FUTURE FOREST TREES OR THE IMPORTANCE OF THE GERMAN EXPERIMENTS IN THE INTRODUCTION OF NORTH AMERICAN TREES


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FUTURE FOREST TREES OR

THE IMPORTANCE OF THE GERMAN EXPERIMENTS IN THE INTRODUCTION OF NORTH AMERICAN TREES

BY

A.

HAROLD UNWIN D. Oec. Publ. (Munich)

LONDON: T. FISHER UNWIN PATERNOSTER SQUARE -MCMV

Ubc Scesbam

Iptess,

UNWIN BROTHERS, LIMITED,

WOKING AND LONDON.

PROFESSOR HEINRICH MAYR D. OEC. PUBL.

ET PH.D.,

FROM WHOM SO MUCH HELP IN

ITS

WRITING

WAS RECEIVED, THIS LITTLE BOOK IS

GRATEFULLY DEDICATED BY THE AUTHOR.

PREFACE The

German and

work

following

in

in

originally

in

the "Austrian Forestry Magazine,"

view of the increased interest taken

forestry in

England an English

perhaps be acceptable

The

appeared

writer's object

concise

manner the

ments,

chiefly

translation

in

may

in this country. is

to present in the

most

numerous experiGermany, with some American trees, most of which are known as ornamental specimens, but have not received A due attention in forest plantations here. results of

made

in

great deal of misapprehension exists as to their value,

and as Germany has done most of the

experimental forest-tree planting,

it is

instructive

to hear the consensus of opinion of that country. A.

HAROLD UNWIN,

Asst. Conservator of Forests, Southern Nigeria, late

of the Forestry Branch, Department of the

Interior, Canada.

Royal Colonial Institute, June

1905.

CONTENTS

ILLUSTRATIONS FIG. I.

NATURAL REPRODUCTION OF THE WEYMOUTH PINE

....

IN

THE ROYAL FOREST RANGE OF TRIPPSTADT, RHINE PALATINATE

H.

THIRTY-YEAR OAKS

Facing page

90

UNDERPLANTED WITH CHAM^E-

CYPARIS LAWSONIANA FIFTEEN YEARS AGO, IN THE

EXPERIMENTAL FOREST GARDENS, GRAFRATH

.

Facing page

III,

DOUGLAS

FIR,

95

TWENTY YEARS OLD, TWELVE METRES

HIGH, IN THE EXPERIMENTAL GARDENS, GRAFRATH

Facing page 100

INTRODUCTION The

extraordinarily successful results which agri-

culture

and horticulture attained through the

troduction of foreign plants in

in-

awakened the idea

Germany, more than a hundred years ago,

of introducing

foreign

ornament and increase

the

for

forest

trees,

both

for

commercial purposes, and to

value

of

forests

in

and

quality

quantity.

Attention

was

first

East

towards

directed

America, whence the story came of extraordinary timber wealth and of especially valuable

Under

the direction of Burgsdorff,

Bechstein, species

of

and

others,

about

were

finally

trees

end of the eighteenth century,

trees.

Wangenheim,

three

hundred

chosen, at

the

for experimental

planting in the woods.

Nevertheless attain

forestal

these or

did

not

importance

be-

introductions

economic

cause the experiments were carried out without plan or protection,

i.e.,

without a knowledge of

12

and requirements of the timber species, and most of them have disappeared from the forest. Damage due to the

sylvicultural

peculiarities

deer-browsing, which to-day chiefly causes the

weakening and disappearance of so many foreign

was no doubt then also the chief reason of the backwardness and killing of foreign trees, trees,

while

indigenous

touched at

From

trees

were scarcely or

not

all.

was done for about a century, but the few remnants which managed that time nothing

to hold their

own

in

parks protected from deer

have become important objects

for the study of

There

the American tree species in Germany. is

certain proof that the trees from the

part of East in

colder

America are capable of being grown

Germany,

that

they

from the

correspond,

forest point of view, to their

new requirements

as in the end they reach tree dimensions in not

German

longer periods than do native

The their

desire to

soil

species.

have timber species which

requirements were

in

more modest, or

which were more frost-hardy, than the indigenous species, as also the desire to cultivate

rare

something

and foreign which perhaps would

yield a

more valuable timber than the indigenous caused ments.

attention

And

portations of

to

trees,

be turned to new experi-

the steady, rapid

increase of im-

American timber, which came

into

home-grown

successful competition with

new experiments trees in Germany

led

timber,

in the cultivation of foreign

be

to

put

speedily

into

practice.

and

Austria

Switzerland have followed the

example of Germany

is

an

In England and Scot-

apparent holding back. land a great

France there

in

;

many experiments have been

tried,

but owing to lack of system not with the best results.

German experiments, after a twenty-year trial, can be summed up, the results are undoubtedly of great forestal value. The new So

far as

introductions

species

during this period have brought

Germany which

to

trees

the

in

modesty as

to

frost -hardiness,

and

partly equal the

German

in

duction, partly surpass

excel

requirements, in

soil

growth

rapid

will

of the next century,

as

which

;

species in timber pro-

them

promise that Germany

German

the

;

so that there

is

a

produce, in the course

much

of the splendid

American hickory, walnut, Douglasia, and white pine

wood

at

home

as she requires.

Of

the cultivation of other timber species, pitch pine, lands.

must be reserved

for

warmer

Should the above promise not be

course

such as foreign realised,

the blame must not be laid on the foreign trees,

nor on the climate,

German

but rather

soil,

nor on the

on German

German who

foresters

14

mishandle their exotics or leave them to the

mercy of the animals of the

German

have

foresters

forest.

not only by ex-

tried,

perimenting under the most different conditions, but also by studying and travelling in the

home

of the exotics, to find a natural scientific basis

and thus make the planta success and save time, money, and

as quickly as possible,

ing

trials

material.

In this respect the travels of Prof. D. Heinrich

Mayr

to

America and Asia were

results of these travels

decisive.

appeared

The "Wal-

the

in

dungen von Nord Amerika," 1890 ("Forests of North America," 1890).

These studies in America, as well as the results of European plantation experiments during the last twenty years, have brought so many scientific facts to light concerning a large number of American species that even American foresters may now improve their knowledge of the sylvicultural peculiarities of their

own

trees through

these studies.

The

object of the

following

show what timber from America

to

the

German market,

what

success

the

and, further, to

and

economic

work

little is

is

put on

show with

sylvicultural

question of the introduction of American trees 1$

being solved, particularly

My

in

warmest thanks are due

Germany. to

Mr. Wilson,

15

Deputy Consul of the United States in Munich to Mr. R. H. Campbell, Assistant Secretary and Treasurer of the tion

;

Upper

and

to

the

Canadian Forestry Associa-

Chamber

of

Commerce

for

Bavaria, for their ample help in the loan

of books, &c.

PART

I

The German Timber Imports from the United States and Canada.

TIMBER IMPORTS INTO HAMBURG.

A.

The

following statistics

annual

returns

Schiffahrt,"

conditions difficult

to

as

of

find

"

best reflect

timber market.

from

what

from

taken

Hamburg's

these

of the

are

trees

the

Handel the It

the

und

varying is

often

various

timbers are obtained. I.

ASH FROM FRAXINUS AMERICANA.

The quantities imported are small, cheaper price rather than superior quality being the only reason for the demand at all.

i; 2.

Two

RED CEDAR.

species of tree are included under this

name

as

from America, namely {a) PENCIL WOOD FROM JDNIPERUS VIRGINIANA. Year.

coming

i8 O

a

.

3 H

=° I

d 8,

gsss

5 3 a

g 3 =

SS

% g3S 3 3 iH

&i-gc88

19

CHERRY WOOD FROM PRUNUS Only very small quantities appear

Year.

in the

SEROTINA.

market reports.

20

HICKORY FROM CARYA ALBA. This very elastic wood is imported in increasing quantities as spokes and half-manufactured material rather than in the log, as in this

form

it

more

rapidly spoils.

21 7-

OAK.

obtained almost exclusively from the white oak, Quercus alba. Greater quantities are imported every year, as apparently the output of the home forests is not sufficient to cover the demand. Then, too, the American material is cheaper, and some say poor, but the manufacturers do not share this opinion. The coopers say the American wood is the best for staves. It is interesting to note, too, that a much larger quantity of ready-cut wood is imported than rough unsawn logs. About 10,000 cubic metres of parquet wood was also imported.

This

is

22

Much

the

same applies

to 9-

POPLAR, COTTONWOOD, FROM POPVLUS HONILIFEEA, although

it is

only in recent years that

it

has been imported at

all.

23

IS

o

o 1-1

o

'Z

1

24

25 B.

TIMBER IMPORTS INTO BREMEN.' I. CEDAR, CEDRELA ODORATA (?)

As the quantities are not differentiated, it is impossible from what tree the timber mentioned here is obtained.

to

know

26 C.

GEESTEMONDE.

PITCH PINE, PINUS AUSTRALIS. The

following quantities, which represent just a fifth of the timber imports into this port, are the only ones differentiated in the market reports. All other timbers are classed together. total

Year.

IMPORTS OF TIMBER AND TIMBER MANl 1896.

1897.

Goods.' Quantity.3

Building timber Stave

wood

Yellow wood

Value in Marks.

Quantity,

2,382

22,100

350

98,639

1,133,360

320,393

1,850

7,700

248

Cedar wood

m3

772.37

"5,370

m3

818.16

Mahogany

tn}

842.74

189,120

m?

11.24

Walnut

m3

20,594.96

3,751,290

m3

28,673.75

Lignum

vitae

67s

Other hard woods Cigar -box boards

Veneers

Wood pulp Wooden

nails

Cane baskets

Wood for

2,365,820

403,129

7,674

390,500

7,576

70

8,940

22

673

13,730

2,924

3,159

91,760

3.613

19

3,990

20

parquetry

22,229

Rough wooden ware Fine wooden ware

Waggons and waggon Cooperage

Wooden

248,988

parts

19,165

533,570

20,392

2,976

245,210

2,603

1,151

129,720

1,623

167,590

boats

In this general summary it is interesting to note that cedar and walnut are the mosl importance. The former is obtained from Juniperus virginiana and cedrela, and the timber, pine, and spruce from Firms sirobus or resinosa, and Picea alba or nigra.

htt

From Hamburg's " Handeln Kilogrammes unless othervfe

FACTURES FROM THE UNITED STATES. 1898.

27

a

J3.

(U

u Ci

a o a o o lU

a

28

EXPORTS FROM CANADA,

F. I.

TO GERMANY." 1900.

Lumber—

St.

Hd.=

Deal Pine Deal ends..

19 I

m.

Dollars. ...

.

650 39

ft.

Planks and boards...

109

,

6,920

Timber (Square) Tons. Birch

Wood

5

...

60

Manufactures

— —

Furniture...

Wood

pulp

...

813

...

5.312

64

...

55

•••

1.250 2,157

...

1,580

1901.

Lumber-

St.

Hd.

Basswood.. Deal (pine)

m.

ft.

Planks and boards...

Shocks

204

...

436

blocks...

6,606

Match

Timber— Sq.

Ash

Tons. ...

62

..

630

Wood Manufactures — Furniture..

Matches match



...

100



...

480

& ...

Splints

Wood pulp

-

— —

... ...

18,736

29 F.

EXPORTS FROM CANADA I.

{continued).

30

UNITED STATES.'

Q.

July

I,

1903—June

i,

1904.

EXPORTS OF TIMBER TO GERMANY.

Logs and

Timber and Unmanufactured. Sawed. Hewn. M. ft. Dollars. Cubic ft. 22,335

139.247

339.000

Dollars.

other. Dollars.

23.973

1,230,703

TIMBER. Boards, Deals, and Planks.

M.

Joist

M.

Dollars.

ft.

77,086

and Scantling. Box Shocks.

ft.

Dollars.

Dollars.

3.;85

413

250

1.785,832

LUMBER. Staves.

Value.

Heading.

No.

Dollars.

Dollars.

4.317.659

303,392

19.439

All other. Dollars. 113,872

MANUFACTURES OF Furniture. N.E.S.

Hogsheads and

Trimming,

Barrels Empty.

Moulding.

'

Ware.

Dollars.

Dollars.

Dollars.

7.514

6,794

75.533

159.497

Wood

Wooden

Pounds.

Dollars.

All other. Dollars.

2,991,161

58,688

364,871

Pulp.

From "The Foreign Commerce and Navigation of the Department of Commerce and Labour, Wash-

United States." ington, D.C.

PART General

Results

of

American Trees

Plantation

the in

II with

Experiments

Germany, Austria, Great Britain,

and Switzerland.

A. East American Broad-leaved Trees. 1,

Acer dasycarpum,

White Maple, Soft

Ehrh.,

Maple, Silver Maple. Introduced into Europe in 172

1,

this tree

not attained importance in the forest, but as

an ornamental

grown wood

is

tree

in

parks.

coarse-grained,

soft,

is

has

liked

Its rapidly-

and of small

value.

2.

Acer negundo, Linne, Boxelder, Ash-leaved Maple, Manitoba Maple.

The

forestal value of this

greater than the former.

