Encyclopedia of World Cultures [Supplement ed.] 9780028656717, 0028656717

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Table of contents :
Cover Page......Page 1
Encyclopedia of World Cultures Supplement......Page 4
Title Page......Page 5
ISBN 0028656717......Page 6
Contents......Page 7
Editorial Board, Editorial and Production Staff......Page 8
Contributors......Page 9
Preface......Page 18
Maps......Page 20
Abau......Page 27
Albanians......Page 31
Alsatians......Page 35
Arab Canadians......Page 40
Arapaho......Page 44
Assiniboine......Page 49
Banyankole......Page 54
Banyoro......Page 59
Barundi......Page 62
Basoga......Page 67
Bellona and Rennell Islanders......Page 72
Bemba......Page 76
Bena of Southwestern Tanzania......Page 80
Bosnian Muslims, Bosniaks......Page 84
Chícanos......Page 89
Chinese Americans......Page 93
Chinese Canadians......Page 97
Chipewyan......Page 99
Cochin Jews......Page 104
Comanche......Page 106
Creek......Page 110
Crow......Page 115
Cuban Americans......Page 118
Cusabo......Page 122
Dinka......Page 126
Eastern Toraja......Page 130
Embu......Page 133
Ga......Page 137
Ganda......Page 143
German Russians......Page 147
Ghung Hmung......Page 150
Glebo......Page 154
Greek Americans......Page 158
Gwich'in......Page 162
Haitian Americans......Page 166
Hazara......Page 171
Hehe......Page 175
Hokkien Taiwanese......Page 178
Italian Americans......Page 182
Japanese Americans......Page 185
Kagwahiv......Page 189
Kirikiri......Page 194
Korean Americans......Page 197
Koreans in China......Page 201
Koreans in Japan......Page 205
Korowai......Page 209
Lakeshore Tonga......Page 213
Luo......Page 215
Mandinka......Page 220
Mangaians......Page 223
Me'en......Page 226
Mende......Page 230
Mentawaians......Page 233
Meru......Page 238
Meto......Page 241
Mohegan......Page 244
Ndyuka......Page 248
Niueans......Page 253
North American Hmong......Page 257
Northeast Massim......Page 260
Nuer......Page 265
Nupe......Page 269
Ogoni......Page 273
Ojibwa......Page 275
Okinawans......Page 279
Omaha......Page 283
Oromo......Page 289
Ovimbundu......Page 292
Polish Americans......Page 295
Portuguese Americans......Page 299
Premi......Page 303
Puerto Ricans in the Continental United States......Page 306
Quinault......Page 310
Rungus Dusun......Page 314
Russian Americans......Page 317
Rwandans......Page 321
Saniyo......Page 325
Senoufo......Page 328
Serbs......Page 332
Sikh......Page 338
Sinhalese......Page 341
Sotho......Page 345
South Asians in Britain......Page 349
Tajiks......Page 352
Tamil of Sri Lanka......Page 356
Tetum......Page 362
Tigrinya......Page 365
The Tsimshian......Page 368
Tsonga......Page 373
Tujia......Page 377
Tumbuka......Page 380
Tuscarora of North Carolina......Page 384
Uzbeks......Page 388
Venda......Page 393
Wampar......Page 398
Wessex......Page 400
Xhosa......Page 403
Yao......Page 408
Yuchi......Page 412
Zulu......Page 415
Glossary......Page 420
List of Cultures by Country......Page 430
Ethnonym Index......Page 432
Subject Index......Page 436
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Encyclopedia of World Cultures SUPPLEMENT

Encyclopedia of World Cultures SUPPLEMENT

Encyclopedia of World Cultures Supplement

Editors in Chief

Kelvin Ember, President, Human Relations Area Files

Carol R. Ember, Executive Directory Human Relations Area Files

Ian Skoggard, Associate in Research, Human Relations Area Files

Encyclopedia of World Cultures Supplement was prepared under the auspices and with the support of the Human Relations Area Files, Inc. (HRAF) at Yale University. The foremost international research organization in the field of cultural anthropology, HRAF is a not-for-profit consortium of 19 Sponsoring Member institutions and more than 400 active and inactive Associate Member institutions in nearly 40 countries. The mission of HRAF is to provide information that facilitates the cross-cultural study of human behavior, society, and culture. The HRAF Collection of Ethnography, which has been building since 1949, contains nearly one million pages of information, indexed according to more than 700 subject categories, on the cultures of the world. An increasing portion of the Collection of Ethnography, which now covers more than 365 cultures, is accessible via the World Wide Web to member institutions. The HRAF Collection of Archaeology, the first installment of which appeared in 1999, is also accessible on the Web to those member institutions opting to receive it.

