” a re c o m p rise d o f m a n y a h is to ric a l e m p ir ic a l c a te ­ g o rie s d e sig n a te d b y eig h te e n th -ce n tu ry (an d la te r) E u r o p e a n c o n te x ts in w h ic h a n th ro p o lo g y d ev elo p ed . T h e y a r e m ore th an fa m ilia r to u s; th ey a r e th e g iv e n s o f o u r d isc o u rse a n d the o b je c t o f o u r in q u iry : c la s s , ra c e , h o u se­ h o ld , s ta te , so c ia l stru c tu re, ra n k in g , trad e, sta tu s, m an .

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W c have inherited these categories (and others); we continue to treat them as genera, o f which each ethnographic or historic context produced variants or species. W c think o f cach as having a given original form that changes under the effect o f such reified phenomena as population grow th, environmental change, o r hypcrcohercnce. O ur attempts to study the ethnographic or histori­ cal variations o f these categories is overshadowed by an implicit assumption o f continuity that makes the origins o f these ‘'things” the crucial issue. (M cG uire 1985; 2) W e co m e to o u r su b je c t w ith the im p licit “ ta b ic o f c o n te n ts,” a n d w h en w e a ssu m e th a t the “ u n its” a r e u n iv e rsa l c h a r a c te r is tic s o r a t lea st in h eren t “ p u lls ” in the d e v e lo p m e n t o f h u m a n so cieties, then w e im p lic itly o r e x p lic itly re ly on a se a rc h fo r o rig in s— o f d o m e stic a tio n , o f in e q u a lity , o f th e state. F u rth e rm o re , a s M c G u ir e ( 1 9 8 5 ) h a s a rg u e d , the o r ig in o f the sta te (or c iv iliz a tio n ) is seen a s “ the g re a t d iv id e in h u m an h isto ry , w h ic h s e p a ra te s us fro m o u r e g a lita ria n k in -cen tered p a s t.” W e see th is d iv isio n not a s a se rie s o f s e p a ra te h isto ries but a s an e v o lu tio n a ry b re a k . T h e p r im itiv e p e o p le s o f the w o rld h a v e been cast in a tim eless e th n o g ra p h ic presen t ( F a b ia n 19 8 3 ) on the o th e r sid e o f th is d iv id e : “ the c ra d le s o f c iv iliz a t io n . . . la y on the b rin k o f the g r e a t c h a s m lin ked in an a h isto ric a l p a s t” ( M c G u ir e 19 8 5 : 3). T h is “ g r e a t d iv id e ,” h isto ric a lly , d ifferen tiated a n th ro p o lo g ists a n th ro p o lo g ic a l a rc h a e o lo g ists fro m o th ers in the s o c ia l scien ces:

an d

In the 19th century intellectual subdivision o f the world, the prim itive fell to the anthropologist, and prehistory (the time before civilization introduced w rit­ ing) fell to (he anthropological (or prehistoric) archaeologist. T h e great divide— marked by the origin o f the state— defined a unique subject for a unique investigator. In so doing, it legitimated and perpetuated an atomistic, evolutionary view o f the world. (M cG uire 1985: 3 -4 ) It a ls o le g itim a te d the in te lle c tu a l p o sitio n o f th e a rc h a e o lo g is t w ith in a n th ro p o lo g y . A rc h a e o lo g y w a s o r ig in a lly fram ed w ith in a n th ro p o lo g y b e­ c a u se it cou ld be the w a y in w h ic h o r ig in s w ere so u g h t a n d the e v o lu tio n a ry fo rm s co u ld u n fo ld . “ P re h isto ry cou ld p ro v e e v o lu tio n ” (Ix>w ie *9 3 7 : 2 2 ; cited b y M ille r 19 8 3 : 5 ) . T h u s , o rig in s re se a rc h m a k e s a rc h a e o lo g y re le v a n t: w e tak e the a ttrib u te s o f the p re se n t an d o f “ u s” — ra n k in g , tra d e , the sta te , g e n d e r a sy m m e try ; o r, w e tak e the a ttrib u te s o r c h a ra c te ristic s w c th in k d iffe re n tia te u s fro m o th er c la sse s o f b e in g s— to o lm a k in g , fo o d -sh a rin g , la n g u a g e , sy m b o lism , fe m a le o r g a s m — a n d w e seek the o rig in s o f th ese: h o w , w h e r e , w h o , w h e n ? T h a t so m e e a r ly h o m in id s “ c o lo n iz e d ” the m o re n o rth ern ly la titu d e s o r A u s tr a lia g iv e s so m e c o n te m p o ra ry h u m a n p ra c tic e s— fo r e x a m p le , c o lo n iz a tio n — g re a t te m p o ra l d e p th a n d , b y e xten sio n , le g itim a c y . ( B y m a k in g N a tiv e A m e r ic a n s a n d A u s tr a lia n a b o rig in e s the o rig in a l c o lo n iz e rs, the a tro c itie s o f su b se q u e n t c o lo n ia lism s a r c d iffu sed .) T h u s , o rig in s in q u ir y n ot o n ly lin k s us

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to th e h u m a n a n d p re h u m a n past b u t a ls o le g itim a te s th o se in p o w e r ,ju s t ify ­ in g re se a rc h fu n d in g. O rig in s re se a rc h le g itim a te s us a s p ra c titio n e rs; o u r o rig in s in q u ir y is le g itim ated b y the th e o retical su p e rstru c tu re o f o u r ow n m a k in g .

Self'Ccnsciousness in Archaeology S u c h c la im s a b o u t the p rac tic e o f a rc h a e o lo g y a r e n ot p a rtic u la rly o rig in a l, a lth o u g h the e la b o ra tio n o f a c ritic a l self-c o n sc io u sn e ss o f the so cio p o !itics o f a rc h a e o lo g y is re la tiv e ly reccn t (e .g . G c r o c t a l. 19 8 3 ; G e r o 19 8 5 ; L eo n e 19 8 2 ; L e o n e et a !. 19 8 7 ; P a tte rso n 19 86 ; S h a n k s a n d T ille y 19 8 7 a , 19 8 7 6 ; S h cn n an 19 8 6 ; T r ig g e r 19 8 0 , 19 8 4 ; W vlic 19 8 5 ). L e o n e (n .d .) h a s a rg u e d that th ere a r e k e y d o m a in s in w h ic h a c ritic a l a n a ly s is ( o f a rc h a e o lo g ic a l p ractice) can h e lp u s b e tte r u n d e rsta n d the p a st an d o u r re la tio n sh ip to it. O n e such d o ­ m a in is in the la rg e p u b lic a rc h a e o lo g ic a l issu es, su ch a s a ll so rts o f h u m an o r ig in s q u e stio n s in w h ic h a rc h a e o lo g ic a l d a ta (an d th eir in terp retatio n s) p la y a c e n tr a l ro le in v e r ify in g p o sitio n s th at h a v e im p o rta n t p u b lic an d p o lit­ ic a l im p lic a tio n s. T h e a rc h a e o lo g ic a l to p ics that a r c r e g u la r ly rep o rted on in the N ew York Tim es (e s p e c ia lly the S c ie n c c se c tio n ), th at c o m p rise the few a rc h a e o lo g y cover stories on w eekly new s m agazin es (R ich a rd L ea k e y an d h u m an origin s in Tim e; an e a r ly C r o -M a g n o n a n d the o rig in s o f a rt in N ew sw etk), and th at d o m in a te th e a rc h a e o lo g y re p o rtin g in N ational Geographic (G e r o an d R o o t 19 8 9 ) a ll su p p o rt th e o b se rv a tio n th at (he q u e stio n s a b o u t o r ig in s — o f so c ia l in e q u a lity , w a r fa r e , te rrito ria lity , “ th e” sta te , " t h e ” fa m ily , a rt, sy m b o lism , re lig io n , o r o f sp e c ific g ro u p s (e a rly " m a n ” in the N e w W o rld , o r the first a n a to m ic a lly m o d e m h u m a n s)— a r c s p e c ific a lly related to gen d er, ra c e , c la s s an d fo rc ig n -p o lic y po litics in A m e ric a n life. T r ig g e r , fo r e x a m p le , sh o w s the effects o f the p o sitiv ism o f the " n e w a r c h a e o lo g y " o f the 19 6 0 s a n d 19 7 0 s: View ing the (Am erican) Indians’ past as a convenient laboratory for testing general hypotheses about sociocultural development and human behavior m ay be sim ply a more intellectualised manifestation o f the lack o f sym pathetic con­ cern for native peoples that in the past has permitted archaeologists to dispar­ age their cultural achievements, excavate their cemeteries, and display Indian skeletons in museums without taking thought for the feelings o f native peoples. ( T r ig g e r 19 80 : 6 7 1 )

T h a t is , n ot o n ly a r e th e p a rtic u la r to p ics th at a r e ch o sen fo r s tu d y so cia lly c o n stru c te d , b u t a lso a p a rtic u la r c p istc m o lo g y (p o sitiv ism ) is related to/ e n d o rse d b y the sa m e s o c ia l con texts. W e h a v e se t o rig in s a p a r t, a n a ly tic a lly , fro m the fo rm s th at p h en o m en a m a y tak e ; th a t is, w c h a v e isolated the s tu d y o f the o rig in s o f " a r t , ” o f “ the fa m ily ,” o r o f “ the s ta te ” a p a rt fro m th e ir h isto ric a l c o n te x ts an d h isto rical fo rm a tio n s. It is o n ly re c e n tly th a t w e h a v e co m e to d isc u ss, fo r e x a m p le , th at

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th ere is n o su c h u n ified p h en o m en o n a s “ the s ta te ” (e .g . G a ile y 19 8 5 , 19 8 7 ; M c G u ir c 19 8 5 ; S ilv e r b la tt 19 8 8 , a n d th is v o lu m e ). T h e r e a r e o n ly s ta le s , set in p a r t ic u la r h isto ric a l in sta n c es. B u t “ o r ig in s ” h a v e been c o n stru (c t)c d as k n o w a b lc en tities a m e n a b le to p o sitiv ist in q u irie s; en tities th at c a n n o t o n ly b e lo c ated sp a tio te m p o ra lly b ut a lso m a n ip u la te d , a s d isc u sse d b e lo w , to fit th e a rc h a e o -lo g ic . T h is c o n stru c tio n o f o rig in s a s k n o w a b le e n tities, a s o b je c ts o f k n o w led g e, fo llo w s d ire c tly from the p ra c tic e o f a rc h a e o lo g y that sets “ the p a st” asid e from the p re sen t, a t least at o n e a n a ly tic a l lev el. T h is a llo w s us (o c o n c e iv e o f “ it” a s a s e p a r a te “ k n o w -a b le ” e n tity o r o b je c t o f o u r in q u iry . T h is ten d s to in h ib it o u r c o n fro n tin g the w a y s in w h ic h a sp e c ts o f the p a st— i f not the v e ry su b jc c t m a tte rs o f the p a st— a r e d efin ed a n d red efin ed in relatio n to the p resen t. Anachronisms and the Research Cone A lth o u g h a rc h a e o lo g y , too, h a s its “ ta b le o f c o n te n ts,” its list o f in stitu tio n s a n d c u ltu ra l p h e n o m e n a to seek the o rig in s o f a n d to u se a s th e th em es an d tro p e s fo r w ritin g the p a st, not a ll p h en o m en a a r e th o u g h t to b e e q u a lly k n o w a b le o r “ re c o v e ra b le ”

a r c h a e o lo g ic a lly . T h e r e h a s lo n g p re v a ile d a

“ la d d e r o f in fe re n ce ” (in the sen se o f the n in e te e n th -c e n tu ry F re n c h so c io lo ­ g ist, A . C o m te ) an d a h ie ra rc h y o fk n o w a b lc s (e .g . H a w k c s 19 5 4 ) , in the sen se th a t a sp e c ts o f tech n o lo g y, e c o n o m y , an d the “ im m e d ia te ly m a te r ia l” a r c th o u g h t to b e m o re re a d ily in ferred a n d “ k n o w n ” b y a rc h a e o lo g ic a l re se a rc h , w h e re a s the m o re so c ia l, sy m b o lic , re lig io u s, a n d s p iritu a l a re th o u g h t to be in c r e a s in g ly in a c c e ssib le . A lth o u g h the recent in flu en ce o f a s tru c tu ra list m eth od h a s a llo w e d m ore w o rk on the m ore c o g n itiv e , sy m b o lic , an d so cial (e .g . D e etz 19 7 7 : H o d d e r 19 8 20 , b y c ; L e o n e 19 8 2 ) , w h a t is p a rtic u la rly re l­ e v a n t h ere is n ot the d e b a te o v e r o n to lo g ic a l issu es an d k n o w led g e c la im s but w h a t h a s h a p p e n e d to certain o f th ese m o re-o r-less k n o w a b le a sp e c ts o f the p a s t in relationship to the present. W ith in th e p a st tw e n ty -fiv e y e a r s , a n ew field h a s e m erg ed w ith in a n th r o p o lo g y — p a le o a n th ro p o lo g y — th at h a s co m e to be d e fin e d e x p lic itly a s the s tu d y o f h u m a n o rig in s (W oipufT 19 8 0 : v ) .4 In co n ju n c tio n w ith this fie ld , th is sa m e tim e p e rio d h a s w itn e sse d the in v e stig a tio n o f m a n y a sp e c ts o f h u m a n o rig in s, p a rtic u la rly re la tin g to the e a rlie st m ille n ia o f h o m in id s a n d th e ir d e v e lo p m e n t to w a rd a n a to m ic a lly m od ern h u m a n s. W e m a in ta in a se q u e n tia l n a rra tiv e o f h u m a n e v o lu tio n , b u t it is a lw a y s c h a n g in g , at lea st in te rm s o f w h e re c e rta in v a r ia b le s a r e first fo u n d a lo n g the tra je c to ry o f o u r e v o lu tio n a r y p a th . B u t a ll c a te g o rie s o f e v id e n c e — “ r e a d ” p r im a r y a n d esse n tia l fe a tu re s o f h u m a n it y — a r c n ot e q u a lly m a lle a b le in th eir p o sitio n in g a lo n g the tr a je c ­ to ry . A s p e c ts o f b io lo g y a n d tech n o lo g y h a v e been p u sh ed b ac k in tim e, g iv e n , th e re fo re , g r e a te r a n tiq u ity , a n d b ecom e m o re “ n a tu r a l” an d “ g iv e n .”

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J u s t c o m p a rc w ith th o se o f the 19 6 0 s the c u rre n tly a c c e p te d d a te s fo r the first true h o m in id s a n d b ip c d a lism ( 1 . 6 m illio n y e a rs a g o v s. 3 - 4 m illio n y e a rs a g o ); fo r the e a rlie st sto n e tools { 1 . 5 m illio n y e a r s a g o v s. p e rh a p s 3 m illio n y e a rs a g o ) ; a n d even b ra in re o rg a n iz a tio n , le a d in g to o u r h e ra ld e d c c rc b ra l d o m in a n c e ( 1 .8 m illio n y e a rs a g o v s . m ore th an 3 m illio n y e a rs a g o ). T h e r e a r e a ls o a rg u m e n ts fo r the d e lib e ra te h o m in id m a ste ry o f fire a t m o re th an 1 m illio n y e a r s a g o , p u sh in g it b ac k from the p re v io u sly clatm cd .4 to .6 m illio n y e a r s a g o (T o th a n d S ch ick 19 8 6 ). Y e t th o se c a te g o rie s o f evid en ce (an d th o se c u ltu ra l p h en o m en a) th a t a rc “ le ss-k n o w a b le ” — a n d yet a ls o m ore s c c u rc ly m o d ern a n d fu lly h u m a n — h a v e n ot (d esp ite attem p ts) b een su c c c sfu lly p u sh ed b a c k in tim e: the first “ a r t ” ; la n g u a g c -a s-w c -k n o tv -it, a n d , b y e xten sio n , fu lly s y m b o lic b e h a v io rs; eth n ic o r at le a st “ id en tity -co n scio u s so c ia l g r o u p s ” ; so c ia l a g g r e g a tio n s ; re ­ g io n a l a llia n c c n e tw o rk s, an d so fo rth h a v e a ll been k ep t q u ite c lo se to “ u s ’ ’ an d to the e m e rg e n ce an d sp re a d o f a n a to m ic a lly m o d ern h u m a n s, Homo sapiens sapiens. T h is d ifferen tial em p h a sis on certain v a r ia b le s an d the s u b se q u e n t d iffer­ en ce s in w h ic h v a r ia b le s a rc m ore lik ely o r m o re e a sily “ p u sh e d b a c k ” c a n be seen in the sa m e term s that th e h isto ria n D c L iv r c ( 19 7 4 ) h a s u sed to a n a ly z e o ra l h isto rie s o f the seq u en tial k in g s a m o n g the M a la g a s y , w h o e sta b lish th e ir p o sitio n s a s th ey com e into office b y e m p lo y in g w h a t D e L iv r e c a lls a sc e n d in g a n d d e sc e n d in g a n a c h ro n ism s (see K u s 19 8 6 fo r the in tro d u c tio n o f D e L iv r e ’s w o rk in to the a rc h a e o lo g ic a l lite ra tu re ). W ith e a c h new' k in g , ev e n ts from th e p a st tend to b e r e a rra n g e d a s to w h en th ey h ap p en ed in re la tio n to the k in g ’s h a v in g c o m c in to officc; th at is, a s in a rc h a e o lo g ic a l h isto rie s, a sp e c ts o f the past a r e red efin ed in re la tio n to the p resen t. A s c e n d in g an a c h ro n ism s a r e those ev e n ts th at a re p u sh ed b ac k a n d th u s “ n a tu r a liz e d ” — g iv e n c o n .in u ity an d te n a c ity . D e sc e n d in g a n a c h ro n ism s a r e e v e n ts th at a r e p u sh ed a h e a d in a c h ro n o lo g ic a l se q u e n c e ; su c h even ts a r e “ d ra w n in ” c lo se r to the p resen t w h e re th ey m a y b e c o m e a p a rt o f — i f not a d e fin e r o f — o u r o w n “ cu ltu ra l p ro w e ss” ( K u s 19 8 6 ). I f o n e o v e r la y s (fig . 1 ) the set o f e v e n ts in the h u m a n c a r e e r o v e r the “ la d d e r o f in feren ce” th at H a w k e s ( 1 9 5 4 ) h a s su g g e ste d fo r a r c h a e o lo g y — w ith the d e c r e a sin g re lia b ility o f k n o w led g e a s o n e m o v e s fro m left (te c h ­ n iq u e s o f m a n u fa c tu re ) to right (sp iritu a l life )— th ere is a c e rta in c o n g ru e n c e b e tw e e n those p h e n e m o n a an d th o se “ o r ig in s ” th at can b e p u sh ed b ac k an d th o se th at c a n be m ost re lia b ly “ k n o w n .” D r a w in g on the e p iste m o lo g ic a l p re fe re n c e s o f a rc h a e o lo g y that hold not o n ly th at te c h n o -e n v iro n m e n ta l pro* cesses a r c m o re c a u s a l (c e rta in ly m ore c a u s a l th an s o c ia l o r sy m b o lic p ro ­ ce sse s) in u n d e rsta n d in g p reh isto ric c u ltu re c h a n g e (e.g. G o u ld a n d W atso n 19 8 2 ; c .f. B in fo rd 19 8 0 v s. W icssn e r 19 8 2 ), b u t a lso th a t th ey a r c m o re kn o w a b le , h a s e n a b le d the p riv ile g in g o f o r ig in s re se a rc h in to su c h tcch n o eco lo g ir a l p h e n o m en a th a t, in turn , p ro v id e s an “ a r c h a e o -lo g ic a l” a c c o u n t a n d an

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Fig. 4. A n exam ple o f the public dissemination («V) o f the narrative o f ' ‘o u r" evolu­ tion, which “ shows” us how, in tracing the roots o f m odem man, the M other o f Us A ll gave rise to Ja v a , Petralona, and Peking M an: the “ resu lt" o f our evolution is a not-her*story. © San Francisco Chronicle. Reprinted by permission.

cesses o f a n a to m ic a lly m od ern h u m a n s, Homo sa p io u sapiens, so m e w h e re aro u n d 3 5 ,0 0 0 to 4 0 ,0 0 0 y e a r s a g o . A lth o u g h rccen t d isc o v e rie s a n d m u ch e a r lie r d a te s on fo ssils o f m o d ern h u m a n s a n d /o r th e ir p re su m e d c u ltu ra l m a te ria ls h a v e rec ast E u ro p e in to a " l a t e ” n ich e for th ese m o d ern h u m a n s (L e w in 19 8 7 6 ; D ib b le a n d M o n tc t-W h itc 19 8 8 ), the c u ltu r a l rcco rd o f d e n se a rc h a e o lo g ic a l site s, a b u n d a n t a n d d iv e rse m a te ria l c u ltu re , a n d the p re se n ce o f “ a r t ” a n d im a g e ry in m a n y m ed ia an d fo rm s fro m S p a in a c ro ss in to the

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c c n tra l R u s s ia n p la in h ave a lw a y s (an d c o n tin u e to) p ro v id e fo r th e m o d e m h u m a n s o f th is tim e and p la c c a m ost p riv ile g e d p o sition in the n a r ra tiv e o f h u m a n c u ltu ra l acco m p lish m en ts. T h is is not the p lacc to q u estio n w h y o n ly the U p p e r P a le o lith ic im a g e ry o f E u r o p e an d R u s s ia should be tak en a s /A* o rig in s o f “ a r t ” (C o n k e y 19 8 3 ). T h e r e is m u ch im a g e ry e lsw h c re on the g lo b e in Ic e A g e tim es (cf. B a h n a n d V c r t u t 19 8 8 ); a n d w c sh o u ld not, in a n y e v en t, la b e l th is im a g e ry a s “ a r t ” o r e v e n a tte m p t to acco u n t fo r 2 5 ,0 0 0 y e a r s o f w id e sp re a d im agery’ in m a n y m e d ia a n d fo rm s w ith in an in c lu siv e ( i f not m o n o lith ic) in te rp re ta tio n (e .g ., B re u il 19 5 2 ; L e ro i-G o u rh a n 19 6 5 ; M a rsh a c k 19 7 7 ; see C o n k e y 19 8 7 , n .d ., for re v ie w s). A m o n g the m ore p o p u la r an d fre q u e n tly rep ro d u ced P a le o lith ic im a g e s a r e the fe m a le statu ettes, often ca lle d “ V e n u s fig u rin e s” (see I Jc k o 19 6 8 : 4 09 —4 1 4 , fo r a d iscu ssio n on the h isto ry o f the la b e l, “ M o th e r G o d d e s s ” for s u c h fig u re s). A n d , a s B a h n (19 8 6 ) h a s p o in ted o u t, these sta tu e tte s a n d the e a r lie r so -c a lle d v u lv a -im a g c r y h a v e “ c o n trib u ted m u ch to w ard a b e lie f in th e im p o rta n c e o f fe rtility an d se x u a l sy m b o lism in P a le o lith ic ic o n o g r a p h y ” (B a h n 19 8 6 : 9 9 ; an d see, fo r so m e e x tre m e s to w h ich th is b e lie f c a n go , G u th r ie 19 8 4 ; C o llin s an d O n ia n s 19 7 8 ). N o w it is the c a se that a m o n g the e a rlie st (c. 3 2 ,0 0 0 y e a r s ag o ) p re se rv e d im a g e ry a r e so m e o v a lo id , tria n g u lo id sh a p e d e n g ra v in g s on sto n e sla b s, w h ic h h a v e d e riv e d from a few sites in a lo c a liz e d v a lle y in so u th w e ste rn F r a n c e (se e D c llu c a n d D e llu c (9 7 8 fo r a d e ta ile d d e sc rip tio n ). B a h n (19 8 6 : 9 9 - 1 0 1 ) tells the sto ry o f h o w the e n e rg e tic P a le o lith ic a rt s c h o la r , the F re n c h p rie st H en ri B re u il, c a m e to “ id e n tify ”

these s h a p e s a s fem ale

v u lv a s .8 “ O n e su b je c tiv e in te rp re ta tio n o f c e rta in s h a p e s,”

w rites B a h n

( 19 8 6 : 9 9 ), “ h a s becom e an idee fix e a n d o n e o f the m ost d u r a b le m y th s o f p r e h is to r y .” T h is is not ju s t a n id le an d titilla tin g e x a m p le a m o n g m a n y s u b je c tiv e in terp retatio n s. T h is d ep ictio n o f (su p p o se d ly ) fe m a le g e n ita lia fro m the b e g in n in g o f U p p e r P a le o lith ic im a g e -m a k in g , an d th e v e ry e a r ly (in 1 9 1 1 ) “ id e n tifica tio n ” o f the im a g e ry a s fe m a le g e n ita lia , h a v e c o n trib ­ u ted in sig n ific a n t w a y s to p a rtic u la r (th o u g h often im p lic it) r e p re se n ta ­ tio n s o f w o m en a n d o f g en d er re la tio n s in the o rig in s sto ry th at re v e a ls fo r us h o w “ w e ” b e c a m e fu lly sy m b o lic m o d ern Homo sapiens sapiens in “ o u r ” E u ro c e n tric h o m elan d . (S e e fig. 5 , the c o v e r o f the N o v e m b e r 10 , 19 8 6 , N ew sweek, w h ic h — w ith a w h ite, R e m b ra n d t-lo o k in g m a le — p ro c la im s the c o v e r story' to b e a b o u t “ T h e W a y We W e re ” ; th is c e rta in ly in v ite s the c o llo q u ia l re p ly : “ Wrhat d o yo u n:ean b y « * ? .” ) T h e la te A n d re L e ro i-G o u rh a n

(e .g .

19 6 5 ,

19 6 8 ,

19 7 8 )

a rg u e d

th at

P a le o lith ic im a g e ry is t i c p ro d u ct o f a n u n d e rly in g g e n e r a tiv e “ m y th o g r a m ” b ase d 011 p rin c ip le s o f m a le a n d fe m a le c o m p le m e n ta rity a n d o p p o sitio n . T h is h a s b een the m ost in c lu siv e an d a n th ro p o lo g ic a lly p ro v o c a tiv e o f the recent in te rp re ta tio n s o f P a le o lith ic c a v e a rt. L e ro i-G o u r h a n h im se lf noted

Fig. 5. T h e cover o f Newsweek suggests that our modern origins lie in the European Ice Age, where U pper Paleolithic peoples are attributed with the very categories o f life that feature so prominently in contem porary upper-/middle-class white Am erica: “ language, art, fashion, and the fa m ily "— regular features o f such media as the Sun­ day New York Times Magazine. O ne might also note the implied whiteness and maleness o f these ancestors in the artist's drawing o f this progenitor: his resemblance to such prominent Western artists as Rem brandt is also problematic. Reprinted by perm is­ sion from Newmxek.

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th at ih c e n tire b a sis fo r his m > th o g ram rests on the a sse rtio n th a t som e o f the sig n s a r e e x p lic it re p resen tatio n s o f It sexe Jem in in (L e ro i-G o u r h a n 19 7 3 : 9 1 ) . H o w e v e r, th ere is a la rg e r point to b e m a d e th an th at o n e im p o rta n t in terp ic ta tiu u o f c a v e ai 1 is U iitrcllj d u ived 1'iuiii asM/i liou& a b o u t ic p ie s e n ta iio n s o f fc m a lc n c ss. W c h a v e been o p e ra tin g w ith the lo n g -sta n d in g im p licit a ssu m p tio n th a t e v e n in the U p p e r P a le o lith ic , w o m e n — o r p a rts o f them — w e re n ot o n ly su ita b le b ut d e sira b le a s o b je c ts o f d e p ic tio n , a s cu ltu ra l c o m ­ m o d ities. W h en w e co m e to s tu d y P a leo lith ic v isu a l im a g e s a s “ a r t ,” w c d ra w h e a v i­ ly on “ s tro n g c o v e rt in fluences o f p o w e rfu l m o d ern id e o lo g ie s” (D a v is 19 8 5 : 9 ) a s to w h a t c o n stitu tes som e o f the fu n d a m e n ta l c a te g o rie s w ith w h ich w e w o rk (P re z io si 19 8 2 ). W e h a v e y e t to w o rk th ro u gh w h at it is th at co n stitu tes “ an im a g e .” W ith the “ id e n tifica tio n ” o f the v u lv a e , it w a s e a sy fo r ‘ sc h o l­ a r s ” to su g g e st the d evelo p m en t o f an a rtistic trad itio n o f d e p ic tin g fem ales w ith p a r tic u la r atten tio n to th eir re p ro d u c tiv e p a rts, a n d to assu m e th at th ese d e p ic tio n s in d ic a te rcv c re n c c for fe m a le fe rtility . T h is , in tu rn , a llo w s the fu rth e r u n sp o ken a ssu m p tio n th at it w a s th e P a le o lith ic men (m ales) w h o w e re the a rtists. In n e a r ly ev ery text, p o p u la r m a g a z in e , o r o th e r so u rce that I h a v e fo u n d only m a le s a re d ep icted in the act o f im a g e -m a k in g , from c a v c w a ll a rt to fe m a le fig u rin e s.9 T h e s ta tis tic s, h o w e v e r, d o not su p p o rt the id ea th at fe m a le s d o m in a te the h u m a n im a g e s; th ere is P a lc o .ith ic m ale im a g e ry an d m u ch th at is “ n eu ter” (i.e ., not c le a r ly a ttr ib u ta b le to the m a le o r fe m a le sex) (D e lp o rte 19 7 9 ; U c k o a n d R o se n fe ld 19 7 2 ) . A n d inn>far a s th ere is im a g e r y o f fe m a le s, it d o cs not n e c e ssa rily fo llo w th at it is (all) m a d e b y m a le s an d fo r m a le s. In p a rtic u la r, th e re is n o e v id e n c e th at these d e p ic tio n s acted a s c o m m o d ifie d im a g e ry — a s both p o rn o g ra p h ic a n d “ h igh a r t ” re p re se n ta tio n s o f se x u a liz c d w o m en h a v e in W e ste rn h isto ry . T h e priest, B rc u il, h o w e v e r, w a s not tro u b led b y the n eed to a v o id su c h a n a c h ro n is tic ir.feren ces. H e a ssu m e d th at the P a le o lith ic low r c lie f e n g r a v in g o f “ r e c lin in g " w o m en at L e M a g d c le in e (P en n e, T a m [F r a n c e ] ) w a s p la c e d there " t o g iv e P a le o lith ic m an p le a su re d u rin g h is m e a ls ” (B re u il 19 5 4 1 cited b y U c k o a n d R o se n fe ld 19 6 7 : 1 1 9 ) . T h e p re sen tist g e n d e r p a ra d ig m h a s infused m ost re c o n stru ctio n s o f U p p e r P a le o lith ic “ a r tis tic ” life. W c can n ow read a b o u t h o w the “ fe rtile ” fe m a le sta tu e tte s (m a d e b y m ales) c a n be tak en a s e v id e n c e fo r the m a le a p p r o p r ia tio n o f fe m a le la b o r (P a ris 19 8 3 ) , o r a b o u t h o w P a le o lith ic art is a ll “ a b o u t” m a le h u n tin g a n d se x u a l p ro w e ss (G u th rie 19 8 4 ). in c lu d in g fe m a le im a g e r y a s “ tro p h y ” (see also E a to n 19 7 8 ). W e a r c told h o w im a g e s c a n be v is u a l a n d ta c tile su b stitu te s for d e la y e d m ale s e x u a l g r a tific a tio n s (C o llin s a n d O n ia n s 19 7 8 ). T h u s , sex ist tw en tieth -cen tu ry n o tio n s o fg e n d e r a n d se x u a lity a r e re a d in to the c u ltu ra l tracos o f “ o u r a n c e sto rs.” T h e a u th o r ity re sid in g in “ o r ig in s ” then fu rth e r legitim izes a n d n a tu ra liz e s th ese (c u rre n tly con tested ) n otio n s.

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A R E T H E R E A N Y C O N C L U S IO N S ? T h e m a jo r im p lic a tio n , to d a te , th en , o f o rig in s rc sc a rc h for w o m en a n d for in fe re n ce s a b o u t g e n d e r in th e h u m a n p a st is th at th ere is n o s u b sta n tiv e p lac e fo r w o m en in t h e ‘ 'h u m a n c a r e e r " on e a r t h .10 R a th e r th an p ro d u c in g n a rra tiv e s th at

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in

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ta n c o u s co n flict an d c o o p e ra tio n , a s e q u a l h isto ric a l a g e n ts, a n d a s situ a tio n a lly e n g a g e d in d iv e rse re la tio n sh ip s, e v o lu tio n a ry an d a rc h a e o lo g ic a l n a r ra to r s h a v e w ritten a n o t-h er-v ersio n o f o u r p a st. O r ig in s rc s c a rc h , I h a v e su g g e ste d , h as sim u lta n e o u sly g e n e ra te d “ n a r r a ­ tiv e s o f c lo s u re “ (E ls h ta in 19 8 6 )— in w h ic h o u r im a g in a tiv e p o w e rs a b o u t the m a n y w a y s in w h ic h p eo p le c o u ld h a v e liv e d a r c s u p p re ss e d — a n d p riv ile g e d the te c h n o -e n v iro n m e n ta l d o m a in , p a rtic u la rly for the lo n g est a n d m ost fo rm a tiv e (th e y s a y ) stretc h o f h u m a n life, from h o m in id o r ig in s th ro u g h the rise o f a g ric u ltu re to the a p p e a r a n c e o f states. R e c a ll th a t m ost o f so -c a llc d “ h a llm a r k s ” o f h u m an e v o lu tio n a rc lin ked to te c h n o -e n v iro n m e n ta l co n tro l: to o ls, fire , h u n tin g , fo o d -sto rag e , c o m p o site tools, la n g u a g e , a g ric u ltu re , m e ta llu r g y , a n d so forth . T h e “ A g e s o f M a n ” h a v e a lw a y s been d e fin e d in te c h n o lo g ica l term s: P a le o lith ic . N e o lith ic , B ro n z e A g e , Iro n A g e . A n d this p riv ile g in g o f tech n o lo g ical in n o va tio n an d con tro l is c le a r ly so c io h isto ric a lly c o n tin g e n t: Technological innovation has in our time the certainty— and ihe moral, intel­ lectual and social significance— that theological speculation had in the m ediev­ al period. (H arding and O ’ B arr 19 8 7 :4 7 , in an editorial note on M cG aw 1987) T h is p riv ile g in g o f the tec h n o -e n v iro n m e n ta l c o m es in a p a c k a g c o f rein ­ fo rc in g a ssu m p tio n s th at le a v e s v e r y little sp a c e fo r fem in ist th in k in g . F irst, onlologically, the te c h n o -e n v iro n m e n ta l d o m ain h a s b een c o n sid ered to be m ore c a u s a l in c u ltu re c h a n g e . S e c o n d , episltmologicaUy\ tec h n o lo g ica l p h e ­ n o m e n a an d even a sp e c ts o f eco n o m y a re c o n sid ered to b e m o re “ kn o w a b le . ” T h ir d , the p h en o m en a th ro u g h w h ic h te c h n o -e n v iro n m e n ta l co n tro l c a n be effected , an d w h ic h c o n stitu te the preferred data (b o n e s, sto n e to o ls), a r e m o re lik ely to b e treated a s a sc e n d in g a n a c h ro n ism s an d a re re a d ily “ p u sh e d b ack,*’ so th at g re a te r a n tiq u ity a n d a m o re “ n a tu r a l” sta te to su ch h a llm a rk s a r e a ssu re d . T h u s , h u m a n te c h n o -en v iro n m en tal effectiven ess is n a tu ra liz e d . F o u rth , b e c a u se th ere is the tacit a sso cia tio n o f th ese a c tiv itie s , o b je c ts, an d th e v e r y acts o f in n o va tio n w ith m a le s, o th er c h a ra c te ristic s arc n a tu ra liz e d a s w e ll: m a le in stru m e n ta lism , a s in m a n -th e -to o lm a k e r (b u t cf. G c r o 19 9 0 f o r a c ritiq u e ); m a lc -a s -p ro v id c r; m a lc -a s-in n o v a to r: m a n /a c tiv e w o m a n / p a s s iv e . E v e n the la b els fo r m a n y a rc h a e o lo g ic a l site s a re in tech n o e n v iro n m e n ta l term s: h u n tin g sta n d s, lith ic p ro d u ctio n site , q u a r r y in g sites, b a se c a m p s. W h o e v e r h eard o f re p h ra sin g su ch site ty p es in to term s h a v in g to d o w ith h y p o th esized so c ia l re la tio n s, su ch a s a h u n tin g sta n d b e in g c a lle d in ste a d a m a le -b o n d in g site (C h r is H o ffm an : p ers. c o m m .)?

ORIGINAL NARRATIVES W atso n a n d

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h a v e sh o w n

123

how

the a n th ro p o lo g ic a l

“ g iv e n s ” o f m a le /a c tiv e /h u n ie r a n d fe m a le /p a s siv e / p la n ts , w h ich a r c d e e p ly e m b e d d e d in o r ig in s acco u n ts, h a v e led to the m o st in gen io u s a n d p ro b le m ­ a tic (u n lik e ly ) sc e n a rio s fo r the c u ltu ra l in n o v a tio n (i.e. o rig in s) o f p la n t d o m e stic a tio n

in

the

U .S . n o rth e a ste rn

w o o d la n d s.

They

re v e a l

how

re s e a rc h e rs — in o rd e r to av o id a d isru p tio n o f the sa c re d a s s o d a tio n a l c h a in o f fe m a le /p a ss iv e / p la n ts th at w o u ld su g g e st fem alc/fff/Jtr/p lam s (an d th e re ­ fo re ,

w o m en

as

in n o va to rs

o f p la n t

d o m e stic a tio n /a g ric u ltu re )— h a v e

in vo k ed a s c a u sa l either a sh am an (m a le , o f c o u rse ), w h o se c e re m o n ia l use o f g o u rd ra ttle s led h im to d o m e stic a te c u c u rb its, or the id e a o f " c o e v o lu tio n ” — th at the d o m e stic a b ility an d in c re a sin g p ro d u ctio n o f c e rta in p la n t sp e c ie s g r a d u a lly h ap p en ed on its o w n in the d istu rb e d a r e a s o f liv in g site s; th at is, th at the p la n ts c o m e stic a te d th em selv es! M a n y o f the q u e stio n s and d isc u ssio n s on g e n d e r, a s now p h ra se d , b e ­ co m e irre le v a n t i f w c reject “ o rig in s re s e a r c h ,” a s it h a s com e to b e c o n c e p ­ tu a liz e d an d p r a c tic e d — a so cio p o litical s tra te g y o f in tellectu al te rrito ria lity in the s e rv ic e o f a n e ver-en d in g refin em en t o n the n a r ra tiv e o f “ p ro g re ssiv e m o n o c u ltu re .” W e n eed not d en y the e x iste n ce o f a n d the in q u iry in to p e r v a ­ s iv e o r e v e n “ g lo b a l p ro cesses u n e v e n ly at w o r k " (C liffo rd 1988: 17 ) in o rd e r to w rite o th er n a r ra tiv e s . B u t w c d o n eed to p r o b le m a t ic the c a te g o rie s an d th e o b je c ts o f k n o w led g e. O r ig in s re se a rc h h a s en co u rag ed a h isto ric a l a n d d e co n te x tu a liz e d a n a ly ­ sis an d in te rp re ta tio n . T h e stu d y o f P a le o lith ic “ a r t” im a g e ry k not re le v a n t b e c a u se it is the o r ig in s o f a n y th in g ; it is a n th ro p o lo g ic a lly in te re stin g an d r e le v a n t b e c a u se w c h a v e a rich a rc h a e o lo g ic a l reco rd d e riv in g fro m the p ro ­ d u c tio n a n d re p ro d u ctio n o f sy m b o lic rep e rto ire s in a v a rie ty o f h isto ric a l a n d so c ia l c o n te x ts o v e r m a n y m ille n ia a n d th o u san d s o f kilom eters. T h e d e b a te o v e r m a n -th c * h im ic r/w o m a n -ih c -g a th c rc r is r e a lly a d e b a te o v e r w h e n tw o v e ry n in e te c n ih -ce n tu ry so c ia l sc ie n c e in stitu tio n s c a m e in to b e in g : the n u c le a r fa m ily and a g e n d e r-b a se d d iv isio n o f la b o r. T h is d e b a te sh o u ld b e tra n sfo rm e d in to a series o f in q u irie s in to th e so cial re la tio n s o f p ro d u c tio n , in to p a r tic u la r fo od -gettin g stra te g ie s in v a r y in g so cio h isto ric a l c o n te xts in w h ic h g e n d e r relatio n s a r e not “ g iv e n s ” b u t h isto rical forces. P r e v io u s ly

n e g lr c tc d

a re a s o f in q u ir y , s u c h

uti w o m e n -VS s p i n n e r s a n d

w e a v e rs in the A z te c sta te , b ecom e d o m a in s in w h ic h w e can not o n ly “ s e e ” w o m en in the p a st, b u t in w h ich th eir a c tiv itie s— a s B ru m ficl a r g u e s (19 9 0 ; see a ls o M c C a fle r ty a n d M c C a ffe rtv 19 8 8 , n .d .) — sh o u ld be u n d ersto o d in the c o n te xt o f, a s p a rt of, an d a c o n trib u to r to ( if not the v e ry b a sis fo r) the e c o n o m y o f th e A ztec sta te , w h ich e x p e rie n c e s its ow n h isto ric a l tra je c to ry . It is n ot e n o u g h to m a k e w o m en v isib le b y e lu c id a tin g “ w o m en ’s ro le s” in so m e n o rm a liz in g w a y ; th is m e re ly fra m e s in , e n clo ses, an d p o sitio n s w o m en (an d m en ) in e x p e c ta b le , n o rm a iiv iz c d , h o m o g en ized w a y s (H a n d sm a n

19 8 8 ,

199°) -

E v e n i f w o m e n — a s a p a rtic u la r so c ia l g r o u p — d o a p p a r e n tly lose so cial

124

ORIGINAL NARRATIVES

g r o u n d , su c h a s w ith the S p a n ish ta k e o v e r o f th e In c a , w h a t is a n th ro p o lo g i­ c a lly in te re stin g , a s S ilv e r b la tt h a s sh o w n ( 1 9 8 7 , 19 8 8 . th is v o lu m e ) is how the p a r tic u la r so c ia l fo rm atio n s o f the In c a a re tra n sfo rm e d in to th o se o f the S p a n is h . T o seek the o rig in s o f fe m a le su b o rd in a tio n is to a c c c p t th is a s n a tu ­ ral a n d le g itim a te , r a th e r than a s a p a rtic u la r h isto ric a l p ro c c ss o f v a r ia b le fo rm s an d w ith its o w n h isto ries. W e h a v e tried 10 sh o w h ere ju s t so m e o f the w a y s in w h ic h c e rta in c o n c e p ­ tu a liz a tio n s o f g e n d e r a rc em b ed d ed in an d stru c tu re o rig in s re se a rc h so that o r ig in s re s e a rc h — a s p re se n tly p ra c tic e d — then stru c tu re s a n d p erp e tu a te s c e rta in p e rsp e c tiv e s on g e n d e r an d g e n d e r rela tio n s, b o th in the p ast a n d in a rc h a e o lo g ic a l p ra c tic e . W o m en a r e tak en to be re p ro d u c e rs, p a ssiv e , o u tsid e th e p riv ile g e d tcch n o -e n v iro n m e n ta l d o m a in , a n d a s m ere c u ltu ra l o b je c ts, n e v e r c u ltu ra l a g e n ts. T h e u n critic al a n d u n q u estio n ed e x p la n a tio n o f o r i­ g in s { o r o f “ the p a s t” ) p resu m es a re la tio n sh ip b etw een the p a st an d p resen t th a t o fte n re p ro d u ce s in ta ct an d u n ch a lle n g e d m od ern c o n c c p ts o f tim e, c a u s a lity , c o n sc io u sn e ss,11 a n d so cial relatio n s.

W H A T A R E S O M E Q U E S T IO N S N O W ? G iv e n th e rich tra d itio n o f fem in ist re se a rc h in re la te d field s, the ra p id e v o lu ­ tion o f fem in ist th eo ries, an d the in c re a sin g co n cern w ith g e n d e r stu d ie s a n d / o r fe m in ist re se a rc h in th e lite ra tu re o f a rc h a e o lo g y its e lf (e .g . C o n k e y an d S p c c to r 19 8 4 ; H o d d e r 19 8 6 : 1 5 9 - 1 6 1 ) , w c c a n id en tify at lea st th ree im p o r­ ta n t g e n e r a l d o m a in s fo r in q u iry th at sh o u ld h a v e su rfa c e d s o m e tim e a g o . F ir s t, w c a r e ju s t c o m in g to k n o w

m o re— a n d

from

e x p lic it ‘ ‘ ease

s tu d ie s ” — a b o u t w o m en in p re h isto ry , a b o u t w o m en a s p ro d u c e rs o f la b o r, a n d /o r a b o u t w o m en a s p ro d u c e rs o f m ean in g . T h e lite ra tu re o f the n ext d e c a d e w ill b e p a rtic u la rly rich in this re g a rd fo r a n u m b e r o f reaso n s. W e h a v e a lr e a d y seen {e .g . the p a p e rs in G e r o a n d C o n k e y 19 9 0 ) th at the w ays in w h ic h a rc h a e o lo g ists can d o re se a rc h a b o u t w o m en in the p a st a r e so v a rie d a n d d iffe re n t th at th ere need n ot b e a p ro g ra m m a tic w a y to u se a r c h a e o lo g i­ c a l d a t a . F u rth e rm o re , w e a n tic ip a te th at w e n eed n ot re p e a t the p ro b le m a tic a sp e c ts o f “ m e re ly r e m e d ia l” research , w h ic h ju s t “ a d d w o m en a n d s tir” ( B o x e r 19 8 2 ; L e rn e r 19 8 6 ; S c o tt 19 8 6 ; fo r a rc h a e o lo g y , see C o n k e y a n d G e r o 19 8 8 ; W y lie 19 9 0 ). A n d th ere a re , a lr e a d y , re se a rc h e rs e x p lic itly c o n cern ed w ith the “ a r c h a e o lo g y o f g e n d e r ” w h o w o u ld not c o n sid e r th e m se lv e s to be fe m in ists (e.g. T h o m a s 19 8 9 ), yet w h o se w o rk in fo rm s o n w o m en a n d m en in p re h isto ry a n d w h o , in a n y e v e n t, a r c c o n trib u tin g to the te a c h in g a n d d o in g o f a rc h a e o lo g y in a d ifferen t w a y (fo r m o re on c u r ric u la , see S p e c to r an d W h e la n 19 8 9 )'.12 S e c o n d , a s W y lie h a s su g g e ste d ( 19 9 0 ) , a “ s p a c e ” seem s to h a v e been o p e n e d in the e p iste m o lo g ica l an d th eo retical d o m a in s o f a rc h a e o lo g y fo r re se a rc h n ot ju s t a b o u t w o m e n -a s-su b je c ts b u t in to the c u ltu ra l c o n stru ctio n

ORIGINAL NARRATIVES

125

o f g e n d e r , in g e n e ra l, in p reh isto ric life; re se a rc h into h o w g e n d e r ro les an d re la tio n s m a y h a v e been d efin ed , e n a cte d , m a n ip u la te d , e n a b le d , o r n eg o ti­ a te d in v a r y in g so cio h isto rira l c o n texts in the p a st a n d /o r in relatio n to v a r ­ io u s o th e r so cial p ro cesses T h is w ill n e c e ssa rily in v o lv e the d e v e lo p m e n t a n d e x p a n sio n o f the social th e o ry from w h ic h a rc h a e o lo g is ts d r a w , p a r tic u ­ la rly sin ce the d o m in a n t th eo retical fram ew 'orks o f m ost a rc h a e o lo g ists (e.g. c u ltu r a l e c o lo g y , c u ltu ra l ev o lu tio n ism ) h a v e re la tiv e ly little to s a y a b o u t social life (S h a n k s an d T ille y 19 8 7 a , 19 8 7 6 ; S h c n n a n 19 8 6 ). T h e c o n trib u tio n s then , 10 p u r s u in g th is d o m a in o f in q u iry , w ill n e c e ss a ri­ ly com e from so m e asp ects o f w h at h a s b een la b eled “ p o st-p ro c e ssu a l” a r c h a e o lo g ie s '5 (H o d d e r 19 8 5 ; L e o n e 19 8 6 ; S h a n k s a n d T ille y 19 8 7 a , 19 8 76 ) b e c a u se o f th eir a tte m p ts

d

d e v e lo p a n d a p p ly so c ia l a n d s y m b o lic th eo ry

in a rc h a e o lo g ic a l research . O th e r c o n trib u tio n s h a v e a lr e a d y co m e from e th n o a rc h a e o lo g ic a l stu d ies (e .g . B r a ith w a ite 19 8 2 ; a n d e s p e c ia lly M o o re 19 8 6 ). T h e p u b lish e d attem p ts to in v e stig a te a c tu a l p re h isto ric c o n te x ts from th is p a rtic u la r p e rs p e c tiv e — th e c u ltu ra l c o n stru ctio n o f g e n d e r an d g e n d e r re la tio n s — h a v e , a s y e t, been few a n d d e c id e d ly “ in itia l” (e .g . H o d d e r 19 8 4 ). T h ir d , th ese tw o sets o f re se a rc h — a b o u t w o m en (an d m en ) in p re h isto ry , a n d a b o u t th e c u ltu ra l co n stru ctio n s o fg e n d e r — sh o u ld im p a c t on th e p r a c ­ tice o f a n th ro p o lo g ic a l a rc h a e o lo g y so th at the tra d itio n a l a rc h a e o lo g ic a l “ p a ra d ig m s ” w ill b e ra d ic a lly q u e stio n e d b y a la rg e n u m b e r— not ju s t a fe w — a rc h a e o lo g ists (re c a ll, fo r e x a m p le , the W atso n an d K e n n e d y [19 9 0 ] s tu d y o f the “ o r ig in s ” o f h o rticu ltu re, cited a b o v e , a s an e x c e lle n t e x a m p le o f a p a ra d ig m -c h a lle n g in g stu d y ). It is in te re stin g to n o te— but o u tsid e the im ­ m e d ia te sc o p e o f th is c h a p te r to d isc u ss (hat m a n y o f (he c a lls for post p ro c e ssu a l a rc h a e o lo g ie s refer to fem in ist a p p ro a c h e s a s a w elc o m e “ o u t­ c o m e ” o f th eir m issio n (e.g. H o d d e r 198G: [5 9 ; S h a n k s a n d T ille y 19 8 76 : 1 9 1 ) , y e t I w o u ld a rg u e that it m a y not b e p o ssib le to effect the v e ry “ p a r a ­ d ig m sh ifts ” (fo r la ck o f a b etter p h ra se ) that th ey ca ll fo r without a w elld e v e lo p e d fem in ist a rc h a e o lo g y th at ta k e s, a s its c e n tra l c o n c e rn , the s tu d y o f g e n d e r an d its c u ltu ra l co n stru ctio n (C o n k c y a n d G c r o 19 8 8 ). T h a t is, one could turn W y lie 's argum en t (19 9 0 )— that the post-processualists an d the c h a l­ len ge to B in fo rd ia n a rc h a e o lo g y h a v e o p en ed u p a sp a c e for an a rc h a e o lo g y o f g e n d e r— “ on its h e a d ” an d a rg u e th at the fo rm e r (p o st-p ro c e ssu a lism ) m a y not b e s u s ta in a b le without a fem in ist a rc h a e o lo g y . F u rth e rm o re , the im p act o f the em erg en t re se a rc h in a rc h a e o lo g y on w o m en a n d on g e n d e r sh o u ld a lso lea d to a r a d ic a l a lte ra tio n in the v e r y set o f n o tio n s a b o u t p re h isto ric h u m a n s an d h u m a n evo lu tio n th at u n d e rlie a ll o f a n th ro p o lo g y . In fa c t, a rc h a e o lo g y h a s a m u ch la rg e r ro le to p la y th an w e re a liz e in re s tru c tu rin g the in q u ir y o f a n th ro p o lo g y . D e sp ite d e c a d e s o f d is ­ c la im e rs , th ere re m a in s an u n d e rly in g p e rv a siv e n e ss o f e v o lu tio n ism — an d e v o lu tio n ism o f a p ro g ressiv e sort (D u n n e ll 19 8 0 )— in a n th ro p o lo g y a s a w h o le 14 T h e in te lle c tu a l h eritag e o f a n th ro p o lo g y h a s been to p ro v id e the

ORIGINAL NARRATIVES

126

n a r ra tiv e o f “ p ro g re ssiv e m o n o c u ltu re ” (C liffo rd 19 88: 1 5 ) ; a n a r ra tiv e th at m u st be told in su c h a w a y a s to en d u p w ith W estern c iv iliz a tio n . G iv e n th is, the fin d in g s o f a rc h a e o lo g y a ll 10 0 e a s ily set c e rta in d e fin itio n a l p a ra m e te rs fo r ih e c a te g o rie s a n d in stitu tio n s th at h a v e b een u n q u estio n ed a n th ro p o lo g ic a l g iv e n s. I f a rc h a e o lo g y “ sh o w s,” fo r e x a m p le , the a n tiq u ity o f th e n u c le a r fa m ily , p a ir-b o n d in g , an d the h o m e-b ase (re a d d o m e stic unit) (see e .g . L o v e jo y 1 9 8 1 ; Is a a c 19 7 8 ), th ese a ll too e a s ily b ecom e le g itim a te a n a ly t ic a l u n its, a s n a tu r a l, u n q u estio n ed elem en ts o f h u m a n so c ia l life (b u t se e C o llie r an d Y a n a g is a k o 19 8 7 ; Y a n a g is a k o 19 79 )- W ith o u t d e v e lo p in g this p o sitio n fu rth e r h ere , I m e re ly su g g est th at the re stru c tu rin g o f a n th ro p o lo g ­ ica l in te rp re ta tio n cannot h ap p en w ith o u t a n a rc h a e o lo g ic a l re stru ctu rin g .

O N P A R A D IG M C H A N G E S T h e la tte r a sp e c ts o f p a ra d ig m c h a n g e , w ith in both a rc h a e o lo g y and a n th ro ­ p o lo g y a s a w h o le, a re p e rh a p s the m ore u n ru ly o f the c h a n g e s im p lic a te d b y a fem in ist a rc h a e o lo g y . E v e n a s p resen ted h ere, su c h p a ra d ig m c h a n g e s appear 10 b e the la st to h a p p e n se q u e n tia lly , a s it a lw a y s is w ith an e m p iric ist/ p o sitiv ist sty le o f in q u iry (a style th at h a s c e r ta in ly c h a ra c te riz e d A n g lo A m e ric a n a rc h a e o lo g y fo r m a n y d c c a d c s). T h e a ssu m p tio n is that the p a r a ­ d ig m c h a n g e s w ill fall in to p la c c o n c e the d a ta a r e in , o n ce the c a se stu d ies h a v e accumulated, o n c e k n o w led g e h a s " g r o w n .” B u t th is c h a p te r is in ten d ed to su g g e st o th e rw ise : in o rd e r to c a rry o u t e v e n the m ost b a sic se a rc h for w o m en in the p a st— even i f yo u ju s t w an t to “ a d d w o m en an d s tir ” — m ean s th at w c m u st c h a lle n g e the s tru c tu rin g v a lu e s o f the d isc ip lin e itself, a n d in at least tw o w a y s . F ir s t (an d o n ly b rie fly c o n sid ered h e re ), the c h a lle n g e s m u st co m e at the le v e l o f a n th ro p o lo g ic a l p ra c tic e . A rc h a e o lo g ic a l a n d , m ore w id e ly , a n th ro ­ p o lo g ic a l stu d ie s o f g e n d e r m ust refu se to b e m a rg in a liz e d w ith in the a c c e p te d d e fin itio n o f the d iscip lin e and sim u lta n e o u sly m u st re fu se to be a c c o m m o d a te d a n d to p e a c e fu lly co e x ist a s a n a lte rn a tiv e s p e c ia liz a tio n , a m o rc -o r-lc ss to lerated sid elin e. H o w m a n y o f us h a v e ju s t a d d e d “ g e n d e r s tu d ie s ” to th e list o f re se a rc h sp e c ia litie s a fte r o u r n a m e in the G uide to A n th ro p o lo g ists? G iv e n th a t w o m en h a v e a lr e a d y been m a rg in a liz e d b y th eir “ p re fe rre d ” su b jec t m a tte rs w ith in a rc h a e o lo g y (G e r o 19 8 5 ). w h at is the lik e­ ly fu tu re o f a fem in ist a rc h a e o lo g y o r the a rc h a e o lo g y o f g e n d e r i f it is p r i­ m a r ily tak en u p b y w o m en a rc h a e o lo g ists (a s c e r ta in ly a p p e a r s to b e the c a se so fa r)? F u rth e r, th ere w ill not b e a sin g le m e th o d o lo g ic a l so lu tio n fo r a ll o f o u r c h a lle n g e s in the stu d y o f (e n g e n d e re d ) so cial life; there w ill be no o n e p r iv ­ ileg ed c ritiq u e to a d o p t that w ill it s e lf g ro w into a co h e ren t p ra c tic e , su b ­ su m in g o th e r d iv e rsific a tio n s. T h is is a m p ly illu stra te d b y the w id e sp re a d d e b a te a m o n g fem in ist s c h o la rs to d a y a b o u t a ssu m p tio n s, c a te g o rie s o f

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a n a ly s is , th e o ry, a n d m eth o d o lo g ies (e .g . B c n h a b ib an d C o rn e ll 19 8 7 ; H o o k s 19 8 4 ; K e lle r 19 8 9 ; M o r a g a an d A n z a ld u a 1 9 8 1 } . W ith in arch aeo lo gy-, it is c le a r th a t the so -called N e w A rc h a e o lo g y (e.g. B in fo rd an d B in fo rd 19 6 8 ; B in fo rd 19 7 2 ; cf. D u n n e li 19 8 6 ) h a s not b een a b le to su sta in its p o sitio n a s th e p riv ile g e d c ritiq u e (C o u rb in 19 8 8 ; H o d d c r 19 8 '); L e o n e 19 8 2 ). T h e p a r a ­ d ig m c h a lle n g e is m o re d ifficu lt th an m e th o d o lo g ic a l so lu tio n s a n d p riv ile g e d c ritiq u e s. S e c o n d , th en , a s the fo reg o in g c ritiq u e o f o rig in s re se a rc h h a s s h o w n , the issu es to b e ch a lle n g e d a r e w h at w e c a n ca ll o u r o b jc c ts-o f-k n o w le d g c . I t is p a rtic u la rly re le v a n t to a rc h a e o lo g y to po in t out th a t, b ein g a very' o b je c to rie n te d fie ld , these o b je c ts o f k n o w led g e a r e not the sa m e th in g a s th e o b ­ je c t s w e stu d y . A s h a s been d iscu ssed b efo re {C o n k e y an d S p c c to r 19 8 4 ; C o n k e y a n d G e r o 19 8 8 ), w c can see th is co n fu sio n in a r c h a e o lo g y in m a n y re m e d ia l g e n d e r stu d ie s. F o r e x a m p le , th ere h a s lo n g b een the c la im (e.g. I s a a c 19 7 8 ) th at i f w e co u ld o n ly find p o llen in e a r ly h o m in id sites to c o u n te r ­ act

the o v e rw h e lm in g v isib ility o f the m ore d u ra b le

re sid u e s

le ft b y

s c a v e n g in g (fo rm e rly h u n tin g ) m a le s, then w c w o u ld h a v e w o m en in th e P le is ­ to cen e; w e w o u ld h a v e w o m en in “ e a r ly m a n ” stu d ies. B u t th is is n ot the point a t all: a d d in g pollen stu d irs to docum en t the rote o f w om en is a m eth od ­ o lo g ic a l d iv e rsio n a w a y fro m

the m o re fu n d a m e n ta l a n d u n q u e stio n e d

a s s u m p tio n — an d o b je c t— o f k n o w led g e— that th ere is a g e n d e r-b a se d d iv i­ sion o f la b o r (m a n -th e -h u n te r/w o n ia n -th e -g a th e rc r) in e a r ly h o m in id life (so m e 2 m illio n y e a r s a g o !), a sp ec ific d iv is io n o f la b o r th a t is then ta k e n a s a n essential fe a tu re o f h u m a n so c ia l life. A s lo n g a s w c o p e ra te w ith an d d efen d a g iv e n d efin itio n o f o u r o b je c ts o f k n o w le d g e — a n d w e d o d efen d , p a s s iv e ly , b y not q u e stio n in g the ta k e n -fo rg r a n tc d s — w h ile , a t th e sa m e tim e, w c ( i f o n ly , a g a in , b y not q u e stio n in g , ju s t d o in g ) th e p e rm issib le m eth o d s fo r c o n stru c tin g a n d e sta b lish in g ’ su ch k n o w le d g e , then w e— a s a rc h a e o lo g ists, a s a n th ro p o lo g ists— re p ro d u c e a d o m in a n t p a ra d ig m an d the fu n d a m e n ta l v a lu e s on w h ic h it rests. T h e p a r a ­ d ig m a lw a y s a p p e a r s a s g iv e n , but it is , in fa c t, produced (W illia m s 1 9 8 1 ) . T h e in tro d u c tio n o f n e w m eth o d s (an d b y th is, I d o n ’ t o n ly m ean m e th o d s su c h a s p a ly n o lo g y an d th e stu d y o f fossil p o llen , b ut even in te rp re tiv e fra m c w o rk s-a s-m c th o d s, su ch a s se m io tic s, fe m in ism , M a r x is m ) in it s e lf w ill not b e a c le a r m e a su re o f w h e th e r a n y ra d ic a l p a ra d ig m sh ift is ta k in g p la c c . A s R a y m o n d W illia m s h a s a rg u e d , w e m ust d isc rim in a te b etw een th o se te n ­ d e n c ie s, e v e n i f u n u su a l a n d p ro v o k in g , that h a v e been c o m p a tib le a n d even c o n g ru e n t w ith the o rth o d o x p a ra d ig m , a n d o th e rs th at ' ‘ n e c e ssa rily in c lu d e th e p a ra d ig m it s e lf a s a m a tte r o f a n a ly s is ra th e r th an a s a g o v e r n in g d e fin i­ tion o f the o b jc c t(s) o f k n o w le d g e ” (W illia m s 1 9 8 1 : 6 5 ). T h is o b se rv a tio n is e q u a lly a p p lic a b le to a r c h a e o lo g ic a l rc s c a r c h . W c h a v e h ere c o n sid ered o n e o f o u r c h erish ed o b je c ts o f k n o w le d g e — o rig in s r c s c a r c h — c h e rish e d in arch aeo lo g y , in a n th ro p o lo g y , and b y the p u b lic .

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S u c h an o b je c t o f k n o w le d g e — “ o r ig in s " — h a s b c c o m c th e p r im a r y m e a n s th ro u g h w h ic h a rc h a e o lo g y in te rfa c e s w ith the p u b lic . I h a v e tried to sh o w the w a y s in w h ic h th is o b ject o f k n o w led g e is p r e s e n tly c o n c e p tu a liz e d , in sti­ tu tio n a liz e d , a n d o p e ra tio n a liz e d , a n d h o w ic e m b o d ie s the stru c tu rin g v a lu e s o f the d isc ip lin e iise lf. T h e s e v a lu e s , h o w e v e r, a re not p a rtic u la rly c o m fo rta b le b e c a u se th ey a r e im p e ria lis t, sex ist, an d ra c ist, w h ic h is th e la st th in g a n th ro p o lo g y w o u ld w an t to s a y a b o u t itself. E v e n th e sim p lest c u ltu r a l a cco u n ts a r e in te n tio n a l c re a tio n s; in te rp re te rs c o n sta n tly co n stru ct th em selv es th ro u gh the o th e rs th ey stu d y. A r c h a e o lo g i­ c a l a c c o u n ts , like the o ra l h isto ries o f the M a lg a s a y k in g s, m a k e u se o f a s tr u c ­ tu re d p o litic a l p h ilo so p h y that uses “ o rig in s*' a s a k e y elem en t in its “ id e o ­ lo g ic ’ ’ ( K u s 19 8 6 }. B u t w h a t d ifferen ce d o es c r itic a l k n o w led g e m ak e? O n c e w e h a v e u n co v ered the reflection o f c e r ta in a sp e c ts o f the p resen t in th e p a st, w e m a y d e c id e to d o so m eth in g w ith th a t k n o w led g e. T h e d e la y e d b u t in c re a s in g a n d rich d e v e lo p m e n ts in a rc h a e o lo g ic a l stu d ie s o f g e n d e r an d in fe m in ist a rc h a e o lo g ie s p ro m ise not m e re ly m o re d e ta ils a b o u t the so c ia l liv e s o f p re h isto ric p e o p le s but a su ite o f im p o rta n t c h a lle n g e s to o rig in a l n a r ra tiv e s a n d to the stru c tu re o f a rc h ^ c o lo g ic a l p ra c tic e .

