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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

Министерство науки и высшего образования Российской Федерации Федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение высшего образования «Северный (Арктический) федеральный университет имени М.В. Ломоносова»

S.S. Dergaeva

CHILDREN, PARENTS, SCHOOL

Учебно-методическое пособие

Архангельск САФУ 2019

Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

УДК [811.111:373.5](075) ББК 81.2Англ-923 Д36 Рекомендовано к изданию учебно-методической комиссией высшей школы социально-гуманитарных наук и межкультурной коммуникации Северного (Арктического) федерального университета имени М.В. Ломоносова

Рецензенты: О.Н. Худякова, кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков русского языка как иностранного ФГБОУ ВО «Северный государственный медицинский университет»; С.А. Жемчугова, кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры английского языка ФГАОУ ВО «Северный (Арктический) федеральный университет имени М.В. Ломоносова» Дергаева, С.С. CHILDREN, PARENTS, SCHOOL [Электронный ресурс] : учебно-методическое пособие / С.С. Дергаева; Сев. (Арктич.) федер. ун-т им. М.В. Ломоносова». – Электронные текстовые данные. – Архангельск, 2019. – 118 с. ISBN 978-5-261-01366-2 Учебное пособие адресовано студентам вузов, обучающимся по педагогическим профилям, но может использоваться для любых направлений подготовки, поскольку включает тексты и упражнения о семье, воспитании, образовании, взаимоотношениях между родителями и детьми, учителями и учениками. Пособие позволяет овладеть навыками англоязычного общенаучного и профессионального общения и может использоваться как для аудиторных, так и самостоятельных занятий. УДК [811.111:373.5](075) ББК 81.2Англ-923 Издательский дом им. В.Н. Булатова 163060, г. Архангельск, ул. Урицкого, д. 56 ISBN 978-5-261-01366-2

© Дергаева С.С., 2019 © Северный (Арктический) федеральный университет имени М.В. Ломоносова, 2019

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СONTENT Children, Parents, School UNIT 1. Family Life The Royal Family Family Life in Britain Generation Gap UNIT 2. Family Relationship Household Chores. Division of Labour Making It Work. Household Chores Types of Families Teenage Problems in a Family Why Happy Families Are Different Childhood Is Certainly not The Happiest Time in Your Life Why So Many One-Child Families? Children Cost 50 Dollars a Day UNIT 3. Parenting the Most Important Job on the Planet Permissive Parents We´ll be Parents Too Unconditional Love, Motherly Love Causes of Conflict between Adolescents and Their Partner Sibling Conflict Seven In 10 Older People Care for Parent or Partner UNIT 4. Schooling My School Schooling Should You Homeschool Your Child Should School Uniform Be Compulsory? Friendship. Quotes about Friendship UNIT 5. Children and Discipline School Discipline What These Kids Need Is Discipline How to Discipline Children´s Behaviour? UNIT 6. Childrens´ Upbringing Bringing up Children Feares of Children Upbringing Children Primary Education Secondary Education

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UNIT 7. Hobby and Free Time Why are After-School-Activities So Important for Children? After School Club History of theTerm «Hobby» Hobbies and Pastimes Holiday Hobbies Club Culture in Britain UNIT 8. Child´s Health Care of Children´s Teeth Six Rules for Coping with Exam Srtess A Positive School Climate Can Mean UNIT 9. Failure or Success A Personally Oriented Approach to EFL Teaching Some Traits of Character Which a Perfect Teacher Must Obtain How to Deal with Problems Effectively. Advices to Young Teachers UNIT 10. TV Effect on Children Television and Children Children and Cartoons Influences of Cartoons on Children The Importance of Colour and Cartoons for Your Child´s Development Cartoons in Children´s Life. History The Comparisson of Home and Foreign Cartoons UNIT 11. The Internet. The Effect of the Internet on Children The Internet. What Is the Internet? 11 Negative Effects of the Internet on Students and Teenagers Mobile Phones UNIT 12. Sports and Leisure Sport Sport Is Great! Sports and Leisure Extreme Sports UNIT 13. Pocket Money Pocket Money How Much Pocket Money Should You Pay?

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Предисловие Данное учебно-методическое пособие ориентировано на формирование коммуникативной компетенции у студентов педагогических специальностей вузов в области чтения, говорения и письма. Основной задачей данного курса является комплексное развитие навыков, необходимых для профессионального общения. Использование аутентичных материалов – текстов педагогической направленности – позволяет пополнить словарный запас за счёт наиболее частотных единиц характерных для языка специальности. Пособие построено таким образом, что часть заданий предусмотрены для выполнения под руководством преподавателя, а другие задания – для самостоятельной работы, повторения и самоконтроля. Лексические упражнения направлены на закрепление и пополнение словарного запаса. Каждый раздел курса включает профессионально направленные аутентичные и адаптированные учебные тексты (для изучающего, ознакомительного, просмотрового и поискового чтения), лексикограмматические комментарии и упражнения. Овладение всеми видами чтения литературы по специальности на английском языке с целью получения профессионально значимой информации представляется необходимым для будущих педагогов, т. к. чтение как вид речевой деятельности широко востребовано при решении ряда профессиональных задач. Работу с текстами можно варьировать в зависимости от целевой аудитории и количества учебного времени, предусмотренного для изучения языка. Настоящее учебно-методическое пособие содержит текстовый материал, словарный запас по темам учебно-образовательного и социокультурного общения, серию упражнений, направленных на развитие навыков говорения. Грамматические упражнения помогают студентам работать самостоятельно и совершенствовать грамматические знания. Данное учебно-методическое пособие призвано:  обеспечить закрепление и активизацию грамматического материала по темам, представленным в соответствующих разделах;  расширить активный и пассивный словарный запас студентов по изучаемым темам;  развить умения и навыки ознакомительного, просмотрового, поискового чтения;  совершенствовать умения и навыки разных видов говорения, в том числе ведения беседы и выступления с сообщением. Значительное внимание в учебном пособии уделяется задачам самообразования и самообучения. Они решаются путём выполнения упражнений, творческих заданий, самостоятельной работы над аутентичными текстами, имеющими общеобразовательное содержание и разнообразные жанры (статьи, диалоги, интервью, художественные тексты). 5

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CHILDREN, PARENTS, SCHOOL I. Study the text and retell it: American families and their children are in trouble, trouble so deep and pervasive as to threaten the future of their nation. The source of the trouble is nothing less than a national neglect of children and those primarily engaged in their careAmerica's parents. In today world parents find themselves at the mercy of a society which imposes pressures and priorities that allow neither time nor place for meaningful activities and relations between children and adults, which downgrade the role of parents and the function of parenthood, and which prevent the parent from doing things he wants to do as a guide, friend, and companion to his children. The frustrations are great for the family of poverty where the capacity for human response is crippled by hunger, cold, filth, sickness, and despair. No parent who spends his days in search of menial work, and his nights in keeping the rats away from the crib can be expected to find the time-let alone the heart-to engage in constructive activities with his children or serve as a stable source of love and discipline. For families who can get along, the rats are gone, but the rat race remains. The demands of a job, or often of two jobs, that claim mealtimes, evenings and weekends as well as days, the trips and moves necessary to get ahead or simply hold one's own; the ever increasing time spent in commuting, evening out, social and community obligation-all the things one has to do to meet so-called primary responsibilitiesproduce a situation in which a child often spends more time with a passive baby-sitter than a participating parent. And even when the parent is at home, a compelling force cuts off communication and response among the family members. Although television could, if used creatively, enrich the activities of children and families, it now only undermines them. Like the sorcerer of old, the television set casts its magic spell, freezing speech and action and turning the living into silent statues so long as the enchantment lasts. The primary danger of the television screen lies not so much in the behavior it produces as the behavior it prevents-the talks, the games, the family festivities and arguments through which much of child's learning takes place and his character is formed. Turning on the television set can turn off the process that transforms children into people. Yes, this is what is happening in America today. We are experiencing a breakdown in the process of making human beings human. By isolating our children from the rest of society, we abandon them to the world devoid of adults and ruled by the destructive impulses and compelling pressures both of the age-segregated peer group and the aggressive and exploitive television screen. (From the book «Two Worlds of Childhood. US and USSR» by Urie Bronfenbrenner) Source: http://www.lib.uniyar.ac.ru/edocs/iuni/19992105.pdf 6

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II. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following: пренебрежение; оказывать давление и налагать обязанности; снижать роль; деятельность, имеющая смысл; руководитель; обездоленная семья; способность к душевному отклику; творческая деятельность; погоня за общественным успехом; совершать регулярные поездки; родитель, участвующий в деятельности ребенка; нарушать общение; процесс превращения детей в людей; сегрегированная по возрасту группа сверстников III. Ask questions to the above text using the words from Ex. II. IV. Retell the text using the words from Ex. II. V. Render the text into English: Основное различие между американскими и русскими школами состоит, на наш взгляд, в том, что в последних огромное значение придается не только обучению предметам, но и воспитанию. Деятельность каждого ученика постоянно обсуждается его товарищами и оценивается по шкале, разработанной программами и методическими пособиями. Поскольку успехи каждого ребенка отражают успехи всего коллектива, членом которого он является, то все, естественно, стараются помочь друг другу и добиться того, чтобы никто не отставал ни в учебе, ни в поведении. Так, детский коллектив становится выразителем требований государства и общества. Подобно всякому советскому коллективу, он и поощряет; и порицает. Порицания обычно принимают форму групповых санкций, выраженных в публичной критике вплоть до угрозы исключить провинившегося, из своих рядов. Наиболее яркая черта воспитания в коллективе – поощрение бескорыстия и благородства. Детей приучают не только помoгать друг другу; при существующей системе так называемorо шефства весь класс принимает на себя заботу об одном из младших классов. Старшие ученики провожают младших в школу, играют с ними на переменах, разучивают вместе с «подшефными» новые песни, читают им вслух, помoгают выполнять домашние задания – проще говоря, относятся к ним, как старшие братья и сестры. Более того, исполнение этих гражданских обязанностей учитывается и соответственно оценивается как учителем, так и общешкольным коллективом. Система шефства охватывает и коллективы взрослых: школа может быть подопечной фабрики, завода, учреждения. Рабочие и служащие уделяют немало времени «своему классу». Подобная традиция позволяет взрослым участвовать в делах и помыслах детей куда как более активно, чем в нашей стране. Теперь мы видим, что на всех уровнях, от классной парты до фабрики, коллектив – основа процесса воспитания. VI. Answer the following questions 1. What accounts for the growing alienation of youth in the USA! 2. What is done in this country to make the child a responsible person? 3. What are the basic patterns of Soviet upbringing, both within the family and in collective settings? 4. What roles do parents, school and age-segregated groups play in upbringing of children in the USSR and USA? 5. What is the role of mother and father in a modern family? 6. Is the 7

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young Soviet mother more eager than her parents to enroll her child in nursery? And why? 7. How does the regular school using the well-proven techniques of collective upbringing care for individual needs of a child?

UNIT 1. FAMILY LIFE THE ROYAL FAMILY I. Read the text, make its plan and make 8 questions to it For more than a thousand years Britain has always had kings or queens except for the ten years between 1649 and 1659. In the past, kings had great power and they really helped to make history. They started wars, made laws, and did things in their own way. But gradually more and more power went to Parliament. What does the Queen do now? Why does Britain need monarchy? And does it? Elizabeth II calls the Windsor family a „Firm‟. She thinks of it as a business rather than a family. And the main business of the royal family is … well, probably being royal. And they are paid for it. The Queen is one of the richest women in the world and yet she gets about 8 million pounds a year to be Queen. But many people agree that she does her job well and she deserves her salary. Being Queen is a really busy job. Elizabeth II gets up early and begins the day by looking through the newspapers. Then she reads letters from the public (she gets more than 1000 each week), and tells her staff how she would like them to be answered. The Queen has daily meetings with her Private Secretary who helps her to go through her paperwork, and lots of meetings with ambassadors, new judges, and bishops. In the afternoon Elizabeth II often goes out on public engagements – she gets thousands of invitations each year. She opens new hospitals, bridges and factories. Once a week, the Queen has a meeting with the Prime Minister and they discuss government business and important things that are happening in the country. In the evening the Queen reads the report of the day from Parliament. She isn’t a politician, and in modern Britain the power belongs to the government, but she must agree to every new law. It’s formal agreement: no king or queen has refused a new law since 1701! Being a Queen is not a 9 to 5 job, and Elizabeth II has to work from early in the morning until late at night. And people watch her all the time. Of course, she has some free time, and some private life, but less than most people. In her spare time Elizabeth II enjoys horse racing, fishing, and walking in the countryside. She also enjoys photography and likes taking photos on her travels. Many people think that the Royals are useless and monarchy is outdated. But… the British people seem to like them that way. They like to read about the royal family, royal scandals and shocking secrets. They like to watch royal ceremonies, they are proud of the tradition of monarchy. Britain has had kings and queens for a thousand years – probably they’ll have them for another thousand. Source: https://teachershelp.ru/the-royal-family 8

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FAMILY LIFE IN BRITAIN I. Read the text In the last fifteen or twenty years there have been great changes in family life of Britain. For example, more couples now live together and have children without getting married. Among married couples there has been an increase in divorce and separation with the result that there are more one-parent families. But despite these changes most people in Britain decide to get married and start a family. The institution of marriage and family continues to be important. A legal marriage can be performed in a church of the Church of England; in a chapel of church of another religion, if the building has been licensed for marriages; in a registry office. Though some couples choose the less formal registry office, many still enjoy the ceremony of a church wedding. The registry office wedding is a civil marriage rather than a religious ceremony. A divorced person who wants to get married normally has to have a registry office wedding if his or her religion forbids remarriage. Since the Reform Act of 1969 it has been easier to get a divorce in Britain and the divorce rate has increased. There is now one divorce for every three marriages. The result of a divorce or separation, if there are children in the family is a «broken home». Children usually live with their children. Their father has the legal right to visit the children and have them to stay with him for part of the school holidays. About 14 per cent of all families with dependent children have only one parent. A one-parent-family may be headed by a divorced father or mother, by a widow or a widower, by a married woman separated from her husband. It also can be headed by an unmarried mother. These days, an unmarried mother may choose to have a baby without marrying the father. She wants to keep the baby rather than have it adopted. The National Council for One-parent Families can help her. It helps all families where there is only one parent – mother, father, unmarried, divorced or widowed. An unmarried mother may decide that her child will have a better chance in life if it is adopted by a family. The child then belongs legally to the new parents. Many married couples who have no children of their own want to adopt babies. Source: http://window.edu.ru/catalog

II. Translate the following expressions Without getting married, one-parent families, despite these changes, civil marriage, a divorced person, the divorce rate, dependent children, to keep the baby, to have a better chance in life, married couples. III. Find in the text the English equivalents: Большие перемены, увеличение числа разводов, законный брак, венчание в церкви, религиозный обряд, повторный брак, получить развод, иметь законное право, юридически принадлежать. Не иметь собственных детей. IV. Answer the Questions to the text: What changes have taken place in the family life lately in Britain? 2. What do most people prefer to start a family or to remain single? 3. Where can a legal marriage be performed? 4. What do most couples choose – a civil marriage or a religious 9

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ceremony? 5. What cam you say about the divorce rate in Britain today? 6. Who keeps children after divorce? 7. What is a one-parent family? 8. What can you say about adoption of a child in Britain?