Encyclopedia of World Cultures SUPPLEMENT

Melvin Ember, Carol R. Ember, and Ian Skoggard, Editors

MACMILLAN REFERENCE USA

THOMSON LEARNING

New York · Detroit · San Diego · San Francisco Boston · New Haven, Conn. · Waterville, Maine London · Munich

Encyclopedia of World Cultures Supplement Copyright © 2002 Macmillan Reference USA, an imprint of Gale Group ISBN 0-02-865671-7 Macmillan Reference USA 300 Park Avenue South New York, NY 10010 Macmillan Reference USA 27500 Drake Rd. Farmington Hills, MI 48331-3535 All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the Publisher. Printed in the United States of America Printing number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 This paper meets the requirements of ANSI-NISO Z.3948-1992 (Permanence of Paper)

Contents Editorial Board and Project Staff vi List of Contributors vii Preface xvii Maps xix Encyclopedia of World Cultures Supplement 1 Glossary 395 List of Cultures by Country 405 Ethnonym Index 407 Subject Index 411

ν

Editorial Board

Editorial and Production Staff

Melvin Ember, Carol R. Ember, Ian Skoggard, Editors in Chief

Monica M. Hubbard, Senior Editor

Advisors

Linda S. Hubbard, Directory Macmillan Library Reference Nicole Watkins, Contributing Editor Christine O'Bryan, Graphics Specialist Susan Kelsch, Indexing Manager Evi Seoud, Assistant Manager, Composition Rita Wimberley, Manufacturing Buyer Tracey Rowens, Vage Design Cindy Baldwin, Cover Design

Norma Diamond University of Michigan China Terence E. Hays Rhode Island College Oceania Paul Hockings University of Illinois—Chicago South Asia, East and Southeast Asia M. Marlene Martin Human Relations Area Files North America Johannes Wilbert University of California—Los Angeles South America

Macmillan Reference USA Frank Menchaca, Vice President Jill Lectka, Associate Publisher

Contributors Jon G. Abbink Leiden University Institute of Cultural and Social Studies Leiden The Netherlands

Meen

Mario I. Aguilar St. Mary's College University of St. Andrews St. Andrews United Kingdom

Oromo

Jude C. Aguwa Division of Civic and Cultural Studies Mercy College Dobbs Ferry, New York United States

Mende

Jeffrey D. Anderson Department of Anthropology Colby College Waterville, Maine United States

Arapaho

Margaret Seguin Anderson First Nations Studies University of Northern British Columbia Prince Rupers, British Columbia Canada

Tsimshiam

George N. Appell Brandeis University Waltham, Massachusetts United States

Rungus Dusun

Mark J. Awakuni-Swetland Anthropology and Native American Studies University of Nebraska Lincoln, Nebraska United States

Omaha

Bettina Beer Institut für Ethnologie der Universität Hamburg Hamburg Germany

Wampar

vii

viii

Contributors

John Beierle Human Relations Area Files New Haven, Conneticut United States

Chinese Americans; Chinese Canadians; Eastern Toraja; Northeast Massim

George Clement Bond Department of International and Transcultural Studies Teachers College, Columbia University New York City, New York United States

Tumbuka

C. C. Boonzaaier Department of Anthropology and Archaeology Faculty of Humanities University of Pretoria Pretoria Republic of South Africa

Tsonga

Tone Bringa University of Bergen Bergen Norway

Bosniaks

Jennifer S. H. Brown University of Winnipeg Winnipeg, Manitoba Canada

Ojibwa

Melissa J. Brown Department of Anthropological Sciences Stanford University Stanford, California United States

Tujia

Stephen L. Cabrai Adjunct Faculty Department of Sociology and Anthropology University of Massachusetts—Dartmouth Division of Continuing Education Program Manager Substance Abuse Care and Treatment Services Cambridge, Massachusetts Portsmouth, Rhode Island United States Robert L. Canfield Department of Antropology Washington University—Saint Louis Saint Louis, Missouri United States

Portuguese-Americans

Razara

Carolle Charles Bernard M. Baruch College City University of New York New York, New York United States

Haitian Americans

Siu-woo Cheung Division of Humanities The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Kowloon Hong Kong

Ghung Hmung

Contributors

Duane A. Clouse SIL International Dallas, Texas United States

Kirikiri

Barry Craig South Australian Museum Adelaide Australia

Abau

Clarke E. Cunningham Department of Anthropology University of Illinois—Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Illinois United States

Meto

Frederick H. Damon Department of Anthropology University of Virginia Charlottesville, Virginia United States

Northeast Massim

Faith Damon Davison Mohegan Tribe Mohegan Reservation Uncasville, Conneticut United States

Mohegan

Catherine S. Dolan School of Development Studies University of East Anglia Norwich United Kingdom

Meru

Luo Dong Zhongnan Minzu Xueyuan People's Republic of China

Tujia

Timothy Dunnigan Department of Anthropology University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota United States

North American Hmong

Louis E. Fenech Department of History University of Northern Iowa Cedar Falls, Iowa United States

Sikh

Rodney Frey American Indian Studies and Anthropology University of Idaho Moscow, Idaho United States

Crow

Atwood D. Gaines Department of Anthropology Case Western Reserve University Department of Biomedicai Ethics, Nursing, and Psychiatry Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and Nursing Cleveland, Ohio United States

Alsatians

ix

Contributors

Daniel J. Gelo Department of Anthropology University of Texas—San Antonio San Antonio, Texas United States

Comanche

David M. Gordon Department of History University of Maryland—College Park College Park, Maryland United States

Bemba

Ken Hahlo Department of Health and Social Studies Bolton Institute Bolton, Lancs United Kingdom O. M. Hanisch Department of Anthropology University of Venda Thohoyandou Republic of South Africa Jeffrey T. Hester Kansai Gaidai University

South Asians in the United Kingdom

Venda

Koreans in Japan

Osaka

Japan Ingrid Herbich University of Chicago Chicago, Illinois United States

Luo

David Hicks Department of Anthropology State University of New York—Stony Brook Stony Brook, New York United States

Tetum

Paul Hockings Department of Anthropology University of Illinois—Chicago Chicago, Illinois United States

Wessex

Jason Baird Jackson Department of Anthropology Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History Norman, Oklahoma United States