A

tree species

is

no

variety of the tree

with one or two-year-old shoots, covered with

white bloom, Acer negundo violaceum, also called

Acer

californicum, has

been used for planting

32 experiments a good deal In

Germany

^

and also

For Austria,^ owing to its rapid growth. what purpose the soft, low-valued wood is to be used is unknown. The ornamental value of the tree is great, though it is very liable to be broken in

by wind and snow

in the late

autumn.

Acer sackarinumy Wanghm., Zuckerahorn, Hard Maple, Sugar Maple.

3.

According to Booth, 3 into

Germany

this tree

was introduced

in 1735.

This tree was brought into the planting experiments chiefly because of the quality of

wood,

was

which

exceedingly

through the imports

maple wood.

Dr.

and

value

Mayr4

first

its

exaggerated of

bird's-eye

mentioned im-

portant reasons for planting and the advantages of this tree species in comparison to the indigenous

great maple or sycamore contents

of

the

sap and

namely,

;

the

bearing capacity of the same

the sugar

greater

shade-

tree.

" Die Arbeitsplane

fiir Anbauversuche und fiir die Untersuchung des waldbaulichen Verhaltens auslandischer Hol•

Danckelmann und Mundt, " Jahrbuch der preuszischen und Jagdgesetzgebung," 14 Bd., 1882, pp. 13, 27.

zarten."

Forst-

^ The planting of this tree has been practically given up. Editor. 3 " Feststellung der Anbauwiirdigkeit auslandischer Waldbaume," Berlin, 1880.

*

"Die Waldungen von Nord-Amerika," Miinchen,

1890.

33

The experiments

Germany

in

very extended nature.

Schwappach.i

to

or 0*49

hectares,

not of a

Prussia had, according

year

the

in

are

only

planted with this

acres,

In Bavaria the planting

1901

trials

places with a few trees.

0*2 tree.

are limited to a few

It thrives

everywhere

where the indigenous great maple grows, similar methods of raising and testing being suitable. Its enemies are (i) mice (peeling of the cortex at the foot of the stem), (2) deer, (3) the fungus Nectria cinnabarina, (4) frost to a lesser extent.

Nowhere

in

Europe has the sugar maple pro-

duced the especially expected bird's-eye maple wood.

The

reason for the occurrence of this

valuable misgrowth, which the great and

maple also produce, this

is

still

unknown.

Norway Whether

abnormity can be made by the continual

pruning of the branches on the stem similar to pollarding, as practised in France,

must be seen

by experimenting.

Betula

4.

lenta,

L.,

Red

Birch,

Black Birch,

Cherry Birch.

With

according to Schwap-

this tree species,

pach,2 20'20 acres had been planted up to 1901 '

" Ergebnisse der Anbauversuche

Holzarten in Preuszen."

"Zeitschrift "

wesen,'' 1901.

C

L.c.,

mit fiir

;

fremdlandischen Forst-

und Jagd-

1901, p. 151.

34 Bavaria there are only a few single specimens.

in

Dr.

Fernow/

birch

is

of the United States, says that this

only a small tree which scarcely deserves

planting, whereas

Betula

5.

Michx., Yellow Birch,

lutea,

the tree which yields the valuable

is

have not been made Betula

6.

papyrifera.

in

this

Europe.

White Only

of the

Experiments with

yellow to reddish colour. in

wood

Marsh,

Canoe

Birch,

Birch.

Austria, according to Cieslar,^ have

experiments with

this birch

to prove the usefulness of

been made in order this species in

high

mountains.

Carya

7.

Nutt,

alba,

White Hickory, Shellbark

Hickory.

With

the most important of the Carya

this,

16770 acres had been planted, according Schwappachs {l.c.\ in 1884, and in 1901

species,

to

only ioi"67 acres

left;

an unsatisfactory

taking into account the

were

doubtless

'

" Zeitschrift

'

" Zentralblatt

3

made

new

plantations,

during

this

result,

which period.

und Jagdwesen," 1901, p. 616. das gesamte Forstwesen," 1901. Das holz der empf. exot. Laubholzarten, " Forstwissenfiir

Forst-

fiir

schaftliches Zentralblatt," 1884.

35

Raising and transplanting are very

much

hin-

dered by the very deep and very tender tap-

During the

root.

growth, and

ten years

first

genous species planted with

The wood

by other

Germany has

in

proved just as valuable

as

According to

H. Mayr/

specific

Prof

Dr.

that

in

America. it

has a

gravity of 75, and, from a note from

Nuremberg, excellent

qualities as

The

growing

trees at present

produced

seeds

waggon wood. Germany have

in

showed

which

germinative power at

8.

indi-

it.

grown

of trees

of slow

is

it

usually overgrown

is

poor

or

no

all.

Carya porcina, Nutt, Hickory, Pignut Hickory.

Of

tree species,

this

which

inferior to the

is

alba in the value of the wood, there were in

1890 acres

of

in Prussia I9"62 acres, left,

and

in

1890 only 7*54

hence also a considerable reduction

the

trial

species

was

plantation

planted

Whether

areas.

the

with

alba

this

under

natural conditions, namely, in groups about one-

tenth of an acre in extent,

is

not to be seen

from the monograph.

Wood '

Sargent,

from trees grown

in

Germany shows,

"Report on the Forests of North America,"

Washington, 1884.

36 according to

and so

83,

it

Mayr

a specific gravity of

(/.f.),

equal to any in America, which,

is

according to Sargent, has a specific gravity of

83 to 86. 9.

Of

this,

Carya amara, Nutt, which

is

less valuable in

than the former,

tion

Bitternut.

there

were

every direc-

1890

in

in

Prussia 45 acres, and in 1900 only 29*89 acres

Although easy to

left.

produced excludes

it

raise,

the valueless

from further

trial

wood

planta-

tions.

Carya

10.

Nutt,

tomentosa,

Hickory,

Mocker

Nut.

Of

this

Prussia

tree

still

Carya

In

there

were

19*35 acres planted up.

as successful as

11.

species

It

has been

Prussia,

Big Shellbark Hickory. 24 acres were planted,

and of these only 0*98 acres were Further planting was given up. 12.

1901 in

was expected.

sulcata, Nutt,

1890, in

in

left in

1901.

Castanea americana, Raf., American Chestnut.

Taking into account the smaller amount of warmth required, compared to the indigenous variety, this tree was tried recently in South

37

Germany

The plantashow very much at

Professor Mayr)."

(see

are

tions

young

too

to

present.

Catalpa speciosa, Warder, Western Catalpa,

13.

Hardy

The

planting

successful

really

in

situations

warm summers.

with long,

Fraxinus

14.

are of small extent, and

trials

have only been

Catalpa.

americana,

American White

L.,

Ash. Introduced in the middle of the eighteenth

extended

century,

grown trees of this the American ash the indigenous ash

(Dessau 2)

plantations

Also recently

species exist. is

often

in

planted instead of

Germany.

mentions a plantation area

of

in the

67*62 acres in the year 1901.

Schwappach aggregate of

With

the excep-

tion

of one unimportant advantage, that of a

little

greater frosthardiness (in the late spring),

ash does not possess either in the

this

in rate of

planting It

is '

etc. ^

wood

growth any quality that would

it

in preference to the

stated at

Dessau

"Ergebnisse

der

Holzarten."

"Fw.

3

mit

wood

of the

amerikanischen

Zentralbl.," 1898.

Danckelmann, "Fraxinus americana," "Z. 3 Schwappach, I.e., 1896,

1881, p. 118.

justify

indigenous ash.

that the

Anbauversuche

or

f.

F. u. J.,"

p. 337.

38 white ash attains a higher price than that of

home-grown

Juglans nigra,

15.

The

trees.

Black Walnut,

L.,

planting of this tree, according to the data

of Schwappach, has been reduced considerably in

Prussia from 84"03 acres in 1890 to 31 "85 acres in the trial

aggregate in 1900.

This reduction

planting areas seems in the

in the

place due to

first

unsuitable sowing, which caused a late germina-

A

tion of the seed.

limitation of the planting

areas of this tree to the climatic warmest situations in

Germany

is

not necessary, as

it

has been

planted with care (naturally not in the open) at

an elevation of 1,700 It

sufficient

is

it

numerous that

failures

it is difficult

are to

still

soil

thrives.

and warm

From

the

to raise the tree, or that

with timber

be made.

timber from trees grown in

same

Southern Germany.

has good

the conclusion must not be

unfavourable results

Germany

feet in

where the oak

situation

drawn

if

specific gravity,

On

produced

in

the contrary,

Germany has

the

according to Nordlinger

^

and Mayr,2 and the same beautifully coloured heartwood, as that in America. '

"Das Vorkommen

berg," =

"A.

Only the very

auslandischer Holzarten in Wiirttem-

F. u. J.," 1882, p. 174.

"Das Holz

der empfohlenen exot. Laubholzarten," "F.

Zentralblatt," 1884, p. 136.

39

—that Tennessee —

American timber

best

tucky,

and

1

6.

is

Juglans

of Indiana,

Ken-

superior.

cinerea, L., Butter Nut.

In consequence of the small value of the timber of

this

tree,

Germany. Only Austria as a plantable will still

has scarcely been planted in

it

grow

'

and Livonia 2 mention

this tree

and plantworthy one, as the climatic

in

situations

tree

where the

black walnut already gives out.

17.

Liriodendron tulipiferum, Tulip Tree,

Yellow Poplar.

Although

this species is to

tree all over

Germany

in the

and although the wood soft,

easily

Mayr

be found as a grown

is

warmer

well

situations,

known

as being

worked, and durable (according to

especially

suitable

for

water-pipes),

it

has not received any attention forestally there only in France

3

has the tree found a place in

sylvan plantations. '

Cieslar,

=

"Forstliche

I.e.,

" Naturwiss. u. 3

"

Le

;

Vonhausen4 had

in

1881,

and

Mayr,

pp. loi, 150, 196.

ausstellung

zu

Riga,

1899,"

Studien im nordw. Ruszland," 1900. " Revue des Eaux et Tulipier," by P. Mouillefert. forstl.

Forgts," 1897. t

" Einbiirgerung fremder Holzarten," " A. F. u. J. Z.,"

1881, p. 297.

40

and Cieslar

I

in the

year 1901, drawn attention

to this species as a forest tree.

The

clear-cutting system, for the

most part

at

present predominating, gives naturally no possibility for this tree,

and

many

also

other exotics,

of growing up.

Platanus

18.

occidentalis,

Western

L.,

Plane,

Buttonwood, Sycamore, Plane Tree.

Although

tree

this

is

very extensively used

Germany and Austria

both in purposes,

it

is

for

ornamental

not cultivated anywhere on

strict

forestal lines, notwithstanding the fact that

wood with

19.

the

possesses a pre-eminently beautiful structure

its

medullary rays.

Populus

canadensis,

monilifera,

Ait.,

Monch., syn.

Populus

Canadian Poplar Cotton-

wood, Canadian Poplar, and Populus samifera, L., Balsam Poplar,

Balm of

bal-

Gilead,

Balsam Poplar. In cultivating these various species of poplars the chief idea in

Germany seems

been the production of the quantity of wood.

The wood

greatest itself is

and of no use except as backing '

recently to have possible

very

for furniture

soft,

and

Cieslar, " Uber Anbauversuche mit fremdlandischer Hol-

zarten in Osterreich,"

1901, p. 208.

"Zentralblatt

f.

d.

gesamte Forstwesen,"

41 the manufacture of paper.

The young growing

trees are peculiarly liable to injury and, indeed,

by the

destruction It is

larvse of the Cossus ligniperda.

only in the Rhine Valley

^

more

avenues,

we

find a

The growth

large area of poplar coppice.

these poplars,

that

of

particularly isolated trees in

really astonishing and, according to

is

Kisling,2 nineteen trees of this species fifty-two

years

old

and raised

at Koslin,

averaged some

In the lowlands of the 3J f m.3 of timber each. Rhine and Main, Walther found the price to be

marks per fm., and I found one could get 30 marks per f m. at Forchheim. 22

20.

Prunus

serotina, Ehrh.,

Late-blossoming

Cherry, Black Cherry.

This

tree, also,

has been known a long time in

Europe, and has enjoyed great favour for decorative

purposes.

The wood produced from

it

shows the same red heart as that of the American Generally speaking,

cherry-tree.

any valuable timber planted

it

does not yield

no

in parks, so that

comparison can be made as to the respective usefulness of the '

Walther,

"Die kanadische Pappel

Ebene," "A. F. =

p.

"Anbau

German and American

1895, p. 67. der kanadischen Pappel,"

in

serotina

der Main-Rhein-

u. J."

"A.

F. u. J.," 1898,

251. 3

= 39-1 —a

cubic metre.

cubic foot,

literally

one festmetre, one

solid

42 wood.

It

growing

at

some twenty years

is it

since attempts

under forest conditions were com-

menced. According to Schwappach's calculations, only

1

7

hectares

following,

growth,

at

any as

for,

have been

'

rate,

Booth 2

planted.

proves says,

its

The

rapidity

in

attained in the

it

course of twenty- two years a height of 14 metres

with a diameter of 60 centimetres just above the

ground.

21.

Quercus

alba, L.,

White Oak.

This tree which, from the

botanical,

sylvi-

cultural, and timber-producing points of view,

is

a very near relation of both the indigenous oaks has, nevertheless, not

been planted anywhere on

a large forestal

although as an ornamental

tree for

scale,

autumn time

it

far excels

any other kind

of oak.

