English for every day

Данное пособие содержит несколько наиболее общих тем: семья, дом, еда, покупки путешествия и т.д. Каждая тема включает р

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

СМОЛЕНСКИЙ ГУМАНИТАРНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

English for every day Учебно-методическое пособие для студентов неязыковых факультетов

Составители: Марголина Е.Г., Зиновьева И.В.

Смоленск 2014 1

Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

Рецензия на учебно-методическое пособие «English for every day» (составители: Марголина Е.Г, Зиновьева И.В) Настоящее пособие предназначено для студентов неязыковых факультетов, а также всех желающих совершенствовать знания по английскому языку. Данное пособие содержит семь разделов: семья, дом, еда, покупки, Путешествия времени, климат и погода, забота о здоровье. Каждый раздел включает ряд текстов по определённой тематике, сравнительно небольшие сообщения, носящие информативный характер по заданной теме, как в монологе, так и в диалоге. Тексты сопровождаются лексическими, коммуникативными упражнениями, а также вопросами на понимание содержания изучаемого материала. Пособие включает вариативные задания, направленные на дополнительное погружение в изучаемые темы, на подготовку к практическим занятиям. Данное пособие способствует умению вести беседу по данным темам. Учебное пособие «English for every day» отвечает основным требованиям, предъявляемым к подобного рода изданиям и рекомендуется к изданию.

Заведующий кафедрой английской филологии, к.ф.н., доцент:

Л.А. Кузьмин

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CONTENTS Unit 1. Family. Home ……………………………………………3-15 Unit 2. Meals ……………………………………………………...16-24 Unit 3. Shopping ………………………………………………….25-33 Unit 4. Getting about town ………………………………………34-35 Unit 5. Travelling …………………………………………………36-44 Unit 6. Spare time ………………………………………………..45-47 Unit 7. Education ………………………………………………..48-50 Unit 8. Climate …………………………………………………..50-52 Unit 9. Health care ……………………………………………….53-54

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UNIT 1. FAMILY. HOME Text 1 Our Family We are a large and friendly family. There are six of us: grandfather, grandmother, father, mother, my younger sister and I. I have an elder sister, too, she is 22 years old, but she does not live with our family. She is married. She has a little family of her own: a husband and a child — a two-year old boy. Our grandfather is a scientist. He is on the wrong side of sixty, but he does not want to retire. He works at the university. He works part-time. He goes to the university two or three times a week and delivers lectures to students and does scientific work. On the days when he is at home, he works in his study, preparing for his lectures and writing a book. Our grandmother is retired. She was a teacher and worked at school. She is the recognized head of the family. She keeps house. Of course we help her about the house: all of us do our share in daily household chores. My sister washes the dishes, sweeps and washes the floor, washes the sink in the kitchen. My work is emptying the dustbin, beating the carpets, dusting and vacuum cleaning. Our mother and father do most of the shopping. My mother and sister also do washing. But most of the cooking is done by grandmother. She is a wonderful cook, and all our family likes her cooking very much. Father is a doctor. He works at a large hospital. Mother is an economist and she works at a bank. Both our parents are very busy. Father has a car. In the morning he drives mother to work, then he goes to his hospital. Father also always drives grandfather to work on his university days. My sister and I go to school. We are both senior formers, so naturally school takes up a lot of our time. We spend most of the afternoons and evenings doing our homework. At the weekend we are not so busy as on week days, and we can relax: visit or receive friends or relations or just go for a walk. I also enjoy quiet Saturday evenings, when all the members of our friendly family are at home and nobody is in a hurry, and we are quietly sitting in our large and comfortable living-room, talking, joking, discussing our everyday affairs and drinking nice hot clips of tea with something delicious prepared by grandmother . Practice reading the following words and word combinations. Learn them by heart: A friendly family – дружная семья A family of one’s own – своя семья A scientist – учёный He is on the wrong side of sixty – ему уже за шестьдесят To retire – уйти на пенсию To works part-time – работать неполный рабочий день /неделю/ To deliver lectures – читать лекции To does scientific work – заниматься научной работой The head of the family – глава семьи To keep house – вести домашнее хозяйство Recognized – признанный To drive mother to work – отвезти маму на работу Senior formers – старшеклассники To relax –отдохнуть, расслабиться To visit or receive friends – навещать или принимать друзей Relations – родственники To enjoy quiet Saturday evenings – Очень любить тихие субботние вечера Nobody is in a hurry – никто не торопится Discussing our everyday affairs – обсуждая наши повседневные дела Something delicious – что-нибудь очень вкусное

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Text 2 My family I live in the well-knit family. My parents' marriage is marriage of love. There are four members in our family: my father, my mother, my elder brother John and me. Nobody can call us problem children because our parents always try to do the best for us and to be our friends. John and I like to spend our free time with them as we always invent something interesting. John looks very much alike my mother, but my father and I are as like as two peas. So, John and I are different in appearance, but we are similar in character, that's why we easily agree in our views. Our grandparents live not so far from us. They say that we are the best grandchildren as we often visit them and treat them kindly and with great love. Our immediate relatives are uncle Tom and aunt Jane. For them we are the niece and the nephew. Their children are our cousins. We always celebrate all holidays and it is impossible to imagine any our party without uncle's jokes and aunt's cheerful laugh. This is our friendly family. I wish everybody to have the same family relations. Learn the following words and words-combinations. Try to use them in your own sentences: To agree in smb’s views, to be as like as two peas, to do the best, elder brother, distant relatives, immediate relatives, to invent smth., marriage of love, problem children, to treat smb. kindly, to imagine smth. without smth., a well-knit family. Questions to the text: 1. How many people are there in your family? 2. Do you like to spend your free time with parents? 3. Who are your immediate relatives? 4. What are your family relations? 5. Do you like to celebrate holidays in your family or with your friends? Match the adjectives on the left with their synonyms on the right. 1. ugly 2. slim 3. stout 4. good-looking 5. plain 6. pleasant to look 7. fair-haired 8. fat

a. attractive b. unattractive c. slender d. handsome e. blonde f. unpleasant g. overweight h. stocky

Read and translate the words. Try to memorise them using a dictionary if necessary. Age young middle-ag ed elderly old in his / her 30’s in his / her late teens in his/her mid –20's in his / her early- 40's

Build fat thin slim skinny plump mediu m -build well-b uilt (M) broad -sh ouldered (M) overweig ht

Heigh t 1.70m medium height average height below average tall short tallish shortish

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David My brother is 22 years old. He is of medium height and build, is a bit stocky, but strong with it. He has long, curly fair hair. It is fashionable in Britain at the moment for men to grow their hair. His nearly reaches his shoulders. My mother is always telling him to get it cut. He doesn't take much care over his appearance so he often looks quite scruffy; having to wear a tie for work. When he's at home he wears comfortable clothes such as T-shirts and jeans. He doesn't care very much what he looks like. James My other brother is much taller - he towers above me, even though he is only15. He does quite a lot of sport so he's quite strong and has well developed muscles. He has straight brown hair which refuses to lie flat and is always sticking up. He has bluish- grey eyes and a little nose. He is clever and quiet and spends a lot of time at his computer. People sometimes think that he is morose and sullen but I don’t think that's the case - he just prefers to think rather than to talk. When he does talk he has a deep voice. He doesn't pronounce his words very clearly, but just mutters them – he can’t be bothered to speak clearly. This is typical of boys of his age I think. Match the words on the left with the closest in the meaning on the right 1. 2. 3 4. 5 6 7 8. 9. 10 11 12 13. I4. 15

sad amusing wicked hard-working stubborn curious boring polite angry terrible shy brave, bold bossy arrogant sincere

a) courageous b) haughty c) frank d) dreadful e) industrious f) uninteresting g) reserved h) good-mannered i) inquisitive j) superior k) obstinate I) evil m) unhappy n) furious o) witty

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Match the favourable adjective on the left with the corresponding unfavourable adjective or phrase on the right.

1.ambitious 2. amusing, entertaining 3. beautiful (woman), handsome (man) 4. bright, intelligent, clever 5. calm 6. cheerful 7. even-tempered 8. generous 9. good-looking 10. hard-working 11. humorous, witty 12 pleasant, charming 13. polite 14. self-confident 15. sensitive 16. sincere 17. smart 18. tolerant 19. honest 20. obedient 21. outgoing

a)dim, stupid b)disagreeable c)dull, boring d)having no sense of humour e)hypocritical f) lacking in initiative g) lazy, idle h) mean i) miserable j) naughty k) narrow-minded I) plain m) quick-tempered n) rude o) shy p) deceitful q) unfeeling r) untidy s) ugly t) moody u) reserved

My aunt My aunt’s getting on for sixty, and she’s always been a very dynamic sort of person, but recently she’s started to behave in a rather strange way. A few months ago she took up karate and judo, and now she’s taking to riding a powerful motorbike everywhere she goes. Last week she turned up at my sister’s birthday party dressed in a leather jacket with Hell’s Angels written on the back. “I’ve come to liven things up”, she said, and immediately began dancing wildly to loud rock music. My sister found it rather embarrassing. “I wish she’d act her age”, she said. “She behaves as if she were sixteen rather than sixty”. But it doesn’t bother me at all. It takes all sorts to make a world. A. Read your own star sign description, and those of other people you know. Discuss with your partner if they are accurate or not. B. Try to guess which star signs belong to other people in your class. Aquarius (January 20 - February 18) You are practical and realistic about what is important in life - you have your | feet firmly on the ground. You are intelligent and love thinking up new ideas but you sometimes have a memory like a sieve. Once you have made a promise, you never go back on it. You like change, and often wear outrageous clothes that make you stand out in a crowd. Pisces (February 19 - March 20) You are sensitive, imaginative and creative, but also very emotional – your heart rules your head. You are not ambitious or materialistic and often have your own head in the clouds. You 7

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are indecisive because you don't always know your own mind, but you are good at putting yourself in other people's shoes. Aries (March 21 -April 20) You are a born leader and like to dominate people. You are very active and rather impulsive, so you tend to do things on the spur of the moment. You lose your temper very easily, but you get over it quickly and can be quite charming. You're not good at following other people's advice, but you're quick to give advice to them. Taurus (April 21 -May 20) You are practical, reliable, and determined. You have a mind of your own so it is very difficult to make you do something you don't want to. This means you can be stubborn at times. You like the security that comes from routine so you don't like change. You are loyal and generous to your friends and will stand by them whenever possible. Gemini (May 21 - June 20) You are intelligent, interested in everything, and have an excellent general knowledge. You think and talk fast and you are full of restless energy. You are versatile and good at doing several things at the same time. You have a strong sense of humour and often have your friends in stitches. You are sociable, get bored easily and love change. Cancer (June 21 - July 21) You are very sensitive and easily hurt. If someone says an unkind word to you, you take it to heart, but you are also very forgiving. Your family life is very important to you. You are sincere in love, but often take things too seriously. You are a loyal friend and have a good memory, but you can be moody sometimes. Leo (July 22-August 21) You have a confident and attractive personality, but you tend to be proud. You like to be in the public eye and you are easily flattered. You love the sun and are very generous - indeed, you have a heart of gold. You like to organize other people, and you are quick to stand up for someone who you think is being attacked. Virgo (August 22 - September 21) You are quiet and shy and don't like crowds. You tend to be a loner and keep yourself to yourself. You are a perfectionist - you want everybody and everything to be perfect and this makes it difficult for people to live up to your high standards. You prefer to play a supporting role at work and in relationships. Libra (September 22 - October 22) You are sympathetic, tolerant and a good listener, so when a friend needs a shoulder to cry on, they turn to you. Love is important for you and you are always falling for people. However, you are indecisive. You spend a long time weighing up all the possibilities before you make up your mind. Scorpio (October 23 - November 21) You have strong likes and dislikes and tend to see things in black and white, As a result, you tend to make instant judgement and rarely change your mind about things or people. You are ambitious, but love is more important to you than success. You are very secretive and hide your true feelings. If you are hurt you always take revenge.

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

Sagittarius (November 22 - December 20) You are friendly, extrovert, and outspoken. You rebel against authority and have a tendency to speak your mind when it would be better to remain silent. You hate pretence and deception. You are intelligent and like to show off your knowledge to other people. You love travel and danger and you have a hot temper. Capricorn (December 21 - January 19) You are a strong-minded person who takes life and work very seriously. Your talent and determination make you successful and you usually get to the top. In your relationships you are faithful and loyal, but you are also possessive and like to be in control. You are very cautious and tend to bottle up your feelings rather than release them.

