Diet-microbe interactions in the gut: effects on human health and disease 9780124078253, 1865843830, 0124078257

Drawing on expert opinions from the fields of nutrition, gut microbiology, mammalian physiology, and immunology,Diet-Mic

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English Pages xiv, 253 pages: illustrations; 29 cm [268] Year 2014;2015

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Table of contents :
Front Cover......Page 1
Diet-Microbe Interactions in the Gut......Page 4
Copyright Page......Page 5
Contents......Page 6
Foreword......Page 10
Acknowledgements......Page 12
List of Contributors......Page 14
Gut Microbiota Metabolism in Health and Disease......Page 16
Measuring Species Richness and Variability......Page 18
Estimating Microbial Relative Abundance within the Gut Microbiota using Culture-Independent Methods......Page 19
Measuring Microbial Activity......Page 20
The Stomach......Page 21
The Small Intestine (Jejunum and Ileum)......Page 22
The Colon (Large Intestine)......Page 23
Models to Study Microbial Ecology......Page 25
References......Page 26
Human Diet or Microbiota, Which Came First?......Page 32
Microbiome and Human Nutritional Phenotype......Page 33
The Gut Microbiota in Human Evolution......Page 34
Populations can be Separated by Characteristic Differences in the Gut Microbiota......Page 36
The Western Diet Metagenome is Obesity Prone......Page 39
References......Page 40
Let’s Start With the Definition of Probiotics......Page 42
Shaping the Microbiota......Page 43
The Neonatal Period......Page 44
Adult Life and the Proposed Enterotype Classification......Page 46
The Aged Period......Page 47
Efficacy in Healthy People......Page 48
References......Page 52
Taxonomy of Bifidobacteria......Page 56
Bifidobacterial Populations in the Human Gut......Page 58
Bifidobacteria as Probiotics......Page 59
Bifidobacterial Genomics......Page 60
Comparative Genomics and Bifidobacteria......Page 61
Pilus-Like Structure......Page 62
Conclusions......Page 63
References......Page 64
Introduction......Page 68
Linking Microbiome Structure and Function......Page 69
Probiotics......Page 70
Prebiotics......Page 71
Testing Prebiotics......Page 74
Conclusion......Page 80
References......Page 81
Structures and Nomenclature......Page 88
Distribution in the Plant Kingdom: From Ecological Role to Behavior during Gastrointestinal Transit......Page 89
Dietary Sources, Intake and Health Benefits......Page 91
Fate of Proanthocyanidins through the Digestive Tract......Page 92
In Vitro Biotransformation......Page 94
In Vivo Biotransformation......Page 99
Hydrolyzable Tannins (Gallotannins and Ellagitannins)......Page 100
Chemistry of Hydrolyzable Tannins (Gallotannins and Ellagitannins)......Page 101
Occurrence and Dietary Sources......Page 102
Metabolism of Hydrolyzable Tannins in Humans......Page 105
Protective Effects of Hydrolyzable Tannins Intake in Human Subjects......Page 111
References......Page 113
Introduction......Page 118
Conversion of Plant Lignans to Enterolignans by Gut Bacteria......Page 119
Cancer......Page 122
Breast Cancer......Page 123
Prostate Cancer......Page 124
Interindividual Differences in Lignan Metabolism......Page 125
Diet......Page 126
Other Factors Associated with Enterolignan Production......Page 128
References......Page 129
Introduction......Page 134
Bacterial Transformation and Intestinal Absorption of DON and its Derivatives......Page 136
DON and DON-Conjugates Impact on the Human Gut......Page 138
References......Page 139
Gut Microbial Recognition by the Immune System......Page 142
Immune Effectors of Intestinal Microbiota–Host Crosstalk......Page 143
Intestinal Barrier, Gut Permeability and Metabolic Inflammation......Page 144
Effects of Intestinal Bacterial Short-Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs) on Inflammation and Metabolism......Page 145
Dietary Fat Metabolism, Bile Acids and Gut Microbiota......Page 146
Diet, Tmao, Gut Microbiota and Atherosclerosis......Page 147
Immune Versus Metabolic Functions in Intestinal Epithelial Cells Gene Networks......Page 148
Conclusion......Page 149
References......Page 150
The Etiology and Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Disease......Page 154
The Rationale for Geoepigenetics......Page 155
Geoepigenetics of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)......Page 156
Geoepigenetics of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)......Page 158
Geoepigenetics of Systemic Sclerosis......Page 159
References......Page 160
Genetic Determinants of Obesity......Page 164
Obesity Associated Gut Microbiota......Page 165
Difference in Bacterial Composition at Phylum Level......Page 166
Archaea Methanogens......Page 167
Cause or Consequence......Page 168
Gut Microbiota and Dietary “Energy-Harvest”......Page 169
Role of SCFA and their Receptors in Dietary “Energy-Harvest”......Page 171
Interactions between Gut Microbes and Obesity: “The Appetite Control Theory”......Page 172
Interactions between Gut Microbes and Obesity: “The Inflammation Theory”......Page 173
Gut Microbiota AS A Therapeutic Target of Probiotics, Prebiotics and Synbiotics......Page 176
References......Page 181
Apple Components......Page 188
Simple Carbohydrates......Page 189
Polyphenols......Page 190
Polyphenols Bioavailability......Page 192
The Human Gut Microbiota......Page 193
Modulation of the Gut Microbiota Composition – Impact of Apples and Apple Components......Page 194
Cardiometabolic Disease Risk – Epidemiological Studies......Page 195
Lipid Metabolism......Page 196
Polyphenol–Pectin Synergistic Effect......Page 199
Inflammation......Page 200
Antioxidant Role......Page 201
Conclusion......Page 202
References......Page 203
Diet and Colorectal Cancer......Page 210
Biological Activity and Anticancer Properties of Whole-Grain Cereals......Page 212
Biomarkers for CRC......Page 213
Human Studies......Page 214
Biological Activity and Anticancer Properties of Berry Fruits......Page 216
Conclusion......Page 218
References......Page 219
Historical Overview......Page 224
Scientific Definition and Description......Page 225
Level of Adherence: Is there any Measure?......Page 226
The Moli-Sani Experience......Page 227
Mediterranean Diet – From Epidemiology to Clinical Trials......Page 228
Preventing Cardio-Metabolic Disease......Page 229
Protection against Different Types of Cancer......Page 230
Mediterranean Food Intake and Impact on Human Gut Microbiota......Page 231
References......Page 234
Background......Page 240
Gut Microbiota and ASD......Page 241
Amino Acid Metabolism......Page 243
Lipid Metabolism and the Brain......Page 245
Short-Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) and the Brain......Page 246
Gut Microbiota and Digestive Function......Page 248
Dietary Modulation of the Gut Microbiota for Improved Brain Function......Page 250
Probiotics, Gut Microbiota Successional Development and Brain Function......Page 252
References......Page 253
Index......Page 262

Diet-microbe interactions in the gut: effects on human health and disease
 9780124078253, 1865843830, 0124078257

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