Quercus macrocarpa, Michx., Large Fruited

22.

Oak, Bur Oak, Overcup Oak.

Here

again, as regards this oak, which so far

has given no proof of superiority over the native

way of Germany

planting has

species, nothing in the

trial

been attempted

outside

hectare

=

in

the park

2.47 acres.

'

I

=

" Die weitere Behandlung der Versuche mit auslandischen

Holzarten," P- 339-

"Zeitschrift

fiir

Forst-

und Jagdwesen," 1892,

43 palings,

and

only in Austria

is

it

'

that

we hear

of such experiments.

23.

Quercus palustris, du Roi,

Bog Oak, Needle

Oak, Pin Oak. This

oak

rapid-growing

with

its

beautiful

trunk has been grown as a forest tree in certain small areas in the Rhine province, Wurttemberg,

and Hungary, and it is on record that the pin oak has attained, in 48 years a height of 21 "3 metres and 44 centimetres in diameter, compared the pedunculate oak with a height of 16 -9

to

metres and diameter of 36 centimetres.

The

trunk and contents of the pin oak was 1*04 fm.,

and of the pedunculate oak only 0*49

As

regards the technical qualities of the wood,

was found

it

f.m.

to

be

inferior to the pedunculate

oak, but the tanning properties of

quite equal to

bark are

it.

Quercus rubra,

24.

its

No American oak has

L.,

Red Oak.

acquired such importance

or been so widely distributed as the red oak both

park and

in

forest,

where

it is

planted both in high

and copse forest.^ In Prussia, in the year 1900, The rapid there were some 41 "56 hectares. '

Cieslar,

'^

Weise,

I.e.,

pp. loi, 150, 196.

"Das Vorkommen

Deutschland," "Z.

f.

fremdlandischer Holzarten in

F. u. Jw.," 1882, pp. 81, 145.

44

growth of reached

oak

this

Danckelmann

'

tell

really

is

us that

very astonishing

some full-grown

trees

course of 50 to 55 years quite, and occasionally more than, 24 metres in height in the

and 50 centimetres in diameter. Eberts^ tells us the same thing about the Government District of Aachen, and Lorey

Eichhorn

4

makes out

3

from Wiirttemberg.

that

up

Dr.

to its fiftieth year

the red oak produces a greater quantity of

wood

than the home oak but from that period decreases, and Hartig S gives us the same information about

The investigations made by Mayr^ show that wood grown in Germany possesses a specific gravity in the sapwood of 64, heart 67. German oak, given the trees

one hundred years

same breadth of or 70.

rings,

old.

has a specific gravity of 67

Nordlinger7 estimates a special gravity

of only 60 for timber having rings of one

metre '

The

in breadth.

" Anbauversuche

mit

milli-

contents of tannin in

auslandischen

Holzarten in den

preuszischen Staatsforsten," "Z. f. F. u. Jw.," 1884, p. 370. = " Verhalten einiger fremdlandischer Holzarten im Regier-

ungsbezirke Aachen," "Z. 3

f.

F. u. Jw.," 1892, p. 267.

Lorey, I.e. see previous pages. " Untersuchungen iiber das Holz der Roteiche," "Forstl.-

naturw. Z.," 1895. 5

"Ergebnisse der Anbauversuche

in

Bayern," "Forstl.-

naturw. Z.," 1892. ^

L.C.,

'

Literarischer Bericht iiber

1884, p. 129.

septentrionale en Belgique,"

"Les chines de I'Amerique "A. F. u. Jz.," 1888, p. 95.

45 the bark

As

only 1-07 per cent.

is

regards the

commercial value of the wood, American opinion unfavourable to the red, and favourable to the

is

white oak, and

who

to,

about

The same

staves.

25.

talks

we have

Macoun

only

Robinia pseudoacacia,

to refer

wood

using red-oak

reports

'

come from

for

Austria.

^

L., Acacia, Locust,

False Acacia, Robinia.

No

broad-leaved tree coming from America

has been so widely distributed as the one known as

The

Robinia.

plantations

extent of

not known.

is

these Robinia

all

Alsace

reports

3

more

than 30 hectares of copse forest (Niederwald),

Hungary 4 70,000

and copse

hectares of high

forest.

We find everywhere

that in

wood matures with wonderful to

is

'

climates the

rapidity.

If Illes

5

be believed, the quantity of 50 years' old

wood amounted,

^

warm

in

Hungary,

to

250

f.m. per

"Forest Wealth of Canada," 1900, p. 27. "Os. F. u. Jz.," 1899, p. 291. Die Anbauwiirdigkeit der

Roteiche von Oberforster Spanily. 3

t

p.

"A.

Waldbaume im

Waldungen Ungarns," "A. Das Forstliche auf der F. und Jw.," 1901, p. 68.

F. u. J.," 1889, Pariser Weltaus-

F. u. J.," 1896, p. 249.

Lorey, " Die

104 und

V.

Alten, "

"Z. f. Die Akazie in Ungarn, "6st.

stellung," 5

als

Halbbauer, Edelkastanie und Akazie

Oberelsass,

Fz.," 1891, p. 321.

46 joch (yoke),' which means an increase of 15 f.m. per year and hectare the average height of the ;

trees being 27 metres,

average diameter 26

centi-

Here we have the culmination of the if we go on the basis of the poorest quality, the full increment came to 3*6 f.m. per year and hectare. From what metres.

increment at 20 years, and

Eberts

says the robinia yielded 760 f m. under

^

50 years'

Under coppice the to 20 years, and

rotation.

fixed at from

is

15

rotation in

high

from 50 to 60 years.

forest at

Acacia wood enjoys the best reputation everywhere, and in point of durability, hardness and resistance liable to

is

not far short of oak

be broken by the wind and

from early

Hares, Coccus

frost.

robiniarum also diminish

26.

itself.

Ulmus americana,

its

L.,

cacti,^

it

It is

suffers

Lecanium

growth.

American Elm, White

Elm. This for

is

known

forest culture.

It

is,

mended on account '

= 3

over the world as a tree

all

parks, but has only just been taken

up

however, strongly recom-

of

its

rapid growth.

Joch = about one acre. Der Akazienniederwald, "A. F. u. J.," 1899, p. i68. Prof. Sajo, " Die Akazienschildlaus," " Forstl.-naturw.

1896, p. 81.

for

Z.,"

47

East American Conifers.

B.

Abies balsamea, Miller, Balsam

27.

This

which shows

fir,

ornamental standard

tree,

Fir.

everywhere as an

itself

never comes up to the height

required

for

forestal

purposes

in

Germany, namely, 20 metres and more. For this reason no attempts have been made to cultivate

especially as in point of the quality

wood and adaptability for forest planting it no way superior to the indigenous species.

of is

it,

in

In Austria

growth

28.

it

in cold,

is

tested

mountainous

Juniperus virginiana, Pencil

A

Wood, Red

warm

with a view to

climate

the sweet chestnut)

proper growth of this

altitudes.

L., Virginian Juniper,

Juniper,

(such as is

a

tree.

its

first

Red

Cedar.

that required for

necessity to

Under

the

these circum-

stances the attempts at cultivation which have

been made of no value. Stein, this.

Germany would appear to be The oldest Faber plantations at

in

near Nuremberg, are merely a proof of

The

remunerative

cultivation

of

pencil

wood can only be thought of in climates warmer than the warmest in German territory, such as Hungary, Dalmatia, the South of France, &c.

48 Chamcecyparis spkcsroidea, Spach., Spherical

29.

Swamp

Cypress,

This tree

munity to

Cypress,

to be found in parks.

is

made Mayr

frost

be well worth trying

to

White Cypress. im-

Its

consider this species

in the forest at

a height

of 540 metres above sea-level. Experiments in growing it are so far, however, of a very isolated character. 30. Picea alba, Link,

White

This spruce, which ornamental

tree,

is

is

in

Pine,

White Spruce.

great favour as an

in

no way superior to the Experiments

indigenous spruce as a forest tree. are only being

made with

Pine, It

was Mayr

super

-

i

excellent

who

in the

Austrian Alps.

Lamb, Banks

Pinus banksiana,

31.

it

Pine,

Jack

Scrub Pine. first

called attention to the

sylvicultural

qualities

of

this

species of timber tree, the result being that

its

was begun on a large scale all over Germany, Russia, Austria, and even in America cultivation

itself.

In Prussia alone in the year 1900, that

is,

10 years after Mayr's book appeared, 12 hectares

were under outside

cultivation,

Prussia.

and the area

One

single

firm

is

not less

(Hein,

of

Halstenbeck) sold in quite a few years some 5,000,000 Banksia plants. '

As a

preparatory tree

"Die Waldungen von Nord-Amerika," Miinchen, 1890.

49 for the afforestation of all

swampy

waste lands in damp,

places, as well as in arid, poor, sandy,

and gravelly

soil it is

as timber, although

the best yet discovered, but

equal to the native pines

it is

as regards alburnum

and heart wood,

has no

this

decisive influence, in point of value, on the question

of cultivation.

It

is

a great mistake to

form without any reason a comparative estimate

between the timber of the Banksian and Weymouth pines on the basis of the relation of the Banksian pine wood to ordinary pine, 32.

A

Pinus rigida.

Mill, Pitch Pine.

great deal of attention has been paid to this

species of pine, especially in Prussia.

According

Schwappach some i46'5 hectares had been planted there up to 1900. A very poor opinion was formed of the results of the majority of these experiments made both in and out of Prussia. On poor, sandy soil this pine is just as good as the native species, but in marshy places where it to

succeeds better,

common

it

succumbs

sooner than the

pine to other dangers such as

from wild animals, snow

The

far

fall,

timber, to judge from

damage

&c.

American

experi-

ence, does not differ from the Banksian pine

rigida pine for

is,

producing

on the other hand, very

resin,

and

;

this

suitable

this fact alone is sufficient

to justify its continued forest cultivation.

D

The

48 ChamcBcyparis spkcsroidea, Spach., Spherical

29.

Swamp

Cypress,

This tree

munity

made Mayr

to frost

be well worth trying

to

White Cypress.

be found in parks.

to

is

Cypress,

im-

Its

consider this species

in the forest at

a height

of 540 metres above sea-level. Experiments in growing it are so far, however, of a very isolated character. 30. Ptcea alba, Link,

White

This spruce, which ornamental

tree,

is

in

is

Pine,

great favour as an

in

no way superior

made with

it

to the

tree.

Experiments

in the

Austrian Alps.

indigenous spruce as a forest are only being

White Spruce.

Pinus banksiana, Lamb, Banks Pine, Jack Pine, Scrub Pine.

31.

It

was Mayr

super

-

^

excellent

who

first

called attention to the

sylvicultural

qualities

of

this

species of timber tree, the result being that

its

was begun on a large scale all over Germany, Russia, Austria, and even in America cultivation

itself.

In Prussia alone in the year 1900, that

is,

TO years after Mayr's book appeared, 12 hectares

were under outside

cultivation,

Prussia.

and the area

One

single

firm

is

not less

(Hein,

of

Halstenbeck) sold in quite a few years some 5,000,000 Banksia plants. '

As a

preparatory tree

"Die Waldungen von Nord-Amerika," Miinchen, 1890.

49 waste lands in damp,

for the afforestation of all

swampy

places, as well as in arid, poor, sandy,

and gravelly

soil it is

as timber, although as regards

the best yet discovered, but

equal to the native pines

it is

alburnum and heart wood,

has no

this

decisive influence, in point of value, on the question

of cultivation.

It

is

a great mistake to

form without any reason a comparative estimate

between the timber of the Banksian and Wey-

mouth pines on the basis of the Banksian pine wood to ordinary Pinus rigida,

32,

A

relation of the pine.

Mill, Pitch Pine.

great deal of attention has been paid to this

species of pine, especially in Prussia.

According

Schwappach some 146*5 hectares had been planted there up to 1900. A very poor opinion was formed of the results of the majority of these experiments made both in and out of Prussia. On poor, sandy soil this pine is just as good as the native species, but in marshy places where it to

succeeds better,

common

it

succumbs

sooner than the

pine to other dangers such as

from wild animals, snow

The

far

fall,

timber, to judge from

damage

&c.

American experi-

ence, does not differ from the Banksian pine

rigida pine for

is,

producing

to justify

its

on the other hand, very

resin,

and

;

this

suitable

this fact alone is sufficient

continued forest cultivation.

D

The

50 of this pine

capacity

to

produce stool shoots,

which has been so much exaggerated (especially in magazine articles), would seem to have but importance for Germany, and then

slight forestal

only under the warmest climatic conditions.

^;^.

Pinus

Weymouth

strobus, L.,

Pine,

White

Pine.

This pine

is

the only conifer which one hundred

years ago became naturalised in the forests of

Germany and

the surrounding states.

of growth, immunity from frost,

common

pine have assured

especially as

forest,

and other

which distinguish

cultural qualities

Its rapidity

it

sylvi-

from the

it

a place in the

the extraordinarily favour-

able opinions from America as to

its

wood had

directed the attention of foresters previously to this

tree.

Weymouth

This very

what a mistake foreign

country

straight

away

it

to apply the opinion of a

respecting to

timber in one's

is

forest

of

products the

same

land in competition with In the United States of

other kinds of timber.