GENERATION GAP I. Red the text Do you know what a generation gap is? Even if you don't know the particular definition, you are aware of this problem, basing on your own experience. Generation gap is a popular term used to describe serious differences between people of two generations. To realize how to deal with it, you should keep in mind that generation gap includes several aspects: children must know as much as possible about their parents and parents – about the world outlook of their children, about relations between brothers and sisters, and also about the attitude to them of close relatives on both sides – father's and mother's. Children demand a great deal of attention, time and patience, so, if you are not ready to devote all that to your baby, it is better not to hurry There are many families where both parents keep working after giving birth to their baby It is similar to the situation with a single-parent family, when a father or a mother hardly have enough time and neglect their children's upbringing. In such cases most of the time the child has to spend on his own or with his friends. Due to the fact that he has not got any guidance from his parents he may be involved in some bad companies which commit violence or even crime and become alcohol or drug addicted. When the parents discover that, it's usually too late to change anything. On the other hand, there is a different situation when the parents treat their children too strict and don't give them any freedom at all. In this case the children may become pariahs among their peers. Constant bans may increase the risk that the child will grow up insolent and defiant. This causes another big problem — lying. The child is forced to lie to the parents because of the fear to be punished. It can be anything from putting on make-up in the girls' room at school to stealing. Some children rebel against discipline and family values. They listen to a loud music, wear inappropriate, to their parents' mind, clothes, dye their hair in inconceivable colours, have all their bodies pierced and tattooed trying to show their independence and establish their identity. They want to be treated as adults, but they are not ready to take all the necessary responsibilities. It doesn't mean that your child is bad and he will become a criminal. Of course, not! It only means that your child is in his transitional age and he is in need of your understanding and support. But how to handle such behaviour? Parents should become his close friends. First of all they should learn to respect his interests. Try to speak with him as often as possible, offer some parent-child activities like shopping or going in for sports. It is worth involving the child in discussing some family questions, just to show that he is a full member of the family. Moreover, children in their teens are very vulnerable when they are criticized in public, so try to avoid it. Parents should always be honest 10

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and sincere with their child; otherwise it would be unfair to require the same from him. Too authoritarian parents can't do any good to their children as well as parents who overindulge all the child's caprices. Overindulgence may lead to the same results as negligence. There are parents who are afraid of hurting the child by banning something when it is necessary. Such parents risk becoming powerless in the family and losing control over their children who may become spoiled and capricious. It demands to make a great effort from both parents and children to reach mutual understanding. There are many different opinions on the question of treating children if they disobey their parents, but every parent should decide for himself what will be best for his child and set him on the right path. Source:https://ieltsband7.com/ielts

II. Answer the questions: 1. Give your explanation of the notion «generation gap». 2. How do you think, which is the tensest period in the relationships between parents and their children? 3. What type of behaviour is usual for adolescents? 4. Have you noticed any changes in your own behaviour during the last years? 5. How would you characterize your relations with your parents? 6. Do you like to spend time with your family? 7. What is, in your opinion, the basis of healthy and peaceful relationship between parents and children? 8. Are you a spoiled child? 9. Do you approve of the way your parents brought you up? 10. What would you like to change in the way your parents brought you up? III. Ask your friend : if there are any rules in his/her family and what are the most important ones. if there is a holiday his/her family always celebrate together. who he/she usually talks to when he/she has a problem. IV. Do you have any problems of misunderstanding with your parents? Work in groups. The first column is the first group. You are to read the text «Teenage Problems in a Family» and answer the question: What don’t parents like in their children? The second column is the second group. You’ll read the text «We’ll be parents too» and say what children don’t like in their parents.(The two groups get the cards with the tasks:)

UNIT 2. FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS FAMILY RELATIONS I. Choose the appropriate word for you and your relatives’ or friends’ marital status:  married  single  engaged 11

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 separated  divorced  widowed (widow or widower) II. Read the letter 47 University Street London, N.W. 42 Dear Lucy, Thank you very much for your letter. I’m glad that everything is all right with you. As for me, I’m dating a boy, called Max. He was seeing Mary when you were here. But now they have broken up and Mary is going steady with a pop singer. I think they’re quite serious. Max and me are also more than ‘just good friends’, but we are not getting married in the nearest future. How are things with you? Who are you going out with now? Is it still Anna’s former husband or have you taken back your ex-boyfriend? If so, I hear wedding bells. Keep in touch. Love and kisses, Kate. III. Vocabulary Work. Find the equivalents in the right column for the words in the left one. to break up unmarried to marry smb to have an affair with smb to go out with smb to split up couple to get married to smb single pair IV. Arrange these words in pairs of antonyms: married husband widow divorced widower to separate fianc? wife fianc?e (old) maiden to make a proposal bachelor V. Give English equivalents to the following: 1. быть замужем 2. быть в разводе 3. быть неженатым (незамужней) 4. быть вдовой (вдовцом) 5. расстаться с женой (мужем) 6. расстаться с другом (подружкой) 7. встречаться с кем-либо 8. встречаться постоянно 9. просто хорошие друзья 10. свадьба 11. бывшая жена 12. иметь серьезные намерения 12

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13. 14.

жениться быть помолвленным

I. Explain the following words: sister-in-law, step-mother, son-in-law, grandfather, nephew, aunt, bride, fianc?, husband, granddaughter, widow, mistress. II. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of boy(girl)-friend relations. III. Translate into English: Дорогая Дженни, рада сообщить тебе, что я скоро собираюсь выходить замуж. Не за Пола, мы с ним расстались, и он сейчас встречается с моей соседкой по комнате в общежитии. Ты ее знаешь. Она дружила с Сэмом, когда ты была здесь. Что касается меня, то я теперь постоянно с Максом, и две недели назад он сделал мне предложение. Я, конечно, его приняла. Мы уже неделю как помолвлены и в следующий понедельник едем в Эксетер, так как он собирается представить меня своим родителям. Слышишь звон свадебных колокольчиков? Ну, хватить о себе. Как твои дела? С кем встречаешься ты? Надеюсь скоро тебя увидеть. Твоя Керри.

HOUSEHOLD CHORES DIVISION OF LABOUR by Rachel Paxton III. Read the text Dividing up household chores is a great way to get everyday household tasks in less time and with less complaints. It's 5:00 p.m. and I've just walked in the door. I'm tired, the living room's a mess, and the kitchen sink is full of last night's dinner dishes. So whose turn is it to do the dishes anyway? My husband did them last...his tolerance for dirty dishes is much lower than mine when we end up in a standoff to see who can stand the dirty dishes the longest. I always win. I don't really mind doing the dishes, but I do take exception to doing the dishes, cooking dinner, cleaning up the living room, and making sure the laundry's started. Especially after a 9-hour day at work. So what's the answer? Blackmail, bribery, intimidation? Why not work out a solution that benefits the whole family and encourages everyone to work together? If your children receive a weekly allowance, you should make them work for it, and from a very young age. I started giving my daughter an allowance before she 13

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was told she had to participate in the household chores (besides cleaning her room), and you can only imagine her reaction when all the sudden she had to work for it. How you determine the division of labor in your home depends on how many children you have, and how much work you want them to actually do. We only have one child, so I didn't figure it was fair to make her do the majority of the household chores. If we had more children who were old enough to help out around the house, they would definitely have a larger share of the workload. So in our case we chose a fairly equitable distribution: one person does the dishes and mops the kitchen floor, one person picks up the living room, dusts, and vacuums, and one person does the laundry. Our schedules rotate on a weekly basis. That way everyone has to do each job, but only every 3 weeks. You wouldn't believe how much it improves your attitude knowing you don't have to do the dishes for 2 weeks. It's suddenly no big deal! This arrangement has worked very well for us. My husband and I just wanted the house picked up but don't want to feel like one of us is doing all of the work, and our daughter doesn't want to lose her allowance. Everyone's happy. There are a lot of other household chores not covered in our agreement, but we chose to tackle the big, everyday, most overwhelming chores that no one ever wanted to take responsibility for. I usually end up cleaning the bathrooms, cleaning out the litterbox, etc., but it doesn't really bother me. My husband definitely does his share. He insists on vacuuming under the chairs and couches, and that's fine with me. I'll let him if it makes him happy. Source:http://www.lingvistov.ru

II. Fill in the prepositions where necessary: 1. The household chores should be fairly divided ___ ___ the siblings. 2. Can you help me with beating ___ these mats? 3. Kitty is always assertive ___ asking her husband to do the dishes for her tolerance ___ dirty things is rather low but she despises to do the washing-up herself. 4. I am trying to cut ___ ___ time spent picking __ the apartment but it’s a real challenge for me as my husband never helps me___ ___ the house. 5. If you don’t want to end ___ ___ a standoff let’s work ___ a solution. 6. Remember one thing: don’t aim too high, do everything ___ piecework. You’ll see your house will be fixed ___ gradually. 7. Our family handle ___ midweek clean-ups as a team and I can say that everybody attends ___ his duties ___ earnest. 8. The vacuum-cleaner has gone wrong. Can you fix it ___? 9. Before going to bed I always lay clothes ___ ___ tomorrow. 10.I’ll go on to part-time job but you’ll help me to keep ___ ___the household chores. III. Give the English equivalents to the following: Cloth, everyday, immaculate, relevant, cheap IV. Translate from Russian into English: 1. Дом был в ужасном беспорядке после вечеринки и никто не хотел брать на себя ответственность за генеральную уборку. 14

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2. Ты отдохни, а я помою посуду и вынесу ведро. 3. Твой сын должен отрабатывать свои недельные карманные деньги. Он должен помогать по дому. 4. Сдается мне, что это умышленно с твоей стороны игнорировать мои советы. 5. Перестань торговаться! Все мужчины помогают по дому, один ты такой лентяй!

MAKING IT WORK – HOUSEHOLD CHORES I. Read the text (Edited by by Nancy Jo Bykowski Bolingbrook IL USA From: NEW BEGINNINGS, Vol. 15 No. 5, September-October 1998) «Making It Work» is a regular feature of the magazine NEW BEGINNINGS, published bimonthly by La Leche League International. In this column, suggestions are offered by readers of NEW BEGINNINGS to help mothers who wish to combine breastfeeding and working. Various points of view are presented. Not all of the information may be pertinent to your family's life-style. This information is general in nature, and not intended to be advice, medical or otherwise. Situation I have been back to my full-time job for about two months now. I can't keep up with all of the regular household chores (clean laundry, paying bills, etc.) unless I spend my entire weekend doing so. I would really like to keep weekends free for family time with my husband and daughter. How do other working mothers find time to maintain a household?

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Response Sunday night is our all-house clean up. We all go around and make sure everything is picked up. We handle midweek clean-ups as a team: my son gets a clean damp sponge to wipe off things while I use spray cleaner to finish up the kitchen. He gets to throw pillows on the bed while I make it . He pushes his toy lawn mower around while I push the vacuum. He uses the dust mop to «help» clean the kitchen floor. Yes, his help makes the work take twice as long. But he has fun helping and is learning that taking care of our home and our toys and clothes is everybody's job-not just Mama's. Once my son was old enough to sit up, I started to get him involved in doing laundry. I would sit him on top of the dryer to «supervise» and eventually help me throw laundry into the washer. Now he gets to scoop in the soap and help pour the laundry softener. We take clean dry clothes into the family room and dump them on the floor-then we all three helpfold them up while we watch TV or listen to music. Sometimes the whole basket of folded clothes gets dumped over, but the giggles and smiles that tell me he wants to do it again are worth it'. Pamela Edwards Eidsmoe Bloomington IL Response 2 I have a four-year-old and a six-month-old with a busy schedule at work and quite a hit of travel. This is how we tackle the weekend chores so we still have some family time. First we keep expectations realistic. Part of both days, or occasionally, all of one day is dedicated to family fun together. The rest of the time is chores. In addition. our goal for chores is to make the house basically clean, rather than spotless. My strategy is to trick myself into getting as many chores done as possible on Thursday and Friday before the weekend. To do the big weekly trip to the grocery store, I sometimes meet my husband for lunch. Then we divide up the list and zoom through the store, swing by the house to put the perishables away, and get back to work having taken only an extra half hour at lunchtime. Or if I work through lunch I can leave a little early and get it done on the way to pick up our children. If all else fails, we all plan to go to our favorite eatery on Saturday for lunch and then all do the grocery shopping together as part of our family fun. Once a month, I take four hours annual leave on a Friday afternoon in order to make time for extra jobs such as sorting out a closet or organizing the attic. That way, I don't get overwhelmed just trying to keep up with everyday tasks and not making any progress on bigger jobs that need to be done. Remember not to aim too high, because there will be plenty of time in years to come to have the house looking the way you wish it would look right now. Pamela Hornby New Orleans LA USA Response 3 I too was very concerned about keeping up with housework when I returned to my job. Over time, we arrived at a system that made sense for our family. There's lots you can do to save time and energy. 16

