English for Professional Communication. Ч. 1

В основе учебного пособия лежит идея взаимосвязанного и одновременного развития группы речевых навыков (чтения, говорени

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

Министерство образования и науки России Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования «Казанский национальный исследовательский технологический университет»

Э.М. Муртазина, Г.Г. Амирова, И.Ш. Абдуллин, В.А. Сысоев

ENGLISH FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION Учебное пособие по дисциплине «Иностранный язык» для бакалавров по направлению 152200.62 «Наноинженерия»

Часть 1

Казань Издательство КНИТУ 2012

Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

УДК 802(075):66 ББК 43.6.2.15 Муртазина Э.М. English for Professional Communication : учебное пособие по дисциплине «Иностранный язык» для бакалавров по направлению 152200.62 «Наноинженерия» / Э.М. Муртазина [и др.]; М-во образ. и науки России, Казан. нац. исслед. технол. ун-т. – Казань : Изд-во КНИТУ, 2012. – 256 с. ISBN 978-5-7882-1307-1 В основе учебного пособия лежит идея взаимосвязанного и одновременного развития группы речевых навыков (чтения, говорения, аудирования), необходимых в профессиональном общении будущих специалистов в области наноинженерии. Центральной темой текстового материала пособия является наноинженерия – технологии разработки наноматериалов, их свойства и применение. Использовано множество заданий творческого и дискуссионного характера, а также задания, направленные на анализ конкретных ситуаций будущими специалистами, что создает интерес и мотивированность при изучении иностранного языка. Профессиональный и языковой компоненты учебного пособия органически взаимосвязаны, а новый учебный материал детально прорабатывается в предтекстовых и послетекстовых упражнениях и закрепляется в творческих заданиях, ориентированных на решение профессиональных задач. Цель учебного пособия – подготовить студентов к чтению оригинальной литературы по специальности и ведению беседы на темы, предусмотренные программой языковой подготовки бакалавров по направлению «Наноинженерия». При подготовке учебного пособия были использованы материалы по нанотехнологии, представленные в открытом доступе в Интернете. Большинство материалов были переработаны и адаптированы авторами учебника. На их основе составлены поурочные словари и глоссарий. Рассчитано на аудиторную, самостоятельную и индивидуальную работу студентов в течение I–II семестров I курса, соответствует сетке часов и установкам рабочей программы кафедры иностранных языков в профессиональной коммуникации КНИТУ. The course attempts to enable students to use the English language through developing all four skills: understanding, speaking, reading and writing. Each passage will be used to train the student in the following: aural comprehension; oral practice; reading aloud; oral composition; dictation; written grammar exercises. Рецензенты:

канд. филол. наук, проф. Ф.Л. Мазитова; канд. техн. наук, ст. науч. сотр., зам. директора по научной работе Института информатики АН РТ М.М. Назмеев

ISBN 978-5-7882-1307-1

© Муртазина Э.М., Амирова Г.Г., Абдуллин И.Ш., Сысоев В.А., 2012 © Казанский национальный исследовательский технологический университет, 2012

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ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Настоящее учебное пособие является первой частью учебного комплекса по английскому языку для подготовки бакалавров, обучающихся по направлению «Наноинженерия», построено в соответствии с требованиями действующей программы по английскому языку для неязыковых специальностей высших учебных заведений и обеспечивает базу для достижения конечной цели обучения. Содержание учитывает принципы личностно-ориентированного и деятельностного обучения иностранному языку, социального партнерства, ориентировано на развитие творческой активности, самостоятельности, ответственности студентов за результаты своей деятельности, в том числе будущей профессиональной деятельности в качестве наноинженеров, на овладение эффективными стратегиями работы над языком и формирование мотивации к совершенствованию умений иноязычного общения в избранной профессии. В основе учебного пособия лежит концепция взаимосвязанного и одновременного развития группы речевых навыков – чтения, говорения и аудирования. Такая идея в значительной степени предопределила структуру и содержание пособия. Учебное пособие состоит из пяти разделов: базовый курс; грамматический справочник с упражнениями; справочник-активатор для разговорной практики; глоссарий; сборник дополнительных текстов на английском и русском языках для индивидуальной работы студентов. Базовый курс включает 8 уроков (Lessons). Урок, являясь структурной единицей основного курса, представляет собой совокупность трех текстов (А, В, С) и системы упражнений. Каждый урок содержит разработку грамматической темы и упражнения для ее актуализации (в разделе «Грамматический справочник»). Основной текст (текст А) содержит новый материал для чтения и понимания с помощью стадии предтекстовой подготовки и послетекстовых заданий. Тексты В и С содержат отработанный ранее лексический и грамматический материал, однако в новых комбинациях. На базе этих текстов отрабатываются опознание и восприятие пройденного материала и развиваются навыки различных видов чтения, а также навыки общения на иностранном языке. 3

Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

Основой текстового материала являются профессиональные научно-популярные тексты по нанотехнологии, наноматериалам и методам наноинженерного анализа. Среди тем, рассматриваемых в текстах учебного пособия: фундаментальные идеи нанотехнологии; ранняя история нанотехнологии; изучение мира молекул с помощью виртуального нанокомпьютера; виртуальное моделирование; молекулярная самосборка; наномашины (ассемблеры); опасности и риски нанотехнологии; десять открытий в нанотехнологии, которые изменяют наш мир; стратегии нанотехнологии; сравнение микро- и нанотехнологии; продукты нанотехнологии XXI века; вызовы, стоящие перед наноинженерией. Тексты взяты из статей, представленных в открытом доступе в Интернете, в основном из Википедии (бесплатной энциклопедии). Все тексты переработаны, адаптированы, к ним прилагаются упражнения. Для лучшего понимания профессиональных терминов разработан глоссарий. Заинтересованность студента в содержании текста и возможность высказаться по проблемам его будущей специальности составляют методический замысел уроков. Тематика текстов и множество заданий творческого и дискуссионного характера рассчитаны на то, чтобы создать дополнительный психологический стимул для занятий иностранным языком. Все упражнения урока делятся на предтекстовые и послетекстовые, что в соответствии с данными современной методики, программирует различные виды речевой деятельности учащихся – от ориентировочной до контроля. Грамматический справочник с упражнениями составлен на основе грамматических тем, рекомендованных примерной рабочей программой дисциплины «Английский язык», рекомендованной НМС по иностранным языкам при Минобразования России для подготовки бакалавров неязыковых специальностей. Грамматические упражнения составлены авторами учебника. Справочник-активатор для разговорной практики имеет целью выработать речевые навыки, необходимые для ведения беседы на английском языке в объеме тем, предусмотренных рабочей программой. В этот раздел включен банк разговорных выражений для ежедневного общения. Глоссарий составлен как словарь узкоспециализированных терминов в области нанотехнологии с толкованием. В глоссарии собраны наиболее часто используемые выражения, описывающие термины. Сам по себе глоссарий несет в себе обучающий и коммуникативный потенциал. 4

Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

Сборник дополнительных текстов на английском и русском языках для индивидуальной работы студентов. Тексты взяты из интернет-источников и предполагают более глубокое ознакомление с проблемами, разрабатываемыми в базовом курсе, имеют ссылки на источники. В этот раздел включены также тексты для самопроверки с заданием, заключающимся в переводе с русского языка на английский. Также представлены проспекты разработок РусНано. Учебное пособие прошло апробацию в учебном процессе кафедры иностранных языков в профессиональной коммуникации КНИТУ.

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Посвящается новому поколению химиков. Тем, кто воплощает в жизнь девиз “Better Living through Chemistry!” Авторы

БАЗОВЫЙ

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КУРС

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

Lesson One FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY

“Nanotechnology has given us the tools to play With the ultimate toy box of Nature – Atoms and Molecules, The possibilities to Create New Thinks appear limitless” Horst Stormer, Nobel Laureate in Physics

Лингвистический компонент Грамма ти ка урока 1. 1. Грамматические формы и конструкции, обозначающие предмет или явление (существительное в единственном/ множественном числе с детерминативами в виде артиклей, местоимений, прилагательных, числительных. Суффиксы существительных. Безличное местоимение it. Конструкции there is, there are). 2. Грамматические упражнения урока 1.

Лексика 1. Развитие навыков произношения (лексико-фонетические упражнения). 2. Ключевые слова (термины урока). 3. Лексико-грамматические структуры, используемые в текстах урока (лексические упражнения). 7

Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

Профессиональный компонент Практическое применение языковых знаний для решения профессиональных коммуникативных задач Основополагающие концепции нанотехнологии Text A. Nanotechnology. Text B. Fundamental concepts. Text C. Nanomaterials: Molecular self-assembly. Упражнения на понимание звучащей речи, лексики урока, составление простых вопросов и ответов.

Самостоятельная работа: 1. Выполнение фонетических, лексико-грамматических и коммуникативных заданий урока. 2. Выполнение грамматических упражнений. Выполнение индивидуальных заданий преподавателя (Дополнительные тексты для индивидуальной работы).

ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ 1. Прочитайте слова несколько раз, используя знаки транскрипции. Догадайтесь об их значении по похожим словам русского языка: Nanotechnology ['nxnOu"tek'nLlqGI], molecular [mqu'lekjulq], scale [skeIl], structure ['strAkCq],

device [dI'vaIs],

dimension [dI'menSqn],

size [saIz],

quan-

tum ['kwOntqm], mechanical [mI'kxnIkql], effect [I'fekt], realm [relm], diverse [daI'vWs], extension [Ik'tenSqn], physics ['fIzIks], conventional [kqn'veSqnl],approach [q'prOuC], self-assembly [q'semblI],

application ["xplI'keISqn],

medicine ['medsIn],

electron-

ics [Ilek'trOnIks], biomaterials [baIqumq'tIrIqlz], issue [ISH], concern [kqn'sWn], de8

Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

bate [dI'beIt], impact ['Impxkt], environmental [In"vaIqrqn'mentl], toxicity [tO'ksIsItI], speculation ["spekju'leISn],

doomsday [dHmzdeI],

scenarios [sI'nRrIqu],

advoca-

cy ['xdvqkqsI], special ['speSql], regulation ["regju'leISqn].

2. Переведите следующие слова с русского на английский и прочитайте их, проверяя правильность произношения по упражнению 1: Нанотехнология, молекулярный, шкала, структура, устройство, измерение, размер, квантовый, механический, действие, сфера, многообразный, распространение, обычный, физика, подход, самосборка, применение, медицина, электроника, биоматериалы, проблема, озабоченность, обсуждение, воздействие на окружающую среду, токсичность, размышление, сценарий Судного Дня, защита, специальный, регулирование. 3. Прочтите лексическую программу текста А несколько раз. Постарайтесь запомнить ее. 1. The study of manipulating with matter 2. Nanotechnology deals with structures sized between 1 to 100 nanometres 3. Nanotechnology is very diverse 4. Quantum mechanical effects 5. Conventional device physics 6. Whether we can directly control matter on the atomic scale 7. A vast range of applications 8. Their potential effects on global economics

Изучение манипуляций с веществом Нанотехнология занимается структурами размером от 1 до 100 нанометров

Нанотехнология очень разнообразна Квантово-механические эффекты Традиционная физика Можем ли мы непосредственно управлять материей на уровне атома Широкий спектр приложений Их потенциальное влияние на мировую экономику 9

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9. A debate among ad- Дебаты среди групп поддержки vocacy groups 10. New approaches Новые подходы, основанные на молекулярbased upon molecular ной самосборке self-assembly

TEXT A. NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology (sometimes shortened to “nanotech”) is the study of manipulating with matter on atomic and molecular scale. Generally, nanotechnology deals with structures sized between 1 to 100 nanometres in at least one dimension, and involves developing materials or devices possessing at least one dimension within that size. Quantum mechanical effects are very important at this scale, which is in the quantum realm. Nanotechnology is very diverse, ranging from extensions of conventional device physics to completely new approaches based upon molecular selfassembly, from developing new materials with dimensions on the nanoscale to investigating whether we can directly control matter on the atomic scale. There is much debate on the future implications of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology may be able to create many new materials and devices with a vast range of applications, such as in medicine, electronics, biomaterials and energy production. On the other hand, nanotechnology raises many of the same issues as any new technology, including concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials, as well as their potential effects on global economics, speculation about various doomsday scenarios. These concerns have led to a debate among advocacy groups and governments on whether special regulation of nanotechnology is needed.

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ЗАДАНИЯ К ТЕКСТАМ А, В. 1. Прочитайте текст А и найдите 5 предложений, содержащих основную информацию. Переведите эти предложения. 2. Перескажите текст А, используя выделенные вами предложения. 3. Прочитайте текст В и перечислите основные концепции нанотехнологии.

TEXT B. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. This covers both current work and concepts that are more advanced. In its original sense, nanotechnology refers to the projected ability to construct items from the bottom up, using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete, high performance products.

What is the scale range of nanotechnology products? One nanometer (nm) is one billionth, or 10 −9, of a meter. By comparison, typical carbon-carbon bond lengths, or the spacing between these atoms in a molecule, are in the range 0.12–0.15 nm, and a DNA doublehelix has a diameter around 2 nm. On the other hand, the smallest cellular life-forms, the bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma, are around 200 nm in length. By convention, nanotechnology is taken as the scale range 1 to 100 nm following the definition used by the National Nanotechnology Initiative in the US.

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What are the lower and upper limits used in nanotechnology? The lower limit is set by the size of atoms (hydrogen has the smallest atoms, which are approximately a quarter of a nm diameter) since nanotechnology must build its devices from atoms and molecules. The upper limit is more or less arbitrary but is around the size that phenomena not observed in larger structures start to become apparent and can be made use of in the nano device. These new phenomena make nanotechnology distinct from devices which are merely miniaturised versions of an equivalent macroscopic device; such devices are on a larger scale and come under the description of microtechnology.

What are the main approaches used in nanotechnology? To put that scale in another context, the comparative size of a nanometer to a meter is the same as that of a marble to the size of the earth. Or another way of putting it: a nanometer is the amount an average man's beard grows in the time it takes him to raise the razor to his face. Two main approaches are used in nanotechnology. In the “bottom-up” approach, materials and devices are built from molecular components which assemble themselves chemically by principles of molecular recognition. In the “top-down” approach, nano-objects are constructed from larger entities without atomic-level control.

What areas of physics develop the scientific foundation of nanotechnology? Areas of physics such as nanoelectronics, nanomechanics, nanophotonics, and nanoionics have evolved during the last few decades to provide a basic scientific foundation of nanotechnology.

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Some useful words and phrases: – engineering of functional systems – разработка функциональных систем – both current work and concepts that are more advanced – как текущие разработки, так и более продвинутые концепции – In its original sense – в своем первоначальном смысле – nanotechnology refers to the projected ability – нанотехнология связана с прогнозируемой способностью – to construct items from the bottom up – конструировать элементы снизу вверх – high performance products – высокопроизводительные продукты – DNA double-helix – двойная спираль ДНК – cellular life-forms – клеточные формы жизни – bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma – бактерии рода Микоплазма – National Nanotechnology Initiative – Национальная нанотехнологическая инициатива – more or less arbitrary – более или менее произвольный – macroscopic device – макроскопический прибор – microtechnology – микротехнология – assemble themselves chemically – собираются химически – molecular recognition – молекулярное распознавание – “bottom-up” approach – подход «снизу-вверх» – “top-down” approach – подход «сверху-вниз» – basic scientific foundation – базовая научная основа

ЗАДАНИЯ К ТЕКСТУ С 1. Прочитайте текст С. 2. Выпишите из глоссария и переведите на русский язык значения подчеркнутых терминов. 13

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TEXT C. NANOMATERIALS: MOLECULAR SELF-ASSEMBLY A number of physical phenomena become pronounced as the size of the system decreases. These include statistical mechanical effects, as well as quantum mechanical effects, for example the “quantum size effect” where the electronic properties of solids are altered with great reductions in particle size. Quantum effects become dominant when the nanometer size range is reached, typically at distances of 100 nanometers or less, in the so called quantum realm. Additionally, a number of physical (mechanical, electrical, optical, etc.) properties change when compared to macroscopic systems. One example is the increase in surface area to volume ratio altering mechanical, thermal and catalytic properties of materials. Diffusion and reactions at nanoscale, nanostructures materials and nanodevices with fast ion transport are generally referred to nanoionics. Mechanical properties of nanosystems are of interest in the nanomechanics research. The catalytic activity of nanomaterials also opens potential risks in their interaction with biomaterials. Materials reduced to the nanoscale can show different properties compared to what they exhibit on a macroscale, enabling unique applications. For instance, opaque substances become transparent (copper); stable materials turn combustible (aluminum); insoluble materials become soluble (gold). A material such as gold, which is chemically inert at normal scales, can serve as a potent chemical catalyst at nanoscales. Much of the fascination with nanotechnology stems from these quantum and surface phenomena that matter exhibits at the nanoscale. Modern synthetic chemistry has reached the point where it is possible to prepare small molecules to almost any structure. These methods are used today to manufacture a wide variety of useful chemicals such as pharmaceuticals or commercial polymers. This ability raises the question 14

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of extending this kind of control to the next-larger level, seeking methods to assemble these single molecules into supramolecular assemblies consisting of many molecules arranged in a well defined manner. These approaches utilize the concepts of molecular self-assembly and/or supramolecular chemistry to automatically arrange themselves into some useful conformation through a bottom-up approach. The concept of molecular recognition is especially important: molecules can be designed so that a specific configuration or arrangement is favored due to non-covalent intermolecular forces. Thus, two or more components can be designed to be complementary and mutually attractive so that they make a more complex and useful whole. Such bottom-up approaches should be capable of producing devices in parallel and be much cheaper than top-down methods, but could potentially be overwhelmed as the size and complexity of the desired assembly increases. Most useful structures require complex and thermodynamically unlikely arrangements of atoms. Nevertheless, there are many examples of self-assembly based on molecular recognition in biology, most notably enzyme-substrate interactions. The challenge for nanotechnology is whether these principles can be used to engineer new constructs in addition to natural ones.

3. Потренируйтесь в параллельном переводе предложений из текста С. Переводя с английского языка на русский, старайтесь не заглядывать в готовый перевод. Таким же образом переводите с русского языка на английский. (1) A number of physical phe- (1) Многие физические явления nomena become pronounced as становятся очевидными с уменьthe size of the system decreases. шением размера системы.

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(2) Quantum effects become dominant when the nanometer size range is reached, typically at distances of 100 nanometers or less, in the so called quantum realm.

(2) Квантовые эффекты становятся доминирующими, когда достигается диапазон нанометровых размеров, как правило, при расстояниях в 100 нм или менее, в так называемом квантовом диапазоне.

(3) Diffusion and reactions at nanoscale, nanostructures materials and nanodevices with fast ion transport are generally referred to nanoionics.

(3) Диффузия и реакции на наноуровне, наноструктурные материалы и наноустройства с быстрым переносом ионов, как правило, относятся к наноионике.

(4) Modern synthetic chemistry has reached the point where it is possible to prepare small molecules to almost any structure.

(4) Современная синтетическая химия достигла того уровня развития, когда можно получать маленькие молекулы практически любой структуры.

(5) The concept of molecular recognition is especially important: molecules can be designed so that a specific configuration or arrangement is favored due to noncovalent intermolecular forces.

(5) Концепция молекулярного распознавания особенно важнa: специфическая конфигурация или расположение молекул могут быть следствием действия нековалентных межмолекулярных сил.

(6) These approaches utilize the concepts of molecular selfassembly and / or supramolecular chemistry to automatically arrange themselves into some useful conformation through a bottom-up approach.

(6) Эти подходы используют понятия молекулярной самосборки и / или надмолекулярной химии, автоматически выстраиваются в некоторую полезную конфигурацию через сборку снизу вверх.

4. Составьте краткий пересказ текста С (5–8 предложений).

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

Lesson Two EARLY HISTORY OF NANOTECHNOLOGY

“If I were asked for an area of science and Engineering that will most likely produce the Breakthroughs of tomorrow, I would point to Nanoscale Science and Engineering” Neal Lane, Former Assistant to President Clinton for Science and Technology

Лингвистический компонент Грамма ти ка урока 2. 1. Действие/процесс/состояние: смысловые и связочные глаголы в Present/Past/Future Simple. 2. Простое предложение: повествовательное/ вопросительное/ отрицательное. 3. Грамматические упражнения урока 2.

Лексика 1. Развитие навыков произношения (лексико-фонетические упражнения). 2. Ключевые слова (термины урока). 3. Лексико-грамматические структуры, используемые в текстах урока.

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Профессиональный компонент Практическое применение языковых знаний для решения профессиональных коммуникативных задач Ранняя история нанотехнологии. Text A. Early History of Nanotechnology: Richard Feynman. Text B. Early History of Nanotechnology: K. Eric Drexler. Text C. Early History of Nanotechnology: Criticism of K. Eric Drexler. Упражнения на понимание звучащей речи, лексики урока, составление простых вопросов и ответов.

Самостоятельная работа: 1. Выполнение фонетических, лексико-грамматических и коммуникативных заданий урока. 2. Выполнение грамматических упражнений. Выполнение индивидуальных заданий преподавателя (дополнительные тексты для индивидуальной работы).

ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ К ТЕКСТУ А 1. Прочитайте слова несколько раз, используя знаки транскрипции: Theoretical [TIq'retIkql], envision [In'vIZqn], Nobel Prize [nO'bel praIz], precision [prI'sIZqn], research [rI'sWC], tiniest ['taInIIst], miniaturization ["mInICqraI'zeISn], creature ['krJCq], fraction ['frxkSn], vision [vIZn], implementation ["ImplImen'teISqn], manufacturing ["mxnju'fxkCqrIN], Biology [baI'OlGI], maneuver [mq'nHvq], worldwide ['wWld'waId], commercialization [kq'mWSqlaI'zeISn]. 18

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2. Переведите следующие слова с русского на английский и прочитайте их, проверяя правильность произношения по упражнению 1: Теоретический, точность, предвидеть, Нобелевская премия, миниатюризация, исследование, мельчайший, существо, часть, маневрировать, реализация, видение, изготовление, коммерциализация, биология, по всему миру.

3. Прочитайте лексическую программу текста А несколько раз. Постарайтесь запомнить ее. 1. There’s plenty of room at the bot- 1. Внизу много места tom 2. The tiniest cells of marvelous 2. Мельчайшие клетки уникальbiological systems contain all in- ных биологических систем соformation держат всю информацию 3. Little has been done, but enor- 3. Сделано мало, но, в принципе, mous amount can be done in prin- может быть сделано очень много ciple 4. We also can make a very small 4. Мы можем также создать thing that does what we want очень маленький объект, который будет делать то, что мы хотим 5. Battelle Memorial Institute, the world's largest non-profit independent R&D organization, is an international science and technology enterprise providing innovative solutions to the world's most pressing needs across the spectrum in science, medicine and engineering

5. Баттельский мемориальный институт, самая большая некоммерческая независимая научно-исследовательская организация – это международное научно-техническое учреждение, предлагающее инновационные решения самых насущных мировых проблем с использованием достижений науки, медицины и технологии

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TEXT A. EARLY HISTORY OF NANOTECHNOLOGY: RICHARD FEYNMAN

Richard Feynman (1918–1988) is considered to be one of the founders of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology, in its traditional sense, means building things from the bottom up, with atomic precision. This theoretical capability was envisioned as early as 1959 by the renowned physicist Richard Feynman. His speech “There’s plenty of room at the bottom: An invitation to enter a new field of physics” was first presented at California Institute of Technology on December 29, 1959.

I want to build a billion tiny factories, models of each other, which are manufacturing simultaneously… The principles of physics, as far as I can see, do not speak against the possibility of maneuvering things atom by atom. It is not an attempt to violate any laws; it is something, in principle, that can be done; but in practice, it has not been done because we are too big. — Richard Feynman, Nobel Prize winner in physics

His ideas were based on the three obvious facts: 1) Biology shows molecular machines; 2) Chemistry makes diverse molecules; 3) Engineering builds systems from parts. Richard Feynman asserted that miniaturization as a new field of research is the field in which little has been done, but in which an enormous amount can be done in principle. 20

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There are some major ideas formulated by Richard Feynman: ♦ The tiniest cells of marvelous biological systems contain all information for the organization of a complex creature such as ourselves. ♦ All this information is contained in a very tiny fraction of the cell in the form of long-chain DNA molecules in which approximately 50 atoms are used for one bit of information about the cell. ♦ Biology is not simply writing information; it is doing something about it. ♦ We also can make a very small thing that does what we want. We can manufacture an object that maneuvers at that level. Based on Feynman's vision of miniature factories using nanomachines to build complex products, advanced nanotechnology (sometimes referred to as molecular manufacturing) will make use of positionally controlled mechanochemistry guided by molecular machine systems. Formulating a roadmap for the development of this kind of nanotechnology is now an objective of a broadly based technology roadmap project led by Battelle (the manager of several U.S. National Laboratories) and the Foresight Nanotech Institute. Battelle Memorial Institute, the world's largest non-profit independent R&D organization, is an international science and technology enterprise providing innovative solutions to the world's most pressing needs across the spectrum in science, medicine and engineering. It conducts over $4.0 billion in global R&D annually through contract research, laboratory management and technology commercialization. More than 20,400 employees work in more than 120 Batelle locations worldwide.

Battelle has long maintained a major international science and technology presence in the world's business centers in many countries including Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the Ukraine and 21

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others. Battelle also helped establish the Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) and has had a 40-year collaboration with Japan's Mitsubishi Corp. Battelle is no stranger to the world's R&D stage. — Carl Kohrt, Battelle's Chief Executive Officer

ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ (ТЕКСТ B) 1. Прочитайте слова текста В несколько раз, используя знаки транскрипции: Popularize ['pOpjulqraIz], molecular design [mO'lekjulq dI'zaIn] , protein engineering ['prqutIn "enGI'nIqrIN], productive [prq'dAktIv], accepted concept [qk'septIt 'kOnsept], accusations ["xkju'zeISnz], robot arms ['rqubOt Rmz], meanwhile ['mJn'waIl], encompass [In'kAmpqs], beneficial ["benI'fISql], vividly ['vIvIdlI], implementation ["ImplImen'teISqn], propagate ['prOpqgeIt], influential ["Influ'enSql], controversial ["kOntrq'vWSql].

2. Переведите следующие слова с русского на английский и прочитайте их, проверяя правильность произношения по упражнению 1: Популяризировать, молекулярная модель, белковая инженерия, производительный, манипуляторы робота, обвинения, тем временем, выполнять, принятая концепция, полезный, реализация, живо, распространять, важный, спорный. 22

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3. Потренируйтесь в параллельном переводе предложений из текста В. Переводя с английского языка на русский, старайтесь не заглядывать в готовый перевод. Таким же образом переводите с русского языка на английский. (1) Fundamental principles of mo- (1) Основополагающие принципы lecular design. молекулярной модели. (2) A few nanometers size motors. (2) Двигатели величиной в несколько нанометров. (3) Far smaller than a cell.

(3) Намного меньше клетки.

(4) To encompass the simpler (4) Чтобы осуществлять более kinds of nanometer-scale techno- простые технологии нанометровоlogy. го диапазона. (5) Influential yet highly contro- (5) Важное, однако чрезвычайно versial depiction of nanotechno- спорное, отображение нанотехноlogy. логии.

TEXT В. EARLY HISTORY OF NANOTECHNOLOGY: K. ERIC DREXLER

The term “nanotechnology” was popularized in the 1980's by K. Eric Drexler who was one time the student of Richard Feynman. His 1981 paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences established fundamental principles of molecular design, protein engineering, and productive nanosystems. He was talking about building machines on the scale of molecules, a few nanometers size motors, robot arms, 23

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and even whole computers, far smaller than a cell. Drexler spent ten years describing and analyzing these incredible devices, and responding to accusations of being science fiction writer. Meanwhile, the chemical technology was developing the ability to build simple structures on a molecular scale. As nanotechnology became an accepted concept, the meaning of the word shifted to encompass the simpler kinds of nanometer-scale technology. The U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative was created to fund this kind of nanotech: their definition includes anything smaller than 100 nanometers with novel properties. Directly after the publication of this book, Drexler founded the Foresight Institute, whose stated goal is to “ensure the beneficial implementation of nanotechnology.” Drexler used this “institute” as a way to present his vision of molecular manufacturing that he vividly illustrated in Engines of Creation. Thus, this “institute” was used to further propagate research, through his influential yet highly controversial depiction of nanotechnology and its future. He is currently working in collaboration with the World Wide Fund to explore nanotechnology-based solutions to global problems such as energy and climate change.

Переведите эту часть текста письменно, пользуясь словарем (компьютером):

Drexler's Dream Factory. The Theory In Drexler's conception, the goal of nanotechnology is to build molecular assemblers – nanoscale factories capable of constructing objects at any scale, atom by atom. Unlike conventional chemistry, in which innumerable molecules interact, Drexler has proposed a method of “mechanosynthesis” which involves positioning individual molecules close

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together so stronger chemical attractions can overcome weaker ones in a controlled way, depositing or removing atoms as desired.

The Technology In this image of a hypothetical molecular mill, a conveyor belt carries the production line beneath an assembly wheel outfitted with tool tips of reactive germanium – exchangeable with alternative tips to deposit or remove different types of atoms. The mechanism places a single hydrogen atom on each molecule as it passes. As Drexler sees it, a system of such machines would be able to build just about anything, quickly and inexpensively.

The Problem In practice, Drexler's critics say that chemistry is more complicated. Each atom in a molecule interacts with every other atom nearby, including those in the proposed tool tips, conveyor belt, mill wheel, and so on. Thus, to deposit a single atom, a nanoassembler would need to restrain every atom in the vicinity. The sheer number of atoms that would need to be controlled, and the machinery it would take to control them, make mechanosynthesis a practical impossibility. Drexler was awarded a PhD from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Molecular Nanotechnology (the first degree in Nanosystems). Dr. Drexler serves as Chief Technical Advisor to Nanorex a company developing open-source design software for structural DNA nanotechnologies. He consults and speaks on how current research can be directed more effectively toward high-payoff objectives, and addresses the implications of emerging technologies for our future, including their use to solve, rather than delay, large-scale problems such as global warming.

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ЗАДАНИЯ К ТЕКСТАМ А, В. 1. Прочитайте текст А и найдите 5 предложений, содержащих основную информацию. Переведите эти предложения. 2. Перескажите текст А, используя выделенные вами предложения. 3. Просмотрите тексты А и В и перечислите основные идеи, выдвинутые Ричардом Фейнманом и Эриком Дрекслером на заре нанотехнологии. Начните примерно так: «Дрекслер и Фейнман создавали свои концепции нанотехнологии, руководствуясь скорее воображением, чем фактами; Фейнман рисовал в своем воображении миниатюрные заводы, на которых работали наномашины…».

TEXT C. EARLY HISTORY OF NANOTECHNOLOGY: CRITICISM OF K. ERIC DREXLER 1. How did Dr. Richard Smalley estimate Drexler’s wirk? Due to the publicity generated by both Drexler's work and the Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), scientists from all over the world began to have an interest in the field of nanotechnology. Dr. Richard Smalley (1943– 2005), for example, specifically said that he was a “fan of Eric” and that Drexler's work influenced him to pursue nanotechnology. Moreover, he even referred to Drexler's book as the top decision-maker. Though criticizing Drexler and his 26

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work in future years, Smalley, like other scientists, were intrigued by this book and proceeded to do research in this new and evolving field. Drexler's vision of molecular manufacturing and assemblers has become, on one hand, a scientific goal, through the Foresight Institute, and, on the other, a controversial issue.

2. Why did the scientists criticize K. Eric Drexler? Some scientists have criticized Drexler's visions as impossible and harmful. Richard Smalley has led this movement against Drexler's almost sensationalist vision of molecular manufacturing. In their open debate in 2003, Smalley writes almost sarcastically, “you cannot make precise chemistry occur as desired between two molecular objects with simple mechanical motion along a few degrees of freedom in the assembler-fixed frame of reference.” Furthermore, he also chastises Drexler saying, “you and the people around you have scared our children while our future in the real world will be challenging though there are real risks, but there will be no such monster as the self-replicating mechanical nanorobot of your dreams.”

3. What is Richard Smalley’s vision of nanotechnology? In contrast to Drexler's radical vision, Smalley realistically argued that nanotechnology could be used on a much more practical and attainable level. As a result, due to the onset of academic criticism from scientists such as Richard Smalley, nanotechnology evolved from Drexler's vision of molecular manufacturing to a broad field that encompassed both practical manufacturing and non-manufacturing activities. Chemistry, materials science, and molecular engineering were now all included in this science.

4. Will nanotechnology result in manufacturing revolution?

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Shortly after this envisioned molecular machinery is created, it will result in a manufacturing revolution, probably causing severe disruption. It also has serious economic, social, environmental, and military implications. The very first human-made nanostructure– the “Buckyball” was created in 1985 by Harold Kroto, James Heath, Sean O’Brien, Robert Curl and Richard Smalley at Rice University. For this invention they were awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1996. Buckyball contained 60 carbon atoms in the shape of a soccer ball with a diameter of 0.7 nanometer. It was named after a futurist, R. Buckminster Fuller. Scientists believe that this first structure opens the way to manufacturing revolution.

ЗАДАНИЯ К ТЕКСТУ С. 1. Прочитайте текст С и ответьте на поставленные в нем вопросы. 2. Потренируйтесь в параллельном переводе предложений из текста С. Переводя с английского языка на русский, старайтесь не заглядывать в готовый перевод. Таким же образом переводите с русского языка на английский. (1) Scientists from all over the (1) Ученые со всего мира начали world began to have an interest проявлять интерес к сфере наноin the field of nanotechnology. технологий. (2) Moreover, he even referred (2) Более того, он даже считал книto Drexler's book as the top de- гу Дрекслера наилучшим руководcision-maker. ством для принятия решений. (3) Smalley has led this move- (3) Смоли возглавил это движение ment against Drexler's almost против почти сенсационного видеsensationalist vision of molecu- ния Дрекслером молекулярного 28

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lar manufacturing.

производства.

(4) You cannot make precise chemistry occur as desired between two molecular objects with simple mechanical motion along a few degrees of freedom in the assembler-fixed frame of reference. (5) You and the people around you have scared our children while our future in the real world will be challenging though there are real risks, but there will be no such monster as the selfreplicating mechanical nanorobot of your dreams.

(4) Вы не можете заставить точные химические процессы происходить по вашему желанию между двумя молекулярными объектами за счет простого механического движения с несколькими степенями свободы ассемблеров в фиксированной системе отсчета. (5) Вы и ваши люди напугали наших детей, в то время как наше будущее в реальном мире будет интересным, хотя есть реальный риск, но не будет такого монстра, как самовоспроизводящийся механический наноробот, о котором вы грезите.

(6) Nanotechnology evolved from Drexler's vision of molecular manufacturing to a broad field that encompassed both practical manufacturing and non-manufacturing activities. Chemistry, materials science, and molecular engineering were now all included in this science.

(6) Нанотехнология прошла путь от Дрекслеровского видения молекулярного производства до обширной области, которая охватывает как практическое производство, так и непроизводственную деятельность. Химия, материаловедение, молекулярная инженерия – все они сейчас входят в эту науку.

3. Составьте краткий пересказ текстов А, В, С, подытожив основные положения ранней истории нанотехнологии (5–8 предложений).

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

Lesson Three NANOWORLD: VIRTUAL OR REAL?

The way of ingeniously controlling the world of small structures with intricate properties is the way of the future, a way of precise, controlled building by design Ronald Hoffmann, Nobel Laureate in chemistry

Лингвистический компонент Грамма ти ка урока 3. 1. Действие, процесс, состояние: времена группы Continuous (Progressive). 2. Определение, выраженное прилагательным: суффиксы прилагательных. 3. Грамматические упражнения урока 3.

Лексика 1. Развитие навыков произношения (лексико-фонетические упражнения). 2. Ключевые слова (термины урока). 3. Лексико-грамматические структуры, используемые в текстах урока.

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Профессиональный компонент Практическое применение языковых знаний для решения профессиональных коммуникативных задач Виртуальный мир наносистем Text A. Exploring the molecular world with virtual computer. Text B. Too small: virtual simulation. Text C. Nanomachines. Упражнения на понимание звучащей речи, лексики урока, составление простых вопросов и ответов.

Самостоятельная работа: 1. Выполнение фонетических, лексико-грамматических и коммуникативных заданий урока. 2. Выполнение грамматических упражнений. Выполнение индивидуальных заданий преподавателя (дополнительные тексты для индивидуальной работы).

ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ 1. Прочитайте слова несколько раз, используя знаки транскрипции: Newcomer ['nju 'kAmq], dissatisfying ['dIs'sxtIsfaIN], gut level [gAt 'level], simulated world ["sImju'leItId wWld], transparent [trxns'pFqrqnt], explore [Iks'plL], fingertips ['fINqtIps], slide [slaId], corrugated ['kOrugeItId], surface ['sWfIs], texture ['teksCq], smoothly ['smHDlI], bearings ['bFqrINz], thermal noise ['TWmql nOIz], goggles [gOglz], pebbly ['peblI], bump [bAmp].