N O TES 1 . A n original version o f this paper was presented at the 1986 annual meetings o f the Society for Am erican Archaeology, as a com pilation o f ideas drawn prim arily from W illiams (1986) and M cG uire (1985). Subsequent elaboration was added for the 1987 presentation in the Y ale lecture scries, organized by (he editor o f this volum e, and some o f these additional ideas were presented at M cM aster University (Ja n u a ry 1987), when I had the privilege o f being the Redm an Lecturer. I wish to thank m any for (heir comments, inspiration, and bibliographic suggestions, especially Russell H andsm an, Catherine Lutz, Irene Silverblatt. Ruth Tringham , Sarah W il­ liam s, Alison W ylie, and the students in various classes at SU N Y*B ingham ton and U .C .-Berkeley who, without choice, had to sit through various readings o f the paper. In fact, Sarah W illiam s’s 1986 sem inar paper plays such a central role around which the rest o f the paper could take shape (and without which it probably couldn't have come together), that she is a full collaborator and inspiration. She would like to acknowledge the collaborative culture o f her own p ap er by thanking faculty and stu­ dent participants in History o f Consciousness sem inars, and Feminist Studies F R A at the University o f California, Santa Cruz. Avis Worthington did a wonderful jo b on the bibliography, and Les Rowntree provided continual support. I also thank the reviewers o f this book for their insightful and enthusiastic comments on this chapter, and, in particular, I thank M icaela di Leonardo for her infinite patience, gentleness, and yet firm and clarifying editorial hand. 2. A s one reviewer o f this chapter points out, it is interesting— if not ironic— that in sociocultural anthropology “ certain foci on ‘ status' have been intim ately bound up with attention to and conceptualizations ofgen der,” yet in archaeology, where indeed

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status has been so prevalrnt a concern (when social phenomena art entertained ex­ plicitly), there has still not been the development o f theory o r method necessary to illuminate issues o f gender! 3. In 1986, the American Journal o f Physical Anthropology reported on National S c i­ ence Foundation funding percentages (proportion funded out o f submissions) by topic: Hum an Origins research (6-2% o f the proposals funded) and the related field o f Prim ate Evolution (72% ) are the most successful domains. (O nly 3 1 % o f the Hum an Biology applicants were, however, awarded research funds). [A JP A 6g: (1986) 5 17 - 5 2 6 ; with thanks to Catherine Lutz for drawing this information to my attention). 4. C artm ill et al. (1986) claim a ' ‘century'' for this field, but this is a w ay o f w riting the history o f a fidd so as to extend its lineage. This kind o f historical claim is a pcrfcct exam ple o f what D cLivrc (19 74) lias written about— au ascending anachronism — and whichis discussed in the text (p. 72). 5. “ Prcsentism " (as w ed by Stocking 196A. as taken from Butterfield 1963) refers to the use o r the study of the past lor the sake o f the present; “ to produce a story which is the ratification, if not the glorification, o f the present” (Butterfield 1963: v). Stocking contrasts prcsentism with hisioricism , which he views as “ the commitment to the understanding o f the past for its own sake” (Slocking 196ft: 4). T h e resultant attributes o f a prcscntist interpretation include a judgm ental mode (rather than an understanding one}, a focus on agenls o r agencies that direct change (rather than a concern with the complex processes by which change em erges), and a decontcxtualization o f phenomena {from their contemporary contcxt) in order to view them in abstracted relation to analogs in the present (Stocking 1968: 3 -4 ). 6. Even (hose radical feminist views that see gender as prim arily a political d ivi­ sion, as inseparable from the relations o f domination, w ith questionable relationship to biological/anatom ical sex, or as necessarily a hierarchical social division (e.g., Delphy 1984), in fact, see thr hierarchical nature (favoring male domination) as inevi­ table. Even when denouncing origins (o f gender asym m etry) research as teleological, the very inevitability o f gender hierarchy and political division is assum ed rather than problematized. 7. Unfortunately, much o f what we “ learn” about these “ people o f color” who are potential analogues for prehistoric hunter-gatherers— even from an archaeologist— is problem atical. We have elsewhere (Conkey and Spector 1984: 13) detailed some o f the biases in Y cllen ’s (1977) cthnoarchacological studies o f the IKung, hut it is rel­ evant here to point out ttiat !K ting women are never named (except in relation to others) and the phrases u*ed to describe their "a c tiv itie s" are strikingly different from those applied to the males. A s Kennedy (1979 : 1 4 - 1 5 ) has reported: “ I f wc are con­ stantly presented with a picture o f men who move about with nameless, faceless families in tow, we will use that picture when wc evaluate the archaeological record.” (See also Silbcrbaucr (13 8 1) (or sim ilar problem atic representations o f K alah ari hunter-gatherers.) 8. Bahn (1986) reports that Breuil w as presented with the first discovered “ vulvae” im agery by Didon in 191 1 and he, it is reported, “ rccognizcd vulvas without hesitation” (Stoliar 1977/1978: 4v, as cited by Bahn 19 86:99 ). Bahn notes “ tongue in c h e e k .. .th at a man o f Breuil's profession (the priesthood) should not be considered an expert on this particular motif,” but he also notes that Breuil did invoke similar*

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itics to Egyptian cunieform and zoological classification symbols. Both o f these, Bahn demonstrates, are completely inappropriate analogues, and he concludes that “ Breuil was calking through his beret” (1986: too). 9. O ne exception to this is the reconstruction that I commissioned to accom pany m y contribution on cave art to the 1988 World Book: Science Year, which does not have the sam e potential for exposure as do T I M E - L I F E books or archaeology lexis. 10. T h e human career (cf. Klein 1989) is the term used at the University ofC ’ hicago in the mid- 1960s (begun in the heydays o f paleoanthropology there and elsewhere) and since for a sequence o f courses that cover human evolution and its archaeology. Catherine Lutz (personal communication) points out how this could be read as the projection o f the academ ic’s positioned concerns into the past. 1 1 . O f course, we have our own particular cultural construction o f what “ con­ sciousness” is, and how, therefore, it might be “ identified” archacologically. T h is construction is very much an instrumentalist one, which “ entails the notions o f rationality, objectivity, control o f attentional processes in the solving o f technical problem s, non-emotionality, and linear thought, among others" (Lutz, in press). Archaeologists, not surprisingly, have used such evidence as “ tool manufacturing sequences” and the existence o f “ art” to document the “ origins” o f sym bolic behavior and fully modern consciousness (e.g., C hase and Dibble 1987). ia. T h e debate o r discussion on the relation between feminist theory and archaeologies o f gender are not yet widespread (but cf. Conkey n.d.; and W ylie n.d.). T h e interesting question to ask about nonfeminist gender research is to what extent docs this work “ inform” about gender or merely construct another narrative that is still problem atic (see also Conkey and G ero 1990). 13 . T here is now a well-recognizcd debate between the so-called proccssual archaeology that has prevailed since (he mid-i9s guided by the program m atics o f Binford (e.g., 1965, 1972, 19 8 1) and the assortment o f alternative theoretical and methodological approaches, referred to as “ poslprocessual” archaeologies (see, e.g., H oddcr 1985). T h ese latter have in common prim arily— if not only— their challenge to the Binfordian paradigm that advocates the inquiry into culture process by means o f a concept o f culture as an adaptive system and its associated positivist methodolo­ gies. T h e postprocessualists include (hose who lake structuralist, poststructuralisi, M arxist, feminist, and other stances (sec, e.g., Leone 1986 on the sym bolic, cognitive, and critical archaeologies). 14. Fabian ( 19A3) provides a history o f the “ lem|>oralizing rhetoric” o f anthropol­ ogy and how Judaeo-C hristian time was secularized, which culm inated in the ninetcenth-ccntury evolutionary time frame that, he suggests, spatializcd time. A s a result, (he (spatial) relationships l>etween parts o f the world cam e to be understood as temporal relations: the dispersal or distributions o f peoples in space directly reflect the temporal sequences and— by im plication— progressive evolutionary sequences. A s a result ofspatialisation, (anthropological) subjects were naturalized and denied mean­ ing in a historical sense.

B IB L IO G R A P H Y Arnold, K aren , Roberta Gilchrist, Pam G raves, and Sarah T aylo r, eds. 1988. Archaeological review from Cam bridge. Women and Archaeology 7 (1) (Spring).

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Bahn, Paul G . 1986. No sex, please, w c'rc Aurignacians. Rock Art Research 3 (a): 9 9 -12 0 . Bahn, Paul, and Je a n Vertut. 1988. images o f the tie age. London: Bcllew Publishing C o.. Ltd. Barrett, M . 1980. Women’s oppression today: Problems in Marxist analysis. London: Verso. (5th impression, 1986.) B audrillard. Je a n . 1983. T he prrcession ofsin nilora. Art and Text 1 1 : 3 -4 7 . Benhabib, Scyla, and Drucilla Cornell, eds. 1987. Feminism as Critique. Minneapolis: U niversity o f M innesota Press. Binford, Lew is R. 1965. Archaeological system atics and the study o f culture process. American Antiquity 31 {2): 2 0 3 -2 10 . --------- . 1972. An Archaeological Perspective. New Y ork: Sem inar Press. --------- . 1973. Interassem blagc variability— T h e Mousterian and the “ fur.ctionar’ argum ent. In The Explanation o f Culturt Change. Colin Renfrew, ed ., 227 -25 4 . Lon* don: D uxbury. --------- . 1980. Willow*smoke and dog’s tails: H unter-gathercr settlement systems and archacological site formation American Antiquity 45: 1 —17. --------- . 19 8 1. B onn: Ancient Mtn and Modem Myths. New York: Academ ic Press. --------- 19O3. In Pursuit o f the Pa;t. Detailing thr Auharvloguul Remit/. London. T ham es and Hudson. Binford, S. R ., and L. R . Binford, eds. 1968. Sew Perspectives in Archaeology. Chicago: Aldine. Bordes, Francois, and Denise de Sonnrville-Bordes. 1970. T h e significance o f variability in Paleolithic assemblages. World Archaeology 2 ( 1) : 6 1 - 7 3 . Boxer, M arilyn. 1982. For and about women: T he theory and practice o f women's studies in the United States. In Feminist theory: .4 critique o f ideology. N. Keohane, M. Rosaldo, and B. G elpi, eds., * 3 7 - 3 7 1. Chicago: University of C hicago Press. Braithw aitc. M ary. 1982. Decoration as ritual sym bol: A theoretical proposal and an ethnographic study in Southern Sudan, in Symbolic and structural archaeology. Ian Hodder, ed., 8 0-88. Cam bridge: C am bridge University Press. Breuil, Henri. 1952. Four hundrea centuries o f cave art. Paris: Sapho Press. --------- . 1954. Bas reliefs feminins de la M agdelcinc (Pennc, T arn pres M ontauban (Tarn-et-G aronne]). Quatemcria t. Brum fiel, Elizabeth. 1990. W eaving and cooking: Women s production m Aztcc M ex­ ico. In Engendering archaeology: women and prehistory. Jo a n G ero and M argaret Conkey, eds. O xford: Basil Blackwell. Bum stead, Pamela. 1987. Recognizing women in d ir a r c h a e o lo g ic a l record. Paper presented at Annual Meetings, Am erican Anthropological Association. Chicago, Illinois. Bunn, H enry, and Ellen K ro ll. 1986. System atic butchery by Plio/Pleistocene hominids at O lduvai G orge, Tanzania. Current Anthropology 27: 4 3 1- 4 3 2 . --------- . 1988. Fact and fiction about the F L K Zinjanthropus floor. Current Anthropology » 9 : »35- J 49 Butterfield, H. 1963. The Whig Interpretation o f History. New Y ork: Norton. C artm ill, M att, D avid Pillbcam, and G lynn Isaac. 1986. O ne hundred years o f paleoanthropology. American Scientist 74: 4 10 -4 2 0 . C hase, P., and H. Dibble. 1987 M iddle Paleolithic sym bolism : A review o: current evidence and interpretations.youroa/ o f Anthropological Archaeology 6: 263-U96.

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C lark, J . Desmond, and F. C lark Howell. 1966. Preface, special issue on paleoanthro­ pology. American Anthropologist 68 (2): v -v ii. Clifford, Ja m e s. 1986. Introduction: Partial truths. In Writing culture: The poetics and politics o f ethnography. Ja m e s Clifford and George M arcus, eds., t-2 6 . Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: U niversity o f California Press. --------- . 1988. The predicament o f culture: Twentit th-centu17 ethnography, literature, and art. C am bridge: H arvard U niversity Press. Clifford, Ja m e s, and George M arcus, eds. 1986. Il'ViVing culture: The poetics and politics o f ethnography. Berkeley. Los Angeles. London: University o f C alifornia Press. C ollier, Ja n e , and Sylvia Yanagisako, eds. 1987. Gender and kinship: Essays tou-ard a unified analysis. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Collins, D., a n d j. O nians. >978. T he origin o f art. Art History 1 (1) (M arch): r -2 5 . Conkey, M argaret. 1977. B y chance: T h e role o f archaeology in contributing to a reinterpretation o f human culture. Paper presented at Annual M eetings, Am er­ ican Anthropological Association, Houston, Texas. --------- . 1978. Getting grants: Participation o f women in the research process. Paper presented at Annual Meetings, Am erican Anthropological Association, fx>s Angeles, California. --------- . 1983. On the origins o f paleolithic art: A review and some critical thoughts. In The Mousterian legacy: Human biocultural change in the upper Pleistoctnt. E. Trinkhaus. cd., 2 0 1- 2 2 7 . O xford. England: British Archaeological Reports, Inter­ national Series no. 164. --------- . 1987. New approaches in Che search for meaning? A review o f research in Paleolithic Journal o f Field Archaeology 14: 4 13 -4 3 0 . --------- . 1989. Structural studies o f Paleolithic art. In Archaeological thought in America. C . C . Lam berg-K arlovskv, ed., 1 3 5 - 1 5 4 . Cam bridge: C am bridge University Press. --------- . 1990. Contexts o f action, contexts for power: M aterial culture and gender in M agdalrnian times. In Engendering archaeology: Women and prehistory. Jo a n G ero and M argaret Conkey , eds. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. --------- . n.d.a. M agic, mythogram , and metaphors for modernity: T h e interpretation o f Paleolithic art. In Handbook o f human symbolic eiolution. Andrew I.ork and C harles Peters, eds. O xford: O xford University Press. " ■ n.d. b. M ust we be feminists to do archaeologies o f gender? Paper presented at Plenary Session. Archaeology o f Gender, Chacm ool Conference. C algary: U n i­ versity o f C algary (Novem ber 1989). Conkey, M argaret, and Jo a n Gero. 1988. T ow ards building a feminist archaeology. Paper presented at Fifty-third Annual M eeting, Society for Am erican Archaeolo­ gy. Phoenix, Arizona. --------- . 1990. Tensions, pluralities, and engendering archaeology: An introduction to Women and prehistory. In Engendering archaeology: Women and prehistory. Jo a n M . G ero and M argaret W . Conkey, eds. O xford: Basil Blackwell. Conkey, M argaret, a n d ja n e t S p c a o r. 1984. Archaeology and the study o f gender. In Advances in archaeological method and theory, 7: 1- 3 8 . M . Schiffer, ed. New York: Academ ic Press. C ourbin, P. 1988. What is archaeology? .-In essay on the nature o f archaeological research. T ran s. Paul Bahn. Chicago: University o fC h icag o Press.

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Cucchiari, Salvatore. 19 8 1. T he gender revolution and the transition from bisexual horde (o patrilocal band: T he origins o f gender hierarchy. In Sexual meanings. S. Ortner and H . W hitehead, eds., 3 1-5 9 . C am bridge: C am bridge University Press. Dahlberg, Frances, ed. 19 8 1. Woman the gatherer. New Haven: Y a le University Press. Davis. Elizabeth Gould. 19 7 1. The first sex. N ew York: Putnam. Davis. W hitney. 1985. Present and fim rr directions in the study o f rock art. South African Archaeological Bulletin 40: 5 - 10 . Deagan, Kathleen. 1983. Spanish St. Augustine: The archaeology o f a colonial cr985. Conceptualizing the state in a post-processua! archaeology. Paper presented at Annual M eetings, Am erican Anthropological Association, W ashington, D .C. M ellars, Paul, and C h ris Stringer, eds. 1989. The human revolution: Behavioural and bio­ logical perspectives on the origins o f modern humans. Edinburgh and Princeton: T he U niversity Presses. M iller, Daniel. 1983. T H IN G S ain't what they used to l>e. Rain (Royal Anthropo­ logical Institute News) 59: 5 - 7 . M oore, Henrietta. 1986. Space, text and gender: .In anthropological study o f the Marakwet o f Kenya. C am bridge: C am bridge University Press. --------- . 1988. Feminism and anthropology. London: Polity Press. M oraga, Cherrie, and G loria Anzaldua, eds. 19 8 1. This bridge called my hack: Writings o f radical women o f color. W atertown. M ass.: Persephone Press. M organ, Elaine. 1972. The descent o f u-oman. New York: Stein and Day. Parker, Sue T . 1987. A sexual selection model for hominid evolution. Human Evolution

3

2 ( ): 2 3 5 - 2 5 3 -

Patterson, Thom as. 1986. T h e last sixty years: T ow ard s a social history o f Am erican­ ist archaeology in the United States. American Anthropologist 88 ( 1) : 7 -2 6 . Pohl, M ary, and I^awrence Feldman. 1982. T h e traditional role o f women and ani­ m als in lowland M aya economy. In Maya subsistence. Kent Flannery, ed., 2 9 5 - 3 1 1. New York: Academ ic Press. Preziosi, Donald. 1982. Constru(ct)ing the origins o f art. Art Journal (W inter): 3 2 0 -

3* 5 -

R app , R ayna. 1977. G ender and class: Archaeology o f knowledge concerning the origin o f the state. Dialectical Anthropology 2 (4) (Novem ber): 3 0 9 -3 16 .

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Reed, Evelyn. 19 75. Women's ewiution: From matriarchal clan to patriarchal fam ily. New Y r» rlr P a t h f in d e r Pre86

I N T R O D U C T IO N : A C R I S I S O F C A T E G O R I E S E th n o h is to r y — the u se o f d o c u m e n ts, a r c h a e o lo g ic a l fin d in g s, o ra l h isto rie s, a n d e th n o g ra p h ie s to c o n stru ct the h isto ries o f n on -W 'esicrn p e o p le s— c a m e e a r ly to the fem in ist t a b le .1 B e c a u se o f both a c a d c m ic a n d p o p u la r co n c e rn 140

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o v e r the “ o r ig in s ” (i.e . cau sc) o f w o m e n ’ s o p p re ssio n in (lie 19 7 0 s, fem in ist e lh n o h isto ria n s found th eir fo rm erly r n .1r g in a li7 .r H w o rk — on, for e x a m p l e , tra n sfo rm a tio n s in N a tiv e A m e ric a n g e n d e r re la tio n s w ith the F re n c h c o l­ o n iz a tio n o f C a n a d a — c a ta p u lte d to the c c n tc r o f fem in isi atte n tio n . T h e h o p e w a s th a t h isto ries o f n o n -W estcrn p eo p les co u ld rev eal so m e th in g fu n ­ d a m e n ta l a b o u t the re la tio n sh ip b etw een so c ie ty , c u ltu re , and the p o sitio n o f w o m e n . W o u ld a n a ly s is u n c o v e r b ro a d v a ria tio n s an d s im ila ritie s in w o m e n ’ s liv e s w o rld w id e a n c a c ro ss lim e ? M ig h t it d isc lo se the e x iste n c e o f re g u la ritie s — la w s, p e r h a p s — th at co u ld a c c o u n t fo r w o m e n ’s sta tu s in term s o f sp e c ific fe a tu re s o f so cic ty ? H e r e e n tered the “ w om en a n d the sta te ” d e b a te , o n e o f th e p rin c ip a l th re a d s o f th is first w a v e o f a n th ro p o lo g ic a l th eo rizin g . S im p ly p u t, o n e g ro u p o f s c h o la rs, fo llo w in g M aiA a n d E n g e ls , 980; C o n n ell 19 8 8 ; C o n k e y 19 8 7 , an d th is v o lu m e ). T h e

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e q u a tio n o f c h a n g e w ith (he “ o r ig in 's ” u n fo ld in g la k e s fo r g ra n te d a kin d o f g lo b a l h o m o g e n iz a tio n o f h isto ric a l e x p e rie n c e . W h a te v e r is e sse m ia liz e d (in o u r c a se , the “ su b o rd in a tio n o f w o m e n ” ) is ren d ered a n a ssu m e d fact o f life. Its b a s ic , fu n d a m e n ta l fo rm — a sso c ia te d w ith its “ o r ig in ” in s im p le r so c ia l a rra n g e m e n ts (th e trib u ta ry a s o p p o sed to b o u rg eo is in d u stria l s ta te )— is p re su m e d to u n d e rlie its m a n ifestatio n s in m ore c o m p le x c o n fig u ra tio n s. C o n s e q u e n tly , w h a t sh o u ld be acco u n ted fo r is in ste a d “ n a tu r a liz e d ,” re­ m o ved fro m h isto ric a l in v e stig a tio n . A s an “ e s s e n t ia l" th in g , the “ o r ig in ,” m u ch like the so cial ty p e , is co n c e p tu a liz e d a p a r t from its h isto ric a l fo rm an d e x p e rie n c e d c o n te x t.1,2 S u c h a b stra c tio n s from h isto ric a l p ro cess b eg the q u e stio n o f p re c ise ly h o w g e n d e r im a g e rie s a n d re la tio n s a r e c o n stitu ted , e x p e rie n c e d , an d str u g ­ gled o v e r in th e h isto ric a l p ro cesses (hat both form a n d s u b v e rt states. U lt i­ m a te ly , lik e a ll e v o lu tio n a ry an d fu n ctio n a list ra tio n a le s, th ey a r e b o u n d to a lo g ic o f a d a p ta tio n : g e n d e r id eo lo g ies an d in stitu tio n s a re a c c o u n te d fo r b y th e ir c o n se q u e n ce s fo r so cietal (ru lin g g ro u p , h ie r a r c h ic a l sy ste m , o r m a le e lite) re p ro d u ctio n . B u t, n eith er e v o lu tio n a ry tren d s n o r fu n ctio n a l o u tco m es e x p la in the c m erg en cc o f id eo lo g ies o r o f in stitu tio n s. T h e s e a r c the p ro g e n y o f h u m a n e n co u n ters, o f w o m en an d m en w h o e n g a g e , a s th ey o c c a sio n , the p o te n tia litie s an d lim its o f th eir c irc u m sta n c e s o f liv in g — in c lu d in g im p a s­ sio n ed n o tio n s o f m a le an d fem ale etiq u e tte a n d p o ssib ilitie s . A lth o u g h the p o w e rs o f e lites to re alize— th ro u gh force o r p e r s u a s io n — th eir stru c tu re s, se n tim e n ts, a n d v isio n s can n o t be u n d e re stim a te d , w e c a n n o t ju m b le g e n d e r im a g e rie s o f r u lin g g ro u p s an d state p o lic y w ith th o se o f so c ie ty a s a w h o le. B y d o in g so w c w o u ld ign o re both h o w w o m en an d m e n b e c o m e a c c o m p lic e s to sp e c ific sta te p o licies, a s w e ll a s h o w th ey h a v e c o n fo u n d e d th em . M o re a c u te ly , w c co u ld not en v isio n h o w w o m en a n d m en liv in g in a n d e m b o d y in g v a r y in g d im e n sio n s o f th eir sta te -fra c tu re d w o rld s s im u lta n e o u sly re c o n sti­ tu te sta te s tru c tu re s— even a s th ey m ig h t stru g g le to s u b v e r t th e m .15 W h en w c d e m a n d th at h isto ry not b e rcd u ccd to an e v o lu tio n a r y outcom c* w e a lso in sist th at h isto ry not b e a d d e d , lik e an in g re d ie n t, to the u n fo ld in g o f “ s y s te m s .” 14 T o g r a s p h isto ry a s p a rt o f so cietal p ro c e ss a n d not o u tsid e o f it re q u ire s a c o n c e p tu a liz a tio n o f so cial d ia le c tic s: o f th e h u m a n c o n stru c tio n o f so cie ty s h a p in g , in turti, s o c ie ty 's c o n stru ctio n o f h u m a n p o ssib ilitie s. S o ­ c ia l fo rm s d o n ot, a s in n e o -e v o lu tio n a ry ja r g o n , re p ro d u c e th em selv es; they a r e re m a d e a n d u n m a d e b y the h u m a n b e in g s w h o liv e th em — in a c o u rse tem p e re d b y h isto ric a lly co n stru ed d y n a m ic s o f e x p e c ta tio n s, in terests, a lli­ a n c e s, co n flicts, an d a c c o m m o d a tio n s. P la c in g h isto ry in the thicket o f so cial p ro c e ss m e a n s p la c in g h u m a n b e in g s— g e n d e re d (a n d “ c la sse d ” in sta te s, a m o n g o th e r th in g s)— in th at thicket a s w ell. W ith h u m a n b ein g s at c c n te rsta g e , e v o lu tio n a ry a n d fu n ctio n a list sc a le s fall from o u r ey e s. W e can b etter g r a s p h o w the c o m p a r a tiv e m e th o d 's a b ­ s tra c tio n o f so c ie ta l ty p e s a n d d im in u tio n o f te m p o ra l c o n te x ts p ro d u ce d

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p h a n to m s: c a te g o rie s a liv e w ith fo rces a ll th eir o w n , “ the s ta te ” a s a n a c tiv e su b jc c t o f h isto ry . F u rth e r, these c a te g o rie s, u n d e r e v o lu tio n a ry sp e lls, a p p e a r lo w ield c o m p e llin g rein s o f c h a n g e . W e la lk a b o u t the e x ig e n c ie s o f m o d e rn iz a tio n , m e c h a n iz a tio n , in d u stria liz a tio n , c a p ita list p e n e tra tio n , a s i f th e y p o sse ssed p o w e rs d istin ct fro m , o u tsid e o f — an d th erefo re c a p a b lc o f d o m in a tin g — h u m a n b ein g s. H isto ric a l e x p la n a tio n , N a ta lie Z . D a v is , re­ m in d s u s, sh o u ld n ev e r b e c o n fla te d w ith su ch b a s ic a lly e v o lu tio n a ry an d fu n c tio n a list p re su m p tio n s

( D a v is

1 9 8 1 ; see a lso T a u s s ig

19 8 0 ,

19 8 4 ).

“ S ta te -m a k in g ” is not a p o w e r, a lth o u g h p o w erfu l h u m a n b e in g s s h a p e the c o u rse o f sta te s a n d sp e c ific sta te in stitu tio n s c o n to u r the w a y p o w e r is a r ­ tic u la te d ( J c s s o p 19 8 2 ). “ S ta te fo rm a tio n ” c a n n o t, then , a c c o u n t for the su b ­ o rd in a tio n o f w o m en . “ W o m en in the s ta te ” c a te g o rie s seem d e fe ctiv e b ecau se th ey d o not d o ju s t ic e to the en ta n g le d an d c o n tra d ic to ry v a r ie ty o f w o m e n 's e x p e rie n c e s in tr ib u ta r y sta te s; th ey offend b y d e n y in g th at h u m an b e in g s p la y a ro le— no m a tte r h o w c o n s tra in e d — in th e c o n stitu tio n o f th eir d estin ie s. H u m a n a c tiv ­ ity is b e littled w h en c o n v e rte d in to “ tre n d s” o f the sta te , ju s t a s h isto ric a l e x p e rie n c e is triv ia liz e d w h en c o n v e rte d in to p r o o f o f a h isto ric a l a b s tr a c ­ tio n s. M o re o v e r, a s su m in g u n iv e rsa l c o m p lia n c e w ith “ te n d e n c ie s” th at b en ­ efit (an d c u lm in a te in ) sta te p o w e r, m a k in g “ sta te fo rm a tio n ” in to a liv in g fo rce , risk s c e le b ra tin g it.

WOMEN IN HISTORIES L ik e h isto ry , “ w o m e n ” can n o t b e a d d e d to so c ia l p ro c e ss, sin c e th ey a r e the s tu ff o f s o c ia l p ro c e ss. L ik e th e “ s ta te ,” “ w o m e n ” is not a se lf-ev id en t cate* g o ry to be presum ed by social theory; rather, the con stru al o f g en d er relations an d o f w o m en m ust b e in a c c o rd w ith sp e c ific h isto ries a n d c o n texts. A n d fin a lly , like a ll p ro d u cts o f the so cial im a g in a tio n , su ch c o n c e p tu a liz a tio n s c a r r y id e o lo g ica l s h a d in g s : the im a g e s o f w o m en an d so cie ty w e b rin g to b e a r in so c ia l a n a ly s is h a v e th eir h isto ry , to o, o n e th at is a ls o e n m esh ed in the so cial s w in g s o f pow er. C h a n d r a M o h a n ty ’s c ritiq u e o f th e rep re se n ta tio n o f th ird w o rld w o m en in W e ste rn fem in ist d isc o u rse strik es a b lo w a g a in s t th o se stu d ie s th at %vould d e n y w o m e n — an d c o n cep tio n s o f w o m e n — th eir h isto ric a l d u e (M o h a n ty 19 8 8 ). In a sy ste m a tic a ssessm en t o f a B ritish M a r x is t p re ss series on third w o rld w o m e n , sh e su g g e sts h o w h ie ra rc h ie s o f d o m in a n c e b etw een th e first an d th ird w o rld p e rm e a te W estern fem in ist im a g e rie s. H o m o g e n iz in g the e x p e rie n c e s o f th ird w o rld w o m en in to a ste re o ty p e o f v ic tim iz a tio n , these a u th o rs, in M o h an ty*s w o rd s, “ co lo n ize” the h isto ric a l c o m p le x itie s an d c o n ­ tra d ic to ry so c ia l re la tio n s th at c o n stitu te th eir liv e s. S im p le o p p o sitio n s that c o n tra st v ictim (th ird w’o rld h av e-n o ts) to v ic tim iz e r (first w o rld h a v e s )— sh a rp e n e d b y th e a d d itio n o f “ w o m e n ” — tu rn in to a n im p lic it c o m m e m o ra -

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lio n o f first w o rld w o m e n 's su p e rio rity . F o r th e p ro c e ss re n d e rs th em the a c tiv e s u b je c ts o f h isto ry a s te x tu a lly c o m p a re d w ith th e ir h a v e -n o t, bottom * o f-th e -b a rre l siste rs. H o w a rc su c h c e le b ra tio n s o f p o w e r in sc rib e d in so c ia l sc ie n c e texts? M o h a n ty p o in ts to th e d islo d g in g o f th ird w o r ld (a n d , I m ig h t a d d , first w o rld ) w o m en fro m the sp e c ific in te rp la y s o f so c ia l b o n d s a n d h isto ries th ro u g h w h ic h th ey fash io n th e ir liv e s. Im a g e s th a t b esto w w o m en w ith fu ll­ blo w n id e n titie s a n d d isp o sitio n s b efo re th ey e n te r in to so c ia l re la tio n s turn them in to p rc s o c ia l, a h isto ric a l o b je c ts, an d e lid e d ifferen ces b etw een w o m en a n d w ith in th em . F u rth e r, b y ig n o rin g th at w o m e n (a n d m en ) c o n stitu te so c ia l re la tio n s, w o m en a r e e a s ily m a d e in to th e v ic tim s /o b je c ts n ot o n ly o f m en b u t o f th o se v e r y so c ia l re la tio n s; th ey b c c o m e p a w n s o f m a n -m a d e so c ia l in stitu tio n s: the fa m ily , c o lo n ia l s tru c tu re s , d e v e lo p m e n t p ro je c ts— the state. N o t s u r p r is in g ly , the " im p a c t o f the s ta te ” o n w o m en liv in g in m o re e g a l­ ita r ia n so cie ties w a s o n e o f the h eated issu es to e m e rg e from the “ o rig in o f w o m e n 's s ta tu s ” d e b a te . It w a s the q u estio n th a t d ro v e m y o w n d isse rta tio n r c s c a rc h on w o m en in the In c a em p ire. H in d s ig h t o f the la ic ig 8 o s h elp ed m e se e w a y s in w h ic h this p ro b le m a tic d iv o rc e s w o m e n (an d su b a lte rn g ro u p s) from h is to ry b y o v e rlo o k in g th at th o se w h o a r c s u p p o s e d ly “ im p a c te d ” b y th e sta te a r e in te g ra l to an d in d isso lu b le from s ta te -m a k in g its e lf (S ta c e y 1 9 8 3 ) .15 N o lo n g e r e n v isio n in g w o m en (o r g e n d e r c o n fig u ra tio n s) a s “ affected b y ,” a n d th u s a p a r t fro m , sta te -m a k in g p ro c e d u re s, c h a lle n g e s rep re se n ta tio n s that h a v e s a p p e d w o m en o f th eir h isto ric a l so u ls . A n d th is, in tu rn , e n c o u r­ a g e s us to reth in k the c a te g o rie s w c use to g r a s p h isto ric a l p ro c e ss. F o r c o u ld n ’ t th e " im p a c t o f the state on w o m e n ” b e yet a n o th e r re su rre ctio n o f W e ste rn c o n c e p tu a l d u a lis m s, o f c a te g o ric a l s p lits o f so c ia l liv in g in to selfc o n ta in e d re a lm s o f ec o n o m y v e rsu s id e a s, p o w e r v e r s u s c u ltu re , sta te v e rsu s g e n d e r? T h e “ im p a c t o f the sta te ” fra m e im p lie s not o n ly the a to m iz a tio n o f so c ia l re la tio n s b ut a lin e a lity o f c a u se : (u n c u ltu re d ) e c o n o m ic an d p o litic a l p r a c ­ tic e d e te rm in e s c u ltu ra l c o n stru c ts, lik e g e n d e r. It th u s b lin d s us to the h u ­ m an cre a tio n o f ec o n o m ic a n d p o litic a l fo rm s, to the in d e lib le c u ltu ra l an d h isto ric a l im p rin ts th ey m u st b e a r. A s e m b o d im e n ts o f so c ia l e n g a g e m e n t, o f the a c tiv itie s o f w o m en an d m en in h isto ry , re la tio n s o f p o w e r a n d ec o n o m y a r e c u ltu ra l c o n s tru a ls— a n d so m o ld ed b y c o n v e n tio n s o f g e n d e r. In ste a d o f o p p o s in g e co n o m y to c u ltu re , w e m ig h t b e tte r en visio n th eir d y n a m ic : c u l­ tu re d p o litic a l a n d ec o n o m ic forces (o r m a te ria liz e d c u ltu ra l fo rces) c o n ­ stru c t a te rra in lim itin g an d e n a b lin g fu tu re g e n e ra tio n s an d so c ie ta l p o ssi­ b ilitie s. A w a r e o f the d isto rtio n s o f ec o n o m ic rc d u c tio n ism , o u r n ew u n d e rsta n d ­ in g s a ls o re je c t its c o n tem p o rary' in v e rsio n : tre n d s th a t w a n t to c u t c u ltu re

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lo o se fro m its m oo rin gs in so cial p ra c tic c . A n th ro p o lo g y ’ s tra d itio n a l “ cul* tu ra l re a lm ” — id eo lo g ies an d sy m b o ls, v a lu e s an d e x p e c ta tio n s, feelin g s an d u n d e rs ta n d in g s— n ow seen th ro u gh the len s o f " c u lt u r e a n d p o litic a l e c o n ­ o m y ,” fa sh io n s the m ateria l from w h ich w o m en an d m en m a k e sen se o f, e x p e rie n c e , an d en gag e th eir u n iv e rse . A s p a rt o f, even m o tiv a tin g , th a t e n ­ g a g e m e n t th ey a c tiv e ly fo rg e the m a te ria l re la tio n s (m a te ria liz e d c u ltu ra l fo rce s) e m p o w e rin g arid c o n stra in in g the p o ssib ilitie s o f w o m en a n d m en liv in g in s ta te s ' cla ss-fra c tu re d w o rld s. P la c in g w o m en in sta te s ' h isto rie s e n ta ils re c o g n iz in g the d ia le c tic s in sc rib e d h ere ; fa ilu re to d o so h a z a r d s re­ c re a tin g a b s tra c tio n s, w h e th e r b y d e n y in g the h isto ric a l c o n stru c tio n o f m a te ria l re la tio n s o r by d e n y in g the e n a b lin g co n strictio n s th ey im p o se. W e risk fu rth e r d isto rtio n s b y ta k in g g e n d e re d im a g e rie s a n d re p re se n ta ­ tio n s o u t o f the sw irl o fh u m a n a c tiv ity . C h a n d r a M o h a n ty a g a in in stru c ts us h ere. M o h a n ty w a s a b le to p in p o in t m isco n cep tio n s c o n v e y e d b y the d is c u r ­ s iv e re p re se n ta tio n s o f ihird w o rld w o m en b e c a u se sh e reco g n ized th eir p la y in c o n te sts o f p o w e r b eyo n d the text at h a n d . H e r in sig h ts fo rce us to tak e o u r im a g e -m a k in g serio u sly. O u r fo rm al a n a ly se s o f g e n d e r c o n fig u ra tio n s in o th er s ta te s a r c tin ged w ith d ire c tiv e s — o ften not so c a re fu lly p a rs e d — re g a rd in g the d y n a m ic s o f g e n d e r, so c ia l relatio n s, ec o n o m y , a n d p o w e r. A n d a lth o u g h fo rm al a n d in ­ fo rm al v isio n s a re c u t from the sa m e clo th , th eir k in sh ip often go es u n re c o g ­ n ized . F e m in ist eth n o h isto rian s m u st be v ig ila n tly a w a r e o f the id eo lo g ies tra n s m itte d — d e lib e ra te ly o r n o t— th ro u g h o u r p o r tr a y a ls o f h isto ry , so c ia l p ro c e ss, an d g e n d e r c o n fig u ratio n s. W e h o p e to sh a rp e n o u r co n scien ce th ro u g h c ritic a l d ia lo g u e s w ith p a st re p re se n ta tio n s o f w o m en in sta te s; an d w h a te v e r u n d e rsta n d in g s en su e sh o u ld b e h o n estly a p p lie d to o u r o w n in tel­ le c tu a l p ra c tic e s. T h e im ages o f w o m en in h isto ry th at w e a r e c u rre n tly s tr iv ­ in g to m u ste r a im to tran scen d o u r h e r ita g e ’s d e te rm in ism s— w h e th e r in the g u is e o f v ic tim iz a tio n , econ o m ic re d u c iio n ism , o r c u ltu ra l id e a lism — a s w ell a s e n c o u ra g e aw a re n e ss o f th eir p o litic a l en ta ilm cn ts. R e c o g n iz in g o u r g e n ­ d e r im a g e rie s' id eo lo g ical sh a d in g s a n d h isto ric a l c o n tin g en cies, w e s triv e to c o m p reh e n d the e la b o ra te d ia le c tic s o f w h ic h th ey a r e b o rn .

T O G O O X T H E O R IZ I N G T h e 19 8 0 s rejectio n o f d isto rtio n s in sc rib e d in n in e te e n th -c e n tu ry th e o ry — s p a w n in g a retu rn to co n text, d ia le c tic s, a g e n c y , a n d h isto ric a l s p e c ific s— p ro v o k e s n ew in q u ir y into the n a tu re o f so c ia l a n a ly s is. S tu a r t H a ll, in sp ired b y c ritic a l th e o ry , the rich est stra in in M a r x is t th o ugh t a b o u t c u ltu re , h as w ritte n s e v e ra l p ieces that h elp fo cu s o u r th in k in g a b o u t q u e stio n s o f th eo ry, h isto ry , g e n d e r, a n d the sta te ( 1 9 7 7 , 19 8 6 a . b, c ). S tim u la te d b y the Ita lia n M a r x is t A n to n io G r a m s c i, w h o w a s a stu d e n t o f the c u ltu ra l d im e n sio n s o f p o w e r, H a ll e lo q u en tly sp o k e fo r the u n d o g m a tic in M a r x is t tra d itio n a n d

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again st ihe w a y M arxist m ethodological suggestions h ave been v u lg a rly d i­ verted into rigid orthodoxy. C en su rin g econom ic rcdu ctionism , he a lso con* dcm ncd its corollary, (hat socictal change follow s law fu l patterns. G r a m s c i’ s c o n trib u tio n s, an d H a ll’ s , p ivo t a ro u n d w h a t is c a lle d “ con* ju n c tu r a l a n a ly s is ” — the a n a ly s is o f w h a t can o n ly b e g ra sp e d a s it is p ro ­ d u c e d in history' ( H a ll [986 a: 7 - 8 } . H a ll a rg u e d th at a l l q u e stio n s in v o lv in g p o litic a l stru g g le s, the n a tu re o f sta te reg im en s, c u ltu r a l fo rm s, an d id e o lo g ­ ica l issu es— d eterm in ed a s th ey a r e b y sp ec ific h isto ric a l c irc u m sta n c e — c o n v e rg e at th is lev el. I w o u ld a d d th at a n a ly se s o f g e n d e r , w o m en , states, a n d th e ir in te r p la y m ust jo in them . H a ll’ s d istru st o f n in e te e n th -c e n tu ry g r a n d th eo ries m a d e h im p a r tic u ­ la rly s e n sitiv e to the a b u se o f a b stra c tio n , to so cial s c ie n c e ’ s b a d h a b it o f c o n fo u n d in g b ro a d g e n e ra liz a tio n s w ith the sp ec ific s o f h isto ric a l p ro cess. C a te g o r ie s lik e the sta te , he w o u ld a r g u e , w h ic h d e s c r ib e in m ost g e n e ra l term s w h a t a il sta te s hold in c o m m o n , a rc o f little u se in h e lp in g us g r a s p the fo rm atio n o f a n y p a rtic u la r h isto rical sta te . F u rth e rm o re , b y ju m p in g b ack a n d fo rth b etw een co m m o n p ro p e rtie s a n d sp e c ific h isto rie s, a c a d e m ic c a lis ­ th en ics e x p o se d e e p ly em b ed d ed em p iric ist n o tio n s o f the tra n s p a re n t, selfe v id e n t c h a r a c te r o f re se a rc h d esig n s an d c a te g o rie s o f u n d e rsta n d in g . In lin e w ith the c o n tra ry th ru st o f fem in ist an d p o stm o d ern c ritiq u e s, H a ll p ro p o sed a m e th o d — ro oted in M a r x 's m ost e x p lic it sta te m e n t on so c ia l scien ce p ro c e d u re — that is co n tin g en t upon the co n sc io u s re c k o n in g o f “ th o u g h t­ fu l” in te rv en tio n ( 1 9 7 7 ) . W h e n M a r x e x p la in e d h o w w e g r a s p in th o u g h t the w o rld o f h u m an e x p e rie n c e , he m a d e e x p lic it th at o u r u n d e rsta n d in g is n e v e r a d ire c t, im ­ m e d ia te , reflection o f c o n crete re a lity . In o p p o sitio n to p o sitiv ist a n d e m p iri­ cist tra d itio n s, M a r x a rg u e d that all a n a ly s e s o f s o c ic ty a n d h isto ry w o rk th ro u gh s o c ia lly c o n stru c ted id eo lo g ies an d c a te g o rie s o f th in k in g . T h u s a w a r e o f a n y m e th o d ’s in h e re n t, h u m an lim ita tio n s, M a r x su g g e ste d a p ro c e ­ d u re to h e lp sp e c ify co n c ep ts th a t, w ith in c re a sin g p re c isio n , w o u ld be a b le to illu m in a te the m a n y sig n ific a n t re la tio n s c o n to u rin g so c ia l re a lity ( M a r x '

973 )In M a r x ’ s te rm s, a b stra c tio n s, d istilla tio n s o f c o m m o n a litie s— the h a ll­

m ark o f bourgeois social science— constituted o n ly the m ost m eager o f begin­ n in gs ( M a r x 19 8 3 :

j

7 0 - 1 7 1) . T o a p p re h e n d re a lity r e q u ire s c re a tiv e th in k in g ,

c o n c e p tu a l im a g e s that p e n etrate the g e n e ra litie s o f so c ia l a p p e a r a n c e to d is ­ cern the m u ltip le , p a ra d o x ic a l, an d tan g led re la tio n s th at c o n stitu te so cial process. M a r x ’s historical m ethod is not a question o f a d d in g historical detail; it is a q u e stio n o f c o m p le x ly th in k in g the m a n y “ le v e ls o f d e te rm in a tio n ” th at d o a n a ly tic ju s t ic e to the in tric a c ie s o f re a lity ( H a ll 19 7 7 , 19 8 6 a ) .16

T h is an alytical process stan d s intim ately linked to w h a t it is intended to interpret; the an alyse s’ creative and “ com p lexifyin g’ * con cepts, to use H a ll’s phrase (19 8 6 a: 7) are born out o f dialogue with sp ecific histories them selves.

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T he p a rtic u la rs o f so c ia l p ro c e ss th at m ark c o n ju n c tu ra l a n a ly s is — (he “ le v e l” in w h ic h w e find id eo lo g ies o f g e n d e r a n d the p o litic s o f s ta te s — a re b o u n d b y p recisio n s o f lim e a n d p lac e; so, th en , a r e th e ir “ m a n y d e te r m in a ­ tio n s” (H a ll 19 8 6 a: 7). T h u s a lth o u g h a M a r x is t c o n c e p i lik e the “ trib u ta ry m o d e o f p ro ­ d u c tio n ” 17— a n a b stra c tio n b ased on the lo g ic o f eco n o m ic c a te g o rie s c h a r ­ a c te ristic o f m a n y n o n c a p ita list s ta te s — is in stru c tiv e , it s a y s little a b o u t th e p o litic a l d y n a m ic s th at co n to u red In c a e m p ire -b u ild in g . T h e la tte r, w c d is c o v e r, is c o n sid e ra b ly e n rich ed b y u n ta n g lin g its d is tin c tiv e g e n d e r id eo l­ o g ie s an d p o litic s. F o r e x a m p le s, let us look b rie fly a t the in stitu tio n o f the “ I n c a ’s w iv e s ” an d C u s c o ’ s a d m in istra tio n o f g e n d e r p a ra lle lism . T o b egin w ith , o u r e n d e a v o r d e m a n d s se n sitiv ity to the e m p ir e 's c o n tra d ic tio n s: h o w I n c a sta te -m a k in g e n sh rin e d eth n ic id e n tities a s an in stru m en t o f p o litic a l c o n tro l, id e n tities th a t, p a r a d o x ic a lly , refresh ed so c ia l m em o ries o f a u to n ­ o m o u s liv in g o u tsid e o f I n c a d o m in io n . In c a a tte m p ts to u n d e rm in e eth n ic a u to n o m y in v o lv e d rc c o n stru in g lo cal a n c e stra l h isto ries b y , a m o n g o th er th in gs, s a n c tify in g w o m en o f c o n q u ered c o m m u n itie s a s “ w iv e s o f the In c a / S u n .” F u rth e rm o re , a c c o rd in g to the ra tio n a le o( C u s c o ’ s g ift-g iv in g p o litic s, the h ig h ly e steem ed a w a r d s o f w iv e s o f the In c a / S u n to su b o rd in a te s p la y e d a sp e c ia l ro le in b in d in g p o litic a l h ie ra rc h y . Y e t for m a n y A n d e a n p eo p les, th e ir lo ss o f s o v e re ig n ly , the h e a v ie st b u rd en , la y in the I n c a ’s c la im s to a u th o rity o v e r ih c m a rria g e s o f c o m m u n ity w o m e n . A n d , a s a lr e a d y n oted , m a n y refu sed to a c c e p t In c a a p p r a is a ls o f s e x u a lity , c h a stity a n d , m ost c ru ­ c ia lly , th e ir p reten se to ju r is d ic iio n o v e r w o m en . T h e s e c o m p o site re la tio n s s ia n d c o u n terp o ised to stru c tu re s o f g e n d e r p a ra lle lis m , in stitu tio n s th a t affo rd ed a ll w o m en th e e x p e rie n c e o f b e in g p a rt o f fe m a le c h a in s o f k in sh ip a n d in h e rita n c e . In sp ite o f c o m m o n a litie s, h o w ­ e v e r, th at e x p e rie n c e w a s h a rd ly s h a re d , a s lin es o f p o litic a l a n d eco n o m ic p riv ile g e sh a tte re d a n y u n ifo rm ity o f sen se an d p ra c tic e . In c a n o b lew o m en se ise d w h a t w a s fa m ilia r a n d p ro je c te d th e m se lv e s ru le rs o f a fe m a le c h a in o f a u th o rity e x te n d in g fro m C u s c o to the p ro v in c e s. In c a n o b le w o m e n , w ith in d ep en d en t a c c e ss to th eir so c ie ty ’ s re so u rc es, co u ld e n g a g e in the g iftg iv in g so c ru c ia l to im p e ria l p o litic s. Y e t a s the e m p ire e x p a n d e d , n o b le ­ w o m en found th eir m a te r ia l p o ssib ilities w ere in c re a s in g ly d im in ish e d r e la ­ tiv e to n o b le m en . T h e p o litics o f In c a e m p ire -b u ild in g w e re g e n d e riz e d — in term s sp e c ific to the A n d e s. A lth o u g h e m p ire -b u ild in g , in m ost g e n e ra l term s, is a b o u t trib u te g a r n e r ­ in g an d p o litic a l d o m in io n , G r a m s c ia n in sig h ts su ggest th at sta te s be e n ­ v isio n e d a s te rra in s o f str u g g le — a lw a y s h isto ric a lly co n stitu te d — th at a r e c u rb e d b y , but not re d u c ib le to, a b ro a d p o litic a l-e co n o m ic ra tio n a le . S o c o n c e rn s o v e r the n a tu re o f a llia n c e b u ild in g , the stru c tu re s a rtic u la tin g p o w e r a n d its p e rc e iv e d le g itim a c y , th e m e a n s a llo w in g r u lin g g r o u p s to m a k e lie n s on the p ro d u ct an d la b o r o f o th e rs, the co n stitu tio n o f h eg em o n ic

m

INTERPRETING WOMEN IN STATES

v isio n s in w h ic h n o tio n s o f ju s t ic e , p erso n h o o d , k in sh ip , a n d h isto ry b eco m e c o n te ste d d o m a in s— a n d , o f c o u rse , se n sitiv ity to the g e n d e re d c h a r a c te r o f s o c ia l re la tio n s a n d id eo lo g ies— sh o u ld g u id e u s in s e le c tin g “ d e te rm in a ­ tio n s .'’ N e v e rth e le ss, the “ c o m p le x ify in g c o n c e p ts” th at rec o n stru ct In c a h is­ to ry in o u r th o u g h t a r c b o rn from o u r en co u n te r w ith In c a h isto ry . N e ith e r M a r x n or H a lL th en , p ro v id e a n y s u re -fire list o f co n c e p tu a l h a n g e rs u pon w h ic h 10 stru c tu re so c ia l a n a ly s is. T h a t is b e c a u se th eir m eth o d d e n ies th e p ro p rie ty o r p o ssib ility o f d o in g so. I f th ere is n o n ecess a r y o r s p e c ific re la tio n sh ip b etw een g e n d e r/w o m e n a n d s ta le s , then a tte m p ts a t fo rm u la tin g a u n iv e rsa l th eo ry o f w o m en a n d the s ta te a re m is p la c e d .18 T h e in a p p ro p ria te n e ss o f a g e n e ra l th eo ry d o es n o t im p ly th at statem a k in g p ro c eed s w ith o u t re g a rd to g e n d e r, o r th at g e n d e r c o n c e rn s d o not fu n ctio n in the in te rio r o f s ta te -b u ild in g ; on the co n trary', the stu d y o f h isto ric a l s ta te s teach es us ju s t h o w c ru c ia l— in d isso lu b ly lin k e d — g e n d e r r e la ­ tio n s c a n be to the d y n a m ic s o f p o w er. S u c h c o m p a r a tiv e reflectio n s, n ot the c o m p a r a t iv e m eth o d , can h elp us thin k c re a tiv e ly a b o u t th e p a rtic u la r h isto rie s— an d e x p la n a tio n s— w c a r c rec o n stru ctin g . O b se ss io n w ith c h a sti­ ty a n d m a r ria g e a rra n g e m e n ts in m ed iev al In d ia m ig h t stim u la te us to look in to p o ssib le re la tio n s b etw een id eo lo g ies o f w o m e n ’ s s e x u a lit y an d p o litic a l c o n tro l in D a h o m e y ; the first, h o w e v e r, d o es not reflect a g e n e ra l th e o ry that sh o u ld then a c c o u n t fo r the seco n d . I f th ey n o lo n g e r s e r v e to g e n e ra te a b ­ s tra c tio n s, s e n sitiv e ly d ra w n c o m p a riso n s im p ro v e a n a ly s is b y re c o m m e n d ­ in g n e w lin es o f in v e stig a tio n a s w e ll a s b y su g g e stin g th e stre n g th s an d lim its o f p a rtic u la r in te rp re ta tio n s. In c a g e n d e r re la tio n s, fo r e x a m p le , w ith th eir s tru c tu re s o f se x u a l p a ra lle lism , ch eck g e n e ra liz a tio n s a b o u t p a tria r c h a l fo rm s n e c e ssa rily a c c o m p a n y in g sta te p o w er. A n (im p lic it) c o m p a ra tiv e fra m e , th en , e n ric h es an d sh a rp e n s a n a ly s is .1-* B u t e v e n i f u n iv e rsa l th eo ries a r e not o u r g o a l, w e c a n , to u se H a ll’ s p h ra s e , “ g o on th e o riz in g ” (19 8 6 ? : 60). W c can w o rk h a rd at d is c e rn in g those “ c o m p le x ify in g ” c o n c ep ts; c o n c cp ts th a t, fo llo w in g the c o n c e rn s o f o u r d a y , a r e a liv e to p ro c e ss a n d p a ra d o x . 10 c o n tra d ictio n a n d c o n te x t, to h u m an a g c n c y a n d its lim its;20 c o n c cp ts that o pen o u r e y e s to sig n ific a n t re la tio n s, in c lu d in g th o se o f g e n d e r, p ro d u ce d in the h isto ry o f s ta te -m a k in g . T a k in g M a r x ’ s m eth o d se rio u sly , h o w e v e r, w ith its in sig h ts in to the g ro u n d in g o f th o u g h t in the sw irl o f so c ia l re la tio n s, m e a n s re c o g n iz in g th o u g h t's u n a v o id ­ a b le p a rtia litie s. T h e sta rtin g p o in t o f th e o riz in g c a n h e no o th e r th an o u r p o sitio n in th is w o rld 21— w ith a ll its p o ssib ilitie s, b lin d in g lim its, an d p o te n ­ tia ls fo r c ritic a l tran scen d en ce.

P A R T IA L IT IE S C r it ic a l fe m in ist c th n o h isto ric s m u st a p p re c ia te these d ile m m a s . O u r a n a ly ­ se s e m p lo y “ d u a litie s ” a n d re p lic a te “ e s sc n tia lism s,” e v e n a s w c re p u d ia te

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th em . O u r h isto ries crc atc “ c l o s u r e , e v e n a s w e look fo r w a y s to e x p re ss the in c o m p le te n e ss o f so cial p ro cess. Y e t , at le a st so m e o f o u r h isto rie s n o w rec­ o g n ize g e n d e r a s a “ level o f d e te rm in a tio n '’ (F o x -G c n o v c s c 19 8 2 , 19 8 8 ; S c o tt 19 8 6 ); a n d m a n y a r e freshly a ttu n e d to th e p o litics o f h isto ric a l p ro d u c tio n (H o b s b a w m 19 8 4 ; F o x -G e n o v e se an d G e n o v e se 19 7 6 ). F o r so m e, th e im p o ssib ility o f a tta in in g a b so lu te s in k n o w led g e sig n a ls d e s p a ir . E x tre m e “ p o sim o d c rn ists,” p ra isin g the c o lla p se o f “ g e n r e s ,” a n d re v e lin g in the fictio n (or c u ltu ra l c o n stru c tio n ) o f a ll so cial a n a ly s e s , h a v e e v e n d e n ie d the p o ssib ility o f d o in g h isto ry (see S m ith -R o s e n b e r g 19 8 6 : 3 1 3 2 ) . B u t c o u n te rin g tren d s, o f w h ic h a c ritic a l e th n o h isto ry p la y s a v ita l p a rt, te ach a d ifferen t lesson, o n e o f c ritic a l c au tio n (sec R o s c b c r ry

19 8 8 ; d i

L e o n a r d o 19 8 9 ; S m ith -R o se n b e rg 19 8 6 ; G o r d o n 19 8 6 ). A w a r e o f th in k in g ’ s lim ita tio n s, n ew eth n n h isio rie s p ro m o te a c ritic a l sta n c e to w a rd a il in tellectu al p ra c tic e . W a r y o f the d o g m a tic rcd u c tio n ism s th a t h a v e p la g u e d M a rx is t tra d itio n , th ey e n co u ra g e a p o stu re o f o p en n ess. Y e t the a c c e p ta n c e o f th ese lim its is not a re p u d ia tio n o f d e te rm in a c y in so c ia l p ro c e ss. T h e very’ co n cep tio n o f k n o w led g e a n d its p ra c tic e s a s b ein g co n to u re d b y the relatio n s that e n g a g e it— the in sisten ce th at so c ia l th eo riz­ in g c a n n e v e r ste p o u tsid e o f its h isto ric a l c o n d itio n s o f p ro d u c tio n — su g g e sts o th e rw ise .

N EW R E S E A R C H T A C T I C S A w a r e n e s s o f th e m u tu al im p lic a tio n s o f so cie ty , p o w er, a n d the c o n stru c tio n o f k n o w le d g e h a s m a d e fem in ist cth n o h isto ria n s a c u te ly a w a r e o f th e lim its o f o u r so u rce s. T h e o ld view o f h isto ry a s a stra ig h tfo rw a rd a c c o u n t o f the p ast b ase d on the a c c u m u la tio n o f “ fa c ts ” is in c re a sin g ly su sp e c t. D istru st o f the “ se lf-e v id e n t” statu s o f facts, a lin ch p in o f b o u rg eo is id e o lo g y , h a s led (e th n o )h isto ria n s to reex a m in e d o c u m e n ts— th eir sa c re d texts an d so u rc e s o f “ facts.** O u r tra d itio n a l so u rces— c h ro n icle s, w ills, ju d ic ia l h e a rin g s, n o ta ria l re c ­ o rd s, m issio n ary' a c c o u n ts— w e re w ritte n w ith a p u rp o se a n d so m etim es w'ith a v e n g e a n c e . R e c o g n iz in g th e b ia se s in d o c u m e n ts re q u ire s us to treat th em m ost su sp ic io u sly ; w c m u st a sk a b o u t th eir a u th o rsh ip a n d to w h a t e n d s th e y w e re w ritten . H o w e v e r, the m ost fo rb id d in g d isc e rn m e n t in v o lv e s distortions that run d eeper than au th orial intent. T h e unconscious p rejud ices o f c u ltu rc a n d c la s s , o f so cie ty a n d g e n d e r, p e rm e a te d o cu m en ts ju s t a s they p e rm e a te o u r a n a ly tic a l a p p a r a tu s . A r c h iv e s , c a c h e s o f re c o rd s, a r e a ll c u l­ tu ra l in v e n tio n s (se e C o h n 19 8 0 ); an d the d o cu m e n ts o f e th n o h isto ry , a s lik e ly a s n ot p ro d u c ts o f the co lo n ial e n co u n ter, b e a r th at p ro c e ss in th eir m a rro w . T h e r e a r e d e e p h isto rio g ra p h ic a l im p lic a tio n s to the tru ism th at co lo n ia ls u n d e rsto o d the peoples th ey d o m in a te d th ro u gh th e ir ow n c u ltu re s’ catego *

162

INTERPRETING WOMEN IN STA TES

rics a n d p e rc e p tio n s. T h e y co n cern m o re th an the m o re o b v io u s ju stific a tio n s o f c o lo n ia l ru le o r C h r istia n e v a n g e lism . B a s ic a ssu m p tio n s o f h o w so cicty fu n ctio n s, the n a tu re o f h u m a n ity , a lo n g w ith p ro fo u n d n o tio n s o f a c c o u n t­ a b ility , p o litic a l h ie r a r c h y , m o ra lity , a n d h isto ry a r c in sc rib e d in co lo n ial d o c u m e n ts.22 A n d fu rth e rm o re , a s fem in ist th eo ry h a s so w ell in stru c te d , n e ith e r c o lo n ia ls n o r co lon ized sp o k e in o n e v o ic e ; th ese in te rn a l d iv isio n s h a v e a lso left th e ir m ark on so u rces. T h e sa m e in te lle c tu a l trad itio n th at refu sed c o lo n ia l p eo p le s a p la c e in h isto ry d e n ie d w o m en th eirs. T h is d e n ia l is e sc o n c e d in h isto ric a l th eo ry w h e re w o m en w ere stereo typ ed a s h isto ry ’s p a ssiv e o b jc c ts , a s w e ll a s in ih c h isto ric a l p ra c tic e o f a rc h iv e -b u ild in g . T h e g a te k e e p e rs to c o lo n ia l h isto ry , as w rite rs a n d fact-m a k e rs, h a v e ten d ed to ign o re w o m en o r m uffle th eir a c h ie v e m e n ts.

N a tiv e

w o m en

often

appear

as

v a r ia tio n s

o f W estern

s te re o ty p e s, n o d o u b t fu lfillin g W estern e x p e cta tio n s. S o m e tim e s th ey sc a rc e ­ ly a p p e a r a t a ll— p o ssib ly a s m u ch a reflection o f E u r o p e a n p re ju d ic e a s an in d ic a tio n o f th eir p re se n ce o r a c tiv ity . H o w e v e r, b efo re la y in g a ll the b la m e on E u ro p e a n sh o u ld e r s , w e sh o u ld re m e m b e r th at g e n d e r relatio n s co u ld stru c tu re the c o m m u n ic a tio n o f know l* e d g e b efo re E u ro p e a n s b egan to m ak e n a tiv e w o rld s k n o w n . A p rie st sen t o u t to rc c c n tly eo lo n ized A n d e a n co m m u n ities at the tu rn o f the sixteen th c c n tu ry w a s a sto n ish ed b y the d ep th o f g e n d e r d iv isio n s in In c a r itu a l life. C o m m itte d to u n c o v e rin g “ id o la tro u s” p ra c tic e s, H e rn a n d e z P rin c ip e b e­ m o an e d th at even the In c a s d id not k eep go o d re c o rd s o f w h a t w o m en w ere d o in g , sin c e w o m e n ’s re lig io u s o rg a n iz a tio n s w ere c o n sid e re d w o m e n ’s b u s i­ n ess (H e rn a n d e z P rin c ip c 19 2 3 ) . F u rth e rm o re , w o m en co u ld b en efit b y th eir e x c lu sio n fro m p u b lic sc ru tin y . A s so m e A n d e a n w o m e n d isc o v e re d , S p a n ish ten d en cies to d e n y them a c c e ss to p u b lic life— re su ltin g in th eir a b se n c e from m u ch p u b lic re c o rd — a c tu a lly fu rn ish ed them w ith m e a n s to th w a rt the b u r ­ d e n s o f c o lo n ia l ru le. N o w that “ o th e rs” a r e in o u r v ie w , sc h o la rs a re a s k in g h o w th ey could h a v e b een “ d is a p p e a r e d ” so lo n g from h isto rical re c o rd . T h e F re n c h h isto ­ rian M a r c B lo c h , w h o re su rrected the liv e s o f the c o m m o n p eo p le o f the fe u d al a g e s , w a s p la g u e d b y ih c ir n o n existen ce in the a c c e p te d , c o n v e n tio n a l d o cu m e n ta tio n o f h is d a y . In his m a n u a l o f h is to ry -w ritin g ( 1 9 5 3 ) , B lo ch e n co u ra g e d us both to look for n ew so u rces a n d to a sk n ew q u e stio n s in o u r a tte m p ts to resto re the liv es o f th o se not so e a s ily d is c o v e re d in a rc h iv e s . H e im p lo re d u s not to u n d erestim ate the v a r ie ty o f w a y s in w h ic h h u m a n b ein g s le a v e “ tr a c k s ” — o r in tim a tio n s— o f th eir a c tiv itie s in the w o rld . H isto ric a l re co n stru ctio n is not lim ited to the w ritten w o rd , a n d , a s I w a s fo rtu n a te to d is c o v e r in P e ru , it c a n b e e x p a n d e d b y p a in tin g s a n d th e slo p e o f p lo w e d field s, b y the sty le o f d re ss, a n d b y the c u t o f a n irrig a tio n c a n a l. B lo c h a lso rem in d ed h isto ria n s th at, a lth o u g h the p resen t is u n d e rsto o d b y the p a st, so is th e p ast u n d ersto o d b y the p resen t. T h e “ v ib r a n c e o f h u m a n life ,” h a rd to

INTERPRETING WOMEN IN STATES

163

re p ro d u c e in o ld texts, “ is in th e p re se n t” ( 1 9 5 3 : 4 4 ); a n d th at v ib r a n c e o f h u m a n life, a s T r ig g e r noted (19 8 6 : 2 5 8 ). can sta n d a s a g o o d ch cck to som e o f the b la ta n t p re ju d ic e s o f h isto ric a l acco u n t o r a r c h iv a l rep o rt, a s w ell as p r o v id e a c o n te x t to h elp m a k e sen se o f the sta c a tto o f e v id e n c e left b y d o cu m cn ts. H o w e v e r p ro b le m a tic o u r so u rc e s m ig h t be, a s e th n o h isto ria n s w e are b o u n d to th em . In c o m p le te an d b ia se d , th ey still c o n s titu te the b a s ic m a te ­ r ia ls w ith w h ic h w e m ust w o rk . A s su ch th ey too im p o se lim its on w h a t w e can w rite . In te lle c tu a l a n d p o litic a l in te g rity d e m a n d th a t w c tak e these so u rce s a n d th eir lim ita tio n s se rio u sly a n d , 10 q u o te the fem in ist h isto rian L in d a G o rd o n , n o m a tte r w h a t w e m ig h t w an t to fin d , w e a r e not at c th ic a l lib e rty to p ick a n d ch o o se ( 19 8 6 : 2 2 ; a lso see H a w k e s w o r th 19 8 9 ). T h e v e r y d ile m m a s o f h isto ric a l re c o n stru ctio n — th e c u ltu ra l p a rtia litie s o f a ll p e rsp e c tiv e s, c o u p le d w ith the u n ce rta in tie s o f the e th n o h isto ric a l rec* o rd (o r lack o f re c o rd ), d e m o n stra te th e im p o ss ib ility o f h isto ric a l a b so lu te s. B u t a w a re n e s s o f the d elu sio n o f a b so lu te tru th s in s o c ia l life is n ot lic e n se to a b a n d o n the e n tire en te rp rise . C r itic a l reflectio n s p o in t to lin es o f ju d g m e n t a n d se lf-c o n sc io u s re sp o n sib ility : fo llo w in g H a ll, w c c a n e v a lu a te h isto rie s in te rm s o f th e ir ‘ ‘ c o m p le x ify in g ” p o te n tia ls; w e c a n ta lk a b o u t the lim its an d d isto rtio n s o f s im p lify in g a c c o u n ts, a n d the e n a b lin g p o ssib ilitie s o f in v o lv e d , m u lti-d im e n sio n a l, a n d c ritic a l re c o n stru ctio n s— s-purs to im a g in e b eyo n d the b o u n d a rie s o f o u r rec eiv ed c a te g o riz a tio n s. S o m e o f w h at w e w rite (in g o o d faith ) m ig h t en d u p b e in g h isto ric a lly in a c c u ra te . T h a t still d o es not g r a n t u s the a r r o g a n c e to d e n y h isto ric a l e x p e rie n c e . VVc o w e m o re to o u r p a sts, in c lu d in g the o n es still to be w ritten .