Yuchi

Jok Madut Jok Loyola Marymount University Los Angeles, California United States

Dinka Nuer

Julie Keown-Bomar Department of Social Science University of Washington—Stout Menomonie, Wisconsin United States

North American Hmong

Contributors

Amir Khisamutdinov Department of Foreign Language Vladivostok State University of Economics and Services Vladivostok Russia

Russian Americans

Kwang Ok Kim Seoul National University Seoul Republic of Korea

Koreans in China

Timothy J. Kloberdanz Department of Sociology-Anthropology North Dakota State University Fargo, North Dakota United States

German Russians

Waud Kracke Department of Anthropology University of Illinois—Chicago Chicago, Illinois United States

Kagwahiv

Shepard Krech III Department of Anthropology Brown University Providence, Rhode Island United States

Gwichïn

Alexandros K. Kyrou Department of History Salem State College Salem, Massachusetts Harvard University Cambridge, Massachusetts United States

Greek Americans

Fred Lindsey J. F. Kennedy University Orinda, California United States

Mandinka

Timothy Longman Department of Political Science Vassar College Poughkeepsie, New York Human Rights Center University of California—Berkeley Berkeley, California United States

Rwandans

Derek Lowry Guilford Schools Guilford, North Carolina United States

Tuscarora of North Carolina

Grant McCall Centre for South Pacific Studies The University of New South Wales Sydney, Australia

Mangaia

xi

xii

Contributors

David R. Miller Saskatchewan Indian Federated College University of Regina Regina, Saskatchewan Canada

Assiniboine

Pyong Gap Min Queens College City University of New York New York, New York United States

Korean Americans

Torben Monberg The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters Denmark

Bellona and Rennell Islanders

Mary H. Moran Department of Sociology and Anthropology Colgate University Hamilton, New York United States

Glebo

Tuntufye Selemani Mwamwenda Audrey Cohen College New York, New York United States

Banyankole

Eden Naby CMES / Harvard University Cambridge, Massachusetts United States

Tajiks

Peter F. B. Nayenga Department of History St. Cloud State University St. Cloud, Minnesota United States

Basoga

Wendy Ng Department of Sociology San Jose State University San Jose, California United States

Japanese Americans

Enos H. N. Njeru Department of Sociology University of Nairobi Nairobi Kenya

Embu

H. C. Pauw School of Social Sciences and Humanities (Anthropology) University of Port Elizabeth Port Elizabeth Republic of South Africa

Xhosa

Lisandro Pèrez Cuban Research Institute Florida International University Miami, Florida United States

Cuban Americans

Contributors

Bryan Pfaffenberger University of Virginia Charlottesville, Virginia United States Claire Robertson Department of History and Women's Studies Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio United States Alonford James Robinson, Jr. Department of Government Harvard University Cambridge, Massachusetts United States Tom Ryan Anthropology Programme University of Waikato Hamilton New Zealand

Sinhalese Tamil of Sri Lanka

Ga

Ogoni

Niue

Frank Salamone Iona College New Rochelle, New York United States

Italian Americans

Richard A. Sattler Department of Native American Studies University of Montana Missoula, Montana United States

Creek

Reimar Schefold Leiden University Institute of Cultural and Social Studies The Netherlands

Mentawaians

Nina Glick Schiller University of New Hampshire Durham, New Hampshire United States

Haitian Americans

Stephanie Schwandner-Sievers Nash Albanian Studies Programme School of Slavonic and East European Studies University College London United Kingdom

Albanians

Henry S. Sharp Department of Anthropology University of Virginia Charlottesville, Virginia United States

Chipewyan

Mpilo Pearl Sithole Department of Anthropology University of Durban—Westville Durban Republic of South Africa

Zulu

Ian Skoggard Human Relations Area Files New Haven, Conneticut United States

Arab Canadians; Ganda; Hokkien Taiwanese; Lakeshore Tonga; Okinawans; Ovimbundu; Quinault

xiii

xiv

Contributors,

Andris Skreija Department of Sociology and Anthropology University of Nebraska—Omaha Omaha, Nebraska United States

Polish Americans

Tanya Southerland Princeton University Princeton, New Jersey United States

Senoufo

Rachel Sponzo Department of Anthropology City University of New York New York, New York United States

Tigrinya

Marc J. Swartz Department of Anthropology University of California—San Diego La Jolla, California

Bena

Melissa Fawcett Tantaquidgeon Mohegan Tribe Mohegan Reservation Uncasville, Conneticut United States

Mohegan

Alan Thorold School of Social Sciences and Development Studies University of Durban—Westville Durban Republic of South Africa

Yao

Arlene Torres Department of Anthropology University of Illinois—Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Illinois United States

Puerto Rican Mainlanders

Patricia K. Townsend SUNY at Buffalo Amherst, New York United States

Saniyo

Albert Trouwborst Department of Anthropology (retired) University of Nijmegen The Netherlands

Barundi

Aribidesi Usman African American Studies Arizona State University Tempe, Arizona United States

Nupe

Godfrey N. Uzoigwe Department of History Mississippi State University Mississippi State, MS United States

Banyoro

Contributors

Gerrit J. van Enk Gereformeerde Kerk of Assen-Noord Assen The Netherlands

Korowai

J. A. van Schalkwyk Anthropology and Archaeology National Cultural History Museum Pretoria Republic of South Africa

Sotho

Ineke van Wethering Amsterdam School of Social Research Amsterdam The Netherlands

Ndyuka

Bonno Thoden van Velzen Amsterdam School of Social Research Amsterdam The Netherlands