2. Переведите следующие слова с русского на английский и прочитайте их, проверяя правильность произношения по упражнению 1. Новичок, неудовлетворительный, уровень интуиции, моделированный мир, исследовать, кончики пальцев, прозрачный, гофрирован31

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ный, поверхность, текстура, скользить, гладко, подшипники, термический шум, защитные очки, неровный, выпуклость. 3. Прочитайте лексическую программу текста А несколько раз. Постарайтесь запомнить ее. 1. The virtual reality of a simulat- 1. Виртуальная реальность модеed world лируемого мира 2. You want to understand what 2. Ты хочешь понять, что предnanotechnology is, on a gut level ставляет собой нанотехнология на уровне интуиции 3. It's easier to explore a simulat- 3. Легче исследовать моделируеed world мый мир 4. Crude devices that a sense of touching them

gave 4. Устройства с необработанными поверхностями, дающие тактильные ощущения при прикосновении

5. It pulls on your fingertip

5. На кончике пальца ощущается вибрация

6. It can't have been lubricated

6. На ней не может быть смазки

7. Like the sensation of touching 7. Ощущение, как будто вы касаеa working loudspeaker тесь работающего громкоговорителя

TEXT A. EXPLORING THE MOLECULAR WORLD WITH VIRTUAL NANOCOMPUTER You can manipulate molecules in the virtual reality of a simulated world using video goggles, tactile gloves, and a supercomputer. The early 32

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twenty-first century is able to do even better. Imagine, then, that today you were to take a really long nap, oversleep, and wake up decades later in a nanotechnological world. In the twenty-first century, even more than in the twentieth, it's easy to make things work without understanding them, but to a newcomer much of the technology seems like magic, which is dissatisfying. After a few days, you want to understand what nanotechnology is, on a gut level. Back in the late twentieth century, most teaching used dry words and simple pictures, but now—for a topic like this—it's easier to explore a simulated world. And so you decide to explore a simulation of the molecular world. The ground underfoot, like everything around you, is pebbly with atom-sized bumps the size of your fingertips. Objects look like bunches of transparent grapes or fused marbles in a variety of pretty but imaginary colors. Actually, the whole simulation setup is nothing but an improved version of systems built in the late 1980s—the computer is faster, but it is calculating the same things. The video goggles are better, but even in the 1980s there were 3-D displays for molecules and crude devices that gave a sense of touching them. The gloves give the sensation of touching whatever the computer simulates. When you run a fingertip over the side of the smaller nanocomputer, it feels odd, hard to describe. It is as if the surface were magnetic—it pulls on your fingertip if you move close enough. But the result isn't a sharp click of contact, because the surface isn't hard like a magnet, but strangely soft. Touching the surface is like touching a film of fog that grades smoothly into foam rubber, then hard rubber, then steel, all within the thickness of a sheet of corrugated cardboard. Moving sideways, your fingertip feels no texture, no friction, just smooth bumps more slippery than oil, and a tendency to get pulled into hollows. It is strange how slippery the surface is—and it can't have been lubricated, since even a single oil molecule would be a lump the size of your thumb. This slipperiness makes it obvious how nano-scale bearings can work, how the parts of molecular machines can slide smoothly.

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But on top of this, there is a tingling feeling in your fingers, like the sensation of touching a working loudspeaker. When you put your ear against the wall of the nanocomputer, you flinch back: for a moment, you heard a sound like the hiss of a twentieth—century television tuned to a channel with no broadcast, with nothing but snow and static—but loud, painfully loud. All the atoms in the surface are vibrating at high frequencies, too fast to see. This is thermal vibration, and it's obvious why it's also called thermal noise.

ЗАДАНИЯ К ТЕКСТАМ А, В.

1. Прочитайте текст А и найдите 5 предложений, содержащих основную информацию. Переведите эти предложения. 2. Перескажите текст А, используя выделенные вами предложения.

TEXT B. TOO SMALL: VIRTUAL SIMULATION Beside you, the smaller nanocomputer is a block twice your height, but it's easy to climb up onto it as the tour guide suggests. Gravity is less important on a small scale: even a fly can defy gravity to walk on a ceiling, and an ant can lift what would be a truck to us. At a simulated size of fifty nanometers, gravity counts for nothing. Materials keep their strength, and are just as hard to bend or break, but the weight of an object becomes negligible. Even without the strength-enhancement that lets you overcome molecular stickiness, you could lift an object with 40 million times your 34

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mass—like a person of normal size lifting a box containing a half-dozen fully loaded oil tankers. To simulate this weak gravity, special devices make you feel as if you were floating. This is almost like a vacation in an orbital theme park, walking with sticky boots on walls, ceilings, and whatnot, but with no need for anti-nausea medication. On top of the nanocomputer is a protein molecule. This looks like a cluster of grapes and is about the same size. It even feels a bit like a bunch of grapes, soft and loose. The parts don't fly free like a gas or tumble and wander like a liquid, but they do quiver like gelatin and sometimes flop or twist. It is solid enough, but the folded structure is not as strong as your steel fingers. In the 1990s, people began to build molecular machinery out of proteins, copying biology. It worked, but it's easy to see why they moved on to better materials. From a simulated pocket, you pull out a simulated magnifying glass and look at the simulated protein. This shows a pair of bonded atoms on the surface at 10 times magnification. The atoms are almost transparent, but even a close look doesn't reveal a nucleus inside, because it's too small to see. It would take 1,000 times magnification to be able to see it, even with the head start of being able to see atoms with your naked eye. How could people ever confuse big, plump atoms with tiny specks like nuclei? Remembering how your steel-strong fingers couldn't press more than a fraction of the way toward the nucleus of an argon atom from the air, it's clear why nuclear fusion is so difficult. Try as you might, there just isn't anything you could find in the molecular world that could reach into the middle of an atom to touch its nucleus. You can't touch it and you can't see it, so you stop looking though the magnifying glass. Nuclei just aren't of much interest in nanotechnology.

Some useful words and phrases: – nanocomputer – компьютер, построенный из частей, имеющих размеры, сопоставимые с размерами молекул – a block twice your height – блок в два раза выше вас 35

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– a simulated size – моделируемый размер – gravity counts for nothing – гравитация не имеет значения – the weight of an object becomes negligible – весом объекта можно пренебречь – strength-enhancement – повышение прочности – theme park – тематический парк; парк отдыха с аттракционами, оборудованием, посвящённый одной теме (часто детский) – cluster of grapes – гроздь винограда – folded structure – складчатая структура – magnifying glass – увеличительное стекло – simulated protein – моделированный белок – 10 times magnification – десятикратное увеличение – with your naked eye – невооруженным глазом – tiny specks like nuclei – такие крошечные крупинки, как ядра

ЗАДАНИЯ К ТЕКСТУ С.

1. Прочитайте текст С. 2. Выпишите из глоссария и переведите на русский язык значения подчеркнутых терминов.

TEXT C. NANOMACHINES At your feet is a ribbed, ringed cylindrical object about the size of a soup can—not a 36

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messy, loosely folded strand like the protein (before it fell apart), but a solid piece of modern nanotechnology. It's a gear. Picking it up, you can immediately feel how different it is from a protein. In the gear, everything is held in place by bonds as strong as those that strung together the beads of the protein chain. It can't unfold, and you'd have to cheat again to break its perfect symmetry. Like those in the wall of the nanocomputer, its solidly attached atoms vibrate only slightly. Underfoot is the nanocomputer itself, a huge mechanism built in the same rigid style. Climbing down from it, you can see through the transparent layers of the wall to watch the inner works. This doesn't look like a computer; it looks more like an engineer's fantasy from the nineteenth century. This simulation is based on a version built by a hobbyist. A nanomachine, also called a nanite, is a mechanical or electromechanical device whose dimensions are measured in nanometers (millionths of a millimeter, or units of 10−9 meter). Nanomachines are largely in the research-and-development phase, but some primitive devices have been tested. An example is a sensor having a switch approximately 1.5 nanometers across, capable of counting specific molecules in a chemical sample. The first useful applications of nanomachines will likely be in medical technology, where they could be used to identify pathogens and toxins from samples of body fluid. Another potential application is the detection of toxic chemicals, and the measurement of their concentrations, in the environment. The microscopic size of nanomachines translates into high operational speed. This is a result of the natural tendency of all machines and systems to work faster as their size decreases. Nanomachines could be programmed to replicate themselves, or to work synergistically to build larger machines or to construct nanochips. Specialized nanomachines called nanorobots might be designed not only to diagnose, but to treat, disease conditions, perhaps by seeking out invading bacteria and viruses and destroying them. Another advantage of nanomachines is that the individual units require only a tiny amount of energy to operate. Durability is another poten37

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tial asset; nanites might last for centuries before breaking down. The main challenge lies in the methods of manufacture. It has been suggested that some nanomachines might be grown in a manner similar to the way plants evolve from seeds.

3. Потренируйтесь в параллельном переводе предложений из текста С. Переводя с английского языка на русский, старайтесь не заглядывать в готовый перевод. Таким же образом переводите с русского языка на английский.

(1) At your feet is a ribbed, ringed cylindrical object about the size of a soup can—not a messy, loosely folded strand like the protein (before it fell apart), but a solid piece of modern nanotechnology.

(1) У ваших ног находится ребристый, кольчатый цилиндрический объект размером с консервную банку – небеспорядочная, неплотно скрученная молекулярная цепочка, как у белка (до того, как он распадется), но цельный предмет современной нанотехнологии.

(2) In the gear, everything is held in place by bonds as strong as those that strung together the beads of the protein chain.

(2) В шестеренке все удерживается на местах с помощью химических связей, таких же сильных, как те, что удерживают бусинки белковой цепи.

(3) This simulation is based on (3) Эта модель основана на версии, a version built by a hobbyist. построенной человеком, увлеченным своим хобби. (4) An example is a sensor having a switch approximately 1.5 nanometers across, capable of counting specific molecules in a chemical sample.

(4) Примером служит датчик, имеющий переключатель примерно в 1,5 нанометра в сечении, способный подсчитать количество отдельных молекул в химическом образце.

(5) The microscopic size of (5) Микроскопические размеры на38

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nanomachines translates into номашин приводят к высокой эксhigh operational speed. плуатационной скорости.

4. Составьте краткий письменный пересказ текста С (5–8 предложений).

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

Lesson Four DOUBTS AND FEARS CONCERNING NANOTECHNOLOGY

“Theorizing about consequences of nanoparticles accumulating in food chain is insufficient for practical conclusions Scientists, however, are reluctant to invest in discovering how bad these materials are because they are too interested in showing how good these materials can be” Richard Smalley

Лингвистический компонент Грамма ти ка урока 4. 1. Действие, результат. Времена группы Perfect. 2. Наречия в английском языке: суффиксы наречий. 3. Грамматические упражнения урока 4.

Лексика 1. Развитие навыков произношения (лексико-фонетические упражнения). 2. Ключевые слова (термины урока). 3. Лексико-грамматические структуры, используемые в текстах урока.

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Профессиональный компонент Практическое применение языковых знаний для решения профессиональных коммуникативных задач Опасности и риски нанотехнологии Text A. Dangers of molecular manufacturing. Text B. Too little or too much regulation? Text C. Military dangers. Упражнения на понимание звучащей речи, лексики урока, составление простых вопросов и ответов.

Самостоятельная работа: 1. Выполнение фонетических, лексико-грамматических и коммуникативных заданий урока. 2. Выполнение грамматических упражнений. Выполнение индивидуальных заданий преподавателя (дополнительные тексты для индивидуальной работы).

ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ 1. Прочитайте слова несколько раз, используя знаки транскрипции. Догадайтесь об их значении по похожим словам русского языка: Breakthrough ['breIk'TrH], competing [kqm'pJtIN], economic upheavals [Ikq'nOmIk Ap'hJvqlz], disrupt [dIs'rApt], dangerous ['deInGrqs], abusive [q'bjHsIv], restrictions [rIs'trAkSqnz], oppression [q'peSqn], arms race [Rmz reIs], damage ['dxmIG], adequate ['xdIkwIt], smuggle [smAgl], immense [I'mens], essential [I'senSql], disruption

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[dIs'rApSqn], existential risks ["egzIs'tenSl rIsks], abundance [q'bAndqns], benefits ['benIfIts], implications ["ImplI'keISqnz], severe [sI'vIq], self-replicator [self "replI'keItq].

2. Переведите следующие слова с русского на английский и прочитайте их, проверяя правильность произношения по упражнению 1: Прорыв, соперничающий, разрушать, опасный, экономические потрясения, ограничения, повреждение, занимается контрабандой, безмерный, адекватный, важнейший, разрушение, изобилие, притеснение, гонка вооружений, реальные риски, серьезный, преимущества, последствия, саморепликатор.

3. Прочитайте лексическую программу текста А несколько раз. Постарайтесь запомнить ее. 1. Molecular manufacturing will 1. Молекулярное производство be a significant breakthrough будет важным прорывом 2. Disruptive and unstable arms 2. Разрушительная и нестабильrace ная гонка вооружений 3. Small nanofactories will be 3. Маленькие нанозаводы будет very easy to smuggle, and fully очень легко перевозить контраdangerous бандой, и они будут очень опасны 4. May not allow time to adjust to 4. Может не хватить времени, its implications чтобы приспособиться к его последствиям 5. Environmental damage or health 5. Вред окружающей среде или risks риск для здоровья

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6. May threaten the continued 6. Могут угрожать дальнейшеexistence of humankind му существованию человечества

TEXT A. DANGERS OF MOLECULAR MANUFACTURING Molecular manufacturing will be a significant breakthrough, comparable perhaps to the Industrial Revolution—but compressed into a few years. This has the potential to disrupt many aspects of society and politics. The power of the technology may cause two competing nations to enter a disruptive and unstable arms race. Weapons and surveillance devices could be made small, cheap, powerful, and very numerous. Cheap manufacturing and duplication of designs could lead to economic upheaval. Overuse of inexpensive products could cause widespread environmental damage. Attempts to control these and other risks may lead to abusive restrictions, or create demand for a black market that would be very risky and almost impossible to stop; small nanofactories will be very easy to smuggle, and fully dangerous. There are numerous severe risks—including several different kinds of risk—that cannot all be prevented with the same approach. Simple, one-track solutions cannot work. The right answer is unlikely to evolve without careful planning. The potential benefits of molecular manufacturing are immense, but so are the dangers. In order to avert the dangers, we must thoroughly understand them, and then develop comprehensive plans to prevent them. Molecular manufacturing will allow the rapid prototyping and inexpensive manufacture of a wide variety of powerful products. This capability will arrive rather suddenly, since the final steps of developing the technology are likely to be much easier than the initial steps, and many of them can be

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pre-planned. The sudden arrival of molecular manufacturing may not allow time to adjust to its implications. Adequate preparation is essential. The first step in understanding the dangers is to identify them. Although probably incomplete, the list of risks is worrisome already: ♦ Economic disruption due to abundance of cheap products. ♦ Economic oppression due to artificially inflated prices. ♦ Personal risk from criminal or terrorist use. ♦ Personal or social risk from abusive restrictions. ♦ Social disruption from new products and lifestyles. ♦ Arms race. ♦ Environmental damage or health risks. ♦ Free-range self-replicators. ♦ Black market in nanotech (increases other risks). Some of the dangers described here are existential risks, that is, they may threaten the continued existence of humankind. Others could produce significant disruption but not cause our extinction. A combination of several risks could exacerbate the seriousness of each; any solution must take into account its effect on other risks.

ЗАДАНИЯ К ТЕКСТАМ А, В.

1. Прочитайте текст А и найдите 5 предложений, содержащих основную информацию. Переведите эти предложения. 2. Перескажите текст А, используя выделенные вами предложения. 3. Прочитайте текст В и перечислите основные идеи текста (5– 8 предложений).

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TEXT B. TOO LITTLE OR TOO MUCH REGULATION? Some of these risks come from too little regulation and others from too much regulation. Several different kinds of regulation will be necessary in several different fields. An extreme response to any of these risks will create fertile ground for other risks. The temptation to impose apparently obvious and simple solutions to problems in isolation must be avoided. By today's commercial standards, products built by nanofactories would be immensely valuable. A monopoly would allow the owners of the technology to charge high rates for all products, and make high profits. However, if carried to its logical conclusion, such a practice would deny cheap lifesaving technologies (as simple as water filters or mosquito netting) to millions of people in desperate need. Competition will eventually drive prices down, but an early monopoly is likely for several reasons. Due to other risks, it is unlikely that a completely unregulated commercial market will be allowed to exist. In any case, the high cost of development will limit the number of competing projects. Finally, a company that pulls ahead of the pack could use the resulting huge profits to stifle competition by means such as broad enforcement of expansive patents and lobbying for special-interest industry restrictions. The price of a product usually falls somewhere between its value to the purchaser and its cost to the seller. Molecular manufacturing could result in products with a value orders of magnitude higher than their cost. It is likely that the price will be set closer to the value than to the cost; in this case, customers will be unable to gain most of the benefit of “the nanotech revolution”. If pricing products by their value is accepted, the poorest people may continue to die of poverty, in a world where products costing literally a few cents would save a life. If (as seems likely) this situation is accepted more by the rich than by the poor, social unrest could add its prob45

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lems to untold unnecessary human suffering. New products and lifestyles may cause significant social disruption. For example, medical devices could be built into needles narrower than a bacterium, perhaps allowing easy brain modification or stimulation, with effects similar to any of a variety of psychoactives.

Переведите следующую часть текста письменно, пользуясь словарем (компьютером): Most societies have found it desirable to forbid certain products: guns in Britain, seedless watermelon in Iran, sex toys in Texas, various drugs in various societies such as hashish in the United States and alcohol in Muslim societies. Although many of these restrictions are based on moral principles not shared by the majority of the world's population, the fact that the restrictions exist at all indicates the sensitivity of societies—or at least their rulers—to undesired products. The ability to make banned products using personal factories could be expected to be at least somewhat disruptive to society, and could provide an impetus for knee-jerk and overly broad restrictions on the technology. New lifestyles enabled by new technology could also cause social disruption. Whereas demand for banned products already exists, lifestyles develop over time, so the effects of lifestyle change are likely to be less acute. However, some lifestyle possibilities (particularly in the areas ofsex, drugs, entertainment, and body or genetic modification) are likely to be sufficiently disturbing to onlookers that their very existence would cause destruction.

Some useful words and phrases: – extreme response – чрезмерная реакция – temptation – соблазн – commercial standards – коммерческие стандарты – to charge high rates for all products – установить высокие цены на все продукты 46

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– people in desperate need – отчаянно нуждающиеся люди – completely unregulated market – полностью нерегулируемый рынок – competing projects – конкурирующие проекты – expansive patents – экспансивные патенты – with a value orders of magnitude higher than their cost – со стоимостью заказов на порядок выше себестоимости – untold unnecessary human suffering – невыносимые, неоправданные человеческие страдания – significant social disruption – значительные социальные возмущения

ЗАДАНИЯ К ТЕКСТУ С. 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст С, пользуясь словарем (компьютером).

TEXT C. MILITARY DANGERS Molecular manufacturing raises the possibility of horrifically effective weapons. As an example, the smallest insect is about 200 microns; this creates a plausible size estimate for a nanotech-built antipersonnel weapon capable of seeking and injecting toxin into unprotected humans. The human lethal dose of botulism toxin is about 100 nanograms, or about 1/100 the volume of the weapon. As many as 50 billion toxin-carrying devices— theoretically enough to kill every human on earth—could be packed into a single suitcase. Guns of all sizes would be far more powerful, and their bullets could be self-guided. Aerospace hardware would be far lighter and high47

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er performance; built with minimal or no metal, it would be much harder to spot on radar. Embedded computers would allow remote activation of any weapon, and more compact power handling would allow greatly improved robotics. These ideas barely scratch the surface of what's possible. An important question is whether nanotech weapons would be stabilizing or destabilizing. Nuclear weapons, for example, perhaps can be credited with preventing major wars since their invention. However, nanotech weapons are not very similar to nuclear weapons. Nuclear stability stems from at least four factors. The most obvious is the massive destructiveness of all-out nuclear war. All-out nanotech war is probably equivalent in the short term, but nuclear weapons also have a high long-term cost of use (fallout, contamination) that would be much lower with nanotech weapons. Nuclear weapons cause indiscriminate destruction; nanotech weapons could be targeted. Nuclear weapons require massive research effort and industrial development, which can be tracked far more easily than nanotech weapons development; nanotech weapons can be developed much more rapidly due to faster, cheaper prototyping. Finally, nuclear weapons cannot easily be delivered in advance of being used; the opposite is true of nanotech. Greater uncertainty of the capabilities of the adversary, less response time to an attack, and better targeted destruction of an enemy's visible resources during an attack all make nanotech arms races less stable. Also, unless nanotech is tightly controlled, the number of nanotech nations in the world could be much higher than the number of nuclear nations, increasing the chance of a regional conflict blowing up. Admiral David E. Jeremiah, Vice-Chairman (ret.), U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, in an address at the 1995 Foresight Conference on Molecular Nanotechnology said: “Military applications of molecular manufacturing have even greater potential than nuclear weapons to radically change the balance of power.”

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2. Потренируйтесь в параллельном переводе предложений из текста С. Переводя с английского языка на русский, старайтесь не заглядывать в готовый перевод. Таким же образом переводите с русского языка на английский. (1) Molecular manufacturing (1) Молекулярное производство поraises the possibility of horrifi- вышает вероятность появления cally effective weapons. ужасающе эффективного оружия. (2) Nanotech weapons are not (2) Нанотехнологическое оружие very similar to nuclear weapons. не очень похоже на ядерное оружие. (3) Nuclear weapons cause in- (3) Ядерное оружие – это оружие discriminate destruction; nano- неизбирательного уничтожения; tech weapons could be targeted. нанотехнологическое оружие может иметь направленное действие. (4) Military applications of molecular manufacturing have even greater potential than nuclear weapons to radically change the balance of power.

(4) Военное применение молекулярного производства имеет даже больший потенциал, чем ядерное оружие, чтобы радикально изменить баланс сил.

(5) These ideas barely scratch (5) Эти идеи едва царапают поthe surface of what's possible. верхность того, что возможно.

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

Lesson Five TEN DISCOVERIES IN NANOTECHNOLOGY THAT CHANGE THE WORLD

“Effect that nanotech will have during next decade is difficult to estimate because of potentially new and unanticipated discoveries in this field” Hari C. Manoharan, IBM's Almaden Research Center

Лингвистический компонент Грамма ти ка урока 5. 1. Побуждение к действию/просьба – глагол в повелительной форме; конструкции с let (let us do it, let me do it, let him do it). 2. Грамматические упражнения урока 5.

Лексика 1. Развитие навыков произношения (лексико-фонетические упражнения). 2. Ключевые слова (термины урока). 3. Лексико-грамматические структуры, используемые в текстах урока.

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Профессиональный компонент Практическое применение языковых знаний для решения профессиональных коммуникативных задач Десять открытий в нанотехнологии, которые изменяют мир Text A. Milestones in Nanotechnology Research. Text B. Nanotechnology strategies. Text C. Major impacts of nanotechnology. Упражнения на понимание звучащей речи, лексики урока, составление простых вопросов и ответов.

Самостоятельная работа: 1. Выполнение фонетических, лексико-грамматических и коммуникативных заданий урока. 2. Выполнение грамматических упражнений. Выполнение индивидуальных заданий преподавателя (дополнительные тексты для индивидуальной работы).

ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ 1. Прочитайте слова несколько раз, используя знаки транскрипции. Догадайтесь об их значении по похожим словам русского языка: Emerging

technologies [I'mWGIN tek'nOlqGIz],

novel

materials['nOvql

mq'tIqrIqlz], sophisticated [sq'fIstIkeItId], milestones ['maIlstqunz], Scanning Tunneling Microscope ['skxnIN 'tAnlIN 'maIkrqskqup], surface ['sWfIs], molecular beam epitaxy [mqu'lekjulq bJm "epI'txksI], oxides ['OksaIdz], resolution ["rezq'lHSqn], ceramics [sI'rxmIks], spherical buckyballs ['sferIkql 'bAkI'bLlz], environmental [In"vaqrqn'mentl], etching ['eCIN], superconductivity ["sjupq"kOndAk'tIvItI], tungsten ['tANstqn], ingredient

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[In'grJdjqt], precision [prI'sIZqn], quantum mechanics ['kwOntqm mI'kxnIks], quantum mirage ['kwOntqm 'mIrRZ].

2. Переведите следующие слова с русского на английский и прочитайте их, проверяя правильность произношения по упражнению 1: Возникающие технологии, новые материалы, сложный, вехи, поверхность, сканирующий туннельный микроскоп, молекулярнопучковая эпитаксия, окислы, керамика, разрешение (микроскопа), травление, сферические фуллерены, вольфрам, относящийся к окружающей среде, компонент, сверхпроводимость, точность, квантовая механика, квантовый мираж. 3. Прочитайте лексическую программу текста А несколько раз. Постарайтесь запомнить ее. 1. To impose only limited control 1. Осуществлять ограниченный of structure контроль за структурой… 2. They are also being further de- 2. Они также развиваются даveloped… лее… 3. Is used to grow and characterize 3. Используется для выращиваthin crystalline films of oxides… ния и описания свойств тонких кристаллических пленок оксидов… 4. An invitation to enter a new 4. Инновация, которая должна field of physics… была войти в новую область физики… 5. Spherical buckyballs literally 5. Сферические фуллерены букadd a new dimension to the chem- вально добавляют новое измереistry. ние в химии. 6. …nanotubes seem to have un- 6. …считается, что нанотрубки имеют безграничные возможно52

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limited potential.

сти.

TEXT A. MILESTONES IN NANOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH

Nanotechnology is a group of emerging technologies in which the structure of matter is controlled at the nanometer scale, the scale of small numbers of atoms, to produce and devices that have useful and unique properties. Some of these technologies impose only limited control of structure at the nanometer scale, but they are already in use, producing useful products. They are also being further developed to produce even more products in which the structure of matter is more precisely controlled. The major milestones in nanotechnology are considered to be as follows: 1959 – Feynman’s talk on the prospects of miniaturization. His speech “There’s plenty of room at the bottom: An invitation to enter a new field of physics” was first presented at California Institute of Technology on December 29, 1959. 1968 – Alfred Cho and John Artur invented molecular beam epitaxy, a technique to deposit single atomic layer on a surface. The Molecular Beam Epitaxy System in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory is used to grow and characterize thin crystalline films of oxides and ceramics to understand in detail the chemistry that occurs on oxides and ceramic surfaces. 1981 – Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer created the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) which can image single atoms. Nobel prize for physics in 1986. The STM is an electron microscope that uses a single 53

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atom tip to attain atomic resolution. Tungsten is commonly used because electro-chemical etching can be applied to create very sharp tips. 1985 – Robert Curl, Harold Kroto and Richard Smally discovered discovered bukyballs which are about 1 nm in diameter. It was not until 1991 that buckyball science came into its own. Spherical buckyballs literally add a new dimension to the chemistry of aromatic compounds. Buckministerfullerine has been named the Molecule of the Year. In addition to opening up new fields on chemistry, C60 also shows interesting physical properties. It is resistant to shock and it has been suggested that as a lubricant, there is even evidence of superconductivity and it may provide the added ingredient that makes diamond films more practical. 1986 – K. Eric Drexler published “Engines of Creation”, a futuristic book about nanotech. The book features nanotechnology, which Richard Feynman had discussed in his 1959 speech “There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom”. Drexler imagines a world where the entire Library of Congress can fit on a chip the size of a sugar cube and where universal assemblers, tiny machines that can build objects atom by atom, will be used for everything from medicinal robots that help clear capillaries to environmental scrubbers that clear pollutants from the air. In the book, Drexler first proposes the gray goo scenario—his prediction of what might happen if molecular nanotechnology were used to build uncontrollable self-replicating machines. 1989 – Donald Eigler of IBM wrote letters “IBM” using single atoms. On September 28, 1989 he achieved a landmark in humankind’s ability to build small structures by demonstrating the ability to manipulate individual atoms with atomic-scale precision. 1991 – Sumio Iijima of NEC Japan discovered carbon nanotubes. On 7 November 1991, Sumio Iijima announced in Nature the preparation of nanometre-size, needle-like tubes of carbon—now familiar as “nanotubes”. Used in microelectronic circuitry and microscopy, and as a tool to test quantum mechanics and model biological systems, nanotubes seem to have unlimited potential. 1998 – creation of a transistor from carbon nanotube at Delft Univercity in Netherlands. A carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET) refers to a field-effect transistor that utilizes a single carbon nano54

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tube or an array of carbon nanotubes as the channel material instead of bulk silicon in the traditional structure. It is a promis for an alternative material to replace silicon in future electronics. 1999 – James Tour and Mark Reed demonstrated that single molecules can act as switches. We propose a stable molecular electronic switch design which contains a double-benzene molecule bridging a pair of CNT electrodes. The effect of different coupling between the molecule and electrodes on the switch function of the system is studied by use of tight-binding Green function approach. The system keeps a stable switch function for a large range of the coupling distance, as long as the π coupling between the molecule and the CNT remains. 2000 – Eigler and others devised a quantum mirage—placing a magnetic atom at the focus of an elliptical ring of atoms creates a mirage atom at the other focus.

ЗАДАНИЯ К ТЕКСТАМ А, В

1. Прочитайте текст А и найдите 5 предложений, содержащих основную информацию. Переведите эти предложения. 2. Перескажите текст А, используя выделенные вами предложения. 3. Выпишите из глоссария и переведите на русский язык значения подчеркнутых терминов текста В. 4. Опишите основные стратегии нанотехнологии (8–10 предложений).

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TEXT B. NANOTECHNOLOGY STRATEGIES

Top-down and bottom-up are strategies of information processing and knowledge ordering, mostly involving software, but also other humanistic and scientific theories. In practice, they can be seen as a style of thinking and teaching. In many cases top-down is used as a synonym of analysis or decomposition, and bottom-up of synthesis. A top-down approach (also known as step-wise design) is essentially the breaking down of a system to gain insight into its compositional subsystems. In a top-down approach an overview of the system is formulated, specifying but not detailing any first-level subsystems. Each subsystem is then refined in yet greater detail, sometimes in many additional subsystem levels, until the entire specification is reduced to base elements. A topdown model is often specified with the assistance of “black boxes”, these make it easier to manipulate. However, black boxes may fail to elucidate elementary mechanisms or be detailed enough to realistically confirm the model. A bottom-up approach is the piecing together of systems to give rise to grander systems, thus making the original systems sub-systems of the emergent system. In a bottom-up approach the individual base elements of the system are first specified in great detail. These elements are then linked together to form larger subsystems, which then in turn are linked, sometimes in many levels, until a complete top-level system is formed. This strategy often resembles a “seed” model, whereby the beginnings are small but eventually grow in complexity and completeness. Top-down and bottom-up are two approaches for the manufacture of products. These terms were first applied to the field of nanotechnology by the Foresight Institute in 1989 in order to distinguish between molecular manufacturing (to mass-produce large atomically precise objects) and conventional manufacturing (which can mass-produce large objects that are not atomically precise). Bottom-up approaches seek to have smaller (usually molecular) components built up into more complex assemblies, while top56

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down approaches seek to create nanoscale devices by using larger, externally-controlled ones to direct their assembly. The top-down approach often uses the traditional workshop or microfabrication methods where externally-controlled tools are used to cut, mill, and shape materials into the desired shape and order. Micropatterning techniques, such as photolithography and inkjet printing belong to this category. Bottom-up approaches, in contrast, use the chemical properties of single molecules to cause single-molecule components to (a) selforganize or self-assemble into some useful conformation, or (b) rely on positional assembly. These approaches utilize the concepts of molecular selfassembly and/or molecular recognition. It also concerns Supramolecular chemistry. Such bottom-up approaches should, broadly speaking, be able to produce devices in parallel and much cheaper than top-down methods, but could potentially be overwhelmed as the size and complexity of the desired assembly increases. The traditional Top-Down Approach (current technology) relies on anticipation of all possibilities, designing, thorough testing, exact replication to obtain the desired level of performance and ensure reliability. It works best in well-understood, predictable and relatively simple environments. Self-organized Bottom-Up Approach produces good designs by multi-scale, parallel, intelligent random search through the space of possibilities. It is appropriate—necessary—for large-scale complex environments, for the real world.

ЗАДАНИЯ К ТЕКСТУ С. 1. Прочитайте и переведите устно текст С, пользуясь при необходимости словарем (компьютером).

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TEXT C. MAJOR IMPACTS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY Through the manipulation of molecular-sized materials to create new products and process with novel features due to their nanoscale properties, nanotechnology promises to be a leading driver of future technology-based business and economic growth. Nanotechnology is already appearing in textiles, electronics, and other consumer and industrial products, and is expected to be increasingly used in medical, energy, and environmental applications. Many countries elsewhere are investing billions of dollars annually in nanotechnology development. Yet, there are many challenges to be addressed as nanotechnology moves out of the lab into widespread use, including issues related to the companies and locations that will lead nanotechnology innovation, how potential risks can be addressed prior to commercialization, and how governance and policy for nanotechnology innovation should evolve. Topics of interest for us include analyses of linkages between public research and universities on the one side, and nanotechnology commercialization on the other side, as well as the development of regional, national and transnational policies to anticipate and govern nanotechnology innovation. There are some benefits and challenges of nanotechnologies that stem from the rapid development of its trends. So far, the major impact of nanotechnology is exerted on Electronics, Computing and Data Storage; Materials and Manufacturing; Health and Medicine; Energy and Environment; Transportation; National Security; Space Exploration. The major benefits of nanotechnology in Electronics and Computing come from devising processors for molecular electronics with declining energy use and cost, thus increasing efficiency of computer by 106; creating small mass storage devices of multi-terabit (1012) levels; producing integrated nanosensers for collecting, processing and communicating massive amounts of data with minimal size, weight and power consumption. Nano58

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technology allows for using higher transmission frequencies and more efficient utilization of optical spectrum to provide at least 10 times the bandwidth used now. Display technologies are being developed using thin-film transistors (TFT). Quanting computing, for example, spinning single electron transistors is being used in Electronics and Computing.

2. Потренируйтесь в параллельном переводе предложений из текста С. Переводя с английского языка на русский, старайтесь не заглядывать в готовый перевод. Таким же образом переводите с русского языка на английский. (1) Through the manipulation of molecular-sized materials to create new products and process with novel features due to their nanoscale properties, nanotechnology promises to be a leading driver of future technology-based business and economic growth.

(1) Путем манипуляций с материалами молекулярных размеров для создания новых продуктов и процессов с новыми наносвойствами нанотехнология обещает стать ведущей движущей силой будущего бизнеса и экономического роста, основанного на технологии.

(2) Yet, there are many challenges to be addressed as nanotechnology moves out of the lab into widespread use.

(2) Тем не менее есть много проблем, которые предстоит решать, по мере того как нанотехнология выходит из лаборатории и находит широкое применение.

(3) Topics of interest for us include analyses of linkages between public research and universities on the one side, and nanotechnology commercialization on the other

(3) Нас интересуют такие темы, как связь общественных отношений и университетской науки, с одной стороны, и коммерциализации нанотехнологии – с дру-

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side, as well as the development of regional, national and transnational policies to anticipate and govern nanotechnology innovation.

гой, а также выработка региональной, национальной и транснациональной политики для предвидения и управления нанотехнологическими инновациями.

(4) There are some benefits and challenges of nanotechnologies that stem from the rapid development of its trends.

(4) Существуют некоторые преимущества и проблемы нанотехнологии, которые проистекают из бурного развития ее направлений.

(5) So far, the major impact of nanotechnology is exerted on Electronics, Computing and Data Storage; Materials and Manufacturing; Health and Medicine; Energy and Environment; Transportation; National Security; Space Exploration.

(5) До настоящего времени, основное влияние нанотехнология оказывает на электронику, вычислительную технику и хранение данных; материалы и производство; здравоохранение и медицину, энергетику и окружающую среду, транспорт, национальную безопасность, освоение космоса.

(6) The major benefits of nanotechnology in Electronics and Computing come from devising processors for molecular electronics with declining energy use and cost, thus increasing efficiency of computer by 106 times.

(6) Основные преимущества нанотехнологии в области электроники и вычислительной техники исходят из разработки процессоров для молекулярной электроники со снижением энергопотребления и стоимости, тем самым увеличивая эффективность компьютера в 106 раз.

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3. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту С. 1) In what spheres is nanotechnology used today? 2) What are the topics of interest concerning nanotechnology? 3) Where do the major benefits of nanotechnology come from? 4) What present-day technologies influenced most by nanotechnology?

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

Lesson Six COMPARISON OF MICRO- AND NANOSCALE TECHNOLOGIES

“Many nanoscale technologies are not new; the word ‘nanotechnology’ was first coined in 1971 but has been used by scientists and engineers to mean different things.” Iain Gray Chief Executive, UK Technology Strategy Board

Лингвистический компонент Грамма ти ка урока 6. 1. Долженствование/необходимость/желательность/возможност ь действия – модальные глаголы (must, can, may; have to). 2. Активный и страдательный залог. 3. Грамматические упражнения урока 6.

Лексика 1. Развитие навыков произношения (лексико-фонетические упражнения). 2. Ключевые слова (термины урока). 3. Лексико-грамматические структуры, используемые в текстах урока.

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Профессиональный компонент Практическое применение языковых знаний для решения профессиональных коммуникативных задач Сравнение микро- и нанотехнологии Text A. Key differences of micro- and nanotechnologies. Text B. Greatest Engineering Achievements of the 20th Century. Text C. Futuristic Industrial Products in the 21st Century by Nanotechnology. Упражнения на понимание звучащей речи, лексики урока, составление простых вопросов и ответов.

Самостоятельная работа: 1. Выполнение фонетических, лексико-грамматических и коммуникативных заданий урока. 2. Выполнение грамматических упражнений. Выполнение индивидуальных заданий преподавателя (дополнительные тексты для индивидуальной работы).

ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ 1. Прочитайте слова несколько раз, используя знаки транскрипции. Догадайтесь об их значении по похожим словам русского языка: Efficient [I'fISqnt], available [q'veIlqbl], areas ['FqrIqz], scope [skqup], embedded [Im'bedId], robust [rqu'bAst], electronic circuits [Ilek'trOnIk 'sWkIts], versatile ['vWsqtaIl], expandable [Iks'xndqbl], evolvable [I'vOlvqbl].

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2. Переведите следующие слова с русского на английский и прочитайте их, проверяя правильность произношения по упражнению 1: Эффективный, имеющийся в распоряжении, электронные контуры, границы, запечатленный, области, крепкий, многосторонний, растяжимый, развертываемый. 3. Прочитайте лексическую программу текста А несколько раз. Постарайтесь запомнить ее. 1. Both micro and nano technolo- 1. Как микро-, так и нанотехноgies… логии… 2. Scientists have to follow special 2. Ученые должны подчиняться dress codes специальному дресс-коду 3. At least in one dimension

3. По крайней мере, в одном измерении

4. Nanotechnology is expected to 4. Нанотехнология, как ожидают, be the next revolution будет следующей революцией 5. Miniaturization with atomic ac- 5. Миниатюризация с атомной curacy точностью

TEXT A. KEY DIFFERENCES OF MICRO- AND NANOTECHNOLOGIES Both micro and nano technologies are about miniaturizing the products to be more compact. Here, the terms micro and nano refer to how small the size of manipulation. Some manufacturing processes, which ear64

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lier belonged to micro technology, have now further scaled down and now they are in the scope of nanotechnology. Tasks of micro and nano technology are done in specially designed clean rooms, where dust and dirt are not. Also, in both micro and nano technology research, scientists have to follow special dress codes to prevent small dust particles interacting with products.