C R I T I C A L F E M I N I S T E T H N O H IS T O R I E S I n the c o n te xt o f p o liticized so c ia l re la tio n s, h is to ry ten d s to be “ m a d e ” b y th o se w h o d o m in a te — b y In c a n o b le m en , p r o v in c ia l ch iefs, k in g s, co lo n ial b u re a u c ra ts , p re sid e n ts, o fficial sc rib e s, u n iv e rs ity p ro fesso rs (D ia m o n d 19 7 4 : 1 - 4 8 ) . T h e p riv ile g e s en jo yed b y d o m in a n t g r o u p s fa c ilita te b o th the a c c o m p lish m e n t o f th e ir d e sig n s a n d the c o m m e m o ra tio n o f th eir h ero es in o fficial, a u th o rita tiv e a c c o u n ts o f the p a st. B u t th e y n e v e r h a v e th e e n tire w o rd . R a d ic a l in te lle c tu a l p ra c tic e s— in c lu d in g fe m in ist o n es— h a v e d e m o n ­ stra te d th a t san ctio n e d h isto ries o ften b elie c o u n tc r-v e rsio n s n ot so a d v a n ­ ta g e d in reco rd o r in p o w er. A n d th ese c o u n te r-h isto rie s, su b v e r siv e a n d o p p o sitio n a l, stra in a n d sh a p e the o fficial sto ries th a t d e n y them . T h e d a n g e r o f fo rg e ttin g this lesso n is se rio u s; a n d a s A lic ia P a rtn o y w a s a w a r e , r u lin g g r o u p s ’ h o stility to w ard re v isio n ist h isto rie s, o r th eir o w n often b la ta n t fo ra y s in to h isto ric a l re c o n stru ctio n s, m a k e s h isto ry -w ritin g m ore th an a n “ a c a d e m ic "’ e x e rc ise (P a rtn o y 19 8 6 ; see a ls o W illia m s 19 7 7 : 1 1 6 ) . T o o v e rlo o k the p o litic a l a n ta g o n ism s th at p e rm e a te h isto ric a l id eo lo g ies le a v e s

INTERPRETING WOMEN IN STATES

164

us c o llu d in g w iih “ h ero es” an d c a n o n iz in g th e ir p a rtisa n v isio n . It a lso d u lls us to th e p u b lic n a tu re o f h isto ric a l p ra c tic e : (he w a y s in w h ic h v e rsio n s o f the p a st, w ith (h e ir e xig en t ro le in the b u ild in g o f h eg em o n ies, a c tiv e ly c o n ­ stru e p o litic a l o rd e rs (H o b sb a w m 19 8 4 ; T h o m p s o n 19 7 7 ). C r it ic a l fe m in ist eth n o h isto ria n s, then , h a v e to tak e a c c o u n t o f o u r o w n fie ld — its id e a s an d p ro c e d u re s, its in stitu tio n a liz a tio n s an d p ra c tic c s— b y a s s e s s in g its p la c c in the th ickct o f so c ia l, id e o lo g ic a l, a n d p o litic a l re la tio n s. A s p a rt o f a n th ro p o lo g y , c th n o h isto ry m u st n o t sh irk the p o litic s a t its c o re : n a m e ly th at th e o b je c t o f a n th ro p o lo g ic a l rc s c a rc h e m erg ed o u l o f c o lo n ia l c n c o u n tc rs (F r ie d m a n 19 8 7 ; A s a d 19 7 3 ; S a id 19 8 9 ). A lth o u g h a n th r o p o lo g y is not sim p ly the ch ild o f im p e ria lism , a s K a t h le e n G o u g h ( 19 6 7 ) c h a r a c ­ terized the fie ld a g e n e ra tio n a g o , it is in e x tr ic a b ly en ta n g le d w ith it. B u t even w h ile a p a r i o f a n d c o n trib u to r to im p e ria l re la tio n s, c th n o h islo r y , at its m o st in te g ra l, h a s c h a lle n g e d d o m in a n t v e rsio n s o f “ o th e rs ,” the p o litics c re a tin g “ o th e rs,” a s w ell a s its ow n c o m p lic ity in p r o p a g a tin g W est­ e rn s te re o ty p e s. F e m in ism , as w ell, h a s m o u rn ed a sig n ific a n t in te lle c tu a l o p p o sitio n to d o m in a n t d isc ip lin a ry tren d s; w h ile w ith in th at b ro a d s p a c e o f fem in ism v e r y im p o rta n t ch a lle n g e s h a v e b e e n m a d e to a kind o f W e ste rn fem in ist im p e ria lism , o f w h ic h C h a n d r a M o h a n iy h a s sp o k en . T h e s e q u e s­ tio n s h a v e s h o w n a g a in the a m b ig u itie s o f c h a lle n g e from w ith in the b e lly o f the b e a st, a n d a d m o n ish W estern fem in ists tr y in g to a sse ss c ritic a lly the h is­ to ry o f “ o th e r s .“ F o r lik e W estern id e o lo g y , W e ste rn fem in ism is s u rro u n d e d b y the a u r a , the p o w erfu l a d v a n ta g e s , a tta in e d b y a n y W estern in te lle c tu a l p ra c tic e . W r itin g c ritic a l fem in ist c th n o h isto ry e n ta ils re sp o n sib ility fo r a s c e rta in in g , a s b est a s p o ssib le, the c o n sc q u c n c c s an d im p lic a tio n s o f a c a d e m ic a c tiv itie s. S o m e W e ste rn fem in ist stu d ies h a v e tried to d o ju s t ic e to the c o m p le x itie s o f g e n d e r c o n fig u ra tio n s in co lo n ial c o n te x ts (see S to le r a n d G u y c r , th is v o lu m e ). T h e s e stu d ie s reco g n ize the in te r p la y — a n d p a r a d o x e s — o f g e n d e r a n d p o w e r in c o lo n ia l an d c la ss-sp lin te re d w o rld s. T h e y a re se n sitiv e to th e m u ltip le h o riz o n s sp a w n e d b y the in te rse c tio n s o f g e n d e r, c la ss, an d c o lo n y , a n d to o th e r c o m p le x ify in g re la tio n s th a t h u m a n b ein g s in h isto ry a n d m so c ie ty h a v e p ro d u ce d . T h e ch a lle n g e lies in c a p tu r in g the h isto ric a l co n ­ stru c tio n an d c o n se q u e n ce s o f the o v e r la p p in g a n d o p p o sin g so c ia l re la tio n s c o n stitu tin g w o m e n an d m en in sta te s, the in tric a c ie s o f w o m e n 's p o te n tia li­ ties in s ta te s a t p a r tic u la r tim es an d p la c e s, a n d in h eed in g the c o n tra d ic to ry p o sitio n s w ith w h ic h c ro ss-c u ttin g p o litic a l a n d ec o n o m ic fo rces im b u e th em . It e n tails an a w a r e n e s s o f the trick in ess o f p o w e r relatio n s in (h eir p la y w ith g e n d e r (a fte r a ll, the p a ra m o u n t a im o f m o st sta te -b u ild in g , to p a r a p h r a s e F o x - G e n o v e s e { 1 9 8 2 J , w a s not to s u b ju g a te w o m e n ), a n d o f the d iv e r s e , a lb e it c o n s tra in e d fo rm s th at th at p la y h a s ta k e n in the w o r ld ’s states. A s c ritic a l eth n o h isto ria n s w e a r e re sp o n sib le fo r o u r im a g e -m a k in g a n d o u r e th n o h is lo ries: w e c a n no lo n g e r p re te n d in n o cen ce o f th eir p o litic a l

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sh a d in g s . N o r c a n w c p reten d in n o cc n cc o f o u r h u m a n ity : a s a h u m an e n ­ d e a v o r , the k n o w le d g e o f o u r c a te g o rie s' so c ia l c o n siru c iio n , lik e o u r k n o w l­ ed g e o f the p a st, is con d em n ed to in c o m p leten ess. Y e t no m a tte r how fa u lty a n d t e n t a t iv e , th e se ( e th n o )h is t o r ic a l r e c o n s t r u c t io n s fo r m th e b a s is o f o u r

in q u irie s a n d o u r d e b a te s; they a re in d isp e n sa b le to o u r s e lf-a w a re n e ss an d c o n sc ic n ce . A n d a s p a rt o f h isto ry ’ s p u b lic re c o rd , th ey can c o n trib u te to the c o n sc io u sn e ss o f o th e rs in w a y s still u n im a g in c d . A s w e c e n su re E n lig h ten m en t d e lu sio n s, w e sh o u ld be c a re fu l n ot to forget E n lig h te n m e n t h o p es. A lth o u g h its id e o lo g y o f u n iv e rsa ls b re d the d isto r­ tio n s re b u k e d b y to d a y ’ s critics, it a lso c h a rg e d e m a n c ip a tin g am b itio n s. P ro c la m a tio n s o f lib e rty a n d e q u a lity w ere taken se rio u sly b y th o se to w h o m th e y w e re d e n ie d in e x p e rie n c e , a n d W estern fem in ism grew’ o u t o f such e n ­ c o u n te rs b etw een so cial p r a c :ic c a n d so c ia l id e a ls. T hese e m a n c ip a tin g v i­ s io n s w e re tied to a com m itted so c ia l scien ce; a n d a lth o u g h n in eteen th c e n tu ry illu m in a rie s e x a g g e ra te d h u m a n ra tio n a lity , th ey n e v e r d o u b ted th at the “ h u m a n sc ie n c e s” — in d isp e n sa b le to p o litic s a n d m o ra lity — w ere m ore th an an a c a d e m ic e n te rp rise . A s E n lig h te n m e n t a n tag o n ists a n d in h e rito rs, to d a y ’ s fem in ists h a v e c o n ­ trib u te d to a re e x a m in a tio n c f o u r h u m a n n e ss: to the c u ltu ra l a n d p o litical b o u n d e d n e ss o f o u r k n o w led g e c la im s, a n d to the e th ic a l a n d p o litical im ­ p e ra tiv e s o f o u r in te lle c tu a l activ itie s. A lth o u g h fem in ists d o not sp eak in one v o ic e , th ey s h a r e a h o p e a n d a c o m m itm en t to a w o rld free o f d o m in a tio n s. T h is c o m m itm e n t h a s ro o ts in u n d e rsta n d in g s o f h u m a n ity 's p resen ts an d p a sts ; a n d i f th e tw in n ed a n ch o rs o f a b so lu te s in k n o w le d g e an d certa in tie s in so c ia l p ro c e ss h a v e b een c u t a d rift, e n lig h te n in g e n te rp rise s, lik e fem in ist e th n o h isto rie s, at the v e ry least, c o n trib u te th o se p re c io u s m a te ria ls ir. w h ic h d e b a te s a b o u t g e n d e r h ie ra rc h y a n d e x p lo ita tio n c a n b e g ro u n d e d . T h e fe m in ist eth n o h isto ries that this p a p e r a d v o c a te s c o m e fro m a lo n g ­ s ta n d in g a n th ro p o lo g ic a l (in :e lle c tu a l a n d p o litic a l) tra d itio n , a trad itio n th at sees h is to ry a s an in d isp e n sa b le co m p o n en t o f so c ia l a n a ly s is (even a s its h isto ric a l p ra c tic e h as been found w a n tin g ); th at rec o g n izes the so cial c o n ­ stru c tio n o f c a te g o rie s a n d k n o w led g es (even a s it h as been lu red b y c e rta in ­ ties o f ec o n o m ic rcd u c tio n ism ); th a t h a s e n c o u ra g e d in te lle c tu a l sclfreftection a n d d o u b t (ev en a s it h a s c o u n tc n a n c c d d o g m a tism ); a n d that h a s u n s w e rv in g ly d e m a n d e d th at in te lle c tu a l p ra c tic e be b o n d e d w ith h u m an e id e a ls (even a s it h a s “ co lo n ized ” the e x p e rie n c e o f th ird w o rld w o m en ). T h e s p irit o f M a r x is m ’s c ritic a l le g a c y , h o n ed , in p a rt, b y c o n te m p o ra ry e n co u n ­ te rs w ith p o stm o d ern c ritiq u e s a n d a n th r o p o lo g y ’s c risis o f h isto ry , h a s th ru st th ese p a ra d o x e s in to o u r in te lle c tu a l c o n sc io u sn e ss a n d con scien ce. M o s t im p o rta n t, h o w e v e r, is the ten o r o f o p en n ess, the v ita lity o f d e b a te , th at th is m eetin g o f M a r x is m , fem in ism s, a n th ro p o lo g y , a n d eth n o h isto ry p ro m ise s. R e m o v in g the b u rd en o f c e rta in tie s o p e n s d ia lo g u e s b etw een p re s­ en ts a n d p a sts th a t offer rich co n ten tio n s o v e r h isto rie s’ tra je c to rie s, o p p o r-

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tu n ilie s m issed a n d seized , feasib le stra te g ie s, an d fu tu re v isio n s. A w a r e that the p a st is m o re th an an a c c u m u la tio n o f o u tc o m es b u t e n c o m p a sse s the im a g in a b le etch ed w ith in , a c ritic a l fem in ist c th n o h isto ry su g g e sts, th en , not the in e v ita b ility o f h isto ry b u t the p o te n tia ls o f h isto ries. A n d b y re sto rin g p o ssib ilitie s to o u r fo rcm o th crs a n d fa th e rs, a s L u k a c s re m in d s u s, w c also re sto re p o ssib ilitie s to o u rs e lv e s (L u k a c s 1 9 7 1 ; sec a lso W cstk o tt 19 7 9 ).

N O TES 1. T h is paper owes much to many good friends and able critics. Special thanks to Nan Woodruff, Elizabeth Fox-Gcnovesc, R ayn a R app , M ichael T aussig, and M icacla di Leonardo. M icaela has been the kind o f editor that all contributors hope for: p a­ tient, exacting, knowing when 10 turn the screws, encouraging, and a first-rate critic. 2. T h e M arxist tradition in anthropology has been sensitive to the colonial posi­ tion o f (hose studied, i f not alw ays so sensitive to gender. In addition (o W olf, sec Diamond (19 7 4 ), A sad (19 7 3 ), and H ym es (1969). 3. These challenges, m arking and precipitating changes in the intellectual cli­ mate, have had profound effects in both history and anthropology. W here history used to be devoted to histories o f the predominantly male rich and famous— the so-called makers o f history— it began to recognize the contributions o f the not-soprivilegcd (see Fox-Genovese and Genovese 1976). Anthropology also became aw are o f its own lim iting assum ptions that distorted its task of writing the lives o f the colo­ nized. 4. Anthropology’ s growing awareness o f the inadequacies o f M arxist theories with respect to culture must also be understood in the context o f wider intellectual trends in the M arxist tradition. T h e work o f British cultural historians and literary critics spurred an interest in the study o f the cultural dimensions o f political economy. See Thom pson (1978) and W illiams (19 77) am ong others. 5. Fem inist critiques spurring on and spurred by postmodernist trends are signif­ icant in cultural/literary studies see De Lauretis 1986; Spivak 1967; and M oi 1985 am ong others). 6. See Friedm an (1987) in particular for a trenchant analysis o f this trend, which he c alls the sp cctacu larizatio n o f the other.

7. T h e following two sections draw , in part, from Silverblatt (1988b). See that article for a more detailed demonstration o f some o f the arguments presented here. 8. T h e principal theorist o f patriarchal universalism was Sir H enry M aine, who wrote Ancient Law (19 6 3) in 18 6 1. O ther feminist scholars who have commented on these nineteenth-century debates include C ow ard (19 8 3 ), Fee (19 7 3 ), Fox-Genovese (19 77), Nicholson (1986 ), and Vogel (1987). 9. See C ohn’s two witty discussions o f the history o f history and anthropology (1980, 19 8 1). Cohn points out that according to Western popular belief, history— or the chronological sequencing o f facts— is in itself explanation. to. Ironically, although specific historical circum stanccs were played down in anthropological explanation, the prim ary goal o f the com parative method itself was to recreate a global chronology. 11 became a tool for constructing a history. T he History o f M ankind (hV)» which could overcome the lack o f adequate “ real” evidence. Social types, in this early formulation, represented different stages o f a universal history,

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with “ prim itives” beginning and the “ state” or “ civilization” ending an evolutionary sequence. 1 1 . Although an elaborate control over women might be explained as a defensive strategy o f kin groups struggling to resist state incursion, 1 should point out that it was hardly universal. Our chroniclers offer no evidence o f Andean polities assum ing sim ilar defensive posture*. On the contrary', prem arital sexual experimentation was encouraged in peasant communities. And outside o f the “ wives o f the In ra/Sun ,” there were limited checks on women’ s sexual activities— including, as far as I can tell on the practices o f noblewomen (Silverblatt 1987: 8 1- 10 8 ) . 12 . Rosaldo, who was a spokeswoman (or the universal gender asym m etry cam p, wrote an eloquent denunciation o f origin-guided research (1980). Yet she still insisted that gender asym m etry had to be universal; and thus seemed unable to break out o f the “ origin” mold in spite o f her extensive criticisms. 13 . See Genovese (19*4* I9®>) for an elaboration o f this Gram scian notion. 14. Coutd the notion of systemic reproduction be a current reincarnation o f the unfolding o f “ origin” ? The following section owes much to the current discussions o f structure and agency, whose principal contem porary theorist is Anthony Giddens (1987). Connell (1988) elaborates on structuration theory, while sensitively incorpor­ ating gender issues. He is highly critical o f the conccpt o f reproduction for its functionalist implications. 15 . M oreover, this paradigm cncourages the polarization o f societies into egalkarian/kinship-versu‘ -sta tr categories— an echo o f Engels— which I (eel contrib­ uted to m y unduly romantic portrayal o f prc-Inca peoples in Moon, Sun, and Witches (Silverblatt 1987). 16. We can thus envision the movement o f history and theory as proceeding in opposite directions. W ha: appears to be a "resu lt” in history, figures, in theory, as that which must be produced (H all 1977: 150). 17 . T he tributary mode o f production, to cite Eric W o lfs succinct definition, is characteristic o f states “ in which the prim ary producer, whether cultivator or herdsman, is allowed access to the means o f production, while tribute is extracted from him by political or military means” (1982: 79-80). j 8. Even some very recent work in feminist anthropology fails to lake in these conclusions. Henrietta Moore (1988), in a very interesting chapter on women and the state, stresses the importance o f historical context. Nevertheless, she argues that “ anthropology must deve.op such a theory [feminist theory o f the state] as a m atter o f urgency” (1988: 185). Although I heartily agree with her first em phasis, I disagree with her second. 19. Eugene Genovese (1964, 1984), for some o f the reasons spelled out above, argues for the importance o f a com parative focus when trying to make sense o f the diverse patterns o f race fojnd in the New World. 11 seems important to stress the need for continued com parative work in light o f current scholarly trends that center on the particular. T hese particularizing trends, o f course, arc responding to the improper generalizations o f mainstream history' and social science. 20. T h a n k s here to F»:z Jo h n Porter Poole.

2 1. S e c je h le n (1983). writing from a feminist perspective, on the illusory entice­ ments o f the Archimedian point. 22. B . T rig ger (1986) suggests that ethnohistory often tells us more about the prejudices o f ethnohistorians than about the lives o f native peoples.

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Anderson, Perry. 1384. In the tracks o f historical materialism. London: Verso. A sad , T ala), ed. 1973. Anthropology and the colonial encounter. London: Ithaca Press. B ay, E . G . 1985. Women in the palace o f Dahomey: A case study in West African political system s. In For alma mater. Theory and practice in fem inist scholarship. P. Treichler, C . K ram arae, and B . Stafford, eds., 338—453. U rbana: U niversity o f Illinois Press. Benjam in, W alter. 1969. Illuminations. Hannah Arendt, ed. New York: Sehocken Books. Bloch, M arc. 19 5 3. The historian's craft. New York: Vintage. Cohn, Bernard S. 1980. History and anthropology: T h e state o f play. Comparative studies in society and history, pp. 19 8 - 3 2 1. --------- . 19 8 1. Anthropology and history in 1980s: T ow ard a rapprochement. Journal o f Interdisciplinary History 12 (2): 2 2 7 -2 5 2 . Conkey, M . 1987. G ender origins and origins research in archaeology. Paper pre­ sented at Women in Society Sem inar. Y ale U niversity. M anuscript C hap. o f this vol. Connell, R . W. 1988. Gender and pouter: Society, the person, and sexual politics. Stanford: Stanford University Press. C ow ard, R . 1983. Patriarchal precedents-. Sexuality and social relations. London: Routledge & K egan Paul. D avis, N atalie Z . 19 8 1. Anthropology and history in the 1980s: T he possibilities ol'the past. Journo/ o f Interdisciplinary History ra (2): 26 7 -2 7 5. D iam ond, Stanley. 1974. In search o f the primitive: A critique o f civilization. New Bruns* wick: E. P. Dutton-Transaction. Dc Lauretis, T eresa. 1986. Feminist studies/critical studies. Bloomington: Indiana U ni­ versity Press. di Leonardo, M icaela. 1989. M alinowski’s nephews: R eview o f Predicament o f culture and works and lives. Nation {M arch 3): 3 5 0 -3 5 2 . Engels, F. 1972. Origin o f thefam ily, private property, and the state (1884 ], ed. E. Leacock. New York: International Publishers. Fee, Elizabeth. 1973. T h e sexual politics o f Victorian social anthropology. Feminist Studies 1 (3 -4 ): 2 3 -3 9 . Flax, J . 1987. Postmodernism and gender relations in feminist theory. Signs 12(4): 6 2 1- 6 4 3 . Fox-Gcnovesc, Elizabeth. 1977. Property and patriarchy in classical bourgeois polit­ ical theory. Radical History Review 4: 36 -59 . — — . 1982. Placing women's history in history. New Left Review 13 3 : 5 -2 9 . --------- .19 8 3 . T h e ideological bases o f domestic economy: T h e representation o f women and the fam ily in the age o f expansion. In Fruiis o f merchant capital. E. Fox-Genovese and E. D. Genovese, eds., 29 9 -336 . O xford: O xford University Press. --------- . 1986. W om en's rights, affirmative action, and the m yth o f individualism . The George Washington Law Review 54: 338- 374. --------- . 1988. Within the plantation household. C hapel H ill: U niversity o f North C arolina Press.

IN T E R P R E TING W O M EN IN S T A T E S

Fox-Genovese, Elizabeth, and Eugene E . Genovese. 1976. T he political crisis o f social history: A M arxian perspective. Journal o f Social Histoiy 10: 2 0 5 -52 0 . Friedm an, Jo n ath an . 1987. Beyond otherness or the spcctacularizaiion o f anthropolo­ gy-. Telos 7 1: 1 6 1 - 1 7 0 . G ailey, C . W. 1987a. Evolutionary perspectives on gender hierarchy. In Analyzing gender. B . Hess and M . Fcrrcc* eds. 3 2 -6 7 . Beverly H ills: Sage. --------- . 198yb. From kinship to kingship', (tender hierarchy and slate formation in the Tongan Islands. Austin: University o fT e x a s Press. Genovese, Eugene D. 1964. The teorld the slaveholders made. New York: Vintage. . 1974. Roll Jordan roll. New York: Pantheon. --------- . 19 8 1. From rebellion to revolution. New York: Vintage. . 1984. T h e com parative focus in Latin Am erican history'. In In red and black. E . D. Genovese, ed. Knoxville: University o f Tennessee Press. Pp. 3 7 5 -3 9 0 . Giddens. Anthony. 1987. Social theory and modern sociology. Stanford: Stanford U niversi­ ty Press. Gordon, Linda. 1986. W hat’s new in women's history. In Feminist studies/critical studies. T eresa de Lauretis, ed. Bloomington: U niversity o f Indiana Press. Pp. 2 0 -3 0 . Gough, Kathleen. 1967. A social consciousness for anthropology. Pacifica T ape Library. G ram sci, A. 19 7 1. Selectionsfrom the prism notebooks o f Antonio Gramsci. ed. and trans. Q. H oare and G . N. Sm ith, ed. and trans. N ew Y ork: International Publishers. H all, Stuart. 1977. M a rx ’s notes on method: A “ Reading” o f the “ 1857 Introduc­ tion.” Working Papers in Cultural Studies 6: 13 2 - 1 70. --------- . 1986a. G ram sci’s relevancc for the study o f racc and ethnicity, journal o f Communication Inquiry 10 (2): 5 -2 7 . --------- . 1986£. T h e problem o f ideology— M arxism without guarantees. Journal o f Communication Inquiry 10 (a): 2 9 -4 3. --------- . 1986*: On postmodernism and articulation: An interview with Stuart Hall. L. G rossberg, ed . Journal o f Communication Inquiry to (2}: 45-6 0 . H awkesworth, M ary E. 1989. Know ers, knowing, known: Feminist theory and claim s o f truth. Signs 14 {3): 5 3 3 -5 5 7 . Hernandez Principe. Rodrige. 1923. Mitologia andina (16 2 1). Inca 1: 24 -6 8 . Hobsbawm , Eric. 1984. Introduction: Inventing traditions, in The invention o f tradition. E. Hobsbawm and T . Ranger, eds. Cam bridge: C am bridge University Press. Huyssen, A ndreas. 198&. After the great d'vide. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. H ym es, Dell. cd. 1969. Reinventing anthnpology. New Y ork: Pantheon. Je h le n , M yra. 1983. Archimedes and the paradox o f feminist criticism. In The signs reader. Women, gender, and scholarship. E. A bel, ed., 69 -9 6. C hicago: U niversity of C hicago Press. Je sso p , Bob. 1982. 7he capitalist state. New York: New York University Press. Koonz, C . 1986. Mothers in thefatherland. New York: St. M artin’s Press. K rad er, L. 19 73. T h e works o f M arx and Engels in ethnology com pared. International Review o f Social History. 18: 2 2 3 -2 7 5 . L ea co ck , E . 19 7 2 . In troduction . In Origin o f tht fam ily, private pm ptttj and the state by F. E n gels. N ew Y o rk : In tern atio n al Publishers. P p. 7 - 6 7 .

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\7!

Sayers, J . , M . E van s, anc N. Rcdclili, eds. 1987. Engels reiisited. London: Tavistock. Scott, J . W . 1986. Gender: A useful category o f historical analysis. American Historical Review 91 (5): 10 5 3 -10 7 5 . Silverblatt, I. 1978. Andean women in the Inca society. Feminist Studies 4: 3 7 - 6 1 . --------- . 1987. A/oon, Jt/n, and witches: Gender ideologies and class in Inca and colonial Pent. Princeton: Princeton University Press. --------- . 19880. Im perial dilemmas, the politics ofkinship, and Inca reconstructions o f history. Comparative Studies in Society and History 30 ( 1) : 8 3 -10 2 . --------- . 1988^. Women in states. Annual Review in Anthropology 17 : 4 27-46 0. Sm ith-Rosenberg, Carroll. 1986. W riting history: Language, class, and gender. In Feminist studies/critical studies. Teresa dc Laurctis cd.. 3 1- 5 4 - Bloomington: Indiana U niversity Press. Spivak, G avatri. 1987. In other worlds: Essays in cultural politics. New York: Metheun. Stacey. J . 1983. Patriarchy and socialist revolution in China. Berkeley. Los Angeles. Lon ­ don: U niversity o f California Press. T aussig, M ichael. 1980. The devil and commodity fetishism in South America. C h apel Hill: University o f North Carolina Press. --------- . 1984. History as sorcery. Representations 7: 8 7 -10 9 . --------- . 1987. Shamanism end the wildman. Chicago: University o f C hicago Press. Thom pson, E . P. 1977. Folklore, anthropology, and social history. The Indian Historical Revieu) 3: 247-266. --------- . 1978. The poverty i f theory and other essays. New Y ork: M onthly R eview Press. T rigger, Bruce. 1986. Ethnohistory: T h e unfinished edifice. Ethnohistory 33 {3): 2 5 3 267. V ogel, L. 1987. Marxism and the oppresuon o f women. New Brunswick, N .J.: Rutgers U niversity Press. Wcstkott, M . 1979. Feminist criticism o f the social sciences. Harvard Education Review 49: 4*2-4-30W hitehead, Harriet. 1976. Review, Women's Evolution by E. Reed. Signs 1 (3): 746-748. W illiam s, Raym ond. 19 7 ;. M arxism and literature. O xford: O xford U niversity Press. Wolf, Eric. 1982. Europe end the people without history. Berkeley. Los Angeles, London: U niversity o f California Press.

PART TWO

Gender as Cultural Politics

FOUR

Between Speech and Silence The Problematics of Research on Language and Gender 1 Susan Gal

IN T R O D U C T IO N T h e h isto ric silen ce o f w o m en in p u b lic life, an d w o m e n 's a tte m p ts to g a in a v o ic c in p o litic s an d lite ra tu re , h a v e been m a jo r th em es o f recen t fem in ist sc h o la rs h ip . It h a s b cco m c c le a r th at g e n d e r relatio n s a re c re ated not o n ly b y a s e x u a l d iv isio n o f la b o r a n d a set o f sy m b o lic im a g e s, but a ls o th ro u gh c o n tra s tin g p o ssib ilitie s o f e x p re ssio n fo r m en a n d w o m e n . F e m in ists h a v e e x p lic itly

w ritten

alxrn t

sc h o la rsh ip ’s

re sp o n sib ility

to “ h e a r

w om en’s

w o r d s ” a n d h a v e rig h tly a rg u e d the th e o retical im p o rta n c e o f “ re d isc o v e r(in g ] w o m e n 's v o ic e s” (S m ith -R o s e n b c r g 19 8 3 : 1 1 , 2 6 ). In th ese w ritin g s , sile n ce is g e n e ra lly d e p lo re d , b e c a u se it is tak en to b e a resu lt a n d a sy m b o l o f p a ssiv ity a n d p o w erlessn ess: th o se w h o a r e d en ied sp c c c h can n o t m ak e th eir e x p e rie n c e know n a n d th u s c a n n o t in flu en ce the c o u rse o f th e ir liv e s o r o f h isto ry .2 In a tellin g c o n tra st, o th e r sc h o la rs h a v e e m p h a siz e d the p a ra d o x ic a l p o w e r o f silen ce, e s p e c ia lly in c e rta in in stitu ­ tio n al se ttin g s. In re lig io u s co n fessio n , m od ern p sy c h o th e ra p y , b u re a u c ra tic in te rv ie w s, a n d in p o lic e in te rro g a tio n , the re la tio n s o f c o c rc io n a re re v e rse d : w h e re se lf-e x p o su re is re q u ire d , ii is the silen t listen er w h o ju d g e s , a n d w h o th e re b y e x e rts p o w e r o v e r the o n e w h o sp e a k s (F o u c a u lt 19 7 8 : 6 1 - 6 2 ) . S im i­ la r ly , silen ce in A m e ric a n h o u seh o ld s is often a w e a p o n o f m a sc u lin e p o w e r (S a tte l 19 8 3 ) . B u t sile n ce c a n a lso be a s tra te g ic d efen se a g a in st the p o w e rfu l, a s w h en W e stern A p a c h e m en u se it to baffle, d isco n c e rt, a n d e x c lu d e w h ite o u tsid e rs (B a s s o 19 7 9 ). A n d th is d o es not e x h a u st the m e a n in g s o f silen ce. F o r the E n g lish Q u a k e rs o f the sev en teen th c e n tu ry , b o th m en a n d w o m en , th e re fu sa l to sp eak w hen o th e rs exp ected them to m a rk e d a n id e o lo g ica l c o m m itm e n t. It w a s the o p p o site o f p a s s iv ity , ind eed a form o f p o litic a l p ro ­ test (B a u m a n 19 8 3 ).* 175

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T h e ju x ta p o s itio n o f these d ifferen t c o n stru c tio n s o f silc n c c h ig h lig h ts the three issu es I w o u ld lik e to ra is e in th is c h a p te r. F irst, a n d m ost g e n e r a lly , the e x a m p le o f sile n c e su g g e sts a clo se link b etw een g e n d e r, th e u se o f sp e e c h (o r s ilc n c c ), a n d the e x c rc isc o f p o w er. B u t it a lso sh o w s th a t the lin k is not d irc c t. O n the c o n tr a r y , it a p p e a r s th a t silc n c c , lik e a n y lin g u istic fo rm , g a in s d ifferen t m e a n in g s a n d h a s d iffe re n t m a te ria l cffccts w ith in sp e c ific in s titu ­ tio n al a n d c u ltu ra l co n texts. S ile n c e a n d in a rtic u la te n e ss a r e n ot, in th em ­ se lv e s, n e c e ssa rily sig n s o f p o w c rlc ssn e ss. In d e e d , m y first g o a l is to d r a w on a c u ltu r a l a n a ly s is to sh o w h o w the lin ks b c tw rc n lin g u istic p ra c tic e s, powder, a n d g e n d e r a r c th e m se lv e s c u ltu r a lly co n stru cted . Y e t these c u ltu ra l c o n stru c tio n s a r e not a lw a y s sta b le , n o r p a ss iv e ly a c c e p te d a n d re p ro d u ce d b y s p e a k e rs. T h e e x a m p le s o f sile n c e a s su b v e r siv e d e fe n se a n d even p o litic a l p ro te st su g g e st th at lin g u istic fo rm s, e v e n th e m ost a p p a r e n tly q u ie sc e n t, a r e s tr a te g ic a c tio n s, c re ated a s resp o n ses to c u ltu r a l a n d in stitu tio n al c o n texts (G u m p e r? . 19 8 2 ). A lth o u g h so c io lin g u istic stu d ie s h a v e lo n g n oted d ifferen ces b etw een m en ’ s a n d w o m e n ’s e v e r y d a y lin g u istic fo rm s, m u ch e a r ly re se a rc h c o n sid e re d ta lk to be sim p ly a n in d ex o f id e n tity : m e re ly o n e o f the m a n y b e h a v io rs le a rn e d th ro u g h so c ia liz a tio n

w h ic h

fo rm e d p a rt o f m en 's a n d w o m e n ’ s d ifferen t so cial roles. R e c e n t re c o n c e p ­ tu a liz a tio n s o f g e n d e r reject th is im p licit ro le th eo ry an d p ro m ise a d e e p e r u n d e rsta n d in g o f the gen esis a n d p e rsiste n c e o fg e n d e r d ifferen ces in sp c c c h . T h e y a rg u e th at g e n d e r is b e tte r seen a s a system o f c u ltu r a lly c o n stru c te d re la tio n s o f p o w e r, p ro d u ce d a n d re p ro d u ce d in in tera ctio n b e tw e e n a n d a m o n g m en a n d w o m e n .4 I d r a w 011 so cio lin g u istic stu d ies o f e v e r y d a y talk to p ro v id e e v id e n c e (hat it is in p a r t th ro u g h v e rb a l p ra c tic e s in so cial in te r a c ­ tion th a t the stru c tu ra l re la tio n s o fg e n d e r a n d d o m in a n c e a r e p e rp e tu a te d a n d so m e tim es su b v e rte d : in s o c ia l in stitu tio n s su c h a s sc h o o ls, c o u rts , an d p o litic a l a sse m b lie s, talk is o ften used to ju d g e , d efin e, an d le g itim a te sp e a k e rs. T h u s, s m a ll in te ra c tio n a l sk irm ish e s h a v e strik in g m a te r ia l c o n ­ se q u e n ce s. M y seco n d g o a l is to sh o w h o w v e rb a l in te ra ctio n , w h a te v e r else it a c c o m p lish e s, is often the s ite o f s tru g g le a b o u t g e n d e r d e fin itio n s an d p o w e r; it c o n cern s w h o c a n s p e a k w h e re ab o u t w h at.

F in a lly , such stru ggles ab o u t gain in g a voice, and m y earlier e x a m p le o f w om en’s silcncc in public life, d ra w attention to a cu rren tly w id esp read and influential m etaphor in both fem inist and nonfem inist social science. T e rm s such as “ wom en’s language,” “ voice,” or “ words” are routinely used not only to d esign ate e veryd ay talk but a lso , m uch m ore b road ly, to denote the p u blic expression o f a p articu lar p erspective on se lf and social life, the effort to rep­ resent one’s ow n experience, rath e r than accepting the representations o f m ore pow erful others. A nd sim ila rly , “ silence” and “ m utedness” (E . Arde* ner 19 7 5 ) are used not only in their ord in ary senses o f an in ab ility o r reluct­ ance to create utterances in con versation al exchan ge, but as references as w ell to the failure to produce on e's own separate, so cially sign ifican t dis-

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c o u rsc . I t is in th is b ro a d e r sen se th at fem in ist h isto ria n s h a v e red isco vered w o m e n 's w o rd s. H e re , “ w o r d ” b cco m cs a sy n e c d o c h e fo r “ c o n sc io u sn css.” Y e t, d e sp ite th is m eta p h o rica l lin k , e v e r y d a y talk a n d the b ro a d e r n otion o f a g e n d e re d c o n sc io u sn css h a v e o n ly ra re ly been in v e stig a te d to geth er, o r b y the sa m e sc h o la rs. S tu d ies o f g e n d e r d ifferen ces in e v e r y d a y talk h a v e ten d ed to fo cu s on the fo rm al p ro p e rtie s o f s p e c c h — in to n a tio n a l. p h o n o lo g ­ ic a l, s y n ta c tic , an d p r a g m a tic d ifferen ces b etw een m en a n d w o m e n , and the in stitu tio n a l a n d in tera ctio n a l c o n te x ts in w h ic h they o c c u r. In c o n trast, stu d ie s o f “ w o m e n ’ s v o ic e ” h ave fo cu sed m ore on v a lu e s a n d b e liefs: w h eth er o r not w o m en h a v e c u ltu ra l c o n cep tio n s o r s y m b o lic sy ste m s c o n cern in g se lf, m o ra lity , o r so c ia l re a lity , d ifferen t fro m those o f th e d o m in a n t d is ­ c o u rs e .5 T h a t the tw o a r c in e x tric a b ly lin ked b eco m es ev id e n t w h en we v ie w b o th k in d s o f re se a rc h a s stu d ies o f s y m b o lic d o m in a tio n . A s m y d iscu ssio n o f (he c u ltu ra lly d efin ed lin ks b etw een sp eech a n d p o w er w ill sh o w , so m e lin g u istic strateg ies a n d g e n re s a r e m ore h ig h ly v a lu e d an d c a r r y m ore a u th o rity th an o th ers. In a c la ssic c a s e o f sy m b o lic d o m in a tio n , even th o se w h o d o n ot control th ese a u th o rita tiv e fo rm s c o n sid e r t h e n m ore c re d ib le o r p e rsu a s iv e (B o u rd ie u 19 7 7 ^ ). A r c h e ty p a l e x a m p le s in clu d e stan* d a r d la n g u a g e s an d ritu a l speech. B u t th ese resp ected lin g u istic p ractices a re not sim p ly fo rm s; th ey d e liv e r c h a ra c te ristic c u ltu ra l d efin itio n s o f so cial life th a t, e m b o d ie d in d iv isio n s o f la b o r a n d the stru c tu re o f in stitu tio n s, se rv e the in te re sts o f so m e g ro u p s better th an o th ers. In d e e d , it is in p a rt through su ch lin g u istic p ra c tic e s that sp e a k e rs w ith in in stitu tio n s im p o se on o th ers th e ir g r o u p 's d efin itio n o f even ts, p eo p le, an d ac tio n s. T h is a b ility to m a k e o th e rs a c c e p t an d c n a c t o n e’ s rep re se n ta tio n o f th e w o rld is a n o th e r asp e c t o f s y m b o lic d o m in a tio n . B u t such c u ltu ra l p o w e r ra re ly go es u n co n testcd . R e ­ sista n c e to a d o m in a n t cu ltu ral o r d e r o c c u rs w hen d e v a lu e d

lin gu istic

s tra te g ie s an d g e n re s a r e p racticed an d c e le b ra te d d e s p ite w id e sp re a d d e n i­ g r a tio n ; it o c c u rs a s w ell w hen these d e v a lu e d p ra c tic e s p ro p o se o r em b o d y a lte rn a te m o d els o f the so c ia l w o rld . S e v e ra l in flu en tial so c ia l theories th at d iffer im p o rta n tly in o th e r rcsp ccts h a v e in o n e w a y o r a n o th e r artic u la te d th is in sig h t. W h e th e r w e u se G r a m s c i’s term “ c u ltu ra l h eg e m o n y ,” o r sy m b o lic d o m in a tio n (B o u rd ie u 19 7 7 a ); o p p o sitio n a l, em e rg e n t, an d resid u al c u ltu re s (W illia m s 1 9 7 3 ) ; o r su b ju g a te d k n o w le d g e s (F o u c a u lt 19 8 0 ), the c e n tra l n otion re m a in s: the co n tro l o f d is ­ c o u rse o r o f rep re se n ta tio n s o f re a lity o c c u rs in so c ia l in te ra c tio n , lo cated in in stitu tio n s, a n d is a so u rc e o f so c ia l p o w e r; it m a y be, th erefo re, the o ccasio n fo r co e rc io n , c o n flic t, o r c o m p lic ity .6 M issin g from these th eo ries is a con cept o f g e n d e r a s a s tru c tu re o f so cial re la tio n s (se p a ra te fro m c la s s o r e th n icity ), re p ro d u ce d but a lso c h allen g ed in e v e r y d a y p ra c tic e . T h e s e th eo ries n eith er n o tice n o r e x p la in the su b tlety , su b v e rsio n , a n d o p p o sitio n to d o m in a n t d e fin itio n s w h ic h fem in ists h a v e d isc o v e re d in m a n y w o m e n ’s g e n res, a n d so m e tim e s e m b e d d e d in w o m en 's e v e r y d a y talk . In d e e d , ev e n the a u th o rity

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o f so m e (m a le ) lin g u istic fo rm s a n d th eir d o m in a n c e o f so c ia l in stitu tio n s su c h a s m e d ic in e o r the p o litic a l p ro cess re m a in m y ste rio u s w ith o u t a th eo ry o f g e n d e r. T h is in te ra ctio n o f g e n d e r an d d isc o u rse h as b een e x p lo re d b y rccen t fe m in ist a n a ly s e s in lite ra tu re an d a n th ro p o lo g y ; so m e h a v e su g g e ste d that w o m e n ’ s “ v o ic e s ” often d iffer s ig n ific a n tly in form a s w ell a s c o n ten t from d o m in a n t d isc o u rse .7 T h e im p o rta n c e o f in te g ra tin g the stu d y o f e v e r y d a y ta lk w ith the s tu d y o f “ w o m e n 's voice*1 b eco m es a p p a re n t: th e atten tio n to the d e ta ils o f lin g u istic form an d co n text ty p ic a l o f re se a rc h in to e v e r y d a y talk is in d isp e n sa b le in o rd e r to g a in a c c e ss to w o m e n ’s o ften v e ile d g e n re s an d m u ted “ w o r d s ." A n d both k in d s o f stu d ies m u st atten d n ot o n ly to w o rd s bu t to the in te ra c tio n a l p ra c tic e s an d the b ro a d e r p o litic a l a n d eco n o m ic c o n tc x t o f co m m u n ic a tio n in o rd e r to u n d e rsta n d the p ro c e ss b y w h ic h w o m e n 's v o ic e s — in both se n se s— a r e ro u tin ely su p p re sse d o r m a n a g e to e m e rg e . M y fin al aim is to sh o w th at, i f w e u n d e rsta n d w o m e n ’ s e v e r y d a y talk a n d lin g u istic g e n re s a s fo rm s o f re sista n c e , w c h e a r, in a n y c u ltu re , not so m u ch a c le a r a n d h ereto fo re n eglectcd “ w o m a n ’ s v o ic e ,” o r se p a r a te c u l­ tu re , b u t ra th e r lin g u istic p ra c tic e s that a rc m ore a m b ig u o u s , often con tra* d ic to ry , d iffe rin g a m o n g w o m en o f d ifferen t c la sse s an d eth n ic g ro u p s an d r a n g in g fro m a c c o m m o d a tio n to o p p o sitio n , su b v e rsio n , rejectio n , o r a u to n ­ o m o u s re c o n stru ctio n o f reig n in g c u ltu ra l d efin itio n s. T h u s , m y them e is the link b etw een g e n d e r, sp e e c h , an d p o w e r, an d the w a y s th is c a n he c o n c e p tu a liz e d on the b a sis o f recen t e m p iric a l re se a rc h . I w ill first e x p lo re w h a t c o u n ts, c ro ss-c u ltu ra lly , a s p o w erfu l sp e e c h ; then showf the d iffe re n tial p o w e r o f m e n ’s a n d w o m e n 's lin g u istic stra te g ie s in so c ia l in stitu tio n s; a n d fin a lly re in terp ret w o m e n ’s stra te g ie s an d lin g u istic g en res a s fo rm s o f re sista n c e to sy m b o lic d o m in a tio n .

C U L T U R A L C O N S T R U C T IO N S M a n y c u ltu re s p o sit a clo se co n n ectio n b etw een the use o f la n g u a g e a n d the e m e rg e n ce o f the self. T his is w ell illu stra te d b y the L a v m i In d ia n s o f H ig h ­ la n d B o liv ia , a g ro u p o f settled p e a sa n ts e n g a g e d in su b siste n c e a g ric u ltu re . T h e y re p re sen t a n ew b o rn in d iv id u a l's p ro g ressio n to a fu lly so c ia liz e d h u ­ m an in te rm s o f the c h ild 's relatio n to la n g u a g e : a b a b y b eco m es a ch ild w h en it sta rts to s a y w o rd s; th e p a ss a g e from ch ild h o o d to y o u n g a d u lth o o d is sa id to o c c u r w h en the in d iv id u a l c a n sp e a k an d u n d ersta n d fu lly (H a rris 19 8 0 : 7 2 ). S o m e c u ltu ra l c o n cep tio n s th at link p erso n an d la n g u a g e a p p e a r n ot to be focused on g e n d e r a t a ll. F o r in sta n c e , the m e ta lin g u istic d isc o u rse o f the K a lu li in N e w G u in e a c la ssifie s sp e a k e rs la rg e ly on the b a sis o f c lan o r v illa g e o rig in (Sch ieffelin 19 8 7 ). S im ila r ly , in S a m o a ra n k seem s m u ch m ore im p o rta n t in id e a s a b o u t sp cech th an g e n d e r (O c h s 19 8 7 ). N e v e rth e le ss,

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there a rc m an y cases in w hich not ju st personhood, but gen d er a s w ell arc con ceptualized in term s o fla n g u a g e . Su ch conceptualizations define the sy m ­ bolic sign ifican ce o f m en 's and w om en’s speech features: w hat is pow erful and w eak, beautiful o r execrab le, m asculine and fem inine, in the realm o f talk. M e n ’s and w om en’s linguistic practices are profou ndly shaped by such cu ltu ral im ages.8 P erh ap s the best exam p le is K e e n a n 's (19 7 4 ) study o f the M a la g a sy o f M a d a g a sc a r, w ho exp licitly associate different styles o f talk with m en and w om en. A cco rd in g to the M a la g a sy , men ch aracteristically use an ind irect, ornate and respectful style that avoid s confrontation and d isagreem ent with others; wom en use a direct style o f speakin g associated with e x c ita b k n e ss and an ger, that is seen as a source o f conflict and threat in interpersonal relations. W om en are exclu d ed from the m ajo r form al genre o f oratory th at is required for participation in political events. A nd men avoid a scrie s o f speech activities that w om en en gage in, such as accusations, m arket h ag g lin g and gossip. Im p o rtan tly, these differences arc linked to notions ab o u t pow er. F irst, both men and wom en consider m en’s speech far superior. Seco n d , it is w om en’s directness, defined as inept, that is said to b ar them from p olitical au th ority and from speakin g at political m eetings w here the e g alitarian social system req u ires that the existence o f conflict be skillfu lly hidden. Y e t , c ro ss-c u ltu ra l e v id e n c e in d ic a te s th at in d ire c tn e ss is n ot a lw a y s a sso c ia te d w ith m a sc u lin ity , n o r c o n fro n tatio n w ith w o m en . T h e c a s e o f A m e r ic a n g e n d e r ste re o ty p e s p ro v id e s an in fo rm a tiv e c o n tra st. T h e c u ltu r a l e v a lu a tio n o f A m e ric a n m id d le -c la ss sp eech is re v e a le d in stu d ie s o f M id ­ w e ste rn te en ag ers w h o thin k o f m e n 's sp eech a s " a g g r e s s iv e ,” “ fo rc e fu l,” “ b lu n t,” an d “ a u th o r ita r ia n ,” w h e re a s w o m e n ’ s sp eech is c o n sid e re d ‘■‘ g e n ­ tle ,” “ tr iv ia l,” “ c o rre c t,” a n d “ p o lite .” O n ly c a re fu l e m p iric a l r e s e a rc h can d o cu m e n t the su b tle d ifferen ces th at a c tu a lly e xist b etw een A m e ric a n m e n ’ s a n d w o m e n ’ s sp c c c h , b ut th ese ste re o ty p e s p ro v id e the e x p e c ta tio n s an d id e a ls a g a in s t w h ic h sp e a k e rs a rc ro u tin e ly ju d g e d ( K r a m a r a e 19 8 0 ). I n ­ d e e d , th e re is an e n tire lite ra tu re o f a d v ic e b o ok s, etiq u ette m a n u a ls , an d p h ilo lo g ic a l a n d lin g u istic tra c ts p u b lish e d in the U n ited S ta te s a n d W e ste rn E u ro p e w h ic h h a v e fo r s e v e ra l c e n tu ries co n stru c te d , w ith o u t b en efit o f e v i­ d e n c e , im a g e s o f m a le an d fe m a le “ n a tu re s” lin ked to th eir su p p o se d sp c c c h p a tte rn s ( K r a m a r a e 19 8 0 : 9 t ) . 3 F ro m th e e x a m p le o f the M a la g a s y an d A m e ric a n ste re o ty p e s it m ig h t a p p e a r th a t, w h e th e r b lu n t o r in d ire c t, v e r b a l s k ills o f so m e k in d a r e a sso c ia te d w ith a u th o rity a n d p o w e r. A c o n tr a s t to both is p ro v id e d b y I r v in e ’ s ( 19 7 9 ) d e sc rip tio n o f the W o lo f o f S e n e g a l, w h o a r e o rg a n iz e d in to a stra tifie d ca ste sy ste m . H ig h c a s te n o b le s d e r iv e th eir p o w e r from an in h erited q u a lity m an ifested a s a sen se o f re serve in a ll a c t iv i­ ties. D iffid en ce a n d in a rtic u la te n e ss a r e so m u ch a p a ri o f n o b le d e m e a n o r th a t e lite m en o ften h ire lo w -sta tu s p ro fe ssio n a l o ra to rs to sp e a k fo r th e m in

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o r d e r 10 a v o id sh o w in g v e rb a l flu en c y in p u b lic . T h u s , c u ltu ra l c o n cep tio n s d e m a n d th at o rd in a r y m en an d w o m en be m o re a rtic u la te th an m en w ith h ig h statu s. A lth o u g h in a rtic u la te n e ss is a trait th at is a sig n o f a VVolof m a n ’ s elite id e n tity , it is e x a c tly in a rtic u la te n e ss th at is re p re se n te d a s w o m e n 's d efin in g a n d d e b ilita tin g c o n d itio n in r u r a l G re e c e . T h e im a g e o f w o m en is n ot u n i­ t a r y in G r e e c e : th ey a r c seen a s both g a r ru lo u s a n d silen t. B u t in both m od es w o m en a re c o n c e p tu a liz e d a s in c a p a b le o f c o n tro llin g th em selv es a n d th ere­ fore o f a c h ie v in g the a r tic u la te an d sw a g g e rin g se lf-d isp la y th at c o n stitu tes th e c u ltu r a lly co n stru cted im a g e o f p o w erfu l m en (H e rz fe ld 19 8 5 ). T h e s e e x a m p le s from d is p a r a te g ro u p s p r o v id e a u sefu l d em o n stra tio n th at the lin k s b etw een g e n d e r, p o w e r, a n d lin g u istic p ra c tic e s a r e not “ n a tu ­ r a l” a n d c a n b e c o n stru c te d in q u ite d ifferen t w a y s . B u t these e x a m p le s a rc sta tic a n d seem to im p ly th at sp e a k e rs p a s s iv e ly fo llo w a b s la c t c u ltu ra l d ic ­ tates. A h isto ric a l c a se is h elp fu l th en , b e c a u se it c h a rts changes in c o n c e p ­ tu a liz a tio n s a n d sh o w s h o w id eals co m e to r e s tric t w o m e n ’ s p o ssib ilitie s o f e x p re ssio n . O u tr a m ( 19 8 7 ) c o n sid e rs the d ile m m a o f elite w o m en d u r in g the F rc n c h R e v o lu tio n . T h e d isco u rse o f the F rc n c h R e v o lu tio n , g lo rify in g m a le vertu, id e n tified the in flu en ce o f w o m en w ith the sy ste m o f p a tro n a g e , se x u a l fa v o rs, a n d c o rru p tio n o f p o w e r u n d er the O ld R e g im e , in w h ic h elite w o m en h ad a c tiv e ly p a rtic ip a te d . T h e d isc o u rse o f the R e v o lu tio n , in d e lib e ra te c o n ­ trast, w a s com m itted to an antifem inine logic: political revolution could o n ly tak e p la c e i f w o m en a n d th eir c o rru p tin g in flu e n c e w ere e x c lu d e d from p u b ­ lic s p e a k in g a n d from the e x e rc ise o f p o w er. O u tr a m a r g u e s th a t, in p a rt a s a resu lt o f th is new c o n c e p tu a liz a tio n , the fa m o u s a n d p o w e rfu l p o litic a l p a r­ tic ip a tio n o f u p p e r-c la ss w o m en in the O ld R e g im e w a s re p la c e d , in the e ra o f the R e v o lu tio n , w ith v ig o ro u s a tta ck s on fe m a le p o litic a l a c tiv is ts. B y the n ew lo g ic , elite w o m e n ’ s p u b lic sp eech a n d a c tiv itie s b ro u g h t th eir s e x ­ u al v irtu e in to q u estio n . F o r a w o m a n , to b e p o litic a l w a s to be c o rru p t; the r e v o lu tio n a ry d isc o u rse o f u n iv e rsa l e q u a lity a p p lie d o n ly to m en. W o m en w h o w an te d to b e both re sp e c ta b le an d p o litic a l h ad v e ry few c h o ic es: o n e o f th e b est-k n o w n fig u res o f the R e v o lu tio n , w h o w a s la te r im p riso n e d fo r her p a rtic ip a tio n , p ro v id e s a tellin g e x a m p le . M m c . J e a n n e R o la n d ’s p o litic a l a c t iv it y in c lu d e d p r o v id in g a foru m in w h ich m en d e b a te d the issu e s o f the d a y . H e r m e m o irs a n d letters re v e a l th at it d e m a n d e d a p a in fu l c o m p ro m ise: th is w e ll-in fo rm ed w o m a n reta in e d resp ect b y liste n in g to the m en ’ s p o litic a l d isc u ssio n s b u t rem a in ed h e rs e lf u tterly silen t. T h e h isto ric a l d im en sio n in O u tr a m ’ s stu d y a llo w s us not o n ly to ch a rt the effect o f c h a n g in g d isc o u rse but to sp e c ify th e so cial so u rc e o f the c u ltu ra l co n stru c tio n s in a w a y n ot p o ssib le in the m o re sta tic d e sc rip tio n s o f n on W e s te m c ases. T h e s e p a rtic u la r c u ltu ra l d e fin itio n s w e re not sim p ly the p ro d u ct o f som e age-old an d m onolithic m ale d o m in an ce but em erged artic­ u la te ly in the id e a s o f re v o lu tio n a ry th eo rists a n d E n lig h te n m e n t p h ilo s­

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o p h e rs. P e rh a p s o th er p a tte rn s o f id e a s a b o u t g e n d e r d ifferen ces in sp c c c h co u ld b e tra c e d to sim ila rly sp e c ific lim e s a n d so cial c o n texts. F o r e x a m p le , it is a re c u rre n t a n d u n exp lain ed fin d in g o f recent so cio lin g u istic s u rv e y s that in N o rth A m e r ic a n , B ritish , a n d so m e o th er in d u stria liz e d c itie s, m id d lea n d w o rk in g -c la ss w om en m o re fre q u e n tly u se p h o n o lo g ica l fo rm s a sso c ia te d w ith the h ig h est ran k in g so cio eco n o m ic c la sse s th an d o m en o f th e ir cla ss. M id d le * a n d w o rk in g -c la ss m en m o re fre q u e n tly u se p ro n u n c ia tio n s c h a r a c ­ te ristic o f the w o rk in g c la s s th an d o th eir fem a le c o u n te rp a rts. A n d a ll m en e v a lu a te w o rk in g -c la ss fea tu re s m ore p o sitiv e ly th an d o w o m en (e .g . L a b o v 19 7 4 ; T r u d g ill 19 8 3 ) . C le a r ly the p h o n o lo g ica l sy m b o liz a tio n s o f g e n d e r an d o f s o c ia l c la s s a r e in e x tric a b ly lin k ed . T h e u n iv e rsa liz in g e x p la n a tio n s offered so fa r c re d it w o m en in g e n e ra l w ith g r e a te r se n sitiv ity to la n g u a g e an d p re s ­ tig e . B u t th ese theories fo u n d er on c .n im fe r-rx a m p lrs from o lh r r societies. In s te a d , I su g g e st these fin d in g s g a in m e a n in g w ith in a b ro a d e r c u ltu ra l p a t­ tern. T h e lin g u istic e v id en ce lin k s m a n lin e ss w ith “ t o u g h " w o rk in g -c la ss c u l­ tu re a n d fe m a le n e ss w ith “ re sp e c ta b ility ,1’ “ g e n tility ,” an d “ h igh c u ltu re ” as p a rt o f a g e n e ra l sym b o lic stru c tu re th at, m a n y a n a ly s e s su g g e st, e m erg ed on both sid e s o f th e A tla n tic in the n in eteen th c c n tu ry a n d c o n tin u e s to be one co m p o n e n t o f c u rre n t g e n d e r im a g e s .10 In sh o rt, the c u ltu ra lly c o n stru c ted lin k b etw een ty p es o f v e rb a l s k ill, g e n ­ d e r id e n tity , a n d po w er not o n ly is v a r ia b le but is d e p e n d e n t on an e n tire w e b o f re lated c o n cep tio n s a n d , a s the fin al e x a m p le s h in t, on h isto ric a l an d p o litic a l ec o n o m ic p ro cesses a s w ell.

PO W L R IN E V E R Y D A Y T A L K Je a n n e R o la n d 's silen ce w a s n e ith e r n a tu r a l n o r an a u to m a tic a c q u ie sc c n c c to R e v o lu tio n a r y c u ltu ra l co n cep tio n s. In s te a d , h e r letters an d m e m o irs a llo w us to u n d e rsta n d the foru m s sh e c re a te d an d h er p u b lic silen ce a s stra te g ic re sp o n se s to a c u ltu r a l d o u b le -b in d th at offered h e r e ith e r sp eech o r resp ect, b u t n ot b oth. N e ith e r w h o lly d eterm in ed b y c u ltu ra l im a g e s a n d c h a n g in g so c ia l s tru c tu re s, n o r en tirely a m a tte r o f h er o w n a g e n c y , M m e . R o la n d ’s sp c c ch a n d in tera ctio n a r e e x c e lle n t e x a m p le s o ( practices th at re p ro d u ce g e n ­ d e r im a g e s a n d relatio n s o r, a s la te r e x a m p le s w ill sh o w , so m etim es ta c itly c ritic iz e a n d resist them . In te ra c tio n a l so cio lin g u istics p ro v id e s th e to ols fo r a n a ly z in g sp eech stra te g ie s a s p ra c tic e s a c tiv e ly c o n stru c ted b y sp e a k e rs in resp o n se to c u ltu r ­ al an d stru c tu ra l co n strain ts. I f sp ccch e n a cts a d isc o u rse s tr a te g y a n d is not sim p ly a reflex o r sig n a l o f so cial id en tity , then atten tio n m u st b e p a id not o n ly to the g e n d e r id en tity o f the sp e a k e r b ut a lso to the g e n d e r o f the a u d i­ en ce an d the v a r y in g c u ltu ra l sa lie n c e o f g e n d e r in d ifferen t so cial co n texts. M a le -fe m a le d ifferen ces in sp eech h a v e b een fo u n d in e v e ry so c ie ty stu d ie d ; b u t the n a tu re o f the co n trasts is sta g g e r in g ly d iv e rse , o c c u rrin g in v a r y in g

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p a rts o f the lin g u istic system : p h o n o lo g y , p ra g m a tic s, sy n ta x , m o rp h o lo g y , an d le x ico n (see P h ilip s 19 8 7 ). H e re I w ill p a y s p e c ia l atten tio n to co-

occurring features o f specch that form patterns, called styles, genres, or w ays o f sp e a k in g , w h ic h a r c lin k ed , in som e w a y , to g e n d e r .1 1 U n lik e the e a rlie st stu d ie s th at n oted o n ly o b lig a to r y lin g u istic d iffer­ e n ce s b etw een m en a n d w o m e n , c u rrc n i re se a rc h d istin g u ish e s c a se s w h e re a sp c c ch form is n o rm a tiv e !}' required fo r m en o r w o m en fro m e a se s w h e re it is a fa v o re d s tra te g y fo r o n e g e n d e r b ecau se it e n acts, c o n sc io u s ly o r n o t, m e n ’s an d w o m e n ’s c o n tra stin g v a lu e s o r in te ra ctio n a l g o a ls (M c C o n n e ll-G in e t 19 8 8 ). S u c h d ifferen ces in v a lu e s an d g o a ls e m erg e w ith force w h en th e d iv i­ sion o f la b o r c re a te s la rg e ly se p a ra te w o rld s for m en a n d w o m e n , so that “ m e m b e rs o f e a c h sex learn to b e p ro ficien t in d ifferen t lin g u istic sk ills a n d to d o d ifferen t th in gs w ith w o rd s”

(B o rk e r 19 8 0 : 3 t ) . In d e e d , c o n sid e ra b le

e th n o g ra p h ic e v id e n c e su g g e sts th at d ifferen ces in v e r b a l g e n re s betw een m en a n d w o m en a r c w id e sp re a d , e sp e c ia lly w h e re m e n ’s an d w o m e n ’s a c tiv i­ ties a rc d is tin c tly d efin ed (S h c r z c r 19 8 7 ). F o r e x a m p le , a m o n g the K u n a

In d ia n s o f L o w la n d P a n a m a , sp eech

g e n r e s e m e rg e fro m the d iv isio n o f la b o r. G e n r e s a ss o c ia te d w ith p u b lic p o litic a l m e etin g s an d ritu a liz e d a ttem p ts to c u re illn e ss a rc la rg e ly re ­ stricte d to m en, w h e re a s the m ore p r iv a te ly p erfo rm ed g e n r e s o f lu lla b ie s an d tun eful m o u rn in g a re restricted to w o m en (S h c rz c r 19 8 7 ) . S im ila r ly , a m o n g the K a lu li, liv in g in the S o u th ern H ig h la n d s o f P a p u a N e w G u in e a , it is the m en w h o tell s e v e ra l ty p e s o f sto ries, recite m a g ic a l fo rm u la e fo r h u n tin g , a n d p e rfo rm

so n g s a n d d a n c e s in m a jo r p o litic a l an d c e re m o n ia l co n texts.

W om en c o m p o se m ore lim ited ce re m o n ia l so n g s a n d e n g a g e in e x p re ss iv e p u b lic w e e p in g on o c c a sio n s o f p ro fo u n d loss (S c h ie ffe lin 19 8 7 ). A m o n g the L a y m i In d ia n s o f B o liv ia , w o m en co n tro l a n d c re a te g e n r e s o f p u b lic ly p e r ­ fo rm ed s o n g an d m u sic that a r e esse n tia l to c o u rtin g a n d to th e ritu a l c y c lc ; m en co n tro l sp e a k in g in the lo cal p o litic a l a sse m b ly a n d sp e a k in g d ire c te d to the s p irits in c u rin g r itu a ls ( H a r r is 19 8 0 ). T h e s e stu d ie s u n d e rlin e the fact th at in m a n y so c ie tie s w o m en a c tiv e ly c re a te an d p erfo rm m a jo r e x p re ssiv e a c tiv itie s, often in p u b lic , a po in t a lso e m p h a siz e d b y fem in ist fo lk lo rists ( J o r d a n a n d d e C a r o 19 8 6 ). S u c h e v id e n c e effe ctiv e ly c o u n te rs the p ersisten t b u t erro n eo u s im a g e o f w o m en a s u n iv e r­ s a lly sile n t in p u b lic o r restric ted to d o m e stic a c tiv itie s. It h ig h lig h ts a s w ell o n e fu n ctio n o f sp eech in a g e n d e r sy ste m : g en re d ifferen ces c re a te the k in d o f p e r v a s iv e b e h a v io ra l co n trast th at tra n sfo rm s g r a d ie n ts o f h u m a n d ifferen ce in to c u ltu r a lly sa lie n t d ich o to m ie s o f m a sc u lin ity a n d fe m in in ity . B u t, a sim p le c a ta lo g u e o f “ h is-a n d -h e rs” g e n re s o b sc u re s th e im p o rta n t in sig h t th at w o m e n ’s sp e c ia l v e rb a l sk ills a r e often s tr a te g ic responses— m o re o r less s u c c c ssfu l— to p o sitio n s o f r e la tiv e p o w c rlessn c ss. F o r e x a m p le , in a H u n g a r ia n -G e rm a n b ilin g u a l to w n in A u s tr ia , w o m en u se G e r m a n m o re th an m en d o . W o m e n 's u se o f G e r m a n c o rre sp o n d s to

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th e ir g e n e ra l rejectio n o f the p e a sa n t w a y o f life a sso c ia te d w ith the H u n g a ­ ria n la n g u a g e a n d their a c c c p ta n c c o f the w a g e la b o r sy m b o liz e d b y s p e a k in g G e r m a n . It is, in p a rt, w o m e n 's re la tiv e p o w e rlc ssn c ss in the p e a sa n t so cial o r d e r th at m ak es the escap e to w o rk e r sta tu s so a ttra c tiv e fo r th em a n d , th u s, e x p la in s the v e rb a l strateg ies th ey u se ( G a l 1 9 7 8 } .12 S tra te g ie s a r e not a lw a y s d irec ted to w a rd c h an g e. In a T c n e ja p a n v illa g e o f so u th e rn M e x ic o , w om en a r c m ore p o lite th an m en in tw o w a y s . T h e y use m a n y m o re lin g u istic p a rtic lc s th at e m p h a siz e so lid a rity w ith th e ir in te ra c ­ tio n al p a rtn e r an d a lsc u se m o re o f a c o n tra s tin g set o f p a rtic le s th at a v o id im p o sitio n a n d stress the liste n e r’ s se p a ra te n e ss an d a u to n o m y . In d e e d , w o m e n ’ s in ten t to im p ose b y re q u e stin g , c o m m a n d in g , o r c ritic iz in g is often c o u ch e d in iro n y. B c c a u sc iro n y req u ire s the listen er to in fer th e s p e a k e r ’s in ten t, iro n y a llo w s the sp e a k e r to d is c la im the in ten t i f it re su lts in c h a lle n g e o r th re a t. M e n u se less iro n y an d few er p a rtic le s o f eith er k in d , sh o w in g c o n s id e ra b ly less sen sitiv ity to the d e ta ils o f so c ia l re la tio n sh ip s an d c o n text. W o m e n ’s u sa g e is a n in te ra c tio n a l str a te g y , a n a c c o m m o d a tio n a risin g fro m th e ir so c ia l a n d even p h y sic a l v u ln e r a b ility to m en , a n d the c o n seq u en t n e ce ssity to sh o w d eferen ce to m en, on the o n e h a n d , a n d m a in ta in stro n g n e tw o rk s o f s o lid a rity w ith w o m en , on the o th er h a n d . T h is su g g e sts th at le v e ls a n d ty p e s o f po liten ess stra te g ie s u sed b y w o m en to m en a n d to o th er w o m en m a y w e ll b e a sen sitiv e m e a su re o f w o m e n 's s tru c tu ra l p o w e r in m a n y so cieties (B ro w n 19 8 0 ).

But w om en’s responses to pow erlcssn css, alih ou gh they m ay also be attem pts to subvert male au thority, m ay on ly end by reprod ucin g it. A strik­ ing exam p le is H ard in g 's (19 7 5 ) an alysis o f a peasant v illag e in S p ain . W om en and m en ch aractcristically o ccu py different ph ysical sp accs (the house and sh op s v e rsts the plaza and the fields); h ave different w ork and concerns (fam ily and neighbors versu s lan d , politics, econom ics); and differ­ ent speech gen res. W hereas men argu e in public, as a form o f v erb al p lay requ iring an appreciative audience; wom en talk in sm all, closed g ro u p s o f kin, often practicin g “ g o ssip "— the gath erin g and evalu atin g o f inform ation abo ut people— as th ciro n ly m eans o f social control. H ard in g argu es that it is w om en’s su bordin ate position to m en. and not sim ply sep aration , that leads w o m en (o d e v e lo p sp ecial ‘ 'm a n ip u la tiv e ” v e r b a l sk ills su c h a s te a sin g out in fo rm a tio n , c a re fu lly w a tc h in g o th e rs s o a s to a n tic ip a te th e ir n e e d s, an d u s in g iro n y o r self-effacin g m eth o d s o f p e rsu a sio n . G o s s ip its e lf is w o m e n ’s m ost p o w e rfu l v e rb a l tool, but it is tw o -ed ged . It ten d s to su b v e rt m a le a u ­ th o rity , b y ju d g in g peo ple in term s o f v a lu e s the m a lc -d o m in a n i sy ste m re­ je c t s . B u t p a rtly a s a result o f th is su b v e rsio n it is c o n d em n ed an d d e crie d b y the d o m in a n t c u ltu re . M o re o v e r, it is seen b v a ll a s a n e g a tiv e fo rm o f p o w e r th at m ak e s o r b re a k s rep u ta tio n s, c a u se s co n flict, a n d d is ru p ts re la tio n sh ip s. It is n e g a tiv e in a n o th er sen se too. A s H a r d in g re v e a ls, w o m en d e v e lo p th is g e n re fo r lack o f o th e r form s o f p o w e r, b u t th ey a r e tra p p e d b y it th em selves:

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“ T h ( e ] se n se , i f ntn fa c t, o f b ein g u n d e r co n sta n t v e rb a l su rv e illa n c e re stric ts the b e h a v io r o f w o m en an d h elp s keep them in th eir p la c c ” ( 1 9 7 5 : *0 3).

A lthough there

is

no

p a ra lle l

separation o f the sexes

in

the U nited States,

A m e ric a n m en a n d w o m en a lso seem to u se s o m e w h a t d ifferen t v e rb a l stra te g ie s in c o n v e rsa tio n . In a p ro v o c a tiv e s y n th e sis o f recen t research fin d in g s. M a lt / an d B o rk e r {19812) a r g u e that s e x -se g re g a te d c h ild r e n 's p la y g ro u p s, co m m o n in A m e ric a n so c ie ty , c re a te g e n d e r-sp e c ific v e rb a l c u ltu res w h o se p ra c tic e s sp e a k e rs retain in to ad u lth o o d . B u t th e g e n d e r d ifferen ces a r e so s u b tle p eo p le a r c a w a r e o n ly o f th eir re su lt: fre q u e n t m isc o m m u n ic a tion b etw een m en an d w om en w h o o th e rw ise c la im to b e frien d s an d sta tu s e q u a ls. M a ltz an d B o rk e r rely in p a rt on G o o d w in 's c a r e fu l stu d ie s o f c h il­ d r e n 's p la y g ro u p s in an u rb a n b la c k n eig h b o rh o o d , but in fo rm a tio n on w h ite c h ild re n an d a d u lts o f v a rio u s c la sse s an d eth n ic g r o u p s a lso seem s to su p p o rt th e ir g e n e ra liz a tio n s a b o u t m en ’ s a n d w o m e n ’ s stra te g ie s. F o r in sta n c e , b o y s an d m en o rg a n iz e in to re la tiv e ly la rg e h ie ra rc h ic a l g ro u p s, u sin g d ire c t c o m m a n d s an d v y in g w ith o n e a n o th e r for le a d e rsh ip p o sitio n s b y h o ld in g fo rth in c o m p e titiv e v e rb a l d is p la y . S id e c o m m en ts an d ch a lle n g e s a r e the p ro p e r resp o n ses b y those w h o d o not h a v e the floor. G ir ls , b y c o n tra st, p la y in s m a lle r g ro u p s, fo rm in g e x c lu s iv e c o a litio n s. T h e r e is p le n ty o f co n flict in a ll-g irl g ro u p s, but th eir v e r b a l in te ra c tio n s im p lic itly d e n y con flict a n d h ie ra rc h y , p h ra sin g c o m m a n d s a s p ro p o sa ls for fu tu re a c tiv ity (G o o d w in 19 8 0 ). G ir ls an d w o m en c a re fu lly lin k th eir u tte ra n c e s to the p re v io u s sp e a k e r’ s co n trib u tio n an d d e v e lo p o n e a n o t h e r ’ s to p ic s, a sk in g q u e stio n s fo r c o n v e rsa tio n a l m a in te n a n c e ra th e r th a n fo r in fo rm a tio n o r c h a lle n g e . B u t these d ifferen ces a re not a s in n o cen t a s M a ltz an d B o rk e r’ s im a g e o f p a ra lle l, m u tu a lly m isc o m p re h e n d in g g c n d c r-c u ltu rc s w o u ld s u g ­ g est. O n e w a y o f in te rp re tin g the fe m a le stra te g ie s is a s a set o f p ra c tic e s th a t, w h a te v e r the a c tu a l p o w e r re la tio n s w ith in the g irls* o r w o m e n 's g ro u p , n e v e rth e le ss e n a ct v a lu e s o f su p p o rt an d so lid a rity th a t d ire c tly o p p o se an d im p lic itly c ritic iz e the b o y s’ an d m e n 's p ra c tic e s o f h e ro ic in d iv id u a lity , co m ­ p e titio n . an d the ce le b ra tio n o f h ie ra rc h y . In th is sens-e the tw o “ c u ltu re s’ * a r e not s e p a r a te at a ll, but d efin e eac h o th er, e n a c tin g in sp eech fo rm s se v e ra l fa m ilia r c u ltu ra l o p p o sitio n s in A m e ric a n d isc o u rse a b o u t g e n d e r. T h e y a re a lso not e q u a l in p o w er. G o o d w in an d G o o d w in s m ost recen t re p o rts ( 19 8 7 ) in d ic a te that w hen b o y s an d g ir ls a r g u e to g eth er, the b o y s ’ stra te g y is e m p lo yed b y a ll. T h is su g g e sts th at the b o ys" stra te g y is d o m in a n t in tw o sen ses: the g irls but not the b o y s m ust learn b o th , a n d th e b o y s seem to b e a b le to im p o se theirs on the g ir ls in c ro ss-se x in te ra c tio n . T h is k in d o f d o m in a n c e is a lso su g g e ste d b y a sc rie s o f stu d ie s on p a tte r n s o f in te rru p tio n in c ro ss-se x in te ra ctio n s a m o n g sta tu s e q u a ls. B etw een p a ir s o f sp e a k e rs w h o k n ew e ac h o th er w ell, a s w ell a s b etw een th o se w h o w ere s tra n g e rs, m en in te rru p te d w o m en m ore th an e ith er sex in terru p ted in sa m e -se x in te ra c ­

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tio n s. M o re o v e r, the assu m p tio n th at in te rru p tio n is a g e stu re o f d o m in a n c e is su p p o rte d b y the fin d in g th at a d u lts in te rru p t c h ild ren m o re th an th e re­ v e rse (W e st an d Z im m e rm a n 1 9 8 3 ) .13 A stu d y o f n a tu r a lly o c c u rrin g co n ­ v e rs a tio n b y y o u n g A m e ric a n m a rrie d c o u p le s in th eir h o m es is a lso su g g e s­ tiv e in th is re g a rd . A lth o u g h the w o m en ra ise d a lm o st tw ice a s m a n y to p ics o f c o n v e rsa tio n a s the m en, the to p ics ra ise d b y m en w e re the o n es th at w ere a c c c p tc d a n d e la b o rated in the co n v ersa tio n b y l>oth m en an d w o m en . Y e t it w a s the w o m en w h o p ro vid ed m ost o f the in te ra c tio n a l “ w o r k ," the q u e stio n s an d m in im a l resp o n ses (“ u h - h u h ") that kept the co n v e rsa tio n g o in g ( F is h ­ m an 19 7 8 ). M o re sy ste m a tic e v id e n c e is n eed ed , e sp e c ia lly ab o u t th e effects o f so c ia l c o n text on ih e d e t a ils o f s u c h c v e r d a y talk . A n d w e n eed re p lic a tio n s a c r o s s c la sse s an d ethnic g ro u p s o f stu d ie s re ly in g on v e r y sm a ll sa m p le s o f w h ite m id d le -c la ss sp eak ers. N e v e rth e le ss, in c ro ss-g c n d e r talk , a s in the cro ss-e th n ic m isco m m u n icatio n on w h ic h M a llz an d B o rk e r m o d el th eir a n a ly s is (G u m p e r z 19 8 2 ), it seem s d e a r th at the d ifferen ces in stra te g ie s p ro ­ v id e an o p p o rtu n ity for the m o re p o w erfu l g ro u p to e n a ct a n d re in fo rce its d o m in a n c e th ro u gh the m ic ro p ro c c sse s o f v e rb a l in tera ctio n . B u t a m a jo r fla w in m a n y o f the stu d ie s o f lin g u istic s tra te g y I h a v e d is ­ cu ssed so fa r is th eir a ssu m p tio n that sp eech a n d g e n d e r a r c b est in v e stig a te d in in fo rm a l c o n v e rsa tio n s, o ften in o n e-to -o n e o r s n ia ll-g ro u p re la tio n sh ip s in the fa m ily o r n eig h b o rh o o d . T h is cre a te s the illu sio n th at g e n d e re d talk is m a in ly a p e rso n a l c h a ra c te ristic o r lim ited to the in stitu tio n o f the fa m ily . Y e t , a s m u ch fem in ist re se a rc h h a s d e m o n stra te d , g e n d e r a s a stru c tu ra l p rin c ip le a lso o rg an izes o th er so cial in stitu tio n s: w o rk p la c e s, sc h o o ls, co u rts, p o litic a l a sse m b lie s, and th e state sh o w c h a ra c te ristic p a tte rn s in the re c ru it­ m e n t, a llo c a tio n , treatm en t, an d m o b ility o f m en a s o p p o sed to w o m en . T h e s e a r c in sc rib e d in the o rg a n iz a tio n o f the in stitu tio n . P a tte rn s o f ta lk an d in te ra ctio n p la y an im p o rta n t ro le in m a in ta in in g , le g itim a tin g , an d often h id in g the g en d ered aspect o f th ese in stitu tio n a l a rra n g e m e n ts. T h e ro le o f m e n ’ s an d w o m e n ’ s lin g u istic stra te g ic s w ith in in stitu tio n s d e s e rv e s c o n ­ s id e ra b ly m o re atten tio n th an it h a s so fa r rec e iv e d . I w ill d isc u ss o n ly a few s u g g e s tiv e e x a m p le s from sch o o ls an d b u re a u c ra c ie s in the U n ite d S ta te s, an d from p o litic a l assem b lies in se v e ra l sm a ll-sc a le so cieties. W ith in in stitu tio n s, su c h se ttin g s a s in te rv ie w s, m e e tin g s, an d o th er c h a r­ a c te ristic v e rb a l en co u n ters a re often c ru c ia l fo r d e cisio n m a k in g . O n the b a s is o f talk so m e in d iv id u a ls a r c h ire d , ch o sen to p a rtic ip a te , re c e iv e re­ so u rc e s o r p ro m o tio n s a n d a u th o rity , w h ile o th e rs a r e d en ied . In c o m p le x , c a p ita lis t so cieties the c lass a n d eth n ic b a c k g ro u n d o f sp e a k e rs is c ru c ia l in su c h g a te -k e e p in g en co u n ters (E ric k so n an d S c h u ltz 19 8 2 ). A n d g e n d e r ro u tin e ly in te ra c ts w ith c la s s a n d e th n icity . F o r in sta n c e , in a stu d y o f sp e e c h in A m e r ic a n c o u rts, the testim o n y o f w itn esses u sin g the lin g u istic fo rm s c h a ra c te ris tic o f w om en w ith no co u rtro o m e x p e rie n c e a n d o f lo w -sta tu s m en w-as ju d g e d b y exp e rim e n ta l su b je c ts to b e less c re d ib le , less c o n v in c in g , an d

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less tru stw o rth y th an testim o n y d e liv e re d in a sty le c h a ra c te ristic o f sp e a k e rs w ith h ig h sta tu s ( O ’ B a r r an d A tk in s 19 8 0 ). It a p p e a r s th at c o u rts rein fo rce the a u th o rity o f fo rm s a sso cia te d w ith h ig h -sta tu s sp e a k e rs, w h o ten d to be m en. T h e “ m e e tin g ’ ' is a sp ecch e v en t u b iq u ito u s in A m e ric a n b u r e a u c r a tic , c o rp o ra te , a n d a c a d e m ic life. In a stu d y o f fa c u lty m eetin g s, E d e lsk y ( 1 9 8 1 ) a p p ro a c h e d the u n iv e rsity a s a w o rk p la c e an d not a s an e d u c a tio n a l in stitu ­ tion . In m eetin g s w ith e q u a l n u m b e rs o f m a le an d fe m a le p a rtic ip a n ts o f e q u a l o c c u p a tio n sta tu s, sh e ask ed w h eth er w o m en w ere a s su c ce ssfu l a s m en in “ g e ttin g th e flo o r,” th at is, in w in n in g the o p p o rtu n ity to ta lk a n d th ereb y c o n trib u te to the d e cisio n s. B u t a d ire c t c o m p a riso n o f m en ’ s a n d w o m e n 's p a rtic ip a tio n w a s not p o ssib le. W h o sp o k e an d h o w often d e p e n d e d on the im p lic it ru le s b y w h ic h sp e a k e rs p a rtic ip a te d . A n d th ere w ere a l lea st tw o sets o f ru le s, tw o k in d s o f “ flo o rs.” In ep iso d es c h a ra c te riz e d b y the first kind o f ' ‘ flo o r,” s p e a k e rs look lo n g e r an d fe w e r tu rn s, fe w e r sp e a k e rs p a rtic ip a te d o v e r a ll, th ey d id not o v e r la p m u ch , th ere w e re m a n y fa lse sta rts a n d h esi­ ta tio n s, an d sp e a k e rs used th e ir tu rn s fo r re p o rtin g a n d v o ic in g o p in io n s. T h e o th e r kind o f “ flo o r” o cc u rre d a t the sa m e m eetin g s but d u r in g d ifferen t e p iso d e s. It w a s c h a ra c te riz e d b y m u ch o v e r la p an d sim u lta n e o u s talk b ut little h esitatio n in sp e a k in g , a n d b y m ore g e n e ra l p a rtic ip a tio n b y m a n y s p e a k e rs w h o c o lla b o r a tiv e ly co n stru cted a g ro u p p ic tu re o f “ w h a t’s-g o in g o n ." S e v e ra l sp e a k e rs p erfo rm ed the sa m e c o m m u n ic a tiv e fu n ctio n s su c h a s s u g g e s tin g an id e a , a r g u in g , o r a g re e in g ; jo k in g , teasin g , an d w ise c ra c k in g w e re m o re frequ en t. It is e v id e n t that the in te ra c tio n a l stra te g ic s o f A m e ric a n m en an d w o m e n , a s o u tlin e d b y M a ltz an d B o rk c r, a r c d ifferen tly su ited to the tw o k in d s o f “ flo o r.” It w a s m en w h o m o n o p o lized the first kind o f flo o r, b y ta k in g longer tu rn s, h o ld in g forth an d d o m in a tin g the c o n stru ctio n o f the flo o r th ro u g h the tim e th e y took ta lk in g , fn the secon d kin d o f flo o r, w h e re e v e ry o n e took s h o r te r tu rn s, m en an d w o m en took tu rn s o f a b o u t e q u a l len gth , a n d a ll sp e a k e rs p a rtic ip a te d a s e q u a ls in the c o m m u n ic a tiv e fu n ctio n s p erfo rm ed ( 1 9 8 1 : 4 16 ) . Im p o rtan tly, the first, m ore form al kind o f floor, in w hich wom en p a rtic ip a te d less, o cc u rre d v a stly more fre q u e n tly , at lea st in th is in stitu ­ tio n al se ttin g . E x p lic it an d ta c it stru g g le s b etw een sp e a k e rs a b o u t how m eet­ in g s a r c to b e co n d u cted a r c c o n flic ts a b o u t the con tro l o f in stitu tio n a l p o w er. E v e n a m o n g sta tu s e q u a ls an d in m ix e d -se x g ro u p s, the in te ra c tio n a l co n ­ s tr a in ts o f in stitu tio n a l ev e n ts su ch a s m eetin g s a rc not g e n d e r n e u tra l but w e ig h te d in fa v o r o f m a le in te ra c tio n a l stra te g ie s. A lth o u g h o rg a n iz a tio n o f the m ee tin g masks the fact th at sp e a k e rs a rc e x c lu d e d on the b a sis o f g e n d e r, it sim u lta n e o u sly accomplishes th a t v e ry e x c lu sio n . P e rh a p s m ore p e r v a s iv e ly th an a n y o th e r in stitu tio n , sc h o o ls ju d g e , d e fin e , a n d c a te g o riz e th eir c h a rg e s o n the b a sis o f lin g u istic p e rfo rm a n c e . T h e d ifferen t stra te g ie s o f b o y s an d g ir ls can a lso affect th eir a c c e ss to lin ­

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g u is tic rc so u rc cs, su c h a s lite ra c y , th a t sc h o o lin g offers. A sin g le e x a m p le wit) su ffice to su g g e st h o w eth n ic d ifferen ces in te ra ct w ith g e n d e r in th is process. In h e r fin e c o m p a riso n o f la n g u a g e ac q u isitio n a n d tra in in g fo r lite ra c y in th ree S o u th e rn c o m m u n itie s in the U n ite d S ta te s , H e a th ( 1 9 0 3 ) c arefu lly d c s c r ib c s the c o m p le x a n d artfu l lin g u is tic p ra c tic e s o f a b la c k w o rk in gc la s s c o m m u n ity . C h ild re n m ust m a ste r “ a n a lo g y ’ ’ q u e stio n s po sed by th eir e ld e rs , in w h ic h th ey a re e n co u rag ed to see the p a ra lle ls a n d con n ectio n s a m o n g d is p a r a te e v en ts an d tell ab o u t them c le v c r ly , w ith o u t sp e llin g out e x p lic itly w h a t the lin k s a re . S u c h d e sc rip tio n s d iffer from sch o o l re q u ire ­ m e n ts th at m atch m id d le-class p a tte rn s. A n d w h at is ex p e cte d o f b lack g irls at h o m e d iffers c o n s id e ra b ly from the m o re e x te n siv e v e rb a l sk ills d em a n d ed o f b o ys. W o rk in g -c la ss b la c k g irls, in c o n tra st to b o ys o f th eir o w n g ro u p , a re n e ith e r e x p e cte d n o r e n co u rag ed to p ra c tic e a w id e ran ge o f sto ry-tellin g tactics in c o m p e titiv e “ o n sta g e ” p u b lic a re n a s w h ere c o m m u n ity a d u lts a s w e ll a s c h ild re n w a tc h an d ju d g e ( 1 9 8 3 : 9 5 - 9 8 , 1 0 5 - 1 1 2 ) . T h e re su lts o f these d ifferen ces e m erg e in a p a ra lle l s tu d y o f teacherstu d c n t in te ra ctio n in a first-g ra d e c la ssro o m w ith b o th b la c k a n d w h ite stu ­ d e n ts ( M ic h a c is 1 9 8 1 ) . W h en the w h ite te a c h e rs— a ll w o m en — in sti.u tc d a “ s h a r in g tim e ” (“ sh o w a n d tell” ) a c tiv ity , th ey h ad the e x p lic it g o a l o f b r id g ­ in g the g a p b etw een the o ra l d isc o u rse the c h ild ren a lr e a d y k n ew an d the lite ra te d isc o u rse stra te g ie s they w o u ld e v e n tu a lly h a v e to use in w ritten c o m m u n ic a tio n . T h e y ask ed t i e c h ild re n to tell a b o u t a sp e c ific o b je c t o r g iv e a n a r ra tiv e a c c o u n t a b o u t sorr.c im p o rta n t p a st e v en t. F o r th e w h ite boys a n d g ir ls th is w o rk ed q u ite w e ll. T h e y told to p ic-fo cu sed sto ries th at the tcach ers u n d e rsto o d ; a n d the tc a c h e rs q u e stio n s a n d c o m m en ts h elp ed the stu d en ts m a k e th e ir sto rie s m o re exp licit a n d d e v e lo p the m o re c o m p le x stru c tu res o f s ta n d a rd lite ra c y . T h e w o rk in g -c la ss b la c k g ir ls , h o w e v e r, o rg an ized th eir sto rie s to re sem b le c h ild r e n ’s resp o n ses to “ a n a lo g y ” q u e stio n s. T h e y noted a b s tra c t p a ra lle ls b etw een d isp a ra te s itu a tio n s an d ev e n ts a n d re lie d on the liste n e r to in fer the im p licit links. A lth o u g h the w h ite te a c h e rs w ere o f the sa m e g e n d e r a s the b lack g irls a n d h ad c x c c lle n t in ten tio n s, th ey failed to u n d e rsta n d th is p rin c ip le a n d th u s w e re u n a b le to c o lla b o ra te w ith the b lack g ir ls in p ro d u c in g m ore e la b o ra te , stru c tu ra lly c o m p le x sto rie s. I h e b lack g ir ls felt fru s tra te d ; th eir sto ries w ere ra re ly even c o m p leted b efore the te a c h e rs c u t th em o f f A s a resu lt, they co u ld not b enefit from the step s to­ w a r d lite ra te , sta n d a rd d isco u rse th a t th e c la ssro o m a c tiv ity a p p a re n tly a c c o m p lish e d for the w h ite ch ild ren . T h e tc a c h e rs w ere a lso fru strated . T o th em it a p p e a re d th a t the g irls co u ld not “ stick to the p o in t” n o r d iscern w h a t w a s “ im p o r ta n t.” O n ihe b a sis o f m a n y su c h in te ra ctio n s the b lack g ir ls w o u ld b e ju d g e d in tc tle c .u a lly in a d e q u a te . T h is a b ility o f so c ia l in stitu tio n s to c re a te g e n d e re d d efin itio n s o f sp eak ers th ro u g h talk is e q u a lly illu stra te d b y p o litic a l a sse m b lie s in sm a ll-sc a lc so cie tie s w h e re a d u lt m en c o n sid er e a c h o th e r e q u a ls. In m a n y su ch so cieties,

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a s a m o n g the M a la g a s y an d the L a y m i In d ia n s d e sc rib e d a b o v e , o n ly m en ta lk a t p u b lic , p o litic a l m eetin g s. E th n o g ra p h e rs h a v e re p e a te d ly d e scrib e d m e n ’ s talk in th is c o m c x t a s a llu s iv e a n d in d ire c t, m a k in g u se o f im a g e s, p a ra b le s , a n d m e ta p h o rs to h id e, v e il, o r re n d e r a m b ig u o u s the re fere n tial m e ssa g e , th e re b y d e n y in g con flict (B rc n n c is a n d M y e r s 19 8 4 ). W o m en arc e x c lu d e d on the g ro u n d s th at th ey lack the n e c e ssa ry v e rb a l su b tle ty . T h is seem s to su g g e st th at sp cech d ifferen ces a re p o w erfu l in d eed , sin c e th ey seem to d ire c tly lim it w o m e n ’ s a c c e ss to the p o litic a l p ro cess. H o w e v e r , e th n o g ­ ra p h e rs a ls o rep o rt th at the m eetin g s a r e not th e m a in site o f d e c isio n m a k ­ in g , a n d in d irec t sp cech is not p r im a r ily a m e a n s o f p e rsu a sio n o r co ercio n . U s u a lly d e cisio n s a re m a d e a n d co n se n su s reach ed b efore a n d a fte r the m eet­ in g in in fo rm a l d isc u ssio n s th at e m p lo y a m o re d ire c t sty le an d in w h ich w o m en p a rtic ip a te a c tiv e ly , th e re b y h a v in g c o n sid e ra b le effect on d e cisio n s (H a rr is 19 8 0 : 7 3 ; K e e n a n 19 7 4 ; L e d e rm a n 19 8 4 ). W h a t, then , is the m e a n in g a n d cffcct o f w o m e n ’s e xclu sio n from sp e a k in g a t m eetin gs? T h e lin g u istic fo rm o f p o litic a l m eetin g s d efin es not how d ecisio n m a k in g a c tu a lly o c c u rs, b u t r a th e r w'hat c a n b e sh o w n “ o n sta g e ” ; w h at c a n b e fo­ c u se d o n a s the le g itim a te re a lity . C o m p a r a tiv e e v id e n c e su g g e sts th at m eet­ in g s a t w h ich o rd e rs a rc g iv e n o r an n o u n ce d b y le a d e rs ra tify a n id e o lo g y o f h ie r a r c h y , r e g a rd le ss o f the w a y d e cisio n s w ere o r ig in a lly re a c h e d . M e e tin g s in w h ic h in d irc ctn c ss c rc a ic s a la ck o f co ercio n a n d h ie ra rc h y b etw een p a rtic ­ ip a n ts r a tify a n id eo lo g y o f e g a lita r ia n re la tio n s, at lea st in so cieties w h ere th e re a r e few o th er in stitu tio n a liz e d p o litic a l stru c tu re s ( Ir v in e 19 7 9 ). I f m e n ’ s in d ire c t o r a to r y c o n stru c ts the so c ia l re a lity o f an e g a lita r ia n m ale p o lity , then the ex c lu sio n o f w o m en cre a te s the r e a lity a n d le g itim a te s the id e o lo g y o f w o m e n 's su b o rd in a tio n to th at p o lity . A s L e d e r m a n ( 19 8 4 ) p o in ts o u t a b o u t the M c n d i o f N e w G u in e a , for the w o m en liste n in g in sile n c e at su ch a m e e tin g , this re a lity is a ll the h a r d e r to c h a lle n g e sin c e it is fo rm a lly acte d o u t b u t n e v e r e x p lic itly a rtic u la te d . In s u m , so cietal in stitu tio n s a r c not n eu tral c o n te x ts fo r ta lk . T h e y a re o rg a n iz e d to d e fin e , d e m o n stra te , a n d en fo rc e the le g itim a c y a n d a u th o rity o f lin g u is tic stra te g ie s used b y o n e g e n d e r— o r m en o f o n e c la s s o r eth n ic grou p— w hile d en yin g the pow er o f o th e rs.14 F o rm s that d iverg e are d evalu ed b y the d o m in a n t id eo lo g ies. " F lo o r s ” w ith m a n y p a rtic ip a n ts, b la c k g ir ls ' s to rie s, w o m e n ’ s g o ssip in S p a in , M e n d i w o m e n ’s d ire c tn e ss, a ll a tte m p t to co n test the h eg em o n y o f the d o m in a n t fo rm s. B u t it is not the “ flo o r” th a t is ju d g e d in a u sp ic io u s, ra th e r w o m en a r e seen a s tim id o r u n a b le to e x p re ss th e m se lv e s; it is not th at the b la c k g irls h a v e d ifferen t sto ry -te llin g e x p e ri­ e n ce s th an w h ite c h ild ren a n d less tra in in g th an b lack b o y s, b u t th at th ey c a n n o t th in k p ro p e rly . D e sp ite the re sista n c e d e m o n stra te d in w o m e n 's lin ­ g u is tic p ra c tic e s, B o u r d ic u ’ s ( 19 7 7 ^ ) re m a rk a b o u t the effects o f th is k in d o f lin g u is tic d o m in a tio n a p p lie s: b y a u th o riz in g so m e lin g u istic p ra c tic e s an d n ot o th e rs, the in stitu tio n a p p e a r s to d e m o n stra te the in fe rio rity o f th o se w h o

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u se u n a u th o riz e d fo rm s and often in c u lc a te s in them feelin g s o f w o rth le ss­ n ess. B u t n otice th at the M en d i m e etin g , the fo ru m s o f M m c . R o la n d , an d sin g le -s p e a k e r “ flo o rs” a lso illu stra te a n o th e r so rt o f sy m b o lic p o w e r I m en ­ tio n ed a t the sta rt o f th is ch ap ter: th ey a r c in te ra c tio n a l a n d lin g u istic fo rm s, b u t th e y a ls o a tte m p t to im pose an d le g itim a te certain d e fin itio n s o f w o m e n , m e n , a n d so ciety . 1 n o w turn to a fu lle r d iscu ssio n o f this scco n d a sp e c t o f sy m b o lic d o m in a tio n an d the w a y w o m e n ’ s vo ices a r c so m etim es raised a g a in s t it.

G E N R E S O F R E S IS T A N C E D e sp ite the lo n g -sta n d in g W estern e m p h a sis on la n g u a g e a s p r im a r ily a m e a n s o f re p re se n tin g an a lre a d y e x is tin g re a lity , a n th ro p o lo g ists h a v e lo n g been a w a r e o f the w a y s in w hich the m e ta p h o rs, lite r a r y g e n re s, a n d in te ra c ­ tio n a l a rra n g e m e n ts r e a d ily a v a ila b le in a c o m m u n ity a c tiv e ly sh a p e the w a y s p e a k e rs d e fin e the so c ia l w o rld . In sh o rt, c o n v e n tio n a l la n g u a g e an d its co n ­ v e n tio n a l u sa g e a r e not n eu tral m e d ia fo r d e sc rib in g so c ia l life. S o m e fo r­ m u la tio n s a b o u t so cial life, w h en in sc rib e d in a d iv isio n o f la b o r o r o th e r o rg a n iz a tio n a l fo rm , s e r v e one g r o u p 's in terests b etter th an th at o f o th e rs. A h e g e m o n ic d isc o u rse , in this b ro a d sen se, is a form o f p o w e r, a n d it is so m e­ tim es resisted o r co n tested . T h is im p o rta n t a n d q u ite g e n e ra l n otion o f a d y n a m ic b etw een d o m in a n t a n d su b o rd in a te d isc o u rse s o r p ra c tic e s h as been d isc u sse d , in m a n y fo rm s an d w ith m a n y term in o lo gies, b y a v a r ie ty o f so cial th eo rists. H o w e v e r, fem in ist s c h o la rs h a v e been stro n g ly in flu cn c cd b y a lim ited v ersio n o f th is in sig h t, e x p lic itly a p p lie d to w o m e n . E . A r d c n c r ( 1 9 7 5 ) an d S . A r d c n c r ( 1 9 7 5 ) a rg u e th at w o m en , due to th eir stru c tu ra l p o sitio n s, h a v e m o d els o f re a lity th at d iffe r from the m a le -d o m in a te d so c ie ta l m o d el. T h e form o f w o m e n ’s m o d els is o ften n o n v erb a l, in a rtic u la te , o r v e ile d , w h ile the d is ­ c o u rse o f m en is m ore v e rb a l a n d e x p lic it, an d th ereb y m ore c o n g ru e n t w ith the u su a l d isc o u rse o f W estern so cial sc ic n c c . B e in g u n a b le to e x p re ss th eir s tr u c tu r a lly g e n e ra te d v iew s in the d o m in a n t an d m a sc u lin e d isc o u rse , w o m en a rc n e ith e r u n d ersto o d n o r h eed ed , an d b eco m e in a rtic u la te , “ m u t e d / 1 o r even silen t. In su ch c a se s w o m en m a y talk a lo t. but th ey d o not e x p re s s th eir o w n , d ifferen t so c ia l r e a lit y .15 T h e “ m u tc d -g ro u p ” thesis u se fu lly d raw ’s atten tio n to the im p o rta n c e o f the s y m b o lic la n g u a g e , the fo rm , o f d o m in a n t a n d s u b o rd in a te d isco u rse . H o w e v e r , a s I w ill d e m o n stra te wfith a series o f e x a m p le s, the A r d c n e r s ’ fo rm u la tio n is flaw ed in se v e ra l resp ects. F ir s t, it assu m e s th at “ m u te d n e ss” is a sta tic reflex o f w o m e n ’ s stru c tu ra l p o sitio n . In c o n tra st, w h en v ie w e d in te rm s o f b ro a d e r th eo ries o f g e n d e r a n d sy m b o lic d o m in a tio n , “ m u te d n e ss” b e co m e s o n ly o n e o f m a n y th e o re tic a lly p o ssib le o u tco m es o f g e n d e r rela-

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lio n s . A m u ch w id e r a r r a y o f w o m e n 's v e rb a l stra te g ie s an d g e n re s b c c o m c v isib le , so m e c o n sid e ra b ly m ore a rtic u la te an d m o re a c tiv e ly o p p o sitio n a l to d o m in a n t m o d els th an the "m u te d n e s s ” th esis a llo w s. S r c o n d , i f d o m in a tio n an d re sista n c e a r e m a tte rs o f in te ra ctio n a l p ra c tic e a s w ell a s s tr u c tu r e , a s I h a v e b een a r g u in g , then w c m u st fo cu s not on “ m u te d n e ss” a s a s tru c tu ra l p ro d u c t b u t on the p ro cesses b y w h ic h w o m en a re ren d ered “ m u te ” o r m a n ­ a g e to c o n stru c t d isse n tin g g e n re s a n d re sistin g d isco u rse s. F in a lly , a s W a r* ren a n d B o u r q u e su g g est:

. .u n d e r s ta n d in g d o m in a n c e an d m u tin g [a s

p ro c e sse sJ re q u ire s a b ro a d e r a n a ly s is o f the p o litic a l, econ o m ic a n d in s titu ­ tio n a l c o n te xts in w h ic h re a lity is n e g o tia te d ” ( 19 8 5 : 2 6 1 ) . E th n o g ra p h y its e lf is su c h a c o n text, for e th n o g ra p h ic rep o rts a r e d e e p ly im p lic a te d in the p ro cess o f rep re se n tin g s e lf a n d o th e rs, c re a tin g im a g e s o f s o c ia l re a lity th ro u gh la n g u a g e . K e e n ly a w a r e o f th is, fem in ist c ritic s o f a n ­ th ro p o lo g y h a v e c h a rg e d that w o m en in the so cieties stu d ie d w e re ig n o re d o r p e rc e iv e d a s in ert b c c a u sc a n d ro c e n tric e th n o g ra p h e rs d ism isse d w o m en a n d th e ir c o n cern s, m a k in g th em a p p e a r p a ss iv e a n d silen t. F e m in ists c h a l­ len ged the a u th o rity an d c re d ib ility o f these m a le -b ia se d a c c o u n ts. B u t the A r d c n e r s ’ th esis su g g e sts th at the p ro b lem is m ore c o m p le x . It c la im s that w om en rarely “ sp eak ” in social an thropological reports b ecause social scien cc in v e s tig a to rs o f b o th se x e s d e m a n d the k in d o f a rtic u la te m o d els p ro v id e d b y m en , not b y m u ted w o m en . A n d in d eed , so m e w o m en a n th ro p o lo g ists h a v e a lso c o m p la in e d o f the in a rtic u la te n e ss o f w o m en in fo rm a n ts in so m e co n te x ts. It seem s th ere is a n eed to re e x a m in e h o w e th n o g ra p h ie s a r c c re ­ ate d . C u r r e n tly , ju s t su c h a re e x a m in a tio n is a lso the p ro je c t o f a n th ro p o lo ­ gists w h o a re sim ilarly challen gin g the au th o rity o f ethn ographic w ritin g , but on d ifferen t g ro u n d s. F o llo w in g p o stm o d ern ist tren d s in p h ilo so p h y , th ey asse rt th at tra d itio n a l e th n o g ra p h ie s m ask the a c tu a l p ra c tic e o f fie ld w o rk a n d w ritin g (C liffo rd an d M a r c u s 19 8 6 ). B y c la im in g to a c c u r a te ly re p re se n t the fa c ts a b o u t a n e x o tic c u ltu re , the n a iv e re a list c o n v en tio n s o f e th n o ­ g ra p h ic w riting im plicitly d e n y that ethn ographic facts a re selected, ind eed c o n stru c te d , in ih e e n c o u n te r b etw een the a n th ro p o lo g ist a n d the “ o th e r ” w h o is h er/h is su b je c t. In o rd e r to reflect the p ro cess o f e th n o g ra p h ic k n o w l­ e d g e , these c ritic s su g gest e x p e rim e n ta tio n w ith lite ra ry fo rm s so th at w r itin g m a y b e a “ p o ly v o c a l” a n d d ia lo g ic p ro d u ctio n in w h ic h the e th n o g ra p h e r lets the p e o p le sp e a k a n d e th n o g ra p h ic facts a rc sh o w n

io

b e jo in t ly p ro d u c e d

b y e th n o g ra p h e r a n d in fo rm a n t. W h a t h a s rec eiv ed too little atten tio n in all these c ritiq u e s is the u n a v o id ­ a b ly p o w e r-c h a rg e d v e r b a l en co u n te r in w h ic h a n th ro p o lo g ists an d n a tiv e sp e a k e rs, w ith d ifferen t in te re sts, g o a ls, an d d e e p ly u n e q u a l p o sitio n s, m eet a n d a tte m p t to talk . K e e s in g ( 19 ^ 5 ) p ro v id e s a fine e x a m p le o f the e th n o ­ g ra p h ic interview as a linguistic practice. In o rd er to record w om en ’s versio n s o f n a tiv e life (k asto m ) a m o n g the K w a io , a ten a c io u sly tra d itio n a l g r o u p liv in g in the S o lo m o n Isla n d s o f the S o u th P a c ific , K e e s in g h ad to a n a ly z e

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w h a t he c a lls the “ m ic ro p o litics” o f talk . In resp o n se to K c e s in g ’s re q u e sts, the m en c re ated an d told life h isto rie s e a g e r ly a n d a r tfu lly , even th o u g h the K w a io la c k su c h a gen re a s w e ll a s a tra d itio n o f self-rev ela tio n an d selfe x p la n a tio n o n w h ich the W estern lite ra ry fo rm o f the a u to b io g ra p h y is b a se d . In c o n tra st, K e e sin g reco u n ts th a t he cou ld not elic it a u to b io g r a p h i­ c a l n a r r a tiv e s from w om en , n ot e v e n th o se w h o w ere o ld , k n o w le d g e a b le , an d in flu e n tial. T h e y sp o k e to h im in a fra g m e n te d , in a rtic u la te an d jo k in g w a y , e s p e c ia lly in fron t o f eld er m en w h o u rg e d th em to c o o p e ra te . T h e y a p p e a re d d istre sse d w ith w h a t w as req u ested o f th em : “ m u te .” A su b se q u e n t fie ld trip , e ig h t y e a rs la te r, th is tim e w ith a w o m a n e th n o g ra p h e r, b ro u g h t q u ite d iffer­ ent re su lts. In se ssio n s w ith both e th n o g ra p h e rs, K w a io w o m en look co n tro l o f the e n co u n ters, ev e n b rin g in g fe m a le frien d s a s a u d ie n c e to the re c o rd in g se ssio n s. B u i. u n lik e the m en. w h o h ad p ro v id e d so cietal ru les an d p erso n a l life n a r ra tiv e s , the w om en rejected the e th n o g ra p h e rs’ p e rso n a l q u e stio n s a n d in stea d c re a te d m oral te xts a b o u t the v irtu e s o f w o m a n h o o d , in se rtin g p e rso n a l e x p e rie n c e s only 10 illu stra te w o m e n ’s p o ssib le p a th s th ro u g h life. T h r o u g h th eir texts, K w a io w o m en w e re re fo rm u la tin g a n d e m b e llish in g a lo n g -sta n d in g s tr a te g y o f K w a io m en : to en list the (at first) u n k n o w in g a n th ro p o lo g ist in (h eir efforts to c o d ify a n d a u th o riz e K w a io cu sto m . B y le g it­ im a tin g th e ir ow n cu sto m s in an a n th ro p o lo g iz e d form the K w a io m en w ere a b le to u se it to resist the d e m a n d s o f sta te re g u la tio n s, th e re b y a tte m p tin g , th ro u g h v ig o ro u s n eo -tra d itio n a lism , to m a in ta in th eir p o litic a l a u to n o m y in the face o f c o lo n ia l an d n co -c o lo n ial in c u rsio n s. A d e e p e r u n d e rsta n d in g o f K w a io w o m e n 's talk re q u ire s re v isio n s o f a ll th re e c ritiq u e s o f an th ro p o lo g ic a l field w o rk . C le a r ly K w a io w o m en w e re not s o m u ch s tr u c tu r a lly m ute a n d in a rtic u la te a s re sp o n siv e to the im m e d ia te in te ra c tio n a l c o n tc x t, e sp ecially re la tio n s o f g e n d e r in e q u a lity w ith in th eir o w n so cie ty a n d in the e th n o g ra p h ic in te rv ie w . P ra g m a tic a n a ly s e s o f the in te rv ie w a s a sp e c c h event su g g e st it is the e th n o g ra p h e r’s task to d isc o v e r the co n d itio n s u n d e r w hich in fo rm a n ts c a n talk. S im ila r ly , it is not e n o u g h to in sist, a s th e p o stm o d ern ist c ritic s d o , th at the e th n o g ra p h ic e n co u n te r an d the g e n re s th a t em e rg e from it a r e jo in t ly p ro d u ce d . A lth o u g h im p o rta n t an d a c c u ra te , th is o b se rv a tio n b y its e lf ig n o re s the im p o rta n c e o f g e n d e r an d o th e r fo rm s o f in e q u a lity . I l o in its the se v e ra l le v e ls o f u n e q u a l p o w e r an d p r iv ile g e that c h a ra c te riz e (he e th n o g ra p h ic e n co u n te r a n d w h ic h a lso d e te r­ m in e w h o is a b le to talk an d w h at it is p o ssib le o r s tra te g ic to s a y . T h e w o m e n ’ s in a rtic u la te n e ss an d su b se q u e n t “ v o ic e ,” a s m u ch a s the m en ’ s s y s ­ te m atizatio n o f th e ir cu ltu re, w ere resp o n ses to w id e r field s o f fo rc e th at a s s u r e th at so m e texts o r g e n re s a r c m o re p o w e rfu l th an o th e rs, m a k in g a s im p le c o p ro d u c tio n o f e th n o g ra p h ic te xts im p o ssib le (A s a d iq 86; P o lie r an d R o s e b e r r y 19 8 8 : 1 5 ) . F in a lly , fem in ists w o u ld h a v e c o n fid e n tly p re d ic te d the c h a n g e s p ro d u ce d b y the p re se n ce o f a w o m a n a n th ro p o lo g ist a n d w o u ld h a v e u n d e rsto o d th at :he g e n re o f a u to b io g r a p h y is p r o b le m a tic , not o n ly

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b e c a u se it is c u ltu r a lly sp e c ific lo the W est, b u t a lso b c c a u se it h a s been sh a p e d b y W estern g e n d e r id e o lo g y th at a ssu m e s a m a le s u b je c t .16 Y e t the e ase o f K w a io w o m en su g g ests rev isio n s an d e x p a n s io n s fo r g e n d e r th eo ries a s w e ll: a fe m a le e th n o g ra p h e r m a y be o n ly p a rt o f the a n s w e r. In th is c a se , the p re se n ce o f the m a le a n th ro p o lo g ist w a s a lso im p o r ta n t, fo r the w o m en w e re a ttu n e d to his esta b lish e d ro le a s m e d ia to r b e tw e e n the K w a io a n d the o u tsid e w 'orld. T h u s , atten tio n m u st b e p a id to r e la tio n s o f p o w e r that c o n ­ nect K w a io so ciety to a w o rld system in w h ic h , a s th e K w a io a r e a w a re , a n th ro p o lo g ists, a s w ic ld c rs o f W estern d isc o u rse , h a v e a u th o r ity th at K w a io w o m e n , p e rh a p s d ifferen tly th an m en , can try lo c h a n n e l to th eir o w n en d s th ro u g h the e th n o g ra p h ic in te rv ie w . E th n o g r a p h y is o n ly o n e o f the m a n y c o n texts in w h ic h w c c a n o b se rv e the p ro c e sse s th at m a k e w o m en seem “ mute.** A n o th e r e x a m p le is p ro v id e d by an elite in te lle c tu a l stu d y g ro u p , the M e n ’s an d W o m e n 's C lu b o f 18 8 0 s L o n d o n , an d th eir d isc u ssio n s o f s e x u a lity (W a lk o w itz 19 8 6 ). C lu b ru les a sse rte d m e n s a n d w o m e n 's e q u a lity , b u t ru le n u m b e r se v e n te e n , w h ic h w a s a c c c p tc d b y a ll, stip u la te d that d isc u ssio n m u st sta y w ith in a D a r w in ia n , scie n tific fra m e w o rk . T h is p ro v iso both a ssu re d an d h id m e n 's d o m in a n c e . F o r w o m en m em b ers resp e c te d , but la ck e d , su c h sc ie n tific k n o w led g e. T h is is at o n c e an in sta n c e o f lin g u istic d o m in a tio n a n d an a tte m p t a t im p o sitio n o f a so cial re a lity : w o m e n 's p riv a te letter* re v e a l th at m a n y found the term s o f su ch a sc ie n c e in a d e q u a te to e x p re ss “ c o m p le x th o u g h t a n d fe e lin g ” a b o u t the d iffic u ltie s o f th eir s e x u a l liv es. M in u te s o f the m e e tin g s su g g e st th at face -to -fa c e w ith m en . w o m en w e re o ften sile n ce d b y th is d ile m m a . B u t o th er d a t a sh o w v a rio u s a tte m p ts 10 fo rm u la ic o p p o sitio n : tra n sfo rm in g o r ad ap t* in g m e n ’ s scie n tific a rg u m e n ts in p a p e rs w ritten fo r the c lu b , w r itin g p riv a te lette rs o f c o m p la in t to o n e a n o th e r, a n d ev e n a tte m p tin g to c re a te a d ifferen t id io m for ta lk in g a b o u t se x u a lity b y d r a w in g on p u b lic ev e n ts o f the tim e. I f w o m e n a r e not a lw a y s silen t o r in a rtic u la te , then th e task o f a n th ro p o l­ o g y is to seek o u t a n d u n d e rsta n d the g e n re s an d d isc o u rse s w o m en p ro d u cc . E s p e c ia lly r e v e a lin g a r e g e n re s c re a te d b y sp e a k e rs th e m se lv e s, to reflect on th e ir ow-n e x p e rie n c e , that a r e not p r im a r ily a p ro d u c t o f the e th n o g ra p h ic in te r v ie w . A s I h a v e a lre a d y sh o w n , stu d e n ts o f e v e r y d a y talk h a v e id en tified m e n ’ s a n d w o m e n 's often d ifferen t v e rb a l g e n re s: stu d e n ts o f o ra l lite ra tu re h a v e c a ta lo g u e d th eir form s a n d the ru les fo r th eir p e rfo rm a n c e (e .g . S h e rz e r 19 8 7 ). B u t th ese a r e not sim p ly “ w a y s o f s p e a k in g ” ; the d ifferen ces in con tcn t o r p e rsp e c tiv e th at they o ften co n stru ct d e s e rv e e q u a l atte n tio n . In d e e d , it is in the co n ju n c tio n o f fo rm , c o n ten t, a n d co n text o f p e rfo rm a n c e that w o m e n ’ s c o n sc io u sn e ss em erg es. F irst, m y e x a m p le s w ill d e m o n stra te the g re a t ra n g e o f a rtic u la te n e s s ev id e n t in w o m en ’ s g e n re s. S e c o n d , a lth o u g h w o m e n ’ s g e n r e s o ften d iv e rg e from m en ’ s, an d a r e so m etim es a u to n o m o u s c o n stru c ­ tio n s, the e v id e n c e d o cs not su p p o rt a th esis o f s e p a r a t e w o m e n ’s c u ltu re s. O n the c o n tra ry , w o m e n 's g e n re s c a n b est be re a d a s c o m m e n ta ry th at sh o w s

BETWEEN SPEECH AND SILENCE

193

a ra n g e o f resp o n se— a c c e p :a n c e , re sista n c e , su b v e rsio n , a n d o p p o sitio n — to d o m in a n t, o ften m a le d isco u rse. W om en so m etim es p ro d uce a c u ltu ra l c o m m e n ta ry o f g e stu re an d ritu al th at m a y b e c a lle d in a rtic u la te b e c a u se it re je c ts w o rd s a lto g e th e r. A n im p o r­ tan t in sta n c e o cc u rre d in the N ig e ria n W o m e n 's W a r o f 19 2 9 . D u r in g th e m a s s iv e p ro tests a g a in s t proposed ta x a tio n o f w o m e n 's p ro p e rty b y the co lo ­ n ia l g o v e rn m e n t, w o m en refo rm u lated on a la rg e sc a le a lo c a lly p ra c tic e d c u sto m o f o b scen e d a n c in g , c a lle d " s it t in g on a m an,** that tr a d itio n a lly o cc u rre d at the h o u ses o fir .c n w h o h ad o v e rste p p e d so c ia l m o res u p h eld b y w o m en . C o n te m p o ra ry w itn esses o f the W o m e n ’s W a r re p o rt th at w o m e n ’s p ro te sts in clu d ed m a rch in g n u d e, ly in g on the g ro u n d k ic k in g th eir leg s in the a ir, an d m a k in g ob scen e g e stu re s. A s Ife k a -M o lle r ( 1 9 7 5 ) e x p la in s, these g e stu re s w e re m y ste rio u s and a la r m in g to E u ro p e a n o b se rv e rs b u t, fo r the w o m en a n d m en in v o lv e d , th ey co n stitu ted a n elo q u en t p ro test a g a in s t the m a le p o litic a l con tro l a n d g o v ern m en t ta x a tio n th at w o m en s a w a s a v io la ­ tion o f th e ir rig h ts. A s im ila rly g e s tu ra l b u t m u ch m o re c o n tra d ic to ry an d a c q u ie sc e n t p r a c ­ tice is A m e ric a n w o m e n 's co n su m p tio n o f p o p u la r ro m a n tic n o v els. I f w c a n a ly z e o n ly the te x ts th em selves, ro m a n c e re a d e rs a p p e a r a s p a ss iv e c o n ­ su m e rs o f a h eg em o n ic p o p u la r c u ltu re th at d e m e a n s th em b y p re se n tin g im a g e s o f w o m en a s illo g ical an d m a g n etized b y m a le b ru ta lity . B u t R a d w a y (19 8 4 ) e x a m in e s n ot ju s t the con ten t b u t the so c ia l e v en t o f re a d in g . S h e sh o w s th at fo r m a n y ro m an ce re a d e rs, re a d in g itself, often d o n e in stolen m o m e n ts o f p r iv a c y , is a co m b a tiv e a c t, co n te stin g the u su al self> ab n egatio n o f th e ir liv e s. V e t, alth o u g h r e v e a lin g a re a l ten sio n in d o m in a n t g e n d e r id e o lo g y , th is is a lim ited an d se lf-d e fe a tin g p ro test: re a d in g alUnvs tem p o ­ r a r y e sc a p e from lim ited lives, but the texts m ak e th o se lim ited liv e s seem m o re d e s ira b le . A m o re v e r b a lly e x p lic it a n d su b v e rsiv e , ye t v e ile d an d a m b ig u o u s g e n re , is th e o ra l ly ric p o e try (g h in n a w a s) p erfo rm ed a m o n g in tim a te s b y the B e d o u in o f E g y p t ’s W estern D e se rt. In d e sc rib in g th ese d e lic a te , b rie f, an d a r tfu lly im p ro v ise d p e rfo rm an c es, A b u -L u g h o d (19 8 6 ) stre sse s th at the d o m in a n t id e o lo g y , the “ p u b lic la n g u a g e ” o f the B e d o u in , is o n e o f h o n o r, a u to n o m y , se lf-m a ste ry , p erso n al stre n g th , a n d se x u a l m o d esty. T h e p o em s d ire c tly v io la te th is co d e o f h o n o r a n d im p lic itly c ritic iz e it b y e x p re ss in g the feelin gs o f d e p e n d e n c y , em o tio n al v u ln e r a b ility , a n d ro m a n tic lo n g in g c o n ­ d e m n e d b y the o fficial v ie w . T h e p o etry co n stitu tes w h a t A b u -L u g h o d c a lls a “ d issid e n t o r su b v e rsiv e d isc o u rs e . . .m o s t c lo se ly a sso c ia te d w ith y o u th s a n d w o m e n , the d isa d v a n ta g e d d e p e n d e n ts w h o lea st e m b o d y the id e a ls o f B e d o u in so c ie ty a n d h a v e least to g a in in the sy ste m a s s t r u c t u r e d .. . . P o e try is ih e d isc o u rse o f o p p o sit on 975^- Primate kin and hum an kinship. In Bm ocial anthropology. N ew York: Jo h n W iley and Sons. Ja m ie so n , Ian G . 1986. T h e functional approach to behavior: Is it useful? American Naturalist 12 7 : 19 5-20 8 . G ald ik as, Birute. 1980. Livin g with orangutans. National Geographic Magazine 157 (6): 8 8 0 -8 5 3. G artlan , Jo h n S. 1964. D om inance in East African monkeys. Proceedings o f the East African Academy 2 : 7 5 -7 9 . G ilm ore. H ugh. 19 8 1. From Radcliffe-Brown to Sociobiology: Som e aspects o f the rise o f prim atology wiihin physical anthropology. Journal o f Physical Anthropology 56 {4): 387- 392G oldm an, D. 1978. Special abilities o f the sexes: Do they begin in the brain? Psychology Today 12 (6): 48 ff G oodall, Ja n e . 1963. M y life am ong (he w ild chimpanzees. National Geographic M aga­ zine 124 {2): 272-308. . 1967. Mother-offspring relationships in chimpanzees. In M orris, cd. Primate ethology. London: Wcidcnfeld and Nicolson: 287-346. --------- . 19 7 1. In the shadow o f man. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin. --------- . 1986. The chimpanzees o f Gombe. Patterns o f behavior. C am bridge: H arvard U n i­ versity Press. G ou ld , Stephen J a y . 1986. C ard board D arw inism . N eu York Review o f Books (Septem ­

ber 25): 47- 54G ould, Stephen J . , and E . V rb a. 1982. Exaptation— A m issing term in the science o f form. Paleobiology 3: 4 - 1 5 .

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H all, K . R . L ., and Irven D cV ore. (965. Baboon social behavior. In Primate Be­ havior: Field studies o f monkeys and apes. Irven D eVore, ed. N ew York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston: 5 3 - 1 to. H am burg, D avid A. 1963. Emotions in the perspective o f human evolution. In K n ap p , ed ., Expressions o f emotions in man. New York: International Universities Press. (19 6 3): 3 0 0 -3 17 . H am burg, David A ., and Elizabeth M cCow n, eds. 1979. The great apts. M enlo Park, C alif.: Benjamin/Cum mings. Ham ilton, W. D. 1963. The evolution ol altruistic behavior. American Naturalist 97: 354- 356. --------- . 1964. T he genetical evolution o f social behavior, I and 11.Journal o f Theoretical Biology 7: 1- 5 2 . H araw ay, Donna J . I9?3 7-

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Hubbard, Ruth. 1982. H ave only men evolved? In Biological Woman: The Convenient Myth. Ruth H ubbard, Nl. S. Hcnifin. and B. Fried, eds. Cam bridge: Schenkman: 17 -4 6 . J a y , Phyllis, cd. 1968. Primates: Studies in adaptation and variability. New Y ork: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Jo lly , Alison. 1966. famur behavior. Chicago: Chicago U niversity Press. Jo n e s, C lara B. 19 8 1. T he evolution and socioecology o f dominance in primate groups: Theoretical formulation, classification, and assessment. Primates 22: 7 0 -8 3. Jo rd an o v a, Ludm illa J . 1980. N atural facts: A historical perspective on science and sexuality. In C arol M acC orm ack and M arilyn Strathern. eds. 1980. Nature, culture, gender. Cam bridge: C am bridge U niversity Press: 42-6 9 . K aye, H oward L. 1986. The social meaning o f modem biology. From social Darwinism to sociobiology. New Haven: Y ale University Press. Keller. Evelyn Fox. 1983. .1feeling fo r the organism. New York: Freeman. --------- . 1985. Reflections on gender and science. New H aven: Y a le University Press. --------- . 1987. Reproduction and the central project o f evolutionary theory. Biology and Philosophy 2: 73-8 6 . K evles. Bettyann. 1976. Watching the u ild apes. New Y ork : Dutton. K iiu c v , W arren G ., cd. 1987. The evolution 0 / human bthavior. Primate models. Albany: S L 'N Y Press. Kitcher, Philip. 1985. Vaulting ambition. Sociobiology and the quest fo r human nature. C am ­ bridge: M I T Press. K um m er, Hans. 19 7 1. Primate societies. Group techniques o f ecological adaptation. Chicago: Aldine. Lancaster, Ja n e B. 1973. In praise o f the achieving female monkey. Psychology Today 7 (4>: 3 0 -3 6 . 99. --------- . 1984. Introduction. In Sm all (1984}: i - t a . Leavitt, R. R. 1975. Peaceable primates and gentle peaplt. New York: H arper and Row. Lee. R ichard, and Irvcn D eVore, eds. 1968. Man the hunter. Chicago: Aldine. Leihowitz, I„. 1978. Female*, males, fam ilies: A biosociat approach. Belmont, C alif.: Dux* bury. Lcwontin, R. C ., Steven Rose, and Leon J . K am in . 1984. Not in our genes: Biology, ideologv, and human nature. New Y ork: Pantheon. Lovcjov, O. >981. T he origin o f man. Science a i t (4,480): 3 4 1-3 5 0 . M acC orm ack, C aro l, and M arilyn Strathern, eds. 1980. Nature, culture, gender. C am ­ bridge: C am bridge University Press. M artin, M . K a y . and Barbara Yoorhies. *975. Female oj the species. New York: C olum bia University Press. M aynard-Sm ith, J . 1964. G roup selection and kin selection. Nature 3 0 1: 1 1 4 5 - 1 147. M orris, Desmond. 1967. The naked ape. New York: M cG raw -H ill. --------- , ed. Primate ethology. London: W ciden and Nicolson. N adlcr. Ronald. 1975. Laboratory rcscarch on sexual behavior o f the great apes. In Reproductive biology o f the great apes. C . E. G raliam , ed. New Y ork : Academ ic Press. N apier, Jo h n R ., and N. A . Barnicot, eds. 1963. The primates: Symposium o f the Ixmdon Zoological Society, no. lo.

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Sussm an, Randall L ., ed. 1979. Primate ecology; Problem orientedfield studies. New York:

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S IX

Organizing Women Rhetoric, Economy, and Politics in Process among Australian Aborigines

Elizabeth A . Povitielli

D u rin g a hot, hum id J u n e day a l the T w o fe lla C reek O u tsia tio n ,1 I w as collecting turtle eggs a n d m u ccrab s w ith three senior w om en— M a rg a rie Bilbil, her sister G r a d e B in b in , and their au n t M ag g ie T im b er. T ir e d , w e d e­ cided to boil a b illy2 and cat. I rounded u p som e wood. M argarie w ashed som e yam s w c had brought and then began to m ake a flour d am p er (com ­ m on ly know n a s “ lou r” ). A s the billy boiled and the yam s and lo u r cooked, M ag g ie T im b e r, cou ghin g over a cigarette, began to speak of the “ bush” and “ b ed agu t” (w h iiem an ) shops. W e didn't eat that before tja n c la , when I been young. We didn’ t sabi makirn. None o f this cither. Wre got one bush, dishau now gamen bla tjimokc, but nothing strong one wipella. Nothing di, tjugar. ‘Hiese things n o * im been make w ipella lazy. Been make us need that shop longa Bclyuen. W c got two shops, irue, that shop and bush. We get tired one, we go that notherone. T h at be* d agu i, im got only one. . . . These things now though, im been make us bunch up le shop, sit down longa one place. [W e didn't eat that (lour) before, granddaughter, when I was yo jn g . Wfcd id n 't know how to make it. W e didn't know how to use these cigarettes. We have one bush (hat is like tobacco, but 984. Sexual division o f labor in agriculture. American Anthropologist 86: 56 8 -58 3. Douglas, Mar>- T ., and Baron Isherwood. 1979. The world o f goods. New Y o rk : Basic Books. Dow, M alcolm M . 1985. Agricultural intensification and craft specialization: A non* recursive model. Ethnology 24 (2): 1 3 7 - 1 5 2 . Em ber, C arol R . 1983. T h e relative decline in women's contribution to agriculture with intensification. American Anthropologist 85: 2 8 5 -30 5 . Fernandez, Ja m e s W. 1982. Bw iti: An ethnography o f the religious imagination in Africa. Princeton: Princeton U niversity Press. Flight, C . 1976. T h e K intam po culture and its place in the economic prehistory o f West A frica. In Origins o f African plant domestication. J . R. H arlan, J . DeW et, and A . Stem ler, eds. T h e Hague: Mouton. Forde, D aryll. 1964. Yako studies. I^ondon: Oxford U niversity Press. G u yer, Ja n e I. 19 8 1. T he raw , the cooked and the half-baked: O bservations on the division o f labor by sex. Boston U niversity African Studies Center W orking Paper No. 48. --------- . 1984a. N aturalism in M odels o f African Production. Man (n.s.) 19: 3 7 1- 3 8 8 . --------- . 19846. Family and farm in Southern Cameroon. Boston U niversity A frican R e­ search Series No. 15. --------- . 1988. T h e multiplication o flab o r: Historical methods in the study o f gender and agricultural change in modern Africa. Current Anthropology 29 (2): 2 4 7 -2 7 2 . H aswell, M argaret. 19 75. The nature o f poverty. London: M acm illan. Huntington, Sueilen. 19 75. Issues in woman’ s role in economic developm ent: Cri* tique and alternatives.,Journal of Marriage and the Family (19 75): t o o i - io t 2. Jo h n n y , M ., J . K arim u, and P. Richards. >981. Upland and swam p rice farming system s in Sierra l>eone: T h e social context o f technological change. A frica 5 1: 596-620. K ab erry, Phyllis. 1952. Women ofthe grassfields: A study o f the economic position o f women in Bamenda, British Cameroons. London: H er M ajesty’s Stationery Office. L aburthc-Tolra, Philippe. 19 8 1. Les Seigneurs de la Foret. Essai sur le passe historique, I ’organisation sociale et les nornus ethiques des ancient Beti du Canuroun. Paris: Publica­ tions de la Sorbonne. Linares, O lga. 19 8 1. From tidal sw am p to inland valley: O n the social organization o f wet rice cultivation am ong the Diola o f Senegal. Africa 5 1 : 5 5 7 - 5 9 5 M ead, M argaret. 19 35. Sex and temperament in three primitive societies. New Y o rk : W. M orrow.

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M eillassoux, C laude. 1981. Maidens, meal and money. Capitalism and the domestic commu­ nity. Loudon: Cam bridge University Press. M oore, S ally Falk. 1986. Social fa d s and fabrications: “ Customary" law on Kilimanjaro, 1880-1980. London: Cam bridge University Press. M urdock, G . P., and C . Provost. 1973. Factors in the division o f labor by sex: A cross«cultural analysis Ethnology 12 : 2 0 3 -2 2 5 . Reiter, R ayna, cd. 1975. Toward an anthropology o f womtn. New Y ork: M onthly Review Press. R e y, Pierre-Philippc. 197-). C lass contradiction in lineage societies. Critique o f anthro­ pology 4: 4 1-6 0 . Richards, Audrey. 1939. Land, labour and diet on Northern Rhodesia: An economic study o f the Bemba tribe. London: Oxford University Press. Rosaldo, M ichelle, and Louise Lam phere, eds. 1974. Women, culture and society.Stan ­ ford: Stanford University Press. Sabean, D avid. 1978. Sm all peasant agriculture in G erm any at the beginning o f the nineteenth century: Changing work patterns. Peasant Studies 7 (4}: 2 18 -2 2 4 . Strathern, M arilyn. 1984. Subject o r object? Women and the circulation o f valuables in H ighlands N ew Guinea. In Women and property— uvrnen as property. Renee Hirschon, ed., 15 8 -5 7 5 . London: Croom Helm. --------- . 1985. K in ship and economy: Constitutive orders o f a provisional kind. Amer­ ican Ethnologist 12 {2): 19 1-2 0 9 . Thom pson, E. P. 1967. Tim e, work discipline and industrial capitalism . Past and Present 38: 56 -9 7. T sa la , Theodore. 1975* Alinkarui Beti. Douala: College Liberm atm .

E IG H T

Women, Technology, and International Development Ideologies Analyzing Feminist Voices 1 Kay B . Warren and Susan C. Bourque

IN T R O D U C T IO N A lth o u g h a n th ro p o lo g y h a s seen the stu d y o f so c ia l c h a n g c a s c c n tra l to its m issio n , the Reid h a s been strik in g ly a m b iv a le n t a b o u t “ in te rn a tio n a l d e ­ v e lo p m e n t.” O n the o n e h a n d , a n th ro p o lo g ists w ith a c o m m itm e n t to a p ­ p lied re se a rc h on T h ir d W o rld p o v e rty h a v e lo n g been in v o lv e d in in te rn a ­ tio n a l d e v e lo p m e n t ag e n c ie s a n d p ro jects. A n d re se a rc h e rs in a c a d e m ia h a v e u rg e d the field to tu rn its atten tio n 10 the g lo b a l ec o n o m y , the state an d n a tio n a l p o lic y , a n d g ra ssro o ts m o v em en ts fo r so c ia l c h a n g e . O n th e o th er h a n d , a n th ro p o lo g ists h a v e b een sk e p tic a l a b o u t d e v e lo p m e n t b e c a u se this c o n c e p tu a liz a tio n o f c h a n g e ten d s not to b e se lf-re fle x iv e ; th at is, it fa ils to see th e c u ltu re s an d p o litic a l eco n o m ies o f d e v e lo p e d co u n trie s a s b ein g ju s t as p ro b le m a tic a s th o se o f so -c a lle d u n d e rd e v e lo p e d co u n trie s. T h e s e a n th ro p o l­ o g is ts find it n e c e ssa ry to c ritiq u e the e th n o cen trism in u n ilin e a r n a rra tiv e s o f c h a n g e th at a d v o c a te an d lin k “ d e v e lo p m e n t,” “ w e ste rn iz a tio n ,” an d “ p r o g r e s s .” In w h at fo llo w s, w c a tte m p t to put a n ew g e n e ra tio n o f d e v e lo p ­ m en t id e o lo g ies, w h ic h fo cu s on w o m en a n d g e n d e r issu e s, in ten sio n w ith a n th ro p o lo g ic a l stu d ie s o f g e n d e r, c u ltu re , an d c h a n g c . In th e p ro c e ss w c e x a m in e th e w a y s in w h ic h g e n d e r is b ein g in c o rp o ra te d a s a c a te g o ry o f a n a ly s is in the stu d y o f so c ia l a n d tech n o lo g ical c h a n g e ; h o w fo rm u la tio n s o f c h a n g e su c h a s “ d e v e lo p m e n t” an d “ tech n o lo g y tra n s fe r” b o th c o lo r o u r u n d e rsta n d in g s o f the T h ir d W o rld an d rc flc x iv e ly re v e a l W estern c u ltu ra l a n d p o litic a l p re o c c u p a tio n s; an d h o w fem in ist a n th ro p o lo g ists a r e re sp o n d ­ in g w ith e th n o g ra p h ic stu d ie s o f g e n d e r, c u ltu re , a n d p o litic a l ec o n o m y . T h e e x p lo siv e g ro w th o f re se a rc h on g e n d e r sin ce th e b e g in n in g o f the U n ite d N a tio n s D e c a d e fo r w o m en in 19 7 5 h a s resu lted in n ew e m p iric a l w o rk an d a ra n g e o f c o n flic tin g p e rsp e c tiv e s fo rm u la ted b y re se a rc h e rs s tu d y ­ 278

INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IDEOLOGIES in g “ th e in te g ra tio n o f w o m en in to d e v e lo p m e n t.”

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fe m in ist s c h o la rs h a v e u rg ed re se a rc h e rs to in te rn a tio n a liz e the stu d y o f w o rk , fa m ily , an d p o lic y . In th is c h a p te r, w c e v a lu a te the conceptual c o n trib u ­ tio n s th a t rcccn t rc sc a rc h h a s m a d e to fo rm u la tin g an d a n s w e r in g q u e stio n s a b o u t the c o n se q u e n ce s o f c h a n g in g tech n o lo g ies fo r w o m en a n d w o m e n ’ s re sp o n se s to the c h a n g in g c irc u m sta n c e s o f th e ir liv e s. T h is task is im p o rta n t b e c a u se the m o d els an d la n g u a g e s o f a n a ly s is that in fo rm c u r rc n i re se a rc h in flu e n c e the d ire c tio n a n d sco p e o f fu tu re stu d ie s a n d stra te g ie s fo r c h a n g e . A s o n e w o u ld e x p e c t from an a n th ro p o lo g ic a l a p p ro a c h , the issu e o f “ te c h ­ n o lo g y ” q u ic k ly d isso lv e s into w id e r d isc u ssio n s o f the c u ltu ra l a n d p o litic a l situ a tio n s th a t d e te rm in e th e sig n ific a n c e o f p a r tic u la r tec h n o lo g ie s.2 T h a t m u ch o f the in te rn a tio n a l d e v e lo p m e n t c o m m u n ity a n d m a n y s o c ia l sc ie n ­ tists a rc a b le to id en tify tech n o lo g ical c o n cern s a s p r im a r ily te c h n ic a l a n d to “ fa c to r o u t” o r “ b ra c k e t” c u ltu r a l c o n text, p o litic a l e c o n o m y , a n d h isto ry is s o m e th in g w e n eed to treat in o u r re se a rc h a n d w ritin g (cf. W a rre n an d B o u rq u e 19 8 7 ). R e s e a r c h e r s a n d c ritic s h a v e id en tified iro n ies in the c a ll to “ in te g ra te w o m en in to d e v e lo p m e n t.” In re a lity w o m en h a v e a lw a y s been in te g ra te d into d e v e lo p m e n t in the sen se o f b e in g c a u g h t in tl»e c u rre n ts o f c h a n g e , fo rg in g th e ir o w n u n d e rsta n d in g s o f c h a n g e , an d re sp o n d in g a s p eo p le w ith m u ltip le id e n tities, a ffilia tio n s, a n d c o n c e rn s. A n o th e r iro n y in v o lv es the use o f the w o rd development to c a p tu re the d ire c tio n a lity o f c h a n g e in the T h ir d W o rld . D e v e lo p m e n t is an e x a m p le o f a tra n sitio n n a r ra tiv e th at evo k es a ra n g e o f p ro b le m a tic a sso c ia tio n s, fro m e v o lu tio n a ry (i.e . the tra n sfo rm a tio n o f “ p rim itiv e ” to “ d e v e lo p e d ” ), 10 p sy c h o b io lo g ic a l (i.e. the in d iv id u a l’ s g ro w th from “ in fa n c y ” 10 “ a d u lth o o d ” ) , 10 W estern -fo cu sed d e fin itio n s o f “ p ro g re s s ” (i.e . the m o vem en t from “ tr a d itio n a l” to “ m o d e rn ” ), a n d fin a lly to the u n c ritic a l te n d e n c y to b la m e the v ictim s o f p o litic a l an d eco n o m ic m a rg in a liz a tio n fo r th eir p o v e rty . F o r so m e so cial s c ie n tists, “ d e v e lo p m e n t'* sim p ly refers to the a c tu a l p a tte rn s o f c h a n g e th at n atio n s h a v e e x p e rie n c e d w ith in d u stria liz a tio n , m e c h a n iz a tio n , a n d the e x p a n sio n o f c a p ita list m a rk ets in the n in eteen th a n d tw en tieth c e n tu ries. F o r o th e rs, the c o n cep t in v o lv e s sta te in terv en tio n a n d p la n n in g to a c h ie v e a h ig h e r “ G r o s s D o m estic P ro d u c t” ( G D P ) o r o th e r m a c ro -le v e l c h a n g e s m e a su ra b le w ith a g g re g a te sta tistic s th at a r e u n d e rsto o d to rcfic ct c h a n g e s in s ta n d a r d s o f liv in g .* F o r m a n y sc h o la rs, the issu e is b o th s ta n d a r d s o f liv in g a n d g ra ssro o ts p a rtic ip a tio n in a g e n d a s fo r c h a n g e . In th is c a se , d e v e lo p m e n t is n ot fu lly m e a su re d b y c o n v e n tio n a l s ta tis tic a l in d ic a to rs, b u t r a th e r b y stru c tu ra l c h a n g e s to p ro m o te e q u ity , to w id en w o m e n ’ s a n d o th e r “ m in o ritie s” ’ ec o n o m ic an d p o litic a l p a rtic ip a tio n , to re co g n ize w o m en a s a g e n ts ra th e r th an a s p a ssiv e “ ta rg e ts ” o r “ en d u se rs” o f c h a n g e , a n d to e m p o w e r lo cal g ro u p s to e n g a g e in d e v e lo p m e n t fo cu sin g o n th e ir o w n p e rc e iv e d n eed s. A co n cern w’ith e q u ity v e rsu s g ro w th lies at the

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c e n te r o f a n e w g e n e ra tio n o f “ n o n -g o v e rn m e n ta l o rg a n iz a tio n ” ( N G O ) d e ­ v e lo p m e n t a c tiv ists w h o a r e p ro m o tin g d e c e n tra liz e d d e v e lo p m e n t p ro jects. A s o u r a n a ly s is o f a lte rn a tiv e p e rsp e c tiv e s o n w o m en a n d tech n o lo g ical c h a n g e sh o w s, h o w e v e r, “ d e c e n tra liz a tio n ” m e a n s v e ry d ifferen t th in g s in d iffe re n t m o d els o f c h an g e. In th is c h a p te r, w e first e x a m in e fo u r m a jo r a p p ro a c h e s to the stu d y o f g e n d e r a n d tech n o lo g y: the in tc g ra tio n is i, a p p r o p r ia te tech n o lo g y, fe m in iz a ­ tion o f te c h n o lo g y , an d g lo b a l eco n o m y p e rsp e c tiv e s. T h e n w e m o ve o n to c u rre n t a n th ro p o lo g ic a l lite ra tu re a n d its in te rp re ta tio n o f w o m en in m u lti­ n a tio n a l, h ig h -tc ch n o lo g y p ro d u ctio n , e x a m in in g the sig n ific a n c e o f c o n tra st­ in g p o r t r a y a ls o f w o m e n 's e x p e rie n c e in m u ltin a tio n a l c o rp o ra tio n s in H o n g K o n g a n d M e x ic o .4 F in a lly , w c e x a m in e the w a y s in w h ic h fem in ist sc h o la rs p a rtic ip a te in an e x p lic it W estern d e b a te a b o u t the “ sa m e n e ss” o r “ d iffer­ e n c e ” o f w o m en a n d m en a n d in an im p licit d e b a te a b o u t th e “ sa m e n e ss” o r “ d iffe re n ce ” o f so cieties u n d e rg o in g ch an ge. D o u b ts ab o u t the im pact o f technology’ tran sfer on the Third W orld began in the 19 6 0 s w ith the reassessm en t o f in te rn a tio n a l d e v e lo p m e n t p ro g ra m s an d

th e ir im p lic a tio n s fo r w o m en .