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For laundry, have a basket for each member of your family. Separate each family member's clean clothes into a separate basket. This makes looking for a specific item of clothing or putting it away much easier. I'm now teaching my threeyear-old daughter to be responsible for her own basket. I use shoe boxes in many of our drawers to separate clothing that does not need to be folded (underwear, undershirts, socks, or tights). For meals, we keep a list on our refrigerator of dinners we have ingredients for. Once a week I take a look at the list and plan our dinners. I often double a recipe and freeze half for another day. Plan to make meals that take 20 minutes or less to prepare. Actual cooking time may take longer. When food shopping, buy double, or even triple of frequently used items to save you future trips to the store. House cleaning is always a challenge, and I've lowered my standards here. Try some efficiency tricks. While my daughter bathes, I clean the bathroom. While I'm cooking something in the kitchen, I clean parts of my house in piecework. For example, I may take everything off a shelf in the refrigerator and wash it down. The next day I do another shelf or drawer. The refrigerator gets clean gradually. I often try to wake up 15 minutes earlier than usual with the idea that this time is to be used for a specific reason. It is amazing how focused I can be and how much I can get done when I do this. We make the weekend family time and plan out days well. There are usually a fewer rands or laundry loads to do, but generally what housework doesn't get done in piecework during the week has to wait for another time. The hardest part about working full-time is that I never feel as if I'm doing anything well. I feel as if it is always a game of catch up, for there is always something that should be done. Try to find some time for yourself. A working mother holds two full-time jobs, and her family needs her healthy and strong! Renee Coscia White Plains NY USA Response 4 I hear you! I also work full time and have a five-year-old daughter and twoyear-old son. Yet I feel that things on the home front are under control-most of the time. A major factor in this is that my husband is also involved in all the day-to-day household tasks: laundry, doing dishes, or paying bills. And his attitude is not that he's 'helping" me-it's a joint responsibility. We trade off on who does what. Other couples prefer to each take responsibility for separate tasks. Simplify and streamline tasks as much as you can. I gradually stopped buying clothes for myself that need to be ironed, and my husband sends his shirts to the cleaners. Even better, if you can get away with not doing something, then don't do it. For example, I usually plant a garden, but the summer after I had my second child I just did not have the energy. Erica Appel Bloomfield NJ USA Response 5 17

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I think the most important thing is not to get stressed out worrying about the household. I found an observation in Burton White's book, The First Three Years of Life, that helped me put the problems of keeping the household running in perspective. White wrote: «A cluttered house with a ten-month-old baby, all other things being equal, is a good sign. In fact, an immaculate house and a ten-month-old baby who is developing well are, in my opinion, usually incompatible». So go ahead and lower your standards for a while. Here are a couple of other ideas that have helped me. Turn chores into family time. This probably depends a lot on the age and temperament of your child, but my one-year-old likes to help me empty the dishwasher and the clothes dryer. Of course, it takes longer with «help», but what doesn't? Streamline routine chores. For instance, my husband figured out that soaking dirty dishes saves time in cleaning them. I got two laundry baskets-one white and one black-so we could sort clothes by color as we take them off. Jennifer Meyer Dale City VA Response 6 Pare down what really must be done. Once you have a baby in your household your definition of organization and cleanliness must change. For instance, evaluate what must be done versus what can wait. I no longer sort socks or fold underwear. I don't do floors more than once a month, but toilets and sinks get swabbed more often. I have become more assertive about asking my husband to help. If I ask him to do something specific he will cheerfully take care of it. But he rarely notices on his own that the sheets need to he changed. I have to accept his way of doing things, too. If he cooks dinner and thinks that hot dogs and baked beans are gourmet fare, I just tell him how delicious it is. If I criticize, he won't be so willing to help out next time. More than anything, I keep in mind that I will always treasure the small moments I spend with my son but will never look back and wish I had spent more time scrubbing the sink! Mary Long Cranberry Township PA Response 7 Stop thinking of yourself as a working mother and start thinking of yourself as a working parent. Is the distribution of chores that you have with your husband equitable? Sensible? Responsibilities change and need to be renegotiated from time to time. Hire someone to clean your house. Once every two weeks is enough. Even once a month will help. Give up something if you must to pay for this; it's worth it. The epiphany for me was one weekend when I hired a teenager to play with my toddler while I cleaned the house. I thought, «Hey, I'm paying someone to watch the baby while clean the house. Why not pay someone to clean the house, while I watch 18

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the baby?» Or if you or your husband spend a lot of time on yardwork, look into hiring a service to do that. Think hard about what you like and hate doing. I love to cook, so I cut back on time spent cleaning. If cooking takes too much time, look around for places to buy inexpensive cooked dinners or parts of dinner, for example, bagged salads or roasted chicken from the supermarket deli. When you pick your baby up after work, sit down and nurse her before you go home. It will calm you both down. Try to remember that it gets easier as your children get older. Jill Crystal Auburn AL Source: http://www.lingvistov.ru

II. Find the equivalents for the following word combinations in the article:  to take much time for doing smth  to bring/make yourself to do smth  to have high standards  to pick up the apartment gradually but effectively  a situation when you try to handle your duties or tasks but cannot do it because the number of these tasks is always increasing  to judge the importance of smth correctly  to understand the possibility of doing smth  to go shopping very quickly  to balance one situation or quality against another, in order to produce an acceptable result III. Find the synonyms for the following words:  relevant  to deal with  a restaurant  problem/test  everyday  shared / mutual  to make labor-saving  to reduce  fair  to cherish / value  to be devoted to smth  to be concentrated  in a mess  insistent  reasonable  cheap/low-priced IV. Make up sentences of your own with these phrases: 19

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         

a full-time job / an extra job midweek clean-ups the big weekly trip efficiency tricks a cluttered house an immaculate house a spotless house routine chores / regular household chores / the weekend chores inexpensive cooked dinners a major factor

TYPES OF FAMILIES I.

Read the text

A family is a group of people that have a common ancestor. They usually live together in the same house. Although it is a fact that not all families are the same, they can be categorized into different types. A nuclear family consists of parents and their children living together. In many countries in Europe and North American this is the most common form of family. There are three types of nuclear families. In the first type the father works and the mother cares for the children. In the second type, the mother works and the father says at home with the children. In the third type of family, both parents work. This last type of family is the most common in the USA and Canada. In an extended family, different family members such as grandparents, aunts, uncles and cousins live together. In many areas of the world, such as Asia, the Middle East, Africa, Latin America, and Southern Europe, this type of family is common. Recently in some countries, couples are choosing to have only one child. These types of families are called single child families. Some people believe that children raised in these kinds of families are spoilt, selfish and lonely. But research doesn’t support this. Some families have no children at all. The couples that make up these families sometimes make the choice not to have children because they want to have more free time. Some couples choose not to have children for financial reasons. Families with only one parent are called single parent families. There are several causes of these types of families. The first reason is divorce. Another reason is that the one of the parent dies, leaving the surviving parent widowed. Additionally, some parents never get married in the first place. When the husband or wife in a marriage brings children with them from a past marriage, this is called a blended or reconstituted family. This type of family has 20

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become more common due to the increase in divorces. For some children this kind of family can be good because there are two parents, instead of just one. But there can also be some difficulties as the two new families try to become one. As the basis of all societies, families of all types are very important. This is true now and will be true in the future as well. Source: http://www.edu.pe.ca/southernkings/familytypes.htm

II. Match each description of a family on the left with a type of a family on the right Tanya got married. Before they got married Darrel had three Childless family sons and Tanya had a daughter. Now they all live together. Hiroshi's wife died several years ago of cancer. He now raises Nuclear family his two sons Tomo and Taiki by himself. Jose and Maria live with their 3 children. They also live with Single parent family their parents, an uncle and an aunt. Husband and wife Dalee and Meegung have been married for Extended family two years. They are both very successful business people and don't have any children Harry and his wife Jane have been married for six years. They Single child family have one daughter named Melissa. Jack and Betty, who have been married for over 15 years, have Blended family two children named Daniel and Christine.

TEENAGE PROBLEMS IN A FAMILY I. Read the text Family life isn’t always easy. Today conflicts between children and their parent are a classic case of misunderstandings between different generations: conflicts with adults are typical in teenagers’ life. Children and their parents often argue with each other. I would like to tell you about problems which can cause conflicts. One of the problems concerns teenager fashion. Teenagers and their parents have different views on the same things. Nowadays, in most stylish clothes you can’t find anything that looks like normal in your parents’ mind. On the other hand, your parents don’t find the clothes you wear stylish. But you want a little more in what you wear. Meanwhile your parents try to have control over your life and choices. They don’t like such things as red and blue hair, and studs and rings in different parts of your body. Parents will reduce their censorship if they understand that you are not the only one to prefer such unusual styles. You ask: «Can I have my lower lip pierced?» They answer: «Do any of your friends have it?» And what about friends? This is another vital issue. Parents do not want their child to hang out with a bad crowd. They would like their child to make friends with honest boys and girls, because teenagers with bad habits can spoil their child’s character and future.

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The same problem concerns relations with the opposite sex. It happens very often: a guy brings his girl-friend to his house and the parents react in shock with open mouths. They think they know what is better for their children because of life experience. One more reason for the misunderstanding is that parents try to control nearly every step of their children; they constantly tell them what to do and not to do. Very often they don’t let you stay up late because you have to go to school on the next day, they don’t let you watch what you want on TV. On the other hand, they make you do your homework every day, do the chores and take care of your brothers or sisters. Sometimes, disagreements become so huge that teenagers leave home. But almost always they come back, because they are not ready for independent life. Source:https://wehavekids.com

II. Answer the question: What don’t children like in their parents?

WHY HAPPY FAMILIES ARE DIFFERENT I. Read the text The couple in my office looked bewildered. Well-educated, they had raised their children according to the most «progressive» thinking. Emphasizing feelings rather than behavior, the parents allowed the kids to express themselves openly and loudly, offered them an equal voice in family decisions and gave them freedom to pick their clothes, friends and TV shows. They sprang to their children’s defense when the kids collided with school authorities, and absolved them of household chores. Sitting with the couple were the results of all that dedicated effort – a sullen, arrogant 15-year-old boy and a totally self-absorbed 13-year-old girl. The four of them were the opposite of the strong, loving family the parents believed their attitudes were helping to build. I had heard this take at the Center for Families and Children many times. Not all the parents I’d dealt with had pursued the feel-good approach, of course. Others had followed an earlier model of child-rearing, in which parents cracked the whip and made all the decisions for their kids. They had their own set of problems with rebellious children. 22

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Then I thought of the strong families I knew – the truly happy, resilient families who always seemed able to weather the ups and downs of life with equanimity. How did these families thrive when others flopped? In part, they did it by not following set philosophies, feel-good or authoritarian. Indeed, their family-building tactics often flew right in the face of conventional wisdom. Here I have tried to define what makes these families work. Children know their place. A happy family is not a democracy in which everyone has an equal voice, or where kids operate with total freedom. Parents wield a benign authority, listening to their children’s ideas and taking account of their feelings, but reserving the right to make final decisions. Moreover, kids feel comfortable knowing who’s in charge. One day my teen-age daughter Erika told her mother she wanted to drop piano lessons, saying she was tired of practicing. Her mother listened, then made a parental decision. She told Erika to stick it out for three months. Then if she still wanted to quit, she could. That was six years ago. Last September Erika went off to college – to study music. Parents talk kid language. We often forget that children are not miniature adults. They speak differently, think differently, react differently. One day a friend and his son were preparing lunch. «Is there any soup?» the boy asked. «I don’t see any», the father said. «But is there any soup?» the boy repeated. After three repetitions, the father got the message. To the more literal-minded child, «I don’t see any» meant that the soup was simply out of sight, and his father should move a few cans until he could see it. Of course, some kids act like hairsplitting lawyers. «You told me not to throw the ball in the living room», a boy may say. «You never told me not to throw it in the dining room». But he knows full well that the spirit of the order was «Don’t throw the ball indoors». Young kids live in the here and now. They don’t see the consequences of their actions the way their parents do. That’s why what the parent says may be dodged by the child or at least take a while to be absorbed. Some of my colleagues estimate, not wholly jokingly, that a young child must be reminded 2000 times before a given lesson sinks in. That can be annoying. But parents in strong families recognize that constant repetition is at the heart of learning. And it is more important to make directions and the reasons for them clear than it is to convince a child of their justice. They’re not always happy. Strong families recognize that the sun may not shine every day. Thus, when Mum gets sick, Dad is transferred or a greater tragedy occurs, family ties prepare them to withstand the deluge. One of my neighbors was laid off from his job at a telecommunications firm. He went right home to his wife and their two college-age children to map strategy. Together, they decided to launch a family business. They refinanced their home, the son and daughter increased their college loans, the wife switched from a part-time job to a full-time job, and the husband enrolled in a training course for the new business. The firing was viewed as a family challenge. 23

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They don’t believe in «quality time». Instead of reserving a special time to «be with the children», as popular advice suggests, parents make it clear that they’re always available. And if that means parents must sometimes set aside other pressing chores, so be it. Once I was summoned from a university conference by a call from my older daughter, then about four. We had just moved to a home in the country with a stream on the property. Alarmed, I hurried to the phone. “The salmon are running!” Mariska told me. She wanted someone to share her excitement. Such special moments simply can’t be scheduled. They value tradition. Happy families observe their own time-honored rituals. These are an important source of strength for those who share them. Grace before meals is such a tradition. So is a «quiet hour» after dinner. A family I know declared Friday «Pizza Night», when kids were free to bring friends to share dinner and soft drinks. Many treasured rituals revolve around holidays. In my family, with its Eastern European background, we always decorated eggs for Easter. It was a time-consuming process, and when my daughters reached their teens I suggested abandoning it. The girls wouldn’t hear of it. The tradition had come down from their grandparents, and they were determined to keep it alive. They make mistakes. No one succeeds 100 percent of the time. In happy families, that fact is admitted, and it doesn’t immobilize or traumatize them. Kids are allowed to make choices, including poor ones. Parents may review how a decision might have been made differently, but then the case is closed. Kids aren’t reminded of past mistakes. Many parents are fearful that their slightest misstep will damage their kids irreparably. Not so with parents in strong families. They know they aren’t perfect, and they’re not afraid to admit it. «I’m sorry I lost my cool» goes a long way toward preserving family unity. They fight. Of course happy families argue. But they don’t resort to namecalling or dredging up the past. And they have a method for straightening out relationships when things have gone sour. One approach we’ve found helpful is what we call the «volcano technique». Each family member has the right to erupt like Vesuvius when he or she has a gripe. They can spout hot lava for five minutes, describing whatever has made them angry – but not personally attacking another family member. Others are obliged to listen and then get their chance to respond. By that time, the steam has usually gone out of the volcano as well as the listeners. Sometimes, though, a disagreement is more basic, about the household budget or attitudes toward child-rearing. Yet families can remain strong if they acknowledge such differences and try to accommodate them. In one family I know, the husband is a workaholic. His wife doesn’t like it, and occasionally she explodes. But she also recognizes that his work habits are their only major difference. He understands her frustration and tries to make up for it by reserving an occasional weekend for family activities and by taking work-free 24

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vacations. The conflict has not gone away, but both have learned to deal with it in ways that don’t undercut the relationship. They compete. Unrestrained sibling rivalry can be dangerous. Yet when competition is channeled, it teaches kids how to win and lose. Ski champions Phil and Steve Mahre are examples of the outcome of family competition. Each twin pushed the other until both won Olympic medals. All the while, they assisted each other, too, passing along tips that would help the other achieve his best. Recently I saw a photo of the two, now 37 and retired from competitive skiing. They were facing each other across a chessboard, still competing. The children work. In a strong family, everyone works – including the kids. Chores needn’t be strenuous or time-consuming, but they should be regular. When my daughters were young, we were inveterate campers. Their task was to clear the dishes after meals. They didn’t relish the job at first, but eventually it gave them a feeling of contributing to the fun. As they grew older, they made the transition to clearing the dishes at home too. They laugh at one another. An acquaintance and his wife stopped at a dress shop while traveling with their friends Gerry and Jan. While the two women inspected fashions, the med stood off to the side, waiting. «Gerry’s wearing his shopping face», she said smiling. Gerry ruefully grinned back. The dour expression he wore while Jan was shopping was obviously a longstanding, yet affectionate, family joke. A sense of humor is a trademark of the happy family. They can laugh at one another’s quirks and foibles, but the humor is never malicious. Children aren’t allowed to mock each other, and they don’t hit each other’s weak points. Humor unites them. When parents sadly tell me that they have followed all the rules without success, I remind them of a quotation from the general semanticist Alfred Korzybski: «The map is not the territory». A map shows you the routes to your destination, but it doesn’t reveal the surprises you may encounter – potholes, detours, rainstorms. In the same way, we often carry a «map» of a model family in our heads. But, like the highway that’s unexpectedly closed for repairs, family life often doesn’t match what we expect. Strong families know they can’t anticipate all the twists in the road. Their secret includes flexibility, rooted in love and understanding. Source:http://www.lingvistov.ru

Notes on the text: absolve [əbˈzɒlv] – to say publicly that someone is not responsible for something; to absolve smb from/ of smth. dedicated – made for or used for only one particular purpose. a feel-good approach – is an approach whose main purpose is to make you feel happy and cheerful. equanimity – composure, self-possession. to dredge up (informal) – to start talking again about something that happened long time ago. to have a gripe (informal) – to complain about something. 25

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II. Study the text and find synonyms to the following adjectives. Consult the dictionary for their definition: bouncy, laborious, confirmed, sullen, malevolent, benevolent, unruly. III. Find the sentences which include the following word combinations. Give their contextual Russian equivalents, make a list of adjectives, used to describe and characterize the families that flop and thrive. to spring to children’s defense to collide with authorities to absolve of chores to weather the ups and downs of life with equanimity to flow right in the face of conventional wisdom to wield a benign authority to be in charge to stick it out for… to act like hair-splitting lawyers to withstand the deluge to dredge up the past to have a gripe IV. Quote from the text to prove that: 1. Kids should know who’s in charge. 2. Constant repetition is at the heart of learning. 3. Strong families should view all problems as a family challenge. 4. Parents should be always available. 5. Happy families weather the ups and downs of life with equanimity. 6. Children shouldn’t be absolved of household chores. V. Challenge or support the following: 1. Like the highway that’s unexpectedly closed for repairs, family often doesn’t match what we expect. 2. A sense of humor is a trademark of the happy family. 3. Happy families thrive only because they follow set philosophies, feel-good or authoritarian. 4. Kids should be allowed to make choices, including poor ones. 5. Child-rearing (family-building) tactics can be compared to the map, which shows you the routes to your destination, but it doesn’t reveal the surprises you may encounter. VI. Answer the question: Why are happy families different? Discuss the question with your groupmates. VII. Divide the article into logical parts. Give the gist of each part. VIII. Recommended vocabulary list: words: feel-good, resilient, benign, hair-splitting, sibling, strenuous, inveterate, to dredge up. word combinations: to spring to defense; to absolve of chores; dedicated effort; to weather the ups and downs; to withstand the deluge; to have a gripe. 26

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John E. Obedzinski is a behavioral pediatrician at the Center For Families and Children in Corte Madera, Ca, and a clinical assistant professor of behavioral pediatrics at the University of California, San Francisco.

CHILDHOOD IS CERTAINLY NOT THE HAPPIEST TIME OF YOUR LIFE I. Read the text Parents are too permissive with their children nowadays. Few people would defend the Victorian attitude to the children. But if you were a parent in those days, at least, you knew where you stood. The child’s happiness is all important, – the psychologists say. But what about the parents’ happiness? Parents suffer constantly from fear and guilt while their children gaily romp about pulling the place apart. A good old-fashioned spanking is out of the question. No modern child rearing manual would permit such barbarity. The trouble is you are not even allowed to shout. Who knows what deep psychological wound you might inflict. The poor child may never recover from the dreadful dramatic experience. The parents try not to give their children complexes. Certainly a child needs love and lots of it, but the excessive permissiveness is surely doing more harm than good. Psychologists have succeeded in undermining parents’ confidence in their own authority. In addition to the great modern classics on child care there are countless articles in magazines and newspapers. With so much unsolicited advice flying about Mum and Dad just don’t know what to do any more. In the end they do nothing at all. So, from early childhood, the kids are in charge and parents’ lives are regulated according to the needs of their offspring. When the little dears develop into teenagers, they take complete control. Lax authority over the years makes adolescent rebellion against parents all the more violent. If the young people are going to have a party, for 27

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instance, parents are asked to leave the house. Their presence nearly spoils the fun. What else can the poor parents do but obey? Children are hardy creatures and most of them survive the harmful influence of extreme permissiveness, which is the normal condition in the modern household. The spread of juvenile delinquency in our own age is largely due to parental laxity. The dividing line between permissiveness and sheer negligence is very fine indeed (little Johnny, roaming in the streets; mother doesn’t care where he is). Perhaps, it’s truth that children who’ve had a surfeit of happiness in their childhood emerge like stodgy puddings and fail to make a success of life. Source: http://kuzeyhazirliksa.yeditepe.edu.tr

Notes on the text: barbarity [bɑːˈbærɪtɪ] – cruelty of the worst kind Victorian [vɪkˈtɔːrɪən] attitude – like the behavior, moral standards, etc., of middleclass society in the time of Queen Victoria, esp. being or pretending to be very respectable, religious, pure, etc. unsolicited – uninvited, unwanted juvenile delinquency [dɪˈlɪŋkwənsɪ] – illegal or immoral behavior by young people laxity – negligence a surfeit [ˈsɜːfɪt] of happiness – an amount of happiness that is too large or that is more than you need. stodgy food – heavy, makes you feel full very quickly. II. Scan the text. III. Answer the questions: 1) What does the author call ‘barbarity’? 2) Why are parents puzzled at choosing the methods of upbringing nowadays? 3) Why is it not allowed even to shout at your offspring when they get on your nerves? 4) Why do parents become so obedient when their offspring develop into teenagers? 5) What is the main butt of the author’s irony? IV. Give your observations as to: 1) the subject of the article and the ideas expressed; 2) the author’s approach to the problem of the present-day upbringing; 3) the means by which ironic effect is achieved. V. Consult the text, explain the meaning and give the Russian for: 1) you know where you stand 2) to gaily romp about pulling the place apart 3) to inflict deep psychological wound 4) to give children complexes 5) with so much unsolicited advice flying about 6) adolescent rebellion against parents 7) dividing line VI. Challenge or support the following: 1. A good old-fashioned spanking is out of the question nowadays. The excessive permissiveness is doing more harm than good. 2. It’s the kids who are in charge. 28

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3. The spread of juvenile delinquency is largely due to parental laxity. VII. Account for the use of simile. «like stodgy puddings». VIII. Discuss the article: 1) one group defends the Victorian attitude to the children; 2) one group advocates modern ways of upbringing. IX. Speak on the ways of upbringing in your family. Recommended vocabulary list: words: barbarity, to undermine, unsolicited, offspring, rebellion; word combinations: to inflict psychological wound, to give children complexes, the spread of juvenile delinquency, the dividing line between permissiveness and sheer negligence is very fine, to have a surfeit of happiness.

WHY SO MANY ONE-CHILD FAMILIES? I. Read the text Over half of Russian urban families have only one child. Many people put it down to the birth of a child worsening housing and economic conditions. But the latest investigation have shown that the higher the income of a family, the fewer children it has. The reason is, to a large extent, social progress. Today one does not need «reserve children», because child mortality is relatively low. And children have ceased to be parents’ «insurance policy» in case of illness or old age. Meanwhile every new child takes up more time, and care, affecting parents’ ability to meet their cultural and intellectual requirements and participating in public life. As a result, the desire to have more children recedes to the background. To keep the population stable takes about 260 births per 100 families. For population growth, at least three children per family are needed. Reduced rates of population growth are not the only cause for alarm. Statistics show that in families with one child relations are less stable than in families with several. Of course, it would be wrong to suggest that all marriages with one child will necessarily end in divorce, while couples with several children are immune. An only child can also get accustomed to being spoilt, which can develop into selfishness. 29

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The problem will not be solved by persuasion or compulsion. The conditions must be created that will make a family want to have more children. The country demographic policy should combine cash allowances, a paid maternity leave, an expanded network of child-care centers, improved working conditions for women, privileges for large families, better housing conditions, and many other measures. However, it is clear that the problem cannot be solved by economic measures alone. We need a shift in the psychology of people who prefer to have one child. Source: http://window.edu.ru

II. III.

Answer the heading question Make 7 questions to the text

CHILDREN COST 50 DOLLARS A DAY I. Read the article The cost of raising a child in the UK is soaring and set to almost double again in the next decade. Parents can expect to fork out around $365,000 on raising a child from birth to the age of 21. This is according to a report by the UK insurance company LV. The insurer reckons a child now costs $50 a day, with university being the most expensive years, followed by the early childhood period between two and five. LV spokesman Nigel Snell said the statistics are quite sobering for both would-be and current parents. «The figures are quite staggering and it’s unrealistic to expect people’s income levels to increase in line with this rising level of expenditure. This means parents will need to be switched on about their family finances more than ever», he said. Spending on childcare and education accounts for over half of the expenditure at $200,000. On top of that, it costs $32,000 to feed a child, $24,000 to clothe him or her, and a mind-blowing $50,000 to keep them amused with toys, holidays, hobbies and presents. Pocket money, however, decreased by $100 a year in 2007. Mr Snell said he has sympathy for parents over the rocketing expenses they face: «As a parent of three, I know from experience that sacrifices have to be made in the early years, and many parents will have had to put some plans on hold to manage the costs associated with raising a family. Of course, every parent will tell you that it is all worth it, but making even small provisions and doing a little extra planning now could help new parents see their way more easily through the next 21 years». Source:https://breakingnewsenglish.com

Warm-ups II. COST OF KIDS: Walk around the class and talk to other students about children and how much they cost. Change partners often. After you finish, sit with your original partner(s) and share what you found out. III. CHAT: In pairs / groups, decide which of these topics or words from the article are most interesting and which are most boring. child-raising costs / birth / insurance / early childhood / being switched on / childcare / education / presents / pocket money / sympathy / sacrifices Have a chat about the topics you liked. Change topics and partners frequently. 30

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IV. TWO-MINUTE KIDS DEBATES: Have the following fun 2-minute debates. Students A strongly believe in the first argument, students B the second. Change pairs often. 1. People should have much fewer children. Vs. What a ridiculous idea. 2. Children should work earlier to repay their parents. Vs. A crazy idea. 3. Governments should pay for all education. Vs. Too expensive. 4. Parents should make instead of buy toys. Vs. Parents have no time. 5. There is a limit to how much a child is worth. Vs. Never. Kids are priceless. 6. Living together in communities will cut costs. Vs. No one wants to do that. V. COST-CUTTING: With your partner(s), rank which of these items are most important for parents to spend money on their children. Discuss how parents can cut costs on these items: ___ pocket money / allowance ___ food ___ birthday and other presents ___ higher education ___ clothes ___ babysitting ___ education ___ hobbies VI. CHILDCARE: Spend one minute writing down all of the different words you associate with the word «childcare». Share your words with your partner(s) and talk about them. Together, put the words into different categories. VII. QUICK ROLE PLAY: Student A believes the cost of raising children is not worth it; Student B believes that any costs involved in having children makes it worth it. Change partners often. Change partners again and talk about your roles and conversations. BEFORE READING I. TRUE / FALSE: Look at the article’s headline and guess whether these sentences are true (T) or false (F): a. A secret market in buying and selling kids has started in the UK. T/F b. The early childhood years are the most expensive for parents. T/F c. A report said income levels will rise for parents to raise their kids. T/F d. The report said parents must be more aware about childcare costs. T/F e. Spending on education is higher than the cost of feeding kids. T/F f. Children received less pocket money than usual in 2007. T/F g. An insurance spokesman suggested sacrificing a few children. T/F h. The spokesman said putting money aside now was a good idea. T/F II. SYNONYM MATCH: Match the following synonyms from the article: 1. soaring a. alert 2 fork out b. preparations 3. would-be c. makes up 4. staggering d. potential 5. switched on e. pity 31

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6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

accounts for f. spend amused g. related to associated with h. rising sympathy i. amazing provisions j. entertained III. PHRASE MATCH: Match the following phrases from the article (sometimes more than one combination is possible): 1. …soaring and set to almost a. their family finances 2 Parents can expect to fork b. early years 3. would-be and c. amused with toys 4. it’s unrealistic to expect people’s income d. out around $365,000 5. parents will need to be switched on about e. rocketing expenses 6. education accounts for over f. levels to increase 7. a mind-blowing $50,000 to keep them g. double again 8. he has sympathy for parents over the h. it is all worth it 9. sacrifices have to be made in the i. current parents 10. every parent will tell you that j. half of the expenditure WHILE READING GAP FILL: Put the words into the gaps in the text. The cost of ________ a child in the UK is soaring and set to almost double again in the next decade. Parents can ________ to fork out line around $365,000 on raising a child from birth to the age of 21. This sobering is according to a report by the UK insurance company LV=. The expect insurer ________ a child now costs $50 a day, with university being expect the most expensive years, ________ by the early childhood period followed between two and five. LV= spokesman Nigel Snell said the raising statistics are quite ________ for both would-be and current parents. ever «The figures are quite staggering and it’s unrealistic to ________ reckons people’s income levels to increase in ________ with this rising level of expenditure. This means parents will need to be switched on about their family finances more than ________», he said. Spending on childcare and education ________ for over half of the expenditure at $200,000. On ________ of that, it costs $32,000 to feed a child, $24,000 to ________ him or her, and a mind-blowing $50,000 to keep them amused with toys, holidays, hobbies and presents. Pocket money, however, ________ by $100 a year in 2007. Mr Snell said he has sympathy for parents over the rocketing expenses they face: «As a parent of three, I know from experience that ________ have to be made in the early years, and many parents will have had to put some plans on ________ to manage the costs associated with raising a family. Of course, every parent will tell you that it is all ________ it, but making even small provisions and doing a little extra planning now could help new parents see their 32

worth top sacrifices clothe easily accounts decreased hold

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way more ________ through the next 21 years». AFTER READING I. WORD SEARCH: Look in your dictionaries / computer to find collocates, other meanings, information, synonyms … for the words ‘child’ and ‘care’. child care

     

Share your findings with your partners. Make questions using the words you found. Ask your partner / group your questions. II. ARTICLE QUESTIONS: Look back at the article and write down some questions you would like to ask the class about the text. Share your questions with other classmates / groups. Ask your partner / group your questions. III. GAP FILL: In pairs / groups, compare your answers to this exercise. Check your answers. Talk about the words from the activity. Were they new, interesting, worth learning…? IV. VOCABULARY: Circle any words you do not understand. In groups, pool unknown words and use dictionaries to find their meanings. V. TEST EACH OTHER: Look at the words below. With your partner, try to recall exactly how these were used in the text: soaring  accounts fork  amused reckons  sympathy statistics  sacrifices unrealistic  worth switched  easily VI. Write five GOOD questions about children in the table. Do this in pairs. Each student must write the questions on his / her own paper. When you have finished, interview other students. Write down their answers. STUDENT 1 STUDENT 2 STUDENT 3 _____________ _____________ _____________ Q.1. Q.2. Q.3. Q.4. Q.5. VII. Now return to your original partner and share and talk about what you found out. Change partners often. VIII. Make mini-presentations to other groups on your findings. 33

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IX. DISCUSSION STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student B a) What did you think when you read the headline? b) Do you think children really cost 50 dollars a day? c) Are children expensive to raise in your country? d) Does your government give any help to parents? e) Why do you think childcare costs in the UK will double in the next decade? f) Do you think this report is a scare tactic by the insurance company LV= to get people to take out insurance? g) What is so expensive about the ages two to five? h) Were you an expensive child? i) Do you think more couples will think about not having children if they read the LV= report? STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A) a) Did you like reading this article? b) Do you think couples have a better life with or without children? c) How do you think parents could reduce the costs of raising children? d) Do you think only rich people should have lots of children? e) How much pocket money do you think children should get? f) Do you think parents spend too much on presents for their children? g) What sacrifices (financial and social) do parents have to make when they have children? h) Why do you think parents would say having children is worth it? i) Did you like this discussion? CORRECT WORD: Put the correct words from a–d below in the article. The cost of (1) ____ a child in the UK is soaring and set to almost double again in the next decade. Parents can expect to fork (2) ____ around $365,000 on raising a child from birth to the age of 21. This is according to a report by the UK insurance company LV=. The insurer reckons a child now costs $50 a day, (3) ____ university being the most expensive years, followed by the early childhood period between two and five. LV= spokesman Nigel Snell said the (4) ____ are quite sobering for both would-be and current parents. “The figures are quite staggering and it’s unrealistic to expect people’s income levels to increase in (5) ____ with this rising level of expenditure. This means parents will need to be switched on about their family finances more than (6) ____», he said. Spending on childcare and education accounts (7) ____ over half of the expenditure at $200,000. On top of that, it costs $32,000 to feed a child, $24,000 to (8) ____ him or her, and a mind-blowing $50,000 to keep them amused with toys, holidays, hobbies and presents. Pocket (9) ____, however, decreased by $100 a year in 2007. Mr Snell said he has sympathy for parents over the rocketing expenses they (10) ____: «As a parent of three, I know from experience that sacrifices have to be made in the early years, and many parents will have had to put some plans on (11) ____ to manage the costs associated with raising a family. Of course, every parent will tell you that it is all worth 34

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it, but making even small provisions and doing a little extra planning now could help new parents see their way more (12) ____ through the next 21 years». 1. a) inflating b) increasing c) rising d) raising 2. a) away b) in c) out d) across 3. a) with b) by c) and d) is 4. a) stat b) statistics c) statisticians d) statistically 5. a) line b) par c) level d) equal 6. a) still b) never c) even d) ever 7. a) with b) for c) to d) at 8. a) clothing b) clothes c) cloth d) clothe 9. a) wealth b) cash c) finance d) money 10.a) face b) faces c) facing d) facet 11.a) touch b) grab c) hold d) squeeze 12.a) easy b) easily c) easier d) easiest WRITING Write about children for 10 minutes. Correct your partner’s paper. HOMEWORK I. VOCABULARY EXTENSION: Choose several of the words from the text. Use a dictionary or Google’s search field (or another search engine) to build up more associations / collocations of each word. II. INTERNET: Search the Internet and find more information about the costs of toys and games. Which are the best value? Talk about what you discover with your partner(s) in the next lesson. III. CHILDCARE: Make a poster about costs of childcare around the world. Show your poster to your classmates in the next lesson. Did you all include similar things? IV. MAGAZINE ARTICLE: Write a magazine article about what would happen if children became too expensive to have. Include imaginary interviews with a would-be parent and a population expert. Read what you wrote to your classmates in the next lesson. Write down new words and expressions. V. LETTER: Write a letter to your government leaders. Give them three suggestions on what they should do to help poorer parents. Give them three reasons why they should help parents with childcare. Read your letter to your partner(s) in your next lesson. Your partner(s) will answer your questions.

UNIT 3. PARENTING THE MOST IMPORTANT JOB ON THE PLANET PARENTING: THE MOST IMPORTANT JOB ON THE PLANET a. Read the text A person's upbringing and education starts in his or her family. Even when children grow up and become independent, their families never stop influencing their 35

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lives. The family is responsible for an individual's physical and moral development and it is in the family that values, norms and ideas are communicated from generation to generation. Being a parent is one of the most challenging tasks in the world. Parents ought to love, protect and guide their child. They should show affection and sympathy, understand their children's feelings and help them solve their problems. A child's upbringing is not a chaotic and uncontrollable process. It is a great responsibility that demands certain knowledge, skills and experience. Of course different parents have different views of what they want to 'implant' in the mind of their offspring. But all parents want their children to become nice, responsible and mature individuals with a broad outlook and a kind heart. First and foremost parents should choose the right parenting style. There are four types of parenting styles that differ in the degree of parental demands and responsiveness: permissive, authoritarian, authoritative and neglectful. But as a rule parents usually combine these styles depending on the situation. A child's upbringing is not a chaotic and uncontrollable process. It is a great responsibility that demands certain knowledge, skills and experience. Of course different parents have different views of what they want to 'implant' in the mind of their offspring. But all parents want their children to become nice, responsible and mature individuals with a broad outlook and a kind heart. First and foremost parents should choose the right parenting style. There are four types of parenting styles that differ in the degree of parental demands and responsiveness: permissive, authoritarian, authoritative and neglectful. But as a rule parents usually combine these styles depending on the situation. Those parents who choose to adhere to an authoritarian parenting style are strict and demanding. Some specialists characterize this style as restrictive and punitive. Authoritarian parents force their sons and daughters to obey a set of rules and punish them for a slight disobedience. Such mums and dads do not give their children much freedom and do not allow them to make their own decisions and choices. They value submission and obedience most of all and discourage independence and individuality. Authoritarian parents set very high standards and don't like their authority to be questioned or doubted. They do not show warmth and affection towards their children. As a result children may fear their parents, feel rejected and lack self-confidence, curiosity and independence. Authoritative parents are strict but fair. They use punishment and praise appropriately. When authoritative parents punish children, they always explain their motive for the punishment. Such parents prefer discussions and explanations and value compromise. They make rules appropriate to a child's age and capabilities and serve as a role model for him or her to follow providing support and guidance. Children are given enough freedom but at the same time they are under their parents' constant control. The main goal is building strong trusting relationships between parents and children. In such families children are usually cheerful, self-confident, responsible and socially successful. This parenting style is the most recommended according to experts. 36

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Neglectful parents are often undemanding and indifferent towards their children. They do not set limits and do not control their children's behaviour. Such parents are preoccupied with their own needs and spend little time with their offspring. As neglectful parents are too busy with their obligations, they are uninvolved in their children's life and don't express interest in it. Neglectful parents do not demonstrate warmth and affection that is why children in such families feel ignored, unloved and depressed. If parents want their children to be happy and to develop successfully, it is essential to maintain harmony and the atmosphere of love, mutual respect, acceptance, understanding and open communication in their family. Special parent education classes are organized in order to help parents perfect their parenting knowledge and skills. It is important to remember that parents should combine love, discipline and limits in order to raise healthy and happy children. Parents who fully realize their responsibility and do their best to help their child become a responsible, well-bred, independent and tolerant adult are rewarded when their sons and daughters become successful members of society. Source:https://alleng.org/engl-top/689.htm

b. Decide TRUE or FALSE: 1. A person's upbringing and education starts in school. T|F 2. When children grow up and become independent, their families stop influencing their lives. T|F| 3. A child's upbringing is a chaotic and uncontrollable process. T|F| 4. A permissive parenting style requires a great share of discipline on the part of the parent and that of the child. T|F| 5. Those parents who choose to adhere to an authoritarian parenting style are strict and demanding. T|F| 6. Authoritarian parents give their children unrestricted freedom. T|F| 7. Authoritative parents use punishment and praise appropriately. T|F| 8. Neglectful parents are often strict but fair. T|F| c. Complete each sentence (A – H) with one of the endings (1 – 8) A. It is in the family that B. Different parents have different views of what they want to C. There are four types of parenting styles that differ in D. Permissive parents fear to E. Authoritarian parents force their sons and daughters to F. Authoritative parents make rules appropriate to a child's age and capabilities and serve as G. As neglectful parents are too busy with their obligations they are H. If parents want their children to be happy and to develop successfully, it is essential to 37

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1. maintain harmony and the atmosphere of love, mutual respect, acceptance, understanding and open communication in their family. 2. values, norms and ideas are communicated from generation to generation. 3. lose their children's love if they set limits. 4. a role model for him or her to follow providing support and guidance. 5. uninvolved in their children's life. 6. 'implant' in the mind of their offspring. 7. the degree of parental demands and responsiveness. 8. obey a set of rules and punish them for a slight disobedience. d. Imagine that you are a parent. What would you do in the following situations? Your 9-year-old son refuses to perform the simplest duties about the house: to make his bed, to remove his toys, to wash his plate after dinner, etc. • Your 12-year-old daughter has become aggressive and difficult to control. She spends too much time with her friends, shirks school and smokes. Your attempts to discipline her make the things worse. • Your 6-year-old son asks you to buy him a very expensive toy. He does not stop talking about it. Besides, his best friend's parents have already bought him 'that wonderful robot'. You don't want to upset your son but you can't afford to buy this toy. e. Answer the questions 1. What role does the family play in a child's development? 2. Why is being a parent one of the most challenging tasks in the world? 3. What are parents' duties? Which of them do you consider the most important? 4. How can you characterize the relationships between permissive parents and their children? 5. Why do child-rearing experts say that a permissive parenting style is not beneficial for children? 6. What are the disadvantages of an authoritarian parenting style? 7. Why is an authoritative parenting style the most recommended according to experts? 8. Why do children feel unloved and depressed if their parents adhere to a neglectful parenting style? 9. What should parents remember if they want to raise healthy and happy children? 10.What parenting style would you like to adhere to when you have children? Explain your choice. VI. Imagine you are a child-rearing expert. You have been asked to make a list of rules for parents. Continue the list A. Give your child a lot of love and warmth but don't fear to be strict and to set limits. B. Don't be too harsh and demanding as too much pressure can make your child rebel 38

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against your authority and power. C. Try to avoid ambiguity in giving directions. Don't change your mind if you have already said YES or NO. D. ........ VII. Read the quotations below. Choose any quotation and comment on it • 'I believe that a parent's role is to provide a path or opportunity for their children.' (David Soul) • 'Consciously or unconsciously children pattern themselves on their parents.' (A. Linkletter) • A wise parent humors the desire for independent action, so as to become the friend and advisor when his absolute rule shall cease.' (Elizabeth Gaskell) • All the time a person is a child he is both a child and learning to be a parent. After he becomes a parent he becomes predominantly a parent reliving childhood.' (Benjamin Spock) • 'If you raise your children to feel that they can accomplish any goal or task they decide upon, you will have succeeded as a parent and you will have given your children the greatest of all blessings.' (Brian Tracy) • A child who is allowed to be disrespectful to his parents will not have true respect for anyone.' (Billy Graham) • 'If you 've never been hated by your child, you 've never been a parent.' (Bette Davis) • 'There is no friendship, no love, like that of the parent for the child.' (Henry Ward Beecher) A. Look at the list of values, norms and traits that parents usually want their children to develop. Which of them do you consider more important? Organize a discussion with the other members of your group. Responsibility, good manners, obedience, tolerance, curiosity, unselfishness, responsiveness, self-reliance, industry, creativity, optimism, independence, thrift, self-control, determination, persistence, generosity, sociability B. Read the text 'Parenting: the Most Important Job on the Planet' and say if you agree or disagree with the title.

PERMISSIVE PARENTS GLOSSARY gaily romp about bewilder undermine spank pull the place apart клочья to get wind of unsolicited offspring

нагло и шумно носиться, играя смущать, сбивать с толку, ставить в тупик разрушать, подрывать хлопать, шлёпать ладонью перевернуть всё вверх дном, разнести в дать перевести дух невостребованный отпрыск, потомок 39

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The spread of juvenile delinquency распространение подростковой преступности parental laxity родительская неуверенность, расхлябанность, неопределенность roam the street бесцельно бродить, шататься sheer negligence полнейшая небрежность, халатность to be knocked about шататься, рыскать, вести беспутный образ жизни surfeit излишества, неумеренность emerge появляться, возникать stodgy puddings сытный, тяжёлый пирог I. Read the text Few people would defend the Victorian attitude to children, but if you were a parent in those days, at least you knew where you stood: children were to be seen and not to be heard. Freud and company did away with all that and parents have been bewildered ever since. The child's happiness is all-important, the psychologists say, but what about the parents' happiness? Parents suffer constantly from rear and guilt while their children gaily romp about pulling the place apart; a good old-fashioned spanking is out of the question: no modern child-treating marvel would permit such barbarity. The trouble is you are not allowed even to shout... Certainly a child needs love... and a lot of it. But the excessive permissiveness of modern parents is surely doing more harm than good. Psychologists have succeeded in undermining parents' confidence in their own authority. And it hasn't taken children long to get wind of the fact. In addition to the great modern classics on child care, there are countless articles in magazines and newspapers. With so much unsolicited advice flying about, mum and dad just don't know what to do any more. In the end they do nothing at all. So, from early childhood, the kids are in charge and parents' lives are regulated according to the needs of their offspring. If the young people are doing to have a party, for instance, parents are asked to leave the house. Their presence merely spoils the fun. What else the poor parents can do but obey? Children are hardy creatures (far harder than the psychologists would have us believe) and most of them survive the harmful influence of extreme permissiveness which is the normal condition in the modern household. But a great many do not. The spread of juvenile delinquency in our own age is largely due to parental laxity. Mother, believing that little Johnny roams the street. The dividing line between permissiveness and sheer negligence is very fine indeed. The psychologists have much to answer. They should keep their mouths shut and let parents get on with the job. And if children are knocked about a little bit in the process, it may not really matter too much... Perhaps, there's some truth in the idea that children who've had a surfeit of happiness in their childhood emerge like stodgy puddings and fear to make a success of life. Source:https://studfiles.net

II. Choose the right answer. 1. What was the attitude to children in Victorian times? Children should... 40

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1) be heard and within reach. 2) be quiet and within reach. 3) be permitted to do what they want. 4) get a lot of love from their parents. 2. What are the modern psychological ideas about upbringing? 1) Parents should spank children for their misbehavior. 2) The children should be shouted at when it's needed. 3) Excessive permissiveness is out of the question. 4) Then lives of the parents should be regulated according to the needs of the children. 3. Modern children have felt already that the parents are... 1) confident of their authority. 2) more interested in their own lives. 3) eager to fulfill all the wishes of their kids. 4) in need of advice from magazines on upbringing. 4. The author believes that some children become criminals as... 1) they are neglected by their parents. 2) they can look after themselves. 3) they can't stand the atmosphere of permissiveness. 4) they get under a harmful influence at school. 5. According to the author, when it comes to the problem of upbringing psychologists should... 1) answer all the questions parents have. 2) avoid giving advice on upbringing. 3) help children to make a success of their lives. 4) draw a line between permissiveness and negligence. 6. According to the author, why do some children fear to make a success of life? 1) They were too happy in childhood. 2) Their parents were too strict with them. 3) The parents didn't care about them. 4) Their parents ignored the advice of psychologists.

WE’LL BE PARENTS TOO I. Read the text Relationships between parents and children have always been very complicated. It happens because children think that parents aspire to control their every step, constantly teach them, and prohibit everything. I think that an attempt to look at the situation from the parent’s position will make you see everything differently. Yes, we are always being taught. But our parents have their own life experience and they know better how this or that situation might develop. And they just want us not to be disappointed and not to make the same mistakes which they (perhaps) made in the past. It is necessary to control us, because if they don’t do this 41

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then almost all of us would give up going to school, have fun all day long with our friends, listen to music, watch TV or play computer games. Imagine such a situation: your parents leave home for one year, and you stay alone at home. What will they see when they come back? I know that it depends on the person, but in most cases they will see a kind of picture «World after Nuclear War». That is why our parents prevent us from doing many things. It is easy to acquire bad habits, but it is hard to get rid of them. Our parents know how hard it is to make a success in this life and they want us to be very well prepared for it. We must start preparing for it now. It is very hard, because you must make an effort and refuse some entertainments. If you don’t do this, then perhaps you don’t have problems with your parents, you have problems with your laziness. But to confess such things is not easy. Some of our parents seem to be strict enough. But we should forgive them, because we are the most precious things they have. And when we become older and our turn to become parents comes, finally we’ll be able to understand our parents. It is offensive to confess that we are weak for the time being, and our parents ought to share their power with us. And you shouldn’t think that doing something like this is quite easy. Our parents want to rest too, want to forget about all their troubles. But more than anything else, they want us to be happy. And what is more: they have no holidays, and even when we are angry they will still care for us. Source:http://english-exam.ru

II. Answer the question: What don’t parents like in their children? And now exchange the texts. The task for the first column is to read the text «We’ll be parents too» and write down all the reasons for the children to obey their parents mentioned in the text. The second group will read the text «Teenage Problems in a Family» and write down what issues cause the problems between parents and teenagers. III. Read the texts and write down the main problems filling in the chart: Problems 1. 2. 3. 4.

Parents 1. 2. 3. 4.

IV.

Make sentences using the following table: be polite.(intelligent, kind, friendly honest, hard-working, punctual, rude, stupid, lazy, dirty, forgetful, unhappy, unkind) be late for the classes come home in time study well go in for sports wash one’s hands before meals help about the house go to bed early understand them

want 42

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Parents

expect like allow ask make let don’t want don’t expect don’t like don’t allow

Children

their children their parents

give them pocket money buy them all they want leave them alone help them with the problems (to) control their every step do homework every day smoke dance all night stay away from classes drink strong drinks stay up late listen to pop music all day long have their nose or lip pierced wear all they want hang out with a bad company prohibit everything

UNCONDITIONAL LOVE / MOTHERLY LOVE I. Answer the questions according to the reading Motherly love by its very nature is unconditional. Mother loves the newborn infant because it is her child, not because the child has fulfilled any specific condition, or lived up to any specific expectations. Unconditional love corresponds to one of the deepest longings, not only of the child, but also of every human being. On the other hand, to be loved because of one's merit or because one deserves it, always leaves doubt and there is always a fear that love could disappear. Furthermore deserved love easily leaves a bitter feeling that one is not loved for himself but is loved only because he pleases, and that he is not loved at all but used. No wonder that we cling to the longing for motherly love, as children and also as adults. II. One can conclude from the reading that in order for a mother to love her child, ----. A) a child has to earn such love B) the child is expected to do what is required from him C) they have to share many memories D) there are certain specific conditions they both have to follow E) the child doesn’t need to do anything III. It is understood from the passage that if you are to do something to be loved, ----. A) you cannot get as much satisfaction as motherly love B) you won't have any doubts about the others' feelings towards you C) it is impossible that you may lose love one day D) your mother will love you more E) you can feel confident all the time IV. As it is pointed out in the passage, motherly love ----. A) is the only love a baby can get 43

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B) is what we need even if we are grown-up C) is necessary only for children D) is not related to unconditional love E) is the kind of love that we lose when we grow up

CAUSES OF CONFLICT BETWEEN ADOLESCENTS AND THEIR PARENTS I. Read the texts below Some interesting discoveries have been made by psychologists studying conflicts between adolescents and their parents. One notable feature is that they seldom argue about such major topics as sex, drugs, or politics. This is surprising, that great differences often exist between the attitudes of parents and adolescents on such issues. Researchers suggest the explanation may be that such topics do not usually relate to day-to-day family interaction and are not discussed as they are not directly relevant to family life. Instead, parents and children tend to fall out over everyday family matters such as housework. Despite the changes that have taken place over the past fifty years, adolescents appear to have the same kinds of arguments with their parents as the parents had when they themselves were young. It seems to come around to the conflict between the adolescent's desire for independence from the parents' authority. Teenagers spoke of their right to be free of restrictions, while parents were equally sure of their right to exert control, backing this up by referring to the needs of the family as a whole. Interestingly, both groups could see the other's point of view even though they disagreed with it. What Do Parents and Teenagers Fight about? The argument arises out of clash of roles. Teenagers want to gain greater independence, more freedom. Young people and their parents have different views on when the children should be allowed to do things alone: go shopping, choose what to wear and eat, what time to come home, with whom to go out, etc. Researchers have found that most disputes between parents and teenagers are not very heated and are typically about issues, such as: fighting with brothers and sisters, cleaning up bedroom, possessions, their own space, time, helping out around the house, doing homework, bedtime, time to come home, household chores, friends and responsibilities. Issues that tend to generate more heat, but occur less frequently, include: talking back to parents, lying, getting poor results at school, getting in trouble at school. Source:https://ru.scribd.com

II. Discuss the questions: 1) Do you think the text is right about what causes arguments between children and parents nowadays? How true are these issues to you? 2) Do you think your parents had similar arguments when they were young? 44

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3) What do you think can help parents and children to have a close relationship? 4) In what ways is your relationship with your grandparents similar to or different from your relationship with your parents? III. Now prepare a talk on the causes of conflict between adolescents and their parents. Use the following plan:  generation gap,  financial problems,  education and careers. to give you some ideas for the talk: 1) What problems do you think are caused by people of different ages living together? (living style, music, etc.) 2) In what ways do you think the attitudes change as you get older? (tolerance, priorities, etc.) 3) In what ways can money cause arguments between parents and children? 4) Do you think young people have a sense of the importance of money? 5) Do you think that parents and children have different attitudes to school and homework? (think how children like to spend their time) 6) How important is academic success to children? Source: https://studopedia.su

SIBLING CONFLICT I. Read the text and answer the questions below. «Why can't our kids just get along? Why must they always fight?» Parents get tired of the bickering, teasing, competing. They can't understand why their children can't leave each other alone, and just be friends. «Who needs it?» parents ask. The answer is «the children do». Fighting is not a sign of children not getting along. It is how they get along – using conflict to test their power, establish differences, and ventilate emotion. Children compete for dominance, parental attention, parental support, and household resources. Who gets what? Who does what? Who goes first? Who gets most? Who's right? Who's best? When we are children, our brothers and sisters – are our first friends and first enemies. The effect of sibling relationships in childhood can last a lifetime. Many experts say that the relationship among brothers and sisters explains a great deal about family life, especially today when brothers and sisters often spend more time with one another than with their parents. Studies have shown that sibling relationships between sister-sister pairs and brother-brother pairs are different. Sister pairs are the closest. Brothers are the most competitive. Sisters are usually more supportive of each other. They are more talkative, frank, and better at expressing themselves and sharing their feelings. On the other hand, brothers are usually more competitive with each other. The major exception to this is identical twins for whom similarity creates an unusual intimacy. 45

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The more alike they are, the closer they feel. The closer they feel, the more alike they want to become. They can feel incomplete in absence from each other, they can have unspoken means of knowing what is going on in each other, and they may even construct a secret language between them that no one else understands. Experts agree that the relationship among siblings is influenced by many factors. For example, studies have shown that both brothers and sisters become more competitive and aggressive when their parents treat them even a little bit differently from one another. But parental treatment is not the only factor. Genetics, gender, life events, people, and experiences outside the family all shape the lives of siblings. Source:https://sites.google.com

II. Decide true or false? 1. Parents get tired of siblings argument. 2. Parents quite understand their children. 3. Parents want their children to leave them alone. 4. Children fight for dominance and parent's attention. 5. Fighting means that children cannot get along. 6. Siblings are our oldest friends in life. 7. Some siblings have good relationships, but other siblings have bad relationships. 8. Sibling relationships are among the most important relationships in life. 9. Sisters get along better with their sisters than with their brothers. 10. Females and males generally have different sibling relationships. 11. Siblings spend a lot of time together because they have to. 12. There are many causes of good and bad sibling relationships. 13. Research has shown that siblings hate to fight. 14. When parents treat each child a little differently, the children get along better. III. Discuss: Why do siblings fight? Is there any difference between sisters and brothers? Who develop competitiveness? Who develop a close relationship? What should and shouldn’t parents do in order to prevent aggression between siblings?

SEVEN IN 10 OLDER PEOPLE CARE FOR PARENT OR PARTNER I. Read the text by Andy Furniere A study by VUB shows that people aged between 45 and 75 are spending a lot of time helping close relatives in need of care and support. A study shows that seven out of 10 older people in Flanders are caring for a parent or partner. The survey was carried out by the Free University of Brussels (VUB) among 2,900 people aged between 45 and 75, at the request of the Socialist Mutualities, which wanted to examine how affordable and quality elderly care is possible, and what the public think about it. It also showed that 21% of respondents spend on average 10 hours a week helping a parent or partner who needs care. They keep them company and help them 46

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with administrative matters, getting around and household chores. On average, they have been doing it for more than six years. In six out of 10 cases, this care is complemented by home care for an average six hours a week. This focuses mostly on personal care and household chores. Without this care at home, about 70,000 more people would have to move into a rest home. The respondents also expressed their fears of loneliness or financial difficulties. The majority want to remain living independently, especially if their partner is still alive. If the partner passes away, a rest home becomes an option for one in five respondents. Living with children wasn’t generally considered. The mutualities want to see more investment in support for carers and in professional home care. Source: https://teachershelp.ru

II. Reconstruct the missing second halves of words A study shows that seven out of 10 older people in Flanders are caring for a parent or partner. The survey was carried out by the Free University of Brussels (VUB) among 2,900 people aged between 45 and 75, at the request of the Socialist Mutualities, which wanted to examine how affordable and quality elderly care is possible, and what the public think about it. III. Fill in the vowels needed It also showed that 21% of respondents spend on average 10 hours a week helping a parent or partner who needs care. They keep them company and help them with administrative matters, getting around and household chores. On average, they have been doing it for more than six years. IV. Replace where necessay each “i” with the correct vowel In six iit if 10 cisis, this ciriis cimplimintid bi himi ciri fir in ivirigi six hiirs i wiik. This ficisis mistliin pirsinil ciriind hiisihild chiris. Withiit this ciriit himi, ibiit 70,000 miri piipli wiild hivi ti miviintii rist himi.

UNIT 4. SCHOOLING MY SCHOOL Now you are students. You passed your entrance exams thanks to the knowledge you gained either at school, or at a vocational school or at a technical college. I. Speak on the educational institution you studied at before entering the university. Present information on: the type of school you studied at; the place it is situated; the age you began to attend it; compulsory and vocational courses there were at your school; 47

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the language teaching was carried out; how many times a week you had your lessons of English; your favorite subjects and why; the entrance exams you passed before entering the university; what you like and what you don’t like about your school; II. Complete the text with the following words: private schools, boarding schools, state schools, uniforms, head, mixed, pupils. In a typical school system in many countries there are two types of schools: … which are run by the government and … . Private schools are often stricter than state schools and in many of them the … (schoolchildren) have to wear … . Both state and private schools are often … (for boys and girls) or are for boys and girls only. There are also some schools, usually private where the pupils sleep at school which are called … . The boss of a school is called the … (teacher). III. Explain the difference between the following notions: a primary school / a secondary school; a state school / a private school; your exams / your marks; a pupil / a student; do an exam / pass an exam. IV. Name with one word the qualification you get when you finish university; the parts of the school year; a school for children under three; a school where children live and sleep; the work scientists do at universities. V. Here are some subjects. The letters are mixed up. What are the subjects? 1. TAHM. 2. IRTHOSY 3. CNECSEY 4. NISGEHL 5. RAT 6. SIMCU Imagine, this is your timetable for Monday. Tell about your schedule for one day in a school: 9.00 Science 9.55 Math 10.40 Lunch 11.05 English 11.50 Music 12.05 PE 13.05 History VI. Answer the questions about you and Russia: At what age do children go to nursery school? Did you go to nursery school? kinderdarten? Do most children start elementary school / primary school at the age of 5? How many subjects did you / do you study in high school? What was your favorite subject / your worst subject? How many classes did you / do you have every day? Did you attend public school or private school? Until what age do pupils have to stay in school? 48

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VII.Read the text of the song by a famous rock group Pink Floyd. Find two grammar mistakes? Why did the writer of the song make them? We don’t need no education. We don’t need no thought control. No dark sarcasm in the classroom. Teachers leave them kids alone. Hey teacher, leave them kids alone. All in all, it’s just another brick in the wall. All in all, you’re just another brick in the wall. Give your interpretation of the song

SCHOOLING I. Read the text, make its plan and write 10 questions to the text School in England usually starts at the age of five, but some children go to nursery school before that. I went to one for three days, when I was three, but I got really bored there and told my mum that I didn’t want to go, so before I went to a real school she taught me at home. Some people send their children to a crèche, where they’re looked after during the day while their parents are out at work, but she got some books and taught me how to read and write, so when I went to school at the age of five, I had quite an advantage over the other children. Anyway, my schooling really started when I was five, and from the age of five until I was nine I went to a private school, which is quite unusual in England. It was an all-girls’ school run by two old women, Miss and Ms. McNamara. The standard was generally very high, and there were subjects like French, Maths and English Literature. I also took subjects like Ballet and Elocution, where we learnt how to speak correctly and we had to memorize and recite poems. Then my parents moved and I went to a village school, in the countryside. This was a primary school which children usually go to from the ages of five to eleven. And then, at eleven we took an exam called the eleven plus. If we passed that we could go to grammar school, and if we failed we had to go to secondary school, which wasn’t usually of such good quality. I think the system’s changed a bit now. Fortunately, I passed my eleven plus. There were all kinds of general knowledge questions and things that, basically, you can work out if you’ve got any common sense. Then I went to a grammar school. This was an all-girls’ school as well, and it was called «Bishop Foxes». There was also an equivalent, all-boys’ grammar school on the other side of town. So they kept us apart. That was also quite a good school. It was good for languages. So from the age of eleven until say sixteen when we took our “0” levels, which were “Ordinary” level exams, we studied about, maybe, nine subjects. First of all we had English Language and English Literature, History, Geography, Biology, Physics, Chemistry, and Art, and then other subjects like Cooking (they called it Domestic Science) and Technology (just woodwork in fact) which wasn’t very popular, it being an all-girls’ school. There was also French, and 49

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then another language – I studied Russian. You could choose from Russian, Spanish, Latin, or German. My favorite teacher was in fact my Russian teacher. She was a French teacher who was married to a very old Russian emigre. I was the only one studying Russian, so everyone used to call me «Vivien the communist», but it was good because it meant I had private classes. However, this made it more demanding because I always had to do my homework and there was no excuse. I had some other very good teachers, but I’ve noticed that teachers are really different in Hungary. In England they’re not nearly as tactile, or affectionate with the students. They’re very formal and quite strict. When I was sixteen, we went on an exchange trip to the States for a month. We went to a high school in Massachusetts, and it was interesting. In fact, it was quite an eye-opener. It was quite amazing for me really, as there were signs all around saying things like «No guns» and «No drugs», and it was quite violent. Also, I noticed that the students didn’t have any respect for the teachers and would just shout at them, and coming from a strict school that was quite a shock. They would shout back at the teachers, call them names and hurl abuse at them, and they rarely listened to anything the teacher said. They weren’t very interested in learning. So, at the age of sixteen we took «0» level exams, and then some people left after that. That was one option, or we could go on to a technical college or «Tech», and maybe study some kind of vocational subject like nursing, or some kind of technical or computer studies, or we could stay on for another two years, as I did, and take «A» levels, which are Advanced level exams. I took «A» levels in English Literature, Russian and Spanish, which, in retrospect, wasn’t a very good idea, because I had to read so many books. I had to sit and read Tolstoy, Dickens and Cervantes. At the age of about eighteen, in August, everybody in my year was waiting for their «A» level results to see if they got high enough grades to go on to university. We had to apply for five universities, which we put on a list, with the best one at the top. If you want to go to Oxford or Cambridge, of course, you have to put that as number one, and then it goes down, so Oxford and Cambridge would have to be first, and then maybe Bristol, Manchester, Leeds and the rest. The Scottish universities are very good. The universities require a certain grade – «A» to «C» are passes. «A» is the best, followed by «B», then «C». Usually, they ask for three «C»s or above. I passed, fortunately, and I went to Leeds University, which was my first choice because it had a very good Russian department, and I studied Russian and Spanish. University usually lasts for three or four years. We were lucky, as when I was at university we were given a grant, or a lump sum of money to live on, and we didn’t have to pay it back. The amount you got was graded according to your parents’ income. So, if your parents didn’t have very much money you got a full grant, which was not a lot of money, but you could live on it. So you could pay your rent, get food and go out quite a lot, as well as buy your books. Going to live in Leeds in the North was better, because things were much cheaper than, say, if I had been in London, where I imagine it’s very difficult for a student to survive, especially these days. 50

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At university, it's quite different from being at school because you have to rely on your own motivation. I know a lot of people who just didn’t go to any of their classes because they weren’t compulsory. It was three years of enjoying yourself, basically, studying what wanted to study, being away from home for the first time, and having some money and being able to go out to parties and concerts. For the first year, I lived in a hall of residence, which was a bit like being in a boarding school. There were lots of eighteen-year olds away from home for the first time, and of course they couldn’t cook, and they weren’t used to doing their own washing or looking after themselves. It kind of eased you into living on your own. So this was good, because we had to learn to look after ourselves, cooking and cleaning, and at the same time finding time to study for our finals. Final exams at university were based on the whole three years’ studies, so there was a lot to learn and it was quite stressful in July when exam time came round. Some people think that this is not a good idea, and that maybe it would be better if there was some sort of system of continuous assessment, because there are a lot of people who do very well all year, and work very hard, but when it comes to doing exams they just go crazy with stress and can’t remember anything when it comes to the three hour exam you have to do. So, I would be more in favor of that because I don’t think three hours can fairly represent however much you have learnt in three years. Source: https://teachershelp.ru

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II. Paraphrasing exercise. Find the correct word for the given phrase the time between the lessons → a list which shows when lessons begin and end → a large thing where the teacher writes on with a piece of chalk → the material that you write and draw on → a small bag for your pens → a special word for a child in a school → room where the children and a teacher are → the person who looks after the school → a formal written, spoken or practical test → the people who work at a school →

SHOULD YOU HOMESCHOOL YOUR CHILD? I. Read the text Educator Paul D. Houston, executive director of the American Association of School Administrators, raises concerns about the merits of homeschooling children. Houston argues that the social interaction students encounter at school is important not only to their personal development but also to the development of democratic values in society at large. Learning to interact with people from diverse backgrounds can be just as important as receiving good education, Houston maintains and he urges parents who decide in favor of homeschooling to seek out ways in which their children can interact with their peers. 51

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In our complex and often unpredictable world, homeschooling allows parents to control the social and academic development of their children. But is homeschooling right for your family? Will homeschooling allow your child to develop the academic and social skills necessary for success and happiness in life? For homeschooling to succeed, you must make extraordinary efforts to assure that the complex needs of your child are met. Even if parents meet the academic needs of the child, they may not be able to provide the crucial social interaction that formal schools provide. Before deciding to homeschool, you need to consider both its risks and potential benefits. Risks to social development Although one-on-one instruction from a loved one can greatly benefit a student, potential problems exist. Many parents choose to homeschool out of concern for what their children might be taught or exposed to in a formal school setting. Many parents want to ensure that their children learn values that agree with their own and that their children will not be tainted by other views. Some educators regard this type of protection as unrealistic and potentially harmful to the child. Children grow up to live in the real world – a world made up of many different views espoused by many different people. Interaction with peers from diverse backgrounds prepares children to confront these differences with understanding and strength. Formal schools allow young people to learn to navigate the sometimestroubled waters that social diversity creates. Many educators also believe that the ability to interact with people outside the family is necessary for success and happiness in life. Students naturally gain skills of interaction in the classroom, playgrounds, and cafeterias of formal schools. Unless parents who homeschool make significant efforts to create social situations for interaction with children outside the family, parents run the risk of stunting their children’s development of the social skills necessary in our increasingly complex society. Risks to academic preparation Homeschooling often produces impressive results in academic performance. The benefits arise from the one-on-one attention it provides the student and from the fact that many parents who presently homeschool have teaching preparation or experience. Problems may potentially arise when parents are unprepared or unable to devote the time, effort, or skills necessary to carry out the teacher’s role. Laws concerning homeschooling vary widely from state to state. Some states require regular testing to assure that homeschooled children are progressing academically or 52

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even require that homeschooled children follow the state curriculum. But in other states no requirements such as these exist. While some students progress, others may not, without anyone noticing the difference. Although children who go to formal schools may be tested excessively, testing does provide an efficient and unbiased measure of academic progress. Students may face difficulties in future educational endeavors if the homeschooling curriculum is not aligned with formal school curriculum. Homeschooled students sometimes return to a formal school setting, and many of these students plan to attend college. Preparation for college admission is a significant chore that you should take into account when you consider homeschooling. Social concerns In a broad sense, homeschooling may present a danger to the development of democratic values. Contrary to popular belief, schools in America were not established to teach reading, writing and arithmetic. They were invented to teach civic virtues. American democracy requires harmony within a diverse society. In essence people have to know how to deal with others who might be different from them. When learning takes place in isolation, young people do not get this crucial experience. Democracy only works if people are able to make it work through cooperation and acceptance of differences. Civic engagement allows democracy to flourish. Contemporary society does not offer many avenues for civic engagement. With the advent of new technology it has become easier for people to withdraw into their own worlds and their own interests. Some people have become almost tribalistic in their views. Young people who only associate with those who are like them in background and views might never learn how to disagree respectfully and search for common ground. Separation may be good in the short run for the individual student who is not forced to face the dangers and disagreements of a wider world, but it is not good for that wider world. Parents can make efforts to teach skills of dialog and disagreement, but these skills develop naturally in a formal school setting. Data on homeschooling The potential benefits and risks of homeschooling are presently difficult to measure due to the lack of comprehensive studies and research data. Much of what is known seems quite positive for homeschoolers at first glance, but careful consideration of the facts tends to weaken the findings. A recent study by the Homeschool Legal Defense Association in Purcellville, Virginia, showed that homeschooled children tend to achieve higher scores on standardized tests than students in formal schools. Homeschoolers tend to fall in the 70 th and 80th percentile, well above the performance in both public and private schools. However, because the organization that conducted the test favors homeschooling, interest in the outcome could potentially skew findings. Evidence from neutral sources remains limited. The same study showed that parents who homeschool tend to have aboveaverage education and income levels, indicating that these students might have been high achievers in any setting. Parents who homeschool have more formal education 53

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than do parents in the general population – 88 percent of these parents continued their education beyond high school compared with 50 percent of the nation as a whole. The median annual income for parents who homeschool is $ 52,000, an amount that far exceeds the United States median for all families, $36,000. In addition, almost all (98 percent) of homeschoolers live in homes where both parents are present and where three-quarters of the mothers are not in the work force. Because students from wealthier, more educated, and intact households tent to perform at a high level in any educational setting, it seems unlikely that homeschooling makes a significant difference in these students’ performance. An intact family with high income and advanced education is the exception in today’s environment. Potential benefits Several valid arguments support homeschooling under ideal circumstances. Learning at home allows one-on-one instruction that is not possible in formal schools. Although professional educators devote their careers to students, they cannot equal the kind of unconditional commitment to the long-term development of a child provided by most parents. Parents who are willing to invest great personal effort in their children’s education can be quite effective in homeschooling their children. Many parents who presently homeschool have sufficient time and training to benefit their children. Their children might benefit academically. Currently, some 20 percent of the homeschooling parents are trained teachers and this, too, seems to offer advantages. It is also quite possible that flexible approaches to learning, which are a part of homeschooling, might hold some lessons for formal schools in how to make learning more meaningful to children. But these benefits also reveal limitations. Most parents do not fit the profile of today’s typical homeschoolers. The decision to homeschool Some educators in formal schools worry that the rising popularity if homeschooling poses the danger that many students will be pulled out of formal schools, but this seems unlikely. Most parents do not possess the necessary time, skills, and resources to meet the complex developmental needs of children on their own. If you consider homeschooling, you should make an honest assessment of the necessary sacrifices. Even if you do possess the resources, consider whether you could provide adequate opportunity for social interaction outside the family. While the debate over homeschooling remains clouded, one thing is very clear – homeschooling is not for everyone. It is a personal choice that must be backed by deep personal commitment on the part of parents and children. And when that commitment is made, the rest of society must hope that it includes a commitment to teaching children to live in the bigger world. Source:https://www.britannica.com

II. Choose the definition that best explains the meaning of the words and expressions. «a formal school setting» a. the environment that includes the things, people and events that happen surrounding someone in a school b. the situation when you need to be polite with people you don’t know well c. an official or important social occasion at school 54

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«a world made up of many different views espoused by many different people» a. preached b. run c. supported «unbiased measure of academic progress» a. fair b. not too strict c. standardized civic engagement a. connected with politeness b. connected with people who live in a town or city c. connected with being well-organized and developed «Contemporary society doesn’t offer many avenues for…» a. autonomy b. positive ways of achieving something c. freedom «with the advent of…» a. advantage b. the time when something first begins to be widely used c. help and success tribalistic a. loyal to your views or group b. serious c. proud comprehensive studies a. possible to understand b. convincing c. the necessary thorough facts, details of something III. Study the text and answer the questions that follow 1. Why is social interaction important to the personal development of a child? 2. Why do some parents choose to homeschool their children? 3. Why do some educators regard «homeschool protection» as unrealistic and potentially harmful to children? 4. Why must the homeschooling curriculum be aligned with the formal school curriculum? 5. What does civic engagement consist in and why is it crucial to children’s development? 6. What lessons can formal schools learn from homeschooling? 7. Why is homeschooling not for everyone? 8. What’s the communicative aim of the text?

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SHOULD SCHOOL UNIFORM BE COMPALSORY? I. Read these texts and name pros and cons the school uniform. II. Do you agree with these arguments. Give your own reasons for or against. School uniforms should be compulsory for all students at all grade levels. There are many reasons, which justify this including discipline, discrimination and to give the students a sense of identity. If all students at a particular school didn't wear school uniforms, there would be discrimination between the financially advantaged people and the disadvantaged people. The wealthier people would tend to look down and shun the poorer people as it gives them a chance to flaunt their wealth. When students wear school uniforms, it shows the similarities between them, and not the differences. Each school has their own rule of law and based on that, students need to obey on that law and respect. When a student wears a uniform, it shows a sign of dignity and it means that that student has confirmed the school expectations and that student feels that he/she belongs to that school. School uniforms also indicate what degree or grade the students are in, and what kind of school they go to. School uniforms should not be banned? I agree. 1. You don't have to keep purchasing new clothes 2. Reduces bullying. 3. Gives a sense of belonging 4. Easily identify the student. 5. Reduces crime 6. Increases focus on work 7. Decreases attention on beauty passion 8. Decreases the talking about other peoples clothes (especially like where they got the clothes from). Should school be compulsory? No. School isn't compulsory anyway, but education is. Education should be compulsory because living without an education in our society it is difficult to make a living or being at all respected by people in educated situations. But some children's personalities are just not compatible with the school system, but they can still be educated just as well by homeschooling or other non-school options. Should School Uniforms Be a Requirement? I think yes. The amount of violence thievery, muggings would definitely decrease because according to school official at inner city and more recently suburban schools the HAVE NOTS want what the HAVES wear. $200 sneakers$400 jackets – Gold necklaces. If everybody wore the same clothing to school there would not be as much crime. Now I know a few of you are going to say that's what Hitler wanted but Hitler's dead. Besides there is enough time after school and on weekends for all these bad things to happen but at least it won't disrupt the school day and hey maybe some kids might learn something. . In addition to this, people in uniform are deindividuated, respond better to external cues (commands, etc), are less likely to rebel/mutiny. Uniforms promote social conformity, which is what we like to see in our young. Source: https://educheer.com 56

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FRIENDSHIP Vocabulary spouse – husband or wife bond – connection, something that makes two twin spirit – someone very similar to you stranger – someone you don't know at all acquaintance – someone you don't know very well right away – immediately in common – things that you like or dislike are the same

things

stick

together

QUOTES ABOUT FRIENDSHIP I. Read the text Friendship is one mind in two bodies. Your friend is the man who knows all about you, and still likes you. A real friend is one who walks in when the rest of the world walks out. Some friends come into our lives for just a short time. Others come and stay forever. Think about your closest friends. How long have you known each other? Some people say that their spouse or family member is their best friend. Others say they have known their closest friends for many years. And some great friends haven't known each other all that long, but knew right away that there was a connection, or bond, between them. Could it be that there is a twin spirit out there for each of us? What turns a stranger or acquaintance into a friend? Do you know right away if you are going to like someone? Some people think that any stranger can become a friend if they spend enough time together. That may be true for some people. But one thing most of us agree on is that true friendships seem to happen when people have something in common. Perhaps we see a part of ourselves in our friends. Maybe seeing the good in them helps us to see the good in us as well. II. Check Your Understanding True or False Check your answers by clicking on the arrow below. According to the article... 1. Your husband or wife cannot be your best friend. 2. Many friends feel a connection when they first meet. 3. Every person definitely has a twin spirit. 4. A stranger is the same as an acquaintance. 5. A stranger is the same as a friend. 6. Most friends have similar likes and dislikes. III. Answer the questions: 1. Who is your best friend? Describe him / her. 2. Do you have a lot in common? 3. Do you share joys and sorrows? 4. Can you say that person is your friend if he calls your names? 5. Do you get on well with different people? 57

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6. Do you call first when you fall out with your friend? 7. Is your best friend always there for you when you are in trouble? IV. Fill in the necessary words 1. My neighbor Peter is my b… friend., we have a lot in c…, we g… on really and we find many enjoyable things to do together. 2. In my opinion a real friend is a person who is always th… for you when you are upset, who never c… your names and who s… your joys and sorrows. 3. My best friend Kate is a very h…-… and s… girl. She is a top pupil in the class but unfortunately she doesn’t get … … with her classmates as they often tease her and call her n… . 4. Only a h… person can be a real friend with whom you can s… secrets. 5. Sometimes we f… out with my friend, but we never c… each other names. 6. Jack doesn’t have a lot of friends. It’s difficult for him to communicate with people as he is s… and lazy. He can spend the whole day lying on the sofa and watching TV, he is a real c… p… . V. Describe a person using the word below: 1. Smb. who is lazy and lies a lot on the sofa. 2. Smb. who chats a lot. 3. Smb. who likes to work and to gain result. 4. Smb. who helps people. 5. Smb. who always tells the truth. 6. Smb. who isn’t light-minded and funny. 7. Smb. who doesn’t like to communicate a lot. 8. Smb. who wants to know a lot of things. Hard-working, kind-hearted, shy, coach potato, talkative, serious, nosy, honest. VI. Complete with prepositions and make up sentences To be always there … somebody. To get … on … people. To fall … with friends. To have something … common. VII. Comment on the sayings about friendship A friend in need is a friend indeed. Lucky are the people who have friends. Tell me who is your friend and I’ll tell you who you are. Be careful what you say and you won’t chase friendship away.

UNIT 5. CHILDREN AND DISCIPLINE CHILDREN AND DISCIPLINE I. Work in pairs. Make a list of ways in which parents and teachers discipline children. For each punishment on the list discuss the following questions: Is this a reasonable punishment to give a child in a civilized society? 58

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What age of child is it suitable for? Who can give this punishment to a child? Parents? Teachers? Other relatives? II. Read these two letters. Which one do you agree most with? Why? Dear Sir I think it is quite ridiculous that the government should be considering Dear Sir Thank goodness the government legislation to ban smacking. Every parent has finally begun to see sense regarding needs the right to be able to give a child a the punishment of children! Let us hope smack, not in order to cause physical harm that they have the courage to do away or pain, but more as a shock tactic to stop with the physical punishment of children. a child from misbehaving or in some We supposedly live in a civilized society. circumstances to stop them causing Can we at last realize that physical damage to themselves or other people. punishment is unreasonable, degrading, Some people argue that laws are needed to mentally harmful and completely stop excessive physical punishment, but unacceptable in the 21st century? there are quite clear laws dealing with Smacking, indeed any form of physical assault and bodily harm. If a parent causes punishment, should be made illegal physical harm to a child, then the police immediately, and parents and teachers can use these laws to bring the parent to who practice this disgraceful activity justice. My father used to give me the should be brought before the courts. slipper and it never did me any harm. Laura Flynn What is all the fuss about? Jack Wallace III. Make four true sentences: Jack Wallace would like to see all physical punishment banned. thinks the laws are acceptable as they are now. Laura Flynn thinks smacking has more than a physical effect. was smacked as a child. IV. Work in small groups. Discuss these statements: An adult hitting a child of any age is not right and there are much better ways to discipline children. Children should have the same rights as adults. Adults cannot hit other adults, so they should not be allowed to hit children either. Which, if any, of the punishments below do you think are unsuitable for children above the age of three (a quick smack on the hand, a quick smack on the back of the head, a smack on the bottom, a smack on the bare bottom, a blow from a slipper on the bare bottom, a blow from a belt on the hand, a blow from a cane on the bottom)? Would it make any difference if the child was a boy or a girl? What other factors might determine whether a particular punishment was reasonable or be not? Which, if any, of these punishments do you think is acceptable (sending a child to the bedroom for an hour, not allowing the 59

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child to play with the friends for a week, stopping the child’s pocket money, not allowing the child to watch TV for a week, making the child stay behind at school to do extra work, giving the child extra jobs around the house)? At what age do you think it is no longer necessary or appropriate to discipline children? What are the better ways of disciplining children?

SCOOL DISCIPLINE I. Read the text II. Does your school have any problems with discipline? What happens when students step out of line? Instructions Is discipline a problem in your school? What do teachers do when pupils behave badly in your country? A Scottish teenager had very strong opinions about discipline at her school. Read on to find out more. What is bad behavior? UK schools are allowed to discipline pupils who behave badly in various ways. But what exactly is bad behavior? The following is a list of serious and not-so-serious types of bad behavior seen by a teacher in a London secondary school:  Playing truant (not coming to school without permission from parents). Smoking, swearing, hitting, kissing, running, stealingю  Not doing homework.  Cheating in exams (copying from secret notes or another pupil) Calling a teacher or another pupil bad names (bullying).  Not listening or not paying attention in lessons.  Wearing unsuitable clothes for school. Punishments in UK schools Here are some of the ways that UK school children can be punished. • Exclusion: a pupil is excluded from the school and cannot come back. The pupil has to find a new school or a different method of education (home tutor, special center for difficult pupils). • Suspension: when a pupil is suspended they cannot enter the building or attend lessons until the school has a meeting about their case. Suspension can last from 1 to 45 days in a school term. The school usually gives work to do at home with a tutor (special teacher). • Detention: a pupil is detained. This means he or she is asked to stay at school at the end of the school day. The pupil must work for 30 minutes or an hour more before they are allowed to leave the school. • Lines: a pupil has to write a sentence many times (100 times) on a sheet of paper: An example sentence: I must not shout in class. This punishment is sometimes given during detention too. 60

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Case Study Freya MacDonald, a 15-year-old pupil from Scotland, made the news in the UK when she refused to accept her school’s punishment. Freya's family say that she was given detention many times for trivial things such as drinking fizzy drinks in class and coming into school through a fire door. After her secondary school gave her detention for the eleventh time, she went to a lawyer and took legal action against the school. The teenager said that it is not legal to keep a pupil in the school building if the student does not want to be there because Scottish law says that it is illegal to detain children against their will. According to Scottish law every child has the right to an education. Freya says that repeated detentions disrupted her education and made it difficult for her to learn. She refused to return to school until the school respected her civil rights. She wants the headmaster and her teachers to sign a letter to promise they will respect her rights. Hundreds of schools in Scotland were told not to use detention as a punishment because of Freya’s legal action. Contracts Many schools in the UK now give parents a home/school contract. This is a contract explaining the school discipline and rules. Parents must sign this document and agree that they accept the school's rules. They are responsible for their child's behavior and must respect the discipline methods used in the school. Source: http://learnenglishteens.britishcouncil.org

III. Check your understanding: true or false Playing truant means using bad language. True False Cheating in exams is not seen as bad behavior in the UK. True False Teachers cannot hit pupils to punish them in Britain. True False Lines and detention are often given at the same time. True False Freya MacDonald said ‘no’ to detention at her school. True False All schools in Britain now give parents a home/ school contract to sign. True False Check your understanding IV. Put the words into the correct groups: Punishment, Bad behavior Giving detention, hitting, excluding a pupil, swearing, suspention, writing lines, not doing homework, bullying V. Check your Grammar. Write the word to ake the –ing form of the verb: Smoke, swear, run, cheat, write, hit, wear, give. 61

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WHAT THESE KIDS NEED IS DISCIPLINE I. Read the text. Jonathan Myers tells Ann McFerran why he has decided to be as strict with his children as his father was with him. I’m a very old-fashioned and strict parent, like my own father. He wanted me to become a barrister, like him, but I used to say to him that he'd made me secure enough not to worry about having a proper job. He was very disappointed when I said I was going to be a writer, but I think that was out of anxiety: be didn't know how I would survive in the world. As a child 1 was really proud of my father. I have an image of him, 6ft 5in and broad-shouldered, wearing a smart suit and tie and behaving maturely – an image I feel I should live up to. My father had status in other people's eyes. I worry that I didn't give my children that. They don't see me wearing a suit and going out to work or having status: they see me slobbing around at home in shorts and no shoes. I think children want to feel proud of their parents because it makes them feel secure in a Darwinian sense. The one time that my children knew how to rate my professional life was when I was nominated for an Oscar for my adaptation of The Canterbury Tales – my lucky break. Briefly, I was elevated in their eyes. When I didn't win I felt that I had let them down, which is ridiculous. I had one little сry because I felt I had failed. I have inherited from my father a strong sense of the importance of doing the right thing. And, like him, I am strict, even though I lack the sort of authority bubble he had around him. In the right context, my children are allowed to be rude to me – they might call me 'fat face' in a jokey way, when I would never have dared. But I'm also very authoritarian: I believe strongly in proper bedtimes, that chores have to be done and that certain times of the day – when Julie and I have an evening drink – are reserved for adults, which the children are not allowed to interrupt. