Database systems: a practical approach to design, implementation, and management [6. ed] 9780132943260, 1292061189, 9781292061184, 0132943263

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English Pages 1329 s. + appendiks A-E, illustrations [1442] Year 2014;2015

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Table of contents :
Cover......Page 1
Title......Page 5
Copyright......Page 6
Contents......Page 13
Preface......Page 37
Part 1 Background......Page 51
Chapter 1 Introduction to Databases......Page 53
1.1 Introduction......Page 54
1.2.1 File-Based Approach......Page 57
1.2.2 Limitations of the File-Based Approach......Page 62
1.3 Database Approach......Page 64
1.3.1 The Database......Page 65
1.3.2 The Database Management System (DBMS)......Page 66
1.3.3 (Database) Application Programs......Page 67
1.3.4 Components of the DBMS Environment......Page 68
1.4.1 Data and Database Administrators......Page 71
1.4.2 Database Designers......Page 72
1.5 History of Database Management Systems......Page 73
1.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of DBMSs......Page 77
Chapter Summary......Page 81
Exercises......Page 82
Chapter 2 Database Environment......Page 85
2.1 The Three-Level ANSI-SPARC Architecture......Page 86
2.1.1 External Level......Page 87
2.1.3 Internal Level......Page 88
2.1.4 Schemas, Mappings, and Instances......Page 89
2.1.5 Data Independence......Page 90
2.2 Database Languages......Page 91
2.2.2 The Data Manipulation Language (DML)......Page 92
2.2.3 Fourth-Generation Languages (4GLs)......Page 94
2.3 Data Models and Conceptual Modeling......Page 95
2.3.2 Record-Based Data Models......Page 96
2.4 Functions of a DBMS......Page 99
Chapter Summary......Page 104
Review Questions......Page 105
Exercises......Page 106
Chapter 3 Database Architectures and the Web......Page 107
3.1.1 Teleprocessing......Page 108
3.1.2 File-Server Architecture......Page 109
3.1.3 Traditional Two-Tier Client–Server Architecture......Page 110
3.1.4 Three-Tier Client–Server Architecture......Page 113
3.1.5 N-Tier Architectures......Page 114
3.1.6 Middleware......Page 115
3.1.7 Transaction Processing Monitors......Page 117
3.2.1 Web Services......Page 119
3.2.2 Service-Oriented Architectures (SOA)......Page 121
3.3 Distributed DBMSs......Page 122
3.4 Data Warehousing......Page 125
3.5 Cloud Computing......Page 127
3.5.1 Benefits and Risks of Cloud Computing......Page 129
3.5.2 Cloud-Based Database Solutions......Page 132
3.6 Components of a DBMS......Page 136
3.7.1 Oracle’s Logical Database Structure......Page 139
3.7.2 Oracle’s Physical Database Structure......Page 142
Chapter Summary......Page 146
Exercises......Page 147
Part 2 The Relational Model and Languages......Page 149
Chapter 4 The Relational Model......Page 151
4.1 Brief History of the Relational Model......Page 152
4.2.1 Relational Data Structure......Page 154
4.2.2 Mathematical Relations......Page 157
4.2.4 Properties of Relations......Page 158
4.2.5 Relational Keys......Page 160
4.2.6 Representing Relational Database Schemas......Page 161
4.3.1 Nulls......Page 163
4.3.3 Referential Integrity......Page 164
4.4.1 Terminology......Page 165
4.4.2 Purpose of Views......Page 166
Chapter Summary......Page 167
Exercises......Page 168
Chapter 5 Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus......Page 169
5.1.1 Unary Operations......Page 170
5.1.2 Set Operations......Page 173
5.1.3 Join Operations......Page 176
5.1.4 Division Operation......Page 179
5.1.5 Aggregation and Grouping Operations......Page 180
5.1.6 Summary of the Relational Algebra Operations......Page 182
5.2.1 Tuple Relational Calculus......Page 183
5.2.2 Domain Relational Calculus......Page 186
5.3 Other Languages......Page 188