Ndyuka

James Diego Vigil School of Social Ecology University of California—Irvine Irvine, California United States

Chicano

Gene Waddell College of Charleston Libraries Charleston, South Carolina United States

Cusabo

Shalva Weil Department of Education Ben Gurion University of the Negev Beer Shiva Israel

Cochin Jews

Koen Wellens University of Oslo Oslo Norway

Premi

Edgar V. Winans Department of Anthropology University of Washington Seattle, Washington United States

Hehe

Xu Wu Department of Anthnopology University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta Canada

Tujia

Russell Zanca Northeastern Illinois University Chicago, Illinois United States

Uzbeks

xv

Preface

ing names used by outsiders, the self-name, and alternate spellings. ORIENTATION Identification and Location· Derivation of the names and ethnonyms, location of the culture, and a brief description of the physical environment. Demography. Population history and the most recent reliable population figures or estimates, with dates. Linguistic Affiliation. The name of the language spoken and/or written by the culture, its place in an international language classification system, and internal variation in language use.

This volume, with one hundred new articles, supplements the award-winning 10-volume Encyclopedia of World Cultures, which was also organized and prepared by the Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) at Yale University, and published by G. K. Hall/Macmillan Library Reference between 1991 and 1996. The volume includes three kinds of entries. One kind is an important culture that was not included, for one reason or another, in the original encyclopedia. These new cultures are located in most regions of the world, but especially in Africa and North America. For example, Rwandans and Barundi are now included. New or updated articles on cultures that have been strongly affected by recent political events are a second kind of entry here. For example, the wars in the former Yugoslavia required expansions and updates of the articles on the Bosnian Muslims, Albanians, and Serbs, and the Afghanistan war called for revisions of the articles on the Tajiks and Uzbeks. Finally, there originally were only short entries on some important cultures, including some that are of classic interest in anthropology (for example, Crow, Zulu). These have now been expanded and updated. In preparing this supplement, we have asked for advice from many scholars and contributors. We particularly thank our advisory editors, Norma Diamond (China), Terence E. Hays (Oceania), Paul Hockings (South Asia, East and Southeast Asia), M. Marlene Martin (North America), and Johannes Wilbert (South America) for suggestions about which cultures to add, enlarge, and update, and possible authors. The cultures described here are listed alphabetically. The cultural summaries generally provide a mix of information—demographic, historical, social, economic, political, and religious. But the emphasis is on the culture, on the ways of life of the people, past and present. This is an anthropological reference work, designed for comparing the ways of life of cultures around the world. Usually the authors of the entries are anthropologists who have first-hand experience with the cultures they describe. The entries follow a standardized outline; each summary usually provides information on a core list of topics, including the following:

HISTORY AND CULTURAL RELATIONS Origins and history of the culture and the past and current nature of relationships with other groups. SETTLEMENTS The location of settlements, types of settlements, types of structures, housing design, and materials. ECONOMY Subsistence. The primary methods of obtaining and distributing food and other necessities; if food and other necessities are primarily bought and sold, that is mentioned here but commercial activities are discussed more fully below. Commercial Activities. Activities primarily involving monetary exchange. Industrial Arts. Implements and objects produced by the culture either for its own use or for sale or trade. Trade. Products traded and patterns of trade with other groups. Division of Labor. How basic economic tasks are assigned by age, sex, ability, occupational specialization, or status. Land Tenure. Rules and practices concerning the allocation of land and land-use rights to members of the culture and outsiders. KINSHIP Kin Groups and Descent. Rules and practices concerning kin-based features of social organization such as lineages and clans and alliances between these groups. Kinship Terminology. Classification of the kinship terminological system on the basis of either cousin terms or generation, and information about any unique aspects of kinship terminology.

CULTURE NAME The name used most often in the anthropological and social science literatures to refer to the culture.

MARRIAGE AND FAMILY Marriage. Rules and practices concerning reasons for marriage, types of marriage, economic aspects of marriage, postmarital residence, divorce, and remarriage.

ETHNONYMS Alternative names for the culture includxvii

χνιιι

Preface.

Domestic Unit·  Description  of  the  basic  household  unit including  type,  size,  and  composition. Inheritance.  Rules  and  practices  concerning  the  inheritance  of property. Socialization.  Rules  and  practices  concerning  child  rearing,  including  caretakers,  values  inculcated,  child-rearing methods,  initiation rites,  and education. SOCIOPOLITICAL  ORGANIZATION Social Organization.  Rules  and  practices  concerning  the internal  organization  of the  culture,  including  social  status, primary  and  secondary  groups,  and  social  stratification. Political Organization.  Rules  and  practices  concerning leadership,  politics,  governmental  organizations,  and  decision  making. Social Control.  The  sources  of conflict  within  the  culture and  informal  and  formal  social  control  mechanisms. Conflict.  The  sources  of  conflict  with  other  groups  and informal  and  formal  means  of resolving  conflicts. RELIGION AND EXPRESSIVE CULTURE Religious Beliefs.  The  nature  of religious  beliefs  including beliefs  in  supernatural  entities,  traditional  beliefs,  and  the effects  of  major  religions. Religious Practitioners.  The  types,  sources of power,  and activities  of religious  specialists  such  as  shamans  and  priests. Ceremonies.  The  nature,  type,  and  frequency  of religious and  other  ceremonies  and  rites. Arts.  The  nature,  types,  and  characteristics  of  artistic activities  including  literature,  music,  dance,  carving,  and  so on. Medicine.  The  nature  of  traditional  medical  beliefs  and practices  and  the  influence  of scientific  medicine. Death and Afterlife.  The  nature  of  beliefs  and  practices concerning  death,  the  deceased,  funerals,  and  the  afterlife. BIBLIOGRAPHY A  selected  list  of the  five-to-ten  most  important  sources  for readers,  including  usually  at  least  some  references  in English.