Text 3 Tom Brown Speaks about his Flat Our flat is on the sixth floor of a big twelve-storey building. In our flat we have three rooms, a kitchen, a hall, a bathroom and a toilet. The first place you get to when you enter our flat is the hall. It is rather large. To the left of the entrance door there is a hall-stand, where we hang our overcoats and put our hats when we take them off. To the right of the entrance door there is a large mirror with a little table under it. Our living-room is large. The floor of our living-room is yellow, the ceiling is white, the walls are blue. The curtains on the windows are brown. There is a large brown sideboard in our living-room. It is at the wall to the right of the door. In the sideboard there are many plates, cups and glasses. There are some fine vases in the sideboard, too. There is a cosy red sofa in our living-room. It is at the wall to the left of the door. There are some cushions on the sofa. There is a little black coffee-table in front of the sofa. There are some newspapers and magazines on the coffee-table. We have a large colour TV-set in the living-room. It is in the corner of the room on a little table. There is a big vase on the TV-set. There are usually some beautiful flowers in the vase. There are two cosy armchairs in our living-room. They are in front of the TV-set. There are some fine pictures on the walls of our living-room. We usually spend our free time in the living-room, reading, talking or watching TV. We receive our guests in the living-room, too. Our bedroom is not very large. The walls of our bedroom are pink, the curtains on the window are yellow. In our bedroom we have two beds. There is a little bedside table between the beds. There is a large yellow wardrobe in our bedroom-It is at the wall to the right of the door. There are some clothes in the wardrobe. In the corner of the bedroom there is a small dressing table with a mirror over it. Our study is small. The walls of our study are brown, the curtains on the window are green. In our study we have a little writing-desk. It is in front of the window. There are some pens, pencils and exercise-books on the writing-desk. There is a large brown bookcase in our study. It is at the wall to the left of the writing-desk. There are many books in it. Our kitchen is small. There is a refrigerator in the kitchen. The refrigerator is white. There is a gas-cooker in the kitchen. The gas-cooker is black. There is a cupboard at the wall and a little table in the middle of the kitchen. There are some stools round the table. In the kitchen we cook, have our meals and wash the dishes. Practice reading the following words and word combinations. Learn them by heart. An entrance door – входная дверь An armchair – кресло To receive the guests – принимать гостей 9

Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

A refrigerator – холодильник A gas-cooker – газовая плита To have meals – принимать пищу To wash the dishes – мыть посуду A stool – табурет Learn and act the following dialogue: A. Well, here is our new flat. B. When did you move in? A. About two weeks ago. Last Saturday we had a housewarming party. B. Do you like your new flat? A. Yes. It's a nice flat of three rooms with all modern conveniences. Just a moment, this must be the wrong key, it doesn't fit into the keyhole... Now it's all right... Just walk in. B. Oh, the hall is rather large. A. Let me help you off with your coat. Hang your hat on that peg up there... Now I'll show you round the flat. This door leads to the living-room. B. A rather large room, I should say. What's the floor space? A. About 23 square metres, I believe. B. I like the wall-paper. A. There is not enough furniture. We want to buy a coffee-table and two or three armchairs to make the room look cosy. B. The windows face south-west, don't they? A. So they do. We have sunshine the greater part of the day. Now, this glassed door opens on the balcony. B. Oh, what a fine view you get from here! That building on the left is a school, I believe. A. Right you are. And on the right you will see a supermarket. So we needn't go far to do our shopping. B. That's fine. It saves a lot of time, doesn't it? A. Now here is one of our bedrooms. Would you like to see it? B. I'll just look in... The room really looks fine. You've got everything a bedroom should have: beds, a bedside table, a dressing table, a mirror over it... Well, but there is one thing lacking. I see no wardrobe. A. This time you are mistaken, there is one. We have a built- in wardrobe. Here it is. B. How very convenient! And it is so large! You can keep a lot of clothes in it. A. Now shall I take you to our kitchen? B. Yes, please. I would like to see your kitchen very much. Read the interview and answer the question: Interviewer: Hello, Mrs.Parker. You look as young and beautiful as ever. May I ask you a few questions, Mrs.Parker? Mrs.Parker: Certainly. I am used to answering questions. Int.: What time do you get up? Mrs.P.: I usually get up at 6 o'clock. People of my age can't sleep long. Int.: And when do you go to bed? Mrs.P.: At 9 o'clock. Int.: What was the last film you took part in? Mrs.P.: Let me think... Well, I don't remember. Int.: What do you usually do during the day? Mrs.P.: I go out every day and walk with Philip. Int.: Is Philip your husband? Mrs.P: No, it's my dog. We parted with my husband 5 years ago and I never married 10

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again. Int.: Thank you, Mrs. Parker. Is Mrs. Parker young or old?

Text 4 Working Disorder I have my own room. My mother always says that I should keep it in order. But in my opinion everything in my room should lie on the floor. Only three paths should link the door, the desk and the bed. Necessary papers should be fastened on the wall, because in my room papers usually disappear at the very moment they’re desperately needed. Cassettes and books should be on the desk, because if they’re on the floor, I can’t find them, and if they’re on shelves, I can’t reach them, as the floor is swamped with other things. As for the floor, it is very uncomfortable when different things are in different places. For example, my mother says that clothes should be in a wardrobe, something else on the shelf, and so on. So when I need something I have to remember where I placed that thing the last time I used it. When things lie on the floor I can see them all at once and find what I need. If I wait for guests, I can hide everything from the floor under the bed and put the books and cassettes in one big heap on the desk. If guests ask, what it is, I can say that it is working disorder. If they look under my bed, they’re impolite. This is my opinion of how my room should be arranged. What would you do in your room, if your parents allowed you to maintain your own order? Russian traditions: Match the questions to the answers: 1.Why did the Russians used to say "to hew a house"? 2.What trees did the Russians use for building of their houses? 3.Did the Russians use nails building their houses? 4.What does the word "podpol" mean? 5.What does the word "seny" mean? 6.What was the most wide spread type of a peasant's house in Russia? 7.What was the "Russian stove" made of? 8.What does the Russian proverb "To dance from the stove" mean? 9.What does the word "polaty"mean? 10. What does the word "svyetyolka" mean? 1. What did the window have for closing? 12.What is "ushat"? 13.What is "an icon-case (Kiot)"? 14.What does the word "chugunok"mean? 15.What does the word

a. They built without a single nail b. a cast-iron pot c. it means a "light room", a special room in the attic for unmarried daughters of the house owner d. because their houses were built of wood e. a corridor adjacent to the house, which connected it to the covered farmyard, where people kept their animals and various utensils f. shutters for the night time g. clay, brick h. pine-tree, larch-tree 11

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i. a deck made of boards under the ceiling for sleeping j. a pantry k. a wooden tub with eye handles for water l. hand-woven rags m. "to begin from the beginning" n. it contains icons of Russian saints o. It was "izba" with a four-wall "srube

Text 5 Housework Mr and Mrs Turvey both hated housework. They were a very untidy couple who never put things away. When they went to bed, for example, they always left their clothes in a mess on the floor. Their kitchen was a mess, too. Even though they had a dishwasher, they always left the dirty dishes in the kitchen sink and only did the washing-up when there wasn't a clean plate to be found in the house. It was the same with their clothes. They never put them into the washing machine until there was nothing else left to wear. The living room always looked as though a bomb had just gone off. There were things everywhere. There was thick dust on every piece of furniture and the carpet had not been cleaned for weeks. And the bathroom! One day, when Mr Turvey couldn't find one of his shoes, and Mrs Turvey couldn't see her face in the bathroom mirror, they decided it was time to get the house cleaned. So they found Marie, a foreign student at a local language school, who needed some extra money. Marie came to the house and worked all day long. She washed and dried all the clothes. Then she got out the iron. She ironed the clothes, folded them neatly and put them away. She swept all the dust off the floors with a large broom. She took a wet cloth and wiped the dust off every surface in the house and then polished the furniture until it was shining. She got out the vacuum cleaner and cleaned all the carpets. In the kitchen the floor was filthy. It was too dirty to wash with a mop, so Marie got on her hands and knees and scrubbed the dirt off with a scrubbing brush. Finally she made the bed and, when she had finished, the house looked spotless. Mr and Mrs Turvey came home that evening. There was nothing on the floor. There was no dust on the furniture. The wood was shining and you could smell the polish. In their bedroom all their clothes were neat, clean and tidy. 'So what do you think?' Mrs Turvey asked her husband. 'It looks nice and tidy,' he said, 'but how are we ever going to find anything? Put these words and phrases into four sentences: Spotless

dirty

untidy

filthy

in a mess

clean

tidy

neat

1. _________ is similar in meaning to __________ 2. __________ is similar in meaning to __________ 3. ___________ means very, very ______________ 4. ___________ means very, very ______________ Think about 1. Are you a tidy person? 2.Who does most of the housework in your home? What kind of housework do you do and how often? 3.What kind of housework do you most hate doing? What kind of housework do you least mind doing? 4.Which of the following machines is the most useful for housework: a dishwasher, a washing machine, a vacuum cleaner? 12

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Translate from English into Russian: 1. I have a lot of relatives and we often have little gatherings where we discuss different events of our life. 2. My niece is a hard-working girl, she manages the the household very well. 3. My company is situated in an industrial district of our city and it sells electronic equipment. 4. My nephew keeps asking us silly questions and at times his curiosity drives me mad. 5. - Do you often fight with your younger brother? - No, we never fight. We get on very well together. Translate from Russian into English: 1. Каков адрес вашей невестки? 2. Как зовут вашего свёкра (тестя)? 3. Где живут твои дядя и тётя? 4. – Ты женат? – Нет, я холост. – А что насчёт твоего старшего брата? – Он женат. – У него есть дети? – Да у него дочь. – Сколько ей лет? – Я не помню. По-моему лет 17-18. Now read the text and answer the following questions: 1. What needs doing to the flat? 2. Does Ann decide to buy it? Estate agent: Well, this is the flat. It's vacant at the moment. I'm afraid the previous owners didn't look after it very well, so it's not in perfect condition. Ann: Mmm... Estate agent: As you can see, it's in need of some decoration and repair. There are four rooms altogether: kitchen, living room, bedroom, and bathroom. This is the living room. It hasn't been decorated recently. Ann: Yes, it certainly needs doing up... All the wallpaper is coming off the walls, and it's very cold and damp. How is the flat heated? Estate agent: Well, there's an open fireplace, but it could be taken out and central heating could be put in. , Ann: Mmm... It's not very large. I suppose I could put up some shelves for books and things. Do the carpets come with the flat? Estate agent: Yes, though as you can see, they are rather old and don't add much value to the property. Ann: Yes, I agree. I think they all need throwing out, to be honest. What's that up there? Is that a hole in the ceiling? Estate agent: Oh, yes, I'm afraid it is. I didn't notice that the last time I was here. Ann: Well, that will definitely need seeing to before it does any damage to the property. Estate agent: Yes, of course. But I do think the flat has potential. It could look very good if it's done up nicely. Ann: Well, I'm certainly interested. Obviously I'll need to talk it over with my husband. You say it's vacant. Does that mean we could move in immediately? Estate agent: Yes, the flat is empty so you could move in when you're ready. Ann: Well, I'll certainly think it over and if we decide to make an offer I'll call you tomorrow. Thank you for showing me round the flat. Estate agent: No trouble, Mrs. Jones. We hope to hear from you tomorrow then. Goodbye. Ann: Goodbye. 13

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Very often people look for accommodation. Use the advertisements below to help these people to find something suitable. 1. Sam, a student, wants to rent a cheap room. He can't afford more than $ 6 a week. He doesn't mind sharing a flat. 2. George and Martha Lane have got a lot of furniture but they haven't got enough money to buy a house. 3. Harry only wants to spend a few nights in a town. 4. Fred can spend up to £ 150 a week but he can't afford to spend any more on heating, etc. 5. The Greens (Mr. and Mrs. Green and two children) are looking for a house. They can afford up to £ 65,000. 6. The Pikes (Mr. and Mrs. Pike and the twins) want to rent a house for six months only, before they emigrate to Australia. 7. Jack Hilton wants to buy a luxury house with air conditioning system and a garden. 8. Samuel James is looking for a quiet, single room in Northwest London. Note: modern air conditioning system includes cooling, heating and balancing the humidity level. Houses and Flats to Let LARGE sunny bedsitter in quiet house. Suit middle-aged business gent. $ 12 p.w. 58 Richmond Rd., N.W.3. After 7. F/ F FLATLET, all fac., bus. man only $ 15 p.w. inc. h / w. After 2. 681-2101. 3RD GIRL to share flat. Own room. Z321 POST. 3rd PERSON wanted. Near tube. Z322 POST. SINGLE AND DOUBLE rooms to let. From $ 12 per week. 031-4551. NEAR Green Park, s / c flat, 2 beds., bath., kit., 1 .r., $ 39 p.w. HOUSE 5 rooms. Suit small family. Six month let. Z324 POST. DOUBLE room, use of bath, and kit. Suit business couple. No children or pets. 602-5421 UNFURNISHED Flat. 2 beds. $ 1,300 p.a. $ 1,500 for carpets, etc. LUXURY flat, large drawing room, dining room, 2 beds., c / h. Rent $ 60 p.w. inc rates / garage

Houses and Flats for Sale DRAB AND WORMWOOD £ 52.000. An attractive, 3 beds, semi-detached house, only a few steps from shops and railway station. Small garden front and back. £ 34.000. Delightful, one bedroom fourth-floor flat, balcony, superb view (very quiet neighbours). £ 22.000. Bungalow, in pleasant estate, close to shops. 2 beds, large garden. Mortgage can be easily arranged. 7, SOUTH STREET, EASTING 528-5431 MILLDEWS 90 West street Easting £82.000 a detached property with the benefit of full, gas-fired central heating. Lovely garden. Accommodation inc. spacious hall, roomy kitchen, 4 large bedrooms, lounge, dining room, 2 baths. Telephone: 737-5860 BED and BREAKFAST B&B from £ 19.50. 543-2101; B&B (home-made beer) 632-4321 ACCOMMODATION WANTED O.A.P. with parrot seeks comfortable room. Z 432 POST

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Phoning a Landlord Angela is a student at a university. She is looking for a room to let. She saw an advertisement and has decided to phone the landlord. Landlord: Hello. 6785423 Angela: I saw your advertisement for the room. Landlord: Oh, oh yes. That's right. Angela: I wonder if you could give me some more information? Landlord: Yes, well, well, what would you like to know? Angela: Well, I was wondering ... Er... What's the rent? Landlord: $ 35 a week. Angefa: And what does this include? Landlord: The room, obviously. It's your own room. You don't have to share. It's a single room. You share the bathroom and you can use the kitchen, but there are no meals included. Angela: Right, uhm ... and what about heating? Landlord: No, no, you don't have to pay for that. There's central heating in all the rooms, so there's nothing extra to pay there. Angeia: Oh, lovely, and do you want the rent weekly? Is there a deposit? Landiord: You have to pay weekly, on a Monday. And there's one-week deposit payable in advance. Angela: Right, that sounds fair. Are there any particular house rules, you know, that I've got to keep to? Landlord: What do you mean? Angela: Well, like what about guests and hours? Landlord: Oh yes, well you can come and go as you want, of course, but you must pay a deposit for the front-door key. That's separate from the other deposit, I'm afraid. As for guests they should be out by eleven o'clock. We don't like to say that, but we've had a bit too much trouble, so we have to say it. Angela: Right. Is it quite near public transport? Landlord: Oh, yes. Five minutes to the tube station, and the bus stop is just round the corner with buses run into town every ten minutes or so. Angela: Lovely, it sounds very interesting. Do you think I could come and have a look at it this evening? Landlord: Yes, of course. I'll give you the address. Now, it's 35 Chestnut Avenue, Walton. How'll you be coming? Angela: By car. Landlord: Well, it's just by the police station and the library. Angela: Yes, well, I know it. If I come about eight, is that all right? Landlord: That's fine. Could you tell me your name? Angela: Angela Smiley. Landlord: Right. I'll see you around eight. Goodbye. Angela: Bye-bye. Read the text and find the right variant. A man inviting his friend to his home explained where he lived and how to get to his place. "Come to the 3d floor," he said, "and where you see the letter "E" on the door push the button with your elbow and when the door opens put your foot against it. "Why do I have to use my elbow and my foot?" asked his friend. "Well," exclaimed the man, " you are not going to come empty-handed, are you?" 1) It is an English custom to push the button with the elbow. 2) The man's name began with the letter "C". 15

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3) The guest was surprised at his friend's instructions. 4) The guest knew why he had to put his foot against the door. Learn the following proverbs and sayings: Every day is not Sunday – Не каждый день – воскресенье. Don’t wash your dirty linen in public – Не стирайте своё грязное бельё на людях. As you make your bed, so you must lie on it – Какую постель себе приготовишь, на такой и будешь лежать. Every family has a black sheep – В каждой семье есть своя чёрная овца. /ср. «В семье не без урода»/ There is no place like home – Нет места лучше дома. Like father like son – Каков отец, таков и сын. An hour in the morning is worth two in the evening – Один час утром стоит двух часов вечером. A little pot is soon hot – Маленький котелок быстро нагревается. Men make houses, women make homes – Мужчины создают дома, а женщины – домашний очаг. He got out of bed on the wrong side – Он встал с кровати не с той стороны.