East America

its

valuation

the

own

pine shows

this pine

was

practically the

one

and only conifer existing amidst an ocean of broad-leaved trees which was capable of providing a strong, soft

wood

suitable for building

purposes, and hence the opinion of the Americans

as to

its

being an excellent

first-class

wood

for

51

commercial objects to

Germany

it

when

but

;

came

it

was transplanted

into conflict with three soft

and strong coniferous timbers of the highest class, namely, pine, fir, and spruce. The opinion as to

wood here

its

regards size and growing capacity

indigenous pine, better

at

and,

it

excels the

a matter of

as

fact,

both spruce and

than

first

time advances

as

As

of course, quite different.

is,

it

is

but

fir,

surpassed by the two

is

wood just mentioned. The shape of trunk is more favourable than in the case

kinds of the of

common

the

fessor

of spruce and

ducing

weight than easier for

all

but

less

is

As

fir.

quality of the

that this pine

is

pine,

Endres,'

wood

is

according

Pro-

to

than that

favourable

regards the timber-pro-

wood,

much

it

must be said

lighter as regards

the rest of European conifers, and

working up.

The

heart of this tree

is

as hard as that of the pine, and far harder than that of the

fir

and spruce, because the heart or

core, like all trees, only develops

of these

firs

after a

comparison of the pines

to

that

admissible.

The

excess of

native

all

resinous firs,

taken '

J.,"

from the

Wachstum und 1890,

p.

206.

and

firs

contents

spruce,

the collective judgment about

is

in the case

number of years, so that a wood of young Weymouth

older pines

of

even

and

not

is

are far in

pines.

Weymouth

very comprehensive Ertrag der Weymouthskiefer.

This pine,

mass

of

" A. F. u.

52 literature published

parison be

on the

made with

subject,

and

if

a com-

the above in the shape of

the few statements from the Americans (Fernow,

Spalding,

Graves,

Macoun,

Dawson,

Sargent), the result will be that the

pine

is

Gifford,

Weymouth

not one whit behind as regards the show

makes

Europe than what the Americans tell us in regard to the output and sylvicultural qualities of the wood. In all this it must not be forgotten that Weymouth pines a hundred years old are not met with every day. These have, as a rule, sprung up here and there, and cannot, therefore, possess the same fine grain as is shown in the American trees which boast of more than a hundred years grown in a thick forest. it

in

TaxodiuM distichum,

34.

Bog

Rich.,

Bald Cypress,

Cypress, Deciduous Cypress.

This beautiful ornamental tree flourishes only in

places where

mild winters prevail, such as

Southern and North-western Europe, Holland, Belgium, and neighbouring

territories,

not

for-

getting Great Britain. 35.

Thuja

occidentalis, L.,

Arbor

Vitae,

White

Cedar.

We

have no account of any

ments with is

to

this species,

be found

itself is

known

all

to

but

it

forestal experi-

may

be said that

it

over outside woods, and the tree

be very hardy.

53 36.

Tsuga canadensis,

Experimental raising of

Carr.,

Hemlock.

this tree

carried out on a small scale

has only been

One

Bavaria.

in

would think that the rapid growth, durability of the wood, and the tanning properties of the bark

would have brought nence.

Even

in

this tree into greater

America

this species of

promi-

wood

was altogether neglected (while Weymouth pine was to be got), except for the bark torn from the trunk for tanning purposes.

West American Broad-leaved

C. 37.

Trees.

Fraxinus oregana, Nutt [Frojcinus oregona, Mayr), Oregon Ash.

The experiments

with this are quite isolated,

and it has only been cultivated with success by Mayr. D,

West American

Conifers.

38. Abies amabalis, Forb., Purple Fir

Amaballs

Fir. 39.

Abies concolor, Gord., American Silver

White 40.

Fir.

Abies grandis,

Lindl.,

Great Silver 41.

Abies

nobilis,

Red

Fir,

Great Coast

Fir,

Fir.

Lindl.,

Pacific,

Noble, Fir,

Fir.

Experiments with these four

firs

have been

54

North Germany, and there

carried out chiefly in

only on a very small scale, say,

Schwappach, hardly 2j hectares 42.

in

according to all.

Chamcscyparis lawsoniana, Pari., Lawson's Cypress, Port Oxford Cedar.

The ornamental some

attention

kind of wood.

planting of parks

drew

years since to this particular

fifty

It

first

belonged to those West Ameri-

can species which came pretty well through the exceptionally cold winter which prevailed in Mid-

Europe

in

1

879-1 880, and

period that Sargent and

it

was only

Mayr

at a later

called attention to

the splendid qualities of the timber (light, very

and scented).

durable, If

we may judge from an experience of twenty wood grown in Germany is quite equal

years, the

in excellence to the

American

Forma-

variety.

wood appears in the tenth year, and wood possesses the same strong, pungent

tion of heart

the

odour

the

as

which had

this cypress,

moving the Another

many the

kind.

Strong

the worst

poles

enemy

of

namely, the root fungus, Agaricus

were

melleus,

American

fallen victim to

utilised

bark, as

fungoid

is

for

palings

often

disease

done

without rein

has proved

different plantations in

America. fatal

to

Germany, that

is,

one which attacks branches and terminal

shoots,

known

as

the bark fungus, Pestalozzia

55

funerea, the characteristics of which are a white resinous drop, a decaying belt of bark with an

intumescence node overlaying 12*7

it.

The

official

putting the experiments in Prussia at

statistics

by no means represent

hectares

attempts

at

cultivation

in

Prussia,

all

the

much

less

Germany. 43.

ChamcBcyparis nutkcensis, Spach., Nutka

Cypress, Yellow Cypress, Yellow Cedar.

This cypress, which constitutes the best wood in the

north of

has not been

West America

officially

as far as Alaska,

recommended

for planting

Germany, because of the unfavourable results of a few garden specimens. The majority of the in

experiments which were carried out by

Mayr

show that this tree is almost on a par with the Lawson cypress as regards its excellent properIn ties and the dangers to which it is liable. exposed areas, however, it is much more sensitive than the Lawson cypress. 44. Picea engelmanni,

Engelmann's Spruce.

45. Picea pungens, Engelm., Blue Spruce. 46. Picea sitkcensis, Mayr (Sichensis Trautw.

Mayr),

et

Sitka

Spruce,

Tideland

Spruce, Menzies Spruce.

As will

there

is

no prospect that these three spruces

produce a better wood than the native

article

56 other reasons were put forward for for instance,

as,

in

Sitkcsnsis, its needle-like

as a protection against

the forest.

cultivation

Pungens and

of

case

the

its

equipment which serves

damage by the denizens

of

Then, again, along with these motives which are quite incontestable from

for cultivation,

the sylvicultural economic point of view,

its

ad-

vantages as regards rapid growth, resistance to frost,

&c.,

have been dwelt upon, and,

in

fact,

was an idea that in these spruces a class of timber had been obtained which could be raised there

mountainous regions beyond the

in

own

In

spruce.

limits of

our

Prussia about 63 hectares of

Sitka spruce have been planted with very successful

results,

having been introduced into most

it

localities of the

forest zone.

very hardy against

considered

moreover,

warmer

much

Pungens

frost,

and

is is,

appreciated as an ornamental*

tree.

47.

Pinus

jeffreyi,

Engelm.,

Jeffrey's

Pine,

Black Pine. 48.

Pinus ponderosa, Lawson, Yellow Pine,

49.

Pinus scopulorum, Lemon.

Bull Pine, ,

These three

species,

which

in their botanical

characteristics

are closely

ciently distinct

from each other to be such, are

related but yet suffi-

57 cultivated

only on a small scale in Germany.

The Pinus yearling

jeffreyi with

shoots,

white bloom covered

buds without resin and

reddish brown scales with dark of a whitish

green shade,

in

light,

Leaves

tips.

robust specimens

turned somewhat towards the shoot, and about

The Pinus

23 centimetres in length.

ponderosa,

with cylindrical buds terminating abruptly in a short

tip,

whitish

brown with young shoots of a brilliant browny

close joining scales rather

tips,

green, and no bloom.

The

needles stand at right

angles from the shoot, colour dark green and of

same length as the preceding species, Pinus scopulorum. Shoots slightly bloom covered, needles shorter than in 47 and 48. Buds brown with whitish scale edges. the

Experiments are much fewer than formerly chiefly because of the susceptibility of the seed-

lings

to

the

Lophoderntium pinastri

shedding fungus).

Schwappach,

says, besides, that the plants

veloped pretty

well, for

some

in

which at

The

timber

equal to that of the indigenous product (the

name "ponderosa" is merely to show wood is heavier than the Weymouth that

its

production

West America.

unnecessary, even

that the pine),

so

if it

does

hundred years) gigantic

sizes

is

attain (after several in

de-

first

inexplicable reason

gradually withered and died later on. is

(Leaf-

his report,

58

50.

Pseudotsuga douglasii, Carr, Coast Doug-

Douglas Spruce,

lasia,

Red

Fir,

Oregon

Douglas

Fir,

Fir.

51. Pseudotsuga glauca, Mayr, Colorado Douglasia,

52.

Colorado Douglas

Pseudotsuga macrocarpa, Mayr, Big Cone

Douglas

Of

Fir.

Fir,

Big Cone Red

Fir.

these three species of Pseudotsugas,

douglasii

and glauca are the most extensively

The Pseudotsuga macrocarpa

cultivated.

far proved useless bility to frost

adopted and Britain

on account of

its

Of the two

(Mayr).

has so

great suscepti-

first

mentioned

Douglasia has been more generally

the Coast

statistics

the

it

is

to this species alone that

apply which

and excellent timber.

Great growing properties

published in

are

and Germany about

all

its

All particulars

on

this

subject confirm the dictum expressed by Mayr, that the maritime districts of the

North Sea and

the Atlantic from Mid-Europe must be considered as

the stronghold

of

the

nearest approach to this

is

Douglas

fir.

The

found in the moist

atmospheric conditions prevailing on the Northern

and Eastern slopes of certain localities of secondary mountain chains (Bavarian Forest, Fichtel Mountains).

Schwappach

gives,

l.c.^

page 264, the following

59 particulars about the height fir

attains, viz.

Age

(years)

:

which the Douglas

6o a period of eighty years on the best sandy loam soil, in

(that

the climatic stronghold of the Douglas

is,

Macoun

fir

the coast of the State of Washington). i

{l.c.

p.

134) mentions several places

which have turned out 3,000 f.m. per hectare in which trunks of less than o"6 metres and over I

'6

metres diameter were not used, which means

that the trees

years old.

were undoubtedly, several hundred

The

earliest

comparative investiga-

wood grown

in

Germany were undertaken by Mayr, who,

in

tions

1884,

with

reference

the

to

compared the oldest example

(at that time)

Germany, raised on the estate of John Booth, Kleinflottbeck, to the American wood. The German wood had the same reddish heart as the American, and displayed, with the increasing annual width of ring, an increasing specific gravity which was confirmed fifteen years later by other in

investigators

(Cieslar,

Hartig).

Mayr occupied

himself simply about the weight which he, as a disciple of Hartig,

very alpha and

assumed

omega

at that time to

be the

in point of quality of the

Mayr came

to

the conclusion that the timber of the Douglas

fir,

wood.

After his investigations

even from the poorest quality (that better than

fir

weight)

and pine timber and as regards

best qualities (weight) '

is,

is

quite

its

equal to larch.

"Report of the Canadian Forestry Association

p. 10.

is

in 1901,"

6i

The

we get from England

information that

i

confirms the fact of the red colour of the heart of

grown worth 35 M. per the timber

In that country

there.

it

is

f.m. and that only for young and rather knotty timber. In the course of twenty

years

it

has been shown that thorough forest

culti-

vation has resulted in about 200 cubic metres per

The bark

hectare being produced.

according to Semler

2

noticable for

properties (13 per cent.).

Prussia

in

statistics,

in

moreover,

its

tanning

The experiments made

according to

1900,

is,

the

official

comprised an area of 146 hectares, and

the area not officially mentioned cannot be less,

as in most cases the Douglas

planted by kinds.

itself,

Amongst

may be mentioned 53.

fir

much

was not

but as a mixture with other its

most inveterate enemies

in

weevils and roebuck.

Sequoia gigantea, Decaisne, syn. Wellingtonia.

Attempts

Giant Sequoia, Bigtree.

at raising

been made not only

this

in

genus of tree have

France, 3 Austria,

England,4 but also in Germany. '

Simpson,

=

Tropische

"The New

and

In Wiirttemberg

Forestry," 1900, p. loi.

und nordamerikanische Waldwirtschaft und

Holzkunde, 1888. 3

" Les Sequoias von Bourotte." " Revue des Eaux at ForSts,

1887," p. 489. *

Simpson,

I.e.,

104.

62 in the

year 1863 seedlings were planted in various

parts of the country

and the report on the subject

says that in the temperate lowlands these plants

were

frost-bitten in the very severe winter of

escaped the danger in the higher altitudes.