Micro technology Micrometer (also referred to as micron) is a millionth of a meter. Micro technology is used in manufacturing miniaturized systems or objects at micrometer scale. Printer heads, sensors and integrated circuits are examples for micro scale products. Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) is one of the popular micrometer scale application. MEMS contain tiny mechanical components such as levers, springs and fluid channels along with are embedded to a tiny chip. MEMS is now further being evolved to NEMS (Nanoelectromechanical System).

Nanotechnology Nano is a Greek word meaning “Dwarf” and nanometer is a billionth of a meter. Nanotechnology is designing, developing or manipulating at nanometer (a billionth of a meter) scale. The size of the dealing object should be less than hundred nanometers, at least in one dimension, to call something to be nanotechnology. Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor (CNTFET) is an example for a nanotechnology product. Nanotechnology is applied in many areas including IT, automobile, healthcare, textile and agricultural industries. Nanotechnology is expected to be the next revolution and many governments, universities and companies all over the invest lot of money on nanotechnology research.

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Differences between micro- and nanotechnologies NANOTECHNOLOGY

MICROSYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY Top-down approach

Bottom-up approach

Miniaturization with micrometer Miniaturization with atomic accuraand sub-micrometer tolerances cy Founded on solid-state physics

Founded on quantum physics and quantum mechanics, molecular solid and gas dynamics, heat transfer

Established fabrication techniques Fabrication techniques are in experimental stage Established manufacturing tech- Limited to manipulation of atoms niques Proven devices and engineering Only a few stationary machine comsystems in the market ponents of simple geometry are produced Success in commercialization of A long way to go a few products Critically dependent on compo- Only the basic components are denent reliability signed; the rest ot the system organizes itself Inflexible in response to novel Flexible, robust, versatile, expandaconditions ble, evolvable Read more: http://www.differencebetween.com/ difference-between-nano-and-vsmicro-2/#ixzz1UellTT9p

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ЗАДАНИЯ К ТЕКСТАМ А, В. 1. Прочитайте текст А и найдите 5 предложений, содержащих основную информацию. Переведите эти предложения. 2. Перескажите текст А, используя выделенные вами предложения. 3. Прочитайте текст В и назовите 3 инженерных достижения двадцатого века, которые могли бы возглавить список. Прокомментируйте свой выбор.

TEXT B. GREATEST ENGINEERING ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE 20th CENTURY In 2003, the National Academy of Engineering in the United States published A Century of Innovation: Twenty Engineering Achievements that Transformed our Lives. This work detailed historical information on the following list of what the authors consider to be the top twenty engineering achievements of the 20th century, or those achievements which had the greatest impact upon life during and following this period. The list was published as follows:

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1. Electrification 2. Automobile 3. Airplane 4. Water Supply and Distribution 5. Electronics 6. Radio and Television 7. Agricultural Mechanisation 8. Computers 9. Telephone 10. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration 11. Highways 12. Spacecraft 13. Internet 14. Imaging 15. Houshold Appliences 16. Health Technologies 17. Petroleum and Petrochemical Technologies 18. Laser and Fiber Optics 19. Nuclear Technologies 20. High-performance materials

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Here are some of these achiements : ELECTRIFICATION We mostly take the ready availability of electricity for granted, turning off the radio alarm in the morning, switching on the bedside lamp, pouring a cup of coffee from the machine that automatically started brewing it a few minutes before the alarm went off, tuning in to the morning news show on TV. Yet without the building of myriad power plants and the stringing of countless miles of wire, without the constant monitoring of the electric power grid and the juggling of supply and demand, that ready surge of electrons would not exist—nor would the modern world as we know it.

COMPUTERS A computer is a programmable machine designed to sequentially and automatically carry out a sequence of arithmetic or logical operations. The particular sequence of operations can be changed readily, allowing the computer to solve more than one kind of problem.

INTERNET The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet can also be defined as a worldwide interconnection of computers and computer networks that facilitate the sharing or exchange of information among users. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the interlinked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail. 69

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NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGIES Nuclear technology is the technology that involves the reactions of atomic nuclei. Among the notable nuclear technologies are nuclear power, nuclear medicine, and nuclear weapons. It has found applications from smoke detectors to nuclear reactors, and from gun sights to nuclear weapons. As the atom came to be better understood, the nature of radioactivity became clearer. Some larger atomic nuclei are unstable, and so decay (release matter or energy) after a random interval. The three forms of radiation that Becquerel and the Curies discovered are also more fully understood. Alpha decay is when a nucleus releases an alpha particle, which is two protons and two neutrons, equivalent to a helium nucleus. Beta decay is the release of a beta particle, a high-energy electron. Gamma decay releases gamma rays, which unlike alpha and beta radiation are not matter but electromagnetic radiation of very high frequency, and therefore energy. This type of radiation is the most dangerous, and most difficult to block. All three types of radiation occur naturally in certain elements. It has also become clear that the ultimate source of most terrestrial energy is nuclear, either through radiation from the Sun caused by stellar thermonuclear reactions or by radioactive decay of uranium within the Earth, the principal source of geothermal energy.

4. Потренируйтесь в параллельном переводе предложений из текста В. Переводя с английского языка на русский, старайтесь не заглядывать в готовый перевод. Таким же образом переводите с русского языка на английский. (1) A Century of Innovation: (1) Век инноваций: двадцать инжеTwenty Engineering Achieve- нерных достижений, которые изments that Transformed our менили нашу жизнь. Lives. 70

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(2) The Internet can also be defined as a worldwide interconnection of computers and computer networks that facilitate the sharing or exchange of information among users.

(2) Интернет также может быть определен как взаимосвязь компьютеров во всем мире и компьютерных сетей, которые облегчают обмен или взаимообмен информацией между пользователями.

(3) The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the interlinked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW).

(3) Интернет несет в себе широкий спектр информационных ресурсов и услуг, таких как взаимосвязанные гипертекстовые документы в World Wide Web (WWW).

(4) Among the notable nuclear technologies are nuclear power, nuclear medicine, and nuclear weapons.

(4) Среди заметных ядерных технологий можно выделить ядерную энергетику, ядерную медицину и ядерное оружие.

(5) The three forms of radiation (5) Три вида излучения, открытые that Becquerel and the Curies Беккерелем и супругами Кюри, discovered are also more fully также стали более понятными. understood.

ЗАДАНИЯ К ТЕКСТУ С 1. Прочитайте текст С. 2. Выпишите из глоссария и переведите на русский язык значения подчеркнутых терминов.

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TEXT C. FUTURISTIC INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS IN THE 21st CENTURY BY NANOTECHNOLOGY The Internet sources predict that in the next five years there will be devised tools for bulk materials fabrications (powders, composites, etc.). In the same period it is perceived that some other nanotechnology products will be commercialized, among them 1-D chemical and biological sensors, e.g. out-of-body medical sensors. In the nearest future nanotechnology is expected to devise new vaccines and medicines that cure many incurable diseases; synthetic antibody-like nanoscale drugs and devices seeking out to destroy malignant cells in human or animal bodies; in-vivo medical diagnostic and drug delivery systems. Nanotechnology industry is likely to develop smart surface coating materials with self-adjusting thermal conductance for buildings and refrigeration systems, as well as smart fabrics for self-cleaning cloth and superstrong materials for light weight airplanes, vehicles and structures. Nano scale technology will provide clean energy conversion systems and super-long life batteries. In the medium term (from 5 to 10 years) it is predicted that nanotechnology will develop the products of 2-D nanoelectronics: memory, displays, solar cells; hierarchically-structured Nanomaterials; passive drug delivery and diagnostics, as well as improved implantable medical devices. In the longer period of time (10 years and beyond) we are likely to have 3-D nanoelectronics; nanomelicine, therapeutics, and artificial chromosomes; quantum computers used in small molecule design; machinephase manufacturing, as well as something we cannot predict today. But it is also mentioned in the Internet articles related to nanotechnology that there should be developed sometimes in future “dream” products: ♦ “Dust” sized super-intelligent computers. ♦ “Needle-tip” sized robots for biomedical applications and for search and rescue. 72

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♦ Spacecraft weighing less than today’s family cars. ♦ Biomedicine, for example, in-vivo systems and surgery that can sustain human lives to 150 years and longer. ♦ Robots with artificial human intelligence becoming the mainstream workforce in our society. ♦ Unlimited supply of clean renewable energies that replace all fossil fuel produced energies on the Earth. ♦ Tele-transportation systems that can transport a man anywhere on Earth in seconds. ♦ Spacecraft for human/ cargo inter-planet traveling.

3. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту С. 1) Do you personally believe in predictions about nanotechnologies placed in the Internet? 2) What nanotechnology products should be commercialized as soon as possible? 3) What properties of nanomaterials make them so useful? 4) In what ways will nanoengineering solve the problem of energy deficiency? 5) Will nanoengineering have any impact on the way people travel and transport their cargoes?

4. Составьте краткий пересказ текста С (5–8 предложений).

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

Lesson Seven APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGIES AND NANOPRODUCTS

“Alternative techniques based on self-assembly and self-organization of organic and inorganic particles into well-defined regular nanostructures are therefore highly desirable”. W.T.S. Huck, Professor, University of Cambridge

Лингвистический компонент Грамма ти ка урока 7. 1. Неличные формы глагола: инфинитив. 2. Грамматические упражнения урока 7.

Лексика 1. Развитие навыков произношения (лексико-фонетические упражнения). 2. Ключевые слова (термины урока). 3. Лексико-грамматические структуры, используемые в текстах урока.

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Профессиональный компонент Практическое применение языковых знаний для решения профессиональных коммуникативных задач Применение нанотехнологий и нанопродуктов Text A. Materials and Manufacturing. Text B. Assemblers of Nanoscaled Products. Text C. Health and Medicine. Some information about KNRTU: Nanomaterials and nanotechnologies research center. Упражнения на понимание звучащей речи, лексики урока, составление простых вопросов и ответов.

Самостоятельная работа: 1. Выполнение фонетических, лексико-грамматических и коммуникативных заданий урока. 2. Выполнение грамматических упражнений. Выполнение индивидуальных заданий преподавателя (дополнительные тексты для индивидуальной работы).

ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ 1. Прочитайте слова несколько раз, используя знаки транскрипции. Догадайтесь об их значении по похожим словам русского языка: Unique [jH'nJk], dimensions [dI'menSqn], Interface ["IntqfeIs], colloid science ['kOlOId 'saIqns], bulk applications [bAlk "xplI'keISqnz], semiconductor ['semIkqn'dAktq], flavor ['fleIvq], revolutionize ["revq'lHSnaIz], solar cells ['squlq selz], failure rates ['feIljjq reIts], bio-inspired ['baIqu In'spaIqd], adaptive [q'dxptIv], self-healing [self'hJlIN].

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2. Переведите следующие слова с русского на английский и прочитайте их, проверяя правильность произношения по упражнению 1: Уникальный, размеры, контактная поверхность, коллоидная наука, масса приложений, разновидность, солнечные батареи, полупроводник, производить коренную ломку, количество отказов, по примеру биологических процессов, адаптивный, самозалечивание.

TEXT A. MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING The nanomaterials field includes subfields which develop or study materials having unique properties arising from their nanoscale dimensions.  Interface and colloid science has given rise to many materials which may be useful in nanotechnology, such as carbon nanotubes and other fullerenes, and various nanoparticles and nanorods. Nanomaterials with fast ion transport are related also to nanoionics and nanoelectronics.  Nanoscale materials can also be used for bulk applications; most present commercial applications of nanotechnology are of this flavor.  Progress has been made in using these materials for medical applications.  Nanoscale materials are sometimes used in solar cells which combats the cost of traditional Silicon solar cells  Development of applications incorporating semiconductor nanoparticles to be used in the next generation of products, such as display technology, lighting, solar cells and biological imaging using quantum dots. The ability to synthesize nanoscale building blocks with control on size, composition will revolutionize materials manufacturing: ♦ Manufacturing metals, ceramics, polymers, etc. at exact shapes without machining. ♦ Lighter, stronger and programmable materials. 76

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♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

Lower failure rates and reduced life-cycle costs. Bio-inspired materials and processes. Multifunctional, adaptive materials. Self-healing materials.

ЗАДАНИЯ К ТЕКСТАМ А, В 1. Прочитайте текст А и передайте основную информацию в 5 предложениях. 2. Перескажите текст А, используя выделенные вами предложения. 3. Прочитайте текст В и ответьте на поставленные в нем вопросы.

TEXT B. ASSEMBLERS OF NANOSCALED PRODUCTS

How do the molecular assemblers act? Molecular nanotechnology, sometimes called molecular manufacturing, describes engineered nanosystems (nanoscale machines) operating on the molecular scale. Molecular nanotechnology is especially associated with the molecular assembler, a machine that can produce a desired structure or device atom-by-atom using the principles of mechanosynthesis. Manufacturing in the context of productive nanosystems is not related to, and should be clearly distinguished from, the conventional technologies used to manufacture nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles.

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What does the term “nanotechnology” refer to? When the term “nanotechnology” was independently coined and popularized by Eric Drexler (who at the time was unaware of an earlier usage by Norio Taniguchi) it referred to a future manufacturing technology based on molecular machine systems. The premise was that molecular scale biological machines were possible: by the countless examples found in biology, it is known that sophisticated, stochastically optimized biological machines can be produced.

What does the tern biomimetic nanomaterials mean? It is hoped that developments in nanotechnology will make possible their construction by some other means, perhaps using biomimetic principles. However, Drexler and other researchers have proposed that advanced nanotechnology, although perhaps initially implemented by biomimetic means, ultimately could be based on mechanical engineering principles, namely, a manufacturing technology based on the mechanical functionality of these components (such as gears, bearings, motors, and structural members) that would enable programmable, positional assembly to atomic specification. The physics and engineering performance of exemplar designs were analyzed in Drexler's book Nanosystems.

Why is it difficult to assemble devices on the atomic scale? In general it is very difficult to assemble devices on the atomic scale, as all one has to position atoms on other atoms of comparable size and stickiness. Another view, put forth by Carlo Montemagno, is that future nanosystems will be hybrids of silicon technology and biological molecular machines. Yet another view, put forward by the late Richard Smalley, is that mechanosynthesis is impossible due to the difficulties in mechanically manipulating individual molecules. 78

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An experiment indicating that positional molecular assembly is possible was performed by Ho and Lee at Cornell University in 1999. They used a scanning tunneling microscope to move an individual carbon monoxide molecule (CO) to an individual iron atom (Fe) sitting on a flat silver crystal, and chemically bound the CO to the Fe by applying a voltage.

Some useful words and phrases: – engineered nanosystems – инженерные наносистемы – molecular assembler – молекулярный ассемблер – premise – исходное условие – sophisticated – сложный – stochastically optimized – стохастически оптимизированный – biomimetic principles – принципы создания искусственных наноматериалов, имитирующих свойства биоматериалов или созданных на основе принципов, реализованных в живой природе – exemplar designs – идеальные варианты моделей – stickiness – сцепляемость scanning tunneling microscope – сканирующий туннельный микроскоп

ЗАДАНИЯ К ТЕКСТУ С 1. Прочитайте текст С. 2. Выпишите из глоссария и переведите на русский язык определения подчеркнутых терминов.

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TEXT C. HEALTH AND MEDICINE

Current research and development activities in self assemblers appear to be synthetic processes based on chemistry and biochemistry. One promising approach is the self repetition and assembly of atoms and molecules such as in the case of biological cells. This concept involves the proper assembly of nucleotides in DNA comprising particular genes leading to the production of cellular proteins. Many of these proteins are responsible for cellular replication and division. Success in the synthesis of these biochemical processes may lead to the self repetition and assembly of atoms or molecules of other substances with industrial applications. In Medicine and Health Care self assemblers are expected to make a breakthrough. Expanding ability to characterize genetic makeup will revolutionize the specificity of diagnostics and therapeutics. Nanodevices can make gene sequencing more efficient. Nanotechnology leads to devising effective and less expensive health care using remote and in-vivo devices. New formulations and routes for drug delivery and optimal drug usage are being introduced. Especially important trend is the creation of more durable, rejection-resistant artificial tissues and organs. Sensors for early disease detection and prevention are already used in clinics, for example, a nanotube-based biosensor for cancer diagnostics. These sensors are extremely sensitive to biological materials and very soon diagnostics will not be able to manage without them. Nanoparticles will be used as carriers coated with nanosensors, which could recognize diseased tissues and attach to them, releasing a drug exactly where it is needed. Nanoparticles can enter damaged cells and release enzymes that tell the cells to auto-destruct, or could release enzymes to try to repair the cell and return it to normal functioning. 80

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Nanoparticles change their color with sizes; they can be traced when delivering drugs to cancerous cells, but not to those healthy ones in the surrounding. They are ideal candidates for acting as biological markers, or biobarcode, for detecting early stages of major diseases.

3. Потренируйтесь в параллельном переводе предложений из текста С. Переводя с английского языка на русский, старайтесь не заглядывать в готовый перевод. Таким же образом переводите с русского языка на английский. (1) One promising approach is the self repetition and assembly of atoms and molecules such as in the case of biological cells.

(1) Одним из перспективных подходов является самоповторяемость и сборка атомов и молекул, как в случае биологических клеток.

(2) In Medicine and Health Care (2) В медицине и здравоохранеself assemblers are expected to нии устройства самосборки, как make a breakthrough. ожидается, совершат прорыв. (3) Nanodevices can make gene (3) Наноустройства могут сделать sequencing more efficient. расположение генов более эффективным. (4) Nanotechnology leads to devising effective and less expensive health care using remote and invivo devices.

(4) Нанотехнология приводит к разработке эффективных и менее дорогостоящих устройств для удаленного медицинского обслуживания.

(5) Sensors for early disease detection and prevention are already used in clinics, for example, a nanotube-based biosensor for cancer diagnostics.

(5) Датчики для раннего выявления и профилактики заболеваний уже используются в клиниках, например, нанотрубки на основе биосенсоров для диагностики рака. 81

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(6) Nanoparticles will be used as carriers coated with nanosensors, which could recognize diseased tissues and attach to them, releasing a drug exactly where it is needed.

(6) Наночастицы будут использоваться как носители, покрытые наносенсорами, которые могли бы распознавать больные ткани и прикрепляться к ним, высвобождая лекарство именно там, где это необходимо.

(7) They are ideal candidates for acting as biological markers, or bio-barcode, for detecting early stages of major diseases.

(7) Они являются идеальными кандидатами для работы в качестве биологических маркеров, или био-штрих-кодов для выявления ранних стадий основных заболеваний

4. Перескажите текст С (5–8 предложений).

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Lesson Eight CHALLENGES OF NANO ENGINEERING

“When nanometer sized features are fabricated in materials that are currently used in electronic, magnetic, and optical applications, quantum behavior will lead to a set of unprecedented properties. The interactions of nanostructures with biological materials are largely unexpected”. Shankar Balasubramanian, Professor, University of Cambridge

Лингвистический компонент Грамма ти ка урока 8. 1. Неличные формы глагола: причастие, герундий. 2. Грамматические упражнения урока 8.

Лексика 1. Развитие навыков произношения (лексико-фонетические упражнения). 2. Ключевые слова (термины урока). 3. Лексико-грамматические структуры, используемые в текстах урока.

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Профессиональный компонент Практическое применение языковых знаний для решения профессиональных коммуникативных задач Применение распространенных нанопродуктов Text A. General steps of nanofabrication. Text B. Nanoscale engineering analysis. Text C. Challenges in nanoscale engineering. Упражнения на понимание звучащей речи, лексики урока, составление простых вопросов и ответов.

Самостоятельная работа: 1. Выполнение фонетических, лексико-грамматических и коммуникативных заданий урока. 2. Выполнение грамматических упражнений. Выполнение индивидуальных заданий преподавателя (дополнительные тексты для индивидуальной работы).

ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ 1. Прочитайте слова несколько раз, используя знаки транскрипции. Догадайтесь об их значении по похожим словам русского языка: Obligatory [O'blIgqtqrI], unavoidable ["Anq'vOIdqbl], quantum tunnelling ['kwOntqm 'tAnlIN], Scunning Tunneling Microscope ['skAnIN 'tAnlIN 'maIkrqskqup], routinely [rH'tInlI], bias ['baIqs], bombard [bOm'bRd], target ['tRgIt].

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2. Переведите следующие слова с русского на английский и прочитайте их, проверяя правильность произношения по упражнению 1: Обязательный, неизбежный, сканирующий туннельный микроскоп, наклон, регулярно, квантовое туннелирование, бомбардировать, цель.

TEXT A. GENERAL STEPS OF NANOFABRICATION Step 1

Isolation of atoms and molecu les

There are three steps that are obligatory and unavoidable in nanofabrication. The first step is isolation of atoms or molecules. It is fulfilled with (1) Mechanical Means; (2) Electromechanical Means; (3) High energy physical chemical means. (1) As a mechanical means there can be used Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) or scanning force microscopy (SFM) is a very high-resolution type of scanning probe microscopy, with demonstrated resolution on the order of fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction limit. (2) As Electromechanical Means there can be used Scanning Tunneling Microscope A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is an instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level. For an STM, good resolution is considered to be 0.1 nm lateral resolution and 0.01 nm depth resolution. With this resolution, individual atoms within materials are routinely imaged and manipulated. The STM can be used not only in ultra-high vacuum but also in air, water, 85

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and various other liquid or gas ambient, and at temperatures ranging from near zero Kelvin to a few hundred degrees Celsius. The STM is based on the concept of quantum tunneling. When a conducting tip is brought very near to the surface to be examined, a bias (voltage difference) applied between the two can allow electrons to tunnel through the vacuum between them. (3) As High energy physical chemical means there can be used plasma sputtering. At high vacuum process gases are used to create plasma which is then used to bombard a target material in order to eject atoms into the vacuum deposition of this material onto the sample. This occurs when a shutter is opened to expose the sample to these free atoms. (Some example targets include gold, aluminum, nickel, cobalt, titanium, etc...). Deposited materials have the same composition as source materials (as opposed to evaporation techniques with alloys).

Step 2

Assemb ly of loose atoms or molecu les

The second step is the assembly of loose atoms or molecules accomplished by: ♦ Mechanical means using special equipment (AFM-guided nanomachinine system, or by special controlled environment. ♦ Assembled loose gold atoms. ♦ Biochemical means for self-assembler and replication.

Step 3

Re-bonding free atoms and molecu les (Synthesis)

The third step is accomplished by: ♦ Mechanical synthesis, e.g. vaporizing free atoms at high temperature in high vacuum, followed by condensation. ♦ Chemical synthesis by diffusion + chemical reactions. 86

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♦ Biochemical synthesis, such as the “natural molecular machines” for “growing” proteins, enzymes and antibodies. ♦ There are other methods for producing nanoscale products, e.g. “epitaxial” growth for nanoparticles and nanowires.

ЗАДАНИЯ К ТЕКСТАМ А, В. 1. Прочитайте текст А и переведите предложения, описывающие основные шаги производства нанопродуктов. 2. Перескажите текст А, используя выделенные вами предложения. 3. Прочитайте текст В и дайте перечень основных аспектов наноструктурного инженерного анализа.

TEXT B. NANOSCALE ENGINEERING ANALYSIS

Nano-engineering technology aims at the development of nanometer scale modeling and simulation methods to enable the design and construction of realistic nanometer scale devices and systems.

What are the functions that nanoscale engineering systems perform? Any device or engineering system, regardless of its size, is an assembly of components. Nanoscale engineering systems are no exception. Each component is expected to perform a specific function, e.g. structural support, or as connecting components, or as signal sensing, or as actuaton mechanisms. 87

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Each component must have proper configuration and sufficient physical strength to carry out the intended function. So engineering analysis, first of all, presupposes stress analyses. The aim of the analysis is usually to determine whether the element or collection of elements, referred to as a structure, can safely withstand the specified forces. Components should sustain externally applied forces, heat, chemical and biological attacks.

Is it possible to apply the well-known methods of engineering analyses to nanoscale systems? Techniques in design, reliable fabrication, packaging, assembly, and testing for quality and volume production are called nanoscale engineering. Reliable techniques must be available to ensure component’s ability to perform the intended functions and survive in hostile environmental conditions. All analytical formulations used for engineering analysis in Microand Macroscale production, such as linear theory of elasticity for stress analyses; Newton’s 2nd law for rigid-body dynamic analysis; Fourier law for heat conduction analysis; Newton’s cooling law for heat convection analysis; Fick’s law for diffusion analysis; Navier-Stoker’s equations for fluid dynamics analysis, do not work for materials at nanometer scale. Either significant modifications are required to these existing formulations, or new formulations are required for nanoscale engineering analysis.

What are the major aspects of engineering analyses in Nanoscale? All analytical formulations used in Micro- and Macroscale production were developed on the hypothesis of materials being continua (a continuous series or a whole, no part of which is perceptibly different from the adjacent parts). But this is not the case for materials at nanometer scale. A component at nanoscale contains fewer atoms or molecules than those in a continuum. 88

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These atoms or molecules in a nanoscale substance are interconnected by chemical bonds. Consequently, the behavior of individual atoms plays dominant roles in the overall behavior of the structure. Size-dependent material properties must be incorporated into nanoscale engineering analyses. The aspects for such analysis are: mechanical strength (maximum tensile strength and Young’s modulus); electrical properties (electrical resistivity); chemical properties (reactivity to chemical reactions); optical properties (reactivity to light); thermophysical properties (thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, coefficient of thermal expansion); melting point and solubility; magnetic properties; catalytic properties; viscosity and surface tension.

Some useful words and phrases: – to sustain – выдерживать – chemical bonds – химические связи – behavior – поведение – mechanical strength – механическая прочность – tensile strength – предел прочности на разрыв – Young’s modulus – Модуль Юнга – electrical resistivity – электрическое удельное сопротивление – thermal conductivity – теплопроводность – thermal diffusivity – коэффициент тепловой диффузии – coefficient of thermal expansion – коэффициент термического расширения – melting point – температура плавления – solubility – растворимость – magnetic properties – магнитные свойства – viscosity – вязкость – surface tension – поверхностное натяжение

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ЗАДАНИЯ К ТЕКСТУ С 1. Прочитайте текст С. 2. Выпишите из глоссария и переведите на русский язык определения подчеркнутых терминов.

TEXT C. CHALLENGES IN NANOSCALE ENGINEERING Nanotechnology has, and will bring to humankind enormous benefits and wealth. The potentials and possibilities of what this technology can do to us appear limitless. However, many of these unthinkable possibilities could bring to people much unprecedented and irreversible negative socio-ethical consequences to human civilization. No one can stop the rapid advances of this emerging technology in the New century that is why it ts a colossal challenge for scientists and engineers to sort out and research and develop the beneficial nanotechnology but reject everything that would bring disaster to our society. Since 1996, research in micro-chemical systems has contributed more than 1000 published papers though most of them are written by chemists, and very few by chemical engineers. The difference is primarily due to the fact that the pioneers in this field are mostly chemists, not chemical engineers; secondly, commercial production using micro-structured devices has just started and not accumulated enough scale-up experience. Therefore the field of Process Systems Engineering (PSE) is full of challenges. The major ones are as follows: (1) Modeling of micro-reactor. Micro-reactor is the nucleus of micro-chemical systems, and mathematical models of micro-reactors form the basis for further research of PSE. Micro-reactors could be single-phase 90

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or multi-phase, catalytic or non-catalytic, isolated or integrated with other unit operations, e.g., heat exchanger, membrane separation, etc. (2) Unit operations at micro-scale are quite different from the regular ones. Many new unit operations have been created recently, which need to be screened for practical applications at the micro-scale. (3) Process integration and optimization. One of the most significant characteristics in a micro-chemical system is its highly compact integration. There are three kinds of integration architecture: vertical, horizontal and hybrid, and platforms to allow integration of all components using “plugand-play” modules. (4) Scale-up problems for micro-structured systems are solved successfully provided the full-scale production cycle is shortened, competitive advantage is achieved and cost savings are reasonable. There are probably three major reasons for the popularity of micro-chemical systems. First, microstructures require highly clean flow in order to avoid blockage; secondly, numbering-up is not as easy as imagined, because distribution uniformity needs to be guaranteed; thirdly, it is difficult to persuade enterprise managers to adopt new micro-structured facilities to replace existing traditional ones. (5) Development of simulation tools. Complex coupling for developing simulation models of micro-chemical systems arises from the strong interaction between electrical, mechanical, thermal, microfluidic, transport and chemical phenomena in compactly configured micro-geometries. Recently the most popular simulation tool used for micro-chemical systems is CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) based on finite element analysis, which is capable of simulating geometric influences on reactions without simulating mass and heat balance of the whole systems. (6) Operation and control of microsystems to insure that the microreactors are compactly integrated with sensors and actuators in order to shorten their response time. So it is desirable to have flexible, programmable systems that allow the functional partitioning of analog and digital circuits to be changed during processing.

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3. Потренируйтесь в параллельном переводе предложений из текста С. Переводя с английского языка на русский, старайтесь не заглядывать в готовый перевод. Таким же образом переводите с русского языка на английский.

(1) Microreactors could be single-phase or multi-phase, catalytic or non-catalytic, isolated or integrated with other unit operations, e.g., heat exchanger, membrane separation, etc.

(1) Микрореакторы могут быть однофазными или многофазными, каталитическими или некаталитическими, изолированными или интегрированными с добавочными операциями, например теплообмена, мембранного отделения и т.д.

(2) There are three kinds of integration architecture: vertical, horizontal or hybrid, and platforms to allow integration of all components using “plug-andplay” modules.

(2) Существует три вида интеграционной архитектуры: вертикальная, горизонтальная или гибридная, а также в виде платформ, чтобы можно было интегрировать все компоненты, используя встраиваемые модули.

(3) Scale-up problems for micro-structured systems are solved successfully provided the full-scale production cycle is shortened, competitive advantage is achieved and cost savings are reasonable.

(3) Проблемы увеличения масштабов для микроструктурных систем решаются успешно при условии сокращения полного цикла производства, достижения конкурентоспособности и разумной себестоимости.

(4) Recently the most popular simulation tool used for microchemical systems is CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) based on finite element analysis, which is capable of simulating geometric influences on reactions without simulating mass and heat balance of the whole systems.

(4) В последнее время наиболее популярным инструментом моделирования микрохимических систем является CFD (вычислительная гидродинамика), основанный на анализе методом конечных элементов, который способен моделировать геометрические влияния на реакции без моделирования массы и теплового баланса всех систем. 92

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(5) Operation and control of microsystems to insure that the micro-reactors are compactly integrated with sensors and actuators in order to shorten their response time.

(5) Эксплуатация и управление микро-системами, с тем чтобы гарантировать, что микро-реакторы компактно интегрированы с датчиками и актуаторами, чтобы сократить их время отклика.

4. Составьте письменный пересказ текста С (5–8 предложений).

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ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЙ СПРАВОЧНИК С УПРАЖНЕНИЯМИ

ГРАММАТИКА УРОКА 1

Конструкция «there is/are» (настоящее время) Конструкция «there is/are» в настоящем времени означает «там есть», «имеется». При этом обстоятельство места (где это имеется), можно поставить в начало предложения, в конец предложения или не использовать вообще. Акцент в данной конструкции делается на том, что и в каком количестве находится в том или ином месте. «Is» и «are» ставятся соответственно единственному («there is») или множественному («there are») числу слова, следующего за конструкцией: 1. There is a textbook on electrochemistry in our library. 2. In our library there are some electrochemistry textbooks. 3. There is a textbook on the shelf. 4. There are no textbooks on the shelf. 5. Are there textbooks in the department of biotechnology? No, there are not. You should go to the library. 6. What textbooks are there in the library? 7. There are textbooks on all subjects.

1. В нашей библиотеке имеется учебник по электрохимии. 2. В нашей библиотеке есть учебники по электрохимии. 3. Учебник – на полке. 4. На полке нет учебников. 5. Имеются ли учебники на кафедре биохимии? Нет, надо идти в библиотеку. 6. Какие учебники имеются в библиотеке? 7. Там есть учебники по всем предметам.

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Грамматические упражнения урока 1 1. Используя представленные в таблице образцы предложений, составьте собственные предложения на основе следующих ядерных сочетаний: а) new method(s)…for producing nanocomposites; b) article(s) on nanomaterials … in this journal; c) an interesting film …. in the cinema. Безличное местоимение it ☺ Употребляется, когда речь идет о времени или о дате: What time is it? It’s nearly six o’clock. What day is it today? It’s Monday.

Сколько сейчас времени? Почти шесть часов Какой сегодня день недели? Понедельник.

☺ It + since употребляются, когда речь идет о промежутке времени, прошедшем с того момента, когда что-то произошло: It’s a week since I passed my exams. It’s nearly a year since our last meeting. It’s a long time since you last called me up.

Я сдал экзамены неделю назад. Прошел почти год с нашей последней встречи. Ты давно не звонил мне.

☺ It употребляется, когда речь идет о погоде: It’s very hot in this room. В этой комнате очень жарко. It’ll be nice and warm this summer. Этим летом погода будет хорошая и теплая. It was very hot in Russia last sum- Прошлое лето в России было mer. очень жарким. I think it’s going to rain. Кажется, дождь собирается. It’s usually very windy this time of В это время года обычно дуют year. сильные ветры. 95

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☺ It + прилагательное + ...ing или it + to... употребляется для выражения мнения о чем-либо: It is great seeing you again It is dangerous driving fast It is difficult to learn a foreign language It is great to have a holiday in London It is not safe to go out at night

Как я рад снова увидеть тебя Быстрая езда опасна Трудно учить иностранный язык

Здорово провести каникулы в Лондоне Выходить из дома по ночам небезопасно Is it sensible to waist money on Разумно ли тратить деньги на cigarettes? сигареты? ☺ Мы можем сказать It is/was ...of you/him/her to...: It was clever of you to remember Хорошо, что ты запомнил мое my name имя It is kind of you to write to me Как мило, что вы написали мне ☺ Мы можем сказать It is/was... for... to...: It's easy for anyone to make a mis- Любой может ошибаться take It's hard for me to get up early in Мне трудно вставать рано утром the morning ☺ Мы можем сказать it + (that)... для того, чтобы выразить собственное мнение: It’s great that she has passed her exams It’s surprising Tom didn’t invite us to his birthday party

Это здорово, что она сдала экзамены Удивительно, что Том не пригласил нас на день рождения

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☺ Наиболее употребительные выражения с it: It is lucky… It’s nice … It’s a good thing… It’s a pity… It’s funny…

It is lucky it is not Повезло, что нет raining дождя It’s nice seeing you Очень приятно видеть вас It’s a good thing you Хорошо, что вы гоcan speak English ворите по-английски. It’s a pity you missed Жаль, что ты пропусclasses тил занятия It’s funny we haven’t Забавно, что мы не met before встретились раньше

☺ like/don't like/hate также выражают мнение о чем-либо: I like it here I hate it when you leave

Мне здесь нравится Мне не нравится, когда ты уходишь

2. Используя приведенные выше образцы выражений, содержащих безличное местоимение it, составьте 10 предложений, передающих ваше отношение к учебе, однокурсникам, преподавателям. ДЕТЕРМИНАТИВЫ – обязательные показатели при существительном, выражающие грамматические значения определенности (артикли и некоторые местоименные прилагательные, числительные). Они указывают на то, что данное слово является существительным.

3. Определите, какие признаки указывают, что выделенные слова являются существительными: new issues, this device, one special regulation, his concern, toxicity, within the realm, biomaterials, an extension, heated debate, scientific approach, the atomic structure of nanomaterials.

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Предметы и явления обозначаются существительными, которые образуются с помощью следующих суффиксов: -er (-or), -tion (-sion), ist, -ian, -ity, -ing, -hood, -ment, -ness, -y, -th, -ant, -ism, -ure, -ship.

4. Определите, какие из перечисленных слов являются существительными: аtomic, mixer, diverse, user, lifter, conventional, timer, scientist, Russian, clearly, combustion, academician, new, ability, stretched, activity, valuable, validity, meeting, strong, proceedings, childhood, first, movement, equipment, odorless, darkness, stipulate, goodness, greatness, discovery, nevertheless, length, depth, strength, assistant, eventually, oxidant, solvent, breakage, leakage, capitalism, pressure, apply, mixture, friendship, membership.

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ГРАММАТИКА УРОКА 2

Действие/процесс/состояние: смысловые (полнозначные) и связочные глаголы. Глагол – это часть речи, которая обозначает действие или состояние лица или предмета. Глаголы могут быть:  смысловыми (go, write, do, help);  вспомогательными (do, have, shall, will);  cвязками (be);  модальными (саn, may, must). Большинство английских глаголов – полнозначные, т.е. они могут выражать значение действия или состояния самостоятельно. В предложении они могут быть простым сказуемым (to speak – говорить, to go – идти, to take – брать и т.д.). Вспомогательные глаголы и глаголы-связки не имеют самостоятельного значения. Вспомогательные глаголы входят в состав глагольных форм, например, будущего времени, отрицательной и вопросительной формы и др. I'll see him tomorrow. – Я увижусь с ним завтра. Do you like сhemistry? – Вы любите химию? Глаголы-связки употребляются только в составе составного именного сказуемого. I am a student. (to be a student; to be an engineer) Модальные глаголы образуют составное глагольное сказуемое. Students can work with computers very well. Глаголы можно легко опознать по суффиксам: -ate, -ize, -ify, -en, например: vaccinate – вакцинировать, granulate – гранулировать, utilize – использовать, organize – организовывать, winterize – готовить к зиме, theorize – теоретизировать, nationalize – национализировать, falsify – фальсифицировать, intensify – интенсифицировать, simplify – упростить, threaten – угрожать, darken – затемнять, harden – затвердевать. 99

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Основные формы глагола В английском языке существуют правильные (regular) и неправильные глаголы (irregular). Глаголы имеют 4 формы: 1-я форма – инфинитив (Infinitive) – to write, to research, to study (писать, исследовать, учиться); 2-я форма – простое прошедшее (Past Simple) – wrote, researched, studied (писал, исследовал, учился); 3-я форма – причастие II (Participle II) – written, researched, studied (написанный, исследованный, изученный); 4-я форма – причастие I (Participle I) – writing, researching, studying (пишущий, исследующий, изучающий). Вторая и третья формы правильных глаголов образуются от основы первой формы с помощью окончания -ed, четвертая форма всех глаголов – с помощью окончания -ing. Некоторые глаголы to have, to do, to be, могут быть полнозначными в одном значении, и модальными, связочными или вспомогательными глаголами – в другом. Спряжение глаголов to have, to do, to be  Глагол to have

ед. ч.