Country Index Cultures  are  not  clearly  separated  by  country,  so  the  country  index  lists  the  cultures  in  this  volume  under  the  countries  in  which  they  are  located.  Where  a  culture  straddles  a political  border,  it  is  listed  in  the  various  countries  in  which a  substantial  population  resides. Ethnonym

Index

There  is  an  ethnonym  index  for  the  cultures  covered  in  the supplement.  As  mentioned  above,  ethnonyms  are  alternative  names  for  the  culture—that  is,  names  different  from those  used  here  as  the  summary  headings.  Ethnonyms  may be  alternative  spellings  of the  culture  name,  a  totally  different  name  used  by  outsiders,  a  name  used  in  the  past  but  no longer  used,  or  the  name  in  another  language.  It  is  not unusual  that some  ethnonyms  are  considered  degrading  and insulting  by  the  people  to  whom  they  refer.  These  names may be  included  here  because  they do identify the  group and may help  some  users  locate  the  summary or additional information  on  the  culture  in  other  sources.  Authors  usually explain whether a particular ethnonym is considered acceptable  or  unacceptable  to  the  people  being  described  in  the identification  and  location  section.  The  ethnonyms  index contains pointers to the main culture name  under which the entry  can  be  found. Population Figures We  have  tried  to  be  as  up-to-date  and  as  accurate  as  possible  in  reporting  population  figures.  This  is  no  easy  task,  as some  groups  are  not  counted  in  official  government  censuses,  some  groups  are  very  likely  undercounted,  and  in  some cases  the  definition  of  a  cultural  group  used  by  the  census takers  differs  from  the  definition  we  have  used.  In  general, we  have  relied  on  population  figures  supplied  by  the  summary authors.  If the  reported figure is from an earlier  d a t e — say,  the  1980s—it is usually because it is the most up-to-date figure  that  could be  found. Acknowledgments

AUTHOR'S  NAME

Maps There  is  a  set  of maps  for  each  region  of the  world  that  will help  the  reader  find  the  country  or  countries  in  which  the culture  is  located.

In  addition  to  our  advisors,  who  suggested  cultures  to  be included  and  possible  authors,  we  thank  Monica  Hubbard for  managing  the  project  with  her  usual  efficiency  and  good humor.  Most  of all,  of course,  we  thank  the  contributors  for describing  the  cultures  so  well. CAROL R. EMBER, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR

Glossary There  is  a  glossary  of technical  and  scientific  terms  found  in the  summaries.  Both  general  social  science  terms  and region-specific  terms  are  included.

MELVIN EMBER, PRESIDENT IAN SKOGGARD, ASSOCIATE IN RESEARCH HUMAN RELATIONS AREA FILES AT YALE UNIVERSITY

Abau

History and Cultural Rehtions Abau speakers separate Biaka and Pyu speakers, whose languages appear to be related at the phylum level, to the north and west, respectively. Several Abau groups tell how they originated from locations farther downstream from where they currently live; some say from the May River. Despite traditions of a common origin, there appears to have been little sense of loyalty among these groups. Each settlement was autonomous, and enmity between settlements was common. Even intermarriage between groups did not guarantee friendship. It seems that enmity was strongest and most enduring between speakers of different languages, but was ameliorated for purposes of trade. Enmity between the Abau of the Idam valley and the Amto (an unrelated speech community in the Simaiya valley and West Range immediately to the east) seems to have been particularly intense until warfare was banned by the colonial administration. Almost nothing is known of the prehistory of the area. A small stone head unearthed in a village near the Green River patrol post was not recognized as an Abau artifact. The first Europeans to contact the Abau were members of the German-Dutch border-marking expedition of 1910, followed by the 1912-1913 Kaiserin-Augusta-Fluss expedition. A small ethnographic collection from among the Abau is in the Museum für Völkerkunde in Berlin. In 1914 Richard Thurnwald explored widely throughout the upper basin of the Sepik, following that river almost to its source near Telefomin. The Eve-Hodgekiss oil search expedition of 1938 constructed an airstrip at Green River and the first plane landed in 1938, but it was not until 1949 that a patrol post was established there. A small airstrip was built in the Idam valley in the 1960s but was soon abandoned because of drainage problems. Another airstrip was built on the August River in the early 1970s to service a small police post there. The Christian Mission to Many Lands has had a small station based at Green River since 1953. A few men have been employed as plantation workers and have brought back an awareness of the outside world, a knowledge of Pidgin English, and a desire to acquire some of the material wealth of Europeans. However, there appear to be no major resources in the area to realize that desire.