Review Questions......Page 189
Exercises......Page 190
Chapter 6 SQL: Data Manipulation......Page 193
6.1.1 Objectives of SQL......Page 194
6.1.2 History of SQL......Page 195
6.2 Writing SQL Commands......Page 197
6.3 Data Manipulation......Page 198
6.3.1 Simple Queries......Page 199
6.3.2 Sorting Results (ORDER BY Clause)......Page 207
6.3.3 Using the SQL Aggregate Functions......Page 209
6.3.4 Grouping Results (GROUP BY Clause)......Page 211
6.3.5 Subqueries......Page 214
6.3.6 ANY and ALL......Page 216
6.3.7 Multi-table Queries......Page 218
6.3.8 EXISTS and NOT EXISTS......Page 224
6.3.9 Combining Result Tables (UNION, INTERSECT, EXCEPT)......Page 225
6.3.10 Database Updates......Page 227
Chapter Summary......Page 231
Exercises......Page 232
Chapter 7 SQL: Data Definition......Page 235
7.1.1 SQL Identifiers......Page 236
7.1.2 SQL Scalar Data Types......Page 237
7.2.2 Domain Constraints......Page 242
7.2.3 Entity Integrity......Page 243
7.2.4 Referential Integrity......Page 244
7.2.5 General Constraints......Page 245
7.3.1 Creating a Database......Page 246
7.3.2 Creating a Table (CREATE TABLE)......Page 247
7.3.3 Changing a Table Definition (ALTER TABLE)......Page 250
7.3.4 Removing a Table (DROP TABLE)......Page 251
7.3.6 Removing an Index (DROP INDEX)......Page 252
7.4.1 Creating a View (CREATE VIEW)......Page 253
7.4.2 Removing a View (DROP VIEW)......Page 255
7.4.3 View Resolution......Page 256
7.4.5 View Updatability......Page 257
7.4.6 WITH CHECK OPTION......Page 258
7.4.7 Advantages and Disadvantages of Views......Page 260
7.4.8 View Materialization......Page 262
7.5 Transactions......Page 263
7.6 Discretionary Access Control......Page 264
7.6.1 Granting Privileges to Other Users (GRANT)......Page 266
7.6.2 Revoking Privileges from Users (REVOKE)......Page 267
Chapter Summary......Page 269
Exercises......Page 270
Chapter 8 Advanced SQL......Page 273
8.1.1 Declarations......Page 274
8.1.2 Assignments......Page 275
8.1.3 Control Statements......Page 276
8.1.4 Exceptions in PL/SQL......Page 278
8.1.5 Cursors in PL/SQL......Page 279
8.2 Subprograms, Stored Procedures, Functions, and Packages......Page 282
8.3 Triggers......Page 283
8.4 Recursion......Page 289
Chapter Summary......Page 290
Exercises......Page 291
Chapter 9 Object-Relational DBMSs......Page 293
9.1 Advanced Database Applications......Page 294
9.2 Weaknesses of RDBMSs......Page 299
9.3 Storing Objects in a Relational Database......Page 304
9.3.1 Mapping Classes to Relations......Page 305
9.3.2 Accessing Objects in the Relational Database......Page 306
9.4 Introduction to Object-Relational Database Systems......Page 307
9.5 SQL:2011......Page 310
9.5.1 Row Types......Page 311
9.5.2 User-Defined Types......Page 312
9.5.3 Subtypes and Supertypes......Page 315
9.5.4 User-Defined Routines......Page 316
9.5.5 Polymorphism......Page 319
9.5.7 Creating Tables......Page 320
9.5.8 Querying Data......Page 323
9.5.9 Collection Types......Page 325
9.5.10 Typed Views......Page 328
9.5.12 Triggers......Page 329
9.5.13 Large Objects......Page 332
9.6 Object-Oriented Extensions in Oracle......Page 333
9.6.1 User-Defined Data Types......Page 334
9.6.2 Manipulating Object Tables......Page 339
9.6.3 Object Views......Page 340
9.6.4 Privileges......Page 341
Review Questions......Page 342
Exercises......Page 343
Part 3 Database Analysis and Design......Page 345
Chapter 10 Database System Development Lifecycle......Page 347
10.1 The Information Systems Lifecycle......Page 348
10.3 Database Planning......Page 349
10.5 Requirements Collection and Analysis......Page 352
10.5.2 View Integration Approach......Page 354
10.6 Database Design......Page 356
10.6.2 Data Modeling......Page 357
10.6.3 Phases of Database Design......Page 358
10.7.1 Selecting the DBMS......Page 361
10.8 Application Design......Page 365
10.8.1 Transaction Design......Page 366
10.8.2 User Interface Design Guidelines......Page 367
10.10 Implementation......Page 369
10.12 Testing......Page 370
10.13 Operational Maintenance......Page 371
10.14 CASE Tools......Page 372
Chapter Summary......Page 374
Review Questions......Page 375
Exercises......Page 376
Chapter 11 Database Analysis and the DreamHome Case Study......Page 377
11.1 When Are Fact-Finding Techniques Used?......Page 378
11.2 What Facts Are Collected?......Page 379
11.3.2 Interviewing......Page 380
11.3.3 Observing the Enterprise in Operation......Page 381
11.3.5 Questionnaires......Page 382
11.4 Using Fact-Finding Techniques: A......Page 383
11.4.1 The DreamHome Case Study—An Overview of the Current System......Page 384
11.4.2 The DreamHome Case Study—Database Planning......Page 388
11.4.3 The DreamHome Case Study—System Definition......Page 394
11.4.4 The DreamHome Case Study—Requirements Collection and Analysis......Page 395
11.4.5 The DreamHome Case Study—Database Design......Page 403
Exercises......Page 404
Chapter 12 Entity–Relationship Modeling......Page 407
12.1 Entity Types......Page 408
12.2 Relationship Types......Page 410
12.2.1 Degree of Relationship Type......Page 412
12.2.2 Recursive Relationship......Page 414
12.3.1 Simple and Composite Attributes......Page 415
12.3.3 Derived Attributes......Page 416
12.3.4 Keys......Page 417
12.4 Strong and Weak Entity Types......Page 419
12.5 Attributes on Relationships......Page 420
12.6 Structural Constraints......Page 421
12.6.1 One-to-One (1:1) Relationships......Page 422
12.6.2 One-to-Many (1:*) Relationships......Page 423
12.6.3 Many-to-Many (*:*) Relationships......Page 424
12.6.4 Multiplicity for Complex Relationships......Page 425
12.6.5 Cardinality and Participation Constraints......Page 426
12.7.1 Fan Traps......Page 428
12.7.2 Chasm Traps......Page 430
Review Questions......Page 432
Exercises......Page 433
Chapter 13 Enhanced Entity–Relationship Modeling ......Page 435
13.1.1 Superclasses and Subclasses......Page 436
13.1.2 Superclass/Subclass Relationships......Page 437
13.1.4 Specialization Process......Page 438
13.1.5 Generalization Process......Page 439
13.1.6 Constraints on Specialization/Generalization......Page 442
13.1.7 Worked Example of using Specialization/Generalization to Model the Branch View of the DreamHome Case Study......Page 443
13.2 Aggregation......Page 447
13.3 Composition......Page 448
Chapter Summary......Page 449
Exercises......Page 450
Chapter 14 Normalization ......Page 453
14.1 The Purpose of Normalization......Page 454
14.2 How Normalization Supports Database Design......Page 455
14.3 Data Redundancy and Update Anomalies......Page 456
14.3.2 Deletion Anomalies......Page 457
14.4.1 Characteristics of Functional Dependencies......Page 458
14.4.2 Identifying Functional Dependencies......Page 462
14.4.3 Identifying the Primary Key for a Relation Using Functional Dependencies......Page 465
14.5 The Process of Normalization......Page 466
14.6 First Normal Form (1NF)......Page 468
14.7 Second Normal Form (2NF)......Page 472
14.8 Third Normal Form (3NF)......Page 473
14.9 General Definitions of 2NF and 3NF......Page 475
Review Questions......Page 477
Exercises......Page 478
Chapter 15 Advanced Normalization ......Page 483
15.1.1 Inference Rules for Functional Dependencies......Page 484
15.1.2 Minimal Sets of Functional Dependencies......Page 486
15.2.1 Definition of BCNF......Page 487
15.3 Review of Normalization Up to BCNF......Page 490
15.4 Fourth Normal Form (4NF)......Page 495
15.4.1 Multi-Valued Dependency......Page 496
15.5 Fifth Normal Form (5NF)......Page 497
15.5.2 Definition of Fifth Normal Form......Page 498
Review Questions......Page 500
Exercises......Page 501
Part 4 Methodology ......Page 503
Chapter 16 Methodology—Conceptual Database Design......Page 505
16.1.1 What Is a Design Methodology?......Page 506
16.1.3 Critical Success Factors in Database Design......Page 507
16.2 Overview of the Database Design Methodology......Page 508
Chapter Summary ......Page 510
Review Questions......Page 526
Exercises......Page 527
Chapter 17 Methodology—Logical Database Design for the Relational Model ......Page 529
Chapter Summary ......Page 530
Exercises......Page 559
Chapter 18 Methodology—Physical Database Design for Relational Databases......Page 563
18.1 Comparison of Logical and Physical Database Design......Page 564
18.2 Overview of the Physical Database Design Methodology......Page 565
Step 3: Translate Logical Data Model for Target DBMS......Page 566
Step 5: Design User Views ......Page 571
Step 6: Design Security Mechanisms......Page 584
Chapter Summary......Page 585
Exercises......Page 586
19.2 Monitoring the System to Improve Performance ......Page 587
Step 8: Monitor and Tune the Operational System......Page 600
Chapter Summary......Page 604
Exercises......Page 605
Part 5 Selected Database Issues......Page 607
Chapter 20 Security and Administration......Page 609
20.1 Database Security......Page 610
20.1.1 Threats......Page 611
20.2 Countermeasures—Computer-Based Controls......Page 613
20.2.1 Authorization......Page 614
20.2.2 Access Controls......Page 615
20.2.4 Backup and Recovery......Page 618
20.2.6 Encryption......Page 619
20.2.7 RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks)......Page 620
20.3 Security in Microsoft Office Access DBMS......Page 623
20.4 Security in Oracle DBMS......Page 625
20.5 DBMSs and Web Security......Page 629
20.5.2 Firewalls......Page 630
20.5.4 Digital Certificates......Page 631
20.5.6 Secure Sockets Layer and Secure HTTP......Page 632
20.5.7 Secure Electronic Transactions and Secure Transaction Technology......Page 633
20.5.8 Java Security......Page 634
20.6 Data Administration and Database Administration......Page 636
20.6.1 Data Administration......Page 637
20.6.3 Comparison of Data and Database Administration......Page 638
Chapter Summary......Page 639
Exercises......Page 640
Chapter 21 Professional, Legal, and Ethical Issues in Data Management......Page 643
21.1.1 Defining Ethics in the Context of IT......Page 644
21.1.2 The Difference Between Ethical and Legal Behavior......Page 645
21.1.3 Ethical Behavior in IT......Page 646
21.2.1 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Regulation National Market System (NMS)......Page 647
21.2.2 The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, COBIT, and COSO......Page 648
21.2.3 The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act......Page 651
21.2.4 The European Union (EU) Directive on Data Protection of 1995......Page 652
21.2.5 The United Kingdom’s Data Protection Act of 1998......Page 653
21.2.6 Access to Information Laws......Page 654
21.2.7 International Banking—Basel II Accords......Page 656
21.3.1 Developing an Organization-Wide Policy for Legal and Ethical Behavior......Page 657
21.3.2 Professional Organizations and Codes of Ethics......Page 658
21.3.3 Developing an Organization-Wide Policy for Legal and Ethical Behavior for DreamHome......Page 661
21.4 Intellectual Property......Page 662
21.4.2 Copyright......Page 663
21.4.4 Intellectual Property Rights Issues for Software......Page 664
Chapter Summary......Page 666
Review Questions......Page 667
Exercises......Page 668
Chapter 22 Transaction Management......Page 669
22.1 Transaction Support......Page 670
22.1.2 Database Architecture......Page 673
22.2.1 The Need for Concurrency Control......Page 674