лицо

мн. ч.

I have

1

We have

You have

2

You have

He, she, it has

3

They have

ед. ч.

лицо

мн. ч.

I do

1

We do

You do

2

You do

He, she, it does

3

They do

 Глагол to do

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 Глагол to be

ед. ч.

лицо

мн. ч.

I am

1

We are

You are

2

You are

He, she, it is

3

They are

Употребление личных форм глагола В английском языке сложная система личных форм глагола. Существуют следующие группы форм глагола: 1. Группа простых форм (Indefinite/Simple). 2. Группа длительных форм (Continuos/Progressive). 3. Группа перфектных форм (Perfect).

Группа простых форм (Indefinite/Simple): 1. Настоящее (Present Indefinite/Simple). 2. Прошедшее (Past Indefinite/Simple). 3. Будущее (Future Indefinite/Simple).

Все времена группы Indefinite/Simple могут употребляться для выражения:  однократного действия;  регулярно повторяющегося действия или постоянного признака предмета. Present Indefinite/Simple Present Indefinite/Simple совпадает с основной формой глагола – инфинитивом без частицы to для всех лиц, кроме третьего лица единственного числа. В этой форме к основе инфинитива прибавляется окончание -s или -es.

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☺Таблица 1. Утвердительное предложение I usually go to the university by bus. Обычно я езжу в университет на автобусе It usually takes me half an hour to Обычно мне требуется полчаса, get to the university. чтобы добраться до университета Вопросительная форма Present Indefinite/Simple образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола does для 3л. ед.ч. и глагола do – для остальных лиц и чисел. ☺Таблица 2. Общий вопрос Do you usually go to the university by bus? Does it always take you half an hour to get to the university?

Ты обычно ездишь в университет на автобусе? Всегда ли ты добираешься до университета за полчаса?

☺Таблица 3. Специальный вопрос What transport do you usually take to get to the university? How long does it take you to get to the university?

На каком транспорте ты обычно добираешься до университета? Сколько времени тебе требуется, чтобы добраться до университета?

☺Таблица 4. Разделительный вопрос You always go to the university by bus, don’t you? It usually takes you half an hour to get to the university, doesn’t it?

Ты всегда ездишь в университет на автобусе, не так ли? Тебе обычно требуется полчаса, чтобы добраться до университета, не так ли?

Отрицательная форма Present Indefinite/Simple образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола do или does (в зависимости от лица) и отрицания not.

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☺Таблица 5. Отрицательное предложение. I don’t go to the university by bus. I don’t like busses. It usually doesn’t take me long to get to the university.

Я не езжу в университет на автобусе. Я не люблю автобусы. Обычно мне не требуется много времени, чтобы добраться до университета.

Для указания на повторный характер действий часто употребляются слова: every day/week, month, year; (каждый), from time to time, seldom, rarely, often, always, usually, never. Past Indefinite/Simple Past Indefinite /Simple правильных глаголов образуется с помощью окончания -ed или -d, прибавляемого к основе глагола. Для неправильных глаголов используется вторая форма. We worked in the laboratory. They came into the room. Вопросительная форма Past Indefinite/Simple образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола did, который ставится перед подлежащим. Основной глагол в вопросительном предложении имеет форму инфинитива без частицы to. Did he work in the laboratory yesterday? Отрицательная форма Past Indefinite/Simple образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола did и отрицания not. We did not work in the laboratory yesterday. Past Indefinite /Simple употребляется для выражения: 1) повторяющегося действия или постоянного признака предмета They often went to the river in summer; 2) однократного действия в прошлом She watched TV yesterday; 103

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3) последовательных действий в прошлом She came into the room, took a book, sat into the armchair and began reading it. В предложениях для указаниния на прошедшее время употребляются слова yesterday (вчерa), a week ago (неделю назад), last week (на прошлой неделе), last year (в прошлом году).

Future Indefinite/Simple Future Indefinite/Simple образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола shall – для первого лица единственного и множественного числа и с помощью will – для 2 и 3 лица единственного и множественного числа. В предложении смысловой глагол стоит в форме инфинитива без частицы to. We shall go to the South in summer. В вопросительном предложении вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим. Will you go to the country house in summer? В отрицательном предложении после вспомогательного глагола ставится отрицание not. He will not go to the country in summer. Future Indefinite/Simple употребляется для выражения: 1) повторного действия или постоянного признака предмета в будущем She will go to the library every week; 2) последовательности действий в будущем He will take a book and read it; 3) однократного действия в будущем This student will borrow a book from the library. 104

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В предложениях с Future Indefinite/Simple для указания на будущее время часто употребляются слова tomorrow (завтра), neхt week/month (на следующей неделе, в следующем месяце), in two days (через два дня).

Грамматические упражнения урока 2 1. Используя представленные в таблицах 1–5 образцы предложений, составьте собственные предложения. 2. Перепишите приведенные ниже предложения в 3-м лице единственного числа. 1. I think I am right. 2. They often help their father. 3. We live in Kazan. 4. You usually speak to quickly. 5. Do you like hard-boiled eggs? 6. I cook my own meals. 7. Good children always obey their parents. 8. The boys box in the gymnasium on Fridays. 9. His dogs always attack strangers. 10. Motor cycles make a lot of noise. 3. Перепишите приведенные ниже предложения в отрицательной, вопросительной форме. 1. He knows the answer. 2. He usually has breakfast at 8 o`clock. 3. The bell rings at 8.30. 4. The flowers look fresh. 5. He lives beside the sea. 6. She has a cold bath every day. 7. He remembers their address. 8. He plays chess very well. 9. She leaves home at 10 o`clock every day. 10. She agrees with you. 11. They feel very cold. 12. Tom looks well. 13. They pick the apples in October. 14. The last train leaves at midnight. 15. That star moves round the Sun. 4. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в Present Simple. 1. The Volga, the Dnieper, and the Neva (be) famous rivers. 2. Mothers often (tell) small children stories before bedtime. 3. Our children (go) to school only in the morning. 4. If he (come) at 5 o`clock, ask him to wait. 5. My little brother (collect) butterflies and stumps. 6. My father (like 105

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a lot of milk in his tea and a few lumps of sugar. 7. Anything that he (say) (be) worth listening to. 8. Our friends (live) in a house that (stand) on a hill that (overlook) the Don valley which (be) so beautiful in early summer. 9. Every year we (spend) our holidays in the country. 10. What this sentence (mean)? 11. I (live) in Kazan, which (be) my native town. 12. The nightingale (sing) beautifully. 13. My sister (have) a good appetite and she always (eat) heartily. 14. Our teacher always (speak) English clearly. We can understand all she (say). 15. Open the windows. The room (be) terribly stuffy. 16. What you (see) over there? 17. In England the traffic (keep) to the left but on the Continent it (keep) to the right. 18. Nick (be) one of the cleverest students we (have). 19. I often (come) to see my old aunt on Sundays. 20. The buzzing of bees among flowers in summer (be) a pleasant sound. 5. Устно ответьте на вопросы, используя Present Simple.Поставьте данные вопросы в Past Simple и Future Simple с указанием измененного времени действия и ответьте на вопросы. 1. When do you get up? (generally, usually) 2. What do you do on Sunday mornings? (often) 3. Where do you spend your summer holidays? (usually, occasionally) 4. What sort of TV programs do you watch? (usually, often, always) 5. How do you get to the University? (always) 6. What sort of books do you read? (usually) 7. What sort of films do you enjoy? (nearly always) 8. What do your parents ask you to do for them? (often, sometimes, usually) 9. What do you take if you have a headache? (usually, generally) 10. What software does your computer hold?

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ГРАММАТИКА УРОКА 3

Действие, процесс, состояние: Времена группы Continuous (длительное время). Основным назначением группы «Progressive» является обозначение действий, протекающих в точно указанное время либо одновременно с другим действием. Дополнительными характеристиками таких действий является их незаконченность, динамичность и наглядность. Глаголы во всех временных формах этой группы состоят из вспомогательного глагола to be в соответствующем времени и смыслового глагола в форме -ing (так называемая инговая форма глагола V-ing, которая образуется путём прибавления суффикса -ing к основе инфинитива V). The Present Continuous Tense. Настоящее длительное время 1. Основным назначением Present Continuous является выражение действий, совершающихся в момент речи. Причем наличие слов, обозначающих момент речи: now сейчас, теперь, at this moment в настоящий момент и пр. – возможно, но совсем не обязательно. ☺(1) At the moment we are sitting in the lecture hall and listening to our professor. Are you at the lecture, listening to our professor? Will you give me the synopsis later? He isn’t telling the truth, not now.

В данный момент мы сидим в аудитории и слушаем нашего профессора. Ты сейчас на лекции, слушаешь профессора? Дашь конспект? Сейчас он не говорит правду.

2. Present Continuous употребляется для выражения длительного действия, совершающегося в настоящий период времени, хотя и не обязательно в момент речи, например: 107

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☺(2) I am living with my parents now. Are you still reading this book? You are not watching horror films, are you?

Я сейчас живу с родителями. Ты все еще читаешь эту книгу? Ты не смотришь ужастики, не так ли?

3. Present Continuous употребляется для выражения запланированного будущего действия (действующее лицо выражает как намерение совершить действие, так и уверенность в его совершении, так как имеется договоренность, план, билеты и т.п.), особенно часто употребляется с глаголами, обозначающими движение или действие. В этом случае почти всегда употребляются обстоятельства времени. Эта форма типична для разговорного стиля. ☺(3) Peter is taking his little nephew to the zoo today. Are we meeting at seven? We are not meeting at 7 after all, we are meeting at 8.

Сегодня Петр ведет своего маленького племянника в зоопарк. Мы встречаемся в семь? В конце концов, мы встречаемся не в 7, а в 8.

4. Present Continuous употребляется для выражения будущего действия в обстоятельственных придаточных предложениях условия и времени, вводимых союзами условия (if если, in case в случае и т.п.) или времени (before прежде чем, until (till) до тех пор, пока… не, while в то время как, пока, when когда и т.п.), например: ☺(4) If it is not very late, we shall walk in the park. Will you call me up before leaving? They will not get good marks until they study hard.

Если не будет поздно, мы прогуляемся по парку. Ты мне позвонишь до отъезда? Они не будут получать хороших оценок, пока не будут упорно учиться.

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The Past Continuous Tense. Прошедшее длительное время 1. Past Сontinuous употребляется в основном для описания действия, протекавшего в прошлом, которое началось в какой-то момент, но ещё не закончилось. Часто в этом случае указывается точное время. ☺(5) At the time of our arrival the city was going through a period of rapid expansion. John was working at nine o’clock yesterday morning. – What was Ann doing when you came? – She was doing nothing.

В то время когда мы приехали, город быстро расширялся. Вчера в девять утра Джон работал. – Что делала Анна, когда вы пришли? – Она ничего не делала.

2. Past Continuous используется в том случае, когда мы описываем какое-то фоновое действие, которое не является очень важным, и в этом же случае используется Past Simple для более важного действия. ☺(6) She was writing a letter when I entered the room. Seventy cars were crossing the bridge when it collapsed into the river. Darkness was descending over the city as James staggered back to college.

Когда я вошел в комнату, она писала письмо. Семьдесят машин проезжали по мосту, когда тот обрушился в реку. На город опускалась темнота, когда он доплелся обратно к колледжу.

3. Часто Past Continuous используется, чтобы показать временность ситуации. ☺(7) During my training I was earning a lot less than my wife. His symptoms were becoming more pronounced each day.

Во время обучения я зарабатывал намного меньше жены. Его симптомы с каждым днем становились все более выраженными.

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4. Past Continuous может употребляться для обозначения планов в прошлом, или, например, со словами think и wonder, для того чтобы узнать что-либо. ☺(8) What were they going to do? Were they planning to go somewhere else? Tom was taking the next flight to Moscow so he had to hurry up.

Что они собирались делать? Планировали ли они поехать куда-нибудь еще? Том улетал следующим рейсом в Москву, поэтому должен был спешить We were wondering if you would Интересно, хотели бы вы к нам like to join us. присоединиться? Это время часто относят к Narrative Tenses (повествовательным временам), т.е. с акцентом на то, что оно используется для рассказа.

The Future Continuous Tense. Будущее длительное время 1. Future Сontinuous употребляется для обозначения действия, которое будет происходить в определённый период времени в будущем. Период определён обстоятельством времени. ☺(9) I will be working at five o'clock tomorrow. Will you be working at five tomorrow? I shall not be working at five.

Завтра в пять часов я буду работать. Ты будешь работать завтра в пять? Я не буду работать в пять.

Используются указатели времени: at midnight (в полночь), at three o'clock (в три часа), и др. и указатели продолжительности: all winter (всю зиму), all day long (весь день), the whole morning (всё утро), from three till seven (с трёх до семи), during the week (в течение недели) и др. 110

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2. Future Сontinuous употребляется c другим будущим действием в Present Simple. Используются союзы: when (когда), if (если), on condition that (при условии, что), till/until (до тех пор, пока; до), while (в то время как). ☺(10) If he comes back, he will be prov- Если он вернётся, то снова будет ing his rightness again. доказывать свою правоту. 3. Future Сontinuous употребляется c другим одновременным действием в Present Continuous. ☺(11) While Michael is working, Fred Пока Майкл будет работать, will be travelling. Фред будет путешествовать.

Грамматические упражнения урока 3 1. Используя представленные в таблицах (1–11) образцы предложений, составьте собственные предложения для демонстрации употребления времен группы Continuous. 2. Поставьте глаголы, данные в скобках, в Present Continuous или Present Simple. 1. “Why you (put) on your coat?” “I (go) for a walk. You (come) with me?” “Yes, I’d love to come. You (mind) if I (bring) my dog?” “No”. 2. “I (go) to visit Peter tonight. He (leave) tomorrow morning.” “He (come) back the same day?” “I (not know).” 3. “Jack (arrive) this evening.” ‘You meet him?” “Yes.” ‘Where you (meet) him?” “I (meet) him at the station.” 4. Ann (not come) today. She (be) busy reading The Path of Thunder by P. Abrahams. 5. “Nick (leave) today.” ‘What train he (take) for his jour111

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ney?” “He (catch) the 5.30 train.” “I can give him a lift to the station.” 6. Ann and Nick (drive) up to Moscow this afternoon. 7. “You (write) him tonight?” “Yes? I always (write) him on his birthday. You (want) to send any massage?” “Certainly.” 8. I (spend) a few days in Kiev next week. 9. Jack: Lunch (be) ready, Mother? I (be) hungry and I (be) in a hurry as well. I (play) football this afternoon. Mother: Well, I (be) sorry, but lunch (not be) ready. Anyway, look at the rain. You can’t play football in this bad weather. That’s the worst thing to do. You (want) to catch a cold? Jack: Oh Mother, we often (play) in worse weather then this. And it’s an important match today. You (not come) to watch us? Mother: Oh, no. 3. Поставьте глаголы, данные в скобках, в Past Continuous или Past Simple. 1. “What you both (do) at 7 o’clock yesterday?” “I (play) chess with my brother and Eliza (listen) to the radio.” 2. He (be) the captain of a ship which (sail) that night for Finland. 3. When the doctor (leave) the hospital, he (catch) a glimpse of himself in the glass front door. 4. When her father (come) in she (sit) before a red tea-table, finishing a very good tea. 5. Next day, while he (shave) he (cut) himself slightly. 6. The door of his room (be) open; his mother still (stand) at the window. 7. I (slip) away while the others (have) coffee. 8. At nine o’clock the train (crawl) into the station. In a flash he (be) on the platform and (move) up Railway Road. 9. And, smiling to himself, he (begin) to make plans, fantastic plans for the future. He still (smile) when he (walk) up the rock cut steps. 10. When we (talk) I (notice) that he (roll) a little metal ball between his fingers. 11. He (gather) up this evidence in a newspaper and (carry) it back into the sitting –room where Jennie (sew). 12. He (dose) off while he (watch) the new show. 13. Mark (see) the picture of Nelly in the morning paper while he (have) coffee. 14. One morning Mrs. Strickland (send) me round a note to say that she (give) a dinner party that evening, , and one of her guests (fail) her. 15. It (drizzle) when they (come) out of the house. 16. Maggie just (pass) the shop and (head) for the door when she (come) face to face with the tall bronzed man who (enter). 17. It (be) a pity I (have) to be out last night. 18. Just as they (walk) down the path to the front gate Anne (run) out of the house and (overtake) them. 19. He often (visit) us when he (live) in Moscow. 20. It (get) dark and I (suggest) that we should go down. 21. John (come) in, (look) at the fire, (stand) a moment, (turn) and (go) away. 112

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22. She (take0 me to her mother’s, where they (expect) me to lunch. 23. Listen, this girl (arrive) here two months ago. 24. We (come) into the dining-room while our parents (eat) supper. 4. Поставьте глаголы, данные в скобках, в Future Continuous. 1. “We (come) at 5 o’clock.” “Good, I (wait) for you.” 2. When I (get) home, my dog (sit) at the door waiting for me. 3. It (be) the middle of June. They (come) soon. 4. If you (want) to see us, come to Tom’s on Sunday. We (wait) for you there at midday. 5. At this time next week they (sit) in the train on their way to Moscow. 6. They (have) English from nine to ten in this room. Don’t let anyone disturb them then. 7. I (wait) for you when you (come). 8. “I (call) for her at eight.” “No, don’t; she still (have) breakfast then.” 9. It’s beginning to get dark; the street lights (go) on in a few minutes. Прилагательные в английском языке 1. Прилагательным называется часть речи, обозначающая признак предмета, т. е. качество или свойство. 2. По своей структуре прилагательные бывают: a. Простые, т.е. состоящие только из одного корня: red – красный large – большой old – старый. b. Производные, т.е. имеющие кроме корня еще и суффиксы или префиксы, а иногда то и другое: dangerous – опасный unable – неспособный remarkable – замечательный. c. Сложные, т.е. состоящие из двух или более основ: ice-cold – холодный как лед light-blue – светло-голубой. 113

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3. Прилагательные в английском языке не изменяются ни по родам, ни по числам, ни по падежам. Прилагательное в предложении может выполнять функции определения/ именной части сказуемого/приобретать значение предмета, т.е. признаки существительного, и могут выполнять в предложении те же функции, что и существительное. Прилагательные можно легко распознать по суффиксам: -able (-ible), -ent, -ant, -ate, -ed, -y, например: readable – читабельный, detectable – обнаружимый, observable – который можно наблюдать, receivable – который можно получить, reliable – надежный, evident – очевидный, observant – наблюдательный, relevant – уместный, moderate – умеренный, adequate – соответствующий, dirty – грязный, funny – забавный, arched – изогнутый, thin-walled – тонкостенный, many-sided – многосторонний, ill-informed – неверно информированный.

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ГРАММАТИКА УРОКА 4

Действие, результат. Времена группы Perfect. Времена группы Perfect передают действие, которое уже закончено к определенному моменту времени или до другого действия в настоящем, прошедшем и будущем. Образование этих времен происходит по формуле: have + Participle II (-ed, 3-я форма). Вспомогательный глагол have изменяется, указывая на время и лицо, но не переводится; Participle II смыслового глагола не изменяется, но всегда переводится в том времени, на которое указывает глагол have, например: have played – Present Perfect – (уже) сыграл, сыграли (к настоящему моменту); had played – Past Perfect – (уже) сыграл, сыграли (до того, как он пришел); will have played – Future Perfect (редко используется) – (уже) сыграет, сыграют (до того, как вы придете). Поскольку форма Perfect указывает на действие, которое произошло до другого действия или до настоящего момента, и само слово Perfect означает «совершенный, законченный», то сказуемое в форме Perfect обычно следует переводить совершенным видом, часто со словом «уже». Например: We have done it. – Мы уже сделали это (до настоящего момента). We had done it by six o'clock. – К шести часам мы уже сделали это. We will have done it before he comes. – Мы уже сделаем это до того, как он придет.

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The Present Perfect Tense. Настоящее совершенное время В английском языке существуют две формы сказуемого, которые соответствуют прошедшему времени в русском языке: Past Indefinite и Present Perfect. Какая между ними разница? - Если говорящего интересует результат действия, а не время его совершения (и оно не указывается), то используется Present Perfect, а если его интересует главным образом, когда совершилось действие в прошлом (время обычно указывается), то используется Past Indefinite, например: Результат действия (Present Perfect): I have sееn him. – Я (уже) видел его. I have read the book. – Я уже прочитал (читал) эту книгу. Время действия (Past Indefinite): I saw him yesterday. – Я видела его вчера. I read the book last year. – Я читал эту книгу в прошлом году. Время Present Perfect требует особого внимания, так как вспомогательный глагол have стоит в настоящем времени, а переводить смысловой глагол обычно приходится прошедшим временем и совершенным видом (иногда со словом «уже»). Это происходит потому, что речь идет об уже законченном к настоящему моменту действии, а в русском языке такое действие можно передать только прошедшим временем, например: ☺(1) Тheу have made аll the experi- Они провели все эксперименты. ments. Не has translated the text. Он (уже) перевел текст. I have read the book. Я уже прочитал эту книгу. Present Perfect часто употребляется с наречиями just (только что), already (уже), yet (ещё), lately (недавно), lately (в последнее вре116

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мя), recently (недавно), ever (когда-нибудь), never (никогда) today (сегодня), this week (на этой неделе), this month (в этом месяце), и др: ☺(2) The mail has just come. He has translated many articles lately. I have never been to London.

Почта только что пришла. В последнее время он перевел много статей. Я никогда не был в Лондоне.

The Past Perfect Tense. Прошедшее совершенное время Для образования Past Perfect вспомогательный глагол have должен иметь форму прошедшего времени – had, и это значит, что смысловой глагол следует переводить прошедшим временем (иногда со словом «уже»), например: had written – (уже) написал; had done – (уже) сделал. Past Perfect используется в тех случаях, когда имеются два действия в прошлом (одно до другого): то, которое происходит раньше, имеет форму Perfect, а то, которое происходит позже, имеет форму Indefinite, например: ☺(3) I had written the letter before he Я написал письмо до того, как он came. пришел. I had finished the work by К пяти часам я уже закончил 5 o'clock. работу. They had fulfilled the plan by Они выполнили этот план к the end of the last year. концу прошлого года.

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Отрицательная и вопросительная форма времен perfect Отрицательная форма Есть только один способ образования отрицательной формы: not ставится после первого вспомогательного глагола, например: ☺(4) I have not read [red] the book. Я не читала эту книгу. Не had not finished the work by Он не закончил работу к пяти 5 o'clock. часам. They will not have done it by Они не сделают этого к концу the end of the week. недели. Вопросительная форма тоже образуется по общему правилу: первый вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим (он же используется в кратких ответах), например: ☺(5) – Наvе you read the book? – No, I haven’t. – Нad he finished the work before you came? –No, he hadn’t. – Will they have come by 3 o'clock? –No, they won’t. Why had they left before she came?

– Вы читали эту книгу? – Нет. – Он закончил работу до того, как ты пришел? – Нет. – Они придут к трем часам? – Нет. Почему они ушли до того, как пришла она?

The Future Perfect Tense. Будущее совершенное время. Future Perfect используется довольно редко, оно обозначает действие, которое закончится к определённому моменту в будущем или до начала другого действия в будущем:

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☺(6) He will have finished his work by three o'clock tomorrow. Technology will have changed dramatically in several years. I will have finished reading this book by the weekend.

Он закончит свою работу завтра к 3-м часам. Технология значительно изменится за несколько лет. Я закончу читать эту книгу к концу недели.

Грамматические упражнения урока 4 1. Используя представленные в таблицах (1–6) образцы предложений, составьте собственные предложения для демонстрации употребления времен группы Perfect. 2. Поставьте глаголы, данные в скобках, в Present Perfect: 1. I don’t know this man. I never (met) him. 2. “Let’s go to the cinema. Peace and War is on.” “I already (see) it.” 3. “Where is Nick?” “He just (go) out.” 4. “Don’t you know what the story is about?” “No, I (not read) it.” 5. Don’t worry about the letter. I already (post) it. 6. “Is he a good boy?” “Oh, yes, he (help) me a lot.” 7. I know Baku perfectly well. I (be) there several times. 8. I can’t find my bag. I think somebody (take) it by mistake. 9. “Where is the key?” “I (put) it on the table.” 10. “Do you speak Greek?” “No, I never (study) it.” 11. “Do you know where he lives?” “No, he recently (move) to a new flat. I (not be) there yet. 3. Поставьте глаголы, данные в скобках, в Past Perfect и Past Simple: 1. Jane (be) on her way to meet her mother whom she (not see) for many years. 2. His wife (be) not in. She (go) out a quarter of an hour before. 3. He (reach) Piccadilly, and suddenly (remember) that he (not call) on her aunt for ages. 4. Dr Kent (be) English, though he (live) in America for thirty years. 5. His smile (be) something she never (see) before. 6. Fleur (return) 119

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when he (get) home. 7. Mr. Brown just (finish) reading the letter when the telephone on his desk (ring). 8. He (come) into the room a moment after I get (get) there. 9. When he (return at eleven o’clock the post (come) in. 10. When Tom (go) I (get) busy at the typewriter. 11. When evening (fall) Jack (leave) the house. 12. I hardly (be) there five minutes when Mrs. Brown (come) in with the coffee. 4. Поставьте глаголы, данные в скобках, в Future Perfect: 1. We (finish) all the housework by 6 o’clock this afternoon. 2. I (read) this book by tomorrow evening. 3. Thousands of people (see) this exhibition by the end of the month. 4. They (build) this house long before the end of October. 5. They (do) half of the journey when they reach the Volga. 6. I (write) my composition by the time you come back. 7. We’ve got five days in Moscow: we are leaving on Monday; but I’m sure that we (see) everything of importance by then. Наречия в английском языке Наречие (Adverb) является самостоятельной частью речи. Оно определяет характер протекания действия и отвечает на следующие вопросы: как? (how?), каким образом? (in what manner?), где? (where?), почему? (why?), когда? (when?), в какой степени? (to what degree?). Все наречия в английском языке можно разделить на две категории: по форме и по значению. По форме наречия бывают: простые (simple): now, today etc.(теперь, сегодня и т.д.); производные (derived). Они образуются от качественных прилагательных, к которым прибавляется суффикс -ly: usual – usually (обычный – обычно); сложные (compound): sometimes (иногда); Составные (composite): at least (наконец). По значению наречия делятся на следующие группы: 1. Наречия места (adverbs of place) – there, at home (там, дома). 2. Наречия времени (adverbs of place) – late, early, then (поздно, рано, потом). 3. Наречия образа действия (adverbs of manner) – quickly, carefully (быстро, осторожно). 4. Наречия частотности (adverbs of frequency) – seldom, once (редко, однажды). 120

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5. Наречия степени (adverbs of degree) – rather, a bit (достаточно, немного). Наречия можно легко распознать по суффиксам: -ly, -ward, -wards, например: badly – плохо, readily – с готовностью, fiestly – вопервых, partly – частично, homeward – по направлению к дому, afterwards – позже.

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ГРАММАТИКА УРОКА 5

Побуждение к действию/просьба – глагол в повелительной форме. Give me this textbook. – Дай мне этот учебник. Формы повелительного наклонения в английском языке Утвердительная форма. Эта форма повелительного наклонения в английском языке представлена инфинитивом глагола без частицы to. Подлежащего в таких предложениях нет. Обычно приказы, просьбы и т.д. обращены ко второму лицу, как единственного, так и множественного числа. ☺(1) Stand up! Sit down! Go out! Come here! Go on translating the text. Switch on and start the engine.

Встань! Садись! Уходи! Подойди сюда! Продолжайте переводить текст. Включите и запустите двигатель.

Усиленная форма повелительного наклонения включает глагол do перед глаголом в повелительном наклонении. ☺(2) Do forgive me, please; I did not Проcтите уж меня, пожалуйста, я want to offend you! не хотел вас обидеть! Do come in time or we’ll be late! Обязательно приходи вовремя, иначе мы опоздаем! Do not use cellphones here! Не пользуйтесь здесь мобильными телефонами! Если же нам необходимо обратиться к первому или третьему лицу, на помощь приходит глагол let (позволять), за которым идет прямое дополнение (существительное или местоимение). Это допол122

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нение определяет лицо, которому отдают приказание или которое просят о чем-либо. Завершает эту конструкцию инфинитив глагола без частицы to. ☺(3) Let me help you. Let the waiter bring us juice. Let my sister show you the room.

Позвольте, я помогу вам. Пусть официант принесет нам сок. Пусть моя сестра покажет тебе комнату.

Призыв или приглашение к совместному действию выражается с помощью конструкции let us (let’s). Переводить ее стоит словом «давайте», или совсем опускать. ☺(4) Let’s go with them! Let’s discuss an urgent question! Let’s change the catalyst!

Давайте присоединимся к ним! Давайте обсудим важный вопрос! Давайте сменим катализатор!

Если речь идет о запрете чего-либо, мы обращаемся к отрицательной форме повелительного наклонения. Она создается при помощи вспомогательного глагола to do в повелительном наклонении и отрицательной частицы not, за которыми следует инфинитив глагола без to. Получается – do not (don’t). ☺(5) Do not go with them! Don’t close the door! Do not change the catalyst!

Не ходите с ними! Не закрывайте дверь! Не меняйте катализатор!

Вежливая форма повелительного наклонения в английском языке выражается при помощи слова please (пожалуйста), которое стоит в начале или в конце предложения. 123

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☺(6) Come to me, please! Подойди ко мне, пожалуйста! Don’t share this information with Не говори ему об этой информаhim, please! ции, пожалуйста! Please, give me some milk! Пожалуйста, дайте мне немного молока!

Грамматические упражнения урока 5 1. Используя представленные в таблицах (1–6) образцы предложений, составьте собственные предложения для демонстрации повелительного наклонения. 2. Переведите следующие предложения с русского на английский язык: 1. Обязательно прочитайте эту статью! 2. Не позволяйте им курить здесь! 3. Не ходите туда! 4. Пожалуйста, давайте начнем! 5. Пусть он отвечает! 6. Не позволяйте ему опаздывать! 7. Разрешите же мне пройти! 8. Не давайте ребенку сладости, пожалуйста! 9. Представь же меня своему брату! 10. Дайте мне знать, когда он придет!

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ГРАММАТИКА УРОКА 6

Долженствование / необходимость / желательность / возможность действия. Модальные глаголы must, can, may, should, have to используются не для передачи действия, а отношения к нему. Глагол can (форма прошедшего времени could) используется для выражения физической или умственной способности, возможности выполнить действие, выраженное инфинитивом – могу, умею. Глагол can употребляется в настоящем времени и может относится к настоящему и будущему; could используется в прошедшем времени, а глагол to be able (to) может употребляться во всех временах. Глагол can употребляется намного чаще, а его смысловая особенность заключается в том, что глагол can означает возможность совершения действия вообще, обычно, постоянно; а глагол to be able (to) означает возможность совершения конкретного, единичного действия в конкретный момент. Например: ☺(1) I can translate this text. Я могу перевести этот текст. I am able to translate this text Я в состоянии перевести этот (now) текст (сейчас, если это необходимо). Глагол can (could) употребляется для выражения сомнения, удивления, недоверия. В этих значениях он употребляется только в вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях с любой формой инфинитива. ☺(2) Can this meeting still going on? Can/could they still be sleeping?

Неужели это собрание все еще продолжается (не закончилось)? Неужели они все еще спят? 125

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Can he be the first year student? Can you dislike Tatar cuisine?

Неужели он студент первого курса? Неужели тебе не нравится татарская кухня?

В отрицательных предложениях can/could выражает сомнение, недоверие – не может быть, чтобы; невероятно. ☺(3) He can’t be the first year student.

Не может быть, чтобы он был первокурсником. It can’t (couldn’t) be true. Не может быть, чтобы это была правда. They can’t all be coming down Не может быть, чтобы они все with cold. простудились. Глагол may имеет форму прошедшего времени might и употребляется с инфинитивом смыслового глагола без частицы to. Глагол might в контексте прошедшего времени означает – мог, могла, … и т.п., а в контексте настоящего и будущего времени – мог бы, могли бы,… и употребляется для выражения более вежливой просьбы или для выражения большей степени сомнения. Глагол may имеет модальный эквивалент to be allowed – разрешать, позволять, и употребляется с инфинитивом с частицей to. ☺(4) I may (can) phone him up today. We may order a taxy by phone.

Я могу позвонить ему сегодня. Мы можем заказать такси по телефону. You may find this textbook in Ты можешь найти этот учебник the library. в библиотеке. You might find him at home this Вы могли бы застать его дома afternoon. после обеда. She might have done it easily. Она могла это сделать легко. A fool may ask more questions Глупец может задать больше воthan a wise man can answer. просов, чем мудрец может ответить. 126

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Глагол must имеет только одну форму - настоящего времени. В предложении must относится к действию, совершаемому в настоящем или к будущему времени. За ним следует инфинитив смыслового глагола без частицы to. Этот модальный глагол выражает: а) необходимость совершения действия в силу личного убеждения, обусловленная обстоятельствами, моральными принципами и т.п. – должен, нужно, надо; б) предположение, граничащее с уверенностью – должно быть, вероятно. Этот глагол является самым категоричным из глаголов долженствования, поэтому при выражении настоятельного совета или приглашения его можно переводить на русский язык словами: обязательно должен, непременно нужно. ☺(5) I must hurry to get to classes in time. You must phone home immediately. She must be at the university now. They must do it tomorrow. You must see the play. You must read this article. Must I write it down? You mustn’t miss your lectures.

Я должен спешить, чтобы попасть на занятия вовремя. Ты должен позвонить домой немедленно. Он должен быть в университете сейчас. Они должны сделать это завтра. Ты должен обязательно посмотреть эту пьесу. Вы непременно должны прочитать эту статью. Должен я это записать? Ты не должен пропускать свои лекции.

Модальный глагол should используется, как правило, для дачи советов. Советов ненавязчивых, дружеских. При помощи should можно выразить свое мнение относительно правильности, целесообразности происходящего. Так как данный глагол should все-таки выражает долженствование, то с его помощью можно выразить и приказ, но в виде настойчивого пожелания. Should обычно переводиться как «следует»: Вам следует подумать. После should смысловой глагол употребляется в форме инфинитива без частицы to. 127

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☺(6) You should really quit smoking.

Вы бы на самом деле бросили курить. You should send the letter as soon Вам следует отправить письмо as possible. как можно скорее. We should leave tomorrow. Мы должны уехать завтра. He said that we should leave. Он сказал, что мы должны уехать. Глагол ought (to) Имеет только одну форму. За ним следует инфинитив смыслового глагола с частицей to. Глагол ought (to) очень близок по значению глаголу should. Выражает: а) необходимость совершения действия в силу чьего-либо мнения, отражающего общепринятые суждения, моральные принципы, обязательства и т.п. – должен, следует, (мягче, чем must); б) предположение, с оттенком уверен. – должно быть, наверное, вероятно. Глагол have to передает установленные кем-то правила или внешние обстоятельства, факты, но не личное решение. Don't have to означает «нет необходимости, не нужно» (но не запрещено). ☺(7) I have to phone my parents every week. I don’t have to get up early tomorrow.

Я должен (мне приходится) звонить родителям каждую неделю. Мне не надо (нет необходимости) завтра рано вставать.

Active and Passive Voices. Действительный и страдательный залоги Залог – это форма глагола, которая показывает, является ли подлежащее предложения производителем или объектом действия, выраженного сказуемым. Как уже было сказано выше, в английском языке имеется два залога: the Active Voice (действительный залог) и the Passive Voice (страдательный залог). 128

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Страдательный залог употребляется, когда исполнитель действия очевиден или несуществен, или когда действие или его результат более интересны, чем исполнитель. Страдательный залог образуется с помощью глагола to be в соответствующем времени и III формы глагола (причастие II). Active Voice The students translate the text. – Студенты переводят текст. The students translated the text. – Студенты переводили текст. The students will translate the text. – Студенты будут переводить текст. Passive Voice The text is translated by the students. – Текст переводится студентами. The text was translated by the students. – Текст переводился студентами. The text will be translated by the students. – Текст будет переводиться студентами.

Грамматические упражнения урока 6 1. Используя представленные в таблицах (1–7) образцы предложений, составьте собственные предложения для демонстрации повелительного наклонения. 2. Переведите предложения, содержащие сказуемые в страдательном залоге с английского языка на русский: 1) During the last several years some attempts have been made to classify the elementary particles. 2) In recent years much of our interest has 129

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been centered round the problem of the evolution of comets. 3) The contribution of Russian scientists to space research has been greatly appreciated. 4) In the last few decades much of the data in various areas of physics has been analyzed quite well in terms of the quantum theory. 5) The studies which have been described in this paper have become classical ones. 6) In recent literature the problem and prospects of this new trend of science have been discussed exhaustively. 7) A few improvements have lately been recommended to facilitate the experiments on atomic collisions. 8) During the last decades a great number of researchers have been involved in the study of cancer problems. 9) Valuable information has been obtained in recent years on the age and composition of the moon. 10) Various ideas have been proposed to explain the origin of this planet. 3. Перепишите следующие предложения, преобразуя активный залог в страдательный: 1) We have recently undertaken a new study. 2) They have recently put forward a new idea. 3) They have recently made an analysis of the data. 4) They have held an important meeting this year. 5) They have done an interesting research this year. 6) We have lately published a few papers on this problem. 7) They have recently given some useful recommendations. 8) We have just given a few illustrative examples. 9) They have lately ignored this important fact. 10) They have introduced some new measuring instruments lately.

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ГРАММАТИКА УРОКА 7

Неличные формы глагола. Неличные формы английского глагола (инфинитив, причастие, герундий) отличаются от личных форм прежде всего тем, что они не имеют категорий лица, числа и наклонения. Они не могут согласовываться с подлежащим и, следовательно, самостоятельно никогда не выступают в функции простого сказуемого. Категория времени у них имеет относительный характер, т.е. их временные отличия приобретают значение лишь в сопоставлении со временем сказуемого данного предложения. Инфинитив Инфинитив (I форма глагола) является неличной формой, отвечающей на вопросы: Что делать? Что сделать? Например: to write писать, написать. Формальным признаком инфинитива является частица to. Инфинитив произошел от существительного и может выполнять в предложении функции существительного. Выполняя функции существительного, инфинитив, вместе с тем, обладает и некоторыми глагольными свойствами: может иметь прямое дополнение, может определяться наречием, имеет залоговые и временные отличия: Infinitive \ Voice Indefinite (Present) Continuous Perfect

Active

Passive

to write – писать, написать to be writing – писать в определенный момент to have written – написать до определенного момента

to be written – быть написанным формы нет

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to have been written – быть написанным до определенного момента

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Perfect Continuous

to have been writing – формы нет писать в течение отрезка времени, предшествующего указанному моменту

Функции инфинитива в предложении и способы перевода на русский язык Подлежащее: Перевод инфинитива-подлежащего производится с помощью русского инфинитива или существительного: ☺(1) To fabricate nano scale materials Производить наноразмерные маhas become a practical possibility териалы стало практически возnot so long ago. можным сравнительно недавно. Или: Производство наноразмерных материалов стало практически возможным сравнительно недавно. Инфинитив может выступить как часть сложного подлежащего в обороте «Субъектный инфинитивный оборот», когда сказуемое выражено одним из следующих глаголов: to say – сказать, to see – видеть, to hear – слышать, to state – утверждать, to report – сообщать, to announce – объявлять, to believe – верить, считать, to suppose – предполагать, to think – думать, to expect – ожидать, предполагать, to know – знать, to understand – понимать, to consider – считать, to assume – предполагать, to declare – объявлять и некоторых других: ☺(2) Uranium is known to possess Известно, что уран обладает самым the highest atomic weight. большим атомным весом. 132

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Характерным признаком этого оборота для большинства глаголов является сочетание пассивной формы с инфинитивом (is known + to possess). Эта конструкция переводится безличным, или неопределенноличным оборотом в качестве главного предложения (известно, предполагают, говорят, сообщают и т.п.), за которым следует придаточное дополнительное предложение с союзом что, чтобы, как. В субъектном инфинитивном обороте нередко употребляются глаголы: to seem, to appear – казаться, to prove – оказаться и выражения: is likely – вероятно, очевидно; is unlikely – маловероятно, едва ли, имеющие свои особенности. Выражения is likely и is unlikely также употребляются без пассивной формы и действие, выражаемое ими, обычно относится к будущему времени: ☺(3) The reaction is likely to be violent The reaction is unlikely to be violent.

Реакция будет, вероятно, бурной. Едва ли реакция будет бурной.

Инфинитив выступает частью сложного дополнения, начинающегося предлогом for. Такой инфинитив связан по смыслу не с подлежащим, а со словом, которое стоит за предлогом for и которое играет роль подлежащего в отношении инфинитива. Такой инфинитив переводится придаточным предложением с союзами что или чтобы, или существительным: ☺(4) Мы предполагали, что примеси выпадут в виде осадка. We expected for the impurities to или fall out as a precipitate. Мы ожидали выпадения примесей в виде осадка. Примечание: В некоторых случаях конструкция «for + Infinitive» может выступать как составная часть других членов предложения – сказуемого, подлежащего и др.: 133

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☺(5) It is easy for you to do it. It is not for us to decide.

Вам легко это сделать (часть сложного подлежащего). He нам это решать (часть сказуемого).

Инфинитив может быть частью сложного дополнения в «объектном инфинитивном обороте»: ☺(6) We expect him to come.

Мы предполагаем, что он придет.

В этом обороте дополнением является не только слово, стоящее в объектном падеже him, но и связанный с ним инфинитив to come, т.e. все сочетание в целом: him to come (тот факт, что он придет). Этот оборот переводится дополнительным придаточным предложением с союзами что, чтобы, как, когда, в котором слово, стоящее в объектном падеже, играет роль подлежащего, а глагол, стоящий в инфинитиве, выступает в роли сказуемого. «Объектный инфинитивный оборот» употребляется после глаголов: а) желания: to want – хотеть, to wish – желать, to like – хотеть, to desire – желать; б) предположения: to suppose – предполагать, to consider – считать, to think – думать, to expect – ожидать, to know – знать, to find – находить, считать; в) приказания: to order – приказывать, to command – приказывать, to allow – разрешать; г) восприятия органами чувств: to see – видеть, to hear – слышать, to feel – чувствовать, to watch – наблюдать, to notice – замечать, to observe – наблюдать. Обстоятельство цели и следствия: Обстоятельство цели (иногда в сочетании с союзом in order to): ☺(7) The substance was placed in а Вещество было помещено в охлажcooling mixture (in order) to дающую смесь, чтобы понизить его reduce its temperature. температуру. 134

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Инфинитив цели может возглавлять предложения; в этом случае перевод должен начинаться с союза для того, чтобы или чтобы: ☺(8) То reduce the temperature of the Для того чтобы понизить темпеsubstance, it was placed in cool- ратуру вещества, оно было помеing mixture. щено в охлаждающую смесь. Обстоятельство следствия (со словами: too, enough): ☺(9) The transmitter is too weak to Передатчик слишком слаб, чтобы cover this distance. покрыть это расстояние. Если инфинитив следствия не сопровождается словами too или enough, то он может переводиться деепричастием: ☺(10) One atom of oxygen combines Один атом кислорода соединяется with two atoms of hydrogen to с двумя атомами водорода, обраform water. зуя воду.

Грамматические упражнения урока 7 1. Используя представленные в таблицах (1–10) образцы предложений, составьте собственные предложения с использованием инфинитива в различных функциях. 2. Переведите предложения, содержащие инфинитив с английского языка на русский: 1. Experiments have proved the pressure of a gas at fixed temperature to depend on its concentration. 135

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2. We have thought this law to hold only for gases which are under normal conditions. 3. One may safely expect this prediction to be quite reliable. 4. Let us take the force to equal 17 dynes. 5. On assuming the body with the mass m to be acted upon by force f , let us calculate the acceleration. 6. It is possible to observe the volume of a given mass of a gas to decrease as the temperature decreases. 7. Assume the total pressure to be equal to 10. 8. Examination with X-rays has shown the halogens even in the solid state to possess diatomic molecules. 9. They found radon to be 3 times as heavy as hydrogen. 10. Let us take the volume of this body to equal v. 11. He died in 1860, having lived to see his invention put into practice. 12. Highly periodic in its value is the property of valence. In each series of the table we see the valence start with zero, then rise to a maximum of a positive seven, increasing by one with each group. 13. This method seems to be on no account correct. 14. The law in question is likely to account for this phenomenon. 15. The students are expected to take into account these phenomena. 16. This student appears to have paid much attention to grammar. 17. As far as liquids are concerned this law is certain to hold. 18. In so far as this property is concerned this substance is sure to be a striking exception. 19. The preparation of this acid seems to have been first described as far back as the 18th century. 20. There appears to be a great difference between the substance under investigation. 21. This substance is held to possess the properties in question. 22. As to this substance it has proved to be very valuable. 23. This method is known to have been used as far back as the 17th century.

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ГРАММАТИКА УРОКА 8

Неличные формы глагола: причастие, герундий. Из числа неличных форм глагола две формы герундий и причастие I имеют одинаковое окончание -ing. К числу форм, оканчивающихся на -ing, относятся: Герундий (Gerund): Voltmeters are used for measur- Вольтметры применяются ing voltages. измерения напряжения.

для

Причастие I (Present Participle) Measuring voltage we use volt- Измеряя напряжение, мы пользуmeters. емся вольтметром.

Герундий Герундий – особая грамматическая категория, отсутствующая в русском языке. Название «герундий» (Gerund) произошло от латинского глагола gerere – действовать. Оно указывает на то, что посредством герундия выражается выполнение, совершение действия, его процесс. Герундий позволяет избегать употребления громоздких придаточных предложений и облегчает создание кратких и сжатых оборотов речи. Герундий имеет двойственные функции: он обладает чертами и существительного, и глагола. Формы герундия: Indefinite

Active writing

Passive being written

Perfect

having written

having been written

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Связь с глаголом: а) происходит от глагольного корня и имеет временные и залоговые характеристики: ☺(1) I know of his leaving Frisco. I know of his having left Frisco.

Я знаю, что он уезжает из СанФранциско. Я знаю, что он уехал из СанФранциско.

б) принимает прямое дополнение: ☺(2) Their aim was exploring the Pole.

Их целью было исследование полюса.

в) может определяться наречием: ☺(3) Writing quickly is tiring.

Писать быстро – утомительно.

Отличие от глагола: Являясь неличной формой глагола, т.е. такой формой, которая не выражает ни категории лица, ни категории числа, герундий не может выполнять функции сказуемого (может быть лишь частью сказуемого). Связь с существительным: а) выражает не действие, а лишь название, процесс действия; ☺(4) Swimming is my favourite sport.

Плавание – мой любимый спорт. 138

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б) выполняет в предложении функции существительного, выступая в качестве подлежащего, дополнения, определения, обстоятельства, части сказуемого; ☺(5) Elevated temperature favours set- Повышенная температура благоting. приятствует осаждению. в) сочетается с предлогами, определяется притяжательными местоимениями и существительным в притяжательном падеже. ☺(6) Oxydation led to the reaction taking another course. Nanocompounds have the advantage of being cheap. This colour developed on exposing the fabric to steam. This failure was due to the engineer’s having been careless.

Окисление привело к тому, что реакция пошла по другому пути. Преимущество наносоединений состоит в том, что они дешевы. Эта окраска появилась после обработки ткани паром. Эта авария произошла из-за того, что инженер допустил небрежность. He dried the precipitate on the pa- Он высушил осадок на бумаге, per without removing it from не удаляя его из воронки. the funnel. They worked very hard with a view Они упорно работали с целью to completing the experiments in закончить эксперименты вовреtime. мя. We could solve this problem in Мы решим эту проблему, если case of your giving us all necessary вы дадите нам все необходимые data. данные. Besides being sophisticated the Помимо того, что эта процедура procedure is very costly. сложная, она требует больших затрат. Герундий в отличие от существительного не может иметь артикля; не определяется прилагательным и не имеет множественного числа. 139

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Наиболее распространенные предлоги, используемые с герундием: after – после; before – прежде, до того как, перед; in – при, в то время как; on – после; through/ because of/ due to – из-за, благодаря; by – путем, при помощи; instead of/ despite/ in spite of – вместо, несмотря на; for – для; with a view to – с целью; in case of/ in the event of – в случае, если; subject to – при условии; apart from – помимо; besides – кроме. Причастие I (Present Participle) Формы причастия Present Perfect

Active taking having taken

Passive being taken having been taken

Present Participle выражает действие, одновременное с действием глагола-сказуемого: ☺(7) Taking the book he promised to return Беря книгу, он обещал скоро it soon. ее вернуть. Perfect Participle выражает действие, предшествующее действию глагола-сказуемого. ☺(8) Having taken the book, he went away.

Взяв книгу, он ушел.

Грамматические упражнения урока 8 1. Используя представленные в таблицах (1–8) образцы предложений, составьте собственные предложения с использованием инфинитива в различных функциях. 140

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2. Переведите предложения, содержащие герундий и причастие с английского языка на русский: 1. The molecules of a polar substance because of their being reactive combine with one another. 2. Combustion may be incomplete owing to insufficient oxygen being present. 3. Thomson investigated the possibility of these cathode rays being charged particles. 4. The inability of phosphorus atoms, because of their large radius, to establish triple bonds among themselves results in the phosphorus molecule having a very different structure from the nitrogen molecule. 5. The pores of fine unbaked clay are small enough to prevent bacteria from passing through. 6. Silicon resembles carbon in forming a series of volatile hydrates. 7. Wien was successful in deducing a law of radiation. 8. Any substance which by its mere presence aids in accelerating chemical reaction without itself being changed is called a catalyst. 9. In spite of not having any university education, Faraday made his great discoveries. 10. In addition to depending upon the acceleration, force also depends upon the mass of the object. 11. Besides being soluble in acids lead sulphate is easily soluble in caustic alkalies. 12. Gamma rays are not affected by magnetic or electric fields and are identical with X-rays, except in being more penetrating, thus being in fact ordinary light pulses of the shortest wave-length. 13. Oxygen is an active element of the atmosphere, and in addition to being essential for the maintenance of life it is also essential for combustion, the rusting of metals and the decay of organic matter. 14. Aside from being one of the few known third-order gas reactions the reaction of NO and O2 is also one whose rate decreases with increase in temperature.

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АКТИВАТОР ДЛЯ РАЗГОВОРНОЙ ПРАКТИКИ

SITUATION PRACTICE FUNCTIONS – TALKING ABOUT YOURSELF STARTING A CONVERSATION MAKING A DATE 1.1. SAMPLE CONVERSATION Richard: Excuse me, anyone sitting here? Jane: Um, no, no. Er… I’ll just move my bag. Richard: Right, thanks. Jane: There we are. Richard: Thank you… Oh, nice day, isn’t it? Jane: Oh, it’s lovely, yes. It doesn’t make a change, doesn’t it? Richard: Let’s hope it’ll last. Jane: Mm, mm. Richard: What… what’s that book you are reading? Looks… looks really interesting. Jane: Oh, it’s… called “Life on Earth”. I got it because of that… television program. Richard: Oh, yeah. Jane: Did… did you see it? A few… a few weeks ago? Richard: No, no, I didn’t see it – I remember it, but I didn’t see it, I’m afraid. Jane: Yes, about how life began. It’s… it’s fantastic. I’m… I’m reading it as well because I’ve got a project at school – I’m a teacher. Richard: I see, I see. Jane: And it’s really useful for background research – it’s lovely. 142

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Richard: Yes, I like… I like a bit of telly really. I like the old movies most of all… Jane: Oh, yes. So do I. Richard: The old films. Jane: Yes, yes. They are on very late, though. I don’t see a lot of them, because… Richard: … but I don’t go to the cinema a lot, there just isn’t time. Jane: Well, I’m going tonight, in fact. Richard: Tonight? Oh, are you? Jane: Yes, most nights really. Richard: What are you going to see? Jane: The new Clint Eastwood film. Richard: Oh, lovely. Jane: You wouldn’t like to come, would you? Why don’t you come as well? Richard: Oh, that would be nice, yes. Oh, why not. Oh, oh dear, I’m busy tonight, I’m afraid. What about tomorrow night? Is that any good to you? Jane: Oh dear, no, I’m afraid I’m busy then myself. Richard: Oh, well. Jane: Well… we… Obviously it’d be nice to meet sometime. Er… Richard: Yes. Jane: Er… perhaps if you give me your phone number I could… we could fix something up? Richard: Oh, yes, all right. Well, shall I write it down for you? Jane: Sure, yes. Richard: OK. Jane: Good Heavens! I should have been at the office 10 minutes ago! Richard: Oh dear. Jane: Er, look, I’ll… I’ll… that’s the number, is it? Richard: Yes, here you are. Jane: Thanks, I’ll… I’ll give you a ring then and … and we’ll sort something out. 143

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Richard: All right. Jane: Right, well, it’s been very nice meeting you. Richard: Yes. Jane: Bye-bye, then. Richard: Yes. Bye-bye. Jane: Bye-bye.

1.2. PRESENTATION: talking about yourselves Try to ask as many short questions as possible from your partner. Try to answer in long sentences keeping talking. Do not just say «Yes» or «No».

1.3. PRACTICE Get together with another student. Introduce yourself first and then find out as much as you can about each other. Here are some ideas to start you off: Family. Brothers and sisters. Parents. Childhood – happy? Home – where does he or she live? Friends: many or just few? What do they talk about and do together? Is it easy to make new friends? Education. Favorite subjects and why. Further plans. Free time. Hobbies. Sports. TV. Cinema. What does she or he do at weekends and in the evenings? What does she or he likes reading?

1.4. PRACTICE Get together with still another student. Look at the questionnaire below. Help each other to fill in the details requested. Discuss how to answer the more difficult questions.

QUESTIONNAIRE Surname First name in full Nationality Permanent address Occupation or field of study 144

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What foreign languages do you speak and how well? When do you need to use English? What aspects of your English need improving most? What are the main things you hope to get from this course?

1.5. PRACTICE Imagine that you are at a cocktail party with the rest of the class. At a cocktail party everyone stands with a drink, charts for a few minutes to one guest and then is expected to circulate and move on to another guest. The host or hostess (your teacher) normally speeds up the circulation by introducing guests to each other. Now stand up and have a party. Talk to as many people as possible.

1.6. PRESENTATION: starting a conversation. It is often difficult to make contact with strangers who speak another language. You may have a few opening gambits up your sleeve. – What a nice day, isn’t it? – Dreadful weather, don’t you think? – Excuse me, is anybody sitting here? – Excuse me, haven’t we met somewhere before? – Sorry, I couldn’t help overhearing – did you mention something about…? – Excuse me, haven’t you got a light by any chance? – Excuse me, could you tell me the time? – Er, could you help me, I’m trying to find my way to …

1.7. PRESENTATION: making a date. After you have made contact and had a short conversation, you may want to arrange another meeting. There are expressions you can use to arrange to meet someone: 145

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– Oh, um, are you doing anything this evening by any chance? – Um, I was thinking of going to the cinema this evening, would you like to come? – Er, are you going to be busy this evening? I was wondering if you might like to come to McDonald’s with me? – I’m going out to the Internet café with some friends. Would you like to join us? Yes: – That’d be lovely. – I’d love to. – How nice of you, thanks very much. – Mmm, that’s a great idea. No:

– Oh dear, I’m afraid I’m busy tonight. – Tonight’s difficult. Perhaps tomorrow evening, though. – This evening’s a bit of problem. What about tomorrow?

1.8. PRACTICE Get up again and try to make a date with the people you contacted earlier. One way to begin might be: “Oh, it’s nice to see you again. How are you?”

1.9. WRITTEN WORK 1) Imagine two people meeting for the first time and write the conversation between them in dialogue form. 2) Imagine you are writing your first letter to an English pen-friend. Introduce yourself so that he or she has an impression of what sort of person you are. 3) Write a letter inviting an English acquaintance to spend the weekend with your family.

READING, HEARING AND RESPONSE JOKES and LAUGHTER *** – Meet my new born brother! – Oh, he is so handsome! What’s his name? – I don’t know. I can’t understand a word he says. 146

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*** – Oh. my dear ,you have no idea how grateful I am for your present! – Did you really want to have it? – That’s just what I need to exchange for what I want. *** – Honey, thanks a lot for dinner. – Don’t mention it. – Could you tell me what was on my plate in case I have to describe it to my doctor. *** – I’m really very sorry to leave. Don’t trouble to see me to the door. – It’s no trouble. It’s a pleasure! *** – Excuse me mum for breaking dad’s pipe. I’m so sorry about it. – Have you told your daddy yet? – I have. – What did he say? – Shall I leave out rude words? – Certainly. – He said nothing. *** – Why are you jumping down like that? – The doctor game me a mixture and I forgot to shake the bottle. *** – Hello. Is it 122345456? – No, sorry. We don’t have phone at all. *** – The new girl I saw with you yesterday was beautiful. – Well, it was an old one painted over.

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Many years ago... An application was for employment

Windows were something you hated to clean,

A program was a television show

A keyboard was

a piano A cursor used profanity

Memory was something you lost with age

A CD was a bank account

Compress was something you did to garbage

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If you unzipped in public you went to jail

Log on was adding wood to a fire A hard drive was a long trip on A mouse pad was where a mouse lived the road

And a backup happened to your Cut you did with scissors toilet

Paste you did with glue

A web was a spider's Home

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And a virus was the flu!!!

WOW HOW TIMES HAVE CHANGED!

COMPUTER QUOTES In Japan, they have replaced the impersonal and unhelpful Microsoft Error messages with Haiku poetry messages. Haiku poetry has strict construction rules. Each poem has only three lines, 17 syllables: five syllables in the first line, seven in the second, five in the third. Haikus are used to communicate a timeless message often achieving a wistful, yearning and powerful insight through extreme brevity – the essence of Zen: Your file was so big. It might be very useful. But now it is gone Chaos reigns within. Reflect, repent, and reboot. Order shall return. Windows NT crashed. I am the Blue Screen of Death. No one hears your screams. First snow, then silence. This thousand-dollar screen dies So beautifully. The Tao that is seen Is not the true Tao-until You bring fresh toner. A crash reduces Your expensive computer To a simple stone.

The Web site you seek Cannot be located, but Countless more exist. Program aborting: Close all that you have worked on. You ask far too much. Yesterday it worked. Today it is not working. Windows is like that. With searching comes loss And the presence of absence: "My Novel" not found. Stay the patient course. Of little worth is your ire. The network is down. Three things are certain: Death, taxes and lost data. Guess which has occurred. 150

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You step in the stream, But the water has moved on. This page is not here. Having been erased, The document you're seeking Must now be retyped.

Out of memory. We wish to hold the whole sky, But we never will. Serious error. All shortcuts have disappeared. Screen. Mind. Both are blank.

SITUATION PRACTICE FUNCTIONS – ASKING FOR INFORMATION QUESTION TECHNIQUES ANSWERING TECHNIQUES GETTING MORE INFORMATION 2.1. SAMPLE CONVERSATION Stranger: Excuse me? Resident: Yes? Stranger: I… I was wondering if you could help me. Resident: Well, I’ll try. Stranger: I need to find where… the… er… town centre is. Now I see there’s a sign up there that points to the left. Resident: Ah, well, let me see… er… it all depends if you are on foot or going by car. Stranger: Oh, no, I’m walking. Resident: Ah well, you turn to the right and then carry straight on. Stranger: Ah right, thanks. Er… I wonder if you could tell me … um … if there’s a good hotel… er… in town that I can use. Resident: Oh, let me think a moment … um … yes, there are two hotels – they are in the High Street … er … one on each side of the road. Stranger: Right, well, I expect I’ll manage to find one of those. Er, I wonder if you could tell me… er… anything about the … castle in town… er … where… where it is. 151

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Resident: Um, well, it’s actually further on… er… down the High Street and you cross over the bridge and it’s on the other side of the river. Stranger: I see, I see. Could you tell me a bit more about it? Is it interesting? Is it old? Resident: I’m not really sure. I’ve never actually been there myself. It… yes, I think it’s quite old, I think it’s about… um… 500 years old – something like that. Stranger: Worth… worth visiting you think? Resident: Well, it’s one of the tourist attractions of the town … Stranger: I see, I see. Resident: I’ve no idea, I’m afraid. As I say, I’ve never been there. Stranger: I see. Do you happen to know when it’s open? Resident: Er… I’m not really sure… um… I think it depends on er… what time of year you go… um… as to whether it’s open. Stranger: Well, right, thank you, thank you. Resident: Er, excuse me, I hope you don’t mind my asking, but… um… your voice interests me… er … do you mind if I ask … er… Where you come from? Stranger: No, no, no, I come from Wetshire.

2.2. PRESENTATION: question technique. A conversation often depends on questions to keep it going in the direction you want it to go. The one who asks questions usually controls the conversation. Various techniques may be necessary to give different sorts of information from different people. Most people are very polite in the way they ask a stranger of something. If you are more direct you may appear to be very rude. Any personal questions have to be expressed tactfully. Here are some useful opening expressions you can use to lead up the conversations: – I was wondering if you could help me – I’d like to know – I wonder if you could tell me 152

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– This may sound a stupid question but I’d like to know – Excuse me, do you happen to know – Would you mind telling me – I hope you don’t mind my asking, but I’d like to know – Something else I’d like to know is…

2.3. PRESENTATION: answering techniques. You may often need to delay answering the question while you think for a moment or check on your facts. Here are some useful techniques for delaying your answer: – Well, let me see – Well, now – Oh, let me think for a moment – I’m not sure. I’ll just have to find out – That’s very interesting question Or you may want to avoid answering altogether using expressions like these: – I’m not really sure – I can’t tell you off hand I’m afraid – I’m terribly sorry, I really don’t know – I’ve no idea, I’m afraid – I can’t answer that one, I’ll tell you where you can find out – I’d rather not answer that if you don’t mind Decide where you might use these expressions. Think of some situations where they would be appropriate.

2.4. PRESENTATION: getting more information. When you ask people questions, they often don’t give you enough information right away. You may want to ask them for additional information – you may want further details or you may not feel satisfied with the answer given. 153

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Here are some techniques for getting the extra information you want: – Could you tell me a bit more about…? – Sorry, but I’d like to know some more about – I didn’t quite follow what you said about – Sorry, that’s not quite what I meant – What I really wanted to know was – Sorry to press you, but could you tell me – Sorry, I don’t quite understand why

2.5. PRESENTATION: describing things. You may often have to describe an object, or a piece of equipment or a machine or a gadget to the people. You may need to do this because your listeners are unfamiliar with this object. To describe an object we often need to answer questions like these: – What size (shape, color) is it? – What’s it made of? – What does it look like? – What’s it used for? – How does it work? Decide how you’d answer these questions in describing the objects around you. Are there any other important questions missing from the list?

2.6. PRACTICE Very often we cannot find the right word for something. What do you call that thing about 30 cm long made of plastic or wood? You use it to draw lines and measure things. Make a list of right words for: an electrical gadget something in your pocket or handbag an item of clothing something you can eat. 154

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2.7. PRESENTATION: instructing people how to do things. There’s no much difference in telling people how something works and instructing them how to do it themselves. However, more detail is needed and more repetition too. In giving instructions we often link the steps together like this: – First of all you… – The first thing you have to do is… – After you’ve done that you… – The next thing you do is… – Oh, and by the way, don’t forget to… – Make sure you remember to… – Oh, and be careful not to…

2.8. PRESENTATION: checking understanding. If you are giving instructions to someone you’ll probably need to check that your listener understands, like this: – All right so far? – Are you with me? – Is that clear? – Do you see what I mean? While you are being given complicated instructions you may need to interrupt and ask questions like these: – Sorry, but I don’t quite see why you have to… – Sorry, can you say that again, please? – Sorry, but I’m not quite clear on…

READING, HEARING AND RESPONSE JOKES and LAUGHTER *** GIVING A PARTY – “How much are your peaches?” – “Penny each, lady.” 155

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– “I'll have one, please.” – “Giving a party, lady?” *** THE OPEN-HEARTED WAITER It was dinner time. A customer entered a restaurant and sat down at a table. He asked for the menu and said to the waiter. – “Here is sixpence tip for you; tell me what you can recommend me.” The waiter leaned over and whispered: – “I shall recommend you to go to another restaurant.” *** A FRESH TOWEL “Look here,” said the irate guest to the small-town hotel keeper, “don't you know that roller-towels in hotels have been prohibited in this State for three years?” “Sure, I do,” replied the hotel keeper, “but that towel was put up before the law was passed.” *** –I can’t understand modern art at all. – I don’t think so. If it hangs on the wall-it’s a picture. If you can walk around, it’s a sculpture

COMMENT THE STATEMENTS: We ought to take care of everything that nature gives us Nature gives people everything they need for their lives. People have learnt to use the soil, the water, the minerals on the earth and under the earth. Forests are the lungs of the planet. They give us fresh air, from the forest we get wood to build the houses, the furniture and what-not. Paper is also made from wood. Can you imagine our life without a common piece of paper. No books, no newspapers. Terrible, isn’t it? Most of our clothes are also made from natural material: leather, wool, cotton. People will simply die if nature is spoiled. It may sound strange, but no one does more harm to nature than people do. Plants and factories throw their wastes into seas and oceans, pollute water, contaminate sea animals and fish. Some birds and animals have dis156

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appeared from the earth in this century. People often killed them for their beautiful skins and feather. But today there are people in all parts of the world who are trying to protect wild animals and birds. There is even an international organization called “Green Peace”. Reservations for rare plants and animals are set up in different parts of the world. Hunting is not allowed there. We all love our Earth. We love its green fields and forests, mountains, rivers and lakes. We must take care of every thing that grows and lives on the Earth.

SITUATION PRACTICE FUNCTIONS – GETTING PEOPLE TO DO THINGS. REQUESTING. ATTRACTING ATTENTION. AGREEING AND REFUSING 3.1. SAMPLE CONVERSATION Brenda: Bob: Brenda: Bob: Waiter: Bob: Waiter:

Ah, right, here we are. This is the place I was telling you about. Yeah, could you ask the waiter if we can sit near the window? Er, yes, of course. Er, waiter… Good evening, sir. We’d like to sit near the window if that’s possible. Er… Ah… er… I’m afraid all the tables are… are taken. Would you mind sitting near… near the Bar? Bob: Oh, yes, all right. That suit you? Brenda: Mm, fine. Bob: Good. Waiter: Thank you, sir. Bob: Now let’s have a… er…oh, I… I don’t seem to have any cigarettes on me. Have you got a cigarette by any chance? Brenda: I’m awfully sorry, but you see I’ve given up. Bob: Oh, you’ve stopped smoking at last. Well done. Oh well, let’s have a look at the menu then. Um… oh, there isn’t a menu… 157

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Brenda: Bob:

Brenda: Bob: Brenda: Bob: Brenda: Waiter: Bob: Waiter: Bob: Brenda: Waiter: Brenda:

er…er, do you think you could ask people at the next table if we could look at their menu? Yes of course. Um… excuse me, could you possibly let us see your menu? Oh, they haven’t got one either. Er, oh, I’ll ask these people at this table. Um, I wonder if you could possibly let us have a look at your menu… Thank you… Ah, here we are, then. Now, what’s on? Um… oh, ‘Soup of the day’ – well, I wonder what that is. I wonder what ‘Mexican dressing’ is. Oh, sounds interesting… er, where’s the waiter gone, we’ll order… er… I can’t see… He’s over there. Oh, could you possibly catch his eye? Yeah, waiter! Yes, madam. Ah, waiter… um, I wonder if you could tell me what ‘Soup of the day’ is, please. Certainly, yes. ‘Soup of the day’ is Cream of Asparagus. Ah, that sounds nice! Mm, could you tell me what ‘Mexican Dressing’ is? Ah, ‘Mexican Dressing”, yes. That’s one of our specialities. That’s hot, spicy and sweet. It’s very nice. I recommend it. Oh.

Waiter: Er… now… could I … I wonder if I could possibly ask you to move to a table near the window after all? It’s… er… it turns out the manager tells me this table is reserved. Brenda: Oh, yes, sure. Bob: Of course, by all means.

3.2. PRESENTATION: requesting. When you want someone to do something for you there are many English expressions you can use. Some of these expressions you can use. Some of these expressions are too polite for some situations. Other expressions are rude in the particular situations. The right expression to use depends on: 158

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A. How difficult, unpleasant or urgent the task is. – Sorry to trouble you, but I wonder if you could possibly … B. Who you are and who you are talking to, roles you are playing and your relations: – Got a cigarette? Here are some useful ways for requesting. They are marked with stars according to how polite they are: * – Hey, I need some change for the phone. – Oh dear, I haven’t got any change for the phone. – I don’t seem to have any change on me. ** – You haven’t got 10 p, have you? – Have you got 10 p by any chance? *** – You couldn’t lend me 50 p, could you? – Do you think you could lend me 50 p? – I wonder if you could lend me 50 p? **** – Would you mind lending me a pound? – If you could lend me a pound I would be very grateful. ***** – Could you possibly lend me your laptop? – Do you think you could possibly lend me your laptop? – I wonder if you could possibly lend me your laptop? ****** – I hope you don’t mind my asking, but I wonder if it might be at all possible for you to lend me your car?

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3.3. PRESENTATION: attracting attention, agreeing and refusing. If you want to talk to someone, it may be necessary first to attract their attention in the polite way. Also you are likely to be asked to do things which you may agree to do or want to refuse. To attract someone’s attention: – Er, excuse me. – Er, I say. – Er, Mr.Jones! To agree: – Sure – I’d be glad to – Why, yes, of course – By all means To refuse: – I’m awfully sorry, but you see… – I’d like to say yes, but … – I’d really like to help you, but … British people don’t like to refuse bluntly in a plain direct way, instead they usually give their excuses so as not to hurt people’s feelings. Their excuses are sometimes called ‘little white lies’ but of course they shouldn’t involve serious or obvious lies.

JOB INTERVIEW When you are getting ready to go to the job interview you should take into account several things. In the dialogue below Peter and Jack are discussing some of them. Jack:

You have a reasonable resume. By reading it, your potential employer in Australia can see what abilities qualify you for a job of a social worker. Your job objective is indicated. You want to deal with controlling people who cause problems for others: hard parenting; challenge; sanctions. 160

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Peter: When thinking of an upcoming interview, I’m really scared. My English is not good enough, and I don’t know how to behave when being interviewed. It is especially hard because never before the Australian social services had invited specialists in this field from Russia. Jack:

Before going to the interview, try to get as much information as you can, say through the Internet, about these organizations and the functions you are expected to fulfill. You should be interested and have the proper skills for the job. First of all, prove to yourself and then to others that you need the job you are applying for. Peter: You are probably right, Jack, but how can I overcome nervousness? Jack:

If you are well-informed, your confidence is up. Besides, being a graduate of the Kazan State Technological University, you’ve got sound knowledge and skills in your specialization – social work. This should give you a good deal of confidence. You are familiar with the English terminology in your field and your spoken English is rather fluent, you do not make grammar mistakes. People can tell when you are well prepared. You will be asked questions that you can answer easily. You won’t be nervous in the upcoming interview. Your best guide is to rely on your common sense. There are, however, some basic rules common to most interviews. Peter: Could you give me some examples? Jack:

When greeting the Australian representative, wait until he moves to shake hands. You should also wait until he offers you a seat. Peter: But what about the usual questions people are asked in an interview? Jack:

Well, these are worth speaking in more detail, so that you could prepare your answers beforehand. The most common questions are, for instance: – Tell me about yourself. – What do you want to do with your life? – Do you have any actual work experience? – How would you describe your ideal job? – Why did you choose this career? – What goals do you have in your career? 161

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– How do you plan to achieve these goals? – What motivates you? – How do you evaluate success? – Describe a situation in which you were successful. – Would you rather work with information or with people? – Why should we hire you? – What do you see yourself doing five years from now? – Do you handle conflict well? – Is money important to you? – What kind of salary are you looking for? Peter: Are there any surprise questions? Jack:

You should anticipate such questions as: What are your three greatest strengths for this job? Peter: I see. This is a rather tricky question. Are there any topics I should avoid discussing with the interviewer? Jack:

In discussing your previous jobs, avoid criticizing former employers or fellow-workers. Don’t discuss your personal, domestic or financial problems unless you are specially asked about them. Peter: If I am offered a job, is it appropriate to ask questions referring to the salary? Jack:

Absolutely. You can state the salary you want, but not until the employer has introduced the subject. Peter: Thank you. I greatly appreciate your giving me the valuable information.

READING, HEARING AND RESPONSE JOKES and LAUGHTER *** SUCH A FATHER, SUCH A SON C u s t o m e r. – “I hear my son has owed you for a suit for three years.” T a i 1 o r. – “Yes, sir. Have you called to settle the account?“ C u s t o m e r. – “No, I'd like a suit myself on the same terms.” 162

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*** HIS TONGUE IS WELL HUNG – “This seal coat is fine. But will it stand rain?” – “Madam, did you ever see a seal with an umbrella?” *** THE SHORTER THE DAYS, THE LESS WE EAT – “Give me an all-day sucker,” the youngster demanded of the candy man. He was handed one. – “Looks very small,” remarked the youngster looking at it doubtfully. – “Yeah, well, the days are getting shorter,” replied the man.

SITUATION PRACTICE FUNCTIONS – TALKING ABOUT PAST EVENTS. REMEMBERING. DESCRIBING EXPERIENCES. IMAGINING “WHAT IF”. 4.1. SAMPLE CONVERSATION Bob: Didn’t you once go sailing? On holiday or something? Jane: Oh, yes! Bob: Tell me about it. Jane: I’ll never forget the time I first went, actually. Um… I set off from the shore to get to the boat in the little dinghy… Bob: Yes. Jane: … with an engine, and that was fine, I was chugging along and about halfway there I suddenly noticed that water was coming in at the bottom. Bob: Oh, what did you do? Jane: Er… I looked around to see if there was a bucket – I could chunk it over the side – and all there was in fact was a sort of shovel thing. So … Bob: Oh, what hap… what happened next? Jane: Well, I started shoveling the water out and … um … oh, yes, the … the next thing that happened was that the engine stopped, so there… 163

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Bob: Uh! How did you feel about that? Jane: Oh, terrible! And I’d never been sailing before. Bob: Yes. Jane: I couldn’t even swim actually. And I didn’t know what to do… um… as far as I remember, I … I started shouting and whistling and nobody took any notice. Bob: Yes. Jane: Um… and… oh, then I… then I … then I used the shovel as a paddle – started paddling on either side – and I slowly got towards the boat… Bob: Yes, yes. Jane: And occasionally chucked some more water over the side as I went. Bob: Why didn’t you call out to the boat and get them to come and help you? Jane: Well, I tried but they… I think they were having a party or just couldn’t hear me or something. Bob: Oh, I see! Jane: And … er … Bob: What would you have done if there hadn’t been anything to paddle with? Jane: I don’t know! I suppose I’d have used my hands or I’d have just seat there shouting at the top of my voice until eventually someone would have rescued me.