80, but

The

on clear, still, and any warmer than higher sites, and,

plains or lowlands are not

frosty nights,

as a matter of

fact,

are

than the more

colder

exposed positions, as naturally the coldest its

1879-

way

The

to the lowest point.

air finds

Sequoiae grown

under home conditions are now about 277 metres in height with a diameter of 95 centimetres one

A

metre above the ground.

high

degree

of

moisture coupled with mild winters such as

we

get on the North Sea Coast and in the higher of the

parts

West German

districts are the

Central

mountain

primary conditions of success in

the cultivation of this timber. 54.

Thuja gigantea, Nutt, Giant Arbor

Red

vitae.

Cedar.

Experiments on a pretty extensive scale were

made with this species of timber throughout Germany and Austria, and for some fifteen years they were very well maintained. their

development

occurred

unusually severe late frosts in (see

Mayr

in

Hindrances to the

in his sessional report to the

Dendrological Society in

shape of

March and April

1901),

German

and also the

63 fungoid disease already alluded to in connection with the

ChamcBcyparis lawsonsiana

Pestalozzia funerea.

In

many

caused by

localities trees

of

twenty years' growth were entirely destroyed.

55.

Tsuga mertensiana, Carr, Western Tsuga,

Western Hemlock, This Tsuga,

first

Fir,

Western Hemlock.

recommended by Mayr on

account of the better (more cylindrical and length) shape of

its

ment as compared with the Canadensis has only been tried risk

it

runs

is

in

a small way.

from early

frost

until

variety,

The

chief

the plant

reaches a height of 2 metres, after which hardy.

fuller

trunk and quicker develop-

it

is

PART Sylvicultural Characteristics

III

and Treatment of the Various

American Species of Trees.

The

solution of the question as to

stand in regard

trees

to

heat

how

and

foreign

light,

the

and physical composition of the technical treatment of seed, planting and

different chemical soil,

raising, is just as

important for the cultivation of

Europe as for its cultivation in its own home in America, For the proper utilisation of European experiences in America it should the foreigner in

be noted that In

I.

the

European reports concerning the

attempts at raising them, unfortunately very information (and that only superficial)

is

little

given on

the subject of the causes of non-growth or total

disappearance. It

must be admitted that

difficult

many

it is

sometimes a very

matter to get such information, and in

cases

it

is

even now quite 64

impossible.

65

Then,

too,

not everybody's business to ac-

is

it

knowledge openly

to faults

nised in the treatment of

and the consequence failure find speedier

committed and recog-

some

is

particular species,

that statements

to

and more permament pub-

than those referring to successful achieve-

licity

The

ments.

cause

of

poor

growth

instance, very often attributed to

any reference as frost,

as

frost

for

is,

without

to late frost, early frost, winter

needle shedding due to

frost,

or unfavourable

temperature during the period of vegetation being in fault, so that other experimenters

the

chance

of

adopting

suitable

have not got sylvicultural

measures, or to give an opinion as to the adaptability of the

timber being grown.

The knowledge of the sylvicultural qualities was acquired in Germany chiefly in exposed 2.

areas, consequently

under the most unfavourable

conditions as regards growth.

kind there

is

In areas of this

a combination of dangers acting

against the plant (such as heat, cold, drought, animals, weeds, and men), so that to spot the

plants

particular cause

or animals to which

it is

impossible

or combination of

the exotic tree

is

exposed. 3.

In most cases the exotics were given un-

favourable

soil,

on the

pretensions must be

assumption that

more modest

in

their

order to

possess a justification for their cultivation.

For

66 instance,

in

country they

this

are

very often

planted in highly cultivated gardens, where they

enjoy the

of

benefit

enclosures

already pro-

vided. 4.

In cases where these were not grown pure

planting of the foreign specie singly amongst the native trees already there

promoting

their

was often adopted

growth, the

result

for

of which

was that the exotics were overgrown and

for-

gotten. 5.

It is

not very clearly discernible from the

reports that any

number of

must be traced not

failures in

Germany

to the climate, soil, or

method

of treating the wood, but simply and solely to the

depredations of wild animals in

On the

the other hand,

experiments oaks,

larches,

German

forests.

appears very plainly from

it

American spruces, firs, maples, and ashes were

that

elms,

same physiological sylvicultural laws as their corresponding European arboreal kindred that all these American timbers can be grown in Europe under identical precautionary measures as those adopted for the home-grown species, that they can be subjected to the same methods of treatment as the indigenous trees, and that their output is equal to that of the subject to

the

;

corresponding native kinds of timber in point of durability, shape,

and excellent

It follows naturally from

all

quality. this that also the

67

American representatives of the said species of trees in America can be treated sylviculturally in

same way as

precisely the

have

relatives for

their

and

been handled

more than one hundred years

such differences

will arise

people

may make

wood.

For

European mishandled

Only

past.

according as different

different

demands on the

reason a comparison of

this

sylvicultural characteristics of the

same

the

species

of trees existing simultaneously in Europe and

America has been as far as possible avoided. If the American readers of these pages should consider this a fault,

especially find

German, on the subject

it

in

which they

necessary information as to

all

treatment of spruce,

Let

can only refer them to the

contained in the forestry publications,

statistics

will

I

firs,

pines, larches, oaks,

not be objected

prevail in America.

Both

the

&c.

that other conditions soil

and climate which

are the basis for the best development of

fir

pine

and larch are absolutely identical over all the Northern Hemisphere. The only difference is the position occupied by the timber in the internal

economics of the inhabitants of Europe, America,

and Asia. general

rule,

Pines do not, however, follow this as they do not constitute a uniform

species of tree, but are

various

kinds.

The

simply a collection of

following

survey of

the

sylvicultural peculiarities of the different kinds of

68

American timber

drawn 1.

trees cultivated

principally from

From

in

two sources

Europe

is

:

observation of the trees in their

own

observation of the trees in their

new

home. 2.

From

home,

chiefly

Germany.

As regards the first point, the studies made in the home of the American varieties of timber, are all

of the most recent date, previous investiga-

tions being principally of a systematic botanical

and geographical

character, with but

little refe-

rence to the physiological peculiarities.

The first

complete work dealing principally with the sylvicultural peculiarities of the trees

of a

who

German

is

forester. Professor

the production

Dr. H. Mayr,

America on behalf of the Bavarian Government, and subsequently proceeded on his own account to Japan and India on a search for various kinds of profitable timber, trees, and to visited

growing the same. The Americans themselves, on the occasion of an inquiry into their supply of timber and the com-

establish natural laws for

mercial value of the different species, brought a

amount of uselful forest data to light, among the number being Professor Charles Sargent, Professor F. Fernow, Charles Mohr, Dr. John Gifford, Henry Graves, Pinchot, and

considerable

a Canadian,, Macoun. Secondly,

a

great

many

observations

were

69

made during this

work

in

the five years which

Germany, Austria, and France, and

data also gathered from the Prof.

Mayr

Dr.

spent in

I

and,

;

scientific

papers of

from the very

finally,

comprehensive reports on the results of planting experiments in the State forests of

Germany and

Austria and the private woods of Great Britain.

In order to spare as the subject as to the

must be allowed during it

to

much

on

detail as possible

amount of warmth which a given species of timber

period of vegetation in order to enable

its

to begin

and complete

time, the following way,

growth

its

in

proper

which was originated by

Mayr, has been chosen.

As

trees are connected with

a certain climatic zone,

classes of timber

all

such trees may, inversely, be used for fixing the

and

climate,

may be

Within

zone.

looked

zone not only can

this

found with

of trees

classes

of trees

a

upon as a

the typical species be grown, but also

kinds

of

distribution

territorial

species

particular

climatic

the

it.

such as Abies,

other

all

Now,

as

the

Larix,

Picea,

Quercus, Fagus, Betula, &c., belong to the same climatic

sphere,

zone it

is

all

over

the

Hemi-

Northern

quite enough, for delimitating the

climatic zone of

any kind of timber,

to

mention

the typical species within whose territory

being or can be grown.

The

fact that

it

is

some

particular kind of timber can be raised outside

70 the boundaries of

distribution has

territorial

its

been used as an argument against the correctness and

adaptability

the

tion,

being

fact

that every species of

some

little

home

is

it

outgrow If

also be

English

is

an example of

territorial

its

If the

beyond

same its

and maturity of seed

Elm ( Ulmus

campestris)

this.

climatic conditions are afforded

territorial

enjoys within such

added that by our

limits,

choose

it

must be

which

to

ability to

are in a position

which

distribution

and the method and degree of

we

grown

would otherwise naturally

fructification

not required.

3.

wood can beyond

it.

the

is

it

forgotten

altogether

kept at a distance from the other

species of timber which

2.

zone forma-

:

If

1.

distance

Mayr's

of

sites,

soil,

protection, &c.,

to modify the conditions

of temperature in a positive or negative direction.

The

best data, therefore, as regards the climatic

demands of any

particular species,

ing-point for the further study of

and the

its

start-

sylvicultural

management, are to be found in the zone of vegetation in which it grows and can be raised. It

is

only in localities where seed and plants

cost almost nothing

and where trained

foresters

are absent that the dictum of ignorant growers

may be

followed,

which,

to

speak the

truth.

71 often possesses a very practical value,

you

that

may sow and

plant

all

namely, kinds

of

seeds and plants wherever you like and chance

with what results.

As tance

regards statistics on the subject of resisto

because, frost

not

frost,

for

may be

these

all

growing period of the

on

the

in

example,

May

the

in

same

which

the

In a given year,

frost

species

beginning of

but also on

tree,

occurrence of a frosty night. for

against a late

instance, hardiness

only depends

averaged,

appeared

of trees

early

are liable

and suffer from frost, which develop their buds at the beginning of May, while in another to

year the late frost only appears in June,

and

those species are liable to and suffer from frost

whose vegetation begins early in June, whereas those which began growing a month earlier have proved

less susceptible.

Much

the

same

applies to the effect of the lowest temperatures

on

trees, as the localities

in

which these occur

are liable to variations so that the idea of establishing a zone of cultivation

on the basis of the

lowest temperature of winter, as has been sug-

gested quite recently,

I.

is

not sound.

Acer dasycarpum.

This very rapid growing tree which

is

said

72 attain

to

a height of 30 metres' possesses no

from a

interest

forestal point of view.

Acer negundo.

2.

The same may be 3.

said of this tree.

Acer saccharinum.

This species can be successfully raised

With

places where other maples grow.

ception of tolerating a

maple

is

the ex-

more shade the sugar

little

so closely allied to the European great

and Norway maple that culturally

in all

all

that

latter

may be

4.

Betula

lenta.

5.

Betula

lutea.

about the

is

known

sylvi-

equally applied

to the sugar maple.

Of lenta,

two

these is

varieties,

a small growing

really only

distinguished

from

Betula

too,

lutea,

the is

a

latter,

like

all

Betula

former,

the

tree,

forest

its

regions

it is

other birches as

by Betula papyrifera. In very much like the European

substituted

other respects

it

is

birches, with the exception of its timber

of greater value, and •

tree.

resistance to frost, but in colder forest

regards

is

as

From "Rod and Gun

in

it

which

stands more shade,

Canada."

Out of the

section of the magazine, Nov., 1901, p. 18.

forestry

1Z

and

it

does

not possess

the

whiplike

latter's

branch formation. 6.

resembles

Betula papyri/era

in

European

the

respects

all

birches.

Carya

7.

This,

most

the the

requires

wherever

alba.

important

of

hickorys,

all

climate

of

the

silver

latter

can

be

grown,

the

and even if

fir,

without the seeds maturing, the cultivation of

Carya

this

quite proof against frost,

up

to its tenth year is

that,

on

account,

this

cultivation

clumps

in

broad-leaved

trees.

such

In

feasible.

is

but in

localities

stool

The

which

renders

it

tivation in

is

youth and

its

very slow in growth, so only suitable for

is

it

among

Sowing

growing

rapid is

recommended,

as planting the long-rooted hickory matter.

it

is

a

difficult

great reproductive power from the displays,

it

according

Mayr,

to

particularly suitable for

coppice cul-

which connection

supply most

On

it

will

valuable small

wood.

suitable too for

growing as high

the best

soil

is

Germany.

Carya porcina

resembles the preceding, except that

grown on pine

it

forest, lOQ-foot

trees being found in various parts of 8.

soil

it

can be

of second quality as well.

74

g.

Apart from tree,

this

quality.

its

Carya amara. advantage as a rapid growing

hickory possesses no other valuable

The same may be

said of

10.

Carya tomentosa.

11.

Carya sulcata

can only be grown on the best

soil,

where the

sweet chestnut also reaches maturity.

12.

Treatment

Castanea americana. the

is

same as

in the case of the

European chestnut. Attempts that have been to grow it outside its territorial and climatic zone have not shown better results than with its European relative.

made

13.

Catalpa speciosa.

This valuable species of wood seems only to thrive

where the nuts of the sweet chestnut come

to maturity.

winter

under a

frost.

The It

chief risks

should

it

runs are late and

be raised

light screen of tall timber

leaved trees.

in

among

clumps broad-

75

Fraxinus americana.

14-

Climate,

and treatment just the same as

soil,

with European ash,

15.

Juglans nigra.

Wherever the sweet chestnut also

flourishes,

Even

preferably

on

the

best

domain

of

the

oak,

black

in

warm

the

within

thrives this tree

be raised on good

walnut can

soil

soils.