F e m in is t c r itic s ’ o f su ch

p ro g ra m s

o b se r v e d first th at w o m en w xre a b se n t fro m th e c a lc u la tio n s o f m ost d e v e lo p ­ m en t p la n n e rs. A s a resu lt w o m e n ’s ec o n o m ic c o n trib u tio n s w’ere d ism issed o r u n d e re stim a te d , a n d the d e stru c tiv e effects o f im p o sed c h a n g e on w o m e n 's liv e s w’trrc ign o red (B o sc ru p 19 7 0 ; R o g e rs 19 8 0 ; C h a n e y an d S c h m in k 19 7 6 ). C r it ic s a rg u e d th at c o n tem p o ra ry p a tte rn s w ere reflectio n s o f a lo n g h is­ to ry in w h ic h W estern tech n o lo g y, p a r tic u la r ly a g r ic u ltu r a l tech n o logy for the p ro d u c tio n o f c o m m e rc ia l a n d e xp o rt c ro p s, w a s d iffe re n tia lly a v a ila b le

to men and women in rural com m unities. European colonial adm inistrators, a p p ly in g th eir o w n n o tio n s o f a p p r o p r ia te g e n d e r re la tio n s, m a d e m en the p re fe rre d re cip ien ts o f tra in in g b y W estern te c h n ic ia n s even in a re a s w h ere w o m en w e re the p r im a r y a g r ic u ltu r a lis ts . A s a resu lt o f the d iffe re n tia l ac c css o f e a c h g e n d e r to n o vel tech n o lo g ies— to p lo w s , h ig h -y ie ld seed v a rie tie s , fe rtiliz e rs , tra in in g to g ro w c o m m e rc ia l c ro p s , m ech a n iz e d e q u ip m e n t, o r m o to r-d riv e n tra n sp o rta tio n — w o m e n 's p o w e rs in c o m m u n ity a ffa irs w ere e ro d e d . M o re o v e r, lo cal c u ltu ra l v a lu e s ste m m in g fro m m ale d o m in a n c e in c o m m u n ity p o litic s, ra th e r th an fe m a le c e n tr a lity in p ro d u c tiv e a c tiv itie s, w e re o fte n rein fo rced in the o rg a n iz a tio n o f w o rk aro u n d n e w ly in tro d u ced tools a n d cro p s (B o sc ru p 19 7 0 : 5 3 - 5 4 ; E tie n n e a n d L e a c o c k 19 8 0 ). O f co u rse th is p ro c e ss d id not o c c u r in a v a c u u m : c h a n g in g m o d es o f p ro d u c tio n , the in tro d u c tio n o f c o m m e rc ia l p la n ta tio n s, a n d th e co n so lid a tio n o f n ew n a tio n ­ al e lite s w h o b o u gh t u p la n d reso u rc e s, o fte n m ean t th at ru ra l m en w ere fo rced in to c y c lic m ig ra tio n in se a rc h o f in c o m e -g e n e ra tin g e m p lo ym en t w h ile w o m e n b e c a m e sp e c ia lists in the p ro d u c tio n o f food c ro p s for fa m ily c o n s u m p tio n . A s in te rn a tio n a lly o rien ted c o m m e rc ia l a g ric u ltu re d isp la c e d s m a ll- s c a le a g r ic u ltu r a lis ts , c re a tin g la n d -p o o r p o p u la tio n s in an in c re a sin g -

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Iy m o n e tize d e c o n o m y , gen d ered c le a v a g e s in a c c e ss to re so u rc e s w e re a lso e sta b lish e d . T o th e e x te n t th a t fem in ists an d d e v e lo p m e n t critic s d efin ed access as the c ru c ia l issu e , the lo g ic a l solution w a s to e q u a liz e it. P o o r w o m en n eed ed the a b ilit v to u se tools a n d m ach in es, a s w ell a s litc r a c v a n d e d u c a tio n .6 T h e m e ssa g e w a s e x p lic itly p ro tech n o lo g y: w o m en h ad lost g ro u n d b e c a u se o f re stric te d a c c e ss. T h e so lu tio n to in e q u itie s w a s to o p en the re stric te d c h a n ­ n els o f e d u c a tio n a n d tra in in g .7 E a r ly a n a ly se s o f d evelo p m en t a n d m o d e rn iz a tio n often a ssu m e d th at the p ro c e ss w a s p ro g re ssiv e a n d u n p ro b le m a tic . L ik e w id e r a c c e ss, n a tio n a l d e ­ v e lo p m e n t m ig h t be d ifficu lt to a c h ie v e in the tw en tieth c e n tu ry g iv e n the le g a c ie s o f c o lo n ia lism , b u t it w a s c le a r ly the g o a l. D e v e lo p m e n t, h o w e v e r, w a s to co m e u n d e r c lo s e r sc ru tin y . In the la te 19 6 0 s a n d e a r ly 19 7 0 s , c ritic s p o in te d o u t th at in d u stria liz a tio n an d m o d e rn iz a tio n p o lic ie s w e re not pro* d u c in g the e x p e c te d so c ia l a n d e c o n o m ic im p ro v e m e n ts in T h ir d W o rld c o u n trie s. C o n d itio n s in the T h ir d W o rld w e re d e te rio ra tin g d u e to the d e ­ p e n d e n c e o f th ese ec o n o m ies o n the c a p ita l, c re d its, tec h n o lo g y , tra in in g , a n d m a rk e ts o f th e d e v e lo p e d n ation s . T h is tro u b le d d e p e n d e n c y led m a n y s c h o l­ a r s to c o n c lu d e th a t th e w id e -ra n g in g a d o p tio n o f W este rn m o d els a n d tec h ­ n o lo g ies m igh t n ot b e the a p p ro p ria te so lu tio n fo r d e v e lo p in g n a tio n s. W o m en a n d d ev e lo p m e n t, a s a field o f in q u ir y , an d th e d isse m in a tio n o f te ch n o lo g ie s to d e v e lo p in g sc cic tics, as a s tr a te g y fo r c h a n g e , h a v e been c riti­ ciz e d fo r re fle c tin g W estern c th n o c c n trism . M a n y T h ir d W o rld sc h o la rs a r g u e th a t the c o n c c p t o f “ tech n o lo g ical d e v e lo p m e n t” is an in v e n tio n o f the in d u s tria liz e d sta te s to serve th e ir ow;n eco n o m ic in terests a s m a rk e te rs o f c a p ita l-in te n s iv e a n d c o n su m er-o rien ted tech n o lo g ies. S im ila r ly , th ey a r g u e th a t W e ste rn fem in ism a s a p o litical m o v em en t a n d a sc h o la r ly tra d itio n h as p a id too little a tte n tio n to im p e ria lism , c o lo n ia lism , ra c ism , a n d d ifferen ces a m o n g w o m en . M o re o v e r, they co n ten d th at W estern p rio ritie s a r e v e r y d ifferen t from th o se a p p ro p ria te to the T h ir d W o rld ( D ’ O n o frio -F lo rc s 19 8 2 ; T a d e s s e 19 8 2 ; S r in iv a s a n K 183). S p e c ific a lly th ey fin d th at W este rn d e v e l­ o p m e n t s tr a te g ie s h a v e

been

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s ig n ific a n c e o f the fa m ily and k in sh ip g r o u p s, the v a lu e o f c h ild re n , the d e v a s ta tin g in e q u itie s b o rn o f c la ss d ifferen ces, a n d the e c o n o m ic re a litie s o f im p o v e rish e d d e p e n d e n t eco n o m ics.

A L T E R N A T IV E P E R S P E C T IV E S ON T E C H N O L O G Y A N D W O R K S c h o la rs h a v e e la b o ra te d d istin c tiv e lin es o f a rg u m e n t to c o n c e p tu a liz e the im p a c t o f in te rn a tio n a l d e v e lo p m e n t on w o m en . S o m e a p p ro a c h e s see tec h ­ n o lo g y a s a p o ten tial lib e ra to r fo r w o m en , w h o m u st c o m m o n ly sp e n d h o u rs e v e r y d a y in la b o r-in te n siv e food p ro c e ssin g o n to p o f o th e r h e a v y fa m ily an d a g r a r ia n d u tie s. O th e r a p p ro a c h e s sec te c h n o lo g y a s a n in te g ra l a sp e c t o f

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c h a n g in g n a tio n a l a n d g lo b a l p o litic a l eco n o m ics w ith c o m p lc x , d ifferen tial c o n sc q u c n c c s fo r w o m en an d m en g iv en c u ltu r a lly sp e c ific s e x u a l d iv is io n s o f la b o r. O u r rccen t re v ie w o f the lite ra tu re su g g e sts th at th ese d iv e rse a p p ro a c h e s h a v e c o a le sc e d in to se v e ra l d istin c tiv e v ie w p o in ts (cf. B o u rq u e an d W a rre n 19 8 7 ). K ach a p p ro a c h e la b o ra te s a p o litic a l c ritiq u e an d stra te g ie s to e n h a n c e w o m e n 's p o sitio n in the fac e o f te c h n o lo g ica l c h an g e.

T H E IN T E G R A T I O N I S T S T R A T E G Y T h e in te g ra tio n ist fra m e w o rk is a lib e ra l, re fo rm ist a n a ly s is la rg e ly fo cu sed on the p ro fe ssio n al an d tec h n ic al classes. U s faith resid es n eith er in a so cia list c h a lle n g e to the in e q u itie s o f c a p ita lism n o r in a r a d ic a l fem in ist re v o lu tio n to h u m a n iz e te c h n o lo g y . In a r g u in g fo r the in te g ra tio n o f w o m en into fo rm a l d c c is io n -m a k in g p o sitio n s in g o v e rn m e n t, b u sin e ss, a n d the p ro fe ssio n s, it is the flip -sid e o f th e a p p r o p r ia te te c h n o lo g y m od el th at fo cu ses on in v o lv in g p o o r w o m en in g ra ssro o ts p ro g ra m s. Its a d h e re n ts a re c o n cern ed a b o u t the lim ite d n u m b e r o f w o m en tra in e d a s sc ie n tists a n d e n g in eers a n d the a b se n c e o f w o m en fro m p o sitio n s o f scie n tific le a d e rsh ip . T h e y sh a re a b e lie f in the p o ssib le b en efits o f tech n o lo g y a n d a d e sire to see w o m en p a rtic ip a te in its d e v e lo p m e n t. T h is p e rsp e c tiv e a rg u e s th at the “ in te g ra tio n ” o f w o m en w ill re su lt in the tra n sfo rm a tio n o f b a sic in stitu tio n s b c c a u sc c o m p re h e n siv e fe m a le p a rtic ip a tio n w o u ld c h a lle n g e e x istin g s e x u a l d iv isio n s o f la b o r a n d a u th o rity , a s w ell a s d ifferen tial m a le -fe m a le e a rn in g s . A lth o u g h th is v ie w d o e s not c o n c lu d e th at w id e r fe m a le p a rtic ip a tio n w o u ld resu lt in a tra n s ­ fo rm a tiv e fe m in iz a tio n o f te c h n o lo g y an d in d u stry , it d o cs hold th at w o m en w’o u ld in tro d u c e a d istin c tiv e ra n g e o f v a lu e s an d c o n c e rn s to the w o rk w o rld ( J a h a n 19 8 5 ). T h e in te g ra tio n ist p e rsp e c tiv e seek s to a c c o u n t fo r w o m e n 's low re p re ­ se n ta tio n in fie ld s d ire c tly related to tech n o lo g y, to id e n tify o b sta c le s to w o m e n ’ s e d u c a tio n a l an d e m p lo ym en t a c h ie v e m e n ts, a n d to d e v is e pro* g r a m s to re v e rse g e n d e r a sy m m e trie s (B risc o e an d P fafflm 19 7 9 ; H a ll 19 7 9 ; A n d e rso n 19 8 3 ). R e s e a r c h e r s h o ld in g th is p o sition h a v e fo cu sc d atte n tio n on the id e o lo g ie s th at su rro u n d the a c q u isitio n o f tec h n ic al co m p e te n c e a n d the s tr u c tu r a l a r ra n g e m e n ts th at re in fo rce ste re o ty p e s m a r k in g sc ie n tific field s a n d e x p e rtise a s m a scu lin e in the W est a n d in the T h ir d W o rld . N o t s u r p r is ­ in g ly , th e y see the k ey to c h a n g e in the p o litic a l c u ltu re o f e d u c a tio n a n d the w o rk p la c e (A . S e n 19 8 4 ; N a m b o /e 19 8 5 ). In o r d e r to e ro d e g e n d e r ste re o ty p e s a n d w id en o p p o rtu n itie s, th ey a r g u e , w c m u st u n d e rsta n d the p ro c e sse s th at re p ro d u ce e x istin g p a tte rn s. T h is im ­ p lie s th a t w e m u st u n d e rsta n d g e n d e r d ifferen ces a n d h ie ra rc h ie s a s a p r o d ­ u c t o f c u ltu r a lly c re ated so c ia l id eo lo g ies an d the m a te r ia l c o n d itio n s o f w o m e n ’ s a n d m e n ’s liv e s. E x p la n a tio n s th a t ju s t ify g e n d e re d d iv isio n s o f le a rn in g a n d w o rk a s n e c e ssa ry a n d n a tu ra l b c c a u sc (h ey a r e b io lo g ic a l o r

INTERNATIONA!, DEVELOPMENT IDEOLOGIES

283

fu n ctio n a l o r b e c a u se th ey are the v e stig e s o f e a r ly h u m an e v o lu tio n a r e in ­ sta n c e s o f sc ie n c e a s so c ia l id eo lo g y in the se rv ic e o f e x istin g h ie ra rc h ie s. T h e sch o o l a n d the w o rk p la c e also n eed to b e e x a m in e d a s c u ltu ra l a n d p o litic a l e n v iro n m e n ts w h e re e x p e cia tio n s a r e rein fo rced b y p ra c tic e s th a t p ro m o te fe m a le e x c lu sio n , seg re g a tio n , an d a v o id a n c e . F u n d a m e n ta l to th is p e rsp e c ­ tive is a n u n d e rsta n d in g o f how in stitu tio n s sh a p e m e a n in g an d v a lu e , a s w e ll a s h o w in d iv id u a ls c a n both in te rn a liz e a n d c h a lle n g e so c ia l n o rm s (B o u rq u e a n d W a rre n 1 9 8 1 a; K e lle r 1984) . T h e s e a n a ly s e s c a n b e e x ten d ed to fie ld s in w h ic h w o m en a r c u n d e rre p re se n ta tc d , e x p lo rin g w a y s to in c re a se w o m e n ’ s e n ro llm e n t in sc ie n c e a n d en gin eerin g, an d d e v e lo p in g stra te g ie s fo r d e a lin g w ith m ath a n x ie ty a n d stereo typ es th at p la c e w o m en in the c a te g o ry o f nons c ie n tist (B ris c o e an d Pfafflm 19 7 9 ). A t th e ir b e st p ro p o n en ts o f this view p o in t d o not m ak e the c la ss ic a l lib e ra l m ista k e o f a ssu m in g th at in d iv id u a ls a r e a u to n o m o u s d e c isio n -m a k e rs w h o fre e ly d c c id e to p a rtic ip a te o r n ot in tec h n o lo g ica l d e v e lo p m e n t. N o r d o th ey c o n sid e r e d u c a tio n to be a “ v a r ia b le ” th a t m e c h a n ic a lly a c c o u n ts fo r h ig h e r ra te s o f te c h n o lo g y u sa g e . R a th e r, these a n a ly s ts se c e d u c a tio n a s a p ro c e ss o f s tru c tu ra l an d id e o lo g ica l trackin g. A s a re su lt, th ey h a v e h ad to re a d d re ss the q u e stio n o f w id e r access a s a so lu tio n to g c n d c r-itic q u a lity a n d to tak e 011 in stitu tio n a l c h a n g e a s n ecessary fo r tra n sfo rm in g stru c tu re s th at c o n stra in ch o ice a n d e q u ity . T h e c h a lle n g e for the in teg ratio n ist p e rsp e c tiv e is that the a re n a s th at n eed to b e tra n sfo rm e d h ave been r e m a rk a b ly resista n t to c h a n g e . R e fo rm s in e d u c a tio n o r the w o rk p la c e re q u ire th e in terv en tio n o f p o litic a l fo rces that m u st b e co n v in c ed o f reaso n a n d re w a rd fo r p u rsu in g s u b s ta n tia l c h a n g e (cf. B u v in ic 19 8 3 ) . M o r e o v e r , ch an ge m u st tak e p la c e a t a v a rie ty o f le v e ls: in the in stitu tio n a l a r e n a s o f n atio n al g o v e rn m e n ts a s w e ll a s in h o u seh o ld p o litic s. S in c e m a n y o f the ch a n g e s so u g h t c a n b e affected b y g o v e rn m e n ta l o r b u re a u c ra tic a c tio n , it is po ssib le to im a g in e a p o litic a l p la n o f a c tio n to in flu e n c e p o lic y m a k e rs in ed u catio n a n d la b o r. Y e t for the ty p e s o f c h a n g e e n v isio n e d it is o ften in d iv id u a ls, m o th e rs, fa th e rs, te a c h e rs, c o -w o rk e rs, a n d e m p lo y e rs w h o w ill b e th- c a ll fo r w o m en to b e in v o lv e d in h ig h -tc ch p o lic y p la n n in g in o rd e r to in flu e n c e th e u se o f te c h n o lo g y , the a g e n d a o f r e se a rc h p rio ritie s, the c h o ice o f g o v e rn m e n t s u b sid ie s , a n d the d is c u s s io n o f n eed s (L e e t 1 9 8 1 ) . T h e y c o n c lu d e it is not the fo rm o f tec h n o l­ o g y th at d e te rm in e s w h ic h g e n d e r uses it, b u t ra th e r w h o c o n tro ls its d e v e lo p ­ m e n t, d isse m in a tio n , a n d p ro d u c ts (O v c r h o lt ct a l. 19 8 5 ). Y e t th e p ra c tic e o f a p p r o p r ia te te c h n o lo g y a s a d e v e lo p m e n t s tra te g y c o n tin u e s to b e to p -d o w n .

T H E F E M I N I Z A T IO N O F T E C H N O L O G Y T h e fe m in iz a tio n o f te c h n o lo g y re p re se n ts a r a d ic a l fem in ist so cia l c ritiq u e a n d s tra te g y for s o c ia l c h a n g e a n d h a s a d h e re n ts in the U n ite d S ta te s, E u r o p e , a n d In d ia , a m o n g o th e r c o u n trie s. T h e la n g u a g e o f th is a p p ro a c h h a s a lso b een in c o rp o ra te d in m a n y e c o lo g ic a l, p e a c e , a n d g ra ss ro o ts p o liti­ c a l m o v e m e n ts. A s te c h n o lo g ica l in n o v a tio n is n o w o rg a n iz e d , a c c o r d in g to th is sch o o l o f th o u g h t, d istin c tiv e “ m a s c u lin is t" v a lu e s d e te rm in e its d e ­ v e lo p m e n t a n d a p p lic a tio n s . T h e resu lt is the c o n tin u e d d o m in a n c e o f v a lu e s e m p h a s iz in g h ie r a r c h y , co m p e titio n , im m e d ia te m e a su ra b le re su lts, m a te ria l a c c u m u la tio n , d e p e rso n a liz a tio n , a n d e c o n o m ic a n d p o litic a l e x p a n sio n is m . It is n ot th a t b e a re rs o f m a sc u lin ist v ie w s a r e ig n o ra n t o f o th e r v a lu e s ; ra th e r, th e y h a v e b een c o c rc e d b y the e c o n o m ic o rd e r to s u p p r e ss th e ir “ n eed s for su b je c tiv ity , feelin g s, in tim a c y , a n d h u m a n it y ’ * an d in ste a d to “ p ro je c t them o n to the p r iv a te life a n d w o m e n ’ ’ (B e r g o m -L a r s s o n 19 8 2 : 3 5 ). 'I ’he fe m in iz a tio n -o f-te c h n o lo g y p o sitio n h o ld s th a t te c h n o lo g y m u st b e rc d irc c tc d to se rv e n ew v a lu e s, in c lu d in g h u m a n g ro w th (ra th e r th an e c o n o m ­ ic p ro fit), c o n se rv a tio n , d e c e n tr a liz a tio n , se lf-re lia n c e , se lf-su ffic ie n c y , a n d c a rin g . 'I'h is v ie w p o stu la te s a d is tin c tiv e w o m e n 's c u ltu re a n d secs it a s a c ritic a l tool fo r tra n sfo rm in g the so cia l o r d e r to w a rd a m o re h u m a n istic , e g a l­ ita ria n o n e , c o n cern ed w ith re la tio n sh ip s an d w e lfa re ra th e r th an in d iv id u a l su c c e ss a n d p ro fit. T h e p r im a r y so u rc e o f this u to p ia n v isio n is w o m e n ’ s in v o lv e m e n t in the fa m ily , w h ere (th is p e rsp e c tiv e id e a lis tic a lly h o ld s) h ie r a r c h y is d e e m p h a siz e d , n o n v io len t p e rsu a sio n is stre sse d , a n d in v estm en t is d ire c te d to w a rd the n u rtu ra n c e o f fu tu r e g e n e ra tio n s. W o m en lea rn a w id e r le sso n from th e ir fa m ilia l v a n ta g c p o in t; h ie r a r c h y , w h a te v e r its fo rm , in e v ita b ly su b o rd in a te s the w e a k e r (B o u ld in g > 9 8 1; B e r g o m -L a r s s o n 19 8 2 ). U n fo r tu n a te ly , a c c o r d in g to th ese a u th o rs , w o m e n ’ s v a lu e s a r e c u rre n tly im p riso n e d b y the s e p a ra tio n o f sp h e re s o f h o m e a n d w o rk . E ffe c tiv e c h a n g e re q u ire s an e x p a n sio n o f the w o m e n 's s p h e r e a n d a n ew p o litic a l p ro c e d u re fo r e v a lu a tin g te c h n o lo g y , o n e th at in v o lv e s w o m en in p o lic y -m a k in g ro les a n d q u e stio n s the im p a c t o f n ew te c h n o lo g ie s on w o m en a n d w o m e n ’ s c u l­ tu re. I f fe m a le v a lu e s w ere su c ce ssfu lly to in fo rm the p u b lic w o r ld , then d is ­ tin c tio n s

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p ro d u c tiv e , u n p a id ” w o rk w o u ld be c h a lle n g e d ; w o m en a n d m en w o u ld s h a r e a p e rso n a l c o m m itm e n t to resp o n d to the n eed s o f th e ir c o m m u n itie s,

INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IDEOl.OGIES a n d u n n e c e ssa ry d iv isio n s o f la b o r w o u ld b e rejec ted B e r g o m -L a r s s o n 19 8 2 ).

(H . S c o ti

287 19 8 4 ;

T h is p e rs p e c tiv e a r g u e s th at w o m en sh o u ld n ot n e c e s sa rily p u rsu e in ­ tegration into W esiem -d irectcd d evelopm ent efforts. I f they d o , they a re likely to lo se the d e c e n tra liz e d , re la tiv e ly e g a lita r ia n so cial o rd e r o f “ tr a d itio n a l” so c ie ty w h ic h W estern w o m en ill* a d v ise d ly g a v e u p lo n g a g o . F o r th o se free to e x p e rim e n t o u tsid e W e ste rn p a tria rc h ie s , th e best stra te g y w o u ld b e to stre n g th e n w o m e n ’ s n etw o rk s an d e x p a n d the w o m en ’ s sp h e re a s a so u rc e o f n ew ec o n o m ic an d p o litic a l o rg a n iz a tio n s (B o u ld in g 1 9 8 1 } . 8 W estern w o m en m u st c o p e w ith m o re p e r v a s iv e p a tria r c h y , the sh a rp d iv is io n o f p u b lic an d p r iv a te life, a n d an ec o n o m ic sy ste m d e v o te d to m a sc u lin ist v a lu e s. F c m in iz a tio n -o f-te c h n o lo g y is best re g a rd e d a s a u to p ia n p o litic a l m od el r a th e r th an a n a c c u r a te a n a ly s is o f in te rn a tio n a l d e v e lo p m e n t p ro b le m s o r re a litie s. Its ro o ts an d v a lu e s a rc reflectio n s o f a r a d ic a l fem in ist c ritiq u e o f W e ste rn “ p a tr ia r c h y .” T h is p e rsp e c tiv e e v o k e s the p s y c h o a n a ly tic im a g e ry o f fem in ist p sy c h o lo g ists a n d a n th ro p o lo g ists w h o h a v e been in flu en c ed b y A m e ric a n re a d in g s o f F re u d ia n o b je c t-re la tio n s th e o ry (cf. O r tn c r 19 7 4 ; C h o d o ro w

19 7 8 ; a n d G illig a n

19 8 2 ).9 T h is la n g u a g e p ic tu re s w o m en as

b e in g m o re n u rtu ra n t a n d o th e r-d ire c te d th an m en b e c a u se th ey g iv e b irth a n d tak e re sp o n sib ility fo r in fa n t c a re . A p sy c h o lo g y o f c a r in g ro o ts w o m e n in th e d o m e stic sp h e re , w h e re a s m en g a in th e ir id e n tity a n d d o m in a n t in d e ­ p e n d e n ce b y tra n sc e n d in g the a u th o rity o f th eir m o th e rs a n d c re a tin g the p u b lic sp h e re in the fo rm o f a w o rld o f p o litic s, a b s tr a c t th o u g h t, a n d c u ltu ra l a c h ie v e m e n ts. T h e e la b o ra tio n o f th is la n g u a g e o f c o n tra sts an d o p p o sitio n s fo r w o m e n ’ s a n d m e n ’ s n a tu re s is n a iv e a n d in su fficien t fo r c ro ss-c u ltu ra l re se a rc h . T h is p e rsp e c tiv e

d a n g e ro u sly

ro m a n ticiz e s

w o m e n ’ s v a lu e s ,

the fa m ily ,

the

s e p a ra tio n o f “ d o m e stic ” an d “ p u b lic ” sp h eres, a n d the n a tu re o f T h ir d W o rld so cieties. O n e h a s o n ly to look at the c o m p le x an d v a rio u s c o n stru c ­ tio n s o f g e n d e r in c o n te m p o ra ry so c ie tie s, the n e g o tia tio n s o f g e n d e r id e n ti­ ties a s th e y a re re a liz e d in p ra c tic e , an d the in te rp la y o f fa m ily d y n a m ic s a n d leg al sy ste m s to c h a lle n g e these im a g e s o f m a le a n d fe m a le .10 In ste a d o f e m b r a c in g p sy c h o a n a ly tic re p re se n ta tio n s, w e n eed to co n textu a liz e “ m o th e rh o o d ” ; th a t is. to a n a ly z e the w a y s in w'hich v a r io u s im a g e s o f m o th erh o o d

a re

c o n stru c te d ,

im p o sed , su b v e rte d , m a n ip u la te d , en ­

sh rin e d , an d d o u b te d in th e e v e r y d a y life a n d id eo lo g ies o f o th er so cieties an d o u r o w n . T h is re fo rm u la tio n c a lls fo r c u ltu r a lly se n sitiv e re se a rc h on the m u ltip le m e a n in g s o f m o th erh o o d (a n d , o b v io u sly , o f o th e r g e n d e re d id e n ti­ tie s): w h en a n d h o w co n stru c tio n s o f g e n d e r a r e used to e x c lu d c w o m en from the w o rk p la c e , w h en th ey a r e used b y w o m en to m o b iliz e p o litic a lly , w h en th e y a r e e v o k ed to id e n tify fa ilu re s in the s e x u a lity o f y o u n g w o m e n , a n d how co n stru c tio n s a n d p ra c tic e s v a r y b y c la ss, ra c c , a n d a g e w ith in p a r tic u la r so c ia l sy ste m s. T h e fin al lim ita tio n o f the fcm in iz a tio n -o f-te c h n o lo g y a p p r o a c h is p o liti-

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c a l: b y d is ta n c in g m en from th e “ n a tu r a l” c o n c crn s o f w o m e n , th is p e rsp e c ­ tive lim its, b y d e fin itio n , th o se w ith w h o m w o m en m ig h t a lly th em selv es,

those whose vested interests arc to question current arrangem ents, to articu­ la te o p tio n s, a n d to p ro m o te c h a n g c to m ore h u m a n istic an d e g a lita r ia n so ­ c ia l o rd e rs.

TH E G LO BA L ECO NO M Y T h e g lo b a l-c c o n o m y p e rsp e c tiv e q u e stio n s “ te c h n o lo g y ” in the n a r ro w sen se a s the fo cus o f “ d e v e lo p m e n t,” a r g u in g th a t, in an in te rp e n e tra tin g w o rld s y ste m , the p r im a r y issu e is the c a p a c ity o f e x p a n sio n ist c a p ita list c la sse s to c h a n n e l eco n o m ic a c c u m u la tio n th ro u g h the e x p lo ita tio n o f o th er c la sse s. T h is c ritiq u e u ses n e o -M a r x is t la n g u a g e to d efin e im p o rta n t h isto ric a l fo rces th at sh a p e in te rn a tio n a l d iv isio n s o f la b o r, n atio n al e c o n o m ic s, a n d d e v e lo p ­ in g c o u n trie s’ c a p a c itie s to c o m p e tc in in te rn a tio n a l m a rk e ts . O f c c n t r a l c o n ­ c e rn is the w a y th at m a rk e t eco n o m ies h a v e sh a p e d an in te rn a tio n a l o r d e r in w h ic h d e v e lo p in g co u n trie s a re so u rc e s o f c h e a p la b o r a n d r a w m a te r ia ls for te c h n o lo g ic a lly so p h istic a te d c o u n trie s w h e re c a p ita l is a c c u m u la te d . T h e s e s c h o la rs a g re e th a t one sh o u ld n ot c o n sid e r tech n o lo g y w ith o u t s tu d y in g the issu es o f its p ro d u ctio n a n d c o n su m p tio n in the c o n te x ts o f g lo b a l e co n o m ics, the tra n sfo rm a tio n o f a g r a r ia n an d in d u stria l c la ss re la tio n s in d ifferen t re ­ g io n s a n d c o u n trie s, a n d n a tio n a l p o licies th at fa v o r c e rta in secto rs at the e x p e n se o f o th ers. F e m in ist a n th ro p o lo g ists h a v e c o n trib u te d a g en d ered d im e n sio n to these a n a ly se s b y s tu d y in g the im p a c ts o f ec o n o m ic c h a n g c on c la ss fo rm a tio n , s e x u a l d iv isio n s o f la b o r, an d the re p ro d u c tio n o f the la b o r force in the h o u seh o ld (S to lc k c 19 8 >/. T h is p e rs p e c tiv e h a s b een v e r y in flu e n tia l a m o n g in te rn a tio n a l w o m e n ’s an d d e v e lo p m e n t c irc le s. F o r m a n y , it p ro v id e s a c r u c ia l lin k a g e b e tw e e n , c ritiq u e s o f c a p ita lism , im p e ria lism , an d g e n d e r stra tific a tio n (cf. R e ite r 19 7 5 6 ; E tie n n e an d L c a c o c k 19 8 0 ; Y o u n g ct a l. 1 9 8 1 ; N a s h a n d F e rn a n d e z K e lly 19 8 3 ; N a sh a n d S a fa 19 8 5 ; L c a c o c k an d S a fa 19 8 6 ; N a sh 19 8 9 ). A s B e n e ria a n d S e n c o n clu d e: T h e problem for women is not only the lack o f participation in this proccss [of development) with men; it is a system [o f international capital accumulation] that generates and intensifies inequalities, m aking use o f existing gender hierar­ chies to place women in subordinate positions at each different level o f interac­ tion between class and gender. T h is is not to deny the possibility that capitalist development might hrrak down ccrtain social rigidities oppressive to women. But these liberating tendencies are accom panied by new forms o f subordina­ tion. (1986: 150} R e p re s e n tin g a n o th e r c u rre n t o f th is p e rsp e c tiv e , S to lc k c d e sc rib e s the fu n ctio n o f w o m e n ’s d o m e stic su b o rd in a tio n in p e rp e tu a tin g w id e r in e q u a li­ ties:

INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IDEOLOGIES

289

|T]he perpetuation o f class relations and domination— mediated directly by the institutions o f m arriage, the fam ily and inheritance. . . determiners both wom en’s prim ary assignment to domestic labour and (he undervaluation o f this function. In class society, in other words, the sexual division o f labour— w om en's domestication— is ultim ately tht product o f m an’ s control over w om en s reproductive capacity in the interests o f perpetuating unequal access to the means o f production. (19 8 1: 34) B o th n a tio n a lists w h o re je c t W estern in flu en ce in th e ir p o litic s a n d ec o ­ n o m ics a n d s o c ia lis ts w h o se e k r e d is trib u tiv e a lte rn a tiv e s to free m a r k e t e co n ­ o m ies fin d th ese p e rsp e c tiv e s u sefu l. A lth o u g h lib e ra l re se a rc h e rs d o not sh a re the u to p ia n so c ia list v isio n , it is c le a r th at m a te ria list a n a ly s e s h a v e in ­ flu e n c e d th e ir th in k in g a b o u t th e im p o rta n c e o f a n in te rn a tio n a l p e rsp e c tiv e th at sees v a r io u s fo rm s o f in e q u a lity a s in te ra c tiv e a n d c e n tra l to e x p la n a ­ tions o f c u rre n t p a tte rn s o f d e v e lo p m e n t. T h e in sig h ts fro m th e p e rsp e c tiv e o f g lo b a l eco n o m y a lso a llo w us to focus on a n e g le c ted elem en t in m a n y fem in ist a n a ly se s o f tech n o lo g y: th e in te rp la y o f n a tio n a l g o v e rn m e n ts a n d in te rn a tio n a l m a rk e ts in s h a p in g n a tio n a l p lan * n in g , p o lic y d e v e lo p m e n t, a n d th e a llo c a tio n o f reso u rc e s ( A fs h a r 19 8 7 ). O f p a r tic u la r co n cern is th e sta te ’s c re a tio n o f la b o r fo rce p o lic y in a r e a s su c h as e m p lo y m e n t, m ig ra tio n , e d u c a tio n , h o u sin g , a g r ic u ltu r e , a n d in d u s tr ia l d e ­ v e lo p m e n t. H o w d o sta te s fo rm u la te p rio ritie s fo r n a tio n a l d e v e lo p m e n t? F o r th e a g r a r ia n se c to r, h o w d o th e y b a la n c e th e n eed to p ro d u ce fo o d c ro p s for d o m e stic co n su m p tio n w ith th e need to e n c o u ra g e th e p ro d u c tio n o f c o m ­ m o d ities fo r e x p o rt? W h a t a lte rn a tiv e s d o they see fo r in c r e a s in g d o m estic p ro d u c tio n , fo r d e a lin g w ith sh ifts in su b siste n c e a g r ic u ltu r e a n d w a g e la b o r, a n d fo r r e g u la tin g d e p e n d e n c y on th e in te rn a tio n a l m ark et fo r b a sic food su p p lie s? F ro m o u r p o in t o f v ie w , the g lo b a l-c c o n o m y p e rsp e c tiv e g iv e s the issu e o f d e c e n tra liz e d , s m a ll-s c a le w o rk a m u ch m ore c o m p le x s h a p e th a n d o es the fe m in iz a tio n -o f-te c h n o lo g y a n a ly sis. T he la ttc r ’ s p ro p o n en ts s e e d e c e n tr a l­ iz a tio n a s a p o sitiv e a n d a b so lu te c o n tra st to h ie ra rc h ic a l, c e n tra liz e d s y s ­ te m s. T h e g lo b a l-c c o n o m y p e rsp e c tiv e , h o w e v e r, re v e a ls th at d e c e n tr a liz a ­ tio n is n o t in h e re n tly p o sitiv e o r n e g a tiv e , n o r is it a lw a y s a n e x c lu siv e a lte rn a tiv e to c e n tra liz e d m o d es o f p ro d u ctio n . A s in the c ase o f m u ltin a tio n ­ a l a sse m b ly p la n ts, c o n te m p o ra ry in d u stria liz a tio n c an fo ster d e c e n tra liz e d m o d es, s u c h a s su b c o n tra c tin g to d o m estic o u tw o rk e rs, to p ro d u c e a t a lo w er c o st (B e n c r ia a n d R o ld a n 19 8 7 ). T h e issu e is h o w th ese w o rk p a tte rn s in ­ flu en c e h o u se h o ld s, w h eth er w o m en a r c a b le to g a in g re a te r c o n tro l o f w o rk p ro c e sse s in th e s m a lle r u n its, a n d w h e th e r c o m p a n ie s e x p lo it a fra g m e n te d la b o r fo rce b y r a is in g p ro d u ctio n q u o ta s fo r c o n sta n t w ag es. T h e g lo b a l-c c o n o m y p e rsp e c tiv e q u e stio n s the co m m o n te n d e n c y to tre a t w o m e n a s in d iv id u a ls w ith o u t o th e r c o m p e tin g id en titie s, a n d to see w o m en a s a c a te g o r y w ith u n ifo rm in terests a n d c o n c ern s. T o o v e rc o m e th e c o n c e p ­

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tu a l s im p lific a tio n o f o th e r fem in ist fra m e w o rk s, this v ie w a r g u e s th a t, r a th e r th a n s t u d y in g in d iv id u a l w o m e n , w c sh o u ld in stea d e x a m in e h o u se h o ld u n its b y th e ir c la s s p o sitio n in m ix e d su b siste n c e , c a sh -c ro p , a n d u r b a n e co n o m ies. W o m e n ’ s d o m e stic re sp o n sib ilitie s v a r y b y c la s s a n d in v o lv e in tr ic a te b a l­ a n c e s o f m o n etized a n d n o n m o n etized a c tiv itie s, r a p id ly re sp o n d in g to c h a n g in g m a rk e t c o n d itio n s (A h m e d 19 8 5 ; A g a r w a l 19 8 5 ; B r y c e s o n 19 8 5 ; B o u r q u e a n d W a rre n 1 9 8 1 a , 19 8 1 6 ) . H o w e v e r s c c ia lly v a lu e d o r d e v a lu e d , w o m e n ’ s p r iv a tiz e d h o u se h o ld ro les a r e c ritic a l for th e p h y s ic a l a n d so c ia l re p ro d u c tio n o f the la b o r fo rc e . T h e c e n tra l a n a ly tic p ro je c t is lo stu d y w o m e n ’ s re p ro d u c tiv e a n d p ro d u c tiv e ro les a s they a r e m e d ia te d b y th e ir c la s s p o sitio n s in the w id e r ec o n o m y (cf. L a m p h e r e 19 8 7 ). T h u s , a n o th e r im p o rta n t c o n trib u tio n o f th is p e rsp e c tiv e is to h elp re sto re c o n c re te s o c ia l c o n te x ts to w o m e n ’s w o rk a n d p e rc e p iio n s. T h e r e c an b e u n fo rtu n a te c o n se q u e n c e s, h o w e v e r, w h e n a n a ly s ts fo cu s ih e ir c o n c e rn s a b o u t w o m e n o n th e h o u se h o ld an d the fa m ily . M e n a r c s e l­ d o m v ie w e d a s m em b ers o f h o u se h o ld s u n le ss it is to see th em a s “ h e a d s ” o r a s “ b r e a d w in n e r s .” T h e fo cu s on w o m e n ’ s d o m estic a n d r e p r o d u c tiv e ro les h a s so m e tim e s lim ited c o n c e rn s to th o se ro les. O f c o u rse , ih e fa m ily a n d h o u se h o ld a r c c en tral ele m e n ts in b o ih m en ’ s a n d w o m e n 's liv e s , a n d re p ro ­ d u c tio n a n d c h ild c a re re sp o n sib ilitie s affect w o m e n 's p a rtic ip a tio n in the la b o r fo rc e a n d p o litics. H o w e v e r, the h isto ry in :h is a r e a o f p o litic a l m o v e ­ m e n ts a s w e ll a s p o lic y a n d d e v e lo p m e n t p ro g ra m s h a s sh o w n lh a i i f co n c e rn is d ire c te d a t re p ro d u c tio n a n d d o m e stic ro les, those issu es a r c lik e ly to set lim its o n n a tio n a l p o lic y d ire c te d to w o m en (cf. Ja q u e t t e a n d S ta u d t 19 8 5 ; B e n e r ia a n d S e n 19 8 2 ; B u v in ic 19 8 3 , 19 8 4 ; E v a n s 19 8 5 ) . A s a resu lt, w o m e n b e c o m e the ta rg e ts o f p o p u la tio n p ro g ra m s a n d w e lfa r e p ro je c ts, o r th e y a r e in te g ra te d in io the lo w est le v e ls o f p ro d u ctio n a s p a rt-tim e w o rk e rs. L ittle th o u g h t is given to p r o v id in g w o m en a c c e ss to th e fu ll r a n g e o f sk ills lh a i w o u ld a llo w th em to c o n tro l a n d d ire c t d e v e lo p m e n t a c tiv itie s (see B u v in ic 19 8 4 ; S e n 19 8 5 ) . A s lo n g a s w o m en a r e p r im a r ily c o n c e iv e d o f a s m e m b e rs o f h o u seh o ld s, th ere m a y be a te n d e n c y to le a v e u n q u e stio n e d th e ir a b s e n c e fro m so c ie ty 's s ig n ific a n t p o litic a l, so c ia l, a n d e c o n o m ic in stitu tio n s.

M U L T IN A T IO N A L S : A T E C H N O L O G IC A L C A S K S T U D Y In a n a ly z in g th e im p a c t o f g lo b a l p a tte r n s o f c h a n g e o n w o m e n ’ s ro les a n u m b e r o f issu es n u s t be c o n sid e re d . F ir s t is ihe im p a c t o f te c h n o lo g y o n a g r ic u lt u r a l p ro d u ctio n . A s su b siste n c e fa r m in g h a s g iv e n w a y to m e c h a ­ n iz e d c o m m e rc ia l a g r ic u ltu r e fo r n a tio n a l a n d in te rn a tio n a l m a rk e ts, w o m e n ’ s e a r lie r w o rk in a g r ic u ltu r e h as b een tran sfo rm ed in a v a r ie ty o f w a y s . A s w a g e la b o r a n d m ig ra tio n h a v e c o m e to d o m in a te m a n y r u r a l e c o n o m ie s, so m e w o m e n h a v e s p e c ia liz e d in th e p ro d u c tio n o f su b siste n c e c ro p s w h ile o th e rs h a v e b een p u sh ed in to th e g r o w in g u rb an la b o r fo rce in s e a r c h o f

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291

s e r v ic e se c to r e m p lo y m e n t (B u n s te r a n d C h a n c y 19 8 5 ; B a b b 19 8 9 ). B c c a u s c m a n y w o m en in d e v e lo p in g c o u n trie s s till liv e in ru ra l se ttlem en ts a n d a re e n g a g e d in a g r ic u ltu r a l w o rk , food p r o c e ss in g , a n d re g io n a l c o m m e rc e , these is s u e s w ill re m a in a n e ssen tia l fo cu s fo r re se a rch (cf. A h m e d 19 8 5 ; B e n e r ia 198-2; B o u r q u e a n d W a rre n 1 9 8 1 a ; C r e e v e y 19 8 6 ; D eere a n d L e o n d e L e a l 19 8 7 ; D ix o n 19 7 8 ; E h le r s 19 9 0 ; R a d e r 19 8 6 ; L e a c o c k a n d S a fa 19 8 6 ; M o o c k 19 8 6 ; S to lc r 19 8 5 ). In th is e s s a y , h o w e v e r, w c h av e ch o sen to e x a m in e an u r b a n issu e : w o m e n 's e m p lo y m e n t in m u ltin a tio n a l fa c to rie s. M u ltin a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t r e v e a ls the p a ra d o x ic a l effects o f n ew o p tio n s in the la b o r fo rce, in c r e a s e d e d u c a tio n , fa m ily e x p e c ta tio n s , a n d y o u n g w o m e n ’ s a g e n c y in p a ­ tria rch a l fam ilies. In the p ast d ecad e, an th ro po lo gists h av e prod uced a n u m ­ b e r o f im p re ssiv e stu d ie s o f m u ltin a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t; e th n o g r a p h ic a lly rich w h ile m a k in g im p o rta n t c o m p a r a tiv e c o n trib u tio n s, th ey c a r r y on c e n tra l d e b a te s a b o u t the im p a c t o f c o n te m p o ra ry p a tte rn s o f in d u stria liz a tio n o n w o m e n (cf. B c n c r ia a n d R o ld a n 19 8 7 ; D a u d 19 8 5 ; F e m a n d c z - K e lly 19 8 3 ; J a n n n .d .; O n g 19 8 7 ; N a sh 19 8 9 ; N a s h a n d F e r n a n d e z -K e lly 19 8 3 ; SalafT 1 9 8 1 , 19 8 8 ). I n the la st fifteen y e a r s in d u stria l p ro d u c tio n in the th ird w o rld h a s p ro ­ life ra te d as m u ltin a tio n a l c o m p a n ie s h a v e se a rc h e d fo r c h e a p la b o r to a s s e m ­ b le h ig h -te c h n o lo g y p ro d u c ts, to m a n u fa c tu r e c lo th in g , a n d to grow ' a n d p ro ­ c e ss food. R ecen t relocations o f m an u fa ctu rin g to T h ir d W orld cou ntries h av e b e e n s p u rre d b y J a p a n e s e su c c e sse s in c a p tu r in g W este rn m a rk e ts fo r co n ­ s u m e r g o o d s a n d the tra n s fo rm in g o f n a tio n a l firm s in to m u ltin a tio n a ls in H o n g K o n g , S o u th K o r e a , a n d S in g a p o r e . F a c e d w ith n ew co m p e titio n , E u r o p e a n a n d U .S . c o m p a n ie s h a v e lo o k ed to the T h ir d W o rld to cu t th eir la b o r co sts a n d re ta in in te rn a tio n a l c o m p e titiv e n e ss. In the c a s e o f the U n ite d S tate s, this process w a s en co u raged b y n ew tariff regulations in the 19 6 0s a n d 19 7 0 s w h ic h a llo w e d g o o d s sent to o th e r c o u n trie s fo r fu rth e r p ro c e ssin g to b e re im p o rte d , w ith d u ty to b e p a id o n ly on the v a lu e a d d e d a s a resu lt o f la b o r ( L im

19 8 3 : 7 1 - 7 2 ; N a sh 19 8 3 : 1 0 } . F o r th e ir p a rt, n a tio n a l g o v e r n ­

m e n ts h a v e o ften c o m p eted to a ttra c t m u ltin a tio n a l in v e stm e n ts in o rd e r to d e a l w ith h ig h u n e m p lo y m e n t a n d la ck o f c a p ita l. T h e s e d e v e lo p m e n ts b u ild o n a lo n g h is to ry o f tra n sn a tio n a l in v o lv e m e n t in th e d e v e lo p in g w o r ld — w iih a n e w t w is i, fo r w o m en a r c n o w b e in g re ­ c ru ite d in la rg e n u m b e rs fo r b e n c h -a s s e m b ly p ro d u ctio n w o rk . “ H e a v y ” m u ltin a tio n a l in d u strie s s u c h a s m in in g , p e tro c h e m ic a ls, iro n a n d ste e l, an d s h ip b u ild in g c o n tin u e to e m p lo y m a n y m o re m en th an w o m e n ,11 w h e re a s “ lig h t ” in d u strie s lik e c lo th in g m a n u fa c tu r e , food p ro c e ssin g , p h a rm a c e u ti­ c a ls , a n d e le c tro n ic s ten d to be m ix e d -la b o r fo rces w h e re w o m en m a y p re ­ d o m in a te o n the a s se m b ly lin e. In 19 8 0 , o v e r 4 m illio n p eo p le in d e v e lo p in g c o u n trie s w o rk ed in m u ltin a tio n a l e n te r p r is e s : 6 3 p e rc e n t in L a tin A m c r ic a , 3 1 p e rc e n t in A s ia , a n d 6 p e rc e n t in A fr ic a . O f th is to tal it is e stim a te d th at o v e r 1 m illio n w o m en w ere d ire c tly e m p lo y e d a n d a n a d d itio n a l h alf-m illio n

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w o rk e d in n a tio n a l firm s th at s u b c o n tra c te d w o rk fo r m u ltin a tio n a ls ( L im 19 8 5 : 7 - 9 . *8)M u ltin a tio n a l c o m p a n ie s in v o lv e d in m ic ro e le c tro n ic a s s e m b ly , c lo th in g m a n u fa c tu r e , an d food p ro c e ssin g h a v e b u ilt p ro d u c tio n p la n ts d is p e r s e d at g r e a t d is ta n c e s fro m c o r p o r a te h e a d q u a rte rs in th e U n ited S ta te s , E u r o p e , o r J a p a n (cf. C h a p k is a n d E n lo c 19 8 3 ; A r iz p e a n d .A ran d a 1 9 8 1 ) . G e n e r a lly , n e w p r o d u c t s a r c d e v e lo p e d in th e in d u stria l c o u n trie s a n d sen t a lo n g w ith the a p p r o p r ia te p ro d u c tio n m a c h in e r y to fa cto ries in th e d e v e lo p in g w o rld . L o c a l L ib o r, la b e le d “ se m i-sk ille d ” o r “ u n sk ille d ,” is re c ru ite d for p ro d u c tio n , ar.d a p la n t 's o u tp u t is so ld in e x te rn a l m a rk e ts, su c h a s th e U n ite d S ta t e s and E u r o p e . M a n u a l a s s e m b ly is p referred in r a p id ly c h a n g in g in d u s tr ie s w h en it su c c e s s fu lly c o m p e te s w ith th e h igh er co st o f c o n tin u a lly re to o lin g a u to m a te d sy ste m s to k eep p a c e w ith te c h n o lo g ica l, s ty lis tic , a n d m a rk e t-d riv e n c h a n g e s. T h e c u rre n i lite r a tu re c o n tra sts tw o v ie w s o n the c o n s e q u e n c e s o f m u lti­ n a tio n a l e x p a n sio n for w o m e n . O n e v ie w a r g u e s that m u ltin a tio n a ls offer w o m e n im p o rta n t n ew e m p lo y m e n t o p p o r tu n itie s in th e fa c e o f r u r a l-u r b a n m ig ra tio n , u rb a n u n d e re m p lo y m e n t, a n d c u ltu ra l sy ste m s th at rein fo rce m a le d o m in a tio n . T h e o th e r a r g u e s th at m u ltin a tio n a ls lo c k w o m en in to n ew p a tte rn s o f in e q u a lity , d e s ta b iliz e e x is tin g fa m ily fo rm s, a n d s o c ia liz e y o u n g w o m e n in to w estern ize d c o m p e titiv e c o n su m e rism at th e co st o f o th e r c u ltu ­ ra l v a lu e s . A u th o r s su ch a s L im ( 1 9 8 1 , 19 8 3 , 19 8 5 ) a n d S a la ff ( 1 9 8 1 ) a r g u e th a t the n e w in d u s tr ia l e m p lo y m e n t p ro v id e s y o u n g w o m en w ith im p o rta n t o p tio n s a n d fin a n c ia l re so u rc e s seen a s s u c c e ssfu lly c o e x istin g w ith A s ia n fa m ily s tru c tu re s a n d e x p e c ta tio n s fo r d a u g h te r s . A lth o u g h m u ltin a tio n a ls p a y lo w w’a g e s b y in d u stria l c o u n tr ie s ' s ta n d a r d s , L im p o in ts o u t th at m u ltin a tio n a l w-ages a r e g e n e r a lly h ig h e r a n d w o rk in g c o n d itio n s b e tte r a n d s a fe r th an n a tio n a l c o m p a n ie s, w h ic h ten d to b e s m a lle r a n d . th u s, s u b je c t to g r e a te r e c o n o m ic p re ssu re . T h e c o n tra st is sta r k e r fo r w o m en w h o fa c c th e e x p lo it a ­ tiv e a n d m a r g in a lly p a y in g a lte rn a tiv e s o f w o rk a s fa rm la b o r e r s , d o m e s tic s e r v a n ts , a n d m ark et v e n d o rs, a ll ty p ic a l a lte rn a tiv e s to a s s e m b ly w o rk . T h e re a s o n fo r th e d is p a r ity b e tw e e n m u ltin a tio n a ls a n d n a tio n a l firm s is d u e not to b e tte r in ten tio n s on o n e sid e but r a th e r to th e m u ltin a tio n a ls ’ la rg e r size, g r e a te r p r o d u c tiv ity , a n d p ro fita b ility . F u rth e rm o re , m u ltin a tio n a ls ten d to c o n fo rm to n a tio n a l s ta n d a r d s in th e ir s e x u a l d iv isio n s o f l a b o r ( L im 19 8 5 : ‘2 4 - 2 5 , 6 0 - 6 1 ) . L im a r g u e s th a t w ith o u t m u ltin a tio n a ls w o m en w o u ld h a v e fe w e r e m p lo y ­ m en t o p p o rtu n itie s, w o u ld be fo rced to w o rk fo r m ore e x p lo ita tiv e n a tio n a l e n te rp ris e s , an d h a v e less s a y in th e fa c e o f lo c a l c u ltu re th at e s ta b lis h e s m a le d o m in a n c e a s th e n a tu r a l sta te o f affairs: (Ajlthough the multinational does take advantage o f rational and sexual wage differentials and sometimes reinforces them, it is not responsible for creating

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them and cannot by its own actions elim inate them. National w age differentials are the result o f differences in the development o f capitalist relations o f produc­ tion between nations, whereas sex w age differentials originate in indigenous patriarchy. (1983: 85) M a n y o f the p ro b le m s w o m en facc resu lt from the g e n e ra liz e d c u ltu r a l ex­ p e c ta tio n , re p ro d u ce d in fa m ilie s a n d w o rk p la c e s, (h at (h ey a r e te m p o ra ry w o rk e rs w h o w ill la te r turn th eir a tten tio n a n d tim e to m a r ria g e a n d c h il­ d re n . A s a re s u lt, m o re y o u n g u n m a rrie d w o m en a re a v a ila b le fo r w o rk , a n d e m p lo y e rs e la b o r a te ju s tific a tio n s fo r p a y in g w o m en less th an m en . Y o u n g u n m a rrie d w o m en a r e seen to h a v e o th e r a d v a n ta g e s : th e y a r e a b le to w o rk v a r io u s sh ifts, h a v e h ig h e r ra te s o f e d u c a tio n th an o ld e r w o m en , a r e m o b ile , an d a t le a st in th e o ry w ill not n eed p rc g n a n c y b en efits. F o r L im , c u ltu r a l e x p e c ta tio n s a b o u t w o m e n ’s m a r ria g e a n d jo b c o m m itm en ts, a s w ell a s fa m i­ ly in v e stm e n t p a tte rn s th at fa v o r so n s o v e r d a u g h te rs fo r e d u c a tio n , e x p la in m o st o f th e e a r n in g a n d p ro m o tio n d iffe re n tia ls b etw een w o m en a n d m en . A d d itio n a lly , w o m e n ’ s c h a n c c s fo r p ro m o tio n from the a s s e m b ly lin e a r e lo w b e c a u se o f the s tru c tu re o f the w o rk p la c e . (B u t L im o b se r v e s th a t this w o u ld be tru e fo r p la n ts in the W est as w e ll.) S h e c o n c lu d e s th at th ese fa c to rs a r e m o re im p o rta n t th an e m p lo y e r s ’ g e n d e r b ia se s in e x p la in in g fe m a le /m a le e a r n in g d iffe re n tia ls in a n y p a r tic u la r c o u n try ( L im 19 8 5 : 59 ). L im

q u e s tio n s the fin d in g th at m u ltin a tio n a ls a r c fo o tlo o se a n d use

th re a ts o f re lo c a tio n to a v o id u n io n iz a tio n . S h e fin d s th at in c o u n trie s lik e I n d o n e s ia , the P h ilip p in e s, a n d T h a ila n d , w h ere m u ltin a tio n a ls h a v e b een in p la c e fo r lo n g p e rio d s o f tim e, th e ir ra te s o f u n io n izatio n a r c h ig h e r th an th o se o f d o m e stic in d u strie s. In th ese e a se s w o m en m a y b en efit fro m b e in g b ro u g h t to g eth er in la rg e g r o u p s fo r the first tim e a n d h a v in g the o p p o rtu n ity to o rg a n iz e p o litic a lly . F o r th e ir p a rt, m u ltin a tio n a ls m a y not figh t u n io n iz a ­ tion i f it g iv e s th em a s tru c tu re th ro u g h w h ic h to n e g o tia te efficien tly w ith w o rk e rs. F a c to r ie s a r e m o re in terested in p o litic a l s ta b ility th an th ey a re fe a rfu l o f u n io n s; th e ir d e p a r tu r e s a r c m o re c o m m o n ly ca u se d b y b u sin e ss r e v e rse s, ta k e o v e rs, a n d re o rg a n iz a tio n s. L im a r g u e s th at m u ltin a tio n a l fa c ­ to rie s h a v e a life c y c le ; th u s, c o u n trie s w ith lo n g e r h isto ries o f m u ltin a tio n a l o p e ra tio n s a r c m o re lik e ly to h a v e a s s e m b ly p la n ts w ith u n io n s, h ig h e r w a g e s , g r e a te r j o b s e c u r ity a n d w o rk er lo n g e v ity , a n d h ig h e r in v e stm e n t in c a p ita l-in te n s iv e p ro d u ctio n . T h e y a r e a lso lik e ly to h a v e e x p o rte d u n sk illed p ro d u ctio n w o rk to c o u n trie s like B a n g la d e sh o r S r i L a n k a w h ic h h a v e still lo w e r w a g e s . T h e te n d e n c y is fo r m u ltin a tio n a ls to u p g ra d e th e ir w o rk e n ­ v iro n m e n ts o v e r tim e, e s p e c ia lly i f n a tio n a l g o v e rn m e n ts u rg e th ese d e v e lo p ­ m e n ts a n d the la b o r m a rk e t is tigh t. T h e sp in o ffs from m a tu re m u ltin a tio n a l o p e ra tio n s m a y s u p p o r t the g ro w th o f n a tio n a l in d u strie s a n d a n e n tre ­ p re n e u ria l m id d le c la ss (L im 19 8 3 : 7 5 - 7 6 , 8 3 ; 19 8 5 : 6 4 - 6 8 ) . In h e r stu d y o f H o n g K o n g , S a la ff a g re e s w ith m a n y o f I .im ’ s fin d in g s w h ile a d d in g a n im p o rta n t c u ltu ra l d im e n sio n to th e a n a ly s is o f w o m e n ’ s

294

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in d u stria l w o rk ( 1 9 8 1 ) . S in c e 19 4 9 H o n g K o n g h a s been a c c n tc r o f textile a n d a s s e m b ly w o rk p ro m o te d b y lo c a l C h in e s e c a p ita lis ts w h o la p p e d a g ro w in g in te rn a tio n a l m a rk e t. T h e ir p o litic a l a n d eco n o m ic s itu a tio n is un iq u e; H o n g K o n g is a B ritish colony fa c in g a n u n certain future w h en it b e­ c o m e s p a r t o f C h i n a a fte r the B ritish m a n d a te e x p ire s in 19 9 7 . S ta te p o lic y is e x p lic itly c o n tro lled b y a p ro fit-d riv e n m u ltin a tio n a l c o m m e rc ia l se c to r . L a c k in g su fficie n t la n d fo r la rg c -sc a lc a g r ic u ltu r e w h ile e x p e rie n c in g w a v e s o f m ig ra tio n from th e m a in la n d , th e c o lo n y h a s both the e c o n o m ic p o lic ie s an d the la b o r fo rc c fo r m u ltin a tio n a l in d u s tr ia l p ro d u ctio n . T h e s ta te ofTers v e r y fe w s o c ia l se rv ic e s b e y o n d su b sid iz e d h o u sin g a n d e d u c a tio n ; th e re a r e few w e lfa r e p ro v isio n s, n o u n e m p lo y m e n t in su ra n c e o r so c ia l s e c u r ity . I n d i­ v id u a ls m u st d ep en d on th e ir fa m ilie s fo r su b siste n c e a n d w e lfa re . B a s ic h o u se h o ld e x p e n se s a r c so h igh in H o n g K o n g th at m u ltip le w a g e e a r n e r s a r e n e c e s s a ry in e v e r y fa m ily . Y o u n g w o m en h a v e p la y e d a n im p o rta n t ro le in the su c ce ss o f m u ltin a tio n a ls in H o n g K o n g , a n d b y th e e a r ly 19 7 0 s th ey h ad b eco m e m o r e th an o n e - h a lf th e fa c to ry la b o r force. T y p ic a lly y o u n g w o m en from p o o re r fa m ilie s b e g a n w o rk in g at the a g e o f tw e lv e to fo u rte e n , th o u g h the e n try a g e w a s in c re a se d to six te e n in the e a r ly 19 8 0 s. U n lil m a r ria g e , th ey en jo y a threesp h e re d life : co m m itm en t to th eir n a ta l fa m ilie s , in d u stria l w o rk , a n d a p eer c u ltu rc o f frien d s. T h e ir e a rn in g s a r c m o st often used to p a y fo r a h ig h e r sta n d a rd o f liv in g a n d fo r the e d u c a tio n o f so n s in the fa m ily , so m e th in g that S a la ff a r g u e s the y o u n g w o m en d o not resen t b e c a u se these c o n trib u tio n s re p re se n t a v a lu e d co n trib u tio n to fa m ily w e lfa re as a w h o le. T h is situ a tio n is c o m p a tib le w ith th e C h in e s e v a lu e p la c e d on the fa m ily a s a jo in t e n d e a v o r fo r so cia l s u r v iv a l a n d c o n tin u ity . C h in e s e c u ltu rc stre sse s a re lig io u s c o m m itm e n t to a m a le -c e n tcre d co n cep tio n o f fa m ily a n c e s to rs. S o n s a re p a r t ic u la r ly v a lu e d ; d a u g h te rs less so sin c e m a r ria g e w ill in e v ita b ly tak e th e m to th e ir h u s b a n d s ’ fa m ilie s. In the p a st fa m ily in h e rita n c e w a s e q u a lly d iv id e d a m o n g the so n s; n ow w o rk in g fa m ilie s in v e st in the fu tu r e b y e d u c a tin g th eir so n s fo r h ig h e r-p a y in g sk ille d jo b s . In th is so cia l w 'orld v ie w , m e m b e rs o f the fa m ily su b o rd in a te p e rso n a l g o a ls to th eir fa m ily 's n eed s. D a u g h te r s d o th is b y re m ittin g th re e -q u a rte rs o f th eir w a g e s to th eir p a re n ts “ to r e p a y the c o st o f th e ir u p b r in g in g .” I n retu rn d a u g h te rs g a in the r ig h t to m o re p e r s o n a l freed o m : rcd u c c d d e m a n d s fo r h o u seh o ld w o rk , le isu re tim e sp e n t free from p a re n ta l co n tro l w ith g ir lfr ie n d s from w o rk , a n a llo w a n c e fo r th eir o w n p u rc h a se s, the rig h t to ch o o se th eir o w n h u s b a n d s, a n d h ig h e r le v e ls o f e d u c a tio n th an in p a st g e n e ra tio n s . S a la ff a r g u e s th at th e fr a m e o f refe re n ce fo r these w o m en w o rk e rs is th e ir m o th ers an d g ra n d m o th e rs, ra th e r th an th eir b ro th e rs. A s a re su lt, a lth o u g h

they

w o u ld like m o re e d u c a tio n for

th e m s e lv e s , th ey d o not resen t th e ir fa m ilie s ’ g r e a te r in v estm en t in so n s. W o m e n s e e th e m se lv e s as g a in in g s o c ia l freed o m w h ile m a in ta in in g stro n g fa m ily tic s.