4.2. PRESENTATION: remembering. Different sorts of questions can help people to remember things that happened. If you want specific information you need to use questions like these: – What happened next? – Where were you going to? – What were you doing while …? 164

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– Then what did you do? – Why didn’t you …? – How did you feel when …? – Did you think of …? Here are some expressions that are used to answer specific questions: – As far as I can remember … – I remember quite clearly that … – After that … – Before that … – While that was happening … – The next thing I did was …

4.3. WORK IN PAIRS: What did you do yesterday? Your last holiday. Your brightest memory.

4.4. PRESENTATION: describing experiences. It is often interesting to find out about other peoples experience. Here are some expressions which can help people to remember experiences which they had almost forgotten. – Have you ever… – Tell me about the time you … – I hear you once … – Didn’t you once … – You’ve … haven’t you? Or sometimes we begin talking about our experiences like these: – Oh, that takes me back… – I’m not sure I can remember all the details but… – I’ll never forget the time I … – That reminds me of the time I … Decide how you could continue from these openings.

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4.5. PRESENTATION: imagining ‘what if’. Often when we are recalling past events or experiences we speculate what might have happened otherwise. Coincidences happen, we make decisions, things just happen that wouldn’t happen if the situation have been different. Here are some ways for encouraging people to imagine: – What would you’ve done if … – What might have happened if … – How would you have felt if … Here are some possible ways of beginning answers: – Oh, I don’t know … – Difficult to say, but I think I’d have … – Well, of course I could have…

4.6. PRACTICE. Here are a number of events which affected the course of history. In groups of three or four speculate what might happen if these events had not taken place. Try to imagine several consequences of each event and what would have happened if all these things had not happened. 2,000,000,000 BC first life on Earth 20,000 BC first writing 8,000 BC wheel invented 5,000 BC Britain became an island 800 AD paper money first used 1327 guns first used in battle 1455 first book printed by Gutenberg in Germany 1492 Columbus discovered America 1556 Tobacco introduced in Europe 1818 Karl Marx born 1865 Lincoln abolished slavery in USA 1875 Bell invented the telephone 1879 Edison invented the electric light 1917 revolution in Russia 166

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1920 Einstein published theory of relativity 1991 Soviet Union ceased to exist 2003 USA troops entered Iraq

MY FUTURE JOB Choosing a Career as an engineer.

Employment Facts for Engineers: Engineers held 1.6 million jobs in 2008. The highest number of these jobs were in civil engineering (278,400), mechanical engineering (238,700), industrial engineering (214,800), electrical engineering (157,800) and electronic engineering, not including computer engineering (143,700).

Educational Requirements for Engineers: To get an entry-level engineering job, one usually needs a bachelor's degree in engineering. Sometimes a bachelor's degree in physical science or mathematics may suffice, especially in high-demand specialties. Generally engineering students specialize in a particular branch of engineering but may eventually work in a related branch.

Other Requirements for Engineers: Engineers who offer their services directly to the public must be licensed. These licensed engineers are called Professional Engineers (PE). To become licensed one must have a degree from a program that is accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), four years of relevant work experience, and successful completion of a state examination. Requirements vary by state.

How Do Engineers Advance?: As entry level engineers gain experience and knowledge, they may work more independently, making decisions, developing designs, and solving problems. With further experience, engineers may become technical specialists or supervisors over a staff or team of engineers or technicians. Eventually, they may become engineering managers, or may move into other managerial or sales jobs. 167

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What Do Engineers Do?: Engineers who work in design and development:  design, plan, and supervise the construction of buildings, highways, and transit systems;  develop and implement improved ways to extract, process, and use raw materials;  develop new materials that both improve the performance of products and take advantage of advances in technology;  analyze the impact of the products they develop or the systems they design on the environment and on people using them; Engineers who work in testing, production, or maintenance:  supervise production in factories;  determine the causes of breakdowns;  test manufactured products to maintain quality;  estimate the time and cost to complete projects; Sources: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-11 Edition, Engineers, on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos027.htm

READING, HEARING AND RESPONSE JOKES and LAUGHTER *** C u s t o m e r. – “Will these shoes wear long?” S a 1 e s m a n. – “Wear long? Why, sir, nobody has ever come for a second pair”. *** An angry man entered the shop and said to the salesman: – “My brother bought a car here last week and he says you told him if anything broke you would supply a new part.” – “Certainly,” said the salesman, “what does he want?” – “He wants two deltoid muscles, a couple of knee-caps, one elbow, about half a yard of cuticle and a left ear, and he wants them at once.” *** – “I want some collars for my husband,” said Mrs. Jones, “but I'm afraid I've forgotten the size.” 168

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– “Thirteen and a half, ma'am?” suggested the shop assistant. – “That's it. How did you know?” – “Men who let their wives buy collars for them are always about that size, ma'am,” explained the observant salesman. *** A young man approached the counter at which postcards were being sold and asked: “Have you anything sentimental?” – “Here is a lovely one,” replied the salesgirl, “look here-'To the only girl I ever loved.'” – “That's fine! I'll take four-no-six of those, please.” SOME WORDS OF WISDOM FROM A FATHER -----------------------For new fathers, or anyone thinking about becoming a father, you should comment or even learn these words of wisdom. *** Don't ask me, ask your mother. Close the door. Were you raised in a barn? You didn't beat me. I let you win. Who said life was supposed to be fair? This will hurt me a lot more than it hurts you. You call that noise "music"? Back in my days... I brought you into this world and I can take you out. If all your friends jumped off a bridge, would you? When I was your age, I treated my father with respect. 169

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As long as you live under my roof, you'll live by my rules. Because I said so. That's why. Do what I say, not what I do. If I've told you once, I've told you a thousand times. I'm not just talking to hear my own voice! What do you think I am, a bank? What part of "no" don't you understand? I don't care what other people are doing! I'm not everybody else's father! If you're gonna be dumb, you've gotta be tough. Enough is enough! Don't make me stop the car! Go to your room! NOW!!!

SITUATION PRACTICE FUNCTIONS – CONVERSATION TECHNIQUES. HESITATING. PREVENTING INTERRUPTIONS. INTERRUPTING POLITELY. BRINGING IN OTHER PEORLE. 5.1. SAMPLE CONVERSATION Ann:

Listen everyone! I’d like to make a suggestion. Now how about having a party soon? Not this weekend – it’s too soon, but say… next Saturday. Well? 170

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Brenda: Suzan: Ann: Brenda: Ann:

Suzan: Brenda: Ann: Suzan:

Brenda:

Suzan:

Brenda: Suzan: Brenda: Suzan: Ann: Sheila:

Cherlie: Sheila: All: Sheila: Ann: Cherlie:

Why not? Yes, sure. Well, what do you think, Brenda? Well, yeah, but why do you want to have one? Oh, I don’t know really… er… how shall I put it? Well, we’ve been together for quite a long time, haven’t we? The four of us… in the flat. Well, it’s nearly five years, I think, isn’t it? Yeah, about that. It must be. I think that’s worth celebrating… Don’t you agree, Suzan? Yes, I do actually. I think it’d be a good idea. But… er… There are one or two points I’d like to make, actually. Um… quite strongly. First is invitation only. Everyone should have an invitation, otherwise we’ll get a lot of gatecrashers. OK? Yeah, yeah. And the other thing is: everyone brings something to eat and drink, otherwise it’ll cost a fortune. And another thing. I think we should have plenty of food, otherwise it’s just going to be a drinking party. We shouldn’t depend on what our guests will bring with them. Yeah, yeah, sorry to interrupt. If we are going to have food, the thing is I want to know who is going to prepare it. I mean it’s all very well saying ‘have food’ but it’s again a lot of work and a lot of money. If I could just come in here… I’ve just got a new recipe book and I’d kind of like a chance to try out a few things, you know. So… Great! … I’ll do the food. Well, that sounds great. Marvelous. That’s lovely. Sheila, you’re being very quiet. What have you got to say? Well… er… you know… um… although it should be a lot of fun… er… I think it’s going to be a lot of work, as well. And the thing is, you see, what worries me is … er… um… What? The clearing-up afterwards. Ahh, ahh! I really detest clearing-up. So if we get that sorted out… Well, let’s see now. I think I’ve got quite a good idea to solve that one. Mm? 171

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Ann:

If we wait till the very end, there’s going to be a few people left over and we can ask them to do the cleaning-up before they go home. Cherlie: Great!

5.2. PRESENTATION: hesitating. Hesitation is a natural part of using a language – both for those learning English and for native speakers. The worst way to hesitate is with silence. Here are some useful hesitation devices: um… er … actually… in fact… you see… you know…

the thing is … how shall I put it … let’s see now… it’s like this, you see … sort of… the… a… to…

5.3. PRACTICE Give a one-minute totally unprepared talk to the class on one of these subjects. Choose the subject you know least about: Babies breakfast trees coffee electricity the Sun vegetarianism classical music the Queen of England

the Moon

The best way to start is: – Well, I’ve been asked to talk about …

5.4. PRESENTATION: preventing interruptions and interrupting politely. Even if you pride yourself of being a good listener, there will be times when you want to keep talking and not be interrupted. Here are some useful techniques to make sure you continue to hold the floor and are not interrupted: – these are two points I’d like to make … 172

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– although… – and another thing … To interrupt: – If I could just come in here … – Sorry to interrupt, but… – I’d just like to say that… – By the way … – That reminds me …

5.5. PRESENTATION: bringing in other people. Actually you probably don’t want appear to dominate people all the time. You may want to hear other people’s views and make sure everyone gets chance to speak in a conversation. In a conversation we use some methods of asking opinions: – Don’t you agree, John? – What do you think, John? – You are very quiet, John. – I expect John will agree with me when I say… – John’s looking skeptical. – I don’t know what John thinks, but… – I think John knows more about this than I do. Decide what the effect of each of these techniques would be.

HERE IS WHAT SOME FAMOUS PEOPLE THOUGHT ABOUT BOOKS: Abraham Lincoln: People who like this sort of thing will find this the sort of thing they like. Albert Camus: After all manner of professors have done their best for us, the place we are to get knowledge is in books. The true university of these days is a collection of books. 173

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Amy Lowell: For books are more than books, they are the life The very heart and core of ages past, The reason why men lived and worked and died, The essence and quintessence of their lives. Ann Richards: I have a real soft spot in my heart for librarians and people who care about books. Barbara Tuchman: Books are the carriers of civilization. Without books, history is silent, literature dumb, science crippled, thought and speculation at a standstill. Bertrand Russell: There are two motives for reading a book: one, that you enjoy it; the other, that you can boast about it. Cicero: A room without books is like a body without a soul. Daniel J. Boorstein: A wonderful thing about a book, in contrast to a computer screen, is that you can take it to bed with you. Elizabeth Hardwick: The greatest gift is a passion for reading. It is cheap, it consoles, it distracts, it excites, it gives you the knowledge of the world and experience of a wide kind. It is a moral illumination. Henry G. Strauss: I have every sympathy with the American who was so horrified by what he had read about the effects of smoking that he gave up reading. Kathleen Norris: Just the knowledge that a good book is awaiting one at the end of a long day makes that day happier. 174

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Lady Mary Wortley Montagu: No entertainment is so cheap as reading, nor any pleasure so lasting. Mark Twain: Good friends, good books and a sleepy conscience: this is the ideal life. Mortimer Adler: Reading is a basic tool in the living of a good life. Ralph Waldo Emerson: Some books leave us free and some books make us free. Theodore Parker: The books that help you most are those which make you think the most. The hardest way of learning is that of easy reading; but a great book that comes from a great thinker is a ship of thought, deep freighted with truth and beauty. Thomas Jefferson: A lawyer without books would be like a workman without tools.

READING, HEARING AND RESPONSE JOKES and LAUGHTER *** A man met another in a hotel lobby. Feeling that he was acquainted with him, but not remembering who he was, the man held out his hand and said: “I am sure I have met you somewhere.” – “No doubt,” was the reply, “I have been there often.” *** The manager of an hotel, finding that a guest had departed without paying his hotel bill, wrote him: “My dear sir, will you please send the amount of your bill, and oblige,” etc. To this Mr. Smith wrote politely: “My dear Mr. Manager. The amount of my bill is a hundred and ten dollars. Yours respectfully.”

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*** – “But,” protested the vacationer, “your advertisement states that the hotel is only five minutes from the station. It took me nearly an hour to reach here.” – “Ah,” said the boarding-house keeper, “you've been walking. We don't mean pedestrians.” *** – My name is Justin Brax. Who are you? – Well, my name is well-known. You could see me in movies – Where do you usually sit there?

SITUATION PRACTICE FUNCTIONS – OFFERING TO DO SOMETHING. ASKING PERMISSION. GIVING REASONS. 6.1. SAMPLE CONVERSATION Richard: Well, that was delicious! Thanks very much indeed … I didn’t know , you are a really good cook, aren’t you? Jane: Thank you. Richard: If you like, I could do the washing-up. Jane: No, don’t bother, I can do it myself later. Richard: Alright … er … do you mind if I smoke? Jane: Yes, go ahead! Richard: Oh, can I offer you a cigarette? Jane: No, thank you. I’ve given up, you know. Richard: Er… oh look, it’s alright – I’ve tried it lots of times. When did you give up smoking? Jane: It’s ten days ago. Haven’t had one since. Richard: Well, you really don’t mind if I have one? Jane: Well, alright, then… Oh, my goodness! That’s a terrible cough! Richard: No, no, it’s not serious. I’d better drink the tea left in my cap. I only get such a cough first thing in the morning. 176

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Jane:

That’s going to make you very unfit, you know. Don’t you think it might be an idea to see a doctor? I thought I might …

Richard: No, it’s alright… it just… it goes in a minute… ah… Jane: Why don’t you try and give up? Richard: Oh, no. I ought to… I can’t… Relaxes me, smoking. Jane: Really? Richard: Mm, it does. Jane: Well, have you ever thought of just cutting down? Richard: Oh, no, that’s all very well, but… er… I wouldn’t enjoy it. I depend a bit on my smoking, I must say. Jane: You could do it gradually. I mean… well, if you tried… have you thought of just giving up one every day? Richard: Yes, oh well, yes, that is quite a good idea. Jane: It is? Richard: … but I think I’d lose count or something Jane: Oh dear. Well… well, it might be an idea if you started eating sweets. Richard: Oh, no, I couldn’t do that… wouldn’t possibly. Jane: Why? Richard: Well, it makes you fat… sweets. Jane: Well, do you think that matters? Don’t you think it’s better to be fat than to be unhealthy? Richard: No, I don’t. I’d rather be fa… I’d rather be thin than fat, certainly. Jane: Oh dear… oh dear… well… Richard: Anyway. Jane: Hey! I’ve got a great idea! Richard: What’s that? Jane: Why don’t you go to a hypnotist? My sister did. Richard: Oh… look, you don’t seem to realize that … that I like smoking. If I gave it up, if I didn’t smoke at all, I’d probably end up attacking people. Jane: Oh, don’t be so silly! Of course you wouldn’t. 177

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6.2. PRESENTATION: offering to do something. When something needs to be done you can ask someone else to do it or offer to do it yourself. If someone else is doing something you can offer a help. Here are some useful ways of offering to do something: – Let me get it for you. – Shall I get it for you? – Any point in my getting it for you? – How about my getting it for you? – Would you like me to get it for you? – If you like I could get it for you. – Can I help you with that? We might accept such offers with answers like: – That’s very kind of you, thanks. – Oh, would you? Thanks. – Thanks a lot. Or refuse them by saying: – No, don’t bother, I can do it myself. – No, it’s alright, I can manage. – Thanks very much, but it’s alright, really. Decide when you can use each of these expressions.

6.3. PRESENTATION: asking permission. Sometimes you need to do more than just offer to do something. You may need to ask permission to make sure you are allowed to do it. The expressions to use depend on: A. The type of task you ask to do and the trouble you may have asking permission to do it. B. Who you are, who you are talking to, the role you are playing and your relationship. Here are some useful ways of asking permission. The expressions get more and more polite as you go down the list. – I’m going to… – I thought I might … – I’d like to… – All right if I …? 178

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– Anyone mind if I…? – Would you mind if I…? – Is it all right if I…? – Would it be all right if I …? – I wonder if I could possibly…? – I hope you don’t mind but would it be at all possible for me to…? We tend to give permission like: – OK – Yes, go ahead – Yes, I suppose so – Oh, well, all right Or refuse permission like this: – That’s not a very good idea – No, please don’t – I’d rather you didn’t, if you don’t mind – I’m sorry, but that’s not possible

6.4. PRESENTATION: giving reasons. When you ask someone for permission he or she is likely to ask you why. Here are some useful ways of explaining your reasons. – Well, you see… – The reason is… – My reason for asking is this,,, – It’s because… – It’s rather complicated, but you see… – And that’s why I’d like to… – And that’s my reason for asking if I can… Decide how you’ll give reasons using these phrases. Imagine that you borrow things from your friend. What would you say?

6.5. PATTERN CONVERSATION A: Would it be all right if I left the room for a moment? You see, I have to make a phone call. B: I’d rather you didn’t, if you don’t mind. You see, this is a very important part of the lesson. 179

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ANIMALS AROUND US Animals need help. (1) Earth is in danger. People have lived on our planet for many years. They lived and live on different continents, in different countries. People depend on their planet, on the sun, on animals and plants around them. People must take care of Earth. Our ecology becomes worse and worse with every new day. Many species of animals and birds are disappearing nowadays. People destruct wildlife, cut down trees to make furniture. They forget that people can’t live without trees and plants, because they fill air with oxygen. (2) And, of course, great problems are population and animal destruction. The main reason of pollution is rubbish. Most of our rubbish goes to big holes in the ground, called ‘dumps’. But dumps are very dangerous for our life ‘cause they are full of rats, which can carry infections away from dumps. Another way to get rid of rubbish is to burn it. But the fires make poisons, which go into the air and pollute it. But pollution isn’t the only actual problem. Every day a big number of animals disappear. People kill animals for different aims: e.g. people hunt whales for their meat and oil; elephants for their tusks (бивни), crocodiles for their leather and so on. And also animals are used for medical experiments. The most wide–speared from such animals are monkeys. Modern life is bad for animals, birds, fish. The air isn’t fresh and the water isn’t pure. They don’t have good meal and facilities for the life. You can find their names in the Red Book. (3) Of course, people can’t stay indifferent to these problems. There are a lot of special organizations, which try to save our nature. The most known are: The Royal Society for the prevention of cruelty to animals (The RSPCA), the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and Greenpeace. The RSPCA tries to protect animals from bad use. It operates big nation campaigns aimed at lost pets, circus animals. The WWF rescued several 180

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species of animals, mammals as well as birds. These organizations also helped to create more than 250 National parks. Greenpeace began its work 20 years ago from saving whales. And now Greenpeace is a world-famous organization, which saves plants, animals and people. These organization, want to rescue animals, to help them to survive and to save jungle rain forests, which are in danger of destruction. And they also help animals ‘cause many of them have already gone as they have nowhere to live. Their homes, the trees, have disappeared. We must save wild animals. And we must find the right way to save land, people and animals. We must lake care of nature, because we are part of it.

READING, HEARING AND RESPONSE JOKES and LAUGHTER *** A farmer, who went to a large city to see the sights, engaged a room at a hotel and before retiring asked the clerk about the hours for meals. – “We have breakfast from 7 to 11, dinner from 12 to 3 and supper from 6 to 8,” explained the clerk. – “Look here,” inquired the farmer in surprise, “but at what time am I going to see the town?” *** Two travelers arrived at the hotel and were shown a rather dingy room. – “What does this pig-sty cost?” said one of them. The proprietor replied promptly: “For one pig-two dollars, for two pigs-three dollars.” *** The noise of all-night poker game in the hotel kept a tourist in the adjoining room from sleeping. At 3 a. m. he started to pound on the wall hoping to silence the gamblers. – “Hey,” shouted one of the gamblers, “this is a hell of time to be hanging pictures!”

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The Cat To English Dictionary

Cat Phrase

Meaning

Miaow

Feed me.

meeow

Pet me.

mrooww

I love you.

miioo oo oo

I am in love and must meet my betrothed outside beneath the hedge. Don't wait up.

mrow

I feel like making noise.

rrrow mawww

Please, the time is come to tidy the cat box.

rrrow miawww

I have remedied the cat box untidiness by shoveling the contents as far out of the box as was practical.

miaowmiaow

Play with me.

miaowmioaw

Have you noticed the shortage of available cat toys in this room?

mioawmioaw

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roww maww roww

I am so glad to see that you have returned home with both arms full of groceries. I will now rub myself against your legs and attempt to trip you as you walk towards the kitchen.

mmeww

I believe I have heard a burglar. If you would like to go and beat him senseless, I shall be happy to keep your spot in the bed warm.

iieee iieee

LOOK! There is a little bug on the ceiling!

gakk ak ak

My digestive passages seem to have formed a hairball. Wherever could this have come from? I shall leave it here upon the carpeting.

mow

Snuggling is a good idea.

moww

Shedding is pretty good, too.

mowww!

I was enjoying snuggling and shedding in the warm clean laundry until you removed me so unkindly.

miaow! miaow!

I have discovered that, although one may be able to wedge one's body through the gap behind the stove and into that little drawer filled with pots and pans, the reverse path is slightly more difficult to navigate.

mraakk!

Oh, small bird! Please come over here.

ssssroww!

I believe that I have found a woodchuck. I shall now act terribly brave.

mmmmmmm If I sit in the sunshine for another week or so, I think I might be satisfied.

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MY PET Most people like animals. They keep animals at home as pets. Pets may be different. People like dogs and cats, birds and hamsters, rabbi and hedgehoge, some people even like snakes. But you can’t keep any animals as a pet even if you like him very much. Can a crocodile make a good pet? Or a lion, or a tiger, or a bear? You may love them, but will they love you? Some day when they are big they may become dangerous. As for me, I prefer dogs. They are so clever and truthful. When they look at you with their beautiful eyes it seems to you that they understand you but can’t talk. People teach dogs to understand commands, to do some tricks. And it think dogs teach people to be kinder, to think of others. People change for better when they keep pets. Sure, pets need much care. You must keep the place where they sleep and eat tidy and clean, you must give them three meals a day. Dogs need more attention and care than cats. You must take then for walks at least two times a day. I have a dog as a pet. His name is Ret. I like him very much. I bought him. My dog is kind . He has a black nose, brown and black fur. My dog is pedigree. He likes to bathe. Ret enjoys Chappi and bones. I go for a walk with Ret. My father helps me to take care of the dog. I like Ret very much. Ret is a very big dog. He lives in the dog house . We like Ret.

SITUATION PRACTICE FUNCTIONS – GIVING OPINIONS. AGREEING AND DISAGREEING. DISCUSSING. 7.1. SAMPLE CONVERSATION Bob:

Now, I’d just like to say that I think that… er… this government proposing to build more nuclear power stations in the country is … really being stupid. Um… the point about nuclear power is 184

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Liz:

Bob: Richard: Bob: Richard: Bob:

Liz: Bob: Richard: Bob:

Richard: Liz:

Bob: Liz:

that we haven’t learned to do… er… away with the rest. We haven’t learnt to cope with the waste of it yet. Well, I sometimes think that, you know, they’ve got an impossible job. I mean… I mean all the impression I get is that there is no alternative – that’s the impression I get. No, no, no I… I… I don’t agree with that at… at all. There’s plenty of alternatives. There’s the Sun – solar power … um… Um… um… excuse… … that is a source that is always there, we always have it. I don’t quite see what you are getting at, actually – ‘solar power’ – what’s that? Well, the heat from the sun, it can be used in solar panels on the tops of houses for heating … um… storing up power to heat water and to heat the houses, you know. Some places have solar panels in operation already and they are saving money. That’s a good point, actually, but is it… is it really viable, that, I mean because I’d… Surely, it must be! That’s just what I was thinking, you see. It must be. Er… and the one… er… great advantage is, that I can see, if the government set up small units to build solar panels and to install them, then it would be creating employment – which would ease the unemployment situation… terrific advantages. I… I don’t quite follow what …Where it’s all… where we are all headed anyway. I mean what… No and I’ve heard… I mean … I’ve heard that in England, I mean, there’s not enough sun, is there? For, I mean, solar panels here? Doesn’t that… Yes, well, that’s not quite true. There’s quite a big of sun – you may not feel the actual heat of it on some occasions… No, you are right there!

7.2. PRESENTATION: giving opinions. When you are taking part in discussion it is useful to have techniques up your sleeve for getting people to listen to you and to give yourself thinking time while you arrange your ideas. Here are some useful opening expressions graded according to how formal they are: 185

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If you ask me… You know what I think… I think that… The point is … I’d like to point out that…

Wouldn’t you say that… Don’t you agree that… As I see it… I just like to say that I think that…

7.3. PATTERN CONVERSATION Build conversations like that: A: How do you feel about dogs? B: Well, if you ask me, dogs are a nuisance. A: Why do you think that? B: Because they have to be taken for walks and eat a lot of food and… Speak about: Cats Women drivers Travel abroad

learning languages mobile phones children

7.4. GROUP WORK Work in groups of three. Find each other’s opinions on these subjects: Some DVD films MP3 melodies on your mobile phones Birthdays Television Holidays Sports and fitness

7.5. PRESENTATION: agreeing and disagreeing. Here are some useful ways of agreeing or disagreeing with someone’s opinion. Notice that you need to be very polite when disagreeing with someone in English – even with someone you know quite well. Agreement: I couldn’t agree more That’s just what I was thinking You know, that’s exactly what I think I agree entirely That’s good point Disagreement: Yes, that’s quite true, but… I’m not sure I quite agree. 186

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Well, you have a point there, but… Perhaps, but don’t you know that… I see what you mean, that… If you know someone very well you can disagree more directly, using expressions like these: – I can’t agree with you there – You can’t be serious – Come off it – Don’t be so silly Here is a series of extreme opinions you may want to criticize expressing your disagreement: 1) Learning English is pointless 2) Britain is unpleasant to live in 3) Football is boring 4) Marriage is out of date 5) Space travel is a waste of money 6) English is a very easy language to learn.

7.6. PATTERN CONVERSATION A: It says here that learning English is pointless. B: I’m not sure I quite agree. I’d say it was very worthwhile. A: Why do you think that? B: Well, because English is a world language – you need it to communicate with people from other countries. A: That’s just what I was thinking.

7.7. PRESENTATION: discussing. In a friendly discussion you don’t want to present your opinion so strongly that you start an argument. You may want to express your opinion in a more tentative way, like this: – I sometimes think that… – Well, I’ve heard that… – Would you agree that… – Do you think it’s right to say that …

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And you may want to ask other people to express their point of view more exactly using expressions like these: – I didn’t quite follow what you were saying about… – I don’t quite see what you mean, I’m afraid. – I don’t quite see what you are getting at. And other people may not understand what you say to them. So you may need to rephrase your own statements beginning like this: – That’s not quite what I meant. – Let me put it another way. – Sorry, let me explain.

FUTURE My plans for the future 1. What activities do the young people traditionally choose after finishing school? When millions of young people leave school, they begin an independent life. Some of them start working, go into business, some of them continue schooling to receive a higher education. Young people can learn about professions in magazines and advertisements. Magazines for teenagers often offer questionnaires, quizzes or surreys to help young people to find out what their interests and abilities are more clearly and to make a decision concerning their future occupation. 2. What sources of information helped you to make a decision concerning your future occupation? While choosing a career you should take into consideration main demands that you want your future profession to meet: the profession must be interesting, you have to be sure of your future (that means that you will be able to find a job after graduation from the university), a profession must be well-paid, otherwise you won’t be able to support yourself and your future family. 188

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3. What requirements should your future job meet? During our school life we begin to think about our future life, our job. There are over 2000 professions in the world, so it is quite difficult to choose and to make a decision. Some follow their own choice and some follow their relation’s, teacher’s, parent’s advice, because they can guide them and help to make a decision concerning future plans. I have never had a question, what I am going to do when I graduate from my school. I have known from childhood that I want to be a linguist. I have chosen this profession, because knowledge of foreign languages and foreign cultures is growing in importance nowadays. Foreign languages are needed as the main and the most efficient mean of information exchange between the people of our planet. Although there are 3000 languages, English is the most universal. It is the language of progressive science and technology, trade and cultural relations, and business. It is the universal language of international aviation, shipping, sports, medicine. English is the official language in nearly forty countries. It is spoken by more than 350 million people and also spoken as a second language in many parts of India and Africa. Besides, millions of people study English as a foreign language. In our country English is very popular. It is studied at schools, colleges and universities. It is important for me to learn English because I want to know what is going on round me in the world. With recent advances in technology, the world is changing rapidly in many fields, such as business, arts and medicine. These changes will affect me soon and its important for me to read and keep up with these changes. In fact, learning English is the answer to a lot of the things that I need and want. And I can’t help mentioning the quotation: “Every man is the maker of his own fortune.”

4. How important is mastering English for your future? In conclusion I would like to say it is an advantage to choose our future career while at school. It gives us a goal to work towards and enables us to choose a right, suitable course of study. I’d like to mention also that if we don’t think about our future, nobody will think for us, so we just can’t have one. We must work hard to achieve our ambitions and to realize our wishes, because future is purchased by the present.

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Some future problems: Population Fears Scientists now predict that by the year 2050 the population will be doubled what is today. The fact remains that the rate of food production fell behind population growth in many of developing countries. The annual fish catch already exceeds what the world ‘s oceans can successfully sustain. If we go on using our natural recourses at today’s rates, we will have used up the entire reserves of cooper, natural gas and oil by the year 2054. But the problems ahead lie not so much in what we use but in what we waste. What faces us is not so much a recourse crisis but rather a pollution crisis. The only solution is to try to change the areas of consumption, technology and population. Changes in technology must be baked by slower population growth. And it can be achieved by education in health and women’s rights. And there is a little hope of reducing consumption over the next half century.

READING, HEARING AND RESPONSE JOKES and LAUGHTER MIRACLES OF TRANSLATION I have been there. – У меня там фасоль. God only knows. – Единственный нос Бога. We are the champions. – Мы - шампиньоны. Do you feel alright? – Ты справа всех чувствуешь? Bye bye, baby, baby, good bye. – Купи, купи ребенка, ребенок – хорошая покупка. To be or not to be? – Пчела или не пчела? I fell in love. – Я свалился в любовь. I will never give up. – Меня никогда не стошнит. I saw my honey today. – Я пилил мой мед сегодня. I'm going to make you mine. – Я иду копать тебе шахту. 190

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May God be with you! – Майская хорошая пчелка с тобой! Let's have a party. – Давайте организуем партию. Watch out! – Посмотри снаружи! I know his story well. – Я знаю его исторический колодец.

SITUATION PRACTICE FUNCTIONS – TALKING ABOUT THE FUTURE. 8.1. SAMPLE CONVERSATION Richard: Hello, Bob! Bob: Hello, Richard! Richard: How are you? Bob: All right, and you? Richard: Fine, thanks. Bob: Good. Richard: Bit fed up with this weather. Bob: Oh, yes, yes. Richard: You,,, er… taking a holiday this year. Bob: Er… yes, I’m hoping to take three weeks in May and then have another three weeks later on in this year – September, possibly. Richard: Good, good, good. Do you think you’ll be going away or staying at home? Bob: Oh, I don’t think I’ll go away in May. I doubt if I’ll have enough money saved up by then. Richard: What about in September? Bob: Oh, yes, I’m definitely going abroad then – if I can afford it. I haven’t quite made up my mind where though. Greece – may be. Or Spain – Italy. Bound to be hot and sunny out there. Richard: Yes. Suppose you… er… couldn’t afford it? Bob: Oh… er… I expect I’d stay at home and just have days out at the coast or in the country, you know. 191

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Richard: Just supposing you had all the money in the world, where would you go? Bob: Oh… I… yes, I think I’d go to Canada. Yes, I’ve always wanted to go there. Richard: Marvelous! Bob: Well… how about you? Do you think you’ll go abroad this year? Richard: Yes, booked up already. We’re going to Norway in August… going walking. Bob: Really? Oh, what’s the weather like out there at that time of year? Richard: Oh, you never know with Norway. I wouldn’t be surprised if it rained.

8.2. PRESENTATION: stating intentions. Nothing is totally certain about the future. We can try to foresee events. We can make plans or we can state our intentions but we can never be sure what will actually happen. Here are some ways of stating intentions or showing how firmly we intend to do something. They are all phrased as answers to the question: Are you going to…? – Yes, definitely. – Nothing is going to stop me doing it. – I’m certainly to… That’s for sure. – Yes, probably. – I think I’ll. – I may well… – I’m hoping to… – Perhaps. – I’m thinking of doing. – I thought I might… – I haven’t made up my mind whether to… – No, probably not. – I don’t think I’ll… – I am not really planning to… – No, definitely not. 192

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– I’m certainly not going to… – I’m not going to … if I can help it. Decide how you might use these expressions when talking about your plans for this evening.

8.3. PRACTICE Make a list of 5–7 cities. Decide how firmly you intend to visit or don’t intend to visit them in the next few years. Ask each other questions like: Why? Why not? Why aren’t you sure?

8.4. PRESENTATION: discussing probability. Often we have no control at all over what will happen. But we can try to judge whether something is likely to happen or not. We can even claim to be totally certain. Here are some ways of stating probability. They are all phrases to answer to the question: Do you think it will…? Yes, definitely

Of course it will It’s sure to It’s bound to

Yes, probably

I expect it’ll I wouldn’t be surprised if it …-ed I bet it’ll

Perhaps

There’s a chance it’ll It might possibly I suppose it might

No, probably not

I doubt if it’ll I don’t think it’ll There’s not much chance of it …-ing

No, definitely not

Of course it won’t There’s no chance of it … -ing I’m absolutely sure it won’t 193

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8.5. PRACTICE Work in small groups. Decide on your own personal plans for the next few days and your ambitions. Compare them with your partner’s plans and ambitions.

8.6. WRITTEN WORK 1) Write a letter to a friend describing your plans for your next holiday. 2) Write a description of the world at some time in the future. 3) If you become president of your country one day what changes would you make?

8.7. PRESENTATION: considering ‘what if?’ Here are some ways of encouraging someone to daydream: – Just imagine if you became a millionaire – Suppose you came to a lot of money – Just supposing you won the football pools If we are talking about the possible future events we normally say, for example: – If you pass the exam, how will you feel? – Oh, I suppose I’d be pretty pleased.

8.8. PATTERN CONVERSATION – Suppose you got a pay rise tomorrow, how would you feel? – Oh, I expect I’d feel very happy indeed. – I think I would too.

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Английские фразы и выражения для разговорной практики (Тематика повседневного общения)

Meeting and greeting people How do you do?

Здравствуйте.

Good morning.

Доброе утро,

Good afternoon.

Добрый день.

Good evening.

Добрый вечер.

Hello.

Здравствуй, привет.

Let me introduce you.

Разрешите мне Вас представить.

Let me introduce myself.

Разрешите представиться.

Let me introduce my friend (wife, husband) to you.

Разрешите представить моего друга (жену, мужа).

May I introduce my fellowstudent (colleague, cousin)?

Разрешите представить моего однокурсника (коллегу, двоюродного брата).

How are you?

Как поживаете?

How's your sister (brother, etc.)?

Как поживает Ваша сестра (брат)?

How are your parents?

Как поживают ваши родители?

Quite well, thank you.

Хорошо, благодарю.

Fine, thanks.

Прекрасно, спасибо.

Not very well.

He очень хорошо.

So-so.

Так себе.

She (he) is ill.

Она (он) больна. 195

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Who is this?

Кто это? (Как его зовут?)

Who is she (he)?

Кто она (он)?

What's your name?

Как Вас зовут?

What's your surname?

Как Ваша фамилия?

What are you?

Кто Вы? (о профессии)

What is your mother (father, friend)?

Чем занимается Ваша мать (отец, друг)?

Happy to have met you.

Очень рад был с Вами познакомиться.

Hope to see you again.

Надеюсь снова увидеться с Вами.

It's been nice to meet you.

Было приятно познакомиться с Вами.

Good-bye.

До свидания.

So long. (Bye-bye, Cheerio.)

Покa.

Seeing you soon. (See you later.)

До скорой встречи.

All the best.

Всего хорошего.

Occupation and Job what do you do?

чем ты занимаешься?

what do you do for a living?

чем ты зарабатываешь на жизнь?

what sort of work do you do?

какую работу ты выполняешь?

what line of work are you in?

в какой области ты работаешь?

I'm a ...

я ...

teacher

учитель

student

студент

doctor

врач 196

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I work as a ...

я работаю ...

journalist

журналистом

programmer

программистом

I work in ...

я работаю ...

television

на телевидении

publishing

в издательстве

PR (public relations)

по связям с общественностью

sales

в торговле

IT

в области инфотехнологий

I work with ...

я работаю ...

computers

с компьютерами

children with disabilities

с детьми-инвалидами

I stay at home and look after the children

я сижу дома и воспитываю детей

I'm a housewife

я домохозяйка

I've got a part-time job

я подрабатываю

I've got a full-time job

я работаю

I'm ...

я ...

unemployed

безработный(ая)

out of work

уволился (уволилась)

looking for work

ищу подработку

looking for a job

ищу работу

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I'm not working at the moment

я сейчас нигде не работаю

I've been made redundant

меня сократили

I was made redundant two months ago

меня сократили два месяца назад

I do some voluntary work

я выполняю волонтерскую работу

I'm retired

я на пенсии

what are you up to?

чем занимаешься?

what have you been up to?

чем занимался?

working a lot

много работал

studying a lot

много учился

I've been very busy

я был очень занят

same as usual

тем же, чем обычно

not much или not a lot

ничем особенным

I've just come back from ...

я только что вернулся из ...

Portugal

Португалии

who do you work for?

на кого ты работаешь?

I work for ...

я работаю на ...

a publishers

издательство

an investment bank

инвестиционный банк

the council

горуправу

I'm self-employed

я работаю на себя

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I work for myself

я работаю на себя

I have my own business

у меня своё собственное дело

I'm a partner in ...

я сотрудничаю с ...

a law firm

юридической фирмой

an accountancy practice

бухгалтерской конторой

an estate agents

агентами по недвижимости

I've just started at ...

я недавно начал работать в ...

IBM

IBM

University are you a student?

ты студент?

what do you study?

что ты изучаешь?

I'm studying ...

я изучаю ...

history

историю

economics

экономику

medicine

медицину

where do you study?

где ты учишься?

which university are you at?

в каком университете ты учишься?

what university do you go to?

в каком университете ты учишься?

I'm at ...

я учусь ...

Liverpool University

в Ливерпульском университете

which year are you in?

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I'm in my ... year

я на ... курсе

first

первом

second

втором

third

третьем

final

последнем

I'm in my first year at university

я учусь на первом курсе в университете

do you have any exams coming up?

у тебя будут скоро экзамены?

I've just graduated

я недавно закончил

I'm doing a masters in ...

я в магистратуре по ...

law

юриспруденции

I'm doing a PhD in ...

я в докторантуре по ...

chemistry

химии

did you go to university?

ты учился в университете?

I didn't go to university

я не учился в университете

I never went to university

я никогда не учился в университете

where did you go to university?

где ты учился в университете?

I went to ...

я учился в ...

Cambridge

Кембридже

what did you study?

что ты изучал?

I studied ...

я изучал ...

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maths

математику

politics

политологию

I'm training to be ...

я прохожу обучение, чтобы стать ...

an engineer

инженером

a nurse

медсестрой

I'm a trainee ...

я стажёр-...

engineer

инженер

mechanic

механик

I'm on a course at the moment

я сейчас прохожу обучение

I'm on work experience

я прохожу практику (короткий период)

I'm doing an internship

я прохожу практику (более долгий период)

Future plans I don't like ...

мне не нравится ...

him

он

her

она

it

это

do you have any plans for the summer?

у тебя есть планы на лето?

what are you doing for ...?

что ты делаешь на ...?

Christmas

Рождество

New Year

Новый год

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Easter

Пасху

how many more years do you have to go?

сколько лет тебе еще учиться?

what do you want to do when you've finished?

что ты собираешься делать, когда закончишь?

get a job

устроиться на работу

go travelling

путешествовать

I don't know what I want to do after university

я не знаю, что буду делать после университета

CV (curriculum vitae) Name

имя

Address

адрес

Telephone number

телефонный номер

Email address

адрес электронной почты

Date of birth

дата рождения

Nationality

национальность

Marital status

семейное положение

Career objective

предположительный карьерный рост

Education

образование

Qualifications

качества

Employment history

история трудоустройства

Leisure interests

интересы

Referees

поручители

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Travelling where's the ticket office?

где находятся кассы?

where do I get the ... to Southampton from?

откуда отправляется ... на Саусэмптон?

bus

автобус

train

поезд

ferry

паром

what time's the next ... to Portsmouth?

во сколько следующий ... на Портмут?

bus

автобус

train

поезд

ferry

паром

this ... has been cancelled

этот ... отменили

bus

автобус

train

поезд

flight

рейс (вылет)

ferry

паром

this ... has been delayed

этот ... задерживается

bus

автобус

train

поезд

flight

рейс (вылет)

ferry

паром

have you ever been to ...?

ты когда-нибудь был в ...?

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Italy

Италии

yes, I went there on holiday

да, я ездил туда в отпуск

no, I've never been there

нет, я никогда там не был

I've never been, but I'd love to go someday

никогда там не был, но очень хочу съездить

Emergency call an ambulance!

вызовите «скорую помощь»!

I need a doctor

мне нужен доктор

there's been an accident

произошел несчастный случай

please hurry!

пожалуйста, поторопитесь!

I've cut myself

я порезался

I've burnt myself

я обжегся

are you OK?

вы в порядке?

is everyone OK?

все в порядке?

Thanks and apologies thanks for your ...

спасибо за ...

help

помощь

hospitality

гостепреимство

email

имейл

I'm sorry

извините

I'm really sorry

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sorry I'm late

извините за опоздание

sorry to keep you waiting

прошу прощения за задержку

sorry for the delay

извините за задержку

Instructions come in!

войдите!

please sit down

садитесь, пожалуйста

could I have your attention, please?

пожалуйста, внимание!

let's go!

пойдемте!

hurry up!

поторопись!

get a move on!

пошевеливайся!

calm down

успокойся

steady on!

осторожнее!

hang on a second

подожди секундочку

hang on a minute

подожди минутку

one moment, please

один момент, пожалуйста

just a minute

одну минутку

take your time

не торопись

please be quiet

пожалуйста, успокойтесь

shut up!

замолчи!

stop it!

прекрати!

don't worry

не волнуйся 205

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don't forget

не забудь

help yourself

угощайся

go ahead

давай

let me know!

сообщи мне!

Common Questions where are you?

где вы?

what's this?

что это здесь?

what's that?

что это там?

what's this called?

как это называется?

is anything wrong?

что-то не так?

what's the matter?

в чем дело?

is everything OK?

все в порядке?

have you got a minute?

у тебя есть свободная минутка?

have you got a pen I could borrow?

можно одолжить ручку?

really?

правда?

are you sure?

ты уверен?

why?

почему?

why not?

почему бы и нет?

what's going on?

что происходит? 206

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what's happening?

что происходит?

what happened?

что случилось?

what?

что?

where?

где?

when?

когда?

who?

кто?

how?

как?

Phrases used frequently OK

ладно

of course

конечно

of course not

конечно, нет

that's fine

хорошо

that's right

точно

sure

конечно

certainly

непременно

definitely

определенно

absolutely

безусловно

as soon as possible

как можно быстрее

that's enough

достаточно

it doesn't matter

это не важно

it's not important

это не важно 207

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it's not serious

это не серьезно

it's not worth it

это того не стоит

I'm in a hurry

я тороплюсь

I've got to go

мне нужно идти

I'm going out

я собираюсь прогуляться

sleep well

спи хорошо

same to you!

и тебе того же!

me too

я (мне) тоже

not bad

неплохо

I like ...

мне нравится ...

him

он

her

она

it

это

Difficult situations I'm lost

я заблудился

we're lost

мы заблудились

I can't find my ...

я не могу найти ...

keys

мои ключи

passport

мой паспорт

mobile

мой мобильный телефон

I've lost my ...

я потерял ... 208

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wallet

мой кошелек

purse

мой бумажник

camera

мой фотоаппарат

I've locked myself out of my ...

моя ... закрылась, а ключи внутри

car

машина

room

комната

please leave me alone

пожалуйста, оставьте меня в покое

go away!

уйдите!

help!

помогите!

be careful!

будьте осторожны!

look out! или watch out!

осторожно!

please help me

пожалуйста, помогитe мне

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GLOSSARY

Assembler – A nano-robotic device controlled by an onboard computer that can use available chemicals to manufacture nanoscale products. It has been proposed that advanced designs could communicate, cooperate, and maneuver to build macroscale products. Assemblers are much more complex, and probably less efficient, than fabricators. Bio-barcode – Biobarcode enables the detection of proteins in specimens with sensitivity several orders of magnitude greater than is possible with current leading technologies. Biochemical processes – Chemical processes occurring in living organisms. Biochemistry – Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes in living organisms, including, but not limited to, living matter. Biochemistry governs all living organisms and living processes. Biological sensors – A biosensor is an analytical device for the detection of an analyte that combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector component. Biomaterial – is any matter, surface, or construct that interacts with biological systems. Black box – In science and engineering, a black box is a device, system or object which can be viewed solely in terms of its input, output and transfer characteristics without any knowledge of its internal workings. Blockage – an act or instance of obstructing : the state of being blocked.

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Bond length – is related to bond order, when more electrons participate in bond formation the bond will get shorter. Bottom-up Approach – Bottom-up, or self-assembly, approaches to nanofabrication use chemical or physical forces operating at the nanoscale to assemble basic units into larger structures. As component size decreases in nanofabrication, bottom-up approaches provide an increasingly important complement to top-down techniques. Inspiration for bottom-up approaches comes from biological systems, where nature has harnessed chemical forces to create essentially all the structures needed by life. Researchers hope to replicate nature’s ability to produce small clusters of specific atoms, which can then self-assemble into more-elaborate structures. Catalyst – a substance that enables a chemical reaction to proceed at a usually faster rate or under different conditions (as at a lower temperature) than otherwise possible. CFD – Computational fluid dynamics, usually abbreviated as CFD, is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical methods and algorithms to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows. Computers are used to perform the calculations required to simulate the interaction of liquids and gases with surfaces defined by boundary conditions. Cellular proteins – proteins are essential parts of organisms and participate in virtually every process within cells. Cellular replication – The manner in which cells replicate differs with various classes of life forms, as well with the end purpose of the cell replication. Conventional manufacturing – is a collection of material-working processes in which power-driven machine tools, such as saws, lathes, milling machines, and drill presses, are used with a sharp cutting tool to mechanically cut the material to achieve the desired geometry. Durability – is the ability to endure. Energy conversion – Energy conversion is the process of transforming energy from one form into another. 211

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Enzymes – Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. Enzyme-substrate interaction – the binding of the substrate to the enzyme causes changes in the distribution of electrons in the chemical bonds of the substrate and ultimately causes the reactions that lead to the formation of products. Fabricator – A small nano-robotic device that can use supplied chemicals to manufacture nanoscale products under external control. Fabricators could work together to build macroscale products by convergent assembly. Similar to assemblers, but less complex, easier to build, and probably more efficient. Fossil fuel – Fossil fuels are fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms. The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes exceeds 650 million years. Humanistic Theories – The focus of the humanistic perspective is on the self, which translates into “YOU”, and “your” perception of “your” experiences. This veiw argues that you are free to choose your own behavior, rather than reacting to environmental stimuli and reinforcers. Issues dealing with self-esteem, self-fulfillment, and needs are paramount. The major focus is to facilitate personal development. Two major theorists associated with this view are Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow. Incurable diseases – The list of the incurable diseases is rather big. AIDS, cancer and avian flu are only three of this big list but they are not less serious than others. Inkjet Printer – is a type of computer printer that creates a digital image by propelling droplets of ink onto paper. Inkjet printers are the most commonly used type of printer and range from small inexpensive consumer models to very large professional machines, that can cost up to thousands of dollars. In-vivo – In vivo (Latin for “within the living”) is experimentation using a whole, living organism as opposed to a partial or dead organism, or 212

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an in vitro (“within the glass”, i.e., in a test tube or petri dish) controlled environment. Malignant cells – Malignant cells are tumor-cells that are capable of invading and growing into nearby tissues and organs, or spreading through the lymphatic fluid or blood and depositing in other areas of the body (known as metastasis). Molecular complementarity – it creates the coupling necessary for non-equilibrium systems to form. It stabilizes aggregates against degradation. Molecular recognition – this term refers to the specific interaction between two or more molecules through noncovalent bonding, such as hydrogen bonding, metal coordination, hydrophobic forces, van der Waals forces, electrostatic and/or electromagnetic effects. The host and guest involved in molecular recognition exhibit molecular complementarity. Nanodevices – are the critical enablers that will allow mankind to exploit the ultimate technological capabilities of electronic, magnetic, mechanical, and biological systems. The best examples of nanodevices at present are clearly associated with the information technology industry. Nanodevices will ultimately have an enormous impact on our ability to enhance energy conversion, control pollution, produce food, and improve human health and longevity. Nanoelectronics – Nanoelectronics refer to the use of nanotechnology on electronic components, especially transistors. Nanoionics – is the study and application of phenomena, properties, effects and mechanisms of processes connected with fast ion transport (FIT) in all-solid-state nanoscale systems. Nanomachines – are devices built from individual atoms. Nanomechanics – is a branch ofnanoscience studying fundamental mechanical (elastic, thermal and kinetic) properties of physical systems at the nanometer scale. 213

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Nanotechnological world – There is a whole new world at the nanoscale that's revealed by electron microscope, and with scanning microscopes we even can now move individual atoms. Nanotechnology – the science of manipulating materials on an atomic or molecular scale especially to build microscopic devices (as robots). Optimization – In mathematics and computational science, mathematical optimization (alternatively, optimization or mathematical programming) refers to the selection of a best element from some set of available alternatives. In the simplest case, this means solving problems in which one seeks to minimize or maximize a real function by systematically choosing the values of real or integer variables from within an allowed set. Pharmaceuticals – pharmaceutical drugs, also referred to as medicine, medication or medicament, can be loosely defined as any chemical substance intended for use in the medical diagnosis, cure, treatment, or prevention of disease. Photolithography – Photolithography (or “optical lithography”) is a process used in microfabrication to selectively remove parts of a thin film or the bulk of a substrate. It uses light to transfer a geometric pattern from a photo mask to a light-sensitive chemical “photoresist”, or simply “resist,” on the substrate. Plug-and-play modules – plug and play is a term used to describe the characteristic of a computer bus, or device specification, which facilitates the discovery of a hardware component in a system, without the need for physical device configuration, or user intervention in resolving resource conflicts. Quantum realm – is a term of art in physics referring to scales, where quantum mechanical effects become important. Quantum size effect – (solid-state physics) Unusual properties of extremely small crystals that arise from confinement of electrons to small regions of space in one, two, or three dimensions. 214

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Random Search – : Random search (RS) is a family of numerical optimization methods that do not require the gradient of the problem to be optimized and RS can hence be used on functions that are not continuous or differentiable. Such optimization methods are also known as direct-search, derivative-free, or black-box methods. Research and Development phase – more often R&D, refers to creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications. Scale-up experience – Applied process design should be a scale-up experience from the bench to full commercial scale. Scale-up problems – Successful scale-up means a shortened cycle to full-scale production, competitive advantage, and cost savings. Self-assembly – the process by which a complex macromolecule (as collagen) or a supramolecular system (as a virus) spontaneously assembles itself from its components. Self-replication – is any behavior of a dynamical system that yields construction of an identical copy of that dynamical system. Simulation tools – They are designed to work together to create continuous and discrete event simulations with fast, interactive graphics. Supramolecular assembly – or “supermolecule” is a well defined complex of molecules held together by noncovalent bonds. The dimensions of supramolecular assemblies can range from nanometers to micrometers. Thus they allow access to nanoscale objects using a bottom-up approach in far fewer steps than a single molecule of similar dimensions. Supramolecular chemistry – Supramolecular chemistry refers to the area of chemistry beyond the molecules and focuses on the chemical systems made up of a discrete number of assembled molecular subunits or components. Synthetic chemistry – the formation or building up of complex compounds by uniting the more simple ones. 215

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Tele-transportation – Teleportation is a term that refers to a number of theories and notions concerning the transfer of matter, energy or information between two places without it having to traverse the distance between them by conventional means; similar to the concept apport, an earlier word used in the context of spiritualism. In the sense in which it is widely used in works of science fiction and fantasy to mean the transference of matter, and even live organisms, over long distances instantaneously, teleportation is not considered possible in reality. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teleportation - cite_note-0 Therapeutics – In a broad sense therapeutics means serving and caring for the patient in a comprehensive manner, preventing disease as well as managing specific problems. Thermal noise – The noise generated by thermal agitation of electrons in a conductor. Top-Down Approach – is essentially the breaking down of a system to gain insight into its compositional sub-systems. Toxic chemicals – Chemical toxicants that include inorganic substances such as lead, mercury, asbestos, hydrofluoric acid, and chlorine gas, organic compounds such as methyl alcohol, most medications, and poisons from living things.

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Сборник дополнительных текстов для индивидуальной работы

Текст 1. Richard Phillips Feynman From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Richard Philips Feinman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American physicist known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics (he proposed the parton model). For his contributions to the development of quantum electrodynamics, Feynman, jointly with Julian Schwinger and Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965. He developed a widely used pictorial representation scheme for the mathematical expressions governing the behavior of subatomic particles, which later became known as Feynman diagrams. During his lifetime, Feynman became one of the best-known scientists in the world. He assisted in the development of the atomic bomb and was a member of the panel that investigated the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster. In addition to his work in theoretical physics, Feynman has been credited with pioneering the field of quantum computing and introducing the concept of nanotechnology. He held the Richard Chace Tolman professorship in theoretical physics at the California Institute of Technology. Feynman was a keen popularizer of physics through both books and lectures, notably a 1959 talk on top-down nanotechnology called There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom and The Feynman Lectures on Physics. Feynman also became known through his semi-autobiographical books (Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman and What Do You Care What Other People Think?) and books written about him, such as Tuva or Bust! Feynman also had a deep interest in biology, and was a friend of the geneticist and microbiologist Esther Lederberg, who developed replica plating and discovered bacteriophage lambda. They had several mutual physicist friends who, after beginning their careers in nuclear research, moved for moral reasons into genetics. 217

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Challenger disaster The 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster Feynman played an important role on the Presidential Rogers Commission, which investigated the Challenger disaster. Feynman devoted the latter half of his book What Do You Care What Other People Think? to his experience on the Rogers Commission, straying from his usual convention of brief, light-hearted anecdotes to deliver an extended and sober narrative. Feynman's account reveals a disconnect between NASA's engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected. His interviews of NASA's high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts. He concluded that the NASA management's space shuttle reliability estimate was fantastically unrealistic. He warned in his appendix to the commission's report, “For a successful technology, reality must take precedence over public relations, for Nature cannot be fooled.” He also rebuked some mathematicians for their exclusivity, saying “I have great suspicion that [mathematicians] don't know, [sic] that this stuff is wrong, and that they're intimidating people.”

Текст 2. K. Eric Drexler From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Dr. Kim Eric Drexler (born April 25, 1955 in Alameda, California) is an American engineer best known for popularizing the potential of molecular nanotechnology (MNT), from the 1970s and 1980s. His 1991 doctoral thesis at MIT was revised and published as the book “Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery Manufacturing and Computation” (1992), which received the Association of American Publishers award for Best Computer Science Book of 1992. He also coined the term grey goo. K. Eric Drexler was very strongly influenced by ideas on Limits to Growth in the early 1970s. His response in his first year at Massachusetts Institute of Technology was to seek out someone who was working on extraterrestrial resources. He found Dr. Gerard K. O'Neill of Princeton University, a physicist famous for a strong focus on particle accelerators and his landmark work on the concepts of space colonization. Drexler was in218

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volved in NASA summer studies in 1975 and 1976. Besides working summers for O'Neill building mass driver prototypes, he delivered papers at the first three Space Manufacturing conferences at Princeton. The 1977 and 1979 papers were co-authored with Keith Henson, and patents were issued on both subjects, vapor phase fabrication and space radiators. Drexler participated in NASA summer studies on space colonies in 1975 and 1976. He fabricated metal films a few tens of nanometers thick on a wax support to demonstrate the potentials of high performance solar sails. He was active in space politics, helping the L5 Society defeat the Moon Treaty in 1980. During the late 1970s, he began to develop ideas about molecular nanotechnology (MNT). In 1979, Drexler encountered Richard Feynman's provocative 1959 talk There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom. The term nanotechnology was coined by the Tokyo Science University Professor Norio Taniguchi in 1974 to describe the precision manufacture of materials with nanometer tolerances, and was unknowingly appropriated by Drexler in his 1986 book Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology to describe what later became known as molecular nanotechnology (MNT). In that book, he proposed the idea of a nanoscale “assembler” which would be able to build a copy of itself and of other items of arbitrary complexity. He also first published the term “grey goo” to describe what might happen if a hypothetical self-replicating molecular nanotechnology went out of control. Drexler holds three degrees from MIT. He received his B.S. in Interdisciplinary Sciences in 1977 and his M.S. in 1979 in Astro/Aerospace Engineering with a Master's thesis titled “Design of a High Performance Solar Sail System,.” In 1991 he earned a Ph.D. under the auspices of the MIT Media Lab (formally, the Media Arts and Sciences Section, School of Architecture and Planning). His Ph.D. work was the first doctoral degree on the topic of molecular nanotechnology and (after some editing) his thesis, “Molecular Machinery and Manufacturing with Applications to Computation,” was published as “Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery, Manufacturing and Computation” (1992), which received the Association of American Publishers award for Best Computer Science Book of 1992. Drexler and Christine Peterson, at that time husband and wife, founded the Foresight Institute in 1986 with the mission of “Preparing for nanotechnology.” Drexler and Peterson ended their 21-year marriage in 2002. Drexler is no longer a member of the Foresight Institute. In August 2005 Drexler joined Nanorex, a molecular engineering software company based in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, to serve as 219

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the company's Chief Technical Advisor. Nanorex's nanoENGINEER-1 software was reportedly able to simulate a hypothetical differential gear design in “a snap”. According to Nanorex's web site, an open source molecular design program is currently slated for release in Fall 2007. In 2006, Drexler married Rosa Wang, a former investment banker who works with Ashoka: Innovators for the Public on improving the social capital markets. Drexler's work on nanotechnology was criticized as naive by Nobel Prize winner Richard Smalley in a 2001 Scientific American article. Smalley first argued that “fat fingers” made MNT impossible. He later argued that nanomachines would have to resemble chemical enzymes more than Drexler's assemblers and could only work in water. Drexler maintained that both were straw man arguments, and in the case of enzymes, Prof. Klibanov wrote in 1994, “...using an enzyme in organic solvents eliminates several obstacles. . . ”) Drexler had difficulty in getting Smalley to respond, but in December 2003, Chemical and Engineering news carried a 4 part debate. Ray Kurzweil spends four pages in his book 'The Singularity Is Near' [pp. 193–196] to showing that Richard Smalley's arguments are not valid, and disputing them point by point. Kurzweil ends by stating that Drexler's visions are very practicable and even happening already. One of the barriers to achieving molecular nanotechnology is the lack of an efficient way to create machines on a molecular/atomic scale. One of Drexler's early ideas was an “assembler”, a nanomachine that would comprise an arm and a computer that could be programmed to build more nanomachines. If an assembler could be built, it might then build a copy of itself, and thus potentially be useful for efficient mass production of nanomachines. But the lack of a way to first build an assembler remains the sine qua non obstacle to achieving this vision. A second difficulty in reaching molecular nanotechnology is design. Hand design of a gear or bearing at the level of atoms is a grueling task. While Drexler, Merkle and others have created a few designs of simple parts, no comprehensive design effort for anything approaching the complexity of a Model T Ford has been attempted. A third difficulty in achieving molecular technology is separating successful trials from failures, and elucidating the failure mechanisms of the failures. Unlike Darwinian evolution, which proceeds by random variations in ensembles of organisms combined with deterministic reproduction/extinction as a selection process to achieve great complexity after billions of years (a set of mechanisms that Richard Dawkins has referred to as 220

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a “blind watchmaker”), deliberate design and building of nanoscale mechanisms requires a means other than reproduction/extinction to winnow successes from failures. Such means are difficult to provide (and presently non-existent) for anything other than small assemblages of atoms viewable by an AFM or STM. Thus, even in the latest report A Matter of Size: Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative put out by the National Academies Press in December 2006, (roughly twenty years after Engines of Creation was published) no clear way forward toward molecular nanotechnology is seen, as per the conclusion on page 108 of that report: “Although theoretical calculations can be made today, the eventually attainable range of chemical reaction cycles, error rates, speed of operation, and thermodynamic efficiencies of such bottom-up manufacturing systems cannot be reliably predicted at this time. Thus, the eventually attainable perfection and complexity of manufactured products, while they can be calculated in theory, cannot be predicted with confidence. Finally, the optimum research paths that might lead to systems which greatly exceed the thermodynamic efficiencies and other capabilities of biological systems cannot be reliably predicted at this time. Research funding that is based on the ability of investigators to produce experimental demonstrations that link to abstract models and guide long-term vision is most appropriate to achieve this goal.”

Текст 3. Richard Errett Smalley From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Richard Errett Smalley (June 6, 1943 – October 28, 2005) was the Gene and Norman Hackerman Professor of Chemistry and a Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Rice University, in Houston, Texas. In 1996, along with Robert Curl, also a professor of chemistry at Rice, and Harold Kroto, a professor at the University of Sussex, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery of a new form of carbon, buckminsterfullerene (“buckyballs”).

Fullerenes and nanotechnology Smalley's research in physical chemistry investigated formation of inorganic and semiconductor clusters using pulsed molecular beams and time of flight mass spectrometry. As a consequence of this expertise, Robert Curl 221

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introduced him to Harry Kroto in order to investigate a question about the constituents of astronomical dust. These are carbon rich grains expelled by old stars such as R Corona Borealis. The result of this collaboration was the discovery of C60 and the fullerenes as the third allotropic form of carbon. The research that earned Kroto, Smalley and Curl the Nobel Prize mostly comprised three articles. First was the discovery of C60 in the Nov. 14, 1985, issue of Nature “C60: Buckminsterfullerene”. The second article detailed the discovery of the endohedral fullerenes in “Lanthanum Complexes of Spheroidal Carbon Shells” in the Journal of the American Chemical Society v. 107 p 7779 (1985). The third announced the discovery of the fullerenes in “Reactivity of Large Carbon Clusters: Spheroidal Carbon Shells and Their Possible Relevance to the Formation and Morphology of Soot” in the Journal of Physical Chemistry v. 90 p 525 (1986). Although only three people can be cited for a Nobel Prize, graduate students James R. Heath and Sean C. O'Brien participated in the work. Smalley mentions them in his Nobel Lecture. Heath went on to become a professor at Caltech and O'Brien joined Texas Instruments and is now at MEMtronics. Following nearly a decade's worth of research into the formation of alternate fullerene compounds (e.g. C28, C70), as well as the synthesis of endohedral metallofullerenes ([email protected]), reports of the identification of carbon nanotube structures led Smalley to begin investigating the ironcatalyzed synthesis of carbon nanotubes. As a consequence of these researches, Smalley was able to persuade the administration of Rice University under Malcolm Gillis to create the Rice Center for Nanoscience and Technology (CNST), focusing on any aspect of molecular nanotechnology. Smalley's latest research was focused on carbon nanotubes, specifically focusing on the chemical synthesis side of nanotube research. He is well-known for his group's invention of the high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) method of producing large batches of high-quality nanotubes. Smalley spun off his work into a company, Carbon Nanotechnologies Inc. and associated nanotechnologies.

Dispute on molecular assemblers He was an outspoken critic of the idea of molecular assemblers, as advocated by K. Eric Drexler and introduced scientific objections to them. His two main objections, which he had termed the “fat fingers problem” 222

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and the “sticky fingers problem”, argued against the feasibility of molecular assemblers being able to precisely select and place individual atoms. He also believed that Drexler’s speculations about apocalyptic dangers of molecular assemblers threaten the public support for development of nanotechnology. He debated Drexler in an exchange of letters which were published in Chemical & Engineering News as a point-counterpoint feature.

Later life In 1999 Smalley was diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which later became chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In his later years, Smalley was very outspoken about the need for cheap, clean energy, which he described as the number one problem facing humanity in the 21st century. He felt that improved science education was key, and went to great lengths to encourage young students to consider careers in science. His slogan for this effort was “Be a scientist, save the world.” Skeptical of religion in general for most of his life, Smalley became a Christian shortly before his death.

Текст 4. Alfred Yi Cho From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Alfred Yi Cho (Chinese, born July 10, 1937) is the Adjunct Vice President of Semiconductor Research at Alcatel-Lucent's Bell Labs. He is known as the “father of molecular beam epitaxy”; a technique he developed at that facility in the late 1960s. He is also the co-inventor, with Federico Capasso of quantum cascade lasers at Bell Labs in 1994. Cho was born in Beijing. He went to Hong Kong in 1949 and had his secondary education in Pui Ching Middle School there. Cho holds B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Illinois. He joined Bell Labs in 1968. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering, as well as a Fellow of the American Physical Society, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 223

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In June 2007 he was honoured with the U.S. National Medal of Technology, the highest honor awarded by the President of the United States for technological innovation. Cho received the award for his contributions to the invention of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and his work to commercialize the process. He already has many awards to his name, including: the American Physical Society International Prize for New Materials in 1982, the Solid State Science and Technology Medal of the Electrochemical Society in 1987, the World Materials Congress Award of ASM International in 1988, the Gaede-Langmuir Award of the American Vacuum Society in 1988, the Industrial Research Institute Achievement Award of the Industrial Research Institute Inc in 1988, the New Jersey Governor's Thomas Alva Edison Science Award in 1990, the International Crystal Growth Award of the American Association for Crystal Growth in 1990, the National Medal of Science in 1993, the Von Hippel Award of the Materials Research Society in 1994, the Elliott Cresson Medal of the Franklin Institute in 1995, the IEEE Medal of Honor in 1994, and the Computers & Communications Prize of the C&C Foundation, Japan in 1995.In 2009, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame. In 1985, Bell Labs became the first organization to be honoured with a U.S. Medal of Technology, awarded for “contributions over decades to modern communications systems.” Cho’s honour marks the eighth time Bell Labs and its scientists have received the award. Cho is married and has one son and three daughters.

Текст 5. The scanning tunneling microscope From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is widely used in both industrial and fundamental research to obtain atomic-scale images of metal surfaces. It provides a three-dimensional profile of the surface which is very useful for characterizing surface roughness, observing surface defects, and determining the size and conformation of molecules and aggregates on the surface. Several other recently developed scanning microscopies also use the scanning technology developed for the STM. A precursor instrument, the topografiner, was invented by Russell Young and colleagues between 1965 and 1971 at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) [currently the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)]. 224

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Gerd Binnig IBM Press Release: Gerd Binnig, along with his colleague, Heinrich Rohrer, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in in 1986 for his work in scanning tunneling microscopy. Binnig and Rohrer were recognized for developing the powerful microscopy technique, which can form an image of individual atoms on a metal or semiconductor surface by scanning the tip of a needle over the surface at a height of only a few atomic diameters. They shared the award with German scientist Ernst Ruska, designer of the first electron microscope. Born in Frankfurt, Germany, on July 20, 1947, Dr. Binnig was educated at J.W. Goethe University in Frankfurt, where he received his bachelor's degree in 1973 and his doctorate degree in 1978. That year he joined a physics research group at IBM's Zurich Research Laboratory. Dr. Binnig was assigned to IBM's Almaden Research Center in San Jose, Calif., from 1985 to 1986, and was a visiting professor at nearby Stanford University from 1987 to 1988. Dr. Binnig was appointed an IBM Fellow in 1987 and remains a research staff member at IBM's Zurich Research Laboratory.

Heinrich Rohrer IBM Press Release: Born in Buchs, Switzerland, on June 6, 1933, Dr. Rohrer was educated at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, where he received his bachelor's degree in 1955 and his doctorate degree in 1960. After post-doctoral work at the Swiss Federal Institute and Rutgers University in the United States, Dr. Rohrer joined IBM's newly formed Zurich Research Laboratory, studying, among other things, Kondo materials and antiferromagnets before turning his attention to scanning tunneling microscopy. Dr. Rohrer was appointed an IBM Fellow in 1986, and was manager of the physical sciences department at the Zurich Research Laboratory from 1986 to 1988. He retired from IBM in July 1997.

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Текст 6. How buckyballs were discovered From http://www.chemheritage With their discovery of buckyballs in 1985, Richard E. Smalley (1943–2005), Robert F. Curl (b. 1933), and Harold W. Kroto (b. 1939) furthered progress to the long-held objective of molecular-scale electronics and other nanotechnologies. Molecular-scale electronics, or molecular electronics, is the ongoing effort to use individual molecules to perform functions in electronic circuitry. With transistors the size of single molecules, for example, electronic devices could become dramatically smaller than today’s microelectronics devices. Molecular electronics is a subfield of nanotechnology, the broader effort to view, measure, and manipulate materials at the molecular or atomic scale, prophesied by Richard Feynman in 1959. Yet molecular electronics and nanotechnology were not part of the immediate research agendas of Smalley, Curl, and Kroto in 1985, when the three chemists gathered for 10 days at Rice University in Houston, Texas. Rice was Smalley’s and Curl’s home university, and Kroto was a chemist at the University of Sussex in England. All three chemists were spectroscopists who spent their time probing phenomena at the atomic and molecular level with advanced spectrometers. Kroto had been using a special type of spectroscopy (microwave spectroscopy) to study long carbon chains found in space. He hypothesized that such chains had been created in the atmospheres of carbon-rich red giant stars, and he wanted to use a piece of equipment invented by Smalley in order to investigate this hypothesis. Smalley’s laser-generated supersonic cluster beam apparatus (AP2 in laboratory parlance) fired pulsed laser beams at chemical elements, achieving temperatures hotter than the surface of most stars and vaporizing the target element. As the vapor began to cool, the evaporated atoms would align in clusters. A high-pressure burst of gas would then sweep the vapor into a vacuum chamber, where the clusters condensed as the vapor cooled. A second laser pulse ionized the clusters, pushing them into a mass spectrometer, where they could be analyzed. When first approached by Kroto in 1984, Smalley was reluctant to interrupt the cluster research he and Curl were doing on metals and semiconductors to make his device available to Kroto. But he and Curl ultimately conceded, and Kroto arrived at Rice University on September 1, 1985. The first results of their carbon experiments, conducted with the essential aid of graduate students James Heath, Sean O’Brien, and Yuan Liu, were in fact the long carbon snakes that Kroto had sought. 226

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Next the students noted an unusual peak in the mass spectra of the clusters formed by the AP2, showing the presence of an abundance of molecules composed of 60 carbon atoms (C60). Such an abundance suggested the stability of this macromolecule. What was it? Now with the three senior scientists fully engaged, the researchers intensively puzzled over what the structure of such a macromolecule must be. Perhaps it was composed of stacks of hexagonal sheets of carbon, like graphite, but with all the dangling bonds tied up in some fashion, or a spherical form where the hexagonal graphite sheet curled around and closed. But solid geometry did not permit such a regular solid. One night Smalley resorted to the method of scissors and tape and inserted some pentagons in the structure, prompted by Kroto’s recollection earlier that day of having once made a paper star dome for his children that included pentagons as well as hexagons. Smalley’s result was a polygon with 60 vertices and 32 faces, 12 of which are pentagons and 20 are hexagons. The scientists named their macromolecule buckminsterfullerene, after the American architect, R. Buckminster Fuller, who had designed similarly constructed geodesic domes. The nickname “buckyball” soon stuck, because it resembled a soccer ball. Finding a new, highly stable form of a pure element is rare in the world of chemistry, and for this reason alone the discovery of buckyballs was noteworthy. But it also opened up a whole new field of chemical study with practical applications that scientists are only beginning to uncover. Buckyballs were the first of a whole class of hollow, closedshell carbon macromolecules that came to be known as fullerenes. They have become the subject of intense research, both for their unique chemistry and for their technological applications, especially in materials science, electronics, and nanotechnology.

Текст 7. Donald Eigler’s group and their discoveries. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The results of Donald Eigler’s group include the invention of quantum corrals, discovery of the quantum mirage effect, demonstration of a fundamentally new way to transport information through a solid utilizing modulated quantum states, the demonstration of nanometer-scale logic cir227

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cuits based on molecular cascades, and invention of spin excitation spectroscopy. Most recently, milestones made by the researchers in Eigler's historic lab include the ability to measure the magnetic properties of individual atoms and the ability to measure the force it takes to move individual atoms.

Quantum corral Eigler received both his bachelor's and doctorate degrees from the University of California San Diego and was named its Outstanding Alumnus of the year in 1999. He has been recognized for his accomplishments with the Davisson-Germer Prize awarded by the American Physical Society, the Dannie Heineman Prize awarded by the Göttingen Academy of Sciences, the NewcombCleveland Prize awarded by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Grand Award for Science and Technology awarded by Popular Science Magazine, and numerous honorary lectureships including the Gordon Research Conference's Alexander M. Cruikshank Lectureship in Physical Sciences, the Bethe Lectureship at Cornell University, the Loeb Lectureship at Harvard University, the Bragg Lectureship at University College London and a Regents Lectureship at the University of California Los Angeles. In 2002 he received an honorary doctorate from the Technical University of Delft. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In 2004 he was elected a member of the Max Planck Society, Germany’s most prestigious scientific organization. In 2007 he was appointed a Distinguished Visiting Fellow at the Harvard University School of Engineering and Applied Sciences. He was named an IBM Fellow in 1993, the highest technical honor in the IBM Corporation. Eigler currently serves on the advisory boards of the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR) Nanoelectronics Program, the Oak Ridge National Laboratories Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS), New Zealand's MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, the University of California Microelectronics Innovation 228

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and Computer Research Opportunities (MICRO) program, the Harvard University Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center (NSEC), and the Swiss National Center of Competence in Research (NCCR) Nanoscale Science program. In addition to his professional pursuits, Eigler has been building his skills as a trainer of service dogs, specializing in dogs that assist the mobility impaired. The IBM Corporation has allowed him to utilize the Almaden Research Center as a real-world training ground for his dogs. His dogs-intraining are a regular sight at Almaden; because one or both of them is nearly always with him, they have been included in New York Times and San Francisco Chronicle feature stories on IBM Research. During a lecture at Cornell University in 2005, he operated a scanning tunneling microscope over the internet.

Low Temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscopy: In the summer of 1984, as a postdoc at Bell Labs working in Gene Golovchenko’s group, Don Eigler set out to build and operate an ultra-highvacuum low-temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscope (UHV-LTSTM). At that time, groups around the world were struggling with room temperature STMs. Only Gerd Binnig had achieved atomic resolution. Eigler was certain about the potential for scientific discovery that a low temperature STM would possess and was particularly interested in doing site-specific vibrational spectroscopy of adsorbates (accomplished 14 years later in 1998 by Wilson Ho’s group). By late 1985, he had successfully demonstrated atomic resolution images of Si (111) at 4K and had glimpsed some of the potential of a low temperature STM. While this work did not lead to a publication, it established his position in the scanned probe community and demonstrated the power of LT-STMs. In Eigler’s view, this remains one of his most important scientific contributions.

Atom Manipulation: In 1989, three years after joining IBM’s Almaden Research Center, Eigler and colleague Erhard Schweitzer demonstrated the ability to position individual atoms with atomic precision using a low-temperature STM. This accomplishment, published in Nature, resulted in worldwide recognition by the media. A recent book on nanotechnology (“The Next Big Thing is Really Small” by Jack Uldrich) identifies this accomplishment as the birth229

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ing of nanotechnology and likens it to the first powered flight by the Wright brothers. This work remains his most important and most widely known accomplishment. Its importance is two-fold: 1) It marks a milestone in the ability to structure the world around us, and 2) by allowing the construction of atomically-precise structures, atom manipulation greatly broadens the scope of experimentation with the STM.