22.2.2 Serializability and Recoverability......Page 677
22.2.3 Locking Methods......Page 685
22.2.4 Deadlock......Page 691
22.2.5 Timestamping Methods......Page 694
22.2.6 Multiversion Timestamp Ordering......Page 697
22.2.7 Optimistic Techniques......Page 698
22.2.8 Granularity of Data Items......Page 699
22.3.1 The Need for Recovery......Page 702
22.3.2 Transactions and Recovery......Page 703
22.3.3 Recovery Facilities......Page 706
22.3.4 Recovery Techniques......Page 709
22.4 Advanced Transaction Models......Page 711
22.4.1 Nested Transaction Model......Page 713
22.4.2 Sagas......Page 714
22.4.3 Multilevel Transaction Model......Page 715
22.4.4 Dynamic Restructuring......Page 716
22.4.5 Workflow Models......Page 717
22.5 Concurrency Control and Recovery in Oracle......Page 718
22.5.2 Multiversion Read Consistency......Page 719
22.5.4 Backup and Recovery......Page 721
Chapter Summary......Page 724
Review Questions......Page 725
Exercises......Page 726
Chapter 23 Query Processing......Page 729
23.1 Overview of Query Processing......Page 731
23.2 Query Decomposition......Page 734
23.3.1 Transformation Rules for the Relational Algebra Operations......Page 738
23.3.2 Heuristical Processing Strategies......Page 743
23.4.1 Database Statistics......Page 744
23.4.2 Selection Operation (S = σp(R))......Page 745
23.4.3 Join Operation (T = (R ⋈F S))......Page 752
23.4.4 Projection Operation (S = π A1, A2, . . . , A m(R))......Page 759
23.4.5 The Relational Algebra Set Operations (T = R ∪ S, T = R ∩ S, T = R – S)......Page 761
23.5 Enumeration of Alternative Execution Strategies......Page 762
23.5.2 Linear Trees......Page 763
23.5.3 Physical Operators and Execution Strategies......Page 764
23.5.4 Reducing the Search Space......Page 766
23.5.5 Enumerating Left-Deep Trees......Page 767
23.5.6 Semantic Query Optimization......Page 768
23.5.7 Alternative Approaches to Query Optimization......Page 769
23.6 Query Processing and Optimization......Page 770
23.6.1 New Index Types......Page 773
23.7.1 Rule-Based and Cost-Based Optimization......Page 774
23.7.2 Histograms......Page 778
23.7.3 Viewing the Execution Plan......Page 780
Chapter Summary......Page 781
Review Questions......Page 782
Exercises......Page 783
Part 6 Distributed DBMSs and Replication......Page 785
Chapter 24 Distributed DBMSs—Concepts and Design......Page 787
24.1 Introduction......Page 788
24.1.1 Concepts......Page 789
24.1.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of DDBMSs......Page 793
24.1.3 Homogeneous and Heterogeneous DDBMSs......Page 796
24.2 Overview of Networking......Page 799
24.3.2 Reference Architecture for a DDBMS......Page 803
24.3.3 Reference Architecture for a Federated MDBS......Page 805
24.3.4 Component Architecture for a DDBMS......Page 806
24.4 Distributed Relational Database Design......Page 807
24.4.1 Data Allocation......Page 808
24.4.2 Fragmentation......Page 809
24.5.1 Distribution Transparency......Page 818
24.5.2 Transaction Transparency......Page 821
24.5.3 Performance Transparency......Page 824
24.5.5 Summary of Transparencies in a DDBMS......Page 826
24.6 Date’s Twelve Rules for a DDBMS......Page 827
Chapter Summary......Page 829
Exercises......Page 830
Chapter 25 Distributed DBMSs—Advanced Concepts......Page 833
25.1 Distributed Transaction Management......Page 834
25.2.1 Objectives......Page 835
25.2.3 Locking Protocols......Page 836
25.3 Distributed Deadlock Management......Page 839
25.4.1 Failures in a Distributed Environment......Page 843
25.4.3 Two-Phase Commit (2PC)......Page 844
25.4.4 Three-Phase Commit (3PC)......Page 851
25.4.5 Network Partitioning......Page 854
25.5 The X/Open Distributed Transaction Processing Model......Page 856