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A seco n d lin e o f a n a ly sis is m u ch m o re c ritic a l o f m u ltin a tio n a ls a n d the o p p o rtu n itie s th ey h ave offered w o m en . T h is v ie w , a rtic u la te d b y re se a rc h e rs lik e J u n e N a sh a n d M a r ia P a tr ic ia F e r n a n d e z -K e lly { 1 9 8 3 ) , e m p h a siz e s the fa ilu re o f in d u s tria l w ork in th e T h ir d W o rld to p ro v id e w o m en w ith n ew o p tio n s o r lo n g -term em p lo ym en t p o ssib ilitie s. M u ltin a tio n a ls h a v e n ot in ­ tro d u ce d c h a n g e s th at m ak e a real d ifferen ce b e c a u se the re c ru itm e n t o f w o m en in to h igh -tech a sse m b ly w o rk h a s n ot c h a lle n g e d the id e a o f a s e x u a l­ ly se g re g a te d w o rk force o r the tacit u n d e rsta n d in g th at w o m en c a n b e p a id lo w e r w a g e s th an m en . T h e ir a n a ly se s d e sc rib e a situ a tio n in w h ic h m u ltin a ­ tio n a ls tak e a d v a n ta g e o f an d rein fo rce g e n d e r, eth n ic, a n d c la s s in e q u itie s in in d u stria liz e d a n d d e v e lo p in g so cie tie s. In th is resp ec t th ey c o n c u r w ith L im a n d S a la ff. A s N a sh con clud es: (SJeetors o f the labor force based on gender, ethnicity, age, and education w ith­ in both industrial core and peripheral nations are differentially rewarded and these differences, along with wage differences between nations, determine the long-run movement o f capital. (19 8 3: 3) W h e re the tw o sch o o ls o f th o u g h t d iffer, h o w e v e r, is th at N a sh

an d

F e r n a n d e z -K e lly fin d that the la b o r p ra c tic e s o f m u ltin a tio n a ls c h a lle n g e ra th e r th an c o m p lem en t c u ltu ra l p ra c tic c s in w a y s th a t le a v e w o m en p a r tic u ­ la rly d is a d v a n ta g e d and w ith less so c ia l su p p o rt th an th ey h ad in th e p a st. S tu d ie s o f h igh -tech a ss e m b ly p la n ts in M e x ic o , H o n g K o n g , T a iw a n , In d o n e s ia , M a la y s ia , T h a ila n d , the P h ilip p in e s, B r a z il, a n d the C a r ib b e a n illu stra te the w id e ly accep ted p o lic ie s o f re c ru itin g y o u n g sin g le w o m e n , m a in ta in in g p a te rn a listic m o d es o f p la n t o rg a n iz a tio n , e n c o u ra g in g tu rn o v e r a fte r se v e ra l y e a r s o f e m p lo ym en t, a n d p ro v id in g v ir tu a lly no o p p o rtu n itie s fo r a d v a n c e m e n t o r jo b se c u rity i f the m ark et sa g s (F e r n a n d e z -K e lly 19 8 3d , 19 8 3 d ; N a s h a n d F e r n a n d e z -K e lly 19 8 3 ; F u c n tc s a n d E h re n re ic h 19 8 3 ; L im 1 9 8 1 ; O n g 19 8 7 ). E m p lo y e rs p ro m o te the id ea th at a ss e m b ly w o rk d r a w s on p re su m e d w o m a n ly sk ills— su ch a s m a n u a l d e x te rity , a tte m iv e n e ss, d o c ility , a n d the c a p a c ity to do re p e titiv e w o rk — a n d , th u s, is an e x te n sio n o f w o m e n 's c o n v e n tio n a l roles. S r in iv a s a n n o tes the h igh co st to w o m en o f this se x -ro le ste re o ty p in g : [T Jh e reasons for employing [wom enj in modern high technology companies arc the same reasons for which they are excluded from (raining, technical respon­ sibilities, and high-paying jo b s. (1982: 139; our emphasis) B y d e fin in g h igh -tech a sse m b ly a s y o u n g w o m e n 's w o rk , p la n ts a r e a b le to m a in ta in lo w w a g e s , fa v o ra b ly c o m p e tin g w ith U .S . la b o r d e sp ite the co st o f tra n s p o rtin g g o o d s in te rn a tio n a lly fo r a sse m b ly . T h e s e a u th o rs a rg u e th at w ith in the p la n ts e m p lo y e rs fu rth e r re in fo rce , m a n ip u la te , a n d d istort c u ltu ra l v a lu e s b y b rin g in g th eir o w n c u ltu re s to b e a r on w o rk e rs in o rd e r to fo ster c o n tro l. F o r in sta n c e , in Ja p a n e s e -

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m a n a g e d firm s, m a n a g e rs stre ss fa m ily c o m m itm e n ts a n d sclf*d iscip iin e , w h ile in U .S .- m a n a g e d firm s, th ey e n co u ra g e W e ste rn a s p ir a tio n s th ro u gh fa c to ry b e a u ty c o n te sts, co o k in g c la sse s, an d m a k e -u p in stru c tio n , w h ich e m p h a siz e th e im p o rta n c e o f c a sh in co m es fo r c o m p e titiv e , c o n su m e r su c ce ss a n d m o d e rn m a r ria g e (G r o s s m a n 19 7 8 / 7 9 ; E iso n a n d P e a rso n 1 9 8 1 ; O n g 19 8 7 ). M a r ia P a tr ic ia F e r n a n d e z -K e lly 's e th n o g ra p h y o f M e x ic a n b o rd e r in d u s­ tries in C iu d a d J u a r e z ( 19 8 3 a , 19 8 3 6 , 19 83c) a r g u e s fo r th is c ritic a l a n a ly sis. L ik e H o n g K o n g , M e x ic o h a s w itn essed a g ro w th in w o m e n ’ s em p lo y m e n t in m u ltin a tio n a l a sse m b ly p la n ts. In c o n tra st, h o w e v e r, M e x ic o ’s s e v e re un cm p lo y m en t p ro b le m s, g r o w in g p o p u la tio n , sta g n a tio n o f its a g r a r ia n b a se , de* p c n d c n ce on a n u n certa in in te rn a tio n a l p etro leu m m a rk e t, a n d d ifferen t c u ltu r a l sy ste m m ean th at new w o rk h a s v e r y d ifferen t im p lic a tio n s for w o m e n , m en , a n d th eir fa m ilie s. In d u s tria liz a tio n a lo n g the M e x ic a n b o rd e r h a s been d ire c te d b y the o v e r ­ sh a d o w in g p resen ce o f the U .S . ec o n o m y . A s s e m b ly p la n ts (called m aquila­ doras) a re the resu lt o f the B o rd e r In d u s tria liz a tio n P ro g ra m ( B 1P ) th a t w a s jo in t ly d e v e lo p e d b y M e x ic o a n d the U n ite d S ta te s in 19 6 5 .12 T h e p ro g ra m w a s d e sig n e d in p a rt to g e n e ra te lo cal e m p lo y m e n t to c o u n te rb a la n c e the effects o f the U .S . term in atio n o f the B r a c c r o P r o g ra m , w h ic h left o v e r 20 0 ,0 0 0 m ig ra to ry a g r ic u ltu r a l w o rk e rs, m a n y o f w h o m settled a lo n g the b o r­ d e r, o u t o f w o rk . A t th e tim e, M e x ic o h ad a r a p id ly g r o w in g la b o r fo rce, u n e m p lo y m e n t a n d u n d e re m p lo y m e n t o f a b o u t 20 p ercen t in k ey b o rd e r c itie s, h igh b irth ra te s a n d in te rn a l m ig ra tio n to the reg io n , a n d a p o p u la c e w illin g to w o rk fo r o n e-six th o f U .S . w a g e s. T h e B I P e m p lo y e d c la ssic a l s ta te g ie s le a rn e d from the A s ia n e x p e rie n c e to fo ster m u ltin a tio n a l in v e st­ m en t. F irm s w e re a llo w e d to im p o rt m a c h in e ry , e q u ip m e n t, a n d r a w m a te ­ r ia ls free o f d u ty in to M e x ic o , p ro v id in g th at a ll p ro d u c tio n w a s e x p o rte d . M u ltin a tio n a l s u b sid ia rie s w ere p erm itted to b e to ta lly fo reig n -o w n ed in c o n ­ tra st to th e lim itatio n o f 4 9 p ercen t fo reig n o w n e rsh ip fo r d o m e stic firm s. F o r its p a rt, the U .S . ta r iff p o lic y ta x e d o n ly the v a lu e a d d e d fo r reim p o rted g o o d s in c lu d in g c lo th in g an d e lec tro n ic s. A fin al se llin g po in t w a s th a t U .S . m a n a g e rs w o u ld b e a b le to c o m m u te to th ese p la n ts from th eir h o m es a c ro s s the b o rd e r. T h e g ro w th o f a s s e m b ly p la n ts a lo n g the b o rd e r h a s b een im p re ssiv e : in 19 6 5 th e re w e re 12 a s se m b ly p la n ts e m p lo y in g 3 ,0 8 7 w o rk e rs; b y 19 7 9 th ere w e re 5 3 1 p la n ts e m p lo y in g 15 6 ,0 0 0 p e rso n s; b y 19 8 7 th ere w ere 1,2 5 9 p lan ts e m p lo y in g 3 2 2 ,7 4 3 p erso n s. B etw een 7 5

a n d 9 0 p ercen t o f the w o rk e rs in

th ese p la n ts a r e w o m e n . T h e s e fac to ries h a v e been the third la rg e st fo reign e x c h a n g e c o n trib u to r to M e x ic o , ju s t b eh in d to u rism an d p e tro le u m . O n eth ird o f the m u ltin a tio n a ls' e x p e n d itu re s w en t fo r w o rk e rs' s a la rie s ; th e rest en tered the M e x ic a n eco n o m y th ro u gh ren ts, ta x e s, m a te ria ls, an d m iscel-

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lancous costs (F cm an d cz-K elly 1983A: 2 1 , 3 4 - 3 5 ) . With the devaluation o f the peso an d the decline in the w orld price o f petroleum , M e x ic o 's econ om y has experienced serious reverses, with increasin g unem ploym ent and great pres­ su re on w orkers to seek em ploym ent in the U n ited S tates (see R u iz an d T ia n o 19 8 7). A lth ou gh the M e xican governm ent sees m u ltin ation al assem b ly p lan ts as a fu n d am en tal developm ent statcg y, it is c le a r that these factories w ill not serio u sly alle v iate national unem ploym ent and underem ploym ent. B ecau se the factories recruit m an y m ore w om en than m en, F cm an d czK e lly concludes that they have helped foster con trad ictory p ressu res on wom en an d men in a situation where 80 percent o f the bord er unem ploym ent and u n derem ploym ent is m ale. T h e com panies prefer wom en because o f w om en ’s pu tative g reater d o cility, m an u al dexterity, and the fact that they are view ed as tem p orary w orkers who w ill accept the low est p ossib le w ages. T h is is im portan t because these labor-intensive industries a rc in ten sely com ­ p etitive, quick to lay o ff w orkers i f dem and for their products w eaken s, and subject to collap se d u rin g U .S . recessions. O n e -h a lf o f the a sse m b ly plants in C iu d a d J u a r e z d o se d d u rin g the 1 9 7 4 - 1 9 7 5 recession in the U n ite d States. F crn a n d e z -K e lly argu es, from a m ale-centric point o f v iew , th at factories h ave not reduced unem ploym ent rates but rath er have introd u ced form erly “ u n em p lo yab le” w om en into the lab o r force. W hat is clear from h e r evidence is that w om en see assem b ly w ork as a step up from w ork as m aid s across the border, and they esp ecially valu e the acccss to state m edical c a re that they receive as a jo b benefit. O th e r w om en, w h o h ave worked as local secretaries, receptionists, an d clerks, m ove to m u ltination al jo b s because the p a y is high­ e r than office positions. B y con trast, high m ale unem ploym ent forccs men across the bo rd er, d iv id in g fam ilies, resulting in aban don m ents, a n d creating pressu res for w ives to jo in husban ds. T h e fact that m uch o f th is m igration has been h istorically illegal in the U n ited States clearly su bjects the p artici­ pan ts to great anxieties. M ost fem ale assem b ly line w orkers are between the ages o f seven teen and tw enty-five. E lectron ics plants rccruit you n ger sin gle, childless w om en with an a v erag e o f eight years o f education. C om p an ies test w om en fo r pregnan cy when they are recruited because they d o not w ant to p a y for the eighty-tw od ay leave women arc legally entitled to with the birth o f a new child. Electron­ ics w orkers m ost often live w ith one o r both o f their paren ts; th eir incom e is pooled w ith their fathers' w ho arc often m arg in ally em ployed in fields like construction. G e n e ra lly the w om en g ive about h a lf their w ages to the fam ily, m oney used for d om estic expenses or education o f a y o u n g e r brother. M o th ers in these households are less often m em bers o f the paid lab o r forcc, con centrating instead on household w ork. B y com parison , o ld e r wom en, w om en w ith ch ildren , an d less educated w om en w ho m ust en ter the w ork forcc, find w ork in ap p arel factories where w ages arc low er a n d w orking

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c o n d itio n s less d e sira b le . O n e -th ird o f the w o m en w o r k in g in c lo th in g a sse m ­ b ly a r e sin g le m o th e rs w h o h a v e been fo rced into (he la b o r m a rk e t to su p p o rt th e ir fa m ilie s a fte r the d e a th o r d esertio n o f th e ir h u s b a n d s. W o m e n ’ s j o b ten u re a v e r a g e s three y e a rs a s th ey e x p e rie n c e p re ssu re s to le a v e p o sitio n s from c o m p a n ie s try in g to a v o id p a y m e n ts re q u ire d u n d e r the M e x ic a n la b o r la w fo r v a c a tio n s , y e a r ly b o n u ses, a n d in d e m n ity in the e v en t o f la yo ffs. F a c to rie s a lso n ote a d ro p in w o m e n ’ s p r o d u c tiv ity o v e r tim e as th ey b eco m e b o red w ith h ig h ly m on o ton o u s w o rk . F o r th eir p a rt, w o m en le a v e p o sitio n s to m a r ry , tak e ca re o f th eir c h ild re n , re st a n d c h a n g e jo b s , re g a in th e ir h e alth , a n d a v o id ten sio n s w ith fa c to ry p e rso n n e l. W o m en d o not se e th e m se lv e s a s p e rm a n e n t w o rk e rs a n d d e sc rib e p re ssu re s fro m m en to le a v e p a id w o rk to tak e on fu ll-tim e d o m e stic d u tie s. L a t e r , ec o n o m ic n ecessi­ ties m a y force them b a c k in to the p a id la b o r force a n d in to less d e s ira b le p o sitio n s o r ille g a l m ig ra tio n . A s a resu lt o f m u ltin a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t, o ld e r w o m en see a sh ift in the v a lu e o f e d u c a tin g d a u g h te rs, n o tin g that in th eir g e n e ra tio n fa th e rs dis* m issed fem ale education as a w aste o f tim e for w om en w h o w ould d evote their liv e s to th e ir c h ild re n a n d d o m estic w o r k .13 N o w m o th e rs seek to p e rsu a d e fa th e rs to e d u c a te d a u g h te rs to m eet the m in im u m e d u c a tio n a l re q u ire m e n ts fo r e le c tro n ic a sse m b ly e m p lo y m e n t. Y e t th ey w o rry th a t fa th e rs w ill tak e a d v a n t a g e o f d a u g h te r s , re d u cin g ih c ir o w n fin a n c ia l c o n trib u tio n s to th eir fam ilie s. F e r n a n d e z -K e lly feels v e ry stro n g ly th at m u ltin a tio n a l in d u stria liz a tio n h a s not so lv e d e x istin g p ro b le m s, p a rtic u la rly m a le u n e m p lo y m e n t a fte r the en d o f the B r a c e r o P ro g ra m , n o r h a s it c re ated r e a lis tic o p tio n s fo r w o m en . R a th e r , b o rd e r in d u strie s h a v e rein fo rced the m a g n e tic a ttra c tio n o f the M e x ic a n - U .S . fro n tier re su ltin g in c o n tin u in g m ig ra tio n from o th er reg io n s o f the c o u n try a n d g ro w in g u n em p lo ym en t. W o m en a r c c a u g h t in c o m p le x c o u n te rc u rre n ts: th ey a r e a c tiv e ly re c ru itc d for w o rk , y e t th o u g h t o f a s su p ­ p le m e n ta ry a n d te m p o ra ry b y c o m p a n ie s a n d b y th e m se lv e s; th ey a r c m a jo r w a g e e a rn e rs in fa m ilies fig h tin g for su b siste n c e , y e t p re ssu re d to re tire from the la b o r force b y h u sb a n d s w h o seek su b m issiv e w iv e s ; th ey a r e o ften a b a n ­ d o n ed b y m en d isc o u ra g e d b y p o v e rty an d u n e m p lo y m e n t on the M e x ic a n sid e o f the b o rd er. Y o u n g w o m en h a v e been recru ited a s a v u ln e r a b le a n d d o c ile la b o r fo rce. T h e y h a v e been stereo typ ed a s s u p p le m e n ta ry a n d tem ­ p o r a r y w o rk e rs at p la n ts a n d a s in e v ita b ly su b m issiv e w iv e s a n d m o th e rs at h o m e. A lth o u g h n e ith e r ste re o ty p e is a c c u r a te (cf. J a n n n .d .), these c o n stru c ­ tio n s a r c u tilized b y in stitu tio n s an d in d iv id u a ls to c o n stra in w o m e n ’ s liv e s in im p o rta n t w a y s. C o m p a r in g tw o so cieties a s d ifferen t a s H o n g K o n g a n d M e x ic o is a v e ry tric k y m a tte r; th eir h isto ries, c u ltu re s, sta te p o litic s, r a te s o f u n e m p lo y m e n t, in te rn a tio n a l c o n te x ts, an d d e v e lo p m e n t p ro b le m s c o u ld not be m o re d iffer­ e n t. Y e t , b o th so cieties h a v e been to u ch cd in im p o rta n t w a y s b y the n ew

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w a v e o f m u ltin a tio n a l exp an sio n that h a s re c ru ite d y o u n g w o m en a s a first g e n e ra tio n o f fe m a le in d u strial w o rk e rs in th e ir fam ilie s. L im w o u ld acco u n t for ih e d iffe ren ces b etw een ih e c o u n trie s' m u ltin a tio n a l e x p e rie n c e s in p art b y n o tin g th at m u ltin a tio n a ls h a v e a m o re m a tu re p ro file in H o n g K o n g , w h e re w o m en w o rk e rs fin d the e x p e rie n c e a m o re p o sitiv e o n e e c o n o m ic a lly a n d p e r s o n a lly , fa m ilie s h ave a d a p te d o ld c u ltu ra l p a tte rn s to n e w m o d es o f ec o n o m ic p a rtic ip a tio n , and w a g e s a r c h ig h e r an d w o rk in g co n d itio n s b etter. F e r n a n d e z -K e lly w o u ld respond w ith an a rg u m e n t th at the issu es are s tr u c tu r a l, a n d th a t the b asic a s y m m e tr y o f the U .S . a n d M e x ic a n eco n o m ics h a s been in ten sified th ro u gh the B o r d e r In d u stria liz a tio n P ro g ra m . A s a r e ­ su lt, c u ltu ra l p a tte rn s have been d isto rte d , p o p u la tio n s re lo c a te d , d e v e lo p ­ m ent p rio ritie s sk e w e d , an d fa m ilie s p u t u n d e r u n b e a ra b le p re ssu re s th at h a v e in ten sified m ale-fem ale ten sio n s. B o th w o u ld a g re e th a t the c h ro n ic a lly h igh ra te s o f u n em p lo ym en t in M e x ic o a n d the full e m p lo y m e n t in H o n g K o n g c re a te d ifferen t options fo r in d iv id u a ls, fo r fa m ilie s, a n d fo r the m u lti­ n a tio n a ls th at a re e x p a n d in g p ro d u ctio n in these co u n tries. In H o n g K o n g the strong c u ltu ra l co n se n su s ab o u t fa m ily ec o n o m ic stra te g ic s c h a n n e ls the extra e a rn in g s o f d a u g h te r s to fin a n c e the e d u c a tio n a n d u p w a rd m o b ility o f so m . T h is a p p e a r s to be a su ccessfu l re c o n c ilia tio n o f C h in e s e v a lu e s an d the sex .ia l d iv isio n s o f la b o r in m u ltin a tio n a ls. It a llo w s p o o r fa m ilie s to a m a ss funds an d bet on o n e o r tw o in d iv id u a ls, w h o w ith b e tter sc h o o lin g a n d h igh test sc o re s m ig h t g a in e n tra n c e in to the u n iv e rsity a n d e v e n tu a lly g a in p ro fessio n al w o rk . F ro m an a n a ly s t’s p o in t o f v ie w , o f c o u rse , th ese c u ltu r a l v a lu e s d irec t the ch o ice o f the in d iv id u a l b y g e n d e r, not b y s c h o la r ly p o te n tia l. T h a t th ese d e c isio n s h a v e n ot p ro v o k e d ten sio n s b e ­ tw een d a u g h te r s a n d so n s at th is po in t is a ttrib u te d to the fa c t th at the d a u g h te r s ’ fra m e o f reference is still th eir m o th ers. S ig n ific a n tly , it is not c le a r th a t th is fa m ily stra te g y for m o b ility a c tu a lly b e a rs fru it fo r the w o rk in g c la s s , g iv e n an e d u c a tio n a l sy ste m th at tra c k s u p p e r-m id d le -c la ss c h ild re n ra th e r th an w o rk in g -c la ss ch ild ren to w a rd the v e ry few a v a ila b le u n iv e rs ity p o sitio n s. A lo n g the M e x ic a n b o rd er, th ere a r e c ro ssc u rre n ts a n d m u ltip le -fa m ily s tra te g ie s w h ic h reflect the m ix tu re o f cu cs fa m ilies re c e iv e fro m the e c o n ­ o m y . O n the o n e h a n d , M e x ic a n v a lu e s ca ll fo r a g re a te r e d u c a tio n a l in v e s t­ m en t in so n s. S o m e fa m ilie s rep o rt s a v in g d a u g h te r s ’ a ss e m b ly e a r n in g s to d o th is, a lth o u g h it is u n c lc a r h o w th is m ig h t tra n sla te in to u p w a rd m o b ility sin c e m ost m en c a n n o t fin d lo cal em p lo y m e n t a n d m u st c o n c e n tra te on c ro ss­ in g the b o rd e r fo r h ig h e r e arn in g s a s m a n u a l la b o re rs in the U n ite d S ta te s . O n the o th e r h a n d , the eco n o m y is d e m a n d in g th at d a u g h te r s re c e iv e h igh er e d u c a tio n a l in v e stm e n ts than in the p a st in o rd e r to q u a lify fo r w h a t is c o n ­ sidered h igh -statu s, w ell-p a rin g w ork. T h is situation a p p e a rs to tran slate into so m e in te rg c n c ra tio n a l tensions, b u t m o re im p o rta n tly in to in c re a se d tension b etw een y o u n g sp o u se s w hen h u sb a n d s put tra d itio n a l p a tr ia r r h ir a l p re s­

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s u re * on w iv e s to le a v e w o rk , to jo in th em in the U n iic d S ta te s in v e r y u n ce r­ tain c irc u m s ta n c e s, o r to fac e a b a n d o n m e n t. It is n ot c le a r w h e th e r o r not th ese te n sio n s a r e g re a te r on the b o rd e r th an in o th e r a r e a s o f M e x ic o w h ere in te rn a l m ig ra tio n fo r w o rk is co m m o n but m u ltin a tio n a ls d o not d o m in a te lo c a l e co n o m ics. F r a m e s o f re fere n c e in flu en ce w o m e n 's c o n sc io u sn e ss in H o n g K o n g an d M c x ic o ; th e y a r e a ls o a n issu e fo r the a n a ly s t. W h a t is d e a r from o u r c o m ­ p a ris o n o f L im a n d SalafT w ith N a sh a n d F c r n a n d e z - K e lly is th a t these a n a ly s ts a r e o p e r a tin g w ith d istin c tiv e eco n o m ic m o d e ls in v e ry d ifferen t c o n ­ te x ts. B o th lin es o f a n a ly s is a c k n o w le d g e stru c tu ra l in e q u a litie s an d en visio n the a c tio n s o f in d iv id u a ls a s c o n stra in e d b y w id e r eco n o m ics a n d p o litic s. E a c h fin d s a r e a s o f c re a tiv e ch o ice an d re sista n c e . T h e y fin d g e n d e r to b e an im p o rta n t d im e n sio n o f in te rn a tio n a l ec o n o m ic s a s w e ll a s the lo cal c u ltu res o f d e v e lo p in g so cieties. W h a t d istin g u ish e s th ese a n a ly s e s is o n e s id e ’ s v ie w th a t n a tio n a l la b o r m ark ets o p e ra te w ith a c e rta in lev el o f in d e p e n d e n c e an d th at in te g ra tio n in to the w o rld o rd e r w ill b en efit w o m en a n d w o rk e rs, e v e n as it b rin g s n ew p ro b le m s a n d in e q u itie s. T h e o th er sid e o f th is d e b a te fin d s th at c a p ita lis m h a s a lo n g h isto ry o f d e te rm in in g lo cal a n d in te rn a tio n a l m ark ets a n d ec o n o m ic o p p o rtu n itie s. T h is p o in t o f v ie w se rio u sly q u e stio n s the b en e­ fits o f in c re a se d ec o n o m ic in v o lv e m e n ts fo r d e v e lo p in g so cieties b e c a u se th e y h a v e d ifferen t n eed s a n d d ile m m a s fro m th o se o f th e in d u stria liz e d co u n trie s. T h is c o n tra st p a ra lle ls the ten d en cy o f re se a rc h e rs w h o fo cu s th eir w o rk on the d o m e stic d o m a in to stress “ tr a d itio n a l” p a tria r c h y a s s h a p in g w o m e n 's s u b o rd in a tio n , w h e re a s th o se w h o e x a m in e the p u b lic d o m a in m ore c o m m o n ly e m p h a siz e c a p ita list eco n o m ics a s the p r im a r y d e te rm in a n t o f g e n d e r in e q u a lity (cf. L e a c o c k a n d S a fa 19 8 6 : x ) . T h e iro n y h ere is that c u rre n t fem in ist rese a rch o n m u ltin a tio n a ls an d on fa m ilie s m ak es it a b u n d a n tly c le a r th at “ d o m e stic ” life a n d lo cal c u ltu re a r e n ot se p a r a te o r in d e ­ p e n d e n t fro m th e w id e r “ p u b lic ” an d in te rn a tio n a l w o r ld s (cf. N a sh 19 8 9 ; S a fa 19 8 3 ; B o lle s 19 8 3 ; J a n n n .d .; a n d B o u rq u e an d W a rre n 19 8 1 a ) . T h e c h a lle n g e fo r the n ext sta g e o f fem in ist a n th ro p o lo g y is to c o n c e p tu a liz e an d re se a rc h the in te r p la y o f tra n sn a tio n a l a n d lo cal c u ltu re s a s g e n d e r id eo lo g ies a r e n e g o tia te d , re fin e d , a n d c o n tested b y m u ltin a tio n a l o w n e rs, m a n a g e rs, w o rk e rs, th e ir fa m ilie s, g o v e rn m e n ts, re lig io u s g r o u p s, an d so cial m o v e m e n ts .14

C O N C L U S IO N S R e c e n t s c h o la rsh ip h a s h elp ed us u n d e rsta n d th at m a n y o f the in stitu tio n s and

fo rce s

th at

arc

th o u g h t

of

as

a u to n o m o u s

an d

n e u tr a l— like

te c h n o lo g y — a r c n e ith er. C le a r ly a c o m p re h e n siv e co n sid e ra tio n o f “ tech n o l­ ogy”

m u st in d u d c an e x a m in a tio n o f the c h a n g in g so c ia l re la tio n s a n d

id e o lo g ie s in v o lv e d in its p ro d u ctio n , d istrib u tio n , a n d use. A s h a s b eco m e

INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IDEOLOGIES

301

c le a r in (his o v e r v ie w , g en d er— th at is , th e c u ltu ra l rep re se n ta tio n a n d the p ra c tic e o f b e in g “ fe m a le ” an d “ m a le ” in the fa m ily , the w o rk p la c e , the sta te , a n d in te rn a tio n a l b u sin ess— is a v e r y im p o rta n t d im e n sio n in the s tu d y o f te c h n o lo g ica l ch an ge. T h e s e g e n d e re d so c ia l re a litie s a r e , in tu rn , sh a p e d b y w id e r econ o m ic a n d h isto ric a l tra n sfo rm a tio n s, often h a v in g c u ltu r a l a n d p o litic a l co n seq u en ces d istin ct from the n a rro w im p lic a tio n s o f p a r t ic u la r tech n o lo g ies. In the “ d e v e lo p m e n t” field , fo r in sta n c e , w e h a v e fo u n d th at “ tech n o lo g y tran sfers” a r e c u ltu ra l an d p o litic a l a c tio n s w h ic h o ften rein fo rce in tern atio n al a n d lo c a l in eq u ities. O u r re v ie w o f fo u r a p p ro a c h e s to th e stu d y o f w o m e n , te c h n o lo g y , an d d e v e lo p m e n t d e m o n stra te s th at a d d in g g e n d e r a s a c a te g o ry o f a n a ly s is to c u rre n t s o c ia l scien ce in v o lv es m o re th an ju s t re c o v e rin g w o m e n ’s e x p e ri­ en ce. R a th e r , th e c h a r a c te r o f g e n d e r d ifferen ces c a lls for the e x p la n a tio n o f m a le a n d fe m a le in eq u alities, m u ch a s the c u ltu ra l e la b o ra tio n o f r a c ia l d if­ fe re n c e s c a lls fo r th e ex p la n a tio n o f ra c ia l in e q u a litie s. C o n s e q u e n tly , it sh o u ld not b e su r p r is in g that a p p ro a c h e s to the stu d y o f g e n d e r, tech n o lo g y, a n d d e v e lo p m e n t in v o lv e so cial c ritiq u e s. A lte rn a tiv e fem in ist p h r a s in g s o f the p ro b le m o f g e n d e r a n d m o d e rn ity a r c im p o rta n t to u n d e rsta n d b e c a u se th ey d r a w atte n tio n to u n cx a m in c d id eo lo g ies th at in fo rm th e a c tio n s o f g ro u p s in v o lv e d in d e v e lo p m e n t p ro je c ts, so c ia l m o v em en ts, a c a d e m ic s, an d p o lic y m a k in g , both in the W est a n d in the T h ir d W o rld . O n a n o th e r level these new d e v e lo p m e n t id eo lo g ies reso n ate w ith fa m ilia r W e ste rn c u ltu ra l p reo ccu p atio n s: the “ sa m e n e ss” o r “ d iffe re n ce ” o f p e o p le s’ n a tu re s, c a p a c itie s, a n d exp erien ces . C le a r ly , the stu d y o f g e n d e r a n d tech ­ n o lo g y is a n o th e r a r e n a in w hich “ W e ste rn ” c u ltu ra l co n c ep ts an d v a lu e s a r e b e in g u sed to d e fin e the n atu re o f h u m a n d iv e rs ity . In th is c a se the issu e is th e sa m e n e ss o r d ifferen ce o f the W est an d T h ir d W o rld a s a n in te re stin g s u b s c rip t to the e x p lic it q u estio n o f the sa m en ess o r d ifferen ce o f fe m a le an d m a le . T h e c o n te m p o ra ry W est h a s been o b sessed w ith the id e a o f co n tro l, w ith te c h n o lo g y ’ s p o ten tial to con tro l n a tu re a n d h a rn e ss n a tu r e 's p o w e rs fo r h u m a n en d s. T h is la n g u a g e ten d s to p o la riz e the c o n tra st o f W e ste rn an d th ird w o rld so cieties, to arg u e fo r a ra d ic a l d ifferen ce in e x p e rie n c e an d p o te n tia l, b e c a u se s o -c a lle d u n d e rd e v e lo p e d so cieties a r c th o u g h t o f a s elo ser to n a tu re (even a p a r i o f r.ature) w h ile the W est’ s sta tu re a s tra n sc e n d in g n a tu re can b e m e a su re d b y its tec h n o lo g ica l a d v a n c e s .15 In th is c o n stru c tio n , v a r ia tio n s o f W estern e xp erien c e a n d the strik in g d iv e r s ity o f T h ir d W o rld so cie tie s a r e ign o red . F o r fe m in ist s c h o la rs the issu e o f tec h n o lo g ical d e v e lo p m e n t in v o lv e s the p ro b ie m a tiz in g o f w h o con tro ls te c h n o lo g y a n d the term s o f d e b a te a b o u t its d e v e lo p m e n t a s w e ll a s o f w ho b en efits in the p ro c e ss o f c h a n g e . T h e s e q u e s­ tio n s h a v e been p u rsu e d for both the p ro d u ctio n a n d the use o f tech n o lo g ies. A s a re su lt, w c a rc fo rced to c o n fro n t the co n tra d ictio n s b etw een the e x p lo ita ­ tion o f w o m en in the p ro d u ctio n o f tech n o lo g y, th ro u g h p o licies o f lo w w a g e s

302

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an d m in im a l jo b s e c u r ity , a n d the ben efits fo r w o m en o f n ew c o n su m e r an d “ la b o r -s a v in g ” te c h n o lo g ie s.16 T h e co n flict is not o v e r te c h n o lo g y in the n a r ­ ro w se n se , so m u ch a s o v e r v a lu e s, g en d ered so c ia l id e o lo g ie s, the o r g a n iz a ­ tion o f w o rk , th e d istrib u tio n o f p ro fits, a n d co n tro l. Y e t , e v e n a s fem in ist w riters h a v e jo in e d the effort to a sk n ew q u e stio n s, w e a re still h eirs to c o n flic tin g m o d els o f T h ir d W o rld so c ie tie s. T h e m essa g e o f re se arch c o m in g fro m the s tu d y o f the in te rn a tio n a l d iv isio n o f la b o r is th a t w o rk in g -c la ss w o m en in so m e W estern an d T h ir d W o rld se ttin g s sh a re s tr u c tu r a lly sim ila r w o rk e n v iro n m e n ts a s a re su lt o f rccen t p a tte rn s o f c h a n g e . T h e g lo b a l e c o n o m y 's d e p e n d e n c e on lo w -p a id fe m a le -d o m in a te d , c e n tra liz e d /d e c e n tra liz e d w o rk is co m m o n in in d u stria liz e d a s w e ll a s in d e ­ v e lo p in g c o u n tr ie s .17 T h e e m e rg in g g lo b a l p a ttern is c le a r : w o m en a r c b e­ c o m in g d e sk illed w o rk e rs in the m od ern office, in h ig h -te c h a s s e m b ly p la n ts, in the m e c h a n iz a tio n o f the h a rv e st, a n d in the d istrib u tio n o f a p p r o p r ia te te c h n o lo g y . T h e s e s tr u c tu r a lly s im ila r p a tte rn s in v e ry d ifferen t se ttin g s m a y c h a lle n g e the old d isc o u rse o f th e v a st d ifferen ces b etw een the W e st a n d the T h ir d W o rld . N e v e rth e le ss, the id ea o f c a te g o ric a l d ifferen ces b etw een d e v e lo p e d an d u n d e rd e v e lo p e d co u n trie s is p e rp e tu a te d in a l least so m e o f the a p p r o p r ia te te c h n o lo g y lite ra tu re . T h is d isc u ssio n o f sim ila rity a n d d iffe re n ce d o es n ot fo r a m om en t d e n y sig n ific a n t c u ltu ra l v a ria tio n s th ro u g h o u t the w o rld . T h e p ro b le m is the use o f stereo typ ed a n d c a te g o ric a l w e /th e v d isc o u rse s o f c o n ­ tra st, o p p o sitio n , an d h ie ra rc h y w h ic h p e rv a d e d isc u s sio n s o f “ W e ste rn ” v e r ­ s u s “ n o n -W e ste m ”

so cieties. T h is la n g u a g e o f d ifferen ce p o rtra y s o th e r

so cie ties a s v ic tim s (a s p a ssiv e “ ta rg e ts” o f p ro g ra m s o r “ re c e p to rs” o f te c h ­ n o lo g y ). ra th e r th an a s co n stru c to rs o f th eir o w n c u ltu r a l u n d e rsta n d in g s o f ch an ge an d technology (see also Silv erb latt, this v o lu m e). In these cases, the W e st is a ssu m e d to b e te c h n o lo g ic a lly in c o n tro l, w h e re a s T h ir d W o rld c o u n ­ tries a re p ic tu re d a s o u t o f c o n tro l, a s the v ic tim s o f h a r s h n a tu r a l e n v iro n ­ m e n ts, a r c h a ic tra d itio n s, an d a u th o rita ria n re g im e s th a t a r e n ot in terested in (o r e c o n o m ic a lly not a b le to b e c o n cern ed w ith ) th e w e lfa re o f p e a sa n ts and

the u rb a n

p o o r. T h e

p o o r a re seen a s a h o m o g e n e o u s g r o u p o f

su b siste n c e -o rie n te d v ic tim s, w ith p h y sic a l s u r v iv a l th e ir m ost d e m a n d in g issu e. T h e p a te rn a lism o f so m e o f the c la s sic a l a p p r o p r ia tc -tc c h n o lo g y lite r a ­ tu re is a re su lt o f th is c o n stru c tio n .m T o d o a g re a te r ju s t ic e to the real d iv e r s ity o f c u ltu re s , w e need a re c ip ro ­ cal v ie w at the o n se t, o n e th at is s e n sitiv e to th e im p o rta n c e o f p o w e r d ifferen ­ tia ls , in h e rited in e q u itie s, a n d c u ltu ra l d y n a m ic s. O n e su sp e c ts th at i f w e co u ld u n d e rm in e the p o sitio n a l su p e rio rity o f W estern a n a ly s ts a n d se c the p o o r a s c o lla b o r a to rs a n d a c tiv e in te rp re te rs o f th eir so c ia l w o r ld s ,19 then d e v e lo p m e n t w o u ld la k e on a lo n g e r-te rm p a rtic ip a to r y q u a lity ra th e r th an a o n e -w a y te c h n ic al tra n sfe r. M o re o v e r, the c o m p le x ity o f the u n d e rta k in g co u ld b e a c k n o w le d g e d , in ste a d o f the c u rre n t te n d e n c y to see p ro je c t fa ilu re a s a d ish e a rte n in g lack o f re sp o n siv e n e ss o f the p o o r (cf. W a rre n a n d B o u r ­

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303

q u e 19 8 7 ) . U n d e r these c irc u m sta n c e s, re sista n c e m ig h t b e seen a s a c tiv e an d m e a n in g fu l su b v e rsio n rath er th an a s p a ss iv e ig n o ra n c e (cf. O n g 19 8 7 ), an d d isc u ssio n s o f a p p ro p ria te tech n ology w o u ld b e seen a s ju s t a s im p o rta n t for the W e st a s fo r the d e v e lo p in g w o rld . T h e W e ste rn d u a lity o f co n stru c tio n s o f sa m e n e ss an d d ifferen ce a ls o a p p e a r s w h en o n e lo o ks a : a ssu m p tio n s a b o u t g e n d e r. O n th e o n e h a n d , m u ch o f the lite ra tu re on g lo b a l fa c to rie s assu m e s a b a sic sa m e n e ss o f m en a n d w o m e n . T h e s e rese a rch e rs a re not a r g u in g th at h igh -tech p ro d u ctio n sh o u ld b e fe m in ized , but rath er th at w o m en w o rk e rs m u st o r g a n iz e to im* p ro v e w o rk in g co n d itio n s (R u iz an d T ia n o 19 8 7 ). W o m e n , in p a rtic u la r, a re p o rtra y e d a s n e e d in g to break th ro u g h se x -se g re g a te d la b o r m a rk ets a n d the d e s k illin g o f the w o rk p la c e 10 g a in tra n sfe ra b le sk ills an d a fu tu re in the la b o r fo rce. T o d o so th ey w ill h a v e to co n fro n t so c ia l id eo lo g ies, fo cu sin g on w o m e n ’ s d istin c tiv e fem in in e q u a litie s a n d re sp o n sib ilitie s, th at h a v e been p ro m o te d b y e m p lo y e rs to e n co u ra g e a p a ss iv e an d su b m issiv e w o rk fo rce in th e fac e o f th e p a c e a n d d e m a n d s o f a ss e m b ly w o rk . M u ltin a tio n a l re se a rc h d e m o n stra te s th at w e d o not h a v e to posit p o la r p sy ch o lo g ie s fo r m en an d w o m en in o rd e r to u n d ersta n d th at w o m en b e a r the a d d e d ec o n o m ic resp o n s ib ility fo r th e ir c h ild re n in u n sta b le ec o n o m ic c irc u m sta n c e s. N o r d o w c h a v e to p o sit d istin c tiv e p sych o lo g ies to rese a rch w o m e n ’ s p sy c h o so c ia l n eg o ­ tia tio n s w ith the w o rk p la c e , th eir fa m ilie s, o r the m en in th eir lives. In c o n tra s t, a d v o c a te s o f the fem in izatio n o f tech n o lo g y rest th eir case o n the p o la riz e d p sy ch o lo g ica l d ifferen ces o f m a le an d fem a le . T h is lite ra tu re a ssu m e s a u n iv e rsa l set o f p o sitiv e fem ale v a lu e s a n d se n sitiv itie s, re su lt­ in g from w o m e n ’s ro les as m oth ers an d n u rtu re rs. F e m in in ity , in this v ie w , is n ot a n a r r a y o f in tern alized a b ilitie s , lia b ilitie s, a n d a ttitu d e s m a n u ­ fa c tu re d to co n tro l w o m en b u t ra th e r a se t o f id e a liz e d v irtu e s sta n d in g in o p p o sitio n to c a p ita lis m , co m p etitio n , an d h ie ra rc h y . T h u s , o n e a p p ro a c h s e c s the fe m in in e a s e x te rn a lly im p o se d , the o th er a s u n iv e rsa lly in h eren t. T h e in te rn a tio n a liz a tio n o f re se a rc h a n d the c u ltu ra l c o n c e rn s o f a n th ro ­ p o lo g ists h a v e p ro v id e d im p o rta n t m o m en ts in the d e v e lo p m e n t o f fem in ist s c h o la rs h ip . T h e s e c o n trib u tio n s h a v e sp u rre d the re assessm en t o f e a rlie r u n d e rsta n d in g s o f c h a n g c a s “ w e ste rn iz a tio n ,” c a u se d a w id e r ra n g e o f a n a ly s ts to be self-co n scio u s a b o u t th e p ro jec tio n o f W estern ste re o ty p e s o f g e n d e r o n to o th e r so cieties, a n d e n co u ra g e d fo rm u la tio n s o f c h a n g e th a t in ­ c o rp o ra te the g lo b a l in te rp la y o f c u ltu re s a s w ell a s eco n o m ies. In a d d itio n to c a llin g in to q u e stio n assu m p tio n s a b o u t u n iv e rsa l m ale a n d fe m a le c h a r a c ­ te ristics, recen t re se a rc h d em o n stra tes the p ro b le m a tic w a y s in w h ic h c o n ­ tra sts

lik e

d e v e lo p e d /u n d e rd e v e lo p e d ,

W e s te rn / T h ird

W o rld ,

p u b lic /

p r iv a te , d o m e stic /p o litic a l, n a tu re /c u ltu re , a n d sim ila rity /d iffe re n c e h a v e in ­ flu en ced a n d d isto rte d m o d els fo r c h a n g e in d e v e lo p m e n t stu d ie s.20 W e a re left w ith a r a d ic a l sk ep ticism ab o u t th e c a p a c ity o f c a te g o ric a l o p p o sitio n s to ra p tu re

re a lity

W r

are

a lso

le ft w i t h

a

sen se o f th e im p o rta n c e n f d e c o d in g

th e id eo lo g ies a n d p o w e r relatio n s o f th o se e x p la n a tio n s th at still d ep en d on

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th ese c a te g o r ie s . O n e fin a l iro n y : to sh o w h o w ‘ ‘g e n d e r ” is c o n stru c te d in o u r m u ltin a tio n a l w o rld , fe m in ist re se a rc h h a s d e m o n stra te d th a t w c a ls o n eed to d e c o n s tru c t th e co n c cp t; th a t is, to sh o w h o w id en tities a n d e x p e rie n c e s a re sim u lta n e o u s ly stru c tu re d b y c la s s , c u ltu r e , race, n a tio n a lity , r e lig io n , a g e , s e x u a lity , in d iv id u a l e x p e rie n c e , a s w ell a s b y ger.d er. A s a n th ro p o lo g ists, w c a p p r o a c h th e s tu d y o f d e v e lo p m e n t id e o lo g ie s a s c o n te ste d c u ltu r a l c o n stru c tio n s w ith im p o rta n t p o litic a l im p lic a tio n s fo r a ll p a r tie s in v o lv e d . D e v e lo p m e n t id e o lo g ie s, o f c o u rse , a r e not th e fu ll sto ry o f c u ltu r a l tra n sfo rm a tio n . In a d d itio n an th ro p o lo gisL s seek to u n d e rs ta n d th e e th n o g r a p h ic p a rtic u la ritie s o f c u ltu r a l d iv e r s ity a n d p a tte r n s o f c h a n g e w h ic h a r c so o ften o v e rlo o k e d o r ig n o re d b y d e v e lo p m e n t sp e c ia lis ts . O u r g o a l is a m o re su b tle, c o m p re h e n siv e u n d e rsta n d in g o f c h a n g e , o n e th a t d o e s n o t e x c lu s iv e ly rely o n e c o n o m ic in d ic a to rs an d W e ste rn p r a g m a tis m a s y a rd s tic k s w ith w h ich to m e a s u re tra n sfo rm a tio n s, a n d o n e th a t c o n tin u o u s ly q u e stio n s th e la n g u a g e o f a n a ly s is .

NOTES 1. O u r thanks to M icacla di Leonardo. San d ra M orgen, Fitz Jo h n Porter Poole, R alp h Faulkingham . N atalie D avis, Jo a n Scott. J im Scott. Lourdes Beneria, our col­ leagues at the [985 Bellagio sem inar on “ G ender and Technology,*' and at the 1986 Brow n conference on women and developm ent for inspiring discussions o f the issues and readings o f earlier versions o f this analysis. O u r analysis o f the fram eworks ini­ tially appeared in Bourque and W arren (1987). We thank the Am erican Anthropolog­ ical Association lor permission to reprint portions ot our article Irom the M orgen anthology (1989). 2. For anthropologists this m eans a concern with th« related processes o f colonial* ism , the concentration o f land resources and growing landlessness in rural areas, state intervention in rural affairs, population growth, rural-urban m igration, the im por­ tance o f m arginal service-scctor em ploym ent for underemployed urban populations, and national policies that define developm ent priorities in economic planning, a g rar­ ian reform, education, labor, housing, social serv ices and political participation. W omen play significiant roles in these processes and are disproportionately affected by m any o f them, as is clear by differential rates o f fem ale/m ale subsistence-crop cultivation, access tc cash incomes, involvem ent in agrarian reform s, m igration to urban centers, literacy, m arginal service-scctor employment, and responsibility for the economic support o f urban fam ilies. For historically and culturally sensitive treat­ m ents o f these issues, see, for exam ple, Bourque and W arren (19 8 1a ), Stoler (19 8 5), N ash and Fernandez-Kelly (19 8 3 ), Nash and Safa (19 8 5), O ng (19 8 7 ), Beneria (19 8 2 ), and Deere ar.d Leon (1987). 3. T h e problem with aggregate statistics is that their averages often hide the dif­ ferential im pact o f cnange on individuals within populations an d. thus, im portant variations in the quality o f life. 4. In an essay o f this scope we are very aw are o f the lim its o f our cultural com pari­ sons. O u r goal here is obviously not a com prehensive description o f either situation, but rather a com parison o f distinctive analytic approaches and their consequences.

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5. O ur notion o f feminist research includes scholarship by women and men who have taken gender as a central category o f analysis and are interested in understand­ ing (he diversities o f experience both within and between genders. Internationally, this research tends to exam ine not ju st (he cultural construction o f "fem ale’ 1 and “ male,” but rather the interplay o f gender, sexual, class, cthnic, religious, and national stratifications and identities. 6. O f course this is only one stream o f the history o f development strategies. Another important focus o f international concern has been population control, which has defined wom en's fertility as a m ajor cause o f third world poverty. Here women have often been conceptualized as “ targets” o f new technologies. T h is language veils the politics o f development and creates a passive role for women while ju stifyin g the external intervention and control o f reproductive decision m aking (W arren and Bourque 1987). 7. Boserup’s pioneering work has sparked insightful critiques bv Benerfa and Sen (■986). 8. It is interesting that Bergom -Larsson draws upon M argaret M ead’s Cultural Patterns and Ttthnital Change (19 5 5 ) for her analysis. She argues that women and women’s culture should be viewed with a sensitivity sim ilar to the w ay that M ead advocates we treat people in other cultures. Both are understood as exhibiting collec­ tive distinctiveness, having the right to autonom y, and suffering special vulnerability to external forces that would degrade ihem. 9. See di Leonardo (introduction, this volume) for a reading o f this intellectual history which traces important anthropological connections to French structuralism . 10. See O rtner and Whitehead (19 8 1) , M acCorm ack and Strathern (1980), Reiter ( r 975)> and C aplan and Bujra (1979 ) for cultural examples. i t . Accounts like Barrios de C hun gara’s make it d e a r, however, what a vital, though unpaid, role women play in reproducing and sustaining this labor force

(>978).

12. Fernandez-Kelly notes that this development was part o f a longer historical trend o f M exican industrialization through free-trade privileges begun in the 1930s in response to the depression and the end o f prohibition, which hurt M exican liquor production along the border (19834: 25). 13. Educational levels, which may vary dram atically from country to country for the sam e work, are used as a screening device for multinationals, ju st as gender, ethnicity, and class are used to regulate labor pools in segmented labor forces. M ulti­ nationals often require educational levels that have very little to do with the work required in “ skilled” or “ unskilled” positions. In M exico the average educational level for all workers is 3.8 years, while the average for young women in electronics firms is 8 years (Fem andez-K eilv 19836, 19831). Because education is really being used to regulate numbers o f applicants in the labor force, when demand for products is down and there are fewer positions available, educational requirements m ay well be increased. M oreover, Lim observes that education is regarded by m ultinationals as “ a proxy for other desired workforce characleristics such as hard work, perseverance, ability (0 perform repetitive tasks, tolerancc o f authority and discipline” (1985: 3 4 35). Education is felt by m ultinationals to preadapt workers to the regimentation o f industrial settings. 14. C learly the culture o f assem bly plants is a complex, situation*specific am al­ gam o f local culture and transnational labor practices. What anthropology is begin­

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ning to reveal is that the transnational corporate influence is itself an am algam or transplanted local cultures {from Ja p a n e se codes o f fam ily responsibility in M alaysia to Am erican codes o f consumer success in M exico). T o what extent do particular multinational corporate cultures retain some consistency across national contexts? T o what extent do they, both in conforming lo and challenging cultural expectations, create a special kind o f “ disjunction” ? Does this disjunction now give women with multinational work experiences more in common culturally, over and above the fact o f their structurally sim ilar working conditions? W hat implications do these changes have for feminist movements and feminist political consciousness? O ur thanks to Fitz Jo h n Porter Poole for these issues. 15. See M acCorm ack and Strathern (1980} for exam ples o f the distinctive ways notions o f “ culture” and “ nature” have been constructed in other societies as well as in our own history. These distinctions are internalized and subverted in a variety o f w ays (cf. Srinivasan 1982: v). 16. H . Scott (1984) hopes for a different kind o f society made possible because o f the displacem ent, in Western societies, o f jo b s by high-tech economics. T h is, she argues, will force people to think o f alternative ways to use their time and to place a greater em phasis on expanding the informal sector to take on what governments cannot afford to fund in human services. Apparently Scott does not consider the cost o r contradictions o f present forms o f high-tech production; that is, the very different cffccts o f high-tcch industrial production on workers and producers wherever they m ay be. 17 . Ja p a n and M exico are good examples of countries where multinationals de­ pend on high levels o f decentralized subcontractors for national production. 18. T his can be the case both in centralized and in decentralized, mixed* technology options for development. By paternalism , wc mean that external experts determine another society’s needs, without consulting the participants for their understandings o f change. I f there appears to be a conflict in priorities, experts assum e that they know what is best because o f their professional training and sense o f responsibility. 19. T h e goal o f this formulation is to treat people equivalently in order to escape the hierarchical power relations inherent in virtually a ll formulations o f development. T he problem for Western analysis is that equity is so often confused with mathematical identity; that is, to gain equality one must give up cultural distinctiveness. 20. For critiques o f these polarities and separair-spheres approaches to gender politics see Reiter (19750), Strathern (1980), M acC orm ack (1980), and W arren and Bourque (19 8 1a).

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change: Equity issues in development. N. Black and A. Cottrell, eds.. 18 3 - 1 9 7 . Beverly H ills: Sage. . 1987. Gender, technology and development. Daedalus 1 1 6 : 1 7 3 —197. Briscoe, Anne, and Sheila Platflin. eds. 1979. Expanding the role o f women in the sciences. Annals o f the New York Academy o f Sciences 323. Bryceson, Deborah A . 1985. Wcmen and technology in developing countrie 1: Technological change and women's capabilities and bargaining positions. Santo Domingo: U N /IN S T R A W . Bunster, X im en a.an d Elsa Chaney. 1 985. Sellers and servants: Working women in Lima, Peru. New Y ork: Praeger. D uvinic, M a y r a . 19O3. W om en’s issues in third w orld poverty: A policy an alysis. In

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S U N Y Press. --------- . >985. Women u'orkers in multinational enterprises in developing countries. Geneva: I LO . M acC orm ack, C arol. 1980. Nature, culture and gender: A critique. In Nature, culture and gender, C arol M acC orm ack and M arilyn Strathern. eds., 1 —24. C am bridge: C am b rid ge U niversity Press. M acC orm ack. C arol, and M arilyn. Strathern, eds. >980. Salute, culture and gender. C am bridge: C am bridge U niversity Press. M ead , M argaret. 19 55. Cultural patterns and technical change. New York: Mentor. M oock, Jo y c e , cd. 1986. Understanding Africa's rural households and fanning systems. Boulcker: W estview Press. M orgen, Sandra, ed. 1989. Gtndtr and mthrapoldgy. Rtsouuts fo r restarch and teaching. W ashington, D .C .: A A A . Nam boze, Josephin e. 1985. Participation o f women in education and com m unica­ tions in the fields o f scicncc and tcchnoLogv: A national pcrspcctivc. In Science, technology and u-omen: .1 world perspective. Shirley M alcom et al., eds., W ashington, D .C .: A A A S and Centre lor Scicncc an d Technology for Development. United Nations. N ash , Ju n e . 1983. T h e impact o f the changing international division o fla b o r on dif­ ferent sectors o f the labor force. In Women, men, and the international division o f labor. Ju n e Nash and M aria Patricia Fernandez-Kelly, eds.. 3 -3 8 . A lbany: S L 'N Y Press. --------- . 1989. From tank town to high tech: The clash o f community and industrial cycles. A lb an y: S U N Y Press. N ash . Ju n e , and M aria Patricia Fern an dez-K elly. eds. 1 83. Hpmen, men, and the international division o f labor. A lbany: S I N Y Press. N ash . Ju n e and Helen Safa, eds. 1985. Women and change in Latin America. South H ad­ ley, M ass.: Bergin and G arvey. O ng, A ihw a. 1987. Spirits o f resistance and capitalist discipline: Factory women in Malaysia. A lb an y: S U N Y PressO rin er, Sherry B. 1974. Is female 10 male as nature is lo culture? In Woman, culture and society. M ichelle Zim balisi Rosaldo and Louise Lam phere, eds., (>7-88. Palo Alto: Stanford U niversity Press. O rin er. Sh erry B., and Harriet W hitehead, eds. 19 8 1. Sexual meanings: The cultural construction ofgender and sexuality. C am bridge: C am bridge U niversity Press. O verholt, Catherine, et al. 1983. Gender roUs in development projects. West Hartford, C o n n .: K um arian Press. R eiter. R ayn a. 19750. Men and women in the south o f Franco: Public and private dom ains. In Toward an anthropology o f women. R ayna Reiter, ed.. 2 5 2 -2 8 2 . New Y o rk : M onthly Review Press. --------- , ed. 19756. Toward an anthropology o f women. New York: M onthly Review Press. R ogers. Barbara. 1980. The domestication o f U'ornea: Discrimination in developing societies, N ew York: St. M artin's Press. R u iz, V ick i, and Susan T ian o , eds. 1987. Women on the U.S.-Mexico border: Responses to change. Boston: Allen and Unwin. Safa, Helen. 1983. Women, production, and reproduction in industrial capitalism : A com parison o f Brazilian and U .S . factory workers. In Women, men, and the interna­ tional division o f labor. Ju n e Nash and M arfa Patricia Fernandez-Kelly, eds., 9 5 1 1 6 . A lbany: S U N Y Press.

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31!

SaiaiT, Ja n e i. 19 8 1. Working daughters of Hong Kong: Filial piety or power in thefam ily? N ew York: C am bridge U niveristv Press. --------- . 1988. State andfam ily in Singapore: Restructuring an industrial society. Ithaca: C o r­ nell U niversity Press. S co u , H ilda. 1984. Working your way to the bottom: The feminization o f poverty. Boston: Pandora Press. Sen, A m artya. 1984. Women, technology and sexual divisions. Santo Domingo: U N / IN S T R A W . Sen, O ita, with C aren G row n. 1985. Development, crisis, and alternative visions: Third world women’s perspectives. D AW N (Development Alternatives for Women for a N ew E ra). N o w a y : A .s Verbum . Srinivaxan, M angulum . 1982. T he impact o f science and technology and the role o f women in sciencc in M exico. In Scientific-technological change and the role o f women in development. Pam ela M. D’ Onofrio-Florcs and Sheila M . Pfa 0)in, eds., 1 1 3 - 1 4 8 . Boulder: W estview Press. Stew art, Frances. 1977. Technology and underdevelopment. New Y ork: M acm illan. Stolcke, V erena. 19 8 1. W omen's labours: 'I he naturalisation o f social inequality and wom en’s subordination. In O f matriagc and the market: Women's subordination in inter national perspective. K ate Y oung et al., eds., 30 -4 8 . London: C S E Books. Stoler, Ann. 1985. Capitalism and confrontation in Sumatra’s plantation belt, 1870 /£79. New H aven: Y a le U niversity Press. Strathern, M arilyn. 1980. N o nature, no culture. In Nature, culture and gender. C arol M acC orm ack and M arilyn Stra.hcrn. eds., 17 4 -2 2 2 . C am bridge: C am bridge U niversity Press. T ad esse, Zenebeworke. 1982. Women and technology in peripheral countries: An overview. In Scientific-technological change and the role o f women in development. Pam ela M . D ’O nofrio-Florcs and Sheila M . Pfatfliii, eds., 7 7 - 1 1 1 . Boulder: W estview Press. T inker, Irene. 19 8 1. New technologies for food-related activities: A n equity strategy. In Women and technological change in developing countries. Roslyn D auber and M elinda L . C ain , eds., 5 1 - 8 8 . A A A S Selected S\m posium 53. Boulder: W estview Press. W arren, K a y B ., and Susan C . Bourque. >985. Gender, power, and com m unication: W omen’s responses to political muting in the Andes. In Women living change. Susan C . Bourque and Donna Robinson Divine, eds., 3 5 5 -3 8 6 . Philadelphia: Tem ple U niversity Press. --------- . 1987. Gatekeepers and rescurces: G ender and change in Latin Am erican countries. Report lor the G enilci, Technology, and International Development Project, cosponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation and ihe International De­ velopment Research Centre. --------- . J989. G ender, technology, and developmeni ideologies: Fram eworks and findings. In Gender and anthropology: Critical reviews fo r research and teaching. Sandra M orgen, cd. W ashington, D .C .: American Anthropological Association. W hitehead. A. 1985. Effects o f technological change on rural women: A review o f analysis and concepts. In Technology and rural women: Conceptual and empirical issues. Iftikhar Ahm ed, ed.. 2 7 -6 4 . London: George Allen and Unwin. Y ou ng, K . C . W olkowitx, and R . M cCullagh, eds. 19 8 1. O f marriage and the market: Women’s subordination in international perspective. London: C S E Books.

NINE

Mujeres

in Factories

Race and Class Perspectives on Women, Work, and Family Patricia Zavella

I N T R O D U C T IO N A n th r o p o lo g y h a s been c o n sid ered on ih e fo refro n t o f fem in ist th in k in g in p a rt b e c a u se c u ltu ra l a n th r o p o lo g y ’s h isto ric m issio n — to e n u n c ia te h u ­ m an s im ila ritie s an d d ifferen ces th ro u gh c ro ss-c u ltu ra l p e rsp e c tiv e s— w a s a lso on the a g e n d a o f sc c o n d -w a v c fem in ist s c h o la r s in the 19 7 0 s. F e m in ist a n th r o p o lo g y c o n trib u te d m u ch to fem in ist sc h o la rsh ip th ro u gh s p o tlig h tin g p r e v io u s ly u n seen a r e a s o f w o m e n ’s liv es in d iffe re n t c u ltu re s (M o o r e 19 8 8 : 19 2 ). T h e c o m p le x n otion o f d ifferen ce a m o n g w o m e n — w h eth er b a se d on n a tio n a lity , ra c e , e th n ic ity , c la s s , ag e , sta tu s, o r se x u a l p re fe re n c e — h a s been a m a jo r co n cern o f fem in ist th eo rists, w h o n o w re alize th at n o i a ll w o m en h a v e c o m m o n in terests o r su b sc rib e to p a r tic u la r fem in ist v ie w p o in ts. Y e t a lth o u g h fem in ist so cial scie n tists n ow n ote th e im p o rta n c e o f in te g ra tin g the c o n c c p t o f r a c ia l o r eth n ic d ifferen ce a m o n g w o m en , p a rtic u la rly in N o rth A m e r ic a , w c h a v e b een m o re su ccessfu l in o fferin g sin g le stu d ies o f p a r tic u la r g ro u p s o f w o m en th an in p ro v id in g sy s te m a tic c o m p a riso n s o f d ifferen t w o m en in the sa m e so ciety . F e m in is ts a r e n ow d e b a tin g h o w to c re a te a b o d y o f sc h o la rsh ip a n d c o n ­ d u ct re se a rc h in w a y s th at no lo n g e r “ p r iv ile g e ” w h ite w o m e n 's co n cern s an d s t r iv e fo r full in teg ratio n o f w o m en o f c o lo r (A p th e k e r 19 8 2 ; H o o k s 19 8 4 ; H u r t a d o 19 8 9 ). W o m cn -o f-co lo r th eo rists h a v e a rg u e d th at ra c e , c la ss, an d g e n d e r a r e e x p e rie n c e d c o n c u rre n tly , a n d a n y a tte m p t 10 d is a g g r e g a te this lived e x p e rie n c e in to se p a r a te a n a ly tic c a te g o rie s seem s re d u c tio n ist, even im p o s s ib le ( D a v is 1 9 8 1 ; Jo s e p h 1 9 8 1 ; H o o ks 19 8 4 ; S w e rd lo w a n d L c s s in g c r 19 8 3 )- A lth o u g h these c ritic a l reflectio n s on fe m in ist th eo ry h a v e left u s w ith a n u n d e rs ta n d in g o f the g re a t c o m p le x ity o f a ll w o m en ’ s e x p e rie n c e s, an d v a r ia tio n a m o n g w o m en w ith in p a rtic u la r r a c ia l o r eth n ic g ro u p s, th ere is 312

m 'JH R E S IN FACTOR IKS

313

n e v e rth e le ss still a need for stru c tu ra l p e rsp e c tiv e s th at c la r ify th e la rg e r p ic ­ ture. O n e k e y issu e n eed in g c la r ity is the c h o ic e o f a n a ly tic fo cu s. M a n y fem i­ n ist theorists see w om en 's com m on b iologically based exp erien ces as the cen­ tra l p o in t o f d e p a r tu r e for the c o n stru ctio n o f th e o ry . H ig h ly in flu en ced b y F re n c h fem in ist lite ra ry c ritic ism , th is v ie w p o in t h a s p ro d u ce d so m e th in g o f a q u a n d a r y . O n th e one h a n d , p ro p o n en ts w ish to reco g n ize w o m e n ’ s “ m a n y v o ic e s ,” th a t w o m en from d iv e rse c la s s , eth n ic, o r ra c ia l g ro u p s h a v e v e r y d ifferen t p e rsp e c tiv e s on so -called u n iv e rsa l fem in in e e x p e rie n c e s. O n the o th e r h a n d , sim p ly re c o g n izin g the rich n e ss o f d iv e rsity lead s to a n ath e o re tic a l p lu ra lis m . W e need to rcsc arc h w o m en ’ s a n d m e n ’s liv e s in w a y s that id e n tify the so u rc e s o f d iv e rsity w ith o u t reso rtin g to the m e c h a n istic c o n c lu ­ sio n that c la ss, r a r r . nr g r n d r r a lo n r g iv r s rise lo d ifferen ce. K a r e n S a c k s s u g g e sts th at fem in ist stud ies sh o u ld be b ased on a c la s s a n a ly s is , b u t one w h ic h sh o w s h o w c la s s is so c ia lly c o n stru c ted a n d “ b eco m es both a g en d ered a n d r a c ia lly sp ec ific c o n c ep t, o n e that h as n o ra c e -n e u tra l o r g e n d e r-n e u tra l ‘e sse n c e ’ ” (S a c k s 19 89 : 5 3 4 ). I su g g est w e m u si b egin o u r a n a ly s is w ith the h isto ric a lly sp e c ific stru c tu ra l c o n d itio n s c o n stra in in g w o m e n 's e x p e rie n c e s. W e c a n then link these c o n d itio n s lo the v a rie tie s o f w a y s in w h ic h w o m en re sp o n d to an d con stru ct c u ltu ra l re p re se n ta tio n s o f th e ir e x p e rie n c e s. T h is su g g e stio n h elp s u s to a v o id the p ro b le m a tic a ssu m p tio n o f m u ch reccn t fem in ist sc h o la rsh ip : b eg in n in g w ith h isto ric a l m a te ria l c o n d itio n s ra th e r th an w ith “ e x p e rie n c e " e m b ed s “ w o m e n 's d iv e r s ity ” a s a th eo retical a p rio ri a n d frees u s fro m th e a r tific ia l task o f d e r iv in g d iv e r s ity fro m p rio r c o m ­ m o n a lity . O n ih e ec o n o m ic fron t, fem in ist th eo ry h a s m ad e an im p o rta n t c o n trib u ­ tion to o u r u n d e rsta n d in g o f the re la tio n sh ip b etw een the h isto ric a l e x p a n ­ sio n o f c a p ita lis t p ro d u ctio n a n d w o m e n ’ s p riv a tiz e d la b o rs w ith in a n d o u t­ sid e h o u seh o ld s. M a n y a r g u e that th is is a h isto ric a lly co n tin g en t r e la ­ tio n sh ip : w o m en stra te g ic a lly c o n sid e r p a rtic ip a tio n in the la b o r m a rk e t o r in d o m e stic a c tiv itie s in con cert w ith c a p it a l’s c h a n g in g d e m a n d fo r w a g e la b o r (E ise n ste in 19 7 9 ; H a r m a n n

198(47,^; L a m p h e r e 19 8 7 ). T h u s a n a ly s e s o f

w o m e n 's la b o r m u st be h isto ric a l, sh o w in g h o w in d u strie s o r la b o r m ark ets e x p a n d , c o n tra c t, o r b cco m c d o m in a te d b y w o rk e rs o f c ith e r g e n d e r. F u rth e r, fe m in ists h a v e a rg u e d th at e v o lv in g fa m ily id eo lo g ies— in c lu d in g the p r e ­ su m e d o p p o sitio n o f v/ork an d fa m ily — p ro v id e an im p o rta n t c o n te x t fo r u n d e rsta n d in g h o w w o m en v ie w th e ir situ a tio n a s w o rk in g m o th ers {C o llie r e t a l. 19 8 2 ). O u r n in c tre n th -c c m u ry h e rita g e o f “ w o m e n ’ s p la c e " c o n stru c ­ tio n s c asts w o m en a s se c o n d a ry w o rk e rs w h o o n ly su p p le m e n t fa m ily in co m e an d m a sk s w o m e n ’ s se g re g a tio n in la b o r m ark e ts, sin c e th ey p erfo rm “ w o m e n ’s w o rk ” on the jo b . A l ih e sa m e tim e, w o m e n ’ s h o u seh o ld la b o r is d e v a lu e d a s not b e in g real “ w o rk ” b u t the e n a ctm e n t o f a ro le, a n d thus w o m e n ’ s d o u b le d a y is d isc o u n te d .1 M o v in g fro m “ w o m e n ’s ro le s” to

3N

m 'JK R H S IN FACTORIES

" w o m e n 's la b o r ” w a s a m a jo r fem in ist s c h o la r ly a c c o m p lish m e n t o f the 19 7 0 s. M y o w n o rig in a l p ro p o sed rc sc a rc h . u n d e r a d v iso r y d u re ss, focused on C h ic a n a w o rk in g w iv e s’ exp e rie n c e s o f “ role stra in .* ’ B r e a k in g the “ ro le ” m od el a n d m o v in g in to fem in ist la b o r stu d ies lib e ra te d m y rc sc a rc h . F e m in ist sc h o la rsh ip on U .S . w o m en o f co lo r h a s a lte re d o u r u n d e rsta n d ­ in g o f the r e la tio n sh ip b etw een w o m e n ’ s p ro d u c tiv e an d re p ro d u c tiv e la b o r b y d is e n ta n g lin g the w a y s that w o m en (an d m e n ) o f sp ecified r a c ia l o r eth n ic g ro u p s h a v e p a rtic ip a te d in p a rtic u la r la b o r m a rk e ts; an d b y n o tin g that w o m en o f c o lo r e x p e rie n c e c la s s — p a r tic u la r ly th ro u g h w a g e d

la b o r —

d iffe ren tly th an d o w h ite w o m en , w h ile often m a in ta in in g so m e re sista n c e a n d sen se o f s e lf b ased on ra c ia l/e th n ic s o lid a r ity . E v e ly n N a k a n o G le n n ’ s { 19 8 6 ) a n a ly s is o f th ree g e n e ra tio n s o f C a lifo rn ia J a p a n e s e d o m estic w o rk e rs, fo r e x a m p le , o r M a r y R o m e ro 's ( 19 8 7 ) d isc u ssio n o f S o u th w e ste rn -b o rn C h i­ c a n a d o m e stic s sh o w h o w th ese w o m en a sse rte d so m e a u to n o m y o v e r the la b o r p ro c css. J u d i t h R o llin s ( 19 8 3 ) p resen ts a n u a n c c d c o m m e n ta ry on N o rth e rn b la c k w o m en d o m e stic s an d th eir stra te g ie s fo r d e a lin g w ith w h ite fe m a le e m p lo y e rs, a n d K a r e n S a c k s 's { 19 8 8 ) c th n o g ra p h ic a lly b ased a n a ly s is sh o w s h o w S o u th e rn b lack w o m en h o sp ita l c le r ic a l w o rk e rs use so c ia l net­ w o rk s in a u n ion o rg a n iz in g d riv e . T h is w o rk su g g e sts that the in tersectio n o f g e n d e r a n d ra c e /e th n ic se g re g a tio n in the la b o r m ark et h a s p ro fo u n d im ­ p lic a tio n s fo r so cial relatio n s a n d d o m estic life, a lth o u g h m ost o f the a n a ly s e s fo cu s o n the p u b lic sp h e re o f w o rk . F ro m th is re se a rc h w c get a sen se o f the v a r y in g w a y s in w h ic h c o n te m p o ra ry A m e r ic a n w o rk in g -c la ss w o m en o f c o lo r e x p e rie n c e the re la tio n sh ip b etw een w o rk a n d fa m ily life d ifferen tly from w h ite w o m en w o rk ers. Y e t a s v a lu a b le a s these w o rk s a r c , th ey d o not p ro v id e c o m p a ra tiv e a n a ly s e s o f w o m en from the sa m e ra c ia l o r e th n ic g ro u p s in d iffe rin g c o n ­ te x ts, n o r o f w o m en from d ifferen t ra c ia l o r e th n ic g ro u p s w ith in the sam e c o n te x t.2 O u r u n d e rsta n d in g o f d ifferen ce a m o n g w o m en w ill o n ly b e en ­ h a n c e d th ro u g h clo se atten tio n to w o m e n 's sociat location b ased on c la s s , ra c e , g e n d e r, a n d e th n icity w ith in the sam e a n d d iffe rin g stru c tu ra l c o n te x ts.3 R e cen t w o rk on “ e th n o g ra p h ie s a s te x ts” re m in d s us th at “ so cial lo c a ­ tio n ” in the re se a rc h p ro c css a p p lie s to the rc s e a rc h e r a s w e ll a s the re­ se a rc h e d (see d i L e o n a rd o , th is v o lu m e ). T h e r e a rc tw o im p o rta n t d o m a in s th at 1 w ish to h ig h lig h t: the ra c e , c la s s , e th n ic, a n d g e n d e r d y n a m ic s between re se a rc h e r an d re se a rc h e d ; an d the ‘so c ia l lo c a tio n s” o f in te lle c tu a ls th e m ­ se lv e s , th e ir p la c e s in the h isto ric a l stre a m o f the c o n te n d in g fo rces o f k n o w le d g e p ro d u ctio n . T h e s e fac to rs a r e a s m u c h “ d a t a ” a s a r c la b o r fo rce p a rtic ip a tio n rates, a n d th ey o f co u rse sh a p e the v e ry re se a rc h q u e stio n s w c a sk a n d the w a y s in w h ich w e g o a b o u t se e k in g to a n s w e r them . In w h a t fo llo w s, 1 illu stra te th is a p p r o a c h th ro u g h w e a v in g to g e th e r the in te lle c tu a l tra d itio n s o f M a r x is t C h ic a n o S tu d ie s a n d fem in ist a n th ro p o ­

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lo g ic a l a n d o lh e r sc h o la rsh ip on N o rth A m e ric a n w o r k in g w o m en . I first d e ­ s c rib e the so c ia l c o n te x ts o f the rise o fC h ic a n o S tu d ie s, th e in te rn a l c h a lle n g e b y C h ic a n a s , an d (he im p o rta n c e o f fem in ist th e o ry w ith its fo cu s on w o m e n 's w o rk a n d fa m ily w ith in p o litic a l eco n o m ies. T h ese a r c in te lle c tu a l tra n sfo rm a tio n s in w h ic h I p a rtic ip a te d , first a s a s tu d e n t, then a s a sc h o la r. S e c o n d , I in terp ret the d iv e rg e n t e x p e rie n c e s o f tw o w o r k in g m o th e rs w h o at first g la n c e a p p e a r to b e v e ry s im ila r — th ey a r e both w o rk in g -c la ss C h ic a n a fa c to ry w o rk e rs. T h e cases a re d r a w n from h isto ric a l a n d e th n o g ra p h ic re ­ s e a rc h in tw o reg io n s in d ifferen t h isto ric a l p e rio d s: th e d e c lin in g c a n n in g industry’ in northern C alifo rn ia in the late 19 70s, an d th e exp an d in g electron ­ ic s a n d a p p a r e l in d u strie s in A lb u q u e r q u e , N e w M e x ic o , in the e a r ly 19 8 0 s. U s in g v ig n e tte s from the w o rk an d fa m ily liv e s o f th ese w o m en an d th eir h u s b a n d s . I show- h o w a co n cern w ith so cial lo catio n g iv e s us c le a r e r in sig h ts in to c h a n g in g w o rk a n d fa m ily re la tio n s in the U n ited S ta te s an d reo rien ts the c o m m o n a lity /d iv e rsity p ro b le m a tic.