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UNIT 2. MEALS Text 1 Some people have three meals a day, others have four. I usually have four meals. My first meal is breakfast. I have it early in the morning before going to school. As a rule, I don't feel hungry early in the morning, so I always have a light breakfast. I eat a sandwich with cheese or sausage, or scrambled eggs with a slice of bread and butter. After it I drink a cup of black coffee with a lot of sugar. I am fond of coffee and drink it every day. My sister doesn't like eggs and she usually has a sandwich or a couple of toasts and a cup of tea. But her favourite breakfast is a piece of cake or a fancy-cake left over from yesterday. My mother usually has no breakfast at all. Sometimes she just drinks a cup of tea with milk and eats a spoonful of jam with a little slice of white bread. My father likes to have a big breakfast. He usually eats something hot - - a piece of roast meat or a cutlet with potatoes or macaroni. He drinks a cup of coffee without sugar: he doesn't like sugar in his coffee. Some people like porridge for breakfast. They say porridge is very healthy food, and we must begin our day with a plate of porridge. The English usually have a big breakfast. The traditional English breakfast is a plate of porridge, bacon and eggs and a cup of tea with toast and jam or marmalade. There are four members in our family, and on week days we have our breakfast at different times. My mother is the first to get up in the morning. She prepares breakfast for the family and wakes up my father. They have breakfast together when my sister and I are still asleep. We are the last to get up, and we have breakfast when father and mother are getting ready to leave home for work. On Sunday, when everybody is at home, we have breakfast together. For our Sunday breakfast we have the same food as on week days: sandwiches with cheese or sausage, scrambled eggs or soft-boiled eggs. Sometimes we have cottage cheese and sour cream for breakfast. But our favourite Sunday breakfast is pancakes, which we eat with butter or sour cream, with jam or honey.

Learn the following dialogues: Dialogue 1 HOST. Take another helping of the salad. GUEST. No, thank you. I've had enough. Your salad is really delicious. HOST. You haven't eaten any sausage. GUEST. No, thank you, I mustn't overeat, I don't want to put on weight. HOST. What will you drink: tea or coffee? GUEST. Tea, if you please. HOST. Have some jam, please. GUEST. Thank you. Oh, delicious jam! HOST. Take some pie. It won't do you any harm, I am sure. GUEST. You are very kind. I really think I'll take a little piece. I like your pie very much. HOST. Another cup of tea? GUEST. Thank you, I think I will. HOST. Lemon? GUEST. Yes, please. HOST. How much sugar do you want in your tea? GUEST. Two spoonfuls, please. HOST Here you are. Help yourself. GUBST. Thank you.

Dialogue2 MARY. I am hungry. What about having a bite? 17

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DICK. Good idea. Let's drop into this small cafe. MARY. O. K. Oh, it's very nice here. Let's sit at that table. DICK. All right. WAITER. Hello. What will you order? Here's the menu. DICK. Thank you. Have a look, Mary, what would you like?

MARY. My supper is usually a very simple meal, so I'd like some roast chicken, salad and coffee. WAITER. I can offer you sliced cucumbers with sour cream. MARY. Very good. DICK. I prefer tomato salad. And I will have roast beef and chips. And coffee, of course. WAITER. Any wine? DICK. Oh yes, a bottle of port wine and some mineral water. WAITER. Yes, sir.

Text 2 The second meal of the day is lunch. People usually have it at work. As a rule, lunch is a light meal. I have my lunch at the school canteen. For lunch I have vegetable salad and a sandwich or two with sausage or cheese, or sometimes a couple of frankfurters and a slice of brown bread. I drink a glass of tea or juice. Dinner is the biggest meal of the day. Some people have dinner at work, others have it at home when they come from work. On week days it is difficult to gather the whole family for dinner, because people finish work at different times. But on Sunday we always have dinner together. Our Sunday dinner usually begins with an appetizer: a little salad, or Russian salad, a piece of herring, or perhaps some pickled or marinated mushrooms, tomatoes or cucumbers. The main course of the dinner is soup, or broth. Broth with meat pies is very tasty. For the second course we have roast meat or stewed meat and fried or boiled potatoes, or sometimes macaroni or spaghetti. I like roast chicken and mashed potatoes for dinner. Many people like to have fish for dinner. For the dessert we drink a glass of mineral water or lemonade or juice. Sometimes we have fresh or canned fruit. Supper is the last meal of the day. Supper must be a light meal, because it isn't good to eat much in the evening. The proverb says, "After dinner sleep a while, After supper walk a mile." We usually have a cup of tea and sandwiches for supper. We also may have sponge-cake, biscuits, rolls or buns, or pies with jam or marmalade. Meat pies, or pies with cabbage and eggs are also very tasty. The English have lunch at about 12 or 1 o'clock. Usually it is a light meal: a sandwich or two, rolls or buns and a glass of tea or juice. At 5 o'clock in the afternoon the English have tea. The 5 o'clock tea is a famous English tradition. As a rule, the whole family gathers at home for the 5 o'clock tea. In the evening the English have dinner or supper. Supper and dinner in England is practically the same meal, only for dinner you have soup and for supper you don’t. It is a long-standing tradition. But nowadays in many families they have both, like us: dinner in the middle of the day and supper in the evening.

Text 3 The usual meals are breakfast, dinner and supper. Specialists consider breakfast to be the most important meal the day, because one is to be energetic during the long hard working day For breakfast people usually have rolls Of bread and butter, coffee or tea. Some people like 18

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to have breakfast with porridge or "Corn Flakes" with milk and I sugar. For a change you can have a boiled egg or buttered I toast. People generally have dinner at twelve-one o'clock. The businessmen often find it impossible to come home for dinner mainly because of traffic jam. So they go to a nearest I cafe or a restaurant. For dinner people usually have soup, I meat, perhaps fish and potatoes, bread and salad. Sometimes we have chops, cheese and noodles, followed by tea or I coffee. The traditional meal of Russian people is pelmeni. There is even no some special word for denoting this meal I in other languages. Supper is to be the smallest meal of the day. Going tot sleep with a full stomach is harmful for our organism! People usually have an omelette, sausages, salad and plenty! of fruit. One can also have a cup of tea with a piece of cake.1 However, everything depends on one's taste and money. , As for me, I get up early in the morning. My mother usually does the cooking but I always help her. For breakfast! I always try to eat something substantial like eggs, sausage or cheese sandwiches and to drink a good strong coffee, because cause I have no opportunity to come home for lunch. For supper our family usually has fish. Sometimes salad, pickles, fruits or something tasty. My father likes a glass of beer with supper. Vocabulary: Roll n – булочка Porridge n – каша “Corn Flakes” – кукурузные хлопья for a change – для разнообразия boil v – варить, кипятить toast n – поджаренный хлеб traffic jam – «пробка» в уличном движении chop n – отбивная котлета noodles n, pl – лапша stomach n – желудок substantial adj – плотный pickles n – соленья, маринады beer n – пиво Questions to the text 1) What are the usual meals? 2) Why is breakfast so important? 3) What do people have for breakfast? 4) What do people have for dinner? 5) Why do businessmen have dinner at a restaurant? 6) What do people have for supper? 7) Describe your usual meals. 8) What kind of food do you like most of all?

Text 4 Eating out When I have free time, I enjoy going in various restaurants, bars and nightclubs, where I can relax from countless life troubles. Besides, there is no need to cook meal. In such places of entertainment one can go with his family, or just with a friend of his. I used to go in a restaurant not far from my home. It is an attractive little place. The prices are not very high, the choice is rather wide, and I always find delicious food there. Generally I phone the restaurant to book a table for dinner. After my coming to the restaurant I say that I have got a reservation for dinner. A waiter of19

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fers a menu for each customer to look through. You may choose any food you like best. Much depends on one's taste and money, of course. Some people prefer French or, for instance, Chinese food. As for me, there is no my preferable food. Still I prefer Russian food to foreign one. Smoking man may ask for an ashtray and cigarettes. Meanwhile the waiter lays the table. He puts napkins, salt-cellar, mustard-and-pepper pot, different glasses, plates, forks and spoons on the table. Usually I ask for some salad to start with, then chicken, potatoes, a glass of red wine and fruit salad or ice-cream for a dessert. Sometimes I would like something extraordinary. It is great to have dinner listening to the classical music. Then the waiter brings the bill to pay. I like to drop in bars or nightclubs with my friends when we are in high spirits. I enjoy sitting at a bar stool, drinking beer from a beer-mug, listening to the modern music. My girl-friend prefers soft drinks or some cocktail which she drinks using a straw. The situation with the nightclubs is different. We dance to the modern rhythms, communicate with the other people. So, everybody can choose a place for pleasure to is own taste. Vocabulary: countless adj – бесчисленный trouble n – проблема entertainment n – развлечение attractive adj– привлекательный price n – цена delicious adj – вкусный book a table – заказывать столик reservation n – предварительный заказ waiter n – официант menu n – меню customer n – посетитель look through v – просматривать preferable adj – предпочтительный ashtray n – пепельница meanwhile adv – тем временем lay the table – накрывать стол napkin n – салфетка salt-cellar n – солонка mustard- pot n – горчичница pepper-pot n– перечница extraordinary – необычный bill – счёт drop in v – заглядывать to be in high spirits – быть в хорошем настроении beer n – пиво beer-mug – пивная кружка soft drink – безалкогольный напиток straw n – соломинка Questions to the text: 1)Why do people go to the places o entertainment? 2)With whom do you like to go to a restaurant? 3)What is your favourite restaurant? Give your reasons. 4)Do you phone a restaurant beforehand? Why? 5)What duties does a waiter have? 6)What is your favourite food? 7)What is the purpose of your going: a) in bars; b)in nightclubs? 20

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Text 5 English Food The Englishman likes a good breakfast. To him a good breakfast means porridge with milk, fish, bacon and eggs, toast and marmalade, tea or coffee. And to him much of its goodness lies in the fact that it is the same from day to day, from January to January. The English like their toast cold. It is cut in triangles and set in the partitions on an open toast rack. 1 For lunch they usually have soup, fruit juice, cold meat and salad, or fish, or roast meat and vegetables, then goes an apple tart, or a hot milk pudding, cold fruit salad, or ice- cream. From four to six there is a very light meal called afternoon tea. It consists of a cup of tea and a cake. This became a kind of ritual. At this time "everything stops for tea" in England. The whole nation is at ease drinking tea. Dinner (usually at 6 p.m.) is much like lunch and is in many families the last main me al of the day. For supper they have tea or coffee with biscuits. Almost every meal finishes with coffee, cheese and butter. Coffee is weak by European standards. Most English people put milk in their coffee — this is known as "white" coffee. Waiters will ask if you want your coffee "black or white" rather than "with or without" milk. This is what the magazine Modern English writes about English food: "The English are not interested in food. Their food is standardised, and, in general, rather dull and unimaginative. 2 Take, for example, the way of cooking vegetables. The English housewife simply boils them in salt water. But now many British housewives do not even find time to boil fresh vegetables. They leave their homes and kitchens to go and work. They are not ashamed to use frozen, canned or precooked food — simply because it saves time." However, the quality of English cooking has improved in recent years, both in the range of foods available 4 and the preparation of them.

Text 6 Fish and Chips The English people like fish and chips. Everybody seems to have a fish and chip supper at home at least once a week. There are fish and chip shops in the side streets of every English town. Mobile shops sometimes go out to the villages. The shops are usually run by a small staff; 2 often by a man and his wife. The pieces of fish are dropped into deep boiling oil for a few minutes. They come out crisp and hot, and then wrapped in paper and newspaper so that those who come to buy them could take them away. But if you wish you can eat your fish and chips without taking them home — there is always a small cafe in the shop. By the end of the evening many come for chips to eat them out of paper bags in the streets.

Text 7 A Sad Story An English tourist, who was staying at a hotel in Paris came to the hotel restaurant to have dinner. He could not speak French, but he did not want to show it to people. He sat down at a table. When the waiter came up to his table, the Englishman took the 21

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menu-card and pointed to the first line. The waiter nodded and walked away. Very soon he returned and put a plate of mushroom soup on the table. The Englishman was very pleased with himself. He ate the soup and, when the waiter came up to the table again, pointed to the fifth line on the menu-card. The waiter looked a little surprised, but did not say a word. He walked away and soon returned, bringing the Englishman a plate of fish soup. The Englishman did not want to show the waiter that he did not know French, so he ate the fish soup. Then he pointed to a line in the middle of the menu-card, hoping that he would get some second course at last. This time the waiter brought him a plate of chicken broth. In despair, the Englishman pointed to the last line on the menu-card. And the waiter brought him a package of tooth-picks! Try to cook the following: Apple chicken salad – 1 medium apple, cored and chopped – 1 cup diced cooked chicken – 2 to 4 tablespoons of mayonnaise – 2 tablespoons diced green pepper – lettuce leaf In a small bowl, combine first four ingredients. Chill until ready to serve. Place lettuce leaf on a serving plate and top with the chilled chicken salad. How to make the very best onion rings Peel an onion. Then slice the onion so that each slice has many rings. Prepare a mixture of two eggs and ½ cup of milk in a pan or bowl. Place the rings in the mixture for two minutes. Take a plate with flour on the bottom. Add salt and pepper to the flour according to your taste. Take the onion rings out of the mixture and put them on the plate of flour. Do not let the rings touch each other. Have a pan of cooking oil. It must be hot. Put the floured onion rings in the oil. They will cook quickly. We like to salt the cooked onion ring. Enjoy! Put the sentences to make up a story : 1) Then it is decorated and put into a cool place for some time. 2) Then they are put into a pot. 3) First different fruits are taken. 4) It is served for dessert. 5) After that the salad is mixed. 6) They are carefully washed and cut into pieces. 7) Cream may also be added. 8) This is how a fruit salad is made.

Put the following passages in the right order: a)To get creamy scrambled eggs, be careful at this stage. As soon as the egg in the pan is thick and there is almost no liquid egg left, turn off the stove. Keep stirring to continue the cooking. The heat in the pan will cook the egg to the right consistency. b)Place the pan over the lowest heat possible and put the knob of butter in. Stir the butter 22

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around the pan. c) As soon as the butter starts to melt, pour in the egg. Keep stirring the egg in the pan with a spoon to mix the cooked egg with the uncooked part. d)Break the egg into the bowl and add the milk, salt and pepper. Beat the egg gently just to mix in the ingredients. Complete the English proverbs and sayings : 1. Every man to his ... 2. Don't put all your ....in one basket. 3........ at home is better than .... abroad. 4. It's no use crying over spilt .. 5........ is sweet, but the bee stings. 6. The proof of the ... is in its eating. 7. Every...... must hang by its own gill. 8. No..... without some ....... 9. What is ..... for the goose is sauce for the gander. 10. There is small choice in ..... Use the words and word-combination: sweet roast meat honey rotten apples pudding taste herring sauce

eggs bitter spilt milk dry bread.

Match the containers or containers or (and) the quantities in the left-hand column with the kinds of food in the right-hand column.

1 a bottle 2. a bar 3. a box 4. a grain 5. a jar 6. a loaf 7. a packet 8. a lump 9. a tin 10. a drop 11. a slice 12. a dozen

a) chocolates b) crisps c) sardines d) milk e) jam f) eggs g) water i) chocolate j) cake k) rice 1) sugar m) bread

Match the adjectives from the left with the nouns on the right. economical substantial new pleasant Scottish dull reasonable nourishing adequate Yorkshire

breakfast meal veal atmosphere price surroundings course food peas manner 23

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attractively presented fresh business-like simply-cooked traditional disappointing full plain

dish ham potatoes pudding English breakfast English meal

Word Use Match the ways of cooking on the left with the kinds of food on the right. 1. boil a)pancakes 2. fry b) a cake 3. grill c)cabbage 4. roast d) cucumbers 5. stew e) fruit 6. bake f) a steak 7. preserve g) potatoes 8. pickle h) a joint of beef

Put each of the following words or phrases in its correct place in the passage below. Eating out bill dish snack

fast food menu tip

cookery books take-away

eat out ingredients

recipe waiter

I'm a terrible cock. I've tried hard but it's no use. I've got lots of (1) ______ , I choose a (2)________I want to cook, I read the (3)_________, I prepare all the necessary (4) ________ and follow the instructions. But the result is terrible, and I just have a sandwich or some other quick (5) _____ . So I often (6) ________. I don't like grand restaurants. It is not the expense, it s just that I don't feel at ease in them. First the (7)______ gives me a (8) ________ which I can't understand because it's complicated and has lots of foreign words. At the end of the meal when I pay the (9) _______ I never know how much to leave as a (10) _______. I prefer (11) ________ places, like hamburger shops where you pay at once and sit down and eat straightaway. And I like (12) ______ places, where you buy a meal in a special container and take it home. Instructions as above Entertaining at home cutlery vegetarian diet crockery* side dish starter napkin entertaining sink main course washing up dessert Maureen often gives dinner parties at home. She loves (1)________. She lays the table: puts the (2)_______ in the right places, sets out the plates and puts a clean white (3) _______at each place. For the meal itself, she usually gives her guests some kind of (4)

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___ first, for example soup or melon. Next comes the (5)___, which is usually meat (unless some of her guests are (6) ____ or if they’re on a special (7) ___) with a (8)________of salad. For (9)_______it's usually fruit or ice-cream, and then coffee. When everyone has gone home, she must think about doing the (10)________, as in the kitchen the (11) ____is full of dirty (12) ____. *crockery (BrE) - cups, plates etc. especially made of china Match the words on the left with the words on the right: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

bar bottle box brick bunch can carton dozen jar loaf mug packet tin tub

biscuits chocolate margarine milk bread honey sugar cigarettes eggs instant coffee cornflakes tea chocolates

bananas sardines ice-cream wine matches fruit juice coca cola grapes rice beer jam mayonnaise soap

Learn the following proverbs and sayings: Every cook praises his own broth. – Каждый повар хвалит свой бульон. After supper mustard. – После ужина горчица. Tastes differ. – Вкусы расходятся. A hungry man is an angry man. – Голодный человек – сердитый человек. It is no use crying over spilt milk. – Бесполезно плакать над разлитым молоком. Dry bread at home is better that roast meat abroad. – Сухой хлеб дома лучше, чем жареное мясо за границей. Too many cooks spoil the broth. – Слишком много поваров портят бульон. You cannot make an omelette without breaking eggs. – Невозможно сделать омлет, не разбив яиц. Before you choose a friend, eat a bushel of salt with him. – Прежде чем выбрать друга, съешь с ним мешок соли. Better an egg today than a hen tomorrow. – Лучше яйцо сегодня, чем курица завтра. To lengthen your life, lessen your meals. – Чтобы продлить свою жизнь, уменьши /сократи/ свою еду. The way to a man's heart is through his stomach. – Путь к сердцу мужчины лежит через его желудок. He has other fish to fry. – Он жарит другую рыбу /т.е. он занят другими делами/. First catch your hare, then cook him. – Сначала поймай своего зайца, а потом готовь его.

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UNIT 4. SHOPPING Text 1 Mrs. Richards Shopping Last Sunday Mrs. Richards looked into her refrigerator and saw that it was nearly empty. Mrs. Richards does not like it when there is nothing in her refrigerator. She took a big bag and went shopping. The best place to do your shopping in is a supermarket. There is a good supermarket not far from Mrs. Richards' house, and she went there. The supermarket has many self-service counters. Mrs. Richards likes it because at a self-service counter you can choose what you like and take it off the counter with your own hands. When Mrs. Richards came to the shop, she took a basket at the entrance and went inside. First she went to the butcher's counter. They did not have beef that day, but there was a good choice of pork. Mrs. Richards took a good piece of pork and two chickens. She also took half a kilo of mince. Then she went to the greengrocer's counter, because she wanted some potatoes and cabbage. She did not like the potatoes and decided to go to the market later. But she took a good head of cabbage. After that Mrs. Richards stopped at the grocer's counter to take a package of macaroni, and then went to the delicatessen counter to see what she could buy for supper. She took a piece of cheese and a piece of sausage. They were selling ham, too, but she decided not to take ham: there was too much fat on it. On the way to the cash-desk Mrs. Richards stopped at the confectioner's counter to buy some candy and biscuits for tea. She also took a chocolate roll. There were two or three people in front of Mrs. Richards at the cash-desk, and she had to wait a little. When her turn came, she paid for the foodstuffs she had bought and went home. On the way home she called at a dairy-shop to buy a bottle of milk. She did not buy eggs, because her bag was full and she was afraid to break the eggs. She decided to go later for eggs and also to the baker's to buy a loaf of bread.

Text 2 How we Tried to Buy Shoes "How can we travel about Germany without knowing a word in German?" I said. 0h, it's all right," said Harris. "I've bought a conversation book. Here it is. It gives you a lot of useful phrases, and we shall look into it and speak to the Germans." "Let's go to London on Wednesday morning," said George, "and spend an hour or two in shoe shops. We shall try to buy shoes using phrases from this book." We thought it a fine plan. The next morning we came to London and stopped at a little shoe shop. Near the door, on the floor and on the shelves there were boxes of boots and shoes. We saw shoes of different kinds everywhere — both for men and women, black and brown, large and small. The man who kept the shop was just going to open a nother box of shoes. George raised his hat and said, "Good morning. " He hoped, in answer to his politeness, to hear the polite "Welcome to our shop," as this was the answer in the conversation book. But the man did not even look at us. He went on with his work. Then George said, again in the words of the book: "Mr. X, whom I hope you know, has told me about your remarkable shop." To these words the conversation book gave the answer: "Mr. X is a very fine young man. I've known him for years, and I’ll be happy to be useful to his friends." But what the man said was this: "Don't know him; never heard of him." 26

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That was a nice beginning! George looked into the conversation book again and read the next sentence which it gave: "They say you have boots to sell." For the first time the man raised his eyes and looked at us. "And what do you think I keep all these boots here for: to eat them?" He was one of those men who become more and more angry as they go on talking. "What do you think I am doing here?" he shouted. "Collecting boots for pleasure? What do you think it is — a museum of boots? Have you ever heard of a man who has a shoe shop and doesn't sell boots? What do you think I am? An idiot?" "We had better leave," said Harris and started for the door. But at that moment George suddenly found an answer in the book, the cleverest answer he could find at the moment. "We shall come again, when you have some more boots to show us," he said. "Till then — good-bye." (Retold from Jerome's "Three Men on the Bummel") Dialogues 1 A. Do you want any meat today, Mrs. Byrd? B. Yes, please, Mr. Jones. A. Do you want beef or lamb? B. Beef, please. A. This lamb is very good. B. You see, I like lamb, but my husband doesn’t. A. What about some steak? This is a nice piece. B. M-m, give me that piece, please, and a pound of mince, too. A. Very good, Mrs. Byrd. Do you want a chicken? They are very nice. B. No, thank you. My husband likes steak, but he doesn't like chicken. A. To tell you the truth, Mrs. Byrd, I don't like chicken either. Dialogues 2 A. Do you like this dress, madam? B. I like the colour very much. It's a lovely dress, but it's too small for me. A. What about this one? It's a very nice fashion- able dress. B. I. I think it's a little too short. A. Yes, you are right, it's' a little short, but you see, short skirts are in fashion now. Would you like to try it on? . B. All right. . Just step into this cabin. A. I am afraid this green dress is also too small for me. It is smaller than the blue one. A. Oh no, madam, it's a size larger. B. I don't like the colour either. This dress doesn't suit me at all. I think the blue dress is prettier. A. But you say it's too small for you. B. Could you show me another blue dress? I want a dress like that one, but it must be my size. A. I am afraid we haven't got a larger dress. This is the largest dress in the shop. Dialogues 3 A. Oh, you look smart in this dress. B. Do I? A. Does it fit you well? B. I am afraid it is just a little bit broad in the shoulders. A. Let me see... yes, you are right. And now I see it is a bit too long in the sleeves. B. Will it shrink, do you think? Perhaps if it does... A. Oh no, madam, it won't shrink, it is made of pre-shrunk stuff. Try on this dress. It's a size smaller. B. Now let me see... Oh yes, it fits me well. 27

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A. Shall I wrap it up for you? B. Yes, please. Where do I pay? A. The cash-desk is over there, across the hall. B. Thank you. Read the story:

He was a Smart Boy Johnny entered the grocer's. "Hello, Mr. Grimble," he said, "Fine day today, isn't it?" "Yes, indeed," said Mr. Grimble, the grocer. "And what can I do for you?" "Please," said the boy, reading from a book, "ten pounds of sugar at fifteen cents a pound, four pounds of coffee at ninety cents a pound, and two pounds of butter at seventy-five a pound. How much will it come to?" The grocer took a piece of paper and a pencil, did some calculations and said: "Four dollars and sixty cents." "Oh," said Johnny, "and a dozen eggs at ninety cents a dozen." "O. K.," said Mr. Grimble, "that will come to six dollars and forty cents." "And if I give you a ten-dollar bill," said Johnny, "how much change shall I get?" "You will get three dollars and sixty cents," said the grocer. "Thank you very much, Mr, Grimble," said Johnny. "I am not going to buy anything. You see, it's my homework for tomorrow, and I could not do it myself."

Text 3 Shops play an important role in our life, because everything we have, everything we eat and wear we buy in the shops. As a rule, to buy food is my duty, although my mother always buys bread and milk because when she returns home from the work she goes past the baker's and the dairy shop. My father likes rye bread, other members like white bread, but for me it is all the same what bread to eat. When we've run out of sugar, salt or some other food products I go to the provision shop with a great choice of food. I like it very much, this shop is big and clean. On the counter I can see the assortment of all food products and choose what I need. As a rule, in the middle of the shop there is a cashier desk where I pay for my purchases. My brother and I like to visit the department where we buy confectionery: different sweets, cakes and ice-cream. Once a month my father and I go to market where the butcher's, greengrocer's and fishmonger's are combined. We prefer to go there because meat, vegetables and fish have more reasonable prices and we also can haggle with the sellers. Also, there are very many boothes where we can buy beer, cud, pop-corn and many other tasty things. There is another shop that we always visit. It is the Department Store where we can buy different things: linen, stationery, fabrics, hosiery, crockery, leather goods. My mother likes to go to the department with cosmetics and jewelry. My father likes electric appliances, so you can guess what department he likes. As for me, the ready-made-clothes department is my favourite one. I go there very often, as I like the clothes that is the latest fashion. There is a fitting room and the seller always let me try on any article of clothing, as I like my clothes fit perfectly, but not to loose or tight on me. Besides, very often these departments can be divided into the small shops where we can find a large selection of all kinds of goods.

Text 4 Clothes and fashion We all pay much attention to the fashion. But what is it? Everybody understands it in his own way. Generally, this is our appearance that helps us to be attractive and to differ from others. Every generation has its own fashion and rules, and every generation is sure that only it looks smart. 28

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. For example, our great-grandmothers wore long, black skirts with high- laced boots. As a rule, the women' hair at that time was in a bun above their high-necked blouse. They never went out without two petticoats: one flannel and one sheer cotton. Then, appeared some other rules: "Women with brown eyes can't wear blue", or "the pocketbook and shoes must always match". Now women like jeans and trousers, although most men prefer to see them in dresses and skirts. They like curly hair and admire seductive women, but at the same time they are always sorry for the time spent by women in front of the mirror and have a horrified feeling with curling process. Nowadays young people's main rule is: the fewer clothes, the more bright colours, the more I differ from others - the better. I am sure that everybody from young generation has hundreds of his own rules and develops a set of personal fashion trend, and this trend is more definite and individual than any other one. The main thing is: it helps them to feel their importance and be interesting. Of course women worry about the clothes much more than men. They can spend hours dressing to go somewhere trying to find a look that follows the rules of fashion. This is too short, that doesn't go with that, that looks teen-age this looks too matronly. This makes me look fat, that make me look too pale and so on. But there are strict rules that we obey for years. Only white for brides, only black for funerals. Clothes should not have holes and should not be visibly dirty. Your clothes must always be clean, it must show the dignities of your figure and soften your defects. If you keep these simple rules, you would always look well and attract people. Make up your dialogues by analogy.

At a Grocery Store Shop-assistant: Good morning, Mrs. Smith. How are you this morning? Mrs. Smith: I'm fine, thank you. And how are you? Shop-assistant: I'm having a little trouble. I don't have any eggs or butter. Mrs. Smith: Oh, that's a shame. I need two pounds of butter and a dozen eggs. Shop-assistant: I can deliver them this afternoon. Mrs. Smith: That'll be fine. I'm having a party tonight for fifteen persons. I have a list here of about 20 things. Shop-assistant: First, what do you want in the line of meat? Mrs. Smith: Can you give me a ten-pound ham? Shop-assistant: Yes, here's a nice piece. It's 3,99 per pound. Mrs. Smith: That seems expensive. But all right. I'll take it. Shop-assistant: Now what else? Mrs. Smith: Well, I want some canned goods, 3 cans of peas and a can of peaches. Shop-assistant: Here they are. Now, do you need any milk? Mrs. Smith: Yes, three quarts, please and a pint of cream. Well, that's all for today. How much do I owe you? Shop-assistant: That's 25,99. Here's your change. Mrs. Smith: Thank you. Shop-assistant: Good-bye, Mrs. Smith. Thanks a lot. One-sided dialogue Student A: Read the following dialogue with Student B. Because you can see only your part, you must listen very carefully to what Student B says. Use the shopping list below. Before you start, read through your part to have some idea of what you will say. When you are both ready you can begin. You: Good morning. I'd like two pounds of sugar, please. 29

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Student B: … You: Yes ... (Ask for the second item on your shopping list). Student B. … You: (Ask how much the large packet is). Student B. … You: (Repeat the price). I'll have a small packet, please. And some apples. Student B: … You: (Answer). Student B: … You: Yes. (Ask for a dozen eggs). Student B: … You: Is there any difference in price? Student B: … You: (Choose which eggs you want). And have you got any tins of tomato soup? Student B: … You: (Answer and say how many tins you want). And a pint of milk. Is it still twenty pence? Student B: … You: Yes ... (Say you want some coffee). Student B: … You: (Ask what sort he / she has got). Student B: … You: Which is the cheapest? Student B: … You: (Say you will have a tin of that). Student B: … You: Just one more thing - cheese. (Ask 'f he / she has got any Cheddar cheese). Student B: … You: Oh well - never mind. Right, how much is that, please? (Give Student B £ 10) Student B: … You: (Give Student B£10). Student B: …

Shopping list 1. 2. 3. 4.

2 Ibs sugar 1 pkt cornflakes 3 Ibs apples 1 doz eggs

5. 6. 7.

2 tins tomato soup 1 pint milk 1 tin coffee

8. j Ib Cheddar cheese 2 Ibs = two pounds of 1 pkt = a packet of 1 doz = a dozen 1 / 2 Ib = half a pound of (1 Ib = approximately 0,5 kilograms)

Student B: Read the following dialogue with Student A. Because you can see only your part, you must listen very carefully to what Student A says. Use the drawing of the shop. Also, when 30

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Student A buys something, make a note of how much it costs. Before you start, read through your part to have some idea of what you will say. When you are both ready you can begin. Student A: … You: Certainly. Anything else? Student A: … You: (ask student A. if he/she wants a large packet or a small packet). Student A.: You: (Answer) Student A: … You: How many? Student A: … You: Anything else? Student A: … You: Grade 1 or Grade 3? Student A: … You: (say what they cost) Student A: … You: Yes, of course. Large or small? Student A: … You: (Answer) Anything else? Student A: … You: What sort? Student A: … You: (Name the four sorts of coffee you have got) Student A: … You: (Answer. And how much it costs). Student A: … You: Right. Is that all? Student A: … You: I’m afraid we’ve only got … (Name the four sorts of cheese you have got). Student A.: … You: Er … let’s see now … (Add up the process and tell Student A what it comes to altogether). Student A gives you ₤ 10. You: Thank you. And … change. (Give Student A. the change from ₤ 10.) Word Meaning Match this words below with the correct definitions. 1. chemist's 2. newsagent's 3. superstore 4. pharmacy 5. mall 6. hardware shop 7. garden centre / nursery 8. hypermarket 9. newsstand 10. department store 11. kiosk 12. DIY store / home cen-

a) a place that sells a wide range of plants, seeds and things for your garden b) an area in a town where there are a lot of shops that have all been built together in the same space c) a shop that sells equipment and tools that you can use in your home or garden d) one of a group of shops that have the same name are owned by the same company e) a very small shop on a street, which has an window where you can buy newspapers, cigarettes, chocolates, etc. f) a very large shop which is divided into several big parts, each of which sells one type of thing such as clothes, furniture or 31

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tre 13. shopping centre 14. chain store 15. boutique 16. convenience store / corner shop

kitchen equipment g) a shop that sells newspapers and magazines, cigarettes, chocolates etc. h) a very large shop that sells equipment and tools for repairing and decorating your home (do-it-yourself) i) a very large modern shop, especially one that is built outside the centre of a city j) a very large building with a lot of shops inside it and often also cinemas, restaurants etc. k) a shop where you can buy food, alcohol, magazines etc, that is often open 24 hours each day I) a small movable structure on a street which sells newspapers and magazines m) a shop or part of a shop where medicines are made and sold n) a shop that sells medicines, beauty and baby products etc. o) a small shop selling fashionable clothes etc. p) a very large supermarket, usually built outside a town

Read the dialogue: Excuse me. I bought this colour TV here last week and I'm not satisfied with the picture. I'd like to have my money back, please. - I'm sorry, sir, but I'm afraid we don't give refunds. May I see your receipt? We can give you a credit note for this amount, sir, or you can exchange it for something of equal value. - All right. I'll take the exchange. - Actually, sir, you are very lucky. We've got a sale this week. We have some really great bargains ... Now this Philips is a great deal. It's 40 percent off the normal retail price. In fact, we're selling it for just over the wholesale price that we pay. It has remote control and it has a one year guarantee, so that if anything goes wrong you can bring it back and have it repaired. - It's $ 400. It still seems expensive to me. - No, no, sir. that's a fantastic price. It's cheap, believe me. We've sold hundreds of them and this, I believe, is the last one. - The last one, eh? OK. I'll take it. How much extra do I owe? - Just $125. - And can I pay by credit card or would you prefer a cheque? Credit card will be fine, thank you. (Later, to another shop-assistant) Bring out another Philips, will you? There are four golden rules: 1 Examine the goods you buy at once. If they are faulty, tell the seller quickly. 2. Keep any receipts you are given. If you have to return something, the receipt will help to prove where and when you bought it. 3. Don't be afraid to complain. You are not asking a favour to have faulty goods put right. The law is on your side. 4.Be persistent (but not aggressive). If your complaint is justified, it is somebody's responsibility to put things right. Read the dialogue At a Shoe Shop Shop assistant: Good morning, madam. What can I do for you, please? Mrs. Brown: A pair for this boy. Shop assistant: Shoes or boots? Mrs. Brown: Shoes. 32

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Shop assistant: Very good. Will you please come this way. Take a seat, please. What size does he take? Sam: I take size four, and I want a pair of brown ones. Shop assistant: Very good. Will you take off your boots and try this pair on? They are a very good make and will wear a long time. Sam: Here, they are too tight. Mrs. Brown: Try a larger pair. Sam: But they are too big. Shop assistant: I believe we have a half size. Yes, here we are. Try these on. I hope they'll fit nicely. Sam: Yes, these feel all right. Let me have this pair, Mum. Mrs. Brown: Very well. How much do they cost? Shop assistant: 19 pounds, madam, (to Sam) If you take them off, I'll wrap them up for you. Mrs. Brown: Where do I pay? Shop assistant: Over there at the cash-desk, madam. Here is the bill. (Mrs Brown goes over to the cash-desk and pays the bill. She comes back with the receipted bill, which she hands in to the assistant. He gives her a parcel with the shoes.) Anything else, Madam? Mrs. Brown: No, thank you. Good bye. Shop assistant: Good bye, madam, and thank you. Make up dialogues by analogy using the words prompted: 1. - What can I do for you, please? - A pair for this boy (a pair of gloves for me; a pair of shoes for everyday wear; an evening suit; a pair of pants for this girl, etc.) 2. - What size does he / she take? - I take size four, and I want a pair of brown ones, (size 46, 48, 50, 52 - in Britain 16, 18, 20, 22 respectively - in clothes; (size 37, 38, 39, 40 - in Britain 7, 8, 9, 10 respectively in shoes)). 3. - Here, they are too tight, (loose; not my colour; big; out-dated; too bright etc.) - Try a larger (another) pair. 4. - How much do they cost? - Nineteen pounds, madam. If you take them off, I'll wrap them up for you (this hat; this jacket; these trousers; raincoat etc.) Act out the dialogue It's a Bargain! – Good afternoon. May I help you? – Yes, we're looking for a light grey tweed suit for this gentleman. – Single or double-breasted? – Hmm, which do you prefer, Michael? – What is the latest fashion? – Fashion is a form of ugliness so intolerable that we have to alter it every six months. I reckon single-breasted is high fashion at present. Besides it will fit you better. – I'd like something sharp ... – What size do you wear? – 38, long. – Here you are. That's just your size. This material will wear for years, and it's even washable. – May I try it on? – Certainly, sir. You can change over there. 33

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– Marvellous! It's a perfect fit. You look so young in it. It becomes you. And this shade of colour looks nice on you. – Ah, whenever man's friends begin to compliment him about looking young, he may be sure that they think he is growing old. All the same, Ann, thanks for your advice and everything. You have such a good taste. – Good taste is better than bad taste, but bad taste is better than no taste at all. – Will there be anything else? – Well, now we need a shirt to match. Can you show us a blue shirt size 15 neck, 36 sleeve? – Do you like this one? It's permanent press. – Yes, that'll be fine. What's the price? – It's 55 dollars. 280 altogether. Shall I wrap it for you or do you prefer having it sent to your address? – I'd rather have it wrapped. – Here you are, sir. – Thank you. – Your change, sir. Please, come again. – Money, money, money ... here it is, there it goes ... I seem to spend money faster than I get it. – Don't complain, Michael. It wasn't all that expensive, was it? – No, it wasn't, in fact. But isn't your life extremely boring when you have nothing to grumble at? Choose between the alternatives 1. Those shoes won't ___ the boy any more. He’s grown out of them. a) suit b) fit 2. The blouse really ____ you and it’s a perfect fit. a) becomes b) matches 3. She____buying another dress, a size larger. a) offered b) suggested 4. What is the ___ of this hat? a) prize b) price 5. Could I have a suit of ___ colour? a) a different b) another 6. I think they will ___ the prices for the goods again. a) raise b) rise 7. The shops are ___ from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. a) opened b)open 8. The boots are too heavy. They won't____ your dress. a) go with b) become 9. I'd like to____ the dress for something of equal value. a) exchange b) change 10. The blue of her dress ___ the blue of her eyes a) matches b) goes with Give the opposite of the following: a) cheap (adj.) b) to be in fashion c) to be tight d) a wide choice e) the right size

f) much money g) dark colours h) fashionable i) to fit well j) to be on sale

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UNIT 4. GETTING ABOUT TOWN Remember the following word combinations used to attract a person’s attention: Excuse me, sir (madam, miss)! – Извините, сэр / мадам, мисс/ I say! – Послушайте Look here! – Послушайте Practice reading the following questions used in asking the way to a place. Learn them by heart. Which is the (shortest ) way to the Moscow Railway Station? – Какой кратчайший путь к Московскому вокзалу? Can Could Will

you

tell show

me the (shortest) way to the Winter Palace?

Вы не можете сказать / показать / кратчайший путь к Зимнему дворцу? How

can do

I get to Palace Square?

Как мне попасть на Дворцовую площадь? Practice reading the possible answers to these requests. Learn them by heart. Certainly. Конечно. Sure Конечно. Of course. Конечно. With pleasure. С удовольствием. Well, let me see … М-м, дайте подумать … Walk straight on … Идите прямо … Pass two blocks … Пройдите два квартала … Turn (to the) right … Поверните направо … Turn (to the) left … Поверните налево … Take the first (second) turning to the right (left) … Первый /второй/ поворот направо /налево/ …. Cross the street … Перейдите улицу … Walk as far as the corner … Дойдите до угла … … and you will be right there … и вы будете прямо там. … and you will see it in front of you. и вы увидите его перед собой. … and you will see it on your right. и вы увидите его направо от вас. …. And you will see it on your left. и вы увидите его налево от вас. Dialogue1 A. I say! B. Yes, what is it? A. How far is Piccadilly Circus from here? B. I think it's something like a mile. You can walk to it if you are not in a hurry. A. Yes, I think I'd better walk. You see, it's my first visit to London, so I shall see the town. B. Then you can go and see Trafalgar Square with the Nelson Column. It is worth seeing. A. Oh yes, I know. It has a world-wide fame. How do I get there? B. It's not far. Just walk straight on and take the first turning to the left. A. Thank you very much. You are very kind. B. Oh, no thanks at all.

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Dialogue2 A. Excuse me! B. Yes? A. It's our first day in St. Petersburg, and we don't know our ways. Where are we now? B. You are at the corner of Nevsky Prospect and the Griboyedov Canal. There's the Kazan Cathedral across the street. A. Ah, yes, of course! I know the Kazan Cathedral: I have seen it on a postcard. What a beautiful building, isn't it? B. Yes, it has a world-wide fame. A. Look here, and how do we get to the Russian Museum from here? I think it's somewhere near. B. That's right. Just walk along the embankment and take the first turning to the right. A. Yes? And then? B. Then walk as far as the corner, and you will see the Russian Museum on your left. A. Oh, thank you very much. It was most kind of you. B. It was a pleasure.