25.6 Distributed Query Optimization......Page 858
25.6.2 Distributed Joins......Page 863
25.6.3 Global Optimization......Page 864
25.7.1 Oracle’s DDBMS Functionality......Page 868
Review Questions......Page 874
Exercises......Page 875
Chapter 26 Replication and Mobile Databases......Page 877
26.1 Introduction to Data Replication......Page 878
26.1.1 Applications of Replication......Page 879
26.1.2 Replication Model......Page 880
26.1.3 Functional Model of Replication Protocols......Page 881
26.2.1 Kernel-Based Replication......Page 882
26.2.2 Middleware-Based Replication......Page 883
26.2.3 Processing of Updates......Page 884
26.2.5 Update Location (Data Ownership)......Page 886
26.2.6 Termination Protocols......Page 890
26.3.1 Eager Primary Copy......Page 891
26.3.2 Lazy Primary Copy......Page 896
26.3.3 Eager Update Anywhere......Page 900
26.3.4 Lazy Update Anywhere......Page 901
26.3.5 Update Anywhere with Uniform Total Order Broadcast......Page 905
26.3.6 SI and Uniform Total Order Broadcast Replication......Page 909
26.4 Introduction to Mobile Databases......Page 915
26.4.1 Mobile DBMSs......Page 917
26.4.2 Issues with Mobile DBMSs......Page 918
26.5.1 Oracle’s Replication Functionality......Page 931
Chapter Summary......Page 938
Exercises......Page 939
Part 7 Object DBMSs......Page 941
Chapter 27 Object-Oriented DBMSs—Concepts and Design......Page 943
27.1 Next-Generation Database Systems......Page 945
27.2.1 Definition of Object-Oriented DBMSs......Page 947
27.2.2 Functional Data Models......Page 948
27.2.3 Persistent Programming Languages......Page 953
27.2.4 Alternative Strategies for Developing an OODBMS......Page 955
27.3 Persistence in OODBMSs......Page 956
27.3.1 Pointer Swizzling Techniques......Page 958
27.3.2 Accessing an Object......Page 961
27.3.3 Persistence Schemes......Page 963
27.3.4 Orthogonal Persistence......Page 964
27.4.1 Transactions......Page 966
27.4.2 Versions......Page 967
27.4.3 Schema Evolution......Page 968
27.4.4 Architecture......Page 971
27.4.5 Benchmarking......Page 973
27.5.1 Advantages......Page 976
27.5.2 Disadvantages......Page 978
27.6 Comparison of ORDBMS and OODBMS......Page 980
27.7.1 Comparison of Object-Oriented Data Modeling......Page 981
27.7.2 Relationships and Referential Integrity......Page 982
27.7.3 Behavioral Design......Page 984
27.8 Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with UML......Page 986
27.8.1 UML Diagrams......Page 987
27.8.2 Usage of UML in the Methodology for Database Design......Page 992
Chapter Summary......Page 994
Exercises......Page 995
Chapter 28 Object-Oriented DBMSs—Standards and Systems......Page 997
28.1.1 Background......Page 998
28.1.2 The Common Object Request Broker Architecture......Page 1001
28.1.3 Other OMG Specifications......Page 1006
28.2 Object Data Standard ODMG 3.0, 1999......Page 1009
28.2.1 Object Data Management Group......Page 1011
28.2.2 The Object Model......Page 1012
28.2.3 The Object Definition Language......Page 1020
28.2.4 The Object Query Language......Page 1023
28.2.5 Other Parts of the ODMG Standard......Page 1029
28.2.6 Mapping the Conceptual Design to a Logical (Object-Oriented) Design......Page 1032
28.3.1 Architecture......Page 1033
28.3.2 Building an ObjectStore Application......Page 1036
28.3.3 Data Definition in ObjectStore......Page 1037
28.3.4 Data Manipulation in ObjectStore......Page 1041
Chapter Summary......Page 1044
Exercises......Page 1045
Part 8 The Web and DBMSs......Page 1047
Chapter 29 Web Technology and DBMSs......Page 1049
29.1 Introduction to the Internet and the Web......Page 1050
29.1.1 Intranets and Extranets......Page 1052
29.1.2 e-Commerce and e-Business......Page 1053
29.2 The Web......Page 1054
29.2.1 HyperText Transfer Protocol......Page 1055
29.2.2 HyperText Markup Language......Page 1057
29.2.3 Uniform Resource Locators......Page 1059
29.2.5 Web Services......Page 1060
29.2.6 Requirements for Web–DBMS Integration......Page 1061
29.2.7 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Web–DBMS Approach......Page 1062
29.2.8 Approaches to Integrating the Web and DBMSs......Page 1066
29.3.1 JavaScript and JScript......Page 1067
29.3.2 VBScript......Page 1068
29.4 Common Gateway Interface (CGI)......Page 1069
29.4.1 Passing Information to a CGI Script......Page 1071
29.4.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of CGI......Page 1073
29.5 HTTP Cookies......Page 1074
29.6 Extending the Web Server......Page 1075
29.7 Java......Page 1076
29.7.1 JDBC......Page 1080
29.7.3 Comparison of JDBC and SQLJ......Page 1086
29.7.4 Container-Managed Persistence (CMP)......Page 1087
29.7.5 Java Data Objects (JDO)......Page 1091
29.7.6 JPA (Java Persistence API)......Page 1098
29.7.8 JavaServer Pages......Page 1106
29.7.9 Java Web Services......Page 1107
29.8 Microsoft’s Web Platform......Page 1109
29.8.1 Universal Data Access......Page 1110
29.8.2 Active Server Pages and ActiveX Data Objects......Page 1111
29.8.3 Remote Data Services......Page 1112
29.8.5 Microsoft .NET......Page 1115
29.8.6 Microsoft Web Services......Page 1120
29.9 Oracle Internet Platform......Page 1121
29.9.1 Oracle WebLogic Server......Page 1122
29.9.3 Oracle Identity Management......Page 1123
29.9.6 Oracle Business Intelligence (BI) Discoverer......Page 1124
29.9.7 Oracle SOA (Service-Oriented Architecture) Suite......Page 1125
Chapter Summary......Page 1128
Exercises......Page 1129
Chapter 30 Semistructured Data and XML......Page 1131
30.1 Semistructured Data......Page 1132
30.1.1 Object Exchange Model (OEM)......Page 1134
30.1.2 Lore and Lorel......Page 1135
30.2 Introduction to XML......Page 1139
30.2.1 Overview of XML......Page 1142
30.2.2 Document Type Definitions (DTDs)......Page 1144
30.3 XML-Related Technologies......Page 1147
30.3.1 DOM and SAX Interfaces......Page 1148
30.3.3 XSL and XSLT......Page 1149
30.3.4 XPath (XML Path Language)......Page 1150
30.3.5 XPointer (XML Pointer Language)......Page 1151
30.3.7 XHTML......Page 1152
30.3.8 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)......Page 1153
30.3.10 Universal Discovery, Description, and Integration (UDDI)......Page 1154
30.3.11 JSON (JavaScript Object Notation)......Page 1156
30.4 XML Schema......Page 1158
30.4.1 Resource Description Framework (RDF)......Page 1164
30.5 XML Query Languages......Page 1168
30.5.1 Extending Lore and Lorel to Handle XML......Page 1169
30.5.2 XML Query Working Group......Page 1170
30.5.3 XQuery—A Query Language for XML......Page 1171
30.5.4 XML Information Set......Page 1181
30.5.5 XQuery 1.0 and XPath 2.0 Data Model (XDM)......Page 1182
30.5.6 XQuery Update Facility 1.0......Page 1188
30.5.7 Formal Semantics......Page 1190
30.6.1 Storing XML in Databases......Page 1198
30.6.2 XML and SQL......Page 1201
30.6.3 Native XML Databases......Page 1215
30.7 XML in Oracle......Page 1216
Chapter Summary......Page 1219
Review Questions......Page 1221
Exercises......Page 1222
Part 9 Business Intelligence......Page 1223
Chapter 31 Data Warehousing Concepts......Page 1225
31.1.1 The Evolution of Data Warehousing......Page 1226
31.1.2 Data Warehousing Concepts......Page 1227
31.1.4 Comparison of OLTP Systems and Data Warehousing......Page 1228
31.1.5 Problems of Data Warehousing......Page 1230
31.1.6 Real-Time Data Warehouse......Page 1232
31.2.2 Operational Data Store......Page 1233
31.2.4 Warehouse Manager......Page 1234
31.2.8 Archive/Backup Data......Page 1235
31.2.10 End-User Access Tools......Page 1236
31.3 Data Warehousing Tools and Technologies......Page 1237