T H E SOCIAL CO N TEXT Ol CIIICANO ANTHROPOLOGY A lth o u g h a n th ro p o lo g y w a s v ita lly in flu en ced b y the first a n d th ird w o rld m o v em en ts o f the la te 19 6 0 s (H y m e s 19 7 2 : W e a v e r 1 9 7 3 ) , C h ic a n o S tu d ie s w a s lite ra lly fo rg ed in th eir c ru c ib le . T h e v e ry term " C h i c a n o ,” p re v io u sly d e n o tin g a lo w e r-c la ss o r “ rough** M e x ic a n -A m e r ic a n , w a s tak en u p b y y o u n g , la rg e ly w o rk in g -c la ss-o rig in a c tiv ists d u rin g th is e ra an d used a s a p o litic a lly c o n sc io u s la b e l e x p re ssin g eth n ic p rid e ( I.im o n 1 9 8 1 } . T h e C h ic a ­ n o M o v e m e n t— w h ic h g a in e d im p etu s th ro u g h the a n ti-V ie tn a m w a r p ro ­ tests (a w a r in w h ic h C h ic a n o * w e re h e a v ily o v e rre p re se n te d in in ju rie s an d d e a th s ), the U n ite d F a rm W o rk ers o rg a n iz in g d riv e s, a n d stu d en t w a lk -o u ts in E a st L o s A n g e le s high sc h o o ls— e v e n tu a lly b e c a m e a b ro a d so c ia l m o v e­ m en t, a lth o u g h a c tiv ism

took p lace p r im a r ily

in th e S o u th w e s t.4 T h e

n a tio n a lism o f C h ic a n o M o v e m e n t id e o lo g y (th at is , its lo c u s

on docu­

m en tin g an d p ro v id in g n ew in te rp re ta tio n s o f C h ic a n o h isto ry a n d c u ltu re) g r e a t ly in flu en ced C h ic a n o sc h o la rsh ip , w h o se flo re sce n c e b e g a n in the la te 19 6 0 s a s w e ll. C e n te re d at u n iv e rsitie s, w h ere stu d e n ts h ad fo rm ed an im p o rta n t co re o f a c tiv ists (M u n o z a n d B a r r e r a 19 H 2}, v ir tu a lly a ll o f the m o v e m en t a n a ly s e s , p o sitio n p a p e rs, o r p ro p o sa ls p re se n te d to u n iv e rsity a d m in is tra to rs in c lu d e d a d em a tid for C h ic a n o S tu d ie s p ro g ra m s a n d the le g itim a tio n o f C h ic a n o S tu d ie s a s a n in te rd isc ip lin a ry field o f in q u ir y { V a l ­ d ez 19 6 9 ; G a la r z a a n d S a m o r a 19 7 0 ). M a n y C h ic a n o sc h o la rs o f this, the first real g e n e ra tio n , b e g a n th eir a c a d e m ic w o rk a s stu d en t a c tiv is ts w h o d elv ed into C h ic a n o h isto ry an d so ­ c ia l sc ic n c c a p p ro a c h e s to C h ic a n o p o p u la tio n s (G a r z a 19 8 4 ). C h ic a n o s h ad b een stu d ie d a s i f th ey w ere “ tr a d itio n a l” M e x ic a n p e a sa n ts , an d w h e th e r

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th e y w o u ld a s s im ila te in to A m e ric a n life o r r e ta in th eir a lie n , b a c k w a rd c u l­ tu re w a s the q u estio n u su a lly raised b y w h ile re se a rc h e rs.

T his C h ic a g o

S c h o o l a p p r o a c h w a s a s fa u lty in a p p lic a tio n to C h ic a n o s a s it h a d b een fo r so u th e a ste rn E u ro p e a n s a n d b la c k s, its o th e r o b je c ts. T h e lo c u s w a s a h is to rica l a n d a n tie c o n o m ic , a n d thus a u to m a tic a lly d e n ie d the v a r ia tio n s w ith in m ig ra n t p o p u la tio n s , d ifferin g tim es o f a r r iv a l to th e U n ite d S ta te s , v a r y in g A m e ric a n r e g io n a l e co n o m ics, a n d the m a c r o sh ifts in the g lo b a l e c o n o m y that c o n d itio n e d m ig ra tio n in the first p la c c . ( O f c o u rse , m a n y C h ic a n o s n e v e r m ig ra te d to the U n ite d S ta te s; a fte r the U .S .- M e x i c o w a r , b o rd e rs c h a n g e d a n d in c o rp o ra te d them a s c itiz e n s.) M o v e m e n t-in flu e n c e d C h ic a n o s c h o la rs b e g a n c re a tin g a rev isio n ist s c h o la r s h ip b y fo rm u la tin g c ritiq u e s o f d o m in a n t s tm c tu ra l-fu n c tio n a list p a ra d ig m s an d b y d e v e lo p in g a lte rn a tiv e e x p la n a tio n s o r in te rp re ta tio n s o f C h ic a n o so c ia l re a lity . L ik e m a n y sc h o la rs b efo re th e m , th e n ew C h ic a n o re se a rc h e rs tu rn ed to M a r x is t th e o ry fo r its atte n tio n to e c o n o m y , h isto ry , an d p o w e r— a lth o u g h M a r x is m w a s fa u lte d fo r its in a d e q u a te co n cern w ith the m a te ria l b a s is o f ra c ism ( A lm a g u e r 19 7 5 ) . N e o -M a r x is t a p p ro a c h e s su ch a s in tern al c o lo n ia lism o r r a c c -a n d -c la ss s e g ­ m en tatio n b e c a m e the d o m in a n t th eo retical fra m e w o rk s in th e field ( A lm a g u e r 19 7 5 ; B a r r e r a 19 7 9 ). D u rin g th is e a r ly p h a se o f C h ic a n o stu d ie s, C h ic a n a sc h o la rs p ro te ste d that w o m e n w e r e u su a lly m en tio n ed o n ly in re la tio n to (h eir fa m ily ro les a n d th at C h ic a n o fa m ilie s w ere o ften v ie w e d o n the b a sis o f a fu n c tio n a list “ machismo m odel** in w h ic h p a tria rc h a l v a lu e s a n d n o rm s w e re said to g o v e rn w o m en an d m e n 's b e h a v io r .5 E v e n the n ew C h ic a n o re v isio n ist w o rk , w ith its M a r x is t-in s p ir e d c o n c e rn w ith la b o r an d la b o r o rg a n iz in g , often p o rtra y e d m en a s p u b lic h isto ric a l ag en ts ( “ th e C h ic a n o w o r k e r " w a s u su a lly m a le ) an d re le g a te d w o m en 10 the p a ssiv e in te rstic e s o f la f a m ilia a s n u rtu re rs a n d b e a re rs o f c u ltu r e . N e v e rth e le ss, w e d re w th e o re tic a l su p p o rt from C h ic a n o S tu d ie s fo r c ritiq u in g m iso g y n ist p e rs p e c tiv e s on w o m en a n d fo r c la r ify in g the r a c ia l d im e n sio n o f the C h ic a n a e x p e rie n c e . F o r m a n y o f u s, th is m e a n t d e v e lo p in g a p e rsp e c tiv e th at in clu d ed the p o litic a l eco n o m y o f C h ic a n a h is ­ to ry. T h e se c o n d w a v e o f fem in ism o f the la te 19 6 0s an d e a r ly 19 7 0 s a ls o in ­ flu en ced a c tiv is t C h ic a n a s , a lth o u g h m a n y o f us cou ld not a c c e p t e v e r y fe m in ist n o tio n , in p a rtic u la r, w e h ad p ro b le m s w ith th e s e p a r a tis t p o litic s ( a u to m a tic a lly u n co o p e ra tiv e w ith m en ) in so m e e a r ly w o m e n 's o r g a n iz a ­ tio n s, an d w ith the w h ite, m id d le -c la ss fo cu s o f A m e ric a n fe m in ism , a fo c u s im p lic itly a n d so m etim es e x p lic itly ra c ist ( C o rte r a 19 8 0 ; G o n z a le s 1 9 7 7 ; Z a v e lla (9 8 9 ). A s y o u n g C h ic a n a a c tiv ists h ad a lso la rg e ly g ro w n u p in w o rk in g -c la s s fa m ilie s, both the lack o f rac e and class c o n scio u sn ess in m u c h 19 7 0 s fe m in ist p o litic a l an d sc h o la rly w o rk c a m e in fo r se v e re c ritic is m . T h u s C h ic a n a fe m in ist sc h o la rsh ip w a s fo u n d ed , a s w a s C h ic a n o S tu d ie s , w ith sc h o la r ly p ro te st an d p o litic a l a c tiv ism a s it s " p a r e n t s .”

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317

C H IC A N O D U A L -W O R K E R F A M I L I E S T h e rise o f C h ic a n a sc h o la rsh ip w a s p a ra lle le d b y {a n d sp u rre d b y ) the h is­ to ric rise in la b o r fore* p a rtic ip a tio n b y C h ic a n a s . H is to r ic a lly lo w e r than o th e r w o m e n ’ s la b o r force p a rtic ip a tio n ra te s, b etw een i9 6 0 an d 19 7 0 C h ic a ­ n as in c re a se d th eir la b o r fo rc e p a rtic ip a tio n ra te at tw ic e th e ra te o f w h ite w o m e n ; b y 19 8 0 C h ic a n a s h ad v e ry sim ila r la b o r fo rce p a rtic ip a tio n ra te s to w h ite a n d b la c k w om en . R e sp o n d in g to the d isto rtio n s g e n e ra te d b y the m a c h ism o m od el, C h ic a n a sc h o la rs fo cu scd on in tra fa m ilia l p o w e r d y n a m ic s in b u rg e o n in g d u a l-w o rk e r C h ic a n o fam ilie s. L e a Y b a r r a { 19 8 2 a , 19 8 26 ) an d M a x in e B a c a / i n n (19 8 0 ) su g g ested that w o m en g a in ed p o w e r a n d a u to n ­ o m y w h e n th ey b ecam e em p lo y e d . T h e y a rg u e d that w h en w iv e s w o rk e d , C h ir a n n c o u p le* w e re m o rr lik r ly tn h a v e “ e g a lita r ia n ” v a ln r s r r g a r d in g the h o u se h o ld d iv isio n o f la b o r an d to c a r r y them o u t in p ra c tic e , a n d that C h i ­ c a n a w o rk in g w iv e s had m ore in flu en ce in fa m ily d ecisio n m a k in g th an h o m e m a k e rs. T h is revisio n ist w o rk on C h ic a n o fa m ilie s p a ra lle le d w’o rk on w h ite A m e r ic a n s an d w as v e ry im p o rta n t in se ttin g a re se a rc h tr a je c to ry an d h e lp in g u s to u n d erstan d how’ w o m e n 's e m p lo y m e n t g e n e ra te s ec o n o m ic re­ s o u rc e s th at then affect the o rg a n iz a tio n o f C h ic a n o fa m ily life, p a rtic u la rly p o sitiv e n ew d o m e stic a rra n g e m e n ts. A lth o u g h co n c ern c d w ith w o m e n 's ro le s, h o w e v e r, th is w ork d id n ot in c o rp o ra te la rg e r fem in ist theory (Z in n 19 8 2 ), re ly in g o n p refem in ist re so u rc e -m o b iliz a tio n th eo ry w ith in so c io lo g y (B lo o d a n d W o lfe i9 60 ; H o ffm an a n d N y e 19 7 4 ). M o r e rccen t fem in ist a n a ly s e s o f how d u a l w o rk er c o u p le s d iv id e up d o m e stic w o rk fo cu ses on in d iv id u a ls ' c o p in g stra te g ie s. In The Second Shift ( 19 8 9 ) , A r lie H o ch seh ild stu d ie d " a tra n sitio n a l p h a se in A m e r ic a n life” (19 8 9 : 7 ), a r g u in g th at th ere is a " s t a lle d re v o lu tio n ” b etw een the ch a n g e s c x p c rie n c c d b y A m e ric a n w o m en a s th ey c o m b in e fu ll-tim e em p lo y m e n t w ith m a r ria g e a n d m oth erh o o d a n d the a b se n ce o f c h a n g e “ in m u ch e lse ” (19 8 9 : 1 2 ) . F o r m ost o f the c o u p le s sh e stu d ie d , th is m ean s th at w iv e s d ev o te m o re tim e lo h o u sew o rk an d p ro p o rtio n a te ly le ss tim e to c h ild c a re , w h ile h u s b a n d s “ d o m o re o f w h a t th e y ’ d ra th e r d o .” T h e co n se q u e n ce is ten sion b e tw e e n h u s b a n d s an d w iv e s, a n d e m o tio n a lly d ra in e d w o m en c o p in g b y p e rfo rm in g the “ secon d s h ift " w h ile a b a n d o n in g h o p e th at th eir situ a tio n s w ill c h a n g e . H o c h sc h ild ’s a n a ly s is lin k s in d iv id u a ls ' stra te g ie s to g e n d e r id e n tity an d g e n d e r id eo lo g y, n o tin g h o w w o m en a n d m en a r c so c ia liz e d to e x p e ct d ifferen t th in g s in m a r ria g e , a n d h o w w o m en , fo rm in g the “ p e a sa n ­ t r y ” o f the la b o r force, b e a r the b ru n t fo r fo rg in g stra te g ie s. H o c h sc h ild ’ s a n a ly s is is v e ry h elp ful in u n d e rsta n d in g the n a tio n a l a g g re g a te sta tistic s, w h ic h in d ic a te little ch an ge in the h o u seh o ld d iv isio n o f la b o r y e t m a y h a v e lim ited a p p lic a tio n few so m e secto rs o f the A m e ric a n w o rk in g c la s s — e s p e c ia lly fo r p eo p le o f c o lo r. A lth o u g h sh e in te rv ie w e d w o rk in g -c la ss an d m in o rity c o u p le s, m id d le -cla ss c o u p lc s— the se c to rs u su a lly stu d ie d in fa m ily

MVJKRFS IN FACTORIES

318

stu d ie s — a r c th e c cn tc r o f h er re s e a r c h an d

the fo cu s o f h er a n a ly s is.

A lth o u g h re c o g n iz in g th at C h ic a n o h o u se h o ld s m a y w ell e x p e rie n c e the p ro ­ c e sse s th at H o c h sc h ild d e lin e a te s, m y a p p r o a c h n e v e rth e le ss fo cu ses o n h o w in d iv id u a ls s t r a t e g i c o v e r c ro s s -c u llin g c o n stra in ts a n d o p p o rtu n itie s w h ich m a y k eep c o u p lc s in “ traditional** h o u se h o ld a rra n g e m e n ts o r p u sh them to w a rd m o re s h a rin g o f h o u seh o ld c h o re s. F u rth e r, I fo c u s o n h ow h o u seh o ld a r r a n g e m e n ts o rig in a te in th e “ tr a d itio n s ” o r tra n sitio n s o f la rg e r so cie ta l fo rc e s a n d su g g e st th at w o rk in g -c la ss h o u se h o ld s in g e n e ra l a r e m o re su b jec t to a d a p tin g to c h a n g e s in the p o litic a l e c o n o m y . A s w c w ill see b e lo w , c la ss, r a c c , a n d re g io n (lo c a l e co n o m y ) a r e m a jo r la c to rs in d e te rm in in g h ow w o m e n a n d m en u n d e rsta n d a n d act

on

those u n d e rs ta n d in g s

o f the

h o u se­

h o ld d iv is io n o f la b o r. A s in o th e r fie ld s w ith in C h ic a n o S tu d ie s , C h ic a n o a n th ro p o lo g ists d e ­ v e lo p e d e x te n s iv e c ritiq u e s o f m a jo r p r io r w o rk on th eir p o p u la tio n . A n th r o ­ p o lo g y w a s p r o b a b ly the m ost v ilifie d a m o n g the so cia l scie n c e s b e c a u se o f its fo c u s o n a reified C h ic a n o “ c u ltu r e .” W h ite a n th ro p o lo g ists w e re (bund to h a v e p ro v id e d a h isto ric a l in te rp re ta tio n s o f th e C h ic a n o e x p e rie n c e , m isin ­ te rp re ta tio n s o f C h ic a n o n orm s a n d fo lk lo re — so m etim es b a se d on la ck o f fa m ilia r it y w ith the S p a n is h la n g u a g e o r literal tra n sla tio n s o f fig u ra tiv e s p e c c h — a n d im p lic itly b lam ed C h ic a n o s fo r th eir o w n so cia l o p p re ss io n , a fa m ilia r sto rv in A m e ric a n so c ia l sc ie n tific w o rk on e th n ic a n d ra c ia l m in o ritie s .6 C h ic a n o a n th ro p o lo g ists c a lle d fo r a re v isio n ist v ie w o f C h ic a n o c u ltu r e th at w a s e m b ed d ed in a so c io h isto ric a l co n te x t, co n stru c te d b y a c to rs w h o took in to c o n sid e ra tio n both g iv e n n o rm s a n d the a u d ie n c e o f p a rtic u la r c u ltu r a l “ p e rfo rm a n c e s”

(P a r e d e s

19 7 7 )- C h ic a n o

a n th ro p o lo g ists h av e

fu r th e r a rg u e d that C h ic a n o c u ltu re is e x p re sse d in c o n te x ts in w h ic h d if­ fe r e n tia l p o w e r re la tio n s b etw een C h ic a n o s a n d A n g lo s a r e p a ra m o u n t, so th a t th ere is a “ c e rta in a u to n o m y in p e o p le 's p a tte rn e d life w a y s, su g g e stin g th a t c u ltu re c a n both s h a p e an d reflect th e la rg e r p o litic a l e c o n o m y ” ( R o s a l­ d o 19 8 5 : 4 10 ) . T h e n ew C h ic a n o a n th ro p o lo g y , th en , c a lle d fo r clo se a tte n ­ tio n to C h ic a n o c u ltu ra l e x p re ssio n s w ith in ih e la rg e r p o litic a l a n d e c o n o m ic c h a n g e s lh a t w ere o c c u rrin g in the d o m in a n t so cie ty , a lth o u g h fe w o f these a n th ro p o lo g is ts w e re e x p lic itly c o n c c rn c d w ith g e n d e r o r w ith w o m e n ’ s liv e s in p a r tic u la r . M o r e re c e n tly , C h ic a n o a n th ro p o lo g y h a s tak en on n e w , e x c itin g p e r s p e c ­ tiv e s . R e n a io R o s a ld o su g g e sts th at e th n o g r a p h e r s sh o u ld not a ss u m e th em ­ s e lv e s to b e “ b la n k slates*’ but in e v ita b ly a re “ p o sitio n ed s u b je c t s ," c o n tr ib ­ u tin g a p e rsp e c tiv e o n d ifferen t c u ltu r e s th a i its e lf is h ig h ly c u ltu r a l. H e r e m in d s us th a t “ the o b je c ts o f so c ia l a n a ly s is a re a lso a n a ly z in g su b je c ts w 'hosc p e rc e p tio n s m u st b e taken n e a r ly a s s e rio u sly a s 'w e ' tak e o u r o w n ” ( 1 9 8 9 : 2 0 6 ). R o s a ld o ’ s “ re m a k in g o f s o c ia l a n a ly s is ” w o u ld m ean “ c ro ssin g b o r d e r s ” a n d w o u ld be e x p lic itly self-re fle c tiv e :

M L 'JE R E S IN F A C T O R IE S

Although most metropolitan tvpifications continue to suppress border zones, human cultures arc neither neccssnrih coherent nor alw ays homogeneous. M ore often than we usually care to think, our everyday lives are crisscrossed by border zones, pockets and eruptions o f all kinds. Social borders frequently become salient around such lines as sexual orientation, gender, class, race, ethnicity, nationality, age. politics, dress, food, or taste. Along with ' “our” sup­ posedly transparent cultural selves, such borderlands should be regarded not as analytically em pty transitional /ones but as sites o f creative cultural produc­ tion that require investigation. (1989: 207-20 8 ) S p e a k in g o f M e x ic a n -A m e ric a n s. J o s e L im o n (19 8 9 ) reflects o n the m a rg in a lity lh a i w o u ld in clu d e w o m en o f c o lo r a s w ell: “ T h e r e at the m a r g in s , not fu lly d a n g e ro u s o r exo tic; so c ia lly an d p o litic a lly le sse r but n ot e n o u g h 10 m a k e th em a real pro b lem o r a real a ttra c tio n for the im a g in a tio n ” {19 8 9 : 4 8 3 ). H e sees the task o f C h ic a n o a n th ro p o lo g y a s a F o u c a u ltia n “ a rc h a e o l­ o g y o f s u b ju g a te d k n o w led ges an d p ra c tic e s” o f a p eo p le seen in the d o m in a n t A m e ric a n p o p u la r, p o litical, a n d a n th ro p o lo g ic a l d isc o u rse a s m a r g in a l.7 L im o n a g re e s w ith R o sa ld o that w c sh o u ld h e re fle x iv e a n d c r itic a lly sclfa w a r e o f o u r sta tu s a s e th n o g rap h ers.

CHICANA FEM INIST ANTHROPOLOGY M y fo cu s on C h ic a n a s ' w o rk an d fa m ily liv e s th u s “ fo llo w s the fie ld ” — a tte n d s to im p o rta n t shifts in th e p o p u la tio n itself. S p e c ify in g w o m e n 's so cial lo c atio n s, both s tru c tu ra lly a n d c u ltu r a lly , in relatio n to o th er w o m en a n d to m en , m e an s, fo r C h ican as,*1 ta k in g in to co n sid era tio n v a r io u s a ttrib u te s in a d d itio n to c la ss a n d race o r e th n icity th at c re ate “ b o rd e rs” : w h e th e r th ey w e re born in the U n ited S ta te s — a n d i f so , w h at g e n e ra tio n — o r in M e x ic o ; i f im m ig ra n ts, w h e th e r they w e re so cializ ed in the U n ite d S ta te s , ru ra l M e x ­ ican v illa g e s , o r u rb a n ren te rs. L a n g u a g e u se is c ritic a l an d c lo se ly re la te d to n a tiv ity . I fC h i c a n a s a ic born in the U n ite d S ta te s, th ey a r c m o re lik ely to be E n g lish -d o m in a n t a n d to sp e a k w ith o u t a S p a n is h ac c e n t, w h e re a s M e x ic a n b o rn C h ic a n a s a r e lik ely to be b ilin g u a l o r p re d o m in a n tly S p a n is h sp e a k e rs. C u ltu r a l re g io n a l v a ria tio n is im p o rta n t: w h e th e r o n e w a s re a re d in th e C h i ­ c a n o p o p u la tio n centers o f S o u th T e x a s , N o rth e rn N ew M c x ic o o r S o u th e rn C a lifo rn ia , o r g re w up iso lated from o th er C h ic a n o s , h a s g re a t im p lic a tio n s fo r c u ltu ra l k n o w led ge. W h e th e r w o m en h a v e fa ir o r d a r k sk in . In d ia n o r E u r o p e a n p h e n o ty p e , c r so m e c o m b in a tio n th e re o f is im p o rta n t for h o w C h i­ c a n a s a r e treated a n d how th ey reflect on th eir ra c ia l/ e th n ic s ta tu s . S e x u a lity is c le a r ly a sig n ifican t d e m a rc a tio n o f so cial lo c a tio n — w h e th e r w o m en e sta b lish le sb ia n , h e tero sexu al, o r b ise x u a l re la tio n sh ip s is c c n tra l to (heir id e n tity a n d exp erien ce. T h e v a rio u s c o m b in a tio n s o f these a ttrib u te s c re a te g re a t v a r ie ty in C h ic a r a s ' e x p e rie n c e . E v e n w ith in “ b o rd e rs ,” C h ic a n a s are

M C JE R E S IN F A C T O R IE S

in p o sitio n s o r situ a tio n s in relatio n to o th e r w o m en a n d m en th a t a llo w g re a te r o r lesser a u to n o m y , an d w o m e n ’s co n sc io u sn e ss a n d c u ltu ra l e x p r e s ­ sio n s, a lth o u g h not d eterm in ed hv th ese fa c to rs, reflect th em . O u r a n a ly tic le n se s sh o u ld fo cu s on the m y ria d lo c a tio n s w ith in b o rd e rs, s p e c ify in g the re la tio n sh ip s th at su sta in them .

C H I C A N A S IN T H K C A N N IN G I N D U S T R Y " T h e S a n ta C la r a V’a lle y o f n o rth ern C a lifo rn ia , n o w w ell-k n o w n a s S ilic o n V a lie v , w a s fo rm e rly a m a jo r a g r ic u ltu r a l a r e a . A g rib u s in e ss d r o v e th e C a lifo rn ia e c o n o m y un til rccen t d e c a d e s, d e sp ite g r o w in g a e ro sp a c e co m p e titio n a fte r W o rld W a r I I . an d c a n n e rie s w e re sig n ific a n t p ro d u c tiv e c o m p o n e n ts o f a g rib u s in e s s u n til the la te 19 5 0 s. T h e la b o r fo rce in n o rth ern C a lifo r n ia c an n eries h a s lo n g been se g re g a te d b y ra c e , e th n ic ity , a n d g e n d e r, a n d m ore re c en tly ev e n b y a g e . T h e p e r is h ­ a b le n a tu re o f th e r a w p ro d u ce an d the n eed fo r h u m a n ju d g m e n t in h a n d lin g it p ro v id e d c o n stra in ts in o rg a n iz in g p ro d u ctio n w ith in c a n n c rie s. T h e s e c o n stra in ts c re a te d a d iv id e d c a n n e ry la b o r m a rk et, w ith m e c h a n iz a tio n o f ce rtain p ro c e sse s, su ch a s co o k in g , o c c u rrin g in the la te n in eteen th c e m u r v w h ile so m e la b o r p ro c esses, su c h a s so rtin g p ro d u ce , re m a in h a n d la b o r even to d ay. F u rth e r, m ost c a n n in g p ro d u ctio n is se a so n a l an d ta k e s p la c e d u r in g the su m m e r m o n th s a fte r the a g ric u ltu ra l h a rv e st. B e sid e s m e c h a n iz a tio n , m a n a g e m e n t an d un ion p ra c tic e s— a fte r u n io n izatio n b y th e In te r n a tio n a l B ro th e rh o o d o f T e a m s te r s — co n trib u te d to the d e v e lo p m e n t o f a b ifu rc a te d la b o r fo rce ( R u iz 19 8 7 ). S o m e o f these se g m e n ta tio n s in clu d ed the la b e lin g o f c e rta in la b o r p ro c esses, su ch a s tru ck d r iv in g , a s “ m e n 's w o rk ” w h ile o th e rs, su ch a s the c u ttin g o f p ro d u ce , w a s c o n sid ered “ w o m en ’ s w o rk .” M e n u s u a l­ ly h eld the sk illed h ig h e r-p a y in g , y e a r-ro u n d jo b s w ith in c a n n e rie s, w h e re a s w o m en cou ld get o n ly u n sk ille d , lo w -w a g e d jo b s , u su a lly o n ly d u r in g the su m m e r m o n th s. A sy ste m o f d u a l se n io rity lists an d o th e r in fo rm a l p r a c tic e s m a d e it v ir t u a lly im p o ssib le fo r w o m en to be pro m o ted in to “ m e n ’ s j o b s . ” C ro s s -c u ttin g th is p a tte rn o f g e n d e r se g re g a tio n wra s a form o f r a c ia l an d e th n ic stra tific a tio n . B e tw e e n the turn o f the c e n tu ry an d W o rld W a r I I a w h o le sc rie s o f E u ro p e a n im m ig ra n ts— Ita lia n s, P o rtu g u e se , S p a n ia r d s , an d Y u g o s la v s w ere the m a jo r g ro u p s— settled in the S a n ta C la r a V a lle y . T h u s it w a s w h ite e th n ic w o m en w h o held m ost o f the “ w o m e n ’s jo b s .” C h ic a n o s b eg a n se ttlin g in the a r e a in n u m b ers a fte r W o rld W a r I I , w h en the c a n n in g in d u stry w a s e x p a n d in g . C a n n e r y em p lo y m e n t in the S a n ta C la r a V a lle y b eg a n d e c lin in g b e g in n in g in the la te 19 5 0 s , h o w e v e r, s o that o n ly w o rk e rs w ith h igh se n io rity co u ld s u r v iv e the layo ffs. W h en I d id field re se a rc h in the la te 19 7 0 s , the c a n n e ry la b o r force w a s se g re g a te d b y r a c c an d g e n d e r: the m a jo rity o f se a so n a l w o rk ers w ere fem a le , an d o v e r 6 0 p e rc e n t w ere M e x ic a n -A m e ric a n . A m o n g the se a so n a l la b o r fo rce, th ere w e r e p rc -

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d o m in a n tly m id d le -a g e d w o m en w ith high se n io rity w h o h ad s u r v iv e d ih e la yo ffs, w ith w h ile cth n ic w o m en h o ld in g the h ig h e r-p a y in g se a so n a l jo b s . T h u s c a n n e r y w o rk fo r m y C h ic a n a in fo rm a n ts w a s la rg e ly se a so n a l, p o o rly p a id , lo w sta tu s, an d w ith little jo b m o b ility . C a n n e r y w o rk e rs h ad filed suit in 19 7 3 a lle g in g ra c e a n d se x d is c r im in a ­ tion on the p a rt o fC a lifo r n ia P ro cesso rs, I n c ., a c a n n in g in d u stry a sso cia tio n (Z a v e lla 19 8 8 ). In 19 7 6 , the p lain tiffs w ere a w a r d e d a 5 -m illio n -d o lla r settle­ m e n t, w h ic h w a s then the la rg est em p lo y m e n t d isc rim in a tio n c a se e v e r a w a rd e d b y th e S a n F ra n c isc o F e d e ra l D istrict C o u rt. A key victory’ w a s the re m o v a l o f s e p a r a te se n io rity lists lo r se a so n a l an d fu ll-tim e w o rk e rs. I b egan fie ld w o rk a m o n g c a n n e ry w o rk e rs in the la te 19 7 0 s, w h en im p le m e n ta tio n o f th e A ffirm a tiv e A c tio n P ro g ra m w a s b eg in n in g . Y e t p a r a d o x ic a lly , th e c a n ­ n in g in d u stry w a s u n d e rg o in g d e clin e, w ith the sta rt o f p la n t c lo su re s an d re lo catio n to ru ra l a r e a s o f the state. My

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b ilin g u a l bu t sp o k e m a in ly in E n g lish , rcH cctcd both th is p o litic a l-e co n o m ic su rro u n d a n d the n eed fo r “ so c ia l lo cation '* a n a ly sis. G lo r ia a g re e d to be in te rv ie w e d o n ly a s a fa v o r to an a c tiv ist frien d . H e r w o rk situ a tio n h ad c h a n g e d a s a resu lt o f the A ffirm a tiv e A c tio n p ro g ra m , a n d I w a s in terested in d o c u m e n tin g both h er w o rk a n d h o m e life. I got m o re th an I h ad b a r­ g a in e d for. G lo r ia G o n z a le s , w h o a p p e a re d fa ir-sk in n ed w ith b ro w n h a ir, in v ite d m e to sit in the liv in g room w ith h er h u sb a n d an d so m e n eig h b o rs w h o w ere d rin k in g b e e r. I su g g e ste d th at w e g o so m e p la c e else o r m eet at a d ifferen t tim e, but sh e in sisted th at w e b eg in a t o n ce. D e sp ite m y m isg iv in g s, I b eg a n e x p la in in g m y in terest in w o m en w o rk ers. G lo r ia ’ s h u sb a n d , F r a n k (w h o w o rk ed in c o n stru c tio n ), in terru p ted b y a n n o u n c in g , “ O h s h e d o e sn ’ t w o rk , sh e ju s t sits a ro u n d the h o u se a ll d a y .” 1 e x p la in e d th at I h a d been told G lo r ia w a s a c a n n e ry w o rk e r. “ O il sh e is,” he sa id . I a sk e d G lo r ia h o w lon g sh e h ad w o rk e d . “ T w e n ty -fo u r y e a rs th is se a s o n ,” sh e resp o n d ed . G lo r ia a n d I b eg a n a n in fo rm a l c o n v e rsa tio n a b o u t h e r jo b w h ile F ra n k co n tin u e d to d rin k a n d jo k e w ith the n e ig h b o rs. T h ro u g h o u t o u r c o n v e r s a ­ tion the o th e r p eo p le p resen t in terjected th eir o w n c o m m e n ta ry , te a sin g an d a r g u in g w ith o n e a n o th er. It b e c a m e c le a r b y th eir v e rb a l ja b s th a t F ra n k a n d G lo r ia h ad been q u a rre lin g . In the m id d le o f o u r talk , F r a n k an n o u n ce d th at G lo r ia w a s g o in g to q u it so sh e cou ld la k e c a r e o f th eir se v e n -y e a r-o ld so n . (N o ch ild c are w a s a v a ila b le : a ll G lo r ia 's an d F r a n k 's fe m a le re la tiv e s w e re liv in g o u tsid e the a r e a .) G lo r ia h ad the o p tio n to “ freeze” h er se n io rity a n d retire e a r ly , a n d p la n n e d to d o this a fte r the n ext se a so n . G lo r ia w a s p le a se d w ith th is p ro sp e c t: “ I t ’ s b etter not to w o rk , get u n e m p lo y m e n t an d y o u g e t b y .” B u t then la te r, w h en I ask ed h er g e n e ra l v ie w s a b o u t w h eth er w o m en sh o u ld w o rk , sh e h ad d ifferen t th o u g h ts: “ W o m en should w o rk o u tsid e

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the h o m e, se c w h a t th ey c a n d o fo r th em selv es. It b rin g s yo u sa tisfa c tio n to e a rn y o u r o w n m o n ey w hen y o u ’ re old an d y o u r h u sb a n d is g o n e .” W ith a g la n c c to F r a n k , sh e la u g h ed an d sa id : “ W h en I q u it I ’ m g o in g to s i a n a h o u s e w iv e s ’ u n io n .” T h is p ro v e d the en d o f F r a n k 's p a tic n ce a n d he b e c a m e v e r b a lly a b u siv e . H e a c c u se d G lo r ia o f b ein g la z y — p ro v id in g a list o f d o m e stic c h o re s, in c lu d ­ in g m a k in g h is d in n e r— th at sh e h ad not co m p le te d . H e in fo rm ed m e h e w a s d issa tisfie d w ith h er n e g lig en ce a n d that th ey now slep t a p a r t. H e then q u e s­ tioned m y m o tiv a tio n s a n d in te g rity , d e m a n d in g to k n o w w h a t I w a s g o in g to d o w ith the in te rv ie w in fo rm a tio n . H e sh o u te d , " Y o u cou ld be a n y b o d y , fro m the u n io n — w h o k n o w s. G lo r ia co u ld get fire d .” W h en I tried to e x p la in th at I w a s d o in g in d ep en d en t re se a rc h , h e la u n ch ed in to a h a r a n g u e a b o u t peo p le wrh o h e lp “ th o se M e x ic a n P e o p le .” H e o b v io u s ly d id n ot id e n tify h im ­ s e lf a s a " M e x ic a n ”

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th re a te n e d b y m y q u e stio n s. H is a n g e r w a s inten se. C le a r ly o u r m eetin g cou ld not co n tin u e a n d , a s sh e w alk ed m e to the c a r, G lo r ia a p o lo g iz e d : " I k n o w h e ’ s a w fu l, but h e’s b e tte r th an n o th in g .” D u rin g m y seco n d in te rv ie w w ith G lo r ia , it b e c a m e a p p a re n t th at h e r n u c le a r h o u seh o ld d e p e n d e d on her w a g e s an d u n em p lo ym en t b e n e fits to g e t th ro u g h the w in te r m o n th s w h en h er h u sb a n d w a s la id o ff fro m h is c o n ­ stru c tio n jo b . H e r in co m e e n a b le d th em a s w ell to c o n stru c t a sm a ll secon d h o u se o n th eir p ro p e rty w h ic h th ey ren ted o u t for a d d itio n a l in co m e. F ro m his re sp o n se to m y q u e stio n s, it w a s c le a r th at F ra n k w o rrie d ab o u t the p o ssi­ b ility o f G lo r ia lo sin g h er jo b . Y e t G lo r ia a n d F ra n k b elie v e d th at m en sh o u ld su p p o rt fa m ilie s. W h en a sk e d w h y sh e h ad en tered the la b o r fo rce. G lo r ia in d ic a te d th at th eir eco n o m ic situ a tio n h ad fo rced the issue: “ It w a s fo r m y k id s ’ b en efit th a t I g o t a jo b , a n d not fo r a n y th in g e ls e ." S h e e m p h a siz e d : “ M y fa m ily co m es fir s t." H e r h u sb a n d h ad o p p o sed h er seek in g em p lo y m e n t, a n d , a lo n g w ith the la ck o f a v a ila b le ch ild c a re , th is p rev en ted h e r from se e k in g a fu ll-tim e jo b . F ra n k retain ed the m id d le -c la ss a sp ira tio n o f h a v in g a w ife w’h o w a s a fu ll-tim e h o m em ak er a n d w h o kept h o u se the w a y he w a n te d it. B e c a u se G lo r ia w o rk e d , even i f on a se a so n a l b a sis, F ra n k w a s p e rio d ic a lly re m in d e d o f h is in a b ility to su p p o rt h is fa m ily a s he w a n te d . H e r in co m e a n d . m ore te llin g , h er in d ep en d en ce w ere th re a te n in g to him . G lo r ia ’ s ten u re at the c a n n e ry h ad not b een e a s y . S h e w a s p ro u d that sh e h ad b een p ro m o ted to w o rk in the “ la b ,” w h ere c a n s w e re ch eck ed for q u a li­ ty c o n tro l, a j o b m u ch e a sie r th an w o rk in g on the lin e a s a so rte r. Y e t th is p ro m o tio n h ad co m e o n ly a fte r sp e c ia l g o als fo r p ro m o tin g w o m en an d m in o ritie s h ad b een e sta b lish e d . P rio r 10 th is p ro g ra m , G lo r ia h a d b een p a sse d o v e r fo r p ro m o tio n s for m a n y y e a rs. H e r e x p e rie n c e h ad b een sim ila r to th o se o f h er fe llo w C h ic a n a a n d Mexicana w o rk e rs, a lth o u g h recen t im ­ m igrant M e xican w om en h ad an even h ard er tim e getting prom oted. G lo r ia ’ s e x p e rie n c e w a s d ifferen t from th o se o f m en — both C h ic a n o a n d w h ite — w h o

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h ad been p ro m o ted to h ig h -p a y in g , p e rm a n e n t jo b s , an d it c o n tra ste d w ith (hose o f w h ile w o m en w h o h ad been p ro m o ted lo the few h ig h -p a y in g se a so n ­ al jo b s a v a ila b le to w o m en . In d e e d , a key point in the ra c c / se x d is c r im in a ­ tion s u it h ad been th at M e x ic a n -A m c r ic a n w o m en h ad been d e n ie d a c c e ss to in fo rm a tio n an d (rain in g that w o u ld h a v e e n ab led them to q u a lify fo r b etter jo b s . C h ic a n a s ’ lack o f in fo rm a tio n h ad been the p ro d u ct o f th e ir ex c lu sio n from so c ia l n e tw o rk s in w h ic h in sid ers h ad been a p p rise d o f im p e n d in g jo b o p p o rtu n itie s. W h ite w o m e n , in this c a se w h ite eth n ic w o m en o f Ita lia n , P o rtu g u e se , o r o th e r E u ro p e a n h e rita g e , h ad been p ro m o ted o v e r C h ic a n a s fo r the few b e tte r “ w o m e n ’ s jo b s .” W h e n I a sk e d h o w h a v in g a se a so n a l jo b affected the d o m e stic d iv isio n o f la b o r, G lo r ia d en ied that th ere w a s a n y effect at a ll: “ T h e r e 's n on e. It d o e sn ’ t affect u s, [b e c a u se ] I ’ m h o m e in the e v e n in g s.” G lo r ia a d m itte d th at sh e h ate d h o u se w o rk b e c a u se “ i t s b o rin g .” H e r h u sb a n d o c c a sio n a lly h elp ed w ith h o u se w o rk , but “ not ev ery d a y .” G lo r ia found it m ore c o n v e n ie n t to ig n o re h e r ted io u s h o m e c h o re s d u rin g the w o rk seaso n sin c e , “ I t ’ s h ard to w o rk a n d c le a n .” S h e d id not o p e n ly con test h er h u s b a n d ’s a tte m p ts to c o e rc e m o re h o u se w o rk on h er p a rt. S h e a sse rte d , “ I t 's n ot th at b a d .” Y e t a s sh e co n tin u e d ta lk in g , a d e fen siv e e d g e c a m e in to h e r vo ice: “ I feel I 'm a g o o d m o th e r— a lth o u g h too soft, too len ien t. B u t I t r y .” W ith a d e fia n t toss o f her h ead sh e reite ra te d : ” M y fa m ily co m es fir s t .'' I sen sed th at sh e fell (hat m y q u e stio n s im p lied th at sh e m igh t be n eg lec tin g h er fa m ily w h en sh e w o rk e d . H e r h u s b a n d ’ s c ritic ism s no d o u b t ad d ed to h er u n e a se in d isc u ssin g th is issue. G lo r ia a d m itte d that h er em p lo ym en t c re ated d o m estic p ro b le m s: “ I t ’ s not r e a lly go o d . I m iss s ta y in g h o m e w ith the c h ild re n in the su m m e r. T h e y u n d e rsta n d th a t i f I d o n ’ t w o rk th ey d o n ’ t g e t the e x tra s. B u t it's h a rd fo r a p erso n to w o rk a ll the tim e. Y o u h a v e no tim e w h en yo u can re la x o n ce in a w h ile .” G lo r ia 's strateg y w a s to continue w orking for an o th er season d espite h e r h u s b a n d 's o b je c tio n s. W ith the re n ta l in co m e, h er sm a ll p en sio n , an d her h u s b a n d ’ s w a g e s — w h o a fte r a ll w a s “ b etter than n o th in g ’ *— G lo r ia w o u ld b e a llo w e d the rest sh e d esired upon retirem en t. T h u s G lo r ia fac ed a d ile m m a : sh e e n d u re d the d o u b le d a y i f sh e w o rk ed at the c a n n e ry , p u ttin g in lo n g d a y s o f w a g e w ork an d h o u sew o rk ; yet w o rk in g o n ly on a se a so n a l b a sis lim ited h er a n n u a l in co m e an d the le v e ra g e sh e h ad o v e r F r a n k ’ s b e h a v io r. I ’ m not su re th at G lo r ia w a s re a d y to le a v e her sp o u se , a lth o u g h o th e r in fo rm a n ts o f m in e d id so, an d for the sa m e reaso n s. C le a r ly , th o u g h , sh e h a d th o u g h t a b o u t the p ro sp ect. S h e m ig h t h a v e com e to a d ifferen t c o n c lu sio n i f sh e h ad b een a b le to w o rk fu ll-tim e. Im p lic it in G lo r ia ’ s sta te m e n ts w ere the c o n tra d ic to ry v ie w s o f w o m en w h o b e lie v e d that m en sh o u ld be b re a d w in n e rs, y e t w e re th e m se lv e s d riv e n to w o rk to su p p o rt th e ir fa m ilie s. B y e v o k in g ‘ ‘ tr a d itio n a l" fa m ily id e o lo g y — “ m y fa m ily com es first” — s h e c o u ld ra tio n a liz e w h a t to h er seem ed the n o n tra d itio n a l a c t o f

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c o n tin u in g to w o rk , an d sh e cou ld m in im ize h er o w n in d e p e n d e n ce . Y e t sh e d id not n e c e ssa rily see h e rse lf a s b ein g o p p re sse d an d cast a c y n ic a l e y e on m y efforts to d o cu m en t the situ atio n o f C h ic a n a c a n n c rv w o rk e rs. T h e e ase o f G lo r ia a n d F r a n k G o n z a le s illu stra te s b o th th e c o n stra in ts o f so c ia l lo c a tio n a n d w o m e n 's (an d o f co u rse m e n ’ s) v a r y in g stra te g ic re­ sp o n se s to th e co n sta in ts th ey e x p e rie n c e . A t the p o in t o f the e th n o g ra p h ic p resen t ( 1 9 7 7 - 1 9 7 8 ) , a s a resu lt o f o rg a n iz in g b y C h ic a n o s a n d C h ic a n a s , c a n n e r y w o rk hud im p ro v e d in sta tu s, p a y , a n d jo b m o b ility p o te n tia l— ju s t a s food c o rp o ra tio n s w ere b e g in n in g lo “ c a sh o u t” a n d the S a n ta C la r a V a l ­ le y ’s e c o n o m y w a s s w itc h in g o v e r to c o m p u te r research a n d the d e v e lo p m e n t o f m ic ro c h ip p ro d u ctio n . G lo r ia , q u ite r a tio n a lly , w a s a lso a tte m p tin g to tak e a d v a n ta g e o f h er rec en tly im p ro v e d situ a tio n — a n d then “ c a sh o u t” h e rse lf, w ith sh ifts in the p o litic a l eco n o m y a n d F r a n k 's a ttitu d e , an d h er p e rc e p tio n s o f h e r c h ild r e n ’s n eed s a s m a te ria l c o n stra in ts on h er p o ssib le stra te g ie s. B o th G lo r ia an d F ra n k m a d e stra te g ic b ut d iv e rg e n t u ses o f n o tio n s o f “ tr a d i­ tio n a l” fa m ily v a lu e s — an d n ote that F ra n k e x p lic itly d ista n c e d h im se lf from “ M e x ic a n s ,” recen t m ig ra n ts. A n d the yet ra c e -se g re g a te d C a lifo r n ia jo b m ark e ts o f both G lo r ia ’ s a n d F r a n k ’ s y o u n g a d u lth o o d h ad co n stitu ted the g re a te st c o n stra in ts on th eir eco n o m ic liv es, c h a n n e lin g them in to a h an d fu l o f p o ssib le o c c u p a tio n s th at b y m id d le -a g e w ere c o n stra in in g .

HISPANA FACTORY WORKERS IN ALBUQUERQUE I w a n t to m o v e n ow into a d iscu ssio n o f d ifferen t in d u s tria l se c to rs, th o se o f e le c tro n ic s an d a p p a r e l, w h ich h a v e e x p a n d e d a n d re lo c a te d a ro u n d the g lo b e d u r in g the p a st d e c a d e s, in c lu d in g in to the N o rth A m e r ic a n " s u n b e lt,” w h e re A lb u q u e rq u e , N e w M e x ic o , h as b eco m e a m a jo r in d u stria l site. M a n a g e r s h a v e e sta b lish e d in n o v a tiv e , “ p a rtic ip a tiv e m a n a g e m e n t” sty le s in so m e o f these n ew , A m e ric a n su n -b e h fac to ries, w h ic h m a y be c h a n g in g the e x p e rie n c e o f in d u stria l w o rk for w o m en , in co n trast to p lan t relo catio n to the T h ir d W orld , w here a v ailab ility o f c h eap fem ale la b o r seem ed to be the m a jo r c rite rio n , th ese m a n a g e rs so u gh t out “ q u a lity la b o r ” — w o rk e rs w ith at le a st a h ig h sch o o l e d u c a tio n an d p re fe ra b ly so m e v o c a tio n a l tra in in g . T h u s o u r s a m p le reflects the p re d o m in a n tly M c x ic a n -A m e r ic a n r a th e r th an M e x ic a n -im m ig ra n t c h a r a c te r o f A lb u q u e r q u e 's fe m a le m a n u fa c tu rin g w o rk fo r c e .10 W e c o n d u c te d in -d ep th in te rv ie w s w ith firm m a n a g e rs a n d H isp a n ic a n d A n g lo d u a l-w o rk e r c o u p le s an d sin g le p a re n ts w h o h a d c h ild re n u n d er th e a g e o f s ix . O u r in fo rm a n ts w e re on the a v e ra g e fa ir ly y o u n g (in th eir la te tw e n tie s), a t least th ird -g e n e ra tio n b o rn in the LTn itcd S ta te s , a n d w e re the c h ild re n o f w o rk in g -c la ss fa m ilies w h o h ad m ig ra te d from

ru ra l a r e a s ,

a lth o u g h they th e m se lv e s w ere re a re d p re d o m in a n tly in u rb an a re a s. E th n ic a lly , o u r M c x ic a n -A m e r ic a n in fo rm a n is w e re Hispanos: V ir t u a lly e v e ry o n e

p referred

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" S p a n is h -

MVJERES IN FACTORIES

325

A m e r ic a n ,” o r “ H is p a n ic ” (ih c E n g lish e q u iv a le n t o f Hispano), term s th ey used in te rc h a n g e a b ly . Y e

th ey d id not d isc u ss th e ir eth n ic id e n tifica tio n

w ith e x p lic it p rid e, a n d i r m y p eo p le in d ic a te d th at th is w a s a se n sitiv e d is ­ c u ssio n . W h en a sk e d to c la rify the m e a n in g o f “ S p a n is h ," th ere w a s a m b i­ g u ity an d v a r ia tio n : to so m e in fo rm a n ts “ S p a n is h '’ m ean t a n c c strv from the o rig in a l S p a n ish se ttlers; o th ers p o in ted o u t the d istin c tiv e p h e n o ty p e o f E u r o p e a n fe a tu re s a n d fa ir skin a n d h a ir; w h ile o th e rs in d ic a te d “ S p a n is h ” m e an t a so c ia l c a te g o ry o f p eo p le d istin ct from In d ia n s o r w h ites w h o w ere S p a n is h -s p e a k e rs, b u t d ifferen t from M e x ic a n s from M e x ic o . M o s t o f o u r in fo rm a n ts d id not u se the term ’ ‘ C h ic a n o ,” a n d a b o u t h a lf su g g e ste d th ey w e re o p p o se d to the term b ecau se it w a s s la n g o r rep resen ted a to u gh lifestyle ( M e tz g a r 19 7 4 ; L im o n 19 8 1 ) . T h e term “ S p a n is h ” h a s been used to id e n tify M c x ic a n -A m e r ic a n s in n o rth ern N e w M e x ic o sin ce the n in eteen th c e n tu ry , a n d its u sa g e b ecam e p o p u la riz e d in the c h a n g in g p o litic a l, eco n o m ic, a n d so cial c o n tc x t o f N ew M c x ic a n p o litics d u r in g the e a r ly tw en tieth c e n tu ry . T h is w a s a tim e w h en the N e w M e x ic a n ec o n o m y w a s e x p a n d in g in resp o n se to th e c o n stru c tio n o f the ra ilro a d s a n d the en cro ac h m en t o f an A n g lo b u sin e ss c la ss. It w a s a lso a tim e w h en n a tiv e -b o rn M c x ic a n -A m e r ic a n s saw th eir p o rtio n o f the p o p u la ­ tio n , w h ic h h ad been m ore th an tw o -th ird s, sta rt to d w in d le ; w h en v a rio u s p o litic a l m o v em en ts w e re a c tiv e — in c lu d in g M e x ic a n s y n d ic a lis ts a n d the p o p u list Gorras Blancas (w h ile c a p s) m o v em en t to re trie v e M e x ic a n -o w n e d la n d ; w h en th ere w a s an a tte m p t 10 in su re th at the N e w M e x ic o stateh o o d d e b a te (in 1 9 1 2 ) a n d the re su ltin g d e c isio n s a b o u t a p p o rtio n m e n t in clu d ed fu ll p a rtic ip a tio n b y n a iiv c N e w M e x ic a n s. N e w M e x ic o H is p a n ic s so u g h t out a term that d istin g u ish e d them from the racist d isa p p ro b a tio n s m ad e a g a in st M e x ic a n s , y e t fa c ilita te d the s tru c tu ra l in teg ratio n o f an e th n ic a lly d istin c t g r o u p (G o n z a le z 19C 9; G o n z a le s 19 8 6 ). T h e term “ S p a n is h ” b e c a m e h e g e m o n ic a m o n g M e x ic a n -A m e ric a n s in the n o rth ern p a rt o f the sta te . N e w M e x ic o b e g a n in d u stria liz in g in the la te 19 6 0 s, fu eled b y the g ro w th o f the a p p a re l an d e lec tro n ic s in d u strie s, w h ic h in creased em p lo y m e n t b y n e a r ly 4 0 0 p ercen t. A lb u q u e r q u e ’ s ec o n o m y w a s h ereto fore b a se d on “ g u n s an d b u tte r” — m ilita r y b a se s, g o v e rn m e n t e m p lo y m e n t, a n d re tail s a le s— b y 19 8 0 m a n u fa c tu rin g w a s its th ird la rg e st se c to r ( Z a v e lla 19 8 4 ; L a m p h e r e et a l., fo rth co m in g ). C h a n g e s in in d u stria l em p lo ym en t affected w o m en an d m en d iffe re n tly , w ith w o m en c o m p risin g 80 p ercen t o f th e n ew a p p a r e l la b o r fo rce a n d the m a jo rity o f u n sk illed e le c iro n ic s w o rk e rs. In both in d u strie s w o m en w e re c o n c e n tra te d in lo w -w a g e d jo b s a s se w in g o p e ra to rs an d e le c ­ tro n ic a s s e m b le rs a n d o p e ra to rs, an d M e x ic a n -A m e ric a n w o m en m a d e up the m a jo rity o f the n ew fe m a le fa c to ry w o rk e rs. A c c o rd in g to o u r in fo rm a n ts’ w o rk h isto ries, m ost o f them h ad w o rk ed in lo w -w a g e d jo b s— su c h a s w a it­ re ss, m o tel m a id , o r fast-fo o d c le rk — in the se c o n d a ry la b o r m a rk e t p rio r to g e ttin g e m p lo y e d in a p p a re l o r e lec tro n ic s fac to ries. T h us b e c o m in g e m ­

326

StLJERES IN FACTORIES

p lo y e d in th ese n e w in d u strie s m ean t a ste p u p w ith in the w o rk in g cla ss: su n -b e lt jo b s o ffered re la tiv e ly h ig h e r w a g e s for “ w o m e n ’ s w o rk ,” an d th ere

w as som e jo b stability and excellent jo b

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a s m aternity and

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le a v e s a n d m e d ic a l in su ra n c e . T h e in c re a se in w o m e n 's e m p lo y m e n t in A lb u ­ q u e rq u e o cc u rre d d u rin g a perio d w h en o th e r in d u strie s th at p re d o m in a n tly e m p lo y e d m en — su c h a s m in in g an d o th er m a n u fa c tu r in g — w ere d e c lin in g . C h ic a n a s ' an d C h ic a n o s ’ p a rtic ip a tio n in the A lb u q u e r q u e la b o r m a rk et, th en , w a s d istin c t, w ith w o m en c o n c en trated in the n e w ly e x p a n d in g , re l­ a t iv e ly s ta b le in d u strie s w h ile the m en w ere often e m p lo y e d in d e c lin in g o r m a rg in a l o n es o r su b je c t to high u n em p lo ym en t.

DUAL-WORKER FAMILIES A m o n g the H isp a n o s w e in te rv ie w e d , there w e re fo u r m a jo r ec o n o m ic roles th at w o m en a ssu m e d in th e ir h o u seh o ld s, l hosc w h o w ere sin g le p a re n ts w e re the sole p ro v id e rs fo r th e ir c h ild re n , sin cc n on e o f th ese w o m en rec eiv ed c h ild su p p o rt from th eir c h ild r e n 's fa th e rs. S e c o n d a r y p r o v id e r s e a rn e d less th an th e ir sp o u se s, w h ereas c o p ro v id e rs c o n trib u te d a n e q u a l in co m e w ith th e ir s p o u se s, a n d m a in sta y p ro v id e rs co n trib u te d m o re in co m e th an th eir sp o u se s. T h e g r e a te r a w o m a n ’ s econ o m ic co n trib u tio n to the h o u se h o ld , the m ore lik e ly w a s h er h u sb a n d to tak e p a rt in h o u se h o ld la b o r .M H o w d id these H is p a n o s d e a l w ith , an d talk a b o u t, th eir w o r k in g liv e s a n d h o u seh o ld d iv isio n o f la b o r? B e y o n d the ju st-m e n tio n e d e c o n o m ic c o n sid e ra tio n s, the h o u se h o ld d iv is io n s o f la b o r w ere c o m p le x an d re v o lv e d a ro u n d th ree o th e r sets o f facto rs: h u s b a n d s' an d w iv e s’ w o rk sh ifts, w h o c a r e d fo r the c h ild ren d u r in g w o rk in g h o u rs, a n d fa m ily id e o lo g y — the c o u p lc 's c o m m itm en t to “ tr a d itio n a l” n o rm s re g a rd in g w h o sh o u ld be the b r e a d w in n e r an d w h o sh o u ld tak e re sp o n sib ility for h o u sew o rk (H o o d *9 8 3). T h e S e n a s o f A lb u q u e r q u e p ro v id e an in te re stin g c o m p a riso n w ith the G o n zaleses o f the S a n ta C la r a V a lle y . A lth ou gh yo u n ger than the G o n zaleses, the S e n a s h a d to d e a l w ith L e o S e n a 's exten d ed b o u ts o f u n e m p lo y m e n t, an d to re ly on T o n i’ s w a g e s to su p p o rt th eir n u c le a r fa m ily . L e o w o rk ed a s an u n sk ille d sh e e t-m e ta l w o rk er. T h e y h ad tw o g irls, a g e s ten m o n th s an d tw-o y e a r s , a n d L e o ’ s m o th er c a re d fo r h er g r a n d d a u g h te r s a t n o c h a rg e . L ik e the G o n z aleses, the S en a s had a relatively low incom e (ab o u t $ 19 ,5 0 0 the previou s y e a r ) . Y e t the m e a n in g o f e m p lo ym en t w a s d ifferen t fo r the S e n a fa m ily , in p a rt b c c a u sc o f slig h tly d ifferen t m a te ria l c irc u m sta n c e s an d in p a rt b e c a u se o f th e ir d iffe rin g c o n stru ctio n o f fa m ily id eo lo g y. T h is c o u p le h ad a re la tiv e ly e g a lita r ia n d iv isio n o f la b o r. T h e S e n a s w ere in te rv ie w e d tw ice e a c h , w ith in a p e rio d o f a b o u t tw o w e e k s, a n d o n e o f the e th n o g ra p h e rs, F e lip e G o n z a le s, w a s from A lb u q u e r ­ q u e . F u rth e r, o u r e th n o g ra p h ic team w a s o f sim ila r a g e a n d fa m ily c irc u m ­

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327

s ta n c e s th e m se lv e s— w ith a p re sc h o o l-a g e c h ild , liv in g in th e sa m e a r e a o f to w n — the p re d o m in a n tly H isp a n o . ru ra l S o u th V a lle y . P e rh a p s d u e to these s im ila ritie s in situ a tio n s, n e ith e r Ix*o n o r T o n i seem ed n e rv o u s a b o u t b ein g in te rv ie w e d , a n d eac h talk ed o p e n ly a b o u t w o rk a n d fa m ily . H a v in g p re ­ v io u s ly atte n d e d c o lle g e h erself, T o n i S e n a w a s c u rio u s a b o u t o u r re se a rc h , a n d fro m h e r e x p a n siv e , o ften fu n n y sto rie s, se e m e d to e n jo y b ein g in te r­ v ie w e d . T o n i S e n a w o rk ed a s a s e w in g o p e ra to r on the d a y sh ift a t an a p p a r e l fa c to ry , from 7 :3 0

a .m

. to 3 :3 0 p . m ., se w in g h ip p o c k e ts o n to je a n s . S h e w a s

p a id b y p ie c c r a te — that is, h e r h o u rly w a g e w a s c a lc u la te d b ased on a fo rm u la in w h ic h the sp eed an d a m o u n t sh e p ro d u c e d w ere tak en in to c o n ­ sid e ra tio n . O n a go o d , fu ll w o rk d a y sh e sew ed a b o u t 84 0 p o ck ets o n to p a irs o f je a n s , w h ic h w o rk ed o u t to an h o u rly w a g e o f a b o u t five d o lla r s an h o u r. T h is w a s alm o st the sa m e a s h e r sp o u se 's h o u rly w a g e s. B u t a t the tim e o f the in te rv ie w T o n i h ad b een w o rk in g “ sh o rt w e e k s " b e c a u se o f th e rec e ssio n o f 1 9 8 2 - 1 9 8 3 , so sh e m a d e lo w e r w t tk h w a g e s th a n h e r h u sb a n d . T o n i w a s u n d e r p re ssu re to se w even fa s te r to r a is e h er w e e k ly w ag es. T o n i w o rked a l L e slie P a n ts, w h ere m ost o f ihe w o rk e rs w ere “ S p a n is h ,* ’ but sh e d id not see the ra c e issu e a s b ein g s ig n ific a n t. A lth o u g h sh e id en tified h e r s e lf a s “ S p a n is h ,” sh e h ad a h ard tim e c la r ify in g its m e a n in g — “ U m , I d o n ’ t k n o w , from the S p a n ish o rig in , 1 g u e ss” — an d d id id e n tify , b u t o n ly v a g u e ly , a s o n e o f the g ro u p o f S p a n is h w o rk e rs a t L e slie P a n ts. T h e la b o r p ro cess w a s frag m en ted at L e slie P a n ts, w ith e a c h w o m a n w o rk in g on one p a rt o f the p ro d u ct. It w a s p o ssib le , in th e o ry , to get b e tte r-p a y in g jo b s b y m o v in g to m ore d ifficu lt la b o r p ro cesses o r by b e c o m in g a su p e rv iso r, w h o w e re p re d o m in a n tly S p a n ish a s w ell. R ut in p ra c tic e th ere w a s v e r y little jo b m o b ility , w ith the su p e rv iso ry p o sitio n s a v a ila b le o n ly w h en w o m en q u it. T h u s T o n i’ s e x p e rie n c e w a s s im ila r to the o th er S p a n is h , w h ite, a n d In d ia n w o m en w o rk in g a t L e slie P a n ts w ith its r e la tiv e ly fla t jo b la d d e r. T o n i felt a m b iv a le n t a b o u t h e r jo b : sh e sa id . " I d o n ’ t r e a lly like m y jo b th at m u c h ,” then n o ted , ' ‘ b u t it’ s a p re tty go o d jo b , c o n s id e r in g .” S h e lik ed best the frie n d sh ip s w ith o th er w o m en w o rk ers, h er s u p e r v is o r , a n d th at h e r j o b d id n ot in terfere w ith h er fa m ily re sp o n sib ilities. W ith in the h o u seh o ld d iv isio n o f la b o r. T o n i took re sp o n sib ility fo r m ore h o u se w o rk th an h e r h u sb a n d , co o k in g b re a k fa st {u s u a lly eaten o n ly on w eek en d s) a n d d in n e r, settin g the ta b le , m a k in g b ed s, w-ashing the floor, c le a n in g the b a th ro o m , p u rc h a sin g fo o d , a n d w a s h in g an d iro n in g the clo th es. S h e a lso took c h a r g e o f the m o n ey a n d u su a lly p a id the m o n th ly b ills. L e o u s u a lly took re sp o n sib ility for the “ m e n 's ” c h o re s— ta k in g o u t the g a r b a g e , ta k in g c a r e o f th eir c a r , d o in g g e n e ra l re p a irs a ro u n d the h o u se, in c lu d in g p lu m b in g an d e le c tric a l re p a irs , a s w e ll a s y a rd w o rk — an d he u s u a lly m a d e the b a g lu n ch es for h im se lf an d h is w ife, w a sh e d d ish e s, an d

m

M U JF.R ES IN F A C T O R IE S

v a c u u m e d . T o g e th e r th ey d ecid ed on la rg e p u r c h a s e s , su ch a s in sta llin g s o la r p a n e ls 10 th e ir hom e. T h e S e n a s sh a re d the m a jo rity o f the c h ild c a re ta sk s— th ey b o th w o u ld a w a k e n the g ir ls , d re ss th em , feed th em , b a th e th em (a lth o u g h T o n i w o u ld d o th is m o re o fte n ), p u t th em to b ed , tak e them to a c tiv itie s, c h a n g e d ia p e rs, an d d is c ip lin e them . I'o n i w o u ld u su a lly tak e th e g ir ls to d o c to r o r d en tist a p p o in tm e n ts, an d s ta y h o m e w ith them i f th ey w e r e too ill fo r the m oth er-in la w to h a n d le them . O n a ty p ic a l W’o rk d a y , 'l'o n i w o u ld u su a lly p r e p a re the girls* d ia p e r b a g s w h ile h e r h u sb a n d w o u ld d re ss a n d d ia p e r th em in the m o rn in g s b efore w o rk .