The Atom Switch: Shortly after discovering how to manipulate atoms with the sliding process, Eigler, along with colleagues Chris Lutz and William Rudge discovered a new method for manipulating atoms in which a voltage pulse applied to the tip of the STM results in the transfer of an adsorbed atom from the sample surface to the tip of the STM. The atom may then be carried to a new location and deposited on the surface by a reverse polarity voltage pulse. They then demonstrated an atomic-scale two-terminal switch by showing that the reversible transfer of the atom between the tip and surface resulted in a reversible change in conductance of the tunnel junction. This is the smallest switch built to date. This work was published in Nature and received substantial press coverage.

Standing Waves in the Cu (111) Surface State Density: In 1993, Mike Crommie, Lutz and Eigler published a paper in Nature that reported the observation of standing waves in the 2D electron gas formed from the surface-state electrons of the Cu (111) surface. This provided a quantitative tool for learning how these electrons were interacting with their environment and provided compelling images of the wave properties of electrons. It stimulated research by several other groups into the lifetime of surface-state electrons, the scattering of surface state electrons at point defects and step edges, and served as a springboard for Eigler and team’s subsequent research into Quantum Corrals, Quantum Mirages and Molecule Cascades.

Quantum Corrals: In 1993, Crommie, Lutz and Eigler published a paper in Science in which they showed quantum confinement of Cu (111) surface-state electrons to so-called “Quantum Corrals:” structures built from adatoms using 230

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atomic manipulation processes. Aside from showing that they could quantitatively account for the energies and density distribution of the quantum states in the interior of the corral, this opened the door to a new kind of engineering: the engineering of the spatial and energetic distribution of quantum states on the surface of a metal. This work received widespread attention in the media and resulted in images which have achieved icon status. This work also played a pivotal role in their discovery of the “Quantum Mirage” effect.

The Local Effect of a Magnetic Impurity on a Superconductor: In 1997, Ali Yazdani, Barbara Jones, Lutz, Crommie and Eigler published a paper in Science in which they demonstrated the ability to map out the spatial dependence of the mid-gap state surrounding a magnetic impurity on the surface of a superconductor. This work showed a surprisingly local state which Barbara demonstrated could be analytically accounted for. It demonstrated that the meat of the superconductor’s response to the magnetic impurity occurred on a length-scale that is short compared to the coherence length. This was the first experiment to show the utility of the STM in investigating the local response of a superconductor to a point-defect. This line of investigation was later taken up by Seamus Davis and brilliantly applied to the investigation of High Tc superconductivity.

Quantum Mirage: In 2000, Hari Manoharan, Lutz and Eigler published a paper in Nature in which they demonstrated that the Kondo resonance signature of a magnetic adatom located at one focus of an elliptically shaped quantum corral could be projected to, and made large at the other focus of the corral. While resulting in widespread publicity and stimulating some discussion about whether any magnetization was projected, the real importance of the mirage effect came from understanding it as due to the local modulation of eigenmodes of a resonator. This led to a very fundamental patent for information transport via modulated quantum states (U.S. Patent 6,441,358) and the subsequent demonstration of multi-channel information transport through the same volume of space using quantum states specifically engineered to achieve this goal which was published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. 231

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Molecule Cascades: In 2002, Andreas Heinrich, Lutz, Jay Gupta and Eigler published a paper in Science in which they demonstrated the ability to fabricate and operate novel logic circuits made from carbon monoxide molecules assembled into meta-stable arrays on a Cu (111) surface. They demonstrated all of the logic elements and circuits required to perform the one-time calculation of an arbitrary logic function. Aside from its novelty and demonstration that the motion of the CO molecules was due to tunneling, the significance in the accomplishment can be thought of as three-fold: 1) these were the first computational structures in which all of the components necessary for computation were at the nanometer length scale, 2) it pointed Eigler and his colleagues in the direction of magnetic-cascade based computation, and 3) it served to underscore the importance of investigating alternative modes of computation in nanometer-scale structures.

Single-Atom Spin-Excitation Spectroscopy: In 2004, Heinrich, Lutz, Gupta and Eigler published a paper in Science in which they demonstrated the ability to measure the energy required to flip the spin of a single atom, the so-called “Zeeman Energy,” through inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy. Achieving this goal required the design, construction and debugging of a one-of-a-kind UHV STM that operates at temperatures as low as 0.5 kelvin and in magnetic fields as high as 7 teslas. This was necessary in order to achieve the spectroscopic resolution required to measure a spin flip. The importance of this work is that it provides a non-perturbative atomic-resolution means to measure a fundamental magnetic property. Combined with the STM’s imaging, spectroscopic and atom manipulation modes, we now have a way to build and interrogate the magnetic properties of novel nanometer-scale structures. Eigler anticipates that this capability will play a pivotal role in helping to achieve the next goal – Spin Cascade Computation.

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Текст 8. Microtubes of graphic carbon From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The synthesis of molecular carbon structures in the form of C60 and other fullerenes has stimulated intense interest in the structures accessible to graphitic carbon sheets. Here I report the preparation of a new type of finite carbon structure consisting of needle-like tubes. Produced using an aredischarge evaporation method similar to that used for fullerene synthesis, the needles grow at the negative end of the electrode used for the arc discharge. Electron microscopy reveals that each needle comprises coaxial tubes of graphitic sheets, ranging in number from 2 up to about 50. On each tube the carbon-atom hexagons are arranged in a helical fashion about the needle axis. The helical pitch varies from needle to needle and from tube to tube within a single needle. It appears that this helical structure may aid the growth process. The formation of these needles, ranging from a few to a few tens of nanometres in diameter, suggests that engineering of carbon structures should be possible on scales considerably greater than those relevant to the fullerenes. Solids of elemental carbon in the sp2 bonding state can form a variety of graphitic structures. Graphite filaments can be produced, for instance, when amorphous carbon filaments formed by thermal decomposition of hydrocarbon species are subsequently graphitized by heat treatment. Graphite filaments can also grow directly from the vapour-phase deposition of carbon, which also produces soot and other novel structures such as the C60 molecule. Graphitic carbon needles, ranging from 4 to 30 nm in diameter and up to 1 mm in length, were grown on the negative end of the carbon electrode used in the d.c. are-discharge evaporation of carbon in an argon-filled vessel (100 torr). The gas pressure was much lower than that reported for the production of thicker graphite filaments. The apparatus is very similar to that used for mass production of C60. The needles seem to grow plentifully on only certain regions of the electrode. The electrode on which carbon was deposited also contained polyhedral particles with spherical shell structures, which were 5–20 nm in diameter. The needle structures were examined by transmission electron microscopy (electron energies of 200 keV).

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Текст 9. Sumio Iijima From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Sumio Iijima (Iijima Sumio, born May 2, 1939) is a Japanese physicist, often cited as the discoverer of carbon nanotubes. Although carbon nanotubes had been observed prior to his "discovery", Iijima's 1991 paper generated unprecedented interest in the carbon nanostructures and has since fueled intense research in the area of nanotechnology. For this and other work Sumio Iijima was awarded, together with Louis Brus, the inaugural Kavli Prize for Nanoscience in 2008. Born in Saitama Prefecture in 1939, Iijima graduated with a Bachelor of Engineering degree in 1963 from the University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo. He received a Master's degree in 1965 and completed his Ph.D. in solid-state physics in 1968, both at Tohoku University in Sendai. Between 1970 and 1982 he performed research with crystalline materials and high-resolution electron microscopy at Arizona State University. He visited the University of Cambridge during 1979 to perform studies on carbon materials. He worked for the Research Development Corporation of Japan from 1982 to 1987, studying ultra-fine particles, after which he joined NEC Corporation where he is still employed. He discovered carbon nanotubes in 1991 while working with NEC. He is also a professor at Meijo University since 1999. Furthermore, he is the director of the Research Center for Advanced Carbon Materials, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Distinguished Invited University Professor of Nagoya University and the dean of SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT). He was awarded the Benjamin Franklin Medal in Physics in 2002, “for the discovery and elucidation of the atomic structure and helical character of multi-wall and single-wall carbon nanotubes, which have had an enormous impact on the rapidly growing condensed matter and materials science field of nanoscale science and electronics.” 234

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He is a Foreign Associate of National Academy of Sciences, Foreign member of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. Also, He is a Member of The Japan Academy.

Текст 10. Transistors from Carbon Nanotubes From www.mittalenterprises.com The limits of conventional microtechnology, based mainly on silicon, have been reached. Smaller and better is achievable only by using new materials and technologies. This is why research hopes for great things from carbon nanotubes (CNTs), ultra-tiny tubules a few nanometres in diameter, made of pure carbon. CNTs have remarkable structural, mechanical and electronic properties. The research group led by Christofer Hierold, Professor of Micro and Nanosystems at ETH Zurich, aims to use these in nano-electronics components. He and his research group, in particular the doctoral student Matthias Muoth, have now succeeded in constructing a hysteresis-free field effect transistor based on an individual CNT with metallic nano-contacts. The researchers reported this recently in “Nature Nanotechnology”. To build the transistor, the researchers allowed a single CNT to grow between two polysilicon tips. For good electrical contact, they vapourdeposited palladium metal onto the ends of the tubule in a highly precise manner. The scientists included a sliding cover, the shadow mask, to protect the midsection of the CNT from unwanted metallization. A silicon substrate, also coated with metal and positioned three microns below the CNT, acted as a control terminal called gate. The successful fabrication of the transistor with the CNT and the precise interfacing of its ends with palladium are not the only decisive aspects for Christofer Hierold. He considers the breakthrough to be the fact that the transistor does not display what is called gate hysteresis. Hysteresis is absent even at an atmospheric humidity of 45 percent. He regards this as “a considerable step forward for components intended for use as sensors.”

Текст 11. Single Molecules Acting as Switches During the past ten years, the progress in manipulation techniques has motivated intense interest in the field of molecular electronics. Particularly, molecular switches have been studied widely because they are con235

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sidered as the basic and important components of future molecule electronic devices. The research efforts of molecular switches have been focused on changing the electronic transport properties of molecular devices through modifying molecular structures electrically, mechanically, or chemically. Among the molecular switches proposed, the polyphenyl-based molecules and carbon nanotubes are extensively studied. The polyphenyl basedmolecules are conducting because of their conjugate π electronic structures. OFF/ON behaviors are expected when the molecular structure modifications destroy and recover the conjugate π electronic structures. A single-walled CNT (SWCNT) can be either semiconducting or metallic depending on its diameter and helicity. The electronic transport property of an individual SWCNT is proved to be sensitive to its structure modification. While a typical molecular device is not the molecule itself, but a molecule attached to two electrodes. Hence, the OFF/ON behavior of a molecular switch is not determined by the molecular structure alone, but the combination of the molecular structure and coupling between the molecule and the electrodes. The polyphenyl-based molecules are usually violated and attached to Au electrodes. In such systems, the coupling between the molecule and the electrodes is even thought to dominate the transport properties, which leads to the stochastic OFF/ON conductance switching. Such stochastic behavior are unpredictable and uncontrollable. For practical molecular electronic applications, stable switch function are important and necessary. Recently, molecular devices using CNTs as electrodes are studied experimentally. Through studying the effect of different coupling between the molecule and CNTs, we show that the new CNT-molecule CNT (CMC) design may act as a stable switch. The new molecule switch design contains a double-benzene molecule (C18H8), which is attached to two semi-infinite (5, 5) SWCNTs. Here, Hydrogen atoms are used to satisfy the terminal Carbon atoms in the two CNT electrodes. The double-benzene molecule consists of two benzene rings connected to each other by an acetylene group. The groups of C=C double bond at either end of the molecule act as anchoring groups in order to improve the molecule-CNT coupling. To show the switch function of the CMC system, we twist one benzene ring of the molecule.

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Тексты для перевода с русского языка на английский

Текст 1. Магическое превращение наночастиц CdSe/Te в нанотрубки CdCl2 (Видео-лекции МИР НАНОТЕХНОЛОГИЙ http://www.nanonewsnet.ru/help/video/binom) С тех пор, как в 1992 году были открыты нанотрубки дисульфида вольфрама, учёные прилагают немалые усилия для синтеза неорганических нанотрубок и фуллерено-подобных полых наночастиц. Области применения таких материалов огромны: твердые смазки, химические сенсоры, транспортировка лекарств, катализаторы и т.д. Несмотря на то, что разработано уже множество методик получения тубулярных структур (темплатный синтез, разложение и т.д.), группа учёных из Китая предложила новый удобный способ синтеза, основанный на процессе самоорганизации по типу «голова к хвосту». Морфологию и организацию наноструктур при химическом синтезе можно легко контролировать и изменять с помощью внешних параметров, таких как магнитное, электрическое поля или свет. Предложенный метод состоит из двух частей: создание полых наноструктур за счёт эффекта Киркендаля и последующее взаимодействие между ними, приводящее к активному росту тубулярных наноструктур. Наночастицы селенида кадмия размером 2,2 нм были растворены в о-дихлорбензоле. Затем раствор помещали на подложку из аморфного углерода и облучали УФ-светом в течение 2 часов. В результате протекания реакции происходит полное замещение селена на хлор. После чего, образцы были высушены в темноте и проанализированы с помощью EDX,TEM и HR-TEM. Также был исследован и механизм образования такого рода наноструктур, влияние размера исходных наночастиц и аниона перкурсора на структуру образующихся нанотрубок. Использование частиц 237

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большего размера привело к образованию «нанотюрем» после 30– 40 минут облучения. Учёные предполагают, что заключёнными в таких «нанотюрьмах» является аморфный селен, который достаточно быстро под воздействием пучка электронного микроскопа. Это является подтверждением предположения, что на начальной стадии образование полых наноструктур обусловлено эффектом Кинкердаля. Замена же аниона на теллур приводит к образованию даже более однородных нанотрубок хлорида кадмия. Учёные надеются, что развитие этого метода позволит получать и другие тубулярные наноструктуры в мягких условиях, а так же создавать самоорганизующиеся структуры по типу «голова к хвосту».

Текст 2. О четырех категориях продуктов нанотехнологии (Источник: New Scientist.ru № 7, июнь 2011 года). Согласно планам, к 2015 году общий объем производства в российской нанотехнологической отрасли должен составить 900 миллиардов рублей. При этом официально утвержденных категорий продукции наноиндустрии РФ ранее не существовало. Премьер-министр РФ Владимир Путин подписал соответствующее распоряжение 7 июля. «К продукции наноиндустрии относится продукция (товары, услуги), произведенная с использованием нанотехнологий и обладающая вследствие этого ранее недостижимыми технико-экономическими показателями», – говорится в распоряжении. Категории продукции утверждены в целях обеспечения условий для создания системы государственного статистического наблюдения за производством и реализацией продукции наноиндустрии РФ, отмечается в распоряжении. Четыре категории Всего установлены четыре категории продукции наноиндустрии в части товаров и услуг. К категории «А» относится продукция наноиндустрии в случае, если она содержит компоненты, определяющие ее функциональные свойства и (или) потребительские характеристики и размер которых хотя бы в одном измерении находится в пределах от 1 до 100 нано238

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метров. Для продукции нанобиотехнологий верхний предел определяется размерами белков, ДНК, биологических молекул и иных органических соединений. В эту категорию попадает также продукция, созданная путем манипулирования отдельными атомами и молекулами, в том числе с использованием биохимических технологий геномики, протеомики и системной биологии. К категории «Б» относится продукция наноиндустрии в случае, если нанокомпоненты придают продукции новые, принципиально важные для нее функциональные (механические, физические, физикохимические и другие) свойства или обеспечивают существенное улучшение ее технико-экономических и (или) потребительских характеристик. Категорию «В» составляет продукция наноиндустрии в случае, если использование нанотехнологий и (или) нанокомпонентов обеспечивает существенное улучшение технико-экономических и/или потребительских характеристик оказываемых услуг (производимых товаров). К категории «Г» относится продукция наноиндустрии в том случае, если она соответствует как минимум одному из следующих критериев – обеспечивает качество измерения и (или) контроля характеристик нанокомпонентов, недостижимое иными методами или обеспечивает возможность контролируемого манипулирования отдельными атомами и молекулами, в том числе при производстве продукции наноиндустрии категорий «А», «Б» и «В».

Текст 3. Что могут нанотехнологии? (Источник: http://kbogdanov1.narod.ru) На наших глазах фантастика становится реальностью – люди научились перемещать отдельные атомы и складывать из них, как из кубиков, устройства и механизмы необычайно малых размеров и поэтому невидимые обычным глазом. Появилась целая отрасль знаний НАНОТЕХНОЛОГИИ, впитавшая в себя самые новые достижения физики, химии и биологии. Ученые-нанотехнологи работают с ничтожно малыми объектами, размеры которых измеряются в нанометрах. Нанотехнология не просто количественный, а качественный ска239

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чок от работы с веществом к манипуляции отдельными атомами. О том, что может нанотехнология рассказано в этом научнопопулярном обзоре. В переводе с греческого слово «нано» означает карлик. Один нанометр (нм) – это одна миллиардная часть метра (10-9 м). Размер объектов, с которыми имеют дело нанотехнологи, лежат в диапазоне от 0,1 до 100 нм. Большинство атомов имеют диаметр от 0,1 до 0,2 нм, а толщина нитей ДНК – около 2 нм. Диаметр эритроцитов – 7000 нм, а толщина человеческого волоса – 80 000 нм. Нанометр очень и очень мал. Нанометр во столько же раз меньше одного метра, во сколько толщина пальца меньше диаметра Земли.

Текст 4. К.Ю. Богданов. Почему наночастицы плавятся при низкой температуре? (Источник: http://www.crnano.org/whatis.htm) При уменьшении размеров частицы изменяются не только её механические свойства, но также и её термодинамические характеристики – температура её плавления становится гораздо ниже, чем у образцов обычного размера. Lai с сотр. (Applied Physics Letters, 1998, v. 72: 1098–1100), используя сверхчувствительный калориметр с чувствительностью 0,1 нДж, показали, что температура плавления наночастиц алюминия падает с уменьшением размеров частицы. При этом температура плавления частицы размером 4 нм уменьшается на 140 ºС по сравнению с температурой плавления образца алюминия обычных размеров. У наночастиц почти всё атомы на поверхности! Причиной понижения температуры плавления у наночастиц служит то, что атомы на поверхности всех кристаллов находятся в особых условиях, а доля таких «поверхностных» атомов у наночастиц становится очень большой. Легко вычислить, что в 1 см³ алюминия содержится примерно 6.1022 атомов. Для простоты будем считать, что атомы находятся в узлах кубической кристаллической решётки, тогда расстояние между соседними атомами в этой решётке будет равно около 4.10–8 см. А значит, плотность атомов на поверхности составит 6.1014/см². 240

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Теперь возьмём кубик из алюминия с ребром 1 см. Число поверхностных атомов у него будет равно 36.1014, а число атомов внутри – 6.1022. Таким образом, доля поверхностных атомов у такого алюминиевого кубика «обычных» размеров составляет всего 6.10–8. Если сделать такие же вычисления для кубика из алюминия размером 5 нм, то окажется, что на поверхности такого «нанокубика» находится уже 12 % всех его атомов. Ну, а на поверхности кубика размером 1 нм, вообще, находится больше половины всех атомов!

Текст 5. Ричард Фейнман – пророк нанотехнологической революции. (Источник: http://www.crnano.org/whatis.htm) Самолёты, ракеты, телевизоры и компьютеры изменили окружающий мир в 20 веке. Учёные утверждают, что в наступившем 21-м веке стержнем новой технической революции станут материалы, лекарства, устройства, средства связи и доставки, сделанные с использованием нанотехнологий. Идея о том, что вполне возможно собирать устройства и работать с объектами, которые имеют наноразмеры, была впервые высказана в выступлении речи лауреата Нобелевской премии Ричарда Фейнмана в 1959 году в Калифорнийском технологическом институте («Там, внизу, полно места!»). Слово «внизу» в названии лекции означало в «мире очень малых размеров». Тогда Фейнман сказал, что когда-нибудь, например, в 2000 г., люди будут удивляться тому, что до 1960 г. никто не относился серьёзно к исследованиям наномира. По словам Фейнмана человек очень долго жил, не замечая, что рядом с ним живёт целый мир объектов, разглядеть которые он не в состоянии. Ну, а если мы не видим эти объекты, то мы не можем и работать с ними. Тем не менее, мы сами состоим из устройств, которые прекрасно научились работать с нанообъектами. Это наши клетки – кирпичики, из которых состоит наш организм. Клетка всю свою жизнь работает с нанообъектами, собирая из различных атомов молекулы сложных веществ. Собрав эти молекулы, клетка размещает их в различных частях – одни оказываются в ядре, другие – в цитоплазме, а третьи – в мембране. Представьте себе возможности, которые открываются перед человечеством, если оно овладеет такими же нанотехнологиями, которыми уже владеет каждая клетка человека. 241

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Фейнман так описывает последствия нанотехнологической революции для компьютеров. «Если, например, диаметр соединяющих проводов будет составлять от 10 до 100 атомов, то размер любой схемы не будет превышать нескольких тысяч ангстрем. Каждый, кто связан с компьютерной техникой, знает о тех возможностях, которые обещает ее развитие и усложнение. Если число используемых элементов возрастет в миллионы раз, то возможности компьютеров существенно расширятся. Они научатся рассуждать, анализировать опыт и рассчитывать собственные действия, находить новые вычислительные методы и т. п. Рост числа элементов приведет к важным качественным изменениям характеристик ЭВМ.»

Текст 6. Ричард Фейнман: препятствия и проблемы наномира. (Источник: http://www.crnano.org/whatis.htm) Позвав учёных в наномир, Фейнман сразу же предупреждает о тех препятствиях, которые их там ожидают, на примере изготовления микроавтомобиля длиной всего 1 мм. Так как детали обычного автомобиля сделаны с точностью 10-5 м, то детали микроавтомобиля следует изготовлять с точностью в 4000 раз выше, т.е. 2,5.10-9 м. Таким образом, размеры деталей микроавтомобиля должны соответствовать расчётным с точностью ± 10 слоёв атомов. Наномир не только полон препятствий и проблем. Нас в наномире ожидают и хорошие новости - все детали наномира оказываются очень прочными. Происходит это из-за того, что масса нанообъектов уменьшается пропорционально третьей степени их размеров, а площадь их поперечного сечения – пропорционально второй степени. Значит, механическая нагрузка на каждый элемент объекта – отношение веса элемента к площади его поперечного сечения – уменьшается пропорционально размерам объекта. Таким образом, пропорционально уменьшенный наностол обладает в миллиард раз более толстыми наноножками, чем это необходимо. Фейнман считал, что человек сможет легко освоить наномир, если создаст машину-робота, способного делать уменьшенную, но работоспособную копию самого себя. Пусть, например, мы научились делать робот, который может без нашего участия создавать свою уменьшенную в 4 раза копию. Тогда уже этот маленький робот сможет 242

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сделать копию первоначального, уменьшенную уже в 16 раз и т.д. Очевидно, что 10-е поколение таких роботов будут создавать роботы, размеры которых будут в миллионы раз меньше первоначальных.

Текст 7. Проекты РОСНАНО. Перечень инновационных нанотехнологий и нанопродуктов, созданных в России в 2000–2011 гг. (по материалам сайта http://rusnanonet.ru/products) Наноструктурированные люминофорсодержащие лакокрасочные композиции Поставщик: РХТУ им. Д.И. Менделеева. Российский химико-технологический университет Ключевые слова: наноматериалы Область применения – обеспечение дополнительной безопастности гражданских лиц, рабочих и служащих в чрезвычайных ситуациях. Композиции представляют суспензию люминофора в водной полимерной дисперсии, обладают повышенной стабильностью к ультрафиолету. Показатели длительности свечения (от 8 часов) и яркости (около 60 мкД/м2) превышают показатели как отечественных, так и зарубежных аналогов по длительности свечения в 20 раз. Нанофабрикация асферических оптических элементов Поставщик: РОСНАНО, ОАО Ключевые слова: РОСНАНО, оптика, асферические элементы, нанопозиционеры Основная продукция:  элементы инфракрасной оптики (изготовление прямым алмазным точением); 243

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 металлические зеркала (изготовление прямым алмазным точением, полировкой);  асферические элементы (изготовление точением и тонкой шлифовкой/полировкой);  зеркала для лазеров (изготовление точением и тонкой шлифовкой/полировкой);  сверхгладкие прецизионные асферические подложки зеркал для областей ультрафиолетового диапазона и рентгеновского диапазона длин волн (изготовление точением и тонкой шлифовкой/полировкой).

Огнеупорные композиционные материалы высокой термостойкости Поставщик: РХТУ им. Д.И. Менделеева. Российский химикотехнологический университет Ключевые слова: наноматериалы, композиты, авиация, нефтехимия Огнеупорные вяжущие материалы предназначены для создания огнестойких и термостойких покрытий, обмазок, неорганических связок стеклообразных, керамических и металлических материалов и изделий. Предлагаемый материал представляет собой композит на основе металлофосфатных и алюминатных вяжущих материалов, содержащих углеродные нанотрубки. Композиты имеют высокую огнеупорность и термостойкость, обеспечивают высокие прочностные и адгезионные свойства затвердевшего материала. На их основе возможно создание тепловой защиты авиационной техники, специальных бетонов для футеровки тепловых агрегатов химической, нефтехимической, металлургической промышленности и энергетики.

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Оптическое волокно. Проект по созданию промышленного производства оптического волокна с использованием нанотехнологий Поставщик: РОСНАНО, ОАО, ЗАО «Оптиковолоконные Системы» Ключевые слова: РОСНАНО, нанотехнологии, наноматериалы, медицина Регион: Республика Мордовия Проект по созданию первого в России промышленного производства оптического волокна с использованием нанотехнологий для улучшения его свойств. Пластиковая электроника. Создание производства пластиковых дисплеев по технологии Plastic Logic Поставщик: Особая экономическая зона в г. Москве (Зеленоград), МИЭТ. Московский государственный институт электронной техники, РОСНАНО, ОАО Ключевые слова: пластиковая электроника Регион: Москва В рамках проекта в Зеленограде будет создано крупнейшее в мире производство пластиковых дисплеев нового поколения по технологии Plastic Logic. Пленочные магнитодоменные излучатели и функциональные устройства на их основе Поставщик: КБИ «Материалы и компоненты электроники», АНО Ключевые слова: нанобиотехнологии, биотехнологии Регион: Калужская область гии»

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энергонезависимые пленочные магнитотерапевтические устройства для применения в клинической практике. Подложки и платы для монтажа светодиодов. Создание производства плат с высокой теплопроводностью Поставщик: РОСНАНО, ОАО Ключевые слова: РОСНАНО, наноэлектроника, оптоэлектроника, нанотехнологии Создание производства плат с высокой теплопроводностью для монтажа светодиодов высокой яркости на основе технологии получения нанопористого слоя Al2O3 на алюминиевой пластине методом анодирования.

Поликремний и моносилан. Крупномасштабное производство поликристаллического кремния и моносилана Поставщик: Нитол. Группа компаний, ООО, РОСНАНО, ОАО Ключевые слова: РОСНАНО, поликристаллический кремний, поликремний, моносилан Регион: Иркутская область 16 февраля 2009 г. Наблюдательный совет ГК РОСНАНО подтвердил участие госкорпорации в проекте по созданию комплекса по производству поликристаллического кремния и моносилана. Первый в России комплекс по производству поликремня и моносилана создается в Иркутской области.

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Полярный кварц. Кварцевые микро- и нанопорошки. Модернизация производства высокочистых кварцевых концентратов для наноэлектронной, оптической, светотехнической и химической промышленности Поставщик: РОСНАНО, ОАО, ОАО «Полярный кварц» Ключевые слова: РОСНАНО, Полярный кварц, нанопорошки, кварц Регион: Ханты-Мансийский автономный округ — Югра РОСНАНО примет участие в проекте по модернизации и расширению производства особо чистого кварцевого концентрата и кварцевого порошка, который реализуют правительство Ханты-Мансийского АО и ОАО «Полярный кварц» на базе месторождений жильного кварца Приполярного Урала.

Препараты на основе бактериофагов для медицинских и биотехнологических целей. Организация промышленного производства с использованием нанотехнологий Ключевые слова: наномедицина, фармацевтика, биотехнологии, медицина, нанобиотехнологии Регион: Ульяновская область В рамках проекта Ульяновской государственной сельскохозяйственной академией будет создано промышленное производство препаратов на основе бактериофагов для медицинских и биотехнологических целей.

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Производство наночернил и оборудования для цифровой печати Поставщик: РОСНАНО, ОАО, ЗАО «САН-НСК» Ключевые слова: РОСНАНО, наноматериалы, нанотехнологии, наночернила Регион: Новосибирская область Реализация проекта позволит повысить конкурентоспособность предприятий целого ряда отраслей российской промышленности – покупателей продукции проекта, так как повысятся потребительские свойства конечных продуктов – полиграфии, строительных материалов, мебели, бытовой техники. В дальнейшем технология проекта позволит использовать преимущества цифровой струйной печати на этапах технологического цикла в таких отраслях, как производство фотоэлементов и печатных плат. Производство режущего инструмента из сверхтвердого материала на основе микро- и нанопорошков кубического нитрида бора Поставщик: РОСНАНО, ОАО, Микробор Нанотех, ЗАО Ключевые слова: РОСНАНО, наноматериалы, кубический нитрид бора, нанопорошки, наноинструменты Регион: Москва В рамках проекта будет создан полный производственный цикл – от синтеза нанопорошка кубического нитрида бора до изготовления из него режущего инструмента. Повышенные физические характеристики инструмента из нанопорошка кубического нитрида бора (микротвердость, износо- и 248

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теплостойкость) приводят к существенно более высокой производительности инструмента. При этом затраты на обработку деталей инструментом могут снижаться на величину до 60%.

Прочная керамика из диоксида циркония (керамический скальпель) Поставщик: РХТУ им. Д.И. Менделеева. Российский химико-технологический университет Ключевые слова: наноматериалы, керамика, медицина Режущий инструмент на основе частично стабилизированного диоксида циркония, изготовленный из порошков нанометрического размера.

Разработка нового поколения сенсоров на основе наночастиц металлов Поставщик: СевКавГТУ. Северо-Кавказский государственный технический университет Ключевые слова: сенсоры, наночастицы металлов Научная школа СевКавГТУ «Физическая химия, химия твердого тела, современные микро- и нанотехнологии» ведет разработку нового поколения сенсоров на основе наночастиц металлов.

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Разработка оксидной керамики на основе наноразмерных порошков Поставщик: Экон, ЗАО Ключевые слова: нанокерамика, нанопорошки Регион: Калужская область В ЗАО «Экон» разработана технология изготовления оксидной керамики на основе наноразмерных порошков. Такие изделия необходимы для создания надёжных высокотемпературных сенсоров при производстве газоаналитических приборов, а также других ответственных керамических изделий.

Русские мембраны. Проект по созданию производства наноструктурированных мембран для очистки воды Поставщик: РОСНАНО, ОАО, РМ Нанотех, ЗАО, ЗАО НТЦ «Владипор» Ключевые слова: РОСНАНО, наномембраны, модули для очистки воды Регион: Владимирская область Создание производства наноструктурированных мембран и разделительных модулей для очистки воды. Продукция предназначена для инжиниринговых компаний, которые производят установки по очистки воды для конечного пользователя.

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Сверхвысокомолекулярный полиэтилен (СВМПЭ) – материал для экстремальных условий эксплуатации Поставщик: Институт химии твердого тела и механохимии СО РАН Ключевые слова: нанодисперсные порошки, нанотехнологии На основе разработаных катализаторов (Институт катализа им. Г.К. Борескова СО РАН) создана технология производства СВМПЭ. Сверхвысокопрочные пружины. Создание массового производства сверхвысокопрочных пружин Поставщик: РОСНАНО, ОАО, Пружина, НПЦ Ключевые слова: пружины, Ижевск Регион: Удмуртская Республика Проект по созданию массового производства сверхвысокопрочных пружин с использованием технологий контролируемого формирования однородных наноразмерных субструктур. Сероочистка попутного нефтяного газа. Создание установки сероочистки ПНГ на основе наноструктурированных катализаторов Поставщик: РОСНАНО, ОАО Ключевые слова: РОСНАНО, сероочистка, попутный нефтяной газ, нанокатализаторы Регион: Москва Организация производства установок сероочистки попутного нефтяного газа на основе наноструктурированных катализаторов. 251

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Создание производства износостойких изделий из наноструктурных керамических и металлокерамических материалов Поставщик: РОСНАНО, ОАО, ООО «Вириал» Ключевые слова: РОСНАНО, наноматериалы, нанотехнологии, нанокомпозиты Регион: Санкт-Петербург Цель проекта – создание полного производственного цикла по выпуску из наноструктурных керамик и металлокерамик различных триботехнических изделий Твердотельная светотехника. Энергосберегающие системы освещения на светодиодных чипах Поставщик: РОСНАНО, ОАО, ЗАО «ОптоГан», Группа ОНЭКСИМ Ключевые слова: РОСНАНО, светодиоды, полупроводники, гетероструктуры Регион: Санкт-Петербург Создание высокотехнологичного промышленного производства систем освещения нового поколения на основе светодиодных чипов. Продукция предназначена для офисного, уличного и промышленного освещения, автомобилестроения.

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Источники, использованные при написании учебника 1. K. Eric Drexler. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K._Eric_Drexler 2. Ed. Regis. The Incredible Shrinking Man: http://www.nanotechnologist.com/misc/index.html 3. Nanotechnology. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanotechnology 4. Nanomaterials From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanomaterials 5. What is nanotechnology? http://mrsec.wisc.edu/Edetc/nanotech/ index.html 6. Donald Anderson. NanoScale Materials: http://www.lead411.com/ Donald_Anderson_6825856.html 7. Engineering analysis From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Engineering_analysis 8. List of nanotechnology applications. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_nanotechnology_ applications 9. Richard Feynman. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Feynman 10. Richard Smalley. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Smalley 11. Муртазина Э.М. Нанокомпозиты в контексте зарубежных публикаций / Э.М. Муртазина // Вестник Казан. технол. ун-та. – 2010. – № 9. – С. 728–731.

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СОДЕРЖАНИЕ Предисловие ........................................................................................... 3 БАЗОВЫЙ КУРС................................................................................... 7 Lesson one. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY ......................................................................... 8 Text A. Nanotechnology ............................................................. 11 Text B. Fundamental Concepts .................................................... 12 Text C. Nanomaterials: Molecular Self-assembly ........................ 14 Lesson two. EARLY HISTORY OF NANOTECHNOLOGY ....................... 18 Text A. Early History of Nanotechnology: Richard Feinman ....... 21 Text B. Early History of Nanotechnology: K.Eric Drexler ........... 24 Text C. Early History of Nanotechnology: Criticism of K. Eric Drexler........................................................................ 27 Lesson three. NANOWORLD: VIRTUAL OR REAL?................................ 31 Text A. Exploring the Molecular World with Virtual Nanocomputer ............................................................................. 33 Text B. Too Small: Virtual Simulation ........................................ 35 Text C. Nanomachines ................................................................ 37 Lesson four. DOUBTS AND FEARS CONCERNING NANOTECHNOLOGY ............................................................................. 40 Text A. Dangers of Molecular Manufacturing.............................. 43 Text B. Too Little or Too Much Regulation? ............................... 44 Text C. Military Dangers ............................................................. 47 Lesson five. TEN DISCOVERIES IN NANOTECHNOLOGY THAT CHANGE THE WORLD .......................................................................... 50 Text A. Milestones in Nanotechnology Research ......................... 53 Text B. Nanotechnology Strategies .............................................. 55 Text C. Major Impacts of Nanotechnology .................................. 57 Lesson six. COMPARISON OF MICRO- AND NANOTECHNOLOGIES ......................................................................... 61 Text A. Key Differences of Micro- and Nanotechnologies ........... 63 Text B. Greatest Engineering Achievements of the 20th Century....................................................................... 66 Text C. Futuristic Industrial Products in the 21st Century by Nanotechnology ..................................................................... 70 254

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Lesson seven. APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGIES AND NANOPRODUCTS ......................................................................... 72 Text A. Materials and Manufacturing .......................................... 74 Text B. Assemblers of Nanoscaled Products ................................ 75 Text C. Health and Medicine ....................................................... 78 Lesson eight. CHALLENGES OF NANO ENGINEERING ........................ 81 Text A. General Steps of Nanofabrication ................................... 83 Text B. Nanoscale Engineering Analysis ..................................... 85 Text C. Challenges in Nanoscale Engineering.............................. 88 ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЙ СПРАВОЧНИК С УПРАЖНЕНИЯМИ ... 92 Грамматика урока 1 ............................................................................... 92 Грамматические упражнения урока 1 ..................................... 93 Грамматика урока 2 ............................................................................... 97 Грамматические упражнения урока 2 ................................... 103 Грамматика урока 3 ............................................................................. 105 Грамматические упражнения урока 3 ................................... 109 Грамматика урока 4 ............................................................................. 113 Грамматические упражнения урока 4 ................................... 117 Грамматика урока 5 ............................................................................. 120 Грамматические упражнения урока 5 ................................... 122 Грамматика урока 6 ............................................................................. 123 Грамматические упражнения урока 6 ................................... 127 Грамматика урока 7 ............................................................................. 129 Грамматические упражнения урока 7 ................................... 133 Грамматика урока 8 ............................................................................. 135 Грамматические упражнения урока 8 ................................... 138 АКТИВАТОР ДЛЯ РАЗГОВОРНОЙ ПРАКТИКИ ....................... 140 Английские фразы и выражения для разговорной практики (Тематика повседневного общения) ............................... 193 GLOSSARY ......................................................................................... 208 Сборник дополнительных текстов для индивидуальной работы ................................................................................................. 215 Тексты для перевода с русского языка на английский ................ 235 Источники, использованные при написании учебника................ 251

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УЧЕБНОЕ ИЗДАНИЕ

Э.М. Муртазина, Г.Г. Амирова, И.Ш. Абдуллин, В.А. Сысоев

ENGLISH FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION Часть 1

Ответственный за выпуск доц. Н.В. Крайсман

Компьютерная верстка А.Н. Егорова

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