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UNIT 5. TRAVELLING Text 1 Different Kinds of Travelling Modern life is impossible without travelling. Nowadays travelling has become a highly organized business. There are express trains, huge ships, cars and air-liners, all of which provide us with comfort and security. But all means of travelling have their own advantages and disadvantages. Many people think that there is nothing so thrilling as travel by air. It is more comfortable, convenient and of course far quicker than any other method. There is none of the dust and dirt of railway or car journey, none of the trouble of changing from train to steamer and then to another train. Before your plane takes off, you should register and have your luggage weighed. Then, you will hear your flight number and destination announced. When you arrive in a foreign country, you should go through the Customs. The passport control officer will ask you to produce your passport. Then he will be interested to know how long you are going to stay here. You will have to tell the passport control about the purpose of your visit. The customs officer will check your luggage and ask you: "Have you anything to declare?" and "Is there anything liable to duty?" and you must answer the questions. But very often you can get air-sick on board of a plane, so it is better to go by train. Besides, many of us prefer trains more than some other kinds of travelling, because it has its advantages too. With a train you have speed, comfort and pleasure combined. From the seat of railway carriage you have a splendid view of the whole countryside. If you are hungry, you can have a meal in the dining-car, and if the journey is a long one you can have a wonderful bed in a sleeper. But travelling by train takes a lot of time, so many people can't afford it. Travelling by sea is popular for pleasure trips. And for many people there is no travel so fine as by boat. It is so wonderful to feel the deck of the boat under your feet, to see the rise and fall of the waves, to feel the fresh sea wind blowing in your face and hear the cry of the sea-gulls. But remember, when you travel by sea, be sure to book your passage in advance. Besides, when the sea is rough, travelling by sea is not enjoyable. If you are sea-sick, you'd better take some medicine. They say, lemons can help you as well. Many people, particularly families with children, prefer travelling by car. It is more convenient, because it is not necessary to book the tickets, to carry heavy suitcases. You can stop where you like and enjoy oneself. So, these are different kinds of travelling and you can choose the one you really like.

Next 2. Trains There are different kinds of trains: passenger trains, mail trains and goods trains. Mail trains carry mail, or post, that is letters, parcels, newspapers and magazines. Goods trains carry goods. Passenger trains carry passengers. Mail trains and passenger trains are usually combined: they have carriages for passengers and a special carriage or two for mail. Passenger trains can be slow or fast. A slow train stops at every station. Fast trains have few stops: they stop only at very large stations. So we can call these trains respectively stopping trains and non-stopping trains. There are local trains and long-distance trains. Local trains connect points situated not far away from each other, say, a hundred or two - three hundred kilometres. By a longdistance train you can travel very far — for thousands of kilometres. If you live in a large city, like St. Petersburg or Moscow or Kiev, you can go to the suburbs of the city by a suburban 37

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train. Sometimes, when travelling a long distance, you have to change trains (or make a changing), that is get off one train and board another, if there is no through train to the place of your destination. When you are travelling a long distance, it is very convenient to go by an overnight train. Overnight trains have sleeping accommodation: they usually have "corridor cars," i. e. carriages with separate compartments (they are called sleeping cars, or sleepers). In each compartment there are two lower and two upper berths, on which you can sleep like in bed. Trains which run by day are called day coaches. You cannot sleep in these trains: they have only sitting accommodation: very comfortable soft armchairs. Learn the following dialogue: A. Do you have tickets for the seven-twenty- five (train) to Sochi tomorrow? B. How many tickets? A. Two, please. B. Just a minute. Let me see... Well, I can let you have two tickets but the seats are in different carriages. Will that do? A. I am afraid not. What about the day after tomorrow? B. Yes, we have some upper berths in a compartment car, if you like. A. We won't have to change trains, I hope? B. No, it's a through train. A. All right, I'll take the tickets. B. Here you are. A. I've got a question. My son is travelling with us.He is just a little over four. Shall I pay for him? B. No. Children under five may travel free. Anything else? A. How long does it take to get to Sochi, please? B. I am not quite sure. I think something like seventy hours. Ask at the inquiry office over there. They'll give you all the information you want. A. Thank you.

Text 3 Nick's Trip to the South and Back Last summer Nick spent his holidays in Crimea. He went there by plane. He booked his tick in advance. He rang up the air-travel booking office and reserved a seat for the fifteenth of July. "Will you come for your ticket yourself or do want it delivered?" asked the bookingoffice clerk. "I'd like my ticket delivered, please," said Nick because he did not want to waste his time going the booking office and standing in a queue. The plane to Yalta took off at 9 a.m., but he had to be at the airport an hour before to register his ticket. His plane was TU- 134. It is a comfortable modern plane. Nick's seat was near the porthole and he could see how they took off in St. Petersburg and landed in Yalta. They were flying at a height six thousand metres, so Nick could see only clouds through the porthole. The hostess offered the passengers some snacks and soft drinks. The flight was very pleasant. It took Nick only three hours get to Yalta. The way back wasn't so pleasant. Nick could no get a ticket for a plane. He had to stand in a Ion, queue to get a ticket for a train. When at last his turn came, he said to the booking-office clerk: "Please, I want a ticket to St. Petersburg for the fourth of August." "I am sorry," said the booking-office clerk, "there are no tickets for a through train to St. Petersburg. I could give you an upper berth on a train to Moscow, and in Moscow you will have a changing." 38

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Nick thought a little. "Oh well, that's all right," he said, "give me a ticket for the Moscow train. After all, there are a lot of trains going from Moscow to St. Petersburg every day, so I hope I will have no problems punching the ticket." He was right. When he arrived in Moscow, he consulted the time-table and saw that there were ten trains to St. Petersburg. It did not take him long to punch his ticket. He just had time to drop into a bar and have a snack before his train started. The train was comfortable. Nick had a lower berth in a separate compartment. In the morning he was in St. Petersburg. Dialogue At a Railroad Station. - I want a ticket to Springfield. - Which Springfield? There are various Springfields... - I suppose Springfield, Massachusetts, is the cheapest. It's the closest to here anyway. Fortunately, it's also the Springfield I want to go to. What is the fare, please? — Six dollars and eighty cents one way, eleven dollars and fifty cents return. - When does the next train leave? - There's a train at 4.10. There is also another at 7.20 this evening. - Are they both through trains? - The 4.10 is an express train and makes only one stop in New Heaven. It arrives in Springfield at 9.30. The second is a local one and takes about an hour and a half longer. - Is there a dining-car on both trains? - There's a diner on the 4.10. The 7.20 is just a club car. They as usual serve sandwiches and coffee, drinks, etc. Dialogue - Can I help you? - Yes, I'd like some information about trains to Chicago. - Okay. What would you like to know? - Well, how many are there per day? - One via Pittsburgh leaving at 2.45 p.m. and one via Buffalo leaving at 6.45 p.m. - How long does it take to get there? - The Broadway — that's the one that goes through Pittsburgh - takes about 18 hours, but the Lake Shore takes a little longer. - I see... What about eating and sleeping arrangements? - Both trains have dining cars and snack bars. And there are roomettes and slumber coaches on both of them. - Well uh, what are roomettes and slumber coaches? - They both sleep one or two people but the roomette has a toilet and wash basin. It costs more, too. Are you ready to make reservation? - Uh, no, I don't think so. - Well, here's a copy of the timetable. Why don't you take a look at it and let me know when you've decided. - Okay. Do I have to pay for the tickets when I make the reservation? - No, you can do that later. - All right, thanks.

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Text 4 Travelling by train Should you ask me what kind of transport I like best I'd speak in support of the train. With a train you have speed, comfort and pleasure combined. What place is more interesting than a big station? There is the movement, the excitement, the gaiety of the people going away, sorrow of those who are seeing others off. There are shouts of the porters as they pull luggage trucks along the platforms to the waiting trains, the crowd at the booking-office getting tickets, he children tightly holding on to the skirts of their mothers and passengers hurrying to board the train. At last you manage to make your way through the crowd, closely following the porter who has taken care of your luggage and get out on to the platform. At last you are — Car 2, Train 53. You show your tickets to the guard and in you go into a most wonderful carriage. At last you manage to stow away your luggage and get out on to the platform for fresh air and bid farewell to the well-wishers who have come to see you off. You are on your way. You start up a conversation with your fellow-passangers and soon you get to know who is who and what. Then you have dinner in the dining car. After a hearty meal you get into your upper berth and begin to absorb the beauty of the changing scenes that fly past you. Dialogue 1 - Put all your carry-on luggage on the belt, ma'am. - My purse and camera too? - Yes, ma'am, everything. Won't hurt your film. - But it's 400 ASA film. - Take your camera out, then, and I'll check it through by hand. - Okay. - Thank you. Now step through here. Are you wearing any metal, ma'am? - Mmm... why, yes, this bracelet. - I'm afraid you'll have to take it off, ma'am, and step through again... - Mmm hmm. Fine, thank you. Here's your bracelet. Have a good flight now. - Okay, thanks. Dialogue 2 - Good morning. Your ticket, please? And set your suitcase upright and I'll check it through. - Okay. - And where would you like to sit? - Make it a window seat, but if there aren't any left, I'll take an aisle seat. - Smoking or nonsmoking? - Nonsmoking. - Uh-huh, here you go. I'm sorry, but there will be a 20-minute delay, so your flight will be boarding in about half an hour. - I hope that's the only delay. Oh, where are my baggage claim checks? - They're here with your ticket, sir. - Great! Uh, thanks a lot. Dialogue 3 The Plane Is Taking Off - Ladies and gentlemen, British Airways welcome you aboard this Boeing 747 and hope you have a pleasant flight. As we are about to take off, you are requested to fasten your belts and kindly refrain from smoking. Thank you. - Excuse me, miss. When do we land in London and at what altitude shall we be flying?

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- The plane lands in London at 11 a.m. and we'll be flying at an altitude of about 27 thousand feet or 9 thousand metres. - Thank you. Excuse me, I have another question. What's the weather like in London? - It was warm and fine yesterday. - Thank you. I have still one more question. Will any meals be served on the plane? - Yes, of course. You'll have lunch in half an hour.

Text 5 Airports in the USA Airports are not always named after the city they are in. New York City has two international airports: John F. Kennedy and LaGuardia. Chicago's international airport is called O'Hare, and there's another for flights within the U.S. called Midway. The same with Washington, D.C. There's Dulles International, and National for flights within the U.S. The airport in Boston is Logan. In Seattle you'll find Seatac, from Seattle and the name of a neighboring city, Tacoma. There are four time zones in the U.S.: 9:00 a.m. Pacific Time 10:00 a.m. Mountain Time 11:00 a.m. Central Time 12:00 noon Eastern Time If you have to fly through several time zones in 12 hours or less, you may feel an upset of your body clock after the long flight. This is jet lag. Doctors say the best thing you can do is rest on the plane and perhaps have a drink of water and rest at your hotel when you arrive. Larger airports with lots of international traffic have employees who speak languages besides English to help you, but smaller ones don't.

Text 6 London’s Heathrow airport London's Heathrow Airport is the busiest international airport in the world and British Airways is one of the largest airlines. During the 1990s the airline flew to destinations in seventy-two countries and annually carried more than 18 mln passengers. It was privatized in 1986. Heathrow Airport's four terminals can handle up to 38 mln passengers a year and London has four other airports, including Gatwick, all of which handle international flights. The number of people travelling by air both for business and pleasure is growing and traffic at regional airports in Britain increased by 25 per cent during the 1990s.

Text 7 Passport regulations and customs Landing formalities and customs regulations are about the same in all countries. 1. While still on board the plane the passenger is given an arrival card to fill in, he fills in (in block letters) his name in full, country of residence, permanent address, purpose and length of visit, and address in the country he is visiting. 2. After the passenger has disembarked, officials will examine his passport and visa (to see if they are in order). 3. In some countries they will check the passenger's certificate of vaccination. 4. When these formalities have been completed the passenger goes to the Customs for an examination of his luggage. 5. The passenger is required to fill in a customs declaration form. He must list all dutiable articles. (Personal belongings may be brought in duty-free.) Here is a partial list of prohibited articles: firearms, drugs, in some countries — meat products, fresh fruit and vegetables. 6. The Customs inspector may ask you to open your bags for inspection. After you are through with all customs formalities he will put a stamp on each piece of luggage.

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Compare: American English Excuse me? purse/pocket book/handbag last name/family name month/day/year elevator restroom lost and found ma'am

British English Pardon? handbag surname day/month/year lift toilet lost property madam

Dialogue - Hello, Nina. Haven't seen you for ages. Where have you been? I rendered what had become of you. - Oh, I've had a most exciting experience. The fact is Dad took me n a voyage round Europe. - How wonderful! I suppose you've seen lots of interesting things. o tell me all about it. Where did you sail from? - From Odessa. - Did you call at any European ports? - We did. Quite a number of them. At each port we went ashore and made the most wonderful trips into the depths of the country. - By railways or car? - By motor-coach. Now, I can boast of having seen Rome and London, Paris and Athens. - I must say that I feel pretty envious. Did you have a pleasant voyage? - Rather fine, except the two days after Giblartar. It was rough in the Atlantic and I had to keep to my cabin. - What about your father? - Oh, Dad was all right. He's an exceptionally good sailor. - Did you go ashore in Spain? - No, we didn't. We only saw the coast from the deck. It didn't look very inviting, rather bare and monotonous in fact. - And did you bathe in the Mediterranean? - Not only there, but in the Atlantic Ocean, too. There are wonderful beaches at some places on the west coast of France. Swimming is just delightful there. - Well, I'm glad that your journey was a success.

Text 8 Travelling by Air. Passport Control. Customs Nowadays people who go on business mostly travel by air, as it is the fastest means of travelling. Here are a few hints on air travel that may be helpful. Passengers are requested to arrive at the airport two hours before departure time on international flights and an hour on domestic flights as there must be enough time to complete the necessary airport formalities. Passengers must register their tickets, weigh and register the luggage. Most airliners have at least two classes of travel, first class and economy class, which is cheaper. Each passenger of more than two years of age has a free luggage allowance. Generally, this limit is 20 kg for economy class and 30 kg for first class. Excess luggage must be paid for, except for some articles that can be carried free of charge. Watch the electric sign flashes when you are on board. When the "Fasten the Belts" sign goes on, do it promptly and also obey the "No Smoking" signal. Do not forget your personal effects when leaving the plane. Landing formalities and customs regulations are more or less the same in all countries. 42

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Being on the board of the plane the passenger has an arrival card to fill in. After the passenger has disembarked, officials will check his passport and visa. In some countries they will check the certificate of vacation. When these formalities have been completed the passenger goes to the Customs for an examination of his luggage. As a rule personal belongings may be brought in duty-free. If the traveller has nothing to declare he may just go through the "green" section of the Customs. In some cases the Customs inspector may ask you to open your bags for inspection. It sometimes happens that a passenger's luggage is carefully gone through in order to prevent smuggling. After you are through with all customs formalities the inspector will put a stamp on each piece of luggage or chalk it off.