ETHNONYM: Green River Orientation Identification and Location. The Abau are the westernmost people living on the Sepik River. The name was applied by linguists; it is not used by the Abau people. It might have derived from the kinship term for grandparents, abau. "Green River" is inappropriate as an ethnonym because it is the name of a river flowing mainly through non-Abau territory and of a government patrol post near the boundaries of three unrelated language groups. Abau territory falls within Sandaun (West Sepik) Province of Papua New Guinea and extends mainly along the south bank of the Sepik from the vicinity of the Yellow River, a northern tributary of the upper Sepik, to the international border of the Indonesian province of Irian Jay a; that is between 141°00" and 141°00" E. by 4° S. It also includes the area south of the Green River patrol post and the floodplains of the Idam and August rivers, southern tributaries of the upper Sepik. The West Range to the south is sparsely inhabited by peoples who speak unrelated languages and whose cultures are more related to those of the Sepik foothills than to that of the riverine Abau. On the north side of the Sepik, in an area of swamps grading through forest to patchy grass country, peoples of unrelated language groups share a culture not unlike that of the Abau. Demography. The names of 1990 and 2000 village-based census units are difficult to correlate with Abau villages. The linguist Laycock estimated 4,545 people based on information in 1970. The census figures for 1980 suggest no significant change. It is estimated that the Abau number between 4,500 and 5,000 people and inhabit 1,700 square miles (4,350 square kilometers). Linguistic Affiliation. Abau belongs to the Sepik-Ramu phylum of Non-Austronesian ("Papuan") languages and is characterized by tonemes. The language most closely related to Abau is Iwam, which is spoken by people living along the Sepik and the lower May River, downstream from the Abau. Iwam and Abau have 30 percent cognate vocabulary.

Settlements The Abau once lived in large community houses close to the banks of rivers and surrounded by food gardens. Administra1

2

Abau

tion officers pressured the people to abandon these houses in favor of single-family dwellings set out in a village pattern, but communal dwellings were still seen in the 1970s. The community houses were rectangular structures supported at least six feet off the ground by many flimsy posts. The gable roof utilized prefabricated sections of sago leaf thatch. The walls were midribs of sago palm frond cut to the required length and lashed with cane. The flooring was made of tough blackpalm bark. There were usually small verandas at each end of the house. Hearths were lined up on either side of the house, one side for men and the other for women and children, though children moved freely in the men's space. Firewood was dried and meat and fish were preserved in racks above the hearth. It is estimated that a community house would not have lasted more than four years. More recent single-family dwellings are similar in construction to community houses, though smaller and with a large open veranda to facilitate socializing and communication between the occupants of neighboring dwellings. A special kind of house was constructed for dancing. It was similar to a community house, but hearths were arranged around the perimeter of a lower dance floor supported only at the edges. A large center post passed through a hole in the floor and supported the ridge pole but not the floor. The slow, knee-bending action of the dancers caused the floor to spring slowly up and down in rhythm with the dancing. Economy Subsistence. The Abau are swidden horticulturalists, hunters, and gatherers but rely primarily on sago for their staple starch. Food crops include taro, sweet potato, yams, and bananas as well as recently introduced crops such as pineapples, pawpaws, beans, and corn. Gardens are fenced to prevent feral pigs from destroying crops. The Abau cultivate coconut palms, areca palm (betel nut), and breadfruit, roasting the whole fruit in the fire but eating only the cooked seeds. They hunt feral pigs and domesticate a few but slaughter domestic pigs only on special occasions. Woman and children gather frogs and tadpoles and dam small creeks so that they can use crushed derris root in the water to stun the fish. The men catch fish and hunt various animals, including flying foxes, bandicoots, possums, cuscus and rats, birds and cassowaries, and wallabies. Commercial Activities. There appear to no opportunities for commercial development at the present time. During the 1960s there was a brief revival of shield making to supply the artifact industry. Industrial Arts. Before the introduction by Europeans of knives, steel axes, and machetes, tools were made of stone and bone. Stone adze blades were roughly shaped by percussion flaking of river pebbles and then ground and polished. These blades were bound onto a haft shaped like the number "7" but could be rotated so that the tools functioned as axes or adzes. These adjustable tools were particularly apt for the hollowing out of logs for canoe hulls. Cylindrical stones ground to a point at each end were similarly hafted and used to fell sago palms. The pith of the sago palm is shredded by pounding with a stone core that is hafted in the same way as the palm cutter and axe or adze. Chisels and pandanus fruit splitters are made from the tibia of the cassowary, and

pig bones are used as spoons. Rat incisors are used as chisels for fine carving. Bow staves are made from black palm, and bowstrings from split rattan. Arrows for hunting large game and for warfare are elaborately ornamented. Most arrows have a reed shaft and a barbed point; bamboo blades are joined to the shaft by an elaborately carved and painted foreshaft. Shields were carved from the large flat buttress roots of trees and suspended from the bow shoulder by a horizontal bast strap. Designs were carved in relief bands painted black, with the curvilinear figures usually in an ocher color against a white ground. Hourglass-shaped hand drums without carved handles are fitted with a lizard skin tympanum; designs related to those on shields are carved and painted at the distal end. Wooden trumpets with a slightly tapering cone shape also bear carved and painted designs at the distal end. Bamboo jaw's harps are played for amusement. Log slit drums figure in legends, but only a few, small, crudely carved examples could be found in the 1960s. Women make looped string bags of various sizes that are used to carry everything from small personal items to food, firewood, and babies. Women also make and wear reed or sago-string skirts. Men make and wear gourd penis sheaths, either egg-shaped or tapering. Curvilinear designs representing insects and other small creatures are burned onto the surface of the gourds. This type of ornamentation also is applied to gourds used for smoking or as containers for the lime chewed with betel nuts. Bamboo smoking tubes are provided with etched designs that often are similar to those on the arrow foreshafts. A variety of head, neck, chest, arm, and leg ornaments were made from shells, bone, teeth, seeds, fur, and feathers. Trade. The major items of trade were stone tools, for which dogs'-teeth necklaces and pigs were exchanged. A type of triangular cross-section adze was traded from the same source in the Star Mountains to the west from which the Telefolmin obtained their adzes; these adzes have been found as far down the Sepik River as Angoram. Some axe and adze blades were made locally from large river pebbles, and some were obtained by trade from the upper reaches of streams east and west of the Abau. Shell ornaments of nassa, cowrie, pearl shell, and conus also were obtained by trade. Division of Labor. Men clear forest for gardens, erect fences, build houses, and carve canoes. They hunt with bows and arrows, assisted by dogs. Both sexes plant, weed, and harvest. Men fell sago palms. Women extract the sago starch from the palm and cook sago by mixing water boiled in bamboo tubes with the sago starch to make gelatinous ``sausages." A container made by folding and stitching sago spathe (the large sheathing leaf enveloping the flowering head of the palm) is used in this process. Women are the primary carers for children, but men carry children and play with them. Women make the looped string bags used by both sexes. Land Tenure. Land belonging to each settlement appears to have relatively clearly defined boundaries that were contested by warfare. It appears that an individual's rights to use land are inherited primarily from the father, secondarily from the mother, and occasionally from affines.