Toni

u s u a lly d r o v e

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to h e r m o ih e r -in -la w ’s h o u se.

(L e o ’ s

re tire m e n t-a g e d m o th er h ad n e v e r w o rk ed o u ts id e the h o m e.) A fte r w o rk , sh e w o u ld p ic k u p the g ir ls a n d sta y a few h o u rs ta lk in g w ith h er in -la w s. L eo w o u ld com e hom e an d d o housew ’ork: Then [after work] I’ ll clean the yard or do something around the yard; I'm putting a fem e up now, doing little tilings like that. O r wash the dishes, or clean the house, vacuum , make the bed, and I ’ ll ju s t clean up until she comes with the b a b ie s .. . . Then, soon as she gets here, either she'll start cooking dinner or I ’ ll have dinner cooked already. (O K , m ost o f the time, who will do the dinner?) She will, sometimes I will. . . . If'the house is dirty, we have dishes or something, which we mostly have, so we clean up first, lioth o f us clean up; and then w e'll play with the babies a little while an d she'll start [dinner]. In the e v e n in g s, th ey w o u ld p la y w ith the g ir ls , b a th e th em , a n d p u t th em to b e d , a n d “ ju s t talk , o r g o o v e r w h a t b ills w e h a v e to p a y .* ’ O n e o f the d a u g h ­ ters h ad th e h a b it o f g o in g to sleep r e a lly la te, a n d L e o took re sp o n s ib ility for s ta y in g u p w ith the ch ild u n til sh e fell a s le e p . T o n i g r e a tly a p p re c ia te d this; “ I d o n ’ t k n o w h o w he d o es it. I c a n ’ t. I h a v e to b e a sle e p o r I won't be good the next day (e m p h a sis m in e ]. . . . I cou ld n e v e r d o th a t. B u t so m etim es h e’ ll sta y tip w ith th em , w a tc h in g T V ’ , ’ til

2 :0 0

a

.m .

. . . H e ’ s re a l go o d a b o u t it; he gets

u p w ith th e g irls . I d o n 't. . . . I f th ey n eed to b e c h a n g e d o r so m e th in g , he g ets up.** R e g a r d in g the su m o f c h ild c a re ta s k s , then , L e o m a y h a v e d o n e fe w e r th an h is w ife , but in h er m in d he m a d e u p for th is b y ta k in g on the p a rtic u la rly d ifficu lt an d tim e -co n su m in g c h o re o f sta y in g u p w ith th eir d a u g h te r. T h e S e n a s h ad not d iscu sse d h o w th ey w o u ld d iv id e u p h o u seh o ld w o rk . L e o sa id : “ W e ju s t rely on in stin ct, on w h a t h a s to b e d o n e ” ; w h ile T o n i n oted : “ It kin d o f ju st h a p p e n e d . W c w e re both w o rk in g a n d . . . h e 's a lw a y s helped” [e m p h a sis m in e ]. Y e t L e o ’s “ in stin c ts” in c lu d e d a se n sitiv ity to his w ife ’ s fe e lin g s o f fa tig u e. S o m e tim e s T o n i c a m e h o m e feelin g e x tr a tire d , so h e r h u sb a n d w o u ld d o m ore h o u sew o rk on th o se d a y s. H e sa id , “ I f sh e feels tired o r so m eth in g , then I 'll ju s t d o it [th e h o u s e w o r k ],” an d estim a te d th at th is o c c u rre d ab o u t o n ce a w eek. B o th w ere g e n e ra lly satisfie d w ith the

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h o u se h o ld d iv isio n o f la b o r. W h en a sk e d h o w sh e felt a b o u t the w a y ch o res w e re d iv id e d , T o n i sa id : Real good. (H ave you and your husband talked about doing things differently?) No, I think we both like the w ay it is right now. (When you first got m arried, did you talk about how you were going to d ivid r up ihr chores?) I don't remem­ ber; I don’ t think so. I ju st think it kind o f happened- We were both working, and I think it ju s t . . . he’s real good about that. H e's alw ays helped. T o n i a d m itte d th at sh e so m etim es fe ll it w a s u n fa ir th a t sh e h ad to w o rk an d sp e n d so m u ch lim e ta k in g c a re o f the h o m e a n d c h ild re n , b u t she q u a lifie d h e r re sp o n se : “ B u t th a t's o n ly w h en I'm feelin g b a d . B u t m ost o f the tim e, it ’s not b a d , I d o n ’ t c o m p la in .”

L eo sa id , “ I t 's been w o rk in g o u t p retty

go o d . . . . I ju s t w a tc h m o re on h o w sh e feels an d sniff, a n d i f 'b f rnn't do it [e m p h a sis m in e ], I 'll ju s t g o a h e a d a n d d o it.” T h e r e w e re s e v e ra l fa c to rs that c o n trib u te d to the S e n a ’ s re la tiv e ly e g a l­ ita ria n p ra c tic e . T h e y h ad eco n o m ic d iffic u ltie s in the e a r ly y e a rs o f th eir m a rria g e . W: hen th ey first m a rrie d , L e o w a s w o rk in g a s a m in er, m ak in g a b o u t ten d o lla r s a n h o u r, w h ile T o n i w a s a tte n d in g c o lle g c . T o n i q u it sch o o l to e a rn m o n e y to fin a n c e th eir w a d d in g an d m a k e a d o w n p a y m e n t to w ard the p u rc h a s e o f th eir m od est h o m e. B u t then the S e n a s h ad a strin g o f b a d lu ck . L e o lost h is jo b so on after th ey found o u t th at T o n i w a s p re g n a n t. B e c a u se h e r h u sb a n d w a s u n e m p lo y e d , T o n i’ s p r im a r y m o tiv atio n to retu rn to h er j o b w a s eco n o m ic, a lth o u g h sh e liked the o p p o rtu n ity o f “ gettin g o u t o f the h o u se ” an d d id not w an t to b eco m e a fu ll-tim e h o m em ak er. T o n i got p re g n a n t a scco n d tim e w h ile h e r h u sb a n d w a s e m p lo y e d a t a lo w '-p avin g jo b , bu t he w a s la id o ff a g a in , th is tim e fo r an e xten d ed p e rio d . F o r a b o u t a y e a r a n d a h a lf T o n i su p p o rte d the fa m ily w h ile L e o took c a r e o f th e ir tw o b a b ie s. H e e v e n tu a lly found h is c u rre n t jo b at h a lf h is fo rm e r m :n in g w a g e s. T h u s T o n i’ s w a g e s w e re c ru c ia l d u r in g th o se p e rio d s w h en h e r h u sb an d w a s u n e m p lo y e d a n d , a fte r he sta rte d w o rk in g , th ey relied on h er w a g e s— w h ic h w e re n e a r ly e q u a l to th o se o f L e o 's — to k eep u p th eir h o u se p a y m e n ts. C le a r ­ ly , T o n i w a s a n ec o n o m ic c o p ro v id c r, an d h er fa m ily d e p e n d e d on h er w a g e s a n d jo b b en efits. T h e Sen as contrasted stro n gly w ith the G o n zaleses in their re.atively ega l­ ita ria n c o n stru c tio n o f h o u seh o ld se x u a l d iv isio n o f la b o r. T o n i firm ly b e­ lie v e d th a t re sp o n sib ility for ec o n o m ic m a in te n a n c e sh o u ld be sh a re d b e ­ tw een h u sb a n d an d w ife . S h e a lso a g re e d stro n g ly that w o m en need to w o rk to h e lp th e ir fa m ilie s a n d d isa g re e d w ith the n otion th at m en sh ould g e t the h ig h e r-p a y in g jo b s , s a y in g : “ w o m en h a v e to su p p o rt fam ilies so m e tim e s to o .” S h e d is a g re e d w ith the v ie w th at it is b etter fo r a m a r ria g e i f a h u sb a n d e a rn s m o re m o n ey th an h is w ife. S h e sa id : “ W e ’ v e h ad it both w a y s, a n d it d o e sn ’ t se e m to m a tte r.” T o n i w a s not stro n g ly co m m itte d to th r n otion o f a w o m a n b e in g a fu ll-tim e h o u sew ife an d m o th er: “ ’C a u s e y o u d o n ’ t a lw a y s

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w a n t to s ta y h o m e. I t ’ s n icc to s ta y h o m e w ith th em [c h ild re n ), b u t n ot, yo u k n o w . . . it 's g o o d to g o o u t a n d w o rk too, to m eet o th e r p e o p le ." A lth o u g h sh e a g re e d th at “ w o rk in g m o th ers m iss the b e s t y e a r s o f th eir c h ild r e n 's liv e s ,” s h e q u a lifie d th is b y s a y in g , " B u i so m e tim e s y o u h a v e to w o rk an d yo u d o n 't h a v e a n y c h o ice. I d lik e to s ta y h o m e w ith th em , b u t not e v e r y d a y . I c o u ld s ta y w ith th em , lik e m a y b e a c o u p le d a y s a w e e k : it’ d b e n ic c .” S h e fo u n d w o rk to b e an im p o rta n t p a rt o f h er life th a t w o u ld b e h a rd to g iv e u p : "I c o u ld g iv e it u p lo r a w h ile , b ut not fo r a lw a y s .” L e o h a d m o re " t r a d it io n a l” v ie w s o n fa m ily ro les. H e a g re e d th at m en sh o u ld g e t m ost o f th e h ig h e r-p a y in g jo b s a n d th a t w o m en sh o u ld s ta y h o m e w ith th e ir fa m ilie s. H e sa id : “ W e ll, i f th ey h a v e s m a ll k id s— I 'm not s a y in g th e y s h o u ld — I m e a n , i f th ey w a n t, th ey sh o u ld b e w ith the k id s. L ik e m y w ife, I k n o w sh e w o u ld en jo y the k id s lots m o re i f sh e c o u ld s t a y h o m e. B u t sh e c a n 't , w c c a n ’ t affo rd to .” H e a g re e d s tr o n g ly th at w o m en need to w o rk b e c a u se o f th e h igh cost o f liv in g . L e o h esitated in resp o n se to th e n otion th at its b e tte r fo r a m a r ria g e i f the m an e a rn s h ig h e r w a g e s: T h at depends [chuckles). I'm not sure. . . . (W ould it be better for your m ar­ riage?) W ell, for m y m arriage, I would prefer I would get more money, iheu she'll be able to go to school. From m y point o f view, i f I w as getting enough m oney, she wouldn't have to go to work. (O K . w hat if she goes to school and graduates and gets a good jo b and she’s m aking more money than you, then how would you (eel about that?) I would be happy lor her. (It wouldn’ t bother you?) It wouldn't bother me. T h e S e n a ’ s h o u seh o ld d iv isio n o f la b o r w-as c le a r ly re la te d to th e lo cal e c o n o m y . “ W o m e n ’ s jo b s , ” su c h a s fa c to ry s e w in g o p e r a to r , w-ere still a v a il­ a b le in A lb u q u e r q u e d e sp ite a recessio n (a lth o u g h w ith s h o r te r h o u rs), w h e re a s m in in g jo b s w ere p a rt o f a d e c lin in g in d u stry . F u rth e r, th e a c tu a l o rg a n iz a tio n o f p ro d u ctio n w ith in the fa c to rie s w h ere w ife a n d h u sb a n d w o rk e d affected fa m ily life in im p o rta n t w a y s . L e o ’ s w o rk sc h e d u le e n a b le d h im to c o m c h o m e e a r ly , a n d he ch o se to d o h o u se w o rk w h ile he w a ite d for his w ife. F in a lly , T o n i w a s a c o p ro v id e r fo r the fa m ily , an d the m o re in ten se­ ly sh e w o rk e d the h ig h e r w e re h er w a g e s. It w a s in b o th th eir in te re sts for T o n i to g et p le n ty o f sle e p a n d , b eyo n d h is s e n s itiv ity to h er fe e lin g s, th is in flu e n c e d L e o lo d o m o re h o u se w o rk a n d c h ild c a r e . I f sh e h ad h e r c h o ice, sh e w o u ld q u it h er jo b , b ut sh e c o u ld n ’ t affo rd to. Im p lic it in b o th th e S e n a ’ s s ta te m e n ts a b o u t w h o d id h o u se w o rk w a s the n otion th at h e helped h e r w ith h o u se h o ld c h o re s, r a th e r th an th at th ey w e re to l>e sh a re d e q u a lly . T h u s w e c a n se c how- th e S e n a ’ s c irc u m sta n c e s , w ith in the co n text o f the c o n te m p o ­ ra ry , gen d ered A lb u q u e rq u e la b o r m arket, and. their strateg ic interpretation s o f “ tra d itio n a l fa m ily id e o lo g y ,” c re a te d a c o n fig u ra tio n o f w o rk an d fa m ily e x p e rie n c e s v e r y d ifferen t from th a t o f the G o n z a le s ’ .

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C O N C L U S IO N I ’ v e e m p h a siz e d h ere a fra m e w o rk th at lin k s w o m e n 's d o m e stic an d w a g e w o rk , sh o w in g h o w eco n o m ic c irc u m sta n c e s a n d fa m ily id e o lo g y p ro v id e a b a c k d ro p fo r in d iv id u a l fa m ily m e m b e rs to n e g o tia te a d iv isio n o f h o u seh o ld la b o r. T h e G o n z a le s c o u p lc co n tin u ed to a c c e p t the n otion th at h u sb a n d s sh o u ld s u p p o rt fam ilies a n d th at w iv e s ' in co m e w a s se c o n d a ry , d e sp ite the fact th at th ey relied on G lo r ia 's w a g e s to su p p o rt th e ir h o u seh o ld . F ra n k G o n z a le s 's a n g e r o v e r ih e ir p re c a rio u s ec o n o m ic c irc u m sta n c e s a n d the ne­ c e ssity th at h is in d ep en d en t w ife co n tin u e to w o rk g e n e ra te d m u ch in te rp e r­ so n a l co n flict. T h e S en a s, b y c o n tra st, w ere in a situ atio n in w h ic h th ey both w o rk ed fu ll-tim e, c o n trib u tin g e q u a lly to a “ fa m ily w a g e ," a n d h ad little c o n ju g a l co n flict. Y c i they w ere a y o u n g co u p le w ith h o p es th at T o n i w o u ld e v e n tu a lly le a v e h er ({.ciory j o b — but fo r a b e tte r-p a v in g , m ore re w a rd in g jo b , not lo r fu ll-tim e m oth erh o o d . In both c ases, fa m ily id e o lo g y a s a c u ltu ra l e x p re ssio n both sh ap ed the c o u p le s’ e x p e rie n c e s in the la b o r m ark et an d reflected the la r g e r p o litical eco n o m y in w h ich w o m e n 's w a g e w o rk h a s b e ­ co m e c ru c ia l. In ad d itio n to fa m ily id e o lo g y , h o w e v e r, these tw o co u p les m a d e h o u seh o ld a rra n g e m e n ts th at resp o n d ed to the sp ec ific c irc u m sta n c e s o f th e ir e m p lo y m e n t. In re fle c tin g on the w o m e n 's c a se s a n d m y ro le a s a fem in ist e th n o g ­ ra p h e r, I sh o u ld point o u t th at these tw o w o m en w ere in te rv ie w e d u n d e r d ifferen t c irc u m stan c e*. a n d I w a s p e rc e iv e d a s a “ p o sitio n ed s u b je c t " in d ifferen t w a y s . In m y ea rly fem in ist zeal to c o rre c t the reco rd an d s tu d y the liv e s o f C h ic a n a w o rk ers, I d id n ot in terv iew th eir sp o u ses a b o u t the h o u se­ ho ld d iv isio n o f la b o r . T h u s F ra n k G o n z a le s n e v e r h ad the e x p lic it o p p o rtu ­ n ity to p ro vid e his sid e o f the sin rv, perh ap s o n e reason for his outburst while h is w'ife g a v e h ers. F u rth e r, I w a s p e rc e iv e d a s the y o u n g c o lle g e stu d en t w o rk in g on h er p a p e r, an d m id d le -a g e d G lo r ia (a s d id o th e r c a n n e ry -w o rk e r in fo rm a n ts) often d isp la y e d frie n d ly , m a te rn a l co n d escen sio n a n d p e rh a p s d e fe n siv e n e ss a b o u t m y q u e stio n s re g a rd in g h o u seh o ld d iv isio n o f la b o r. I in te rv ie w e d G lo r ia tw ice, in the sp a n o f a few w eek s, a n d d u rin g the secon d in te rv ie w s h e felt co m p elled to a sse rt th at sh e rem a in ed on h er j o b a n d w ith h e r h u sb a n d for the sake o f h er y o u n g est c h ild . G lo r ia a lso felt d e fen siv e a b o u t the ra c e /s e x d iscrim in a tio n su it that h ad w on h er h e r n ew , b e tte r jo b , n o tin g th a t “ tro u b le m a k e rs” w e re in v o lv ed a n d sta tin g o u trig h t th a l th in gs w e re not a s b ad a s the a c tiv ists h ad in d ic a te d . T h u s G lo r ia ’ s sen se o f eth n ic id e n tity w a s co n d itio n ed b y w h a t la b o r a n d C h ic a n o a c tiv is ts w o u ld ca ll a c c o m m o d a tio n ist politics. T h e S e n a s, b y c o n trast, liv e d in a v e ry d ifferen t c o n t e x t T o n i S e n a 's v a g u e n e s s a b o u t th e m ean in g o f " S p a n i s h " reflected h e r so c ia l lo c a tio n in w h ic h both w o rk an d so c ia l n etw o rk s w ere e x c lu s iv e ly S p a n is h an d th ere

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w e re no e th n ic a lly b ased p o litic a l stru g g le s a t th e fa c to ry . S o th ere w e re few in tc re th n ic b o u n d a rie s th at w o u ld p u sh h er to c la r ify w h a t w a s u n iq u e a b o u t " S p a n is h ” p eo p le. H e r v a g u e n e ss is m o re in te re stin g w h en w c c o n sid e r th at a s m a ll m in o rity o f se w in g o p e ra to rs a t L e slie P a n ts w e re S p a n ish -sp e a k in g , M e x ic a n -im m ig r a n t w o m e n , so p re su m a b ly sh e h ad c o n sid ered w h e th e r she w a s d ifferen t fro m th em o r not. F u rth e r, L e o 's h o n est a d m issio n to r e a lly w a n tin g h is w ife to q u it h er jo b an d retu rn to c o lle g e , an d T o n i's o p en n ess a b o u t h o w sh e a n d L e o h ad ev o lv ed in to a s h a r in g a rra n g e m e n t, m a y h a v e b een in flu en ced b y th e ir sen se that th ey h ad s y m p a th e tic in te rv ie w e rs in s im ila r situ a tio n s. T h e s e tw o e x a m p le s illu stra te h o w s p e c ify in g w o m e n ’ s so c ia l lo c a tio n , in relatio n to o th er w o m en an d to m en, c la rifie s s tru c tu ra l a n d c u ltu ra l s im ila r ­ ities a n d d ifferen ces a m o n g w o m en o f the s a m e ra c c an d c la s s . T h e s e tw’o C h ic a n a fa c to ry w o rk e rs, a lth o u g h e n te rin g la b o r m a rk e ts se g re g a te d b y ra c e a n d c la ss, e x p e rie n c e d fa c to ry w o rk in v e ry d ifferen t w a y s b e c a u se th ey e n ­ tered at d ifferen t p o in ts in the in d u strie s’ h isto rie s a n d w o rk ed in ec o n o m ies w h e re fac to ry e m p lo y m e n t took o n m ean in g re la tiv e to o th e r “ w o m e n ’ s jo b s .” F u rth e r, these w o m en w e re in te rv ie w e d a t d ifferen t p o in ts in th eir life c y c le s, w ith the m id d le -a g e d co u p le b e c o m in g a w a r e o f the la ck o f o p tio n s a n d c h a n g e , w h ile the y o u n g e r c o u p le h o p ed ft>r b e lte r th in gs. In a d d itio n , th ey liv e d in re g io n s w h e re c o n stru c tio n s o f c tlm ic id e n tity w ere b a se d on v a rie d term s, w ith eth n ic id e n tity not a s sa lie n t in the N e w M e x ic o w o rk ­ p la c e b u t fo rm in g the b a sis o f w o rk e r-m a n a g e m c n t co n flict in n o rth ern C a l i ­ fo rn ia c a n n e rie s. F in a lly , d e ta ilin g th ese C h ic a it a s ' so c ia l lo c a tio n s— an d th e ir s tra te g ic resp o n ses to th e m — e n a b le s us b e tte r to e n te r in to a “ w o m en , w o rk , an d fa m ily ” a n a ly s is th at d o c s not tak e w h ite , m id d lc -c la ss w o m en a s its n o rm a tiv e su b je c t.

NOTES I ’d like to thank Louise Lam phere and Felipe G onzales for the discussions that stim u­ lated the views developed here. I ’ m indebted to D eborah Woo for the term “ social location.” Nlicaela di Leonardo gave me m any helpful, critical comments and was an extraordinarily patient editor. t . Feminist scholars have contributed to our unde rstanding o f activities that were not usually recognized as work, often because ii was done by women. T h us we now have concepts o f “ consumption work,” indicating the labor involved in provisioning households (W einbamn and Bridges 1979), the "interaction work” that eases social relations and social interaction (Fishm an 1978), and “ kinship work” that links house* holds with one another (di Leonardo 1987)— all o f which is generally done by women. 2. Some notable exceptions include research by feminist historians and historical anthropologists. See Dolores Ja n iew sk i’ s (19 8 1, 19-83) work on white and black

M U JE R E S IN FACT O R IE S

333

women tobacco workers, and Louise Lam phere's (19 8 7) analysis o f C olom bian and Portuguese women textile and jew elry workers in Rhode Island. 3. For a very interestingdiscussion that attempts such a com parative analysis, see N akano G len n ’s suggestive overview o f women o f color (1985). Deborah Woo (1985) illustrates the im portance o f the social location o f different groups o f Asian Am erican women, w'hile Segura (1984) and Hurtado (19S9} compare particular aspccts o f dif­ ferences in social location between C h ican as and white women. M y distinction be* tween race and ethnicity recognizes each as being socially constructed but sees ethnic* ity as indicating cultural, linguistic, or regional variation within the sam e racial group. 4. T h e other m ajor movements included Rcves T ijerin a's A lianza lor Social J u s ­ tice, which sought ju stice for descendants o f M exican landholders displaced by the U .S .-M exican W ar, C orky Gonzales’ s C ru sad e for Ju stic e — which creatcd an alterna­ tive Chicano-controlled school system in Denver— and the C rystal C ity, T ex a s, elec­ tion takeover by the R aza U nida political parly, lead by Jo s e Angel Gutierrez. See Acuna ( 19 8 1) , H am m erback et al. (19 8 5 ), Garnfa (1989). M unoz (1989). 5. For a full discussion and critique o f the machismo model and C hicano fam ilies, see Y b a rra (19824, 19826), Z avella (19 8 7 ). and Zinn (1980). 6. T h e works o f O ctavio Rom ano (1968, 1970, 19 7 1) and Nick V a ca {19 70 ) were probably the most influential in criticizing the lack o f historical perspectives on the C hicano experience, pointing out the Haws wiihin the dom inant theoretical models. A lso see Paredes (19 7 7 ) and Rosaldo (1985, 1986. 1989). 7. Lim on also calls for a Bakhtinian “ ethnography o f the carnivalesque,” which “ can lead not only to ideological content but also an ideology o f critical form ,” a project clearly beyond m y param eters here. 8. I use the term Chicanas to refer to all women o f M exican heritage, distinct from Latinos who are from Latin Am erican heritage. Although widely used, Hispanic is a term imposed by the U .S . Census Bureau, and m any Chicanos and Latinos dislike it. 9. T h e following section is cxccrptcd from Zavella (19 8 7). Following ethnographic convention, all names are pseudonyms. 10. Louise Lam phere and Peter B. Evar.s were Principal Investigators o f a National Science Foundation-funded project investigating the im pact o f sun-belt in­ dustrialization on working-class H ispanic and Anglo fam ilies, interviewed during 1982—1983. T h e following analysts on the household division o f labor was developed in Lam phere et al. (forthcoming). 1 1. See H artm ann (19 8 16 ) for a discussion o f this relationship between wom en’s e co n o m ic* r o le s a n d m e n 's r n n t r ib u lin n tn h ou xrltolH la b o r . M y discuiftftton h e r e fo-

cuses on how H ispanos talk about the household division o f labor, since we did not do participant observation.

B IB L IO G R A P H Y A cuna, Rodolfo. 19 8 1. Occupied Amcrica: A history o f' Chicanas> ad cd. New Y ork: H arper & Row. A lm aguer, T om as. 1975. C lass, race, and Chicano oppression. Socialist Revolution 25: 7 J - 99 -

334

MLJERES IN FACTORIES

Aptheker, Bettina. 1982. Women's legacy: Essays in rare, sex and class in American history. Am herst: U niversity o f M assachusetts Press. B arrera, M ario. 1979. Race and class in the Southwest: .’1 theory o f racial inequality. Notre Dame: U niversity o f Notre Dame Press. Blood, Robert, and Donald Wolfe, i960. Husbands and wives. New York: Tree Press. C ollier, Ja n e , M ichelle Z . Rosaldo, and Sylvia Yan agisako. 1 . Is there a fam ily? New anthropological views, in Rethinking the fam ily: Some feminist questions. Barrie Thorne and M arilyn Y alom , eds., 2 3 -3 9 . ^ ew Y o rk : Longman. C ortera. M arta. 1980. Feminism: T he C hicana and the Anglo versions: A historical analysis. In Twice a minority: Mexican American women. M argarita B. M elville, ed., a 17 —234. St. Louis: C . V . M osby. D avis, A ngela. 19 8 1. Women, race and class. New York: Random House. di Leonardo. M icaela. 1987. T he female world o f card s and holidays: Women, fami* lies and the work o f kinship. Signs 12 (3): 4 4 0 -4 5 3. Eisenstein, Zillah. 1979. Developing a theory o f capitalist patriarchy and socialist feminism. In Capitalist patriarchy and the ease fo r socialist feminism. Zillah R. Eisenstein, cd. New York: Monthly Review Press. Fishm an, Pam ela. 1978. Interaction: T h e work women do. Social Problems 25 (4): 397-406. G arcia, Ignacio M . 1989. United we win: The rise and f a ll of La Raza Unida Party. TuCson: University o f Arizona Press. G alarza, Ernesto, and Ju lia n Sam ora. 1970. Chicano studies: Research and scholarly activity. Civil Rights Digest 3 (4}: 40-42. G arza, Hisauro. 1984. Nationalism , consciousness, and social change: C hicano intclIcctuals in the United States. Ph.D. Dissertation, Sociology Departm ent, Universi­ ty o fC alifo rn ia, Berkeley. Glenn, Evelyn Nakano. 1985. R acial ethnic women's labor: T he intersection o f race, gender and class oppression. Review o f Radical Political Economics 17 (3}: 8 6 -10 8 . --------- . 1986. Issei, nisei. war bride: Three generations o f Japanese American women in domestic service. Philadelphia: Tem ple University Press. Gonzales. Phillip B. 1966. Spanish heritage and ethnic protest in New M exico: T he A nii-Fraternity Bill o f 1933. A etc Mexico Historical Review fit (4): 2 8 1-3 0 0 . Gonzales, Sylvia. 1977. T he white feminist movement: T h e C hicana perspective. The Social Science Journal 14: 68-76. Gonzalez. Nancie L . 1969. The Spaniih-Americam o f Mew Mexico: A heritage o f pride. Albuquerque: University o f New M exico Press. Ham m erback, Jo h n C ., Richard J . Jen sen , and Jo s e A ngel Gutierrez. 1985. A u m o f words: Chicano protest in the id especially 324-330 Algeria, under colonialism, 5 2 ,6 3,6 5 , 8. 70,

Altmann. Jeanne, 204.207 Altmann, Stuart, 207 Amboseli National Park (Kenya), 207 Am erkan(s), 10, t6 ,* 6 ,3 1 ,3 5 , 3 6 ,17 9 , t8i, 18 4 ,18 5 , 186, 19 5-19 6 , 19 7,19 9 n .13, 2 15 , 223; case study, 3 12 -3 3 2 passim, 383-395 passim. See also Black Americans; Chicanos; Dominican-Americans; Hailian-Amerkans; Hispanics/Hispanos; Italian-Americans; Japanesc-Californians: latin o Americans; Native Americans; Portugesc-Americarw; SpanishAmericans; United States; While Amer­ icans; Yugoslavia Americans American Anthropological As.vK'iatiun. 214 American Anthropological Association’s Committee on the Status o f Women in Anthropology, 103 Amniocentesis, varying meanings and social constructions of (case study), 383-395 Anderson, Benedict, 29-30 Anderson, Duncan M., 2t? Anderson. Mary B-. 28* Anderson, Perry, 24, *6. 27.38 n. 19. 143 Andes. See Incas Andrews. Lynne \ '.. 37 n.*o Anglo-Americans. Set White Americans Anglo-Australians. aborigines* perceptions of.

7* Almaquer, Tomas, 316 Althusser, Ixtuis, 19 ,2 1 Altman, J . , 24 1,24 7

239. 245 Angnulvani, Gabriel, 8n, 83,85 Annamitcs, 57

401

402

INDEX

Amhropology: history of. i - 3 6 passim. fourfield focus of, j - 3 ; o f women. 1.6 ; o f gen­ der, ), 6; American versus British. 4 -5; and colonialism/Imperialism, 4 ,10 . 2 1. 27, 3 2 -3 3 ; and the woman movement, 4; radi­ calism within, 21 -2 2 ; ethnography within U .S.. 22; and ideology and political mean­ ings o f gender, 36; o f empire (case study), 5 1-8 8 passim; and archaeology, 102-128; and history/ethnohisiory, 14 0 - iGG; and primatology. 206; and capitalism and knowledge creation, 375. Steaho Archaeol­ ogy: Cognitive Anthropology: "Culture and Personality": Ethnography-as-text: Evolutionism; Feminist anthropology; ideology: Kinship/kinship theory: Marx. Marxism; Physical anthropology; Political anthropology; Po m structuralism; Sexism; Social constructionism; Sociobiologv; Structural-functionalism; Structuralism Anticssentialism. 29. Set also Social construc­ tionism Anzaldua, Gloria, 127 Apache Indians, 175 Apes. 1 16, 204-223 passim Apthcker, Bcttina. 312 Aranda, Josefina, 292 Archaeology: and feminism, 8, 10 2-12 8 ; and "origins research," 28, t 0 2 - 128; and Ren­ der, sexism, racism, and production of knowledge, 10 2-12 8 Ardener. E., 176 ,18 9, 19 0 ,199 n. 15 Ardener. Shiriey, 5 1,5 2 , 5 5 ,18 9 ,19 0 , *99 n- '5 A rizp e, I-ourdes, 29a

Arnold. David. 75.8 0 ,9 3 n.37 Arnold, Karen, 102 A s a d ,T a la l.4 ,2 t. 164. i6 6 n .2 ,19 1, 377 n. 10 Asch. A.. Ashkenazi Jew s, 383, 389 Asia. 152, 29 1, 292, 296; under colonialism, 5 1- 6 8 passim, 377 n.9 Atkins. B. K .. 186 Atkinson. Ja n e , 36n. 1 Australia. 70. 106, 235-250 Austria, 182, 19(1 Aztecs, 123 Babb, Florence, 291 Baboons, 204-225 passim Bachofen, 4

Bahn, Paul G ., 119 , 129 n.8 Bailey, R- C., 347,355 B ajcm a.C arl.9 1 11.26 Bakhtin. M. M .. 3 3 3 n. 7 Ball, R., 242 Ballhatchet, Kenneth, 55,90 n. 14 Bamberger. Jo an . 8 Bangladesh. 293 Barnard, A., 376 n. 7 Barnes.John A., 365-366, 377 n. to Baroli, March, 70 Barrera, Mario, 3 15 Barrett, M., 114 Barrios de Chungara. Domitilia. 305 n. 1 1 Barro Colorado, 207 Barth, Frederick. 31 Basso, K-, 175, 251 n. 12 Bateson. Patrick, 220 Baudriliard, Jea n , t 16 Bauduin. D. C. M .. -84 Baule {Ivory Coast). 12

Bauman, R., 175 Baumann, H ., 2 5 8 ,2 5 9 ,2 6 1,2 7 4 n. 1,2 7 5 n.2 Bay, Edna, 88 n. t, 1 50 Bedouins, 19 3-19 4 , 195, 196, 197 Beidelman, Thom as, 65 Beilins, I. Z ., 357 Belgian Congo: under colonialism, 79, 81 Belgium, 74 Bell, D., 250 n.6, 25) n.9, 376 n.4 Belsev, M . A., 349 Belyuen (Australia), 235-250 Bemba. 260 Benedict. Ruth, 5. 15 ,3 7 Beneria, l-ourdes, 288,289, 290, 291, 304 n. 2, 30.SI1.7 Benhabib.Seyla, 2 5 ,12 7 Benjamin. Walter, 143 Bentley, C ., 357 Berenger-Fcraud, I... 84. 93 n. 38 Bergom-Larsson, M -286, 287, 305 n.8 Bemdt. C ., 238 Bernstein, Irwin S., 218, 2(9, 220, 22G 11.6. 227 n. 17 Beti (West Africa), 36; case study, 257-274 Biervliet, H.. 91 n.24 Binet, Jacques. 269 Binford, Lewis R.. tog. 110 , m , 1 1 3 , 1 1 5 , 125,127, 130 n.13 Binford. S. R.. 127 Biological anthropology: case study, 339-358;

INDEX

403

contributions of, (o fem inist an thropology,

B ritain . See G reat B ritain

357

B ritish E ast In d ies C o m p a n y . 5 1 - 8 8 passim B ro u , A . M . N ., 78

B irk e, L in d a , 227 n. 19 B la ck , R . B ., 39a B lack A m erican s, 3 1 , (8 7, 18 8 . 19 5 -19 6 , 3 1 4 , 3 1 6 , 3 1 7 , 3 8 3 - 3 9 5 passim . See also H aitianA m erican s

B ro w n , Ju d it h K ., 344 B ro w n , Pen ny, 14 , 18 3 B ro w n . S u sa n E ., 9 , 1 5 B row n foot. Ja n ic e N ., 6 3 ,6 7

“ B lack p e r il," 6 7 - 7 1 passim

B ru d n e r, L . A ., 2 7 5 n .6 , 34 5, 3 56

B la k ely . M ich a el, 107 B l o c h ,J e a n ,16

B ru m fiel, E lizab eth , 12 3

B lo ch . M ., 249 B loch , M a rc . 1 6 2 - 1 6 3

B ry d o n , L yn n e, 260 B u g a n d a , 14 8 , 1 5 1

B loch , M a u rice , 1 6 , 1 9 , 3 7 1 1 . 8

B u jra , Ja n e t . 1 4 .2 4 3 .3 0 5 n. to

B loch , R u th , 3 7 n .9

B u lle n . B . A .. 357

B lo od , R o b ert, 3 1 7 B lu m b crg , B . D ., 390

B u m stead , P am ela, i d ?

B lu m b c r g e r ,J. T h . P., 7 9 ,9 2 n .3 5

B u n ster, X im rn a , 291

B lu rto n -Jo n es, N ., 3 5 0 .3 5 7

B u rb a n k . V . , 236

B lu ssc, L eo n ard , 58

B u rd en c a rriers, wom en a s, 3 5 7

B ryceso n , D eborah A ., 290

B u n n . H en ry , 1 10

B o a s, F ran z, 5 , 34 a

B u rto n . M ich acI L ., 2 75 n .6 , 34 5, 356

B ock, G is d a , 7 3 , 8 3 , 9 1 n. 26

B u tch er. J o h n , 5 9 , 6 j , 6 2 ,6 3 ,9 0 n. 14

B o cq u et-S ick, M ., 9 0 n. 15

B u tterfield . H .. j 2 9 n . 5

B o liv ia , 1 7 8 ,1 8 2

B u vin ic. M a y ra , 283, 290

B o llcs. L y n n , 300 B o rd er In d u stria l P rogram , a96, 299 B ord es, F ran co is, 1 1 3

C a lifo rn ia , 3 1 2 - 3 3 2 p assim , esp ecially 3 2 0 3*4

B orker, R u th , 1 6 , 1 8 2 , 1 8 4 , 1 8 5 , 1 8 6 , 1 9 8 0 . 8

C a lla n , H ila ry , 5 1 , 5 2 , 5 5

B o scru p , E ster, 2 5 7 , 258, 2 59 , 2 6 1, 264,

C a lla w a y , H elen. 5 J , 5 2 , 5 5 , 5 9 , 6 5 . 8 5 , 8 8 n .2 C a m e ro n , D ., 19 8 n .9

2 7 4 n. t, 2 8 0 ,3 0 5 n. 7 B o tsw a n a , 34 5

C a m ero o n , case stu d y, 2 5 7 - 2 7 4

B ould in g, E lsie , 2 8 6 ,2 8 7 B ou rd ieu , P ierre, 17 7 , 188

C a n n in g industry*, and race, gen d er, and w ork

B o u rq u e, S u san C ., 34. 35 . «9 .S .« 4 4 -16 6 passim ; and la n gu a ge , R e n d e r , an d pmver, 18 2 ,

E co n o m y, local. See R egion

18 9 ; b y sex, an d prim atological theorizing.

E d e lsk y . C .. 200

c a l econom y

2 0 4 - 2 2 5 p assim ; am o n g ab origin al wom en

E fc, 3 5 ; c a se stu d y, 3 3 9 - 3 5 8

{case stu d y ), 2 3 5 - 2 5 0 p assim : ch an ges in,

E g y p t, 1 3 0 n .fi, 1 9 3 - 1 9 4

o v er tim e, am ong B eti (case stu d y ), 2 5 7 -

E h lers, T r a c y B ac h ra c h , 291

274 p assim ; and technological ch an g c in

E h re n re ich , B a rb a ra , 295

d ev elo p in g cou n tries, 2 7 8 -3 0 4 p assim ; by

E h r m a n n ,Ja c q u e s , 19

g en d er, race, and class (case s tu d y j. 3 1 2 -

E ise n ste in , Z illa h , 3 1 3

3 3 2 p assim , esp ecially 3 2 0 - 3 2 4 and 3 2 4 3 3 0 ; a n d reproduction and w o m en 's work

E isle r. R ia n e , 38 n . 2 0 , 10 3

in a fo ra g in g society (case stu d y ), 3 3 9 -

E ls h t a in .Je a n B ., 1 1 4 . 1 2 2

3 5 8 ; b y sex. a s a natu ralized phenom enon.

E lson , D ia n e , 14 . 296

3 6 1 - 3 7 6 passim ; in the field o f rep rod u c­ tive tech nologies, 3 8 6 -3 8 7

E m b er, C a r o l R ., 4 7 5 n. 6

E llison , P . T . , 3 5 7

E n gels, D a g m a r, 56

D ixo n . C . J . , 59 D ixo n , R u th . 291

E n gels. F r e d e ric k .8 , 1 0 3 , 1 4 0 - 1 5 2 passim ,

D o lh in ow , P h yllis, 207

1 t - i 2. See also M a rx . K a rl/M a rx ism E n ligh ten m en t thinking, 16

D om estic organization w ithin colonialism (case s tu d y ), 5 1 - 8 8 passim D o m in atio n , sym b olic, and gender and la n ­ g u a g e , 1 7 5 - 1 9 7 p assim . See alto M ale d o m in an ce

16 7 n . 1 5 , 2 57, 3 4 2 ,3 7 6 n .3 ; an d fem inism

E nloe, C y n th ia , 292 E q u al R ig h ts A m en d m en t, 2 1 5 E q u a t o r ia l G u in e a , 2(14

D o m in ican -A m erican s, 388

E ric k so n , F „ 18 5 F.rrington, Frederick, 29

D o m in ican R e p u b lic, 9

E ssen tialism : cu ltu ral fem inist, 26; in

D ’O n o frio -F lo res, Pam ela, 281 D o o m , J a c q u e s v a n , 7 4 ,9 0 n. 16 ,9 2 n .3 5

a rc h ae o lo g y an d origin s research, 1 0 2 - 1 2 8 p a ssim ,e sp e c ia lly 1 1 3 ; in p rim atology,

“ D ouble d a y , " o f w om en. 3 1 3

2 0 4 - 2 2 5 ; fem inist, an d kinship theory.

D ouchet, 7 8 D o u glas, M a r y T . , 261

37* - 3 7 i E th n icity : a s process, 29, 3 1 ; a s category o f so c ia l d ivisio n , 3 0 - 3 1

D ow , M aLcnlm M ., 2 7 5 n .6

E th n ic la b e ls. Set L an gu age

D ow d H a ll, Ja c q u e ly n , 70, 7 1 , 8 9 1 1 . 7

E th n o cen trism : o f w esterners regardin g

D o u glas, A . , 199 n. 10

D o w n 's S y n d ro m e , 3 8 3 - 3 9 5 passim "D r e a m in g ,’ * ab o rigin al, 2 3 7 , ,140, 250 n .8 D ro o g lever, P . J . , 5 3 D u alism /d ich otom ism . See D ichotom ism / d u a lism D u B o is. E lle n C a ro l, 37 n. 2 D u e lli-K lc in . R e n a te , 3 8 n. 25 D uign an , Peter, 5 4 ,6 6 .9 0 n. 17 D um ont, L o u is , 3 7 7 n. 1 1 D u n n ell, R o b e rt, 1 2 5 , 1 2 7 D u p u y. A ., 7 6 ,7 8 D u rk h eim . E m ile, 34a

w o m e n , technology, an d ideologies o f in­ tern atio n al d evelopm ent, 2 7 8 - 3 0 1 p assim ; in k in sh ip stu d y , 3 7 7 n .9 E th n o g ra p h ic liberalism , 4, io , 2 3 ,2 7 . 29, 30 E th n o g ra p h y : a s gen re m ad e possible by im p e ria lism , 27; creation of, an d gender, la n g u a g e , and pow er, 1 9 0 - 1 9 2 E th n o grap h y-as-text school, 2 2 - 2 4 , 3 14 ; c ritiq u e of, 2 4 - 2 7 , 3 J 7 n . to. See alio Poststru ctu ralism E th n o h isto ry: h isto ry of, 1 4 0 - 1 6 3 p assim ; and fem in ism , 1 4 0 - 1 6 3 p assim ; case studies of, 1 4 0 - 16 3 passim

D utch E a s t In d ies, u nd er colonialism (case stu d y ), 3 1 - 8 8 passim

Etienn e, M o n a . 12 , 88 n. 1 , 236, 280. 288

D utch E a s t In d ies C o m p a n y . 5 1 - 8 8 passim

E u g e n ics, an d colonialism , 72-8H passim

INDEX E u gen ics S o cie ty (N etherlan d In d ies). 7 4 .8 3

407 cu ltu ra l history, 2 t ; and poststructural-

E u ro am erican s ( U .S .) , 3 1 . Set also A m ericans

isin, 2 2 , 2 3 —2 7 ; ar|d «thnngrapl»v-as-icxt

E u ro cen trism , in an th ro p o log y an d arch arol-

school, 2 3 - 2 7 ; fem inist poscstructuralism ,

o g y , 1 1 5 - 1 2 8 passim

2 5 ; cult ural fem inist esscntialism . 2 6 - 2 7 ;

E u ro p e . 2 , 1 3 , t6 , 286. 2 9 1 ,2 9 12 .3 1 9 E u ro p ean -A m erican s, 3 1 5 , 3 2 3 . See also A m e r­ icans

an d a rch ae o lo g y , 1 0 2 - 1 2 8 ; an d ethnohisto ry. 1 4 0 - 1 6 6 ; second w a ve , an d sociobiol­ o g y , 2 1 5 ; fem inist sociobiologv, 2 1 7 - 2 2 7

E v a n s, Ju d it h , 290

passim : fem inist postm odernism , 2 2 2 - 2 2 3 ;

E v a n s, M ., 1 4 5 ,3 7 6 1 1 . 3 E v a n s, Peter B .. 3 2 5 . 3 3 3 1 1 . 10

an d scie n ce, 2 2 2 - 2 2 3 ; “ fem inization o f tech nology'" a s rad ical fem inist so cial cri­ tique, 2 8 6 -2 8 8 ; fem inist lab or studies

E v a n s, S a r a , 3 7 0 . 3 E v a n s-P ritch a rd , E . E ., 6 ,3 7 9 n. 19 E vo lu tio n ism : V icto ria n B ritish , 4; fem inist M a rx ist, 1 1 - 1 2 ; fem inist critiq u es o f M a r­ x ist evolutionism , 1 3 ; critiq u es o f M arxist

(case s tu d y ). 3 1 2 - 3 3 2 ; critiq u es o f second w a v e o li 3 1 6 ; and kinship theory, 3 6 1 - 3 7 6 passim . See also Fem inist anth ropology Fem inist anthropology*, 3 4 3 ; history' of, 1 - 3 6

evolutionism . 1 5 , 2 8 ; in arch aeo logy, 10 3 —

passim ; prefem inist eth nograph ers, 6; re­

12 8 p assim ; in M a rx ist anth ropological

w ritin g p olitical an th ro po logy, 8 ; fem inist

theorizing (case stud ies), 14 4

kinship theory, 8, 9; fem inist M a rx ist evo­

1G6 passim ;

in p rim ato lo gy, 2 0 4 - 2 2 5 p assim ; in con­

lu tion ism . 1 1 - 1 2 ; fem inist critiq u es o f

structions o f B eti "fe m a le farm ing” (case

M a rx is t evolu tionism . 1 3 , 1 5 ; fem inist

stu d y), 2 5 7 - 2 7 4 passim

stru c tu ra lism , 13 ; fem inist M a rx ism . 1 4 1 7 p assim ; problem s w ith fem inist stru c­

F a b ian , Jo h a n n e s , 38 n . 2 7 , 1 0 6 , 1 3 0 n. 14 F a b ia n s, 72

tu ra l an th ro p o lo g y, 8 2 ,8 3

G a m b lin g , am ong a b o rigin a l w om en , 2 4 6 -

G e r a ,J o a n , 10 2 , 10 7 , 12 2 , 12 4 , 1 2 5 , 12 6 , 1*7 , 13 0 n. 12

G a n n , L . H ., 54. 66, 90 n. 17

G e rio n , J u d it h , 19 8 n .4

G a m e s , G ille s dc, 6 2 , 7) G a rc ia , Ig n a cio M ., 3 3 3 n. 4 G a rfin k e l, H arcld , 20

G e v e r iz . D e b o rah . 29 C h in a . 2 6 1 G ib b , L iv , 102

G a rtre ll, B everley, 6 5, 70

G id d en s. A n th o n y , 1 6 7 0 . 1 4 . 2 5 1 n. 17

G a rz a , Hi&aurn, 3 1 5

G ilc h rist. R o b e rta . 102

G a tz , M ., 357

G illig a n . C a ro l. 19 8 n. 5 ,2 8 7

G e e r u , C lifford, 3 7 nn. 1 5 , 1 7 G e ish a ( Ja p a n ) , 14

G ilm a n , S a n d e r L . 54 . 06. 77- 88 n . 5 G itlin , T o d d . 26

G e n d er: anth ropology of. r, 6 : g e n d er re la ­

G len n , E v e ly n X a k a n o , 3 1 4 , 3 3 3 n .3

tions a n d anth ropological research . 1 . 33: a s social/cu ltu ral con stru ction , 1 7 , 2 9 - 3 1 . 3 5 ; and eth ro g ra p h y -a s-te x t sch o ol, 2 3 : as in s rp a ra b lrfro m political econom y and

“ G b b a l e co n o m y,” a n d w om en, technology, and d evelo pm en t ideologies, 2 8 8 -2 9 0 G o b in e a u ,9 i n .2 5 G o cd e ss, 8 . 2 6 - 2 7

409

INDEX GoiTman, E rv in g , 20, 39 1 G o ld e, Peggy. 37 n .4

H a iti/H a itia n s/H a itia n -A m e riran s, 386, 392,

:m n .a

G o ld m a n , I) .. 208

H ald a n e , 2 1 3

G o m b e S tream R eserve (T a n z a n ia ). 2 0 7. 2 10 G o n zales, C o rk y , 3 3 3 n .4

H a ll. D ia n a L o n g, 282 H a ll. K . R . L .,2 0 9

G o n zales, F elip e, 3 2 5 , 3 3 3 n. 1 t

H a ll, S tu a rt, 1 5 7 - 1 6 0 , 1 6 3 , 1 6 7 n. 16

G o n zales, N an cie I.., 3 2 5 G o n zales, S y lv ia , 3 1 6

H alttu n e n , K ., 1 9 9 0 . 1 0

G o o d , A .. 376 n. 7

H am ilton , A ., 2 5 1 n .9

G o o d a le .Ja n e , 9 , 2 5 1 n .9 G o o d a ll. Ju n e . 2 0 4 ,2 0 7 , 2 to

H am ilton . W illiam , 2 1 4 .2 2 7 n. 13 H am m erb ack , Jo h n C ., 3 3 3 n .4

G ood en ou gh , W ard . 5 , 1 1 .3 6 2 ,3 6 4 ,3 7 4 ,

H am m erton , Ja m e s , 7 3 .8 3 H a n d sm a n , R u ssell, 1 1 4 . 1 2 3

3?6 n .5 G o o d fic ld ,J., 386 G o od w in , C ., 184 G o o d w in . M ., 184 G o o d y . J a c k , 15 2 G o rd o n , D eb o rah . 37 n. 16 G o rd o n , L in d a , 7 3 , 1 6 1 , 1 6 3 G o rd o n , R o b ert, 64

H am b u rg , D avid , 2 2 6 n .8

H a n m c r J.,;m n .3 H an sen , K a r e n T ra n b rrg , 56, 68 H a ra w a y , D o n n a , 3 2 , 1 15 , J 1 6 .2 0 7 ,2 0 9 , 2 to. 2 1 7 - 2 1 8 , 2 2 2 . 2 2 3 . 2 2 4 ,2 2 6 nn. 2 .7 .8 ,9 , 2 2 7 0 .1 4 H ard in g . S a n d r a . 1 2 2 , 1 8 3 - 1 8 4 , 2 1 0 , 2 1 9 , 2 2 2 . 2 2 3 , 376 n. 1 , 379 n. 20

G o rn ick , V iv ia n , 3 7 n. 3

H a rd y , G e o rg e , 8 0 ,8 1

G o rilla s, 2 0 4 - 2 2 5 passim

H arito s, A ., 237

“ G o ssip ,” a s gendered resistance, 1 8 3 - 1 8 4

H arlem , 38 8

G o u gh , K a th le e n , 16 4 , 376

H a rris, M a ria , 3 8 0 .2 0

G o u ld , R ic h a rd , 109 G o u ld , S t e v e n ja y , 2 1 , 2 0 5, 220, 2 2 1

H arris, O ., 17 8 , 18 2 , 9

Mck, J o y c e , 2 9 1 M oo re. H en rietta. 3 6 n. 1. n j , 13 5 , 16 7 n. 18

M b u ii (E lc ) , ^ t .i W a / w E I 'e M ea d . M a rg a re t. 5 , io . 3 7 n .4 . 4 57, 30 5 n .8 .

M oo re, S a lly F a lk , 2 7 1

34* M ed ical d isco u rse, and gender, lan guage, and p o w e r, 1 9 5 - 1 9 6

M o ra g a , C h c rrie , 12 7

M ed icin c, an d v a ry in g social constructions

M o ral M a jo rity . 18 M oran , B a r b a r a K ., 3 7 n .3

an d m ean in gs o f reproductive technolo­

M o o re -G ilb rri, B . J . , 6 1 M o ra lity , w ithin colon ialism (case stu d y ). 57, 6 6 - 8 7 pas*im

gies, 3 8 3 -3 9 .5 p assim M ee h a n , B ., 241 M eg gitt, M e rv v n , 64

M o re l. 74

M e illa sso u x . C la u d e . 19 .4 6 5

M o rg a n , I^ w is H en ry. I I, 14 4 , 34 *

M ela n e sia . 29. 3 2 .3 3 , *47 M ella rs, P a u l, 1 1 3

M o rg a n , R ob in , 3 7 n .3 M o rris, D esm o n d , 2 1 2

M o relli, G . A ., 352 M o rg a n , E lain e, 8 , 1 0 3

M elv ille Is la n d (T iw i), 9

M oses. C la ir e G o ld b erg , 79

M en di, 1 8 8 ,1 8 9

M o ssc. G e o rg e . 72, 7 3 , 8 1 . 9 1 n n .2 5 .4 8

M e n 's a n d W om en 's C lu b (L on do n , 1880$).

M o u n d b u ild crs ( U .S .) , 105

19 2 , 19 6

M u k h o p a d h y a y . C a ro l C ., 36 n. t

M en tal re ta rd a tio n , and rep rod u ctive tech­

M u ld er, M . B ., 343

no logies. 3 8 3 - 3 9 5 passim M e rrie r, P a u l, 70 M cstizas (P e ru ), 1 4 - 1 3 M etcalf, T h o m a s, 6H

M u lk a v .M - .3 8 6

M e iz g a r, Jo s e p h V ., 3 2 5

M u n d u ru c u In d ian s, 15

M e x ic a n -A m rric a n s. Stt C h ica n o s/C h ica n a s M e x ic o /M e x ic a n s, 8 5 , 18 3 , 280, 2 9 5 - 3 0 0 p as­

M u n o z, C a r l o s jr ., 3 1 5 , 3 3 3 n .4

sim , 3 1.5 , 3 19 M ich aels, S .. 1 8 ; M icro n e sia (Ifa lu k ), 19 M id d en d o rp , \V ., 8q n. 10 M ig ra tio n , an d Chicanos., 3 1 6 M ile s, R o sa lin d . 26

M u ltin a tionals, and ch an gin g constructions o f g e n d e r in tech nologically d evelopin g n atio n s, 2 9 0 -3 0 4 passim

M u rd o ch . G . P ., 47.5 n. 6. 3 4 5 , 356 . 3 5 8 n. 3 M u rp h y , R o b ert, 3 7 n. 7 M u rp h y , Y o la n d a , 37 n. 7 “ M u te d -g ro u p ” thesis, an d gendered d o m in a­ tion, 1 8 9 - 19 0 M u te d n e ss, gen d er and pow er, 1 7 5 - 1 9 7 p assim

M ille . P ie rre , 82

M u tin y in In d ia. 6 8 .8 7

M ille r. D an iel. 106

M y e rs. F . . 18 8 . 238. 249

M ilton . K ... 3 4 3 M in d en . S ., 366

N a d le r. R o n ald . 4 1 1

M in g . H an n ek e, 5 3 . 56, 58. 6 t , 7 1 , 78,

N am b o ze, Jo se p h in e . 482

8 9 n. 1 o , 9 0 n. 1 4 ,9 2 n. 35 M in iz . S id n e y . 1 1 . 2 73 > 7 6 ,8 2 , 1 0 5 ,1 0 7, 1 5 1 ,1 7 9 ,1 8 1 , 1 8 4 ,1 8 5 ,1 8 6 , 1 9 5 -1 9 6 ,1 9 7 , 1 99 n n . 1 3 ,1 4 , 200 n . 17, 2 1 5 , 223, 286, 2 9 1 , 192, 2 9 5 -3 0 0 p assim , 3 6 8 .3 7 7 n n .8 .

421

9 ; a s e th n o g ra p h ic site, 3 1 2 -3 3 2 p assim , 3-63-395 p assim U n w in , C ., 195 U r b a n a n th ro p o lo g y , 21 V a c a , N ick, 333 n .6 V a ld e z , A rm a ltd o , 315 v an d e n B erghe, 215 v an d e n B osch, 92 n. 36 V a n d e n B ra n d . 8 9 n. 10 V a n D o o m , J a c q u e s . 7 4 ,9 0 n. 1 6 ,9 2 n. 35 V a n -H c lte n , J e a n J . , 55 V a n H ey n in g en , E liza b eth B ., 5 6 ,9 1 n. 23 V a n i u . R u th . 38 n.21 v a n M a rie , A ., 58,88 n .4 .$ o n . t6 v a n O n se le n . C h a rle s, 6 8 ,6 9 , 91 n. 23 V e e rd e , A . G ., 76 V e llu t. J e a n -L u c , 70, 75, 79. 83 V e rb a l strate g ics, a n d g e n d e r a n d pow er, 1 75“ '9 7 p assim . Stt also D isco u rse; L a n ­ g u a g e , L in g u istics, R h e to ric ; S p eech stra te g ie s V e re A llen , J . d e. 66 V e rm e e rs c h .J ., 347 V e rt u t, J e a n , 119 V ie tn a m W a r, 11 V in c e n t, J o a n . 37 n . 13 V isw c sw are n . K a m a la . 37 n . 16 V o g e l, L ., 145, >66 n . 8 “ V o ic e ’V 'V oices,” o f w o m a n /w o m e n , a n d p o w e r relatio n s, 1 7 5 -1 9 7 passim v o n M e rin g , G .,3 5 7 V rb a , L ., 220 V y g o tsk y , L .,2 5 1 n. 14 W a lk e rd in e , V ., 195, J99 n . (4 W a lb o w itz .J ., 192, 195 W a lsh , M „ 237 W’a n d e rk e n , P ., 84 W a rre n , K a y B .. 3 4 .3 5 ,1 9 0 .1 9 6 .1 9 9 m 15. 2 4 3 ,2 7 9 ,2 8 2 ,2 8 3 ,2 9 0 ,2 9 1 ,3 0 0 ,3 0 3 ,3 0 4 n n . t, 2, 305 n .6 , 3 06 n .2 0 W a s h b u rn , S h erw o o d , 1 11 ,2 0 7 . 208, 2 to , 2 2 6 n .8 W a sh in g to n , D .C ., 31 W a ts o n , P a tty J o , to g , 1 ( 5 ,1 2 3 ,1 2 5 Weaver, Thomas, 315 W r tx r , M ax , 13 W e b s te r, P a u la , 8 W c in b a u m , B a ty a, 332 n. 1 W e in b e rg , R u th , 37 n .4

422

INDEX

W e in e r. A n n e tte . 8 - 9 , i t , 17, 371, 3 7 8 n . 17 W e in e r, J F .,3 6 9 W e in e r-S T a th e m d e b a te , 17 W e lb o u rr., A licc, 102 W e lfa re benefits, a b o rig in a l w o m e n 's m an ip u la t 011 of, 2 4 2 -2 5 0 p assim W e rtsc h e J . , 251 n . 14 W e s t.C ., 185 W e ste rm a rk , E d w a rd W ., 362, 372, 374, 377 «•*» W e st C c riu m y , >8 Westkott.M., 166 Westphal-Wihl, Sarah, 37 n. t8 Whelan, Mary K., 124 Whisnam, D ., 251 n. 15 White, D . R ., 27a n . 6 , 3 4 5 ,3 5 6 ,3 5 8 n. 3 White, Hayden, 22 While, Lwisc, 56, 88 n. 1 White Americans (U .S .), 3 1 ,1 8 7 .1 9 5 -1 9 6 , 3 1 7 , 318, 3 2 5 , 327, 3 8 3 -3 9 5 passim White Australians. See Anglo-Australians Whitehead, Ann, 14

W h ite h e a d . H a rrie tt. 37 n . 8 . 1 4 5 ,3 0 5 n . 10 “ W h ite p re stig e ,” w ith in co lo n ialism , 6 2 -8 8 p assim W h itte n , P., 374 W ie ssn e r, P olly, 109 W illey . G o rd o n . 105 W illia m s, B re tt, 31 W illia m s, G eo rg e C ., 216 W illia m s, K ., 55 W illia m s, R a y m o n d , 3 1 ,1 2 7 , 1 6 3 ,1 6 6 0 .4 . >77

W illia m s. S a ra h , 1 0 5 ,1 1 2 - 1 1 3 ,1 15, 116. 117. 127. i«8 n . t. 347 w illia m s , w . L .,3 7 S n .t 6 W illis. P au l. 199 n. 10 W ilso n , E. ( ) ., 20, 2 1 3 -2 1 7 p assim W in ck cl, C . W . F., 76, 83 W in n , S ., 352 W o b st, H . M a rtin , m - i 1 2 ,115 W olf, E ric. 11, 21, 2 2, 3 8 0 .1 8 , 142, 166 n . i, i 6 ? n . 17 W olf, M arg ery . 6 , 13 W olfe, D tn a ld , 317 W o lkow itz. C a ro l. 25, 2 4 9 .2 8 8 W olof, 17 J - 180

W olpuff. M ilfo rd . 108.1 15 W o m a n m o v em en t, 2: a n d ea rly a n th ro p o l­ ogy, *

“ W o m a r th e g a th e re r," 7, 1 1 1 -1 1 6 p a ssim . 1 2 2 -1 2 8 p a ssim ; a n d p rim a to lo g y . 2111 W o m e n ,a s “ b u rd e n c a rrie rs,” 357 “ W o m en a n d d e v e lo p m e n t.” 2 7 8 -3 0 4 ; a s a field, 21, 281; c ritiq u e s of. 281 “ W o m en a n d th e s ta te ,” in an th ro p o lo g ic a l th eo rizin g , 1 4 0 -1 6 6 p assim W o m e n 's W a r o f 1929 (N ig e ria ), 193 “ W o m e n ’s w o rk .’* Set W o rk W o o , D eb o ra h , 333 n .3 W o od cock, G eo rg e , 6 1 ,6 4 W o o lg a r S .. 386 W o rk (w o m e n 's): a n d ra c e , class, w o m en , a n d fam ily (c a se s tu d y ), 3 1 2 -3 3 2 p assim ; d iv i­ sio n o f la b o r in a fo rag in g so ciety (case stu d y ). 3 3 9 -3 5 8 W o rth in g to n -R o b e rts, B. S ., 347 W o rth m a n . C ., 345. 346, 357 W ra n g h a m . R ic h a rd W ., 221 W r ig h t.*13 W y e r, M ary , 37 n. 18 W y lie, M . A liso n , 1 0 7 ,1 2 4 , 125,13011.12 W y n n e -E d w a rd s, 2 1 3 -2 1 4 . 227 n . 13 Y ak o (N ig e ria ), 260 Y an ag isak o , S y lvia, 8, 9 .2 5 , 37 n .8 . 126, 313, 3 6 1 ,3 6 5 ,3 6 7 ,3 7 3 ,3 7 8 n . 18 Y a n o m a m a . 15 Y b a rra , L e o n a rd s, 317, 333 n . 5 Y e a tm a r, A ., 3 7 1 ,3 7 5 Y e llc n .J jh n , 102, 1 2 9 ^ 7 Y erkes, R o b ert. 226 n. 7 Y o u n g . K a te . 2 5 ,2 4 9 ,2 8 5 Y u g o slav ic-A m erica n s. 320 Z a g a rc ll. A lan , 102 Z a ire , 35, 341 Z a v e lla , P a tric ia , 3 5 ,3 6 .3 1 6 ,3 2 5 .3 3 3 n n .5 .9 , 10 Z ih lm a n , A d rie n n e , 7 ,1 0 3 , 1 1 1 ,2 1 0 ,2 2 6 0 .4 Z im m e rm a n , D ., 185 Z in n . M axin e B aca, 3 1 7 ,3 3 3 n. 5 Z o olo gists, a n d fem in ist c ritiq u e s. 7

D esigner

C o m p o sito r T ext D isp lay P rin te r B in d er

U .C . P ress Staff A sco T ra d e T y p e se t tin g L td . 10/12 B askerville B askervillc R e w a rd s B ros.. Inc. E d w a rd s B ros., Inc.

“Gender at the Crossroads o f Knowledge offers us much more than a sam pling o f current work in fem inist anthro­ pology. . . . T aken together, the chapters ought to con­ vince readers that fem inist anthropology is a force to be reckoned with in the reshaping o f our intellectual life. It presents a challenge to the fam iliar conceptual categories out of w hich not only our theories but also our everyday experience are built. . . . Feminist anthropology has a very im portant analytical position in gender studies gen­ erally. . . . This volum e will do a good job o f present­ ing anthropological contributions to non-anthropological audiences.” — Rena Lederman Princeton University

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A N TH R O PO L O G Y /W O M EN ’S STUDIES

Gender at the Crossroads o f Knowledge brings feminist an­ thropology up to date, highlighting the theoretical sophisti­ cation that characterizes recent research. Twelve essays by outstanding scholars, written with the volum e’s concerns specifically in m ind, range across the broadest anthropolog­ ical terrain, assessing and contributing to feminist work on biological anthropology, primate studies, global econom y, new reproductive technologies, ethnolinguistics, race and gender, and more. The editor’s introduction makes clear the central insights feminist anthropology has to offer us in the postmodern era. “Gender at the Crossroads o f Knowledge offers us much more than a sampling o f current work in feminist anthropol­ ogy. . . . Taken together, the chapters ought to convince readers that feminist anthropology is a force to be reckoned with in the reshaping o f our intellectual life. It presents a challenge to the familiar conceptual categories out o f which not only our theories but also our everyday experience are built. . . . Feminist anthropology has a very important ana­ lytical position in gender studies generally. . . . This vol­ ume will do a good job o f presenting anthropological con­ tributions to non-anthropological audiences.” — Rena Lederman Princeton University

Micaela di Leonardo is Associate Professor o f Anthropol­ ogy, W om en’s Studies, and American Studies at Yale Uni­ versity and author o f The Varieties o f Ethnic Experience. C o v e r design: M ira T ohm E

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