TEXT 9. Travelling by sea For me there is no travel so fine as by sea. There are many things that make travel by sea a fascinating thing for me. Though I am not much of a sailor I love the sight of a ship with its many decks and staterooms. It looks like a huge white floating city. It is delightful to be out at sea, too, and promenade the deck or sit in a deck-chair and take the sun. But what can be compared with the excitement you experience when you sight land. You call at several ports. The stays are quite sufficient to give you the opportunity of visiting some places of interest there. Usually the ship has all modern conveniences and a wide choice of entertainment facilities. There is a good library, a few restaurants and bars, a cinema-hall, billiard rooms, video rooms and what not. There is also a swimming pool. In the evening you enjoy the beautiful sunset at sea. It is simply marvelous! Don't be afraid to be seasick. The sea is usually calm.

Text 10 Travelling by car Americans like to do business without leaving their cars. You'll see drive-in banks, drive-in restaurants and drive-in movies. When driving in the USA it's a good idea to have an international drivers' licence if you don't have a state licence. Each of the fifty states has its own traffic laws. (For example, in some states drivers can pump their own gas at «self-serve islands», while in others this is not allowed). Drivers are expected to know and understand the laws even if they don't live in the state. Get information when you cross the border into a state at a tourist information centre. There is a national speed limit of 55 miles per hour, or about 80 kilometer per hour. Americans usually start and stop slowly and are generally polite about letting cars enter busy streets. They usually stop for people who are walking to let them cross the street. In many states you may turn right after stopping at a corner, even if there is a red light. If you rent a car, ask the company what to do in case your car breaks down. Some companies will ask you to call special number. Others will want you to have the car repaired. If you want to rent a vehicle you can sleep in, you should ask about RV's-recreational vehicles. You don't need a car to pull an RV — you can drive it! Yet, it's as big as a house trailer. You can also rent a camping trailer. Dialogue - Pardon me, do the buses stop here? - Yes, most downtown buses stop at this corner. - I want to go to Washington Avenue. Can I take any bus that stops here? - You can take any bus except number 12. Number 12 turns off at Richmond Street. - How often do the buses run? 43

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- They are supposed to run according to the schedule that you can see over there. In fact, the buses don't always run on schedule. – What are the usual intervals between the bus arrivals? - About every fifteen minutes. You won’t have to wait any longer. A bus is coming. It’s number 5. You can take it.

Text 11 Holidays in Britain Although more and more people are going abroad for their holidays, a third of British holiday-makers still go for a traditional seaside holiday in Britain. It was the British who started the fashion for seaside holidays — not surprisingly, since nobody in Britain lives more than 120 km from the sea. The trek to the sea began at the end of the eighteenth century, when fashionable London society followed the Prince Regent (later George IV) to Brighton, a small town fifty miles from London. The prince found the climate agreeable and built himself a summer pavilion there. Today Brighton is a popular place for holiday-makers and the pavilion is used as a museum, assembly room and concert hall. Many Londoners go there for the day during the summer, and Brighton has been called «London by the sea».

Text 12 Going abroad I'm taking my family abroad this year. My wife and I and our two children are all going. My elder brother is a farmer. He's never been abroad and he has decided to go with us. First he will go from his farm to the bus station. He'll take a bus to our house. From here we'll all leave together. We are going to go by train to Folkstone, and then take the boat to Calais. When we arrive in France, we're going to hire a car and then we'll be able to drive wherever we want to. At the end of our holiday we'll return the car. We are planning to fly home. It took us a long time to decide where to go, but I think we have planned a very interesting trip. At first we wanted to fly to Paris because it would be faster and would give us more time for sightseeing, but my brother was very anxious to go by train and boat. The children will enjoy that, too. We don't know how much luggage to take. We can take as many suitcases as we wish on the train and the boat. But when we come home by plane, our luggage will have to be weighed. Each of us can take only forty-four pounds on the plane, and that isn't very much. My wife will decide what we should take with us. She can get a lot off things into each suitcase. She puts all the heavy things in the suitcase first, and then puts the lighter things in. She puts the square things in the corner and the round things in the middle. She packs very well. My brother will be all right. He’ll just take one small suitcase.

Text 13 The delights of walking tour If I could afford, I'd like to be on holiday now. For me it is better go hiking or ride by bike. I'd be happy to stay out of town, camping, hiking, fishing or spending time in the country. Somewhere out of the way. The fewer holiday-makers the better, because I don't enjoy crowds. So, you will ask me: why do I prefer this kind of travelling more than any other? First of all, there is nothing like the Russian country-side! I feel the great satisfaction watching our nature, in these moments a full harmony penetrates to my soul. Russian forests show us the rainbow of col44

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ours, and these bright colours always inspire good emotions and good mood. I like to leave the dull broad way and to go along winding lanes where cars can't go. The walks through the shade of woods make me calm after intensive work week. Besides, I like animals very much. Can you find the better place, where you can see the hares, the squirrels, the deers in the forest or the young birds in their nests? These forest walks teach us to love the life and to love our environment. I think that the rest-homes, sanatoriums and tourist camps can't suggest you this. They attract a lot of people who always bother us to see the real nature. But if I want to go in the company of people, I always travel with my friends. As a rule we camp nearby the lakes where we swim, fish, also we often like to wander by the side of lakes in the early morning when the sun rises. I can say it is a terrific view indeed! Some of us play football, some of us play badminton or some other games. In walking tour the time flies, but this time is unforgettable. After such a rest I feel fresh ready to work. Vocabulary: along winding lanes – вдоль извилистых тропинок attract v – привлекать bother v – мешать camp v – раскидывать лагерь deer n – олень dull broad way – широкая монотонная дорога environment n – окружающая среда go hiking – путешествовать пешком holiday-maker – отдыхающий inspire v – вселять penetrate to v – проникать в rest-home n – дом отдыха ride by bike – ехать на велосипеде sanatorium n – санаторий squirrel n– белка suggest smb smth – предлагать кому-либо что-либо teach us – учит нас terrific view – потрясающий вид time flies – время летит tourist camp – туристический лагерь unforgettable adj – незабываемый out of town – вне города out of the way – вдали от города wander v – бродить Questions to the text: 1. Do you like to go hiking? 2. Why do you prefer this kind of traveling? 3. Whom do you usually camp with? 4. What are the main delights of walking tour? 5. What places can you advise for camping? Learn the following proverbs: All roads le ad to Rome . Все дороги ведут в Рим. Eas t or We s t – home is be s t. Восток или запад, а дома лучше всего.

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UNIT 6. SPARE TIME

Text 1 No doubt, people are mostly hardworking. Parents earn money, bring up their children, take care of them. The children get education. But when we are not at our usual work j used to rest or to do something we like. Hobby is a lei-time activity pursued for pleasure. You just enjoy doing something in your free time. Some people like to watch the TV-set. Television helps us to relax after a hard day's work. We can then cope better with the next day's work. On the other hand, television is doing a lot harm, I think. We begin to forget how to occupy our spare time. Now all our free time is given to television. Other people used to go in for sports, because sports help people to keep in good health. The most popular sports in our country are football, volley-ball, basketball, hockey, field-andtrack athletics, skiing, skating and gymnastics. We used to go outside for our amusements to the theatres, cinemas. I cannot say I am a theatre-goer. I do not go to the theatres very often, but I always use every opportunity to see a good performance. Art is a great power. It influences peoples' thoughts, imagination, feelings. "Those who find beautiful meanings in beautiful things are the cultivated. For these there is hope". These words belong to the great English writer Oscar Wilde We often meet with our friends. I often think about what we discuss when we talk together with my friends. I am sorry to say that we do not speak very often about new books, films or plays. If, however, such a discussion begins, it ends very quickly. Very few of my friends are interested in science and art. Are these young people so rich intellectually that they can afford to lose so much of their free time in such a way - speaking about something fashionable? In my opinion it is better to go to a museum or an art gallery, the theater or to read a good book. Most of all I like to read books. I prefer fiction and poetry. My favourite writers are S. Esenin, A. Akhmatova, A. Blok, B. Pasternak, M. Bulgakov. Besides, I like to listen to classical music. My favourite composer is S. Prokofiev. He composed music to such famous ballets as "Romeo and Juliet" and "Cinderella". He wrote seven symphonies, nine sonatas, many songs and different pieces for the piano. So people are very different and they have different hobbies. Everybody can choose his hobby to his liking. But time is a very valuable thing. Many famous people have spoken or written about how to save time. Even our free time should be used on useful things. Vocabulary: No doubt – нет сомнения Bring up v – воспитывать Take care of smb. – заботиться о ком-либо Pursue v – преследовать Relax v – отдыхать Cope with smb. – справляться с чем-либо Harm n – вред Occupy v – занимать Field-and-track athletics – лёгкая атлетика Gymnastics n – гимнастика Amusement n – развлечение, увеселение Opportunity n – возможность Performance n – представление, спектакль Imagination n – воображение Meaning n – значение, смысл Cultivated adj – культурный Intellectual adj – умственный, интеллектуальный Afford v – позволять Fashionable adj – модный 46

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Poetry n – поэзия Symphony n – симфония Sonata n – соната Valuable adj – ценный Save v – спасать Questions to the text 1) Do people have enough time for leisure? Why? 2) What does the word "hobby" mean? 3) What can you say about television's role in our life? 4) What is your opinion about television? 5) Why do people go in for sports? 6) What are the most popular sports in our country? 7) What do you think about art as a hobby? 8) What is your own attitude towards art? 9) Do you have friends? What do you discuss with them? 10)What is your hobby? Describe it in detail. 11)Why time is a very valuable thing? 12) Can you value time? Are you fond of picnics? Do you find more advantages or disadvantages in having picnics? What's the best weather for picnics? Let's Have a Picnic Picnics are popular with women and children and some men who know how to make a fire. Children are fond of picnics chiefly because, as a rule, there are no tables at picnics and consequently no table manners band because they have an excellent opportunity to eat things that do not agree with them. Since picnic lunches are always just about the same and therefore, require little imagination, women do not have to trouble about thinking up a meal. Much depends, of course, upon the day. Typical picnic weather is of three kinds. Either it is dark and threatening with occasional showers in the morning, clearing in the afternoon or it is hot and clear in the morning, with thunder showers in the afternoon; or there is a steady drizzle all day long. But as most of the lunch is prepared ahead of time, nothing much can be done about it. After all, there is not much choice between eating a picnic lunch that has waited a day or two and getting a soaking. Picnic grounds are usually situated near a body of water at some high altitude. One of these features is essential, for no picnic can be a success unless the children have something to fall into, or fall off. Also, a body of water naturally suggests taking fishing tackles along. No fish was ever known to have been caught on a picnic, but fishing serves as an excellent excuse for getting out of 'J the way while the heavy work is being done. Quite the most important feature of the picnic is the lunch. Fried chicken is always popular ... Then there should be hard-boiled eggs. Almost everything else that comes in a can or a paper bag is good for a picnic lunch. These containers are very important as, after the contents have been eaten, they are strewn about and identify the picnic ground. Ginger ale, too, should be brought along to remind you that you left the bottle-opener at home. However, there is always at least one person present who knows how to open a bottle on a rock. As soon as the food and other equipment have been unpacked it is in order to start a fire. Collecting wood provides occupation for people who do not know how to amuse themselves. After the lunch has been eaten a picnic is mostly anticlimax. But there is always the possibility of someone nearly getting drowned or running into a hornets' nest or twisting an ankle. However, you must remain until well into afternoon, or you may not appear to have had a good time. To make matters worse, someone will suggest singing.

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A lot of people prefer gardening at the weekend. How do you find the idea? Your parents? Is gardening popular in your country?

Gardening Much leisure time is spent in individualistic pursuits, of which the most popular is gardening. Most English people love gardens, their own above all, and this is probably one reason why so many people prefer to live in houses rather than flats. Particularly in suburban areas it is possible to pass row after row of ordinary small houses, each one with its neatly-kept patch of grass surrounded by a great variety of flowers and shrubs. Many people who have no gardens of their own have patches of land or "allotments" in specially reserved areas - though a group of allotment gardens, with its mixed-up collection of sheds for keeping the tools and the dull arrangement of the rectangular sections of land, is usually not a thing of beauty. Although the task of keeping a garden is so essentially individual, for many people gardening is the foundation of social and competitive relationships. Flower shows and vegetable shows, with prizes for the best exhibits are immensely popular, and to many gardeners the process of growing the plants seems more important than the merely aesthetic pleasure of looking at the flowers or the prospects of eating the vegetables. In many places a competitive gardener's ambition is to grow the biggest cabbages or leeks or carrots, and the plain fact that the merits of most vegetables on the table are in inverse ration to their size seems often to be forgotten.

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UNIT 7. EDUCATION Text1 The Educational System in England The educational system in England is very complicated. It embraces two educational purposes: first it gives a general education to all children, and second, it selects the most able and gives them a more advanced education. In most schools boys and girls learn together. In the first stage, which is called primary education, all children are educated according to the same programme. As they grow older, differences in ability and attainment become very marked, so it is considered necessary to offer different programmes. There are three stages of education: primary, or elementary, education, secondary education and further (higher) education. Primary education (from 5 years of age to 11 years of age). A primary school is subdivided into an infant school for children aged 5 to 7 and a junior school for children aged 7 to 11. In small country places both the infant department and the junior department may be combined under the roof of one school. Secondary education (from 11 years of age to 16 of age). Until recently, there were three main types of secondary schools: grammar schools, technical schools and modern schools. Children were sent to one of these three types of school according to their abilities. These three types of school still exist, but their number is decreasing. They are being replaced by the so-called comprehensive schools. The comprehensive schools are the most modern development in secondary schools. The main advantages of the comprehensive schools are that these schools are open to children of all types of ability from the age of 11; they are large schools which give a much wider range of subjects than smaller schools, so that teenagers can choose a course of studies according to their individual inclinations and abilities. The comprehensive school gives the following range of subjects, from which children can choose: English, French, German, Latin, history, geography, art, music, woodwork, metalwork, needlework, commercial subjects, mathematics, general science, religious instruction, physical education.

Text 2 Education in the U. S. A. Like in England, school education in the U. S. A. consists of two stages: primary education and secondary education. Primary education begins at the age of six, when children go to an elementary school. They stay at the elementary school for eight years, until the age of 14. The subjects taught at the elementary school include reading, grammar, literature, mathematics, science, social studies (which is a subject that combines history, geography and economics), computer, music, art and physical education. At the age of 14 American children pass on to secondary education, which they get at high schools. The course of secondary education lasts for four years. High schools are large. As a rule, a high school takes pupils from several elementary schools. A high school offers a wide range of subjects, so that teenagers can choose a course of studies according to their individual inclinations and abilities. They may choose to study the English language and literature, or foreign languages, history, geography and economics, or advanced mathematics, physics or chemistry. They can also learn such subjects as accounting or typing or shorthand, or other subjects which will help them later, when they enter the business world.