Abau

Kinship Kin Groups and Descent.  There  do  not  appear  to  be  any named  kin  groups;  each  group  is  known by the  name  of its settlement.  There  are  two ``lines" of Abau:  one  that moved up the Sepik mainstream to Hufi on the international border and  one  that moved  up  the  lower reaches  of the  Simaiya  to the  Idam  and  across  to  the  middle  August  River.  Relationships within each of these ``lines" tend to be friendly, but relationships  between  the  lines  tend  to  be  unfriendly, exacerbated  by  accusations  of sorcery. Kinship Terminology.  Abau kin terminology is difficult to classify  but  it  is  Omaha-like  in  so  far  as  all  parallel  relatives are  called  (male  speaking)  by  the  generationally appropriate nuclear family terms, there is a terminological differentiation of the  sister's  descendants,  and  there  is  a  generational  shift upwards  of the mother's brother's  daughter and her descendants.  However,  the mother's brother's son and the father's sister's  son  are  terminologically  equated  by  a  word  that  is translatable  as  ``pig-exchange  relative."  In  the  standard Omaha system, these terms should be different,  and so it appears  that  the  term  for  "pig-exchange  relative"  has  "overwritten"  the  Omaha  terms.  Little  is  known  of  the  female kinship terminology but it appears similar in structure to that of the  male  terminology  while  using  many  different  terms. Marriage and Family Marriage.  It  is  said  that  a  man,  usually  the  father,  gives  a woman  to  another  man  to  marry.  The  ideal  is  sister  exchange. There is often considerable pressure on a woman to marry a man not of her choice.  However,  at least as often a woman  insists  on  having  her  own  feelings  considered.  Most marriages  are within the village group, but marriages  to outsiders  are  arranged  with  a  sense  of reciprocity—a  woman of group  A  is  given  to  a  man  of group  Β  because  previously  a woman  of group  Β  was  given  to  a  man  of group  A.  This  is a  generalized form of sister exchange.  A bride  can be bought with  dogs'  teeth,  bows,  arrows,  and  string bags. A man is  not supposed  to marry his  sister's  daughter or his first cousin, but the latter is now permissible.  In the past this would have  created problems with the  rules  of pork distribution. Sex before marriage causes  considerable  trouble because it disrupts plans for sister exchange, but adultery among married men and women is common. Women say that prostitution—getting  paid  for  sex—would  be  silly:  "It  is  just  fun." Domestic Unit.  The  basic  domestic  unit  is  the  nuclear family,  sometimes  extended  to  include  a  sibling  or  another close relative of the husband or wife. Infanticide may be practiced  if a  child  is  born  too  soon  after  another child.  Ideally, a child should have  left the breast before  another requires it. Women may resort to magic to prevent pregnancy, but abortion is not practiced. Men prefer male children because they see  them  as  their replacements. Inheritance.  Men  tend  to  inherit  their  fathers'  most valuable  possessions,  such  as  stone  tools,  fight  arrows,  and hand drums.  Inheritance  of  land,  or  of the  right  to  use  land,  is cognatic—that  is,  through  the  father or mother—although there  appears  to be  a preference  for patrilineal  inheritance.