Smaller clumps in partial clearings

situations.

or groups of trees are recommended, but plant-

ing

it

pure

On

good.

has

proved

not

be

to

the other hand, in the special zone

of the sweet chestnut mixed planting

other broad-leaved timber trees

is

among

the

quite admis-

on account of the speedy growth of the

sible

walnut.

It is

advisable to keep the nuts during

when they germinate spring they can be planted in the same the winter, so that

This

is

The years'

also

done with the Carya

in the

growth

is

much

plenty of light

it

is

easier

place.

nuts.

transplanting of seedlings of two or

Walnut than Hickory. it

any

of

in

more

the case of

With a view

to giving

necessary that the crown

be entirely exposed, but the stem enclosed by Ashes, Oaks, Maples, Beeches, and so on, for the

purpose

branches.

of

It is

growing

a

trunk

free

from

only high forest with a rotation

76 of eighty to one hundred years that

is

now being

considered. 1

6.

Juglans

cinerea.

This displays a similar attitude to the

fore-

going species, but shows a power of standing a

somewhat colder timber prohibits

The poor

climate. its

value, of its

cultivation in places

where

the black walnut can be raised.

Liriodendron tulipifera.

17.

This tree can be grown very easily within the limit assigned to the

sweet chestnut and on the

warmer

Oak

in

sites

the

zone

—that

is,

under

the lateral protection of other broad-leaved trees

and on tree

varying from good to best.

soils

loves

a straight

the

light

stem and

and

rapidly

produces

This

builds

up

a considerable

quantity of timber in a short period of time.

The

seed usually germinates very well.

Transplantation

be recommended

clumps

banks

plane liable

easy,

and

this

tree

may

for planting small areas or in

broad-leaved woods.

in the

18.

The

is

Platanus

occidentalis.

recommended for planting river now and again to inundation in the is

warmer regions of the broad-leaved woodland,

where

may be

it

utilised

in

copse or as

a

standard.

19.

Populus canadensis and balsamifera.

These trees will It

is

rapid-growing kinds of deciduous

free,

do

moderately good, but fresh

in

soil.

by means of cuttings or raised

cultivated

from seeds, in which case that the seed loses

it

important to note

germinating power a few

its

Even

days after maturity.

is

root shoots can be

Recommended

used as planting material.

to be

planted pure on river banks.

20.

Prunus

serotina.

Wherever the sweet chestnut or oaks grow this

cherry-tree

also

on medium and third

thrives.

It

is

a

rapid-

deciduous tree which can be grown

growing,

good

quality upwards).

amongst broad-leaved

soils

(from

pine

Cultivation

trees,

and

it

is

underplanting of light-loving species,

in

soils

groups

useful for filling

up

of holes due to snow, &c., in young pine plantations. 21.

The

white

oak

Quercus can

alba.

apparently

be

raised

wherever the indigenous oak grows, with which it

also

shares

treatment.

precisely

the

same method of

78

Quercus macrocarpa.

22.

This, which, next to the Quercus alba,

most important American oak, shows ference in it is

of as

In

sylvicultural qualities.

its

little

also

is

the

no

dif-

Germany

importance as the alba.

Quercus palustris.

23.

demands upon the soil than indigenous oaks, grows more rapidly than the latter, but is inferior, as already menThis oak

is

more modest

tioned, in the quality of

ment

is

whether

the it

same

in its

timber.

its

The

treat-

European oaks, but same advantages as the

as that of

possesses the

red oak has yet to be proved.

24.

Quercus rubra.

Thrives wherever oaks are to be found,

is

very quick in growth, easily transplanted, and can be utilised on indifferent of

No.

quality

and

its

3

quality).

makes

it

Its

where,

shade-bearing

growth allows

rapidity of

plantations,

slight

(pine soils

suitable for underplanting pines,

ployed later on for broad-leaved,

soils

also

and

however,

it

filling

pine, is

its

it

to

up any gaps cypress, and

be emin all

thuja

equally suitable in copse,

reproductive

capacity

smaller than in the case of the white oak.

is

79 Robinia pseudoacacia.

25.

The with

sylvicultural qualities of this tree, together

adaptabiHty, have been so thoroughly

its

described in journals dealing with forestry that there

is

hardly anything

now

species of timber tree can be forest

and

soils,

given

in coppice,

warm oak

chestnut and

be

grown both

climate

localities.

It

The Robinia may be recommended

pines.

is

new growth

it

for

roots

are

cut

property which

its

mixing

soil

and

suffers at times

made by

is

root

abundance where

shoots, which appear in great its

espe-

is

also useful for underplanting

In copse forest, where

from storms,

sweet

waste lands.

with the pines on the fourth quality it

as high

the

as

cially useful for the afforestation of

upwards, and

This

said.

and even on the poorest

same

the

to

by making

trenches.

The

roots possess of assimilating

nitrogen from the air gives

it

the character of a

valuable soil-improving species of

tree,

which

should be more widely distributed in high forest than appears to be the case at present.

26.

Apart from

elm

no

shows

peculiarities

its

Ulmus americana. greater rapidity of growth, this difference

in

its

sylvicultural

from the European mountain, Scotch

or witch elm,

Ulmus montana.

8o Abies balsamea.

27.

development and treatment are

Sylvicultural

much

pretty

European for

It

fir.

seems

the case of the

in

be more suitable

to

Northern Europe than the Central European

species, fir,

same as

the

and more

both

in its botanical

and

forestal aspects.

ChamcBcyparis spkceroidea.

28.

A

closely resembles the Siberian

rapid-growing half-shade bearing kind

fairly

domain of the sweet chestnut on moist and on fresh soil in the oak region that is, on fairly good of tree, which

is

worth growing

in the



land in groups

among

the broad-leaved timber

The few experiments made

tree.

demonstrated

its

with

it

have

Where oak

frost-hardiness.

disappears and spruce and beech predominate, of course

it

can only be planted on an area with

a south aspect. 29.

Although

makes

little

Juniperus virginiana.

this

fairly

demand

growing

rapid

either

on

soil

or climate,

nevertheless requires a considerable

warmth

to enable

dimensions. that

useful

it

it

amount of

to attain technically useful

All experiments sizes

tree

made

so far prove

can only be produced in the

natural distributive region of the sweet chestnut

where the tree may be raised

in

groups or in

8i

pine plantations on really good vation

be

is

light,

The

simple and easy.

removing

at the right time.

all

In

Its culti-

soils.

thinning should

crooked or poor material

Germany

this juniper can-

not be classed as a commercial tree,

30. Picea alba.

the

same

attitude

spruce

as

the balsam

Displays

European

towards fir

the

does

to

European variety. In America it may be cultivated and raised on the same principles which govern European foresters in regard to their spruces. It has no forestal value in Germany. the

Central

31

The

.

Pinus banksiana.

attempts at growing this

Mayr's investigations made

gave

rise,

have

to

which

in its native localities

answered

fully

tree,

all

expectations.

This very rapidly growing species of timber absolutely frost hardy, so that

the

it

will exist

extremest conditions of temperatures

posed areas, waste lands, &c.).

It

is

is

under (ex-

superior

to all other kinds of trees (even to the rest of the

pines) soils,

on the poorest,

and

in

swampy

driest,

sandy, and gravelly

districts is

the European marsh pine.

more

Its

useful than

high value for

the afforestation of waste lands, the formation of protective

or

"fore"

forest,

F

for fixing the soil

82 of sand screens,

fire

planting with and under indigenous

in

on

pines

the growing of wind and

dunes,

worst

the

class

of

land,

becomes

more and more apparent and exthe enormous sale of plants in Europe,

every day plains

notwithstanding the incredible dearness of the

seed (at present 59s. 3Jd. per pound). will

come about

in

A change

a very short time as the seed from

Banksian

pine begins

sixth year,

and thenceforward almost every year, seeds which, from my investiga-

yield

to

its

fully-formed tions,

Boden

possess sufficient powers of germination. '

also has published his researches

From

subject.

the observations

related to examples planted in the

many

forest,

(the

collected first visit

litre

this

made which

I

more than

15 years

consequently the oldest in Ger-

seeds

of

this

pine

having

been

by Professor Dr. H. Mayr during his to North America in 1885), the follow-

ing results were obtained

I

on

:

of the largest cones weighed,

fresh,

552*15 grammes. I

litre

of the smallest cones weighed, fresh,

57070 grammes. The average was therefore 561 "42. '

Samen von Pinus

Jw.," 1898, p. 17.

rigida

und

P. Banksiana. " Z.

fiir

F. u.

83

The

largest cones weighed, air dried, 407* lo

grammes.

The

smallest cones weighed, air dried,

44172

grammes. Showing an average of 424*4 1 grammes.

When

increased from litre

I

1

the

i

opened

litre to

largest

2^

bulk

their

litres.

open cones

weighed

27*60 grammes.

litre

I

of

were

cones

the

cones weighed

of the smallest open

123*55 grammes.

Average, 125*57 grammes.

The number

of the largest closed cones was

and 140 of the smallest of the largest opened cones 17, and the smallest open per

55

litre,

;

ones 38, thus averaging 97 for the closed and 27 for the open. As regards the largest cones barring two, opened at an average tempera-

all,

ture

of over

25 degrees Celsius, and

smallest 35 remained shut. is

very

common

in the

As

open

this

air,

of the

temperature

and even with

great care the cones can be heated to as as 45 degrees,

it

may be assumed

much

that ordinary

atmospherical conditions will suffice to bring

all

the banksiana cones to their opening point to at

any

within 5 per cent., as happens in the case of the Grafrath trees, partly first of all in rate

October, and partly in

March and

April.

As

the

84

empty cones remain to a great extent on the tree and close up again in damp weather, this is the reason of the quite unnatural representation that the cones of the Pinus banksiana only

when

open ("

Rod and Gun

1902,

page

through

spreads

fire

in

the

first

forests

Canada," Forestal Section,

Pinus banksiana).

17, relating to

10 of the largest cones weighed, fresh, 94-80

grammes. 10 of the smallest cones weighed, fresh, 3 5 '2

grammes. Consequently one medium cone weighed 6 "5

grammes.

The

specific

fresh,

The

was

the

cones,

largest

gravity

of

the

smallest cones,

grammes. grammes.

igo'i

Average, 107 "8 If

of

was 106*5 grammes.

specific

fresh,

gravity

water equal to 100 grammes.

In length the largest cone was 6 centimetres, the 2

medium

size 4 centimetres,

centimetres.

i

litre

of

and the smallest

the

largest

cones

809 grains, weighing, after cleaning, grammes, i litre of the smallest cones

yielded 2 "45

yielded 600 grains, which weighed i"oi grammes.

Consequently average

of

for

71,320

i

kilogramme cones

occupy a space of 735*26

is

litres,

of

seed

required, i

an

which

kilogramme

of seed contains between 300,000 and

500,000

85

The

grains.

seed of the largest cones gave a

germinating capacity of 43 per cent., the smallest 39 per cent., thus constituting an average of

The young

41 per cent.

not

affected

by

banksiana plants are

needle-shedding

the

fungus

damage from forest animals heals easily, and they grow with upward tending branches after the manner of spruce, so that they do not encroach on other underplanted

timber

and

be dispensed

branch prunings can

costly

The

with.

oldest plants in Grafrath

trees,

show

that

the Banksian pines, by reason of their shorter

needles (which from the fifteenth year

even

is

shorter than in the case of the native pines)

In view of

quite insensitive to snowfall.

extraordinary sylvicultural qualities

timber takes only second place. that,

the

as

of

result

It

its

is

these

value as a

would appear

imperfectly

understood

American publications, errors have crept in which may remain a .long time unrecognised.

Mayr

on the other hand,

has,

equal

that

to

of

demonstrated

Pinus banksiana

that the timber of the

European

pines.

is

It

quite

was

found that 22 metres was the greatest height

development ing to

the

banksiana country '

as

in the latest

attains

the

United States, and, accordreports

Canada, '

the

same height in that American red pine, Pinus the

From "Rod and Gun

banksiana.

from

in

Canada," 1902,

p.

17,

Pinus

86 namely, of 35 metres and more. As the climatic conditions of the greater part of resinosa,

Germany resemble each

more closely than those of the United States where the banksiana is

found outside

warmer are far

natural home,

its

that

is,

in

the prospects for the height

latitudes,

development of

other

this species of

pine in

Germany

more favourable than have been

hitherto

imagined. 32.

Pinus Hgida.

This three-needle sheathed pine

generally

is,

speaking, a rapid-growing, light-loving variety of tree which, however, requires a

(coast districts

and sweet

warmer climate

and the inland climate Although, as a

chestnut).

oak

for rule,

its

demands with regard to quality of soil are quite modest, it does not come up to indigenous pines, not to speak of the banksiana, on the very poorest lands.

Its

long

needles expose

stiff

weighed down by snow, and stages of growth injury

by snow.

forest

animals

raise

it

it

parts heal

peculiarity

of

up

damage from

hardly

rapidly, as

being

dormant buds, hence capacity

is

younger

very severely from

It is so liable to

that

its

to being

possible

without some kind of protection.

damaged the

suffers

it

in

it

its

able

to

reputed

it

to

The

possesses

develop

its

reproductive

from the stool after being cut down

^7

an early age.

at

This peculiarity has been the

source of quite a mass of literature, ^

been

far too greatly

sylvicultural

value.

and has

exaggerated as regards

would

It

seem

that

its

the

reproductive power diminishes rapidly part passu

with the lessening of warmth during the growing season.