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In some states children stay at elementary schools for six years instead of eight. After that they go to the so-called intermediate, junior high schools, where they stay for another three or four years, and then pass on to a senior high school to complete their secondary education.

Text 3 Education in Russia There are two stages of school education in Russia: primary education and secondary education. At the age of 6 or 7 Russian children go to school. During the first three or four years they get a primary education: they learn to read, write, count, draw. They also have lessons of music, physical training and handicrafts. Unlike England or the U. S. A., in Russia primary schools are not, as a rule, separated from secondary schools: we have large schools which combine a primary education department and a secondary education department under one roof. In fact, a typical Russian school is actually a secondary school with a primary education department. Only in small country places there may be separate primary schools, on finishing which, the pupils pass on to the nearest larger secondary school. The course of secondary education is, in its turn, subdivided into two stages: the first stage, which might be called intermediate, and the second one. The intermediate stage is compulsory and embraces forms from the 5th up to the 9th. During the intermediate stage the pupils get a basic knowledge in the Russian language and literature, a foreign language, mathematics, physics, chemistry, f history, geography, biology. They also have lessons of music, art and handicrafts. A computer course is also included in the curriculum. On completing the intermediate course of studies, at the age of 14, the pupils may either go to vocational or technical schools, which give a professional training, or stay on at the secondary school for another two years. The curriculum of the last two years offers a wide range of subjects, so that teenagers can choose a course of studies, according to their individual inclinations and abilities. Dialogue 1 A. What were the main types of secondary schools in England until recently? B. Well, there were three main types of secondary schools: grammar schools, technical schools and modern schools. A. Do these three types still exist? B. Yes, they do, but their number is decreasing. A. Is it? Why? B. You see, they are being replaced by a new type of secondary school, called the Comprehensive school. A. Does it mean that comprehensive schools are better? B. Yes, as a matter of fact, they are. A. And what is it that makes them better? B. Well, to begin with, they are large schools, and so they give a much wider range of subjects than smaller schools. A. I see. So they give a better choice to teenagers, don't they? B. Yes. In comprehensive schools teenagers can choose a course of studies according to their individual inclinations and abilities. A. Are comprehensive schools open to all children? B. Yes, and this is another great advantage of comprehensive schools: they are open to children of all types of ability.

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Dialogue 2 A. I am interested in the educational system of Russia and I would like to ask you some questions. B. You are welcome. What is it you would like to ask me about? A. Well, first of all, at what age do children go to school? B. At the age of 6 or 7. A. How long does the course of primary education last? B. It lasts for three or four years. A. I don't understand. Does it mean that different pupils get a different primary education? B. Oh no. The amount of knowledge children get at primary schools is the same. A. Then why do some of them spend four years at primary schools and others only three? B. I'll explain. You see, pre-school children are brought up differently in their families and get a different amount of initial knowledge from their parents. A. Ah, I think I am beginning to see. Indeed, in some families children are taught to read and count as early as at the age of 5. B. Yes, whereas other children don't know their alphabet and cannot add five and five together even at the age of 6. A. And that's why you give them different courses of primary education, don't you? B. That's right.

UNIT 8. CLIMATE Climate and Weather in England The Englis h people say: "There is no climate in England, there's only weather." It is never too hot or too cold in England. This is because of the sea which keeps the island warm in winter and makes the air cool in summer. It is never so cold in winter as on the continent, the rivers and lakes are seldom covered with ice. The worst thing about the climate in England is the thick fog, especially in autumn and in winter. In London the fog is sometimes so thick that cars run into one another. The climate 'influences British architecture very much. British houses have large windows to have more light during winter (windows usually are larger than doors). But they don't have double windows as we have here. Few houses have central heating, they have fireplaces instead. British rooms are kept much cooler than is the custom in Central Europe. British people talk about the weather in England more than anywhere else in the world. That's because the weather there changes very quickly. It may be warm in the morning and cool in the evening; it may rain in the morning, then you will have a bit of sunshine, and again it rains. When two Englishmen meet they often begin their talk with "Fine day, isn't it?..." "Wonderful morning, isn't it?..." or "The rain ... I hate rain..." Learn the following dialogue A. What lovely weather we are having! I am so glad we have come to the country for the week-end. B. So am I. You can't feel the awakening of nature in town as you can here. 51

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A. Of course, everything is different here. How fra grant the air is! B. It comes from the cherry orchards. The cherry trees are in full bloom. We've got the best cherries in all the district around. A. Look how lovely the young leaves are. Let's go and sit under those trees. B. I am afraid the soil is too wet to sit on. Would you mind walking a little? A. Not at all. It’s a pleasure to walk in this bright sunshine. B. Then let’s go and see the cherry blossom.

Read the story It Looks Like Rain A man came into a little village inn and sat down at a table near the window. It was war-time, and food was hard to get. "We've got only soup today, sir," said the waiter to the gentleman. O. K., bring me a plate of soup," said the man. The waiter nodded and left the room. Presently he returned with a plate of soup. He put it on the table before the man and stepped to the window. "It looks like rain, sir," said the waiter, looking out of the window. While the waiter was thinking of the weather, the gentleman was thinking of the soup, which he had just tasted. "Well," he said, "and it tastes like rain, too."

Read the text and say which season you like best Which Season Do You Like Best? A. In my opinion the most beautiful season in Europe is spring. In May the weather is finest, and all nature is loveliest. The trees put forth little buds and new leaves; the meadows grow green again. The first spring flowers: snowdrops, primroses make their appearance. The sky is blue, the sun is bright and the air is fragrant with the sweet scent of lilacs and jasmine. The trees break into blossom, the flowers begin to bloom, the busy bees are at work. The first birds: rooks and starlings build their nests, and every morning there is loud singing of the nightingales in the trees. B. I like summer, in fact I prefer it to any other season. In June the trees, the flowers are in full blossom, I like "Leafy June", "the Month of Roses". A sweet smell rises from the blooming roses, daisies and green grass. A warm soft breeze stirs the leaves of the birchtrees. How beautiful are the fields around! The wheat is golden, the grass is green. If the heat gets too oppressive, we enjoy bathing in the river. What a pleasure it is to lie on the sandy beach and get sun-tanned or splash in the water and swim. August is the very crown and perfection of summer. The hot sun ripens the corn and the fruit, and the collective farmers get ready for the harvest. There are plenty of strawberries, cherries, gooseberries, raspberries, blackberries, plums, apricots, peaches which are ripe and afford a treat for old and young. And what pleasure can be compared with that of watching the glorious sunrise and sunset! It's a real delight! C. Strange as it may seem, I like autumn. Is there anything more beautiful than an Indian summer!* Nature looks beautiful then. The golden trees change their colour from green to dark brown and bright yellow. It is usually cool and sunny.

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In rainy weather there's nothing more pleasant for me than to sit comfortably in my armchair and read a book. D. When autumn is over, winter sets in. It is the season of snowstorms and ice, of frozen rivers and ponds, and of slippery streets, but I don't mind it all. I enjoy skating on the ice, or skiing in the woods. In snowy weather tobogganing is my favourite pastime. Then think of the joy of the children! At the first snowfall they are out making snowmen, building snowhuts, and playing snowballs of course, if the winter is severe, one must take care not to get frost-bitten. To me, winter has its own peculiar beauty, and there is no reason to feel bored when there is such a lot of time for books, theatres and concerts, and the cinema. ________________________________________________________ * Indian summer - 1) a period of warm weather in autumn Learn the following proverbs and sayings: Everything is good in its season. Всё хорошо в своё время. It never rains, but it pours. Дождь не просто идёт, а льёт /ср. «Беда не приходит одна»/ A storm in a tea cup. Буря в чайной чашке. /ср. «Буря в стакане воды»/ One swallow does not make a summer. Одна ласточка не делает весны. Make hay while the sun shines. Коси сено пока солнце светит. After rain comes fair weather. После дождя наступает хорошая погода. Rain at seven – fine at eleven. Дождь в семь – ясно в одиннадцать. April showers bring May flowers. Апрельские ливни приносят майские цветы. The grass is always greener on the other side of the fence. Трава всегда зеленее по ту сторону забора. Sow the wind and reap the storm. Посеешь ветер – пожнёшь бурю. The tree is known by its fruit. Дерево узнают по его плодам.

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UNIT 9. HEALTH CARE

Text 1 Pete is ill When P ete was going home from school, the weather was very bad. It was cold,

a strong wind was blowing and it was raining. Pete had no umbrella and no raincoat. When he came home, he had a running nose and a bad cough and sneezed all the time. His mother told him to get into bed. She put mustard plasters on his chest. In the evening Pete was running a temperature and had a headache. His mother gave him hot tea with honey and raspberry jam to beat down the temperature and a tablet for headache. The next morning Pete had a sore throat and a cold in the head. His temperature was thirty seven point six. So he had to stay away from school. His mother called the doctor in. When the doctor came, he felt Pete's pulse, examined his throat and listened to his heart and lungs. He diagnosed the case as the flu and prescribed some medicine. "Here is the prescription for your medicine," he said. "Take a table spoonful of this mixture three times a day after meals." "May I get up?" asked Pete. "No. You must stay in bed a few days, until your temperature is normal," said the doctor. "Drink a lot of hot tea with raspberry jam and eat honey. You like honey, don't you?" he added, seeing that Pete smiled. "Hot milk is also very good for your sore throat." "Oh!" Pete made a face. "I don't want to drink hot milk. I just hate it" he said. "O. K., hot tea, then," said the doctor. "And by the way," he added, turning to Pete's mother, "tell your daughter not to enter this room. The flu is catching, and if you are not careful, she may catch it. I'll come again in three days to see how my patient is getting on." Pete's illness was not very serious. He followed the doctor's instructions and was getting better from day to day. In a few days he had completely recovered.

Text 2 How to be a Doctor The business of a modern doctor is very simple, and you can learn to be a doctor in about two weeks. This is how it is done. The patient enters the doctor's consulting room. "Doctor," he says, "I have a bad pain." "Where is it?" asks the doctor. "Here," says the patient. "Strip to the waist," says the doctor. "Stand up and put your arms up above your head." Then he goes behind the patient and strikes him a powerful blow in the back. "Do you feel that?" he says. "I do," says the patient. Then the doctor turns suddenly and strikes him a blow in the left side under the heart. "Can you feel that?" he says, as the patient falls down on the sofa. "Get up," says the doctor and counts ten. The patient rises. The doctor walks up to the window and reads the morning paper for a while. Then he diagnoses the case: he mutters some Latin nonsense, more to himself than to the patient. "Oh... what must I do, doctor?" says the patient, greatly frightened. "Well," says the doctor, "I want you to keep very quiet: just go to bed and stay there and keep quiet." In reality, of course, the doctor hasn't the least idea what is the matter with the man, but he does know that if the patient goes to bed and keeps quiet, he will either recover, or die a quiet death. (Retold from Leacock's "How to be a doctor") 54

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Dialogue 1 A. What's the matter with you? B. Oh, I have a splitting headache and a sore throat. A. Your face is red and you have a running nose. Evidently you have a cold. When did you manage to get it? B. I don't know myself. I must have caught cold last night after a game of football when I felt so hot that I even took off my jacket. A. How thoughtless of you, the evening was cold and windy. Now you'll have to stay in. Here's the thermometer, take your temperature. B. Oh, I'll be all right in a few hours. A. Now, you do what you are told. Put the thermometer under your arm... Oh, it's thirtyeight point three. You'll have to stay away from school. B. Oh, that's fine! We have a test-paper in maths tomorrow, so I won't have to write it. That's what I call good luck. A. Oh, don't talk nonsense. Just get into bed, and I'll call the doctor in. Dialogue 2 A. Good morning, doctor. B. Good morning, Kate. What do you complain of? A. I feel bad. I have a headache, and I am afraid I am running a temperature. B. Well, here's the thermometer to take your temperature. I see that you don't look well. A. Besides, I have a cold in the head and my throat is sore. B. What is your temperature? A. Thirty-seven and five. B. Open your mouth and show me your throat. Oh yes, your throat is red. Strip to the waist. Let me listen to your heart and lungs. Breathe. A. What's the matter with me, doctor? B. You have a bad cold, Kate. You must stay in bed for two days, until your temperature is normal and you stop coughing. A. How I hate being ill and staying in bed! B. But if you are not careful, you may fall ill with the flu or pneumonia. I'll prescribe you some medicine. Ask your mother to go to the chemist's and get the medicine. A. How do I take the medicine? B. A table spoonful three times a day. A. And what should I take for headache? B. I'll give you a tablet for headache. But the main thing for you is to go home and stay in bed. If you don't feel better, call me in. Good-bye. A. Thank you, doctor. Good-bye. Learn the following proverbs and sayings An apple a day keeps the doctor away. Одно яблоко в день избавляет от врача. What can’t be cured must be endured. Что нельзя вылечить, то надо переносить. Many doctors have killed the king. Большое количество врачей убило короля. /ср. «У семи нянек дитя без глаза»/ A merry heart is a good medicine. Весёлое сердце – это хорошее лекарство. A sound mind in a sound body. – В здоровом теле здоровый дух.

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REFERENCES 1.Голицинский Ю.В. Spoken English: Пособие по разговорной речи – СПб КАРО, 2002- 416 с. 2. Колыхалова О.А., Махмурян К.С. Разговорный английский Travel with us – АРКТИ, 2002 – 136 с. 3. Английский язык для студентов педагогических вузов. 1 курс: Учебное пособие / Т.Т. Михайлюкова, П.М. Ерофеева, Л.Д. Кашурникова и д.р. – М. Высшая шк. 1994 – 368 с. 4. Английский язык для студентов педагогических вузов, 2 курс. Учебн.пос./ Л.Д. Кашурникова, Т.А. Бойцова, Б.А. Жигалев и др. – М. Высш. шк., 1995 – 367 с. 5. Summertime Cooking. Recipies to Enjoy Indoors and Out. Published by Potopmak Publishing, 2006. 6. English Speech Practice: Учебное пособие Минск «Тетра Системс»»2006 под ред Р.В. Фастовец 7. Новиков А.В. Устные темы по английскому языку «Лист Нью» Москва 2001 г. 8. Проверь себя. Тесты по английскому языку. Москва Аст-Пресс, 1995 г. 9. Английская газета “English” № 14, 2000 г.

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