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Socialization.  Perhaps  the  most  important  attitude  inculcated  during  childhood  is  the  necessity  for  sharing  food. When a boy shoots his first birds,  neither he nor his parents may eat them; he must give them to someone else "or he will never grow up." A man is bound by the  same rules when he shoots his first pigs. He cannot eat the first crop of coconuts or betel nut from the palms he has planted because "his blood has  gone  into  it."  For  the  same  reason he  must not eat  the pigs  he  has  reared  or  the  sago  or  pandanus  from  the  palms he  has  planted. It  was  said  that  in  pre-European  times  parents  dealt harshly  with  naughty  children,  sometimes  beating  them  so badly  that  they  died.  Children  were  frightened  into  obedience  by  warnings  of "bogeymen"  and  enemy  scouts.  There appear  to  have  been  no  formal  rites  of initiation  or  coming of age  for boys or girls. Sociopolitical Organization Social Organization.  The  community  house  group  (today the village  group)  is  the  basic social unit that integrates  nuclear  families.  Previously,  men  sat,  ate,  and  slept  in  an  area of the community house nominally separate from the women and children. The change to individual houses for the nuclear  family,  gathered  together  into  villages,  has  broken  down this  separation  of the  sexes. Political Organization.  Traditionally,  there were no formal political  offices.  An  energetic  young  warrior  may  have  been able to mobilize one or two settlements against an enemy, but larger  alliances  were  unknown. After  the  Green  River  patrol  post  was  established,  government  officers  appointed  a luluai  (village  representative) and a tultul (assistant) in each settlement to mediate between themselves  and  the  villagers.  This  system  was  replaced  by local government councils with elected councilors in the late 1970s.  Today  candidates  for  office  at  the  local,  provincial, and  national  levels  are  elected  on  the  basis  of local loyalties but readily replaced if they are perceived not to have materially  assisted  their  constituents. Social Control.  Antisocial  behavior  is  generally  tolerated and dealt with by avoidance. However, if a person is accused of  sorcery  and  enough  men  feel  aggrieved  by  the  sorcerer's activities,  they  may  kill  the  accused  even  if that person  is  a member  of  their  community.  If  a  person  goes  crazy  and threatens extreme violence,  a number of men may physically restrain  that  person  until  he  or  she  calms  down.  Serious crimes  are  reported  to  government  officials  who  have  the power  to  take  the  accused  into  custody  and,  if found  guilty, jail him at  the  provincial center.  Monetary fines are ineffective as few people have money. A typical activity for prisoners is  to cut the grass on airstrips  and clear out drainage ditches at  the  roadside. Conflict.  Conflict within  the  village  may be  sparked by accusations  of  theft,  adultery,  or  unfair  distribution  of  food. Conflict is managed by avoidance or physical restraint. Conflict between communities may involve a number of men and quickly escalate to warfare, with the aim being to destroy the community,  its  settlement,  and  its  gardens.  If  someone  is killed,  that  person's  death  must  be  avenged.

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Abau

Religion and Expressive Culture Religious Beliefs. Traditionally, there were no initiatory rituals, and although the skeletal relics of some ancestors were retained as heirlooms, there do not appear to have been any rituals involving them. There is, however, strong adherence to animism and belief in humanlike spirits with shapeshifting powers that inhabit large trees, deep pools, and rivers. The spirit world is regarded as having a geographic location at the boundaries of human settlement, gardening, and hunting activities. The spirits of dead persons may be encountered in the bush and may choose to return to human settlements, sometimes with a spouse and with children who have been born to them in the spirit world. A characteristic of spirits is that they vomit when first attempting to eat cooked food or decompose or vanish if they are reminded of their death. Religious Practitioners. Every community has a few men who use magic to cure illnesses. After chewing betel nut and cinnamon bark and engaging in periodic tobacco smoking, they examine patients and suck out splinters, nails, bones, stones, teeth, and other objects that are believed to be making the patient sick. These objects are thought to have been shot into the victim by sorcery. After the objects have been removed, they must chase off the malignant spirits that have been extracted along with the objects or the community's dogs will be driven crazy and they will not be able to hunt wild pigs successfully. Ceremonies. Abau religious ceremonies seem to be concerned primarily with curing illness. Yafi is the name of a sickness-curing ceremony. A tall conical sago spathe headdress (bufiyaf) with a design painted on it like those on shields is worn by a man who also wears a large gourd penis sheath (yafsiau) and a belt of large bones and seeds. The masked man beats his drum and dances so that the sheath swings up and clacks on the belt. His function is to decoy and dispose of the malevolent spirits that have made people sick. The sick people sit on the ground, and the rest of the community dances around them. After the ceremony the participants must avoid sexual intercourse for a month so that the ginger they have used does not injure or kill their partners. Arts. Designs are etched on bamboo smoking tubes and reed arrow shafts; singed on gourd penis sheaths, lime containers, and smoking apparatus; painted on sago palm spathe; and carved and painted on wood shields, hand drums, and trumpets. Arrow foreshafts are elaborately carved and painted and may be inherited from generation to generation. The designs are generally curvilinear and symmetrical around the vertical and horizontal axes. There is a rich tradition of songs with texts evoking nostalgia and melancholy by means of allusion to phenomena in the natural world. Oral traditions are in linear, narrative form, with frequent reference to the spirit world and interactions between protagonists and spirits. A common motif is the man who gains a boon from a spirit woman and loses it through negligence. Another is the outcast who, through heroic experiences during an epic journey, becomes an admired superman. Medicine. The most common herb used as medicine is nettle, which is thought to prevent the blood from coagulating

in the veins, which the Abau recognize as a sign of death. Another method of curing certain illnesses is to sit on a platform above or lean over a bark container of medicinal leaves and water that is brought to boiling by dropping in hot stones. This method is believed to remove the vindictive powers of spirits who have taken the form of human beings (especially females). Chewing ginger, cinnamon, and betel nut and smoking tobacco are believed to be curative or necessary for healers to mobilize their curative powers. Chewing the extremely bitter wild taro leaf is mentioned as a means of abruptly shifting men into a warlike temperament. It is "heat" that is said to be the significant characteristic of these plant materials. Death and Afterlife. If a person dies prematurely, even through an accident, it is believed that sorcery has been committed. A divination is conducted that involves a bamboo pole set up with rattling objects suspended from one end over the grave of the dead person; the other end is held by the diviner. The assembled men of the community call out the names of suspected sorcerers. If the pole rattles, they believe they are on the right track. Eventually, when the right name has been called and the motive has been established, the pole leaps out of its position over the grave and several young men hang on to it and rush up and down the village until they are exhausted. Th