A

favourable subject for this particular

kind of investigation was found in the experi-

mental forest gardens of

Professor

Mayr, at

Grafrath, near Munich.

In those gardens there were numerous instances of Pinus rigida being partly broken and partly bent by snow, so that

was deemed better to cut all flush with the ground, and the investigations carried out three it

years afterwards proved that only 3 '8 per cent, of the trees produced shoots from the stem stumps,

and one half of these had

at the time of investi-

number of shoots already dying, so that, speaking of the whole number of trees for the three years, barely 2 per cent, of them

gation a great

yielded

doubt the cold level,

on a

any

possessing

shoots

vitality.

N|0

570 metres above seaarea in which the rigida had

situation,

forest

been used as a nurse, was something to blame for

'

the

unfavourable

result

with these pines.

Sprengel, " Widerstandsfahigkeit der Pinus rigida gegen

Feuer," "A. F.

u. J.,"

1896, p. 175.

keit der P. rigida," 1889, p. 75,

Ditmar, " Ausschlagsfahig-

"A.

F. u. J.," Dr. Laspeyres, f. F. u. Jw."

" Ausschlagsfahigkeit der P. rigida," 1889, p. 65, "Z.

88

For is

these reasons the value of this timber

all

of small account, at any rate in

even

if,

indeed,

grown

the

that

is

quite

justice to the

ture

Its

all.

may,

tree

later

on,

be

to

do

for resin-tapping.

Pinus

23It

at

can only be justified by the

cultivation inland

expectation

any

possesses

it

Germany,

on

strobus.

impossible,

in

this

place,

enormously comprehensive

this subject

litera-

by mere quotations from the

authors and reference to their observations. the following lines the idea

is

In

simply to give a

collective sketch of the sylvicultural peculiarities

of this highly interesting and valuable species of just the fundamental differ-

timber

tree.

ence

displays as against the indigenous two-

it

It

needle sheathed position

among

is

pines

that

has assured

it

a

the forest trees worth planting.

Moreover, the other remaining species belonging to the strobus

division share, according to

same sylvicultural peculiarities. This is more especially the case as regards the European strobus, the Greek Weymouth pine, Pinus peuce, which possesses only one disadvantage as against the American variety, that it was discovered 200 years later. Mayr's

reports,

The Weymouth

the

pine

shade bearing kind of

is

a rapid-growing,

tree,

finding

its

half-

home

in

89

where the area of distribution of oak Starting from that point, it seeks the warmest localities with fresh to moist soil-

localities

predominates.

In the colder zones

gives the preference to

it

the ordinary forest soils for oak and beech, and

even on the pine

On

soils

of Class

pine soils under Class III.

Being

whatever.

consequently,

damp

the

for

is,

of

for prepara-

localities,

where

acts as a nurse for other tender pine species. It

has proved

conifer

filling

soils

Class

of

first

growth. this pine

equals

Among

of

and

among to III.

;

broad-

light-demanding

among which

but afterwards surpasses in the

dangers which

may be mentioned

investigation

I.

in

groups of small extent, for

in

underplanting

leaved trees and between ashes, at

up spaces

underplanting

for

on

pines

for planting out

the

value in

its

plantations,

common

it

it

afforestation

on river banks and

tory cultivation in frost-visited it

is

it

absolutely frost-hardy,

suitable

localities

and III. of no use

II.,

I.,

threaten

blister rust, to the

suppression

of

which

Prof.

Dr. V. Tubeuf has devoted the greatest attention.

This fungus attacks young plants from

about their fourth year of existence, up to which time the strobus does not fungoid enemies, as the dangerous

other hand, the

it

appear to have any

does not

Lophodermium

Weymouth

fall

a prey to

pinastri.

pine

is

On

the

attacked up to

90 the pole stage of growth by the Agaricus melleus,

a root parasite which often perforates the plants to a

most serious extent, and

it

is

only by the

planting of a rapid growing species of broad-

leaved it

tree,

such as alder, ash, and red oak with

The

that such danger can be averted.

louse,

Chermes

strobi,

cotton

has a special tendency to

upon the Weymouth pine in its twentieth year, lessening its height growth and destroying weak plants. It is more particularly exposed to fall

the ravages of forest animals, nibbling of the sprigs

and gnawing the bark

so that a certain stalking,

&c.,

German

forester to

everything,

is

seriousness to do

(especially

deer),

whom

proposed

deer-

in

all

away with the Weymouth pine

As

on account of these ravages. timber, the

by

Weymouth

pine

is,

regards

its

in its early years,

much tougher than that of the common pines, and succumbs much less frequently to snowpressure and

breakage.

Investigations

subject of the sylvicultural

peculiarities

Weymouth

pine, just alluded to,

especially

carried

authors

named,

out,

by

apart

Dr.

"

of the

have been more from

Wappes,^

Kunze,2 Dr. Lorey, Burkmayer,

on the

Brill,

the Prof.

other

Dr.

Spalding,3

Zur Kenntnis und Wiirdigung der Weymouthskiefer, " A.

F. u. J.," 1897, pp. 8, SI, 363. "

Beitrage

zur

Weymouthskiefer. 3

"The White

Kenntnis des forstlichen Verhaltens der Tharandter Jahrbuch, 1900, p. 159.

Pine," 1895.

91

Walther and Danckelmann. Plantations in Germany which can now be felled have shown {see

Wappes)

Dr.

that

Weymouth

the

is

Most the

attention

artificial

from

four-

conditions

mouth life,

is

may be

pine,

trees,

grown, trees,

mentioned,

but,

during

the

ten

first

in

Wey-

here remarked that the

but

that

in the

and

is

mixed

if

years of

its

at

therefore liable to be over-

among broad-leaved among conifers. In such

singly

so

less

cases small

groups

any

rate

are

its

best in

and height.

to

be recommended,

two or three individuals

group may reach

felling maturity.

Under

Weymouth

pine appears

cleanness of trunk,

straightness

such circumstances the at

numerous and

the

already

seed-

does not always keep pace with the native

timber

so

under

used

It

trees.

planting of

to six-year-old trees raised in

varied

it

by the

reproduction

beds.

general,

—that

given everywhere to

being

is

can

pine

be reproduced from self-sown seed under the light protection of the older

easily

Pure plantings of

should not exceed an area of to prevent the extension of

its

Weymouth i

pines

hectare, so as

enemies, and also

because in such pure plantations this pine has greater difficulty in shedding branches than

mixed with leaved trees.

coniferous,

and

especially

when

broad-

92

Taxodium distichum.

34-

In the localities already mentioned in the last section this species of timber tree

same time

vated, at the

may be

culti-

must be noted that

it

more moist the situation given to it, the warmer must be the climate in the vicinity of the the

In

plantation.

plantations

localities

may be

general climate necessary

it

hitherto

frost,

or else

oak

Weymouth

is

the more

of shade, and

toleration

timber

of

planting singly in

but the colder the

occidentalis.

neglected

quite

pure

to avoid moisture of soil.

Thuja

quality

quite

this

such a place

becomes

Resistance to splendid

laid out,

in

35.

like

recommend of

species

localities

tree

this

for

between these

pines, for the underplanting

of oaks, pines, larches, and particularly on the

and as a protective timber frost-exposed situations along with the Bank-

fresher kinds of soil in

sian pine.

Even

be only a small

if

;

under such conditions

tree, its

material

is,

it

may

nevertheless,

more valuable than that of an indigenous species of the same dimensions. 36.

A

Tsuga canadensis.

rapid growing, shade-bearing kind of tree,

particularly adapted for planting in groups

be-

93

tween broad -leaved

Weymouth may find a

with the pines

it

soils of

trees

Classes

mixing singly

for

Between the home place in small groups on and III. Among firs and

pine.

II.,

I.,

and

spruces only large groups or pure plantations are

suggested. of timber,

Sylvicultural characteristics, quality

and tanning material

justify

a wide use

of this tree.

Fraxinus oregona.

^i"].

Experimental cultivation with

this

species

is

advisable in localities similar to those in which the native ash

is

grown.

38.

Abies amabilis.

39.

Abies

40.

Abies grandis.

41.

Abies

Trials with these

firs

concolor.

nobilis.

possess a natural justifica-

tion only outside the natural territorial limits of

the

home

fir,

but in similar climatic locations,

conditions of soil and raising are the

same

as the

native species requires.

42.

This, rapid

Chanuscyparis lawsoniana.

generally

growing

among

speaking,

tree,

which

frost-hardy,

fairly

may be reckoned

the shade-bearing species, yields useful

94 timber at quite an

made by me

early

Investigations

age.

on some state property acquired

in the forest district of Freising

—that

is,

gave

in three

70 per cent., and 73 per an average germinating capacity of

samples 68 per cent.

'

70*3 per cent.

cent.,

One

litre of

seed weighs 0*25 kilo

and contains 500,000 grains, so that i kilo contains two millions. The warmer the climate the greater must be

the

moisture in the case of this that

to

of

increase

atmospheric

tree, at least

which characterises oak

equal

locations.

In

humid air (such as on the seacoast and the north and east slopes of medium

situations with

mountain ranges, narrow valleys) a moderately it. Under all other demeanour of the Lawsoniana is unfavourable, and it succumbs to its enemies, to which, on so-called warm slopes, the branch

fresh soil will suffice for

conditions the

disease (according to Mayr, killing of the chloro-

phyl due to low winter temperatures) belongs.

Natural reproduction always ject

to

lateral

that

it

should

or slight

mouth case '

pines, but not

it

Near

upper protection, so

be planted

broad-leaved trees or

in

common

between

groups between pines and

firs

Begun

some

Wey-

and spruces,

should be of equal age with Munich.

on sub-

carried

is

twenty

its

in

environ-

years

ago

by

Forstrat Bierdimpfel, they are being extended by Forstmeister Striegel.

^V^'^

Fig.

2.

Thirty-year Oaks iinderplanted with ChamcEcyfaris lawsoniaiia for Experimental Forest Gardens of Grafrath.

iifteen years in the

Facing

fiage 95.

95 ment.

It

would appear to be better

Weymouth and

pines and

other

to give the

species

said

of timber, especially the oaks, a start in order to bring in the cypress

thinned for the soils of

Class

first

and

I.

but on poorer soils

when

time

the oak

{see Fig.

to be

On

pine

thrives with certainty,

II. it

raising

its

2).

is

The

doubtful.

is

longer time the seedling takes in growing the greater

is

the danger from

the case with

snow

pressure, as

all

greater extension and density of the foliage. is

rapid growth of the

likely that the

cypress in Great Britain, which

home, accounts

is

cypresses, on account of the

for the fact that

in spite of the heavier load of

is

its

It

Lawson climatic

does not suffer

it

Where

snow.

the

sweet chestnut or oak can be grown the climate should correspond as regards warmth, colder

there

situations

planting of

the

is

cypress,

but

in

a drawback to the &c.,

by the way

in

which the plant divides into several shafts just

above the ground. that

is,

a plant to

i

A

small planting distance

square yard

able for cleaning the boles.

pure plantations will

is



is

The

always advislaying out of

a doubtful procedure, as they

hardly escape {{Agaricus melleus or Pestalozzia

funerea once take root.

The many

risks,

those

from wild animals amongst others, have greatly diminished the disposition to grow this species in

Germany,

96

Chamacyparis

43-

The

nutkcensis.

foregoing remarks apply to this in every

As

respect.

appears from the demeanour of the

tree in the experimental

gardens of Grafrath, the

Nutka cypress suffers even more than the Lawson variety from Pestalozzia funerea, which

the decay of the bark on the

young

causes

shoots, so

that the overlying shoot (top or side shoot) dies off,

due to the swelling of

base through

its

its

thickening in size during the growing season following the destruction of the bark.

44. Picea engelmanni. 45. Picea pungens.

Engelmann's spruce does not appear to possess

any advantage over the European variety, and where it is indigenous it can be treated in exactly the

same way

The what

as the latter.

prickly spruce starts fresh growth some-

earlier

than the European one, and suffers

less than the latter

under certain circumstances

as, for instance, if late frosts set in

Whether

pretty early.

this circumstance, as well as its prickly

needle-like leaf formation, suffice as a protection

against animals to justify

its

cultivation at the

expense of the European spruce

moot

point.

may remain a

97 46. Picea sitkcensis.

As

regards this spruce,

of a guidance for

its

its

prickly foliage

cultivation than

less

what has

West American

already been said about

is

firs

in

their useful application in connection with spruce.

47.

Pinus

48.

Pinus ponderosa. Pinus scopulorum.

49.

jeffreyi.

These three moderately rapid growing, lightloving species require fairly good soil, somewhat fresh in the case of the Jeffreyi tree. One- and two-year-old trees are very much endangered by the needle-shedding fungus.

The buds

grown plants are gnawed by From reports the squirrel and the bark by mice. received from North Germany they have, for some inexplicable reason, gone largely to decay of the

before reaching the age in which their greatest peril,

snow

pressure, threatens them.

therefore, can

Nothing,

be said about the further employ-

ment of these three

species outside their native

domain.

50.

Pseudotsuga douglasii. Coast douglasia.

51.

Pseudotsuga glauca, Colorado douglasia.

52.

Pseudotsuga macrocarpa.

This

last

kind

of tree

G

can be

left

out of

98

The Coast

further investigations.

rapid-growing,

combines the while

its

douglasia

peculiarities of both

fir

a

which

species

shade-tolerating

is

and spruce,

root system adapts itself readily, accord-

ing to Mayr, with the given conditions of the soil.

On

the other hand,

adaptable for poorer pine III.

In

frosts

on account of

its

early years

soils is

it

its

not a kind of tree

is

it

than Classes

susceptible to early

fir

severe temperature of

(Sep-

late after-growth

tember), but as regards late frost

demeanour, between

II. to

and

it

stands, in

In

spruce.

winter

it

its

the

from

suffers

browning of the needle, needle-shedding, and killing of chlorophyl. in

It

is,

consequently, suitable

moist atmospherical situations such as have

been already mentioned

in

Chammcyparis lawsoniana.

connection with the

Warm, open

plains,

with their contrasts in temperature, should be

Pure plantations can be made on cold

avoided. areas,

or

when

these slope to the south-east or east,

north and north-west, up to an altitude in

which the

some slight

fir

appears pure.

In low-lying places

protection by copse or the stool shoots

of broad-leaved and coniferous trees

The Coast

douglasia develops

amongst broad-leaved coniferous

best

in

groups

It

is

also

up bare patches where it is Close planting, that is one plant

for filling

planted singly.

desirable.

trees introduced

before or after their reproduction.

adapted

is

99 per square yard, tion of the larch

more than

With

suggested.

is

the excep-

no other kind of timber

this one,

has,

such special need for pro-

tection against the rubbing action of the roebuck.

As

regards Agaricus melleus,

less susceptible

it is

than the indigenous spruce.

The Colorado difference in

douglasia displays a remarkable

demeanour which, perhaps, gives

a greater value as an ornamental

many cases, even as a forest tree. blueish

white

needles,

and

spheroidical development of stem raise

it,

tree, and, in

It has, as

its

it

a rule,

regular,

long,

and branches,

in point of beauty, to the level of

a silver

Its absolute immunity to premature frosts and the severest temperatures of winter place it, in

spruce.

this

respect,

above the Coast douglasia, with

which last, however, bility to late

slow growth,

it

displays the

frosts.

in

same

Then, again, there

consequence of which

keep pace with indigenous

j(irs

;

but,

it

the

is

can barely

and spruce.

consequently, not adapted for the

open plantations

suscepti-

filling

It

is,

up of

on the other hand,

it

is

more suitable than the Coast douglasia for making pure plantations in sloping localities, in which southern aspects may also be given

to

(very instructive examples on this point are

be found

in the

Grafrath.

See

it

to

Experimental Forest Gardens of also illustration 3).

It is

advisable

to provide such pure plantations with an admixture

lOO of larch, because larch probably continues to lead

throughout

whole

its

peculiarities of

so

far,

If all the sylvicultural

life.

both species are examined, which,

cannot be kept separate and which explains

the confusion that has arisen

in

description of the Douglas

the rapid growth

of the Coast douglasia

fir,

may be

the biological

contrasted with

the greater safety and certainty of growth of the

Colorado douglasia.

Sequoia gigantea.

53.

Less warmth and much more atmospherical moisture

is

the

first vital

condition for this rapid-

growing, light-loving timber species, hence the reason

why

it

thrives better in an island climate

than on continents, better inside than outside the

on the hill than the plain. In such the extreme temperatures of winter,

forest, better

situations

which form generally the greatest menace to existence,

not

are

admirable results

so

intense,

of

with the sequoia

Britain, Switzerland,

its

which the in

Great

Wurttemberg, and the ex-

perimental gardens at Grafrath, 570 metres above sea-level, gives

ample proof.

It is quite

worthy

of further

despite the failures, which

may be

trials

partly traced to planting its

development.

it

in places

unsuited to

Fig.

3.

Douglas

Fir,

twenty years old and twelve metres high, in the Experimental Forest Gardens of Grafrath. Facing page 100,

lOI

54.

This arbor

Thuja gigantea. shares the

vitae

Lawson

peculiarities as the

under

cultivated

identical

however, in mind that

Lawson cypress from

The

lozzi funerea.

it

same

cypress,

sylvicultural

and may be

conditions,

suffers

bearing,

more than the

the ravages of the Pesta-

suppression of this fungus by

means of continually new forming shoots is more difficult it its case, and the future alone can show whether tion

of

this

fungus

this

species

may

not render the cultiva-

of timber tree altogether

impossible.

55.

Tsuga mertensiana.

This very rapid tolerating

of

its

frosts

tree,

branches,

up

growing

somewhat shade-

with the slender drooping tips is

exposed to danger from early

to the tenth year of

from that period onward

it

its

seems

existence, to

and

be as hardy

as the Canadian tsuga, to which it is superior in This variety of tree may, rapidity of growth.

be employed in the same localities as have already been suggested for the Canadian With these may be added two kinds of plant. therefore,

timber trees

which,

hitherto,

have only been

treated in the experimental gardens of Grafrath,

namely, the

I02 56.

Pinus murrayana, Balfour,

which has been recommended by Mayr

for laying

A

out pure plantations in the high-lying moors.

experiment carried out

slight

a

moor has shown this growth and immune against

adjacent to a

position

species to be rapid in

As

frost.

in

small cold

these pines, which are related to the

Banksian variety, grow to a height of 30 metres soil adjacent to moors in America, it is recom-

on

mended

that further trials with

Pinus

57.

American

This

it

might be made.

resinosa, Ait.

red

pine

belongs

and plays

of Eastern North America,

regions

there a similar

common

part

to

that

red

the

of

the

to

or

There is no reason for Europeans to cultivate it, and no reason why Americans should seek for another method of

pine in Europe.

treating

red

the

Europe

sister in

pine than that which

its

enjoys.

Retrospect. If

we survey

liarities

noted

the collective sylvicultural pecu-

of American trees, the

is

American

the

immunity to

varieties,

those from the

first

frost

with which

thing to be

of

the

East

may be ranked

Rockies, while those from the

Pacific coast, with its moist atmosphere,

appear

I03 to

be the most

that

sensitive.

It

West American

the

also,

is,

trees

noteworthy

an

on

are,

average, more rapid in growth than their East

American kindred, and

attain higher

dimensions

latter.

than

the

As

and stouter regards

the

West American kinds in East America only the coast territories and wooded mountain valleys were taken into consideration,

cultivation of the

while

West America

in

East American

the

same way as the The planting of European varieties in East America is only likely to promise success but in the British section that is, in Canada this would be quite superfluous, as the closely

species of trees thrive in the

European.





related

varieties

in

those

already

parts

fulfil

their purpose.

For the is

afforestation of bare tracts of land

it

only the East American species that can be

considered.

According

Mayr's

Professor

to

estimate, the prairie should be suitable for forest cultivation as far as 90°

W.

lat.,

but afforestation

with the usual far-reaching methods of planting

on extensive

which

areas,

unnatural,

is

however, to be recommended.

is

not,

Let large areas

be planted with groups of trees in order to continue afforestation round each until the extended

groups

close

up

together.

This

method which helps forward the bution of any species of wood.

is

also

the

natural distri-

I04

American

varieties

of trees in relation to their value for the

German

If we, then, glance over the

and,

incidentally,

valuable

European

acquisitions,

the

forests

both

regards

as

most forest

planting and value for sylvicultural purposes are,

the Robinia,

Weymouth

and the Banks

lasias

pine,

likely to

species

With

pine.

next hickory and walnut

both the Dougthese

come

cypresses are hardly

;

become of a greater general value. Such as are closely related to European firs,

may

pines, ashes, oaks, &c.,

turn out useful for

sylvicultural reasons in those parts of

Europe

in

which these species of tree are not to be found, but

in

those

where these kinds

localities

of

timber already exist the kindred exotics appear to be superfluous.

Out of all the general of

raising

trees

as

natural laws

partly

Mayr, and partly given culture,

and methods

published by

Prof.

on

sylvi-

in his lectures

both with the cultivation of the native

as well as the foreign varieties, the following data

are selected with his sanction 1.

The

raising of different

best carried out

in small

the high forest.

Where

open land 2.

later

:

kinds of trees

is

gardens sheltered by it

is

desired to

slight protection should

sow on

be given.

Sowing with indigenous kinds can be done than in the case of foreign

autumn or spring sowing

trees, for

in April

is

which

advisable.

I05

As a

rule

one should avoid giving the exotics

a special treatment

for instance, covering

;

them

in winter, as this usually turns out unfavourably. It

only in the case of very late sowing that a

is

winter shelter becomes necessary, at least in the year,

first

and

this

must not be too

and

thick,

should be gradually removed as spring approaches.

The

3.

by

its

quality of the seed

Of two

percentage of germinative power.

quantities

of seeds quite equal in this respect,

one

cheaper

the

must only be judged

should

be

used,

not

advertised by the dealer on account of

good

specially

origin

(coming

from

those their

unknown

northern territories of distribution, straight-growing trunks, &c.), as this recommendation simply

making

results in

more

it

costly.

In every grain of seed plant in

its

normal

lies

state, as

the type

of the

regards frost-hardi-

power of growth, straightness of trunk, and so on, and it is only the new situation (soil and climate) plus the raising, which decide whether, ness,

and

in

4.

what way, the

The

first

tree grows.

attempts at growing an indigenous

tree outside its natural stronghold (take, say, the

over Europe, north of the Alps) or even a foreign wood, must always be carried out under larch

all

such conditions (climatic zone, protection, soil, &c.) as will give the greatest guarantee of their

development.

It

is

only after

we become

ac-

io6 quainted with the results of

these experiments

all

some

that others can take place, which in ticular

respects

method of

different

raising) the

so that in the

cause of

(say,

case of

some

different,

is

failure

the exact

The

can be given there and then.

it

or

climate,

soil,

experiment

par-

mere accumulation of unfavourable conditions one experiment, such as bad

open

in

cold situation,

soil,

location, depredations of forest animals, or

the rivalry of weeds and copse

wood does not

any useful starting

yield in the case of failures

point for further experiments. 5.

The

genous or native soil

farther

The

indi-

it

away from

its

must

light that

it.

farther

away from

some its

variety of tree

home

climatic

is

trans-

to a warmer

on moister

soils.

stand longer and stronger effects of

light,

region the greater claims has It will

be

to a colder climate the better the

and the more abundant the

ferred

tree,

foreign, is transplanted

home

be given to 6.

any variety of

which, again, facilitates

it

being raised under

its

slight shade. 7.

On

poorer

soils all

kinds of trees are in

greater need of light, so that their raising under

shade becomes more 8.

As

difficult.

a protective growth, broad-leaved,

light-

loving trees should be used wherever possible,

such as

birches,

poplars,

willows,

alders,

and

I07

by conifers is always more unfavourable than that of the above trees, with the oaks.

Shelter

exception of the Strobus species

with these

;

may

be ranked two- and three-needle-sheathed pines Spruces and firs, along with beeches, are the least suitable as protective plants. 9.

The

whether

notion that anywhere in the world,

above,

or

north

of,

boundaries, species of timber

planted 10.

may be

our

vegetative

may grow

dismissed as unnatural.

only in the case of trees which

It is

or be

grow

quicker, or at least as quickly, as their neighbours

that individual mixing

is

admissible.

cases planting in groups

is

In other

preferable, so that

perpetual supervision and continued felling in

may

the experimental areas

No

1 1.

foreign

firs,

not be required.

spruce, oaks, ashes, &c.,

domain of their closely related indigenous species any better product than the latter. The same conditions under which the native tree produces good or can furnish

bad wood

in the distributive

will also

make

its

foreign kindred

good

or bad. 12.

On

the other hand,

in

the case of

all

climatically admissible "foreign trees," the species

of which (genus in the pine section) are not

represented

in

the

home

forests,

experimental

plantations should be undertaken. 13.

In order to arrive at climatic conditions of

io8

a country and to

fix

zone of vegetation, not

its

only particular species of timber but also agricultural plants

way

may be

For

used.

instance, in this

the cultivation of the vine, rice, mulberry,

almond,

corresponds

&c.,

climatically

the

to

natural growing territory of the sweet chestnut

the cultivation of tobacco and maize corresponds

oak

to the hottest territory of the

which the

in

sweet chestnut grows partly wild and raised.

The

cultivation

hops

of

partly

is

and

wheat

corresponds to the cold territory of the oaks

The

and beeches. rye

corresponds to

that

is, firs,

or pasture

of wheat

cultivation

and

warmest spruce zone,

the

spruce, or beech, whereas rye alone

land areas

characterise

domain of the spruce and larch. 14. The pine, Pinus sylvestris,

is

the

colder

no use

for

judging the climate of any particular species, and is

to be found

between the zone of evergreen,

sub-tropical, broad-leaved trees as far as the confines of the

Alpine or Polar forest regions.

In conclusion,

met with

all

I

may

refer to

a symptom

over Europe, and which

is

I

have

more

convincing than any number of words, namely, that

plants

thrive

best,

foreign species of trees,

both

indigenous and

where the planter devotes

himself impartially, lovingly, and patiently to the raising of his charges.