31.3.1 Extraction, Transformation, and Loading (ETL)......Page 1238
31.3.2 Data Warehouse DBMS......Page 1239
31.3.3 Data Warehouse Metadata......Page 1242
31.4 Data Mart......Page 1244
31.5 Data Warehousing and Temporal Databases......Page 1245
31.5.1 Temporal Extensions to the SQL Standard......Page 1248
31.6 Data Warehousing Using Oracle......Page 1250
31.6.1 Warehouse Features in Oracle 11g......Page 1253
31.6.2 Oracle Support for Temporal Data......Page 1254
Chapter Summary......Page 1255
Review Questions......Page 1256
Exercises......Page 1257
Chapter 32 Data Warehousing Design......Page 1259
32.2 Data Warehouse Development Methodologies......Page 1260
32.3 Kimball’s Business Dimensional Lifecycle......Page 1262
32.4 Dimensionality Modeling......Page 1263
32.4.1 Comparison of DM and ER models......Page 1266
32.5.1 Create a High-Level Dimensional Model (Phase I)......Page 1267
32.5.2 Identify All Dimension Attributes for the Dimensional Model (Phase II)......Page 1272
32.6 Data Warehouse Development Issues......Page 1275
32.7.1 Oracle Warehouse Builder Components......Page 1276
32.7.2 Using Oracle Warehouse Builder......Page 1277
32.7.3 Warehouse Builder Features in Oracle 11g......Page 1281
Chapter Summary......Page 1282
Review Questions......Page 1283
Exercises......Page 1284
Chapter 33 OLAP......Page 1287
33.1 Online Analytical Processing......Page 1288
33.2 OLAP Applications......Page 1289
33.3.1 Alternative Multidimensional Data Representations......Page 1291
33.3.2 Dimensional Hierarchy......Page 1293
33.4 OLAP Tools......Page 1295
33.4.1 Codd’s Rules for OLAP Tools......Page 1296
33.4.2 OLAP Server—Implementation Issues......Page 1297
33.4.3 Categories of OLAP Servers......Page 1298
33.5.1 Extended Grouping Capabilities......Page 1302
33.5.2 Elementary OLAP Operators......Page 1307
33.6.1 Oracle OLAP Environment......Page 1309
33.6.3 Oracle Database......Page 1310
33.6.5 Performance......Page 1312
33.6.8 OLAP Features in Oracle 11g......Page 1314
Exercises......Page 1315
Chapter 34 Data Mining......Page 1317
34.2 Data Mining Techniques......Page 1318
34.2.1 Predictive Modeling......Page 1320
34.2.2 Database Segmentation......Page 1321
34.2.3 Link Analysis......Page 1322
34.2.4 Deviation Detection......Page 1323
34.3.1 The CRISP-DM Model......Page 1324
34.4 Data Mining Tools......Page 1325
34.5 Data Mining and Data Warehousing......Page 1326
34.6.1 Data Mining Capabilities......Page 1327
34.6.4 Oracle Data Mining Environment......Page 1328
Chapter Summary......Page 1329
Exercises......Page 1330
Appendices......Page 1331
A.1.1 Data Requirements......Page 1333
A.1.2 Transaction Requirements (Sample)......Page 1335
A.2.1 Data Requirements......Page 1336
A.2.2 Transaction Requirements (Sample)......Page 1337
B.1.1 Data Requirements......Page 1339
B.1.2 Query Transactions (Sample)......Page 1341
B.2.1 Data Requirements......Page 1342
B.3.1 Data Requirements......Page 1343
B.3.2 Transaction Requirements (Sample)......Page 1350
C.2 ER Modeling Using the Crow’s Feet Notation......Page 1351
Step 1: Build Conceptual Data Model......Page 1357
Step 2: Build Logical Data Model......Page 1358
Step 6: Design Security Mechanisms......Page 1361
Step 8: Monitor and Tune the Operational System......Page 1362
E Introduction to Pyrrho: A Lightweight RDBMS......Page 1363
E.2 Download and Install Pyrrho......Page 1364
E.4 The Connection String......Page 1365
E.6 Pyrrho SQL Syntax......Page 1366
References......Page 1381
Further Reading......Page 1399
Index......Page 1413

Database systems: a practical approach to design, implementation, and management [6. ed]
 9780132943260, 1292061189, 9781292061184, 0132943263

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