Expectations of Justice in the Age of Augustine 0812239873, 9780812239874

Augustine, bishop of Hippo between 395 and 430, and his fellow bishops lived and worked through massive shifts in politi

258 72 14MB

English Pages 232 [242] Year 2007

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD PDF FILE

Table of contents :
Cover
Title
Copyright
Contents
Introduction
1. Calumny: Well-Known Reasons Why Justice Fails
Judicial Culture
Juridical Solutions: Roman Law
Popular Responses
The Bishop's Court
Juridical Solutions: Canon Law
Social Bonds and Boundaries
2. "Judge like God": What Bishops Claimed to Expect of Themselves
Between Perfection and Failure
Traditions of Judgment and Discernment
Spiritual Discernment at Work
Alternative Traditions of Discernment
The Exemplary Life of Bishops
The Ideal Fails
3. Christian Oaths: A Case Study in Practicality over Doctrine
Oaths Are Social Bonds
The Public Life of Oaths
Solemn Promises plus Some Exemptions
Exegetes on Swearing
Socialis Necessitudo and the Need for Oaths
Swearing in the Land of Falsehood
4. Mercy Not Justice: How Penance Became a Worthy Act of Self-Incrimination
A Profession of Holiness
Preachers of Penance
The Penitential Lives of Religious Professionals
The Heroic Lives of Penitents
Compunction and Discernment for All
The Balance of Mercy and Justice
An End to the Scholarly Myth of Decline and Rigorism
Conclusion
List of Abbreviations
Notes
Bibliography
Index
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
R
S
T
U
V
W
Acknowledgments
Recommend Papers

Expectations of Justice in the Age of Augustine
 0812239873, 9780812239874

  • 0 0 0
  • Like this paper and download? You can publish your own PDF file online for free in a few minutes! Sign Up
File loading please wait...
Citation preview

Expectations of Justice in the Age of Augustine

This page intentionally left blank

Expectations of] ustice in the Age ofAugustine IZevin Uhalde

PENN UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA PRESS

Philadelphia

Copyright © 2007 University of Pennsylvania Press All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper 10

9

8

7

6

4

2

Published by University of Pennsylvania Press Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-4112 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Uhalde, Kevin, 1971Expectations of justice in the age of Augustine / Kevin Uhalde. p. cm. ISBN 978-0-8122-3987-4

Includes bibliographical references (p. ) and index I. Christianity and justice. I. Title. BRII5.J8 U33 2007 270.2-dc22 2006050945

For my family

This page intentionally left blank

Contents

INTRODUCTION

I. CALUMNY: WELL-KNOWN REASONS WHY

JUSTICE FAILS

16

Judicial Culture 16 Juridical Solutions: Roman Law Popular Responses 25 The Bishop)s Court 29 Juridical Solutions: Canon Law Social Bonds and Boundaries

20

32 35

2. "JUDGE LIKE GOD": WHAT BISHOPS CLAIMED TO

44

EXPECT OF THEMSELVES

Between Perftetion and Failure 44 Traditions ofJudgment and Discernment Spiritual Discernment at Work 49 Alternative Traditions ofDiscernment 55 The Exemplary Life ofBishops 61 The Ideal Fails 67 3. CHRISTIAN OATHS: A CASE STUDY IN PRACTICALITY OVER DOCTRINE

77

Oaths Are Social Bonds 77 The Public Life ofOaths 80 Solemn Promises plus Some Exemptions 84 Exegetes on Swearing 86 Socialis Necessitudo and the Need for Oaths 92 Swearing in the Land ofFalsehood 101

4. MERCY NOT JUSTICE: HOW PENANCE BECAME A WORTHY ACT OF SELF-INCRIMINATION

105

A Proftssion ofHoliness 105 Preachers ofPenance 107 The Penitential Lives ofReligious Proftssionals II0 The Heroic Lives ofPenitents I I 7 Compunction and Discernmentfor All 122 The Balance ofMercy and Justice 127 An End to the Scholarly Myth ofDecline and Rigorism CONCLUSION

135

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

NOTES

143

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

139

197

227

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

233

132

Introduction

Expectans expectavi Dominum et inclinatus est ad me et audivit clamorem meum. Patiently I awaited the Lord and he turned to me and heard my cry. -Vulgate Psalm 39:2 This doubled word deserves attention, for such a graceful repetition is not mere embellishment. Certainly we are able to be expectant, but in a grudging mood. Still we may be patiently expectant when we bear something calmly and with powerful longing. -Cassiodorus, Expositio Psalmorum 39.2

THE LIFE OF Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodoms Senator (4-85/90-ca. 580), best known simply as Cassiodoms, epitomized the age of transition in which he lived. One foot rested in the ancient past, for Cassiodoms had impeccable credentials as a late Roman aristocrat. While still a young man, he served as assistant to his father, the praetorian prefect, and then as quaestor. In 514 he was the sole consul in the empire, then master of offices from 523 to 527, and praetorian prefect in Italy for four years until 537. His other foot, however, was in the Middle Ages. He wrote Latin letters on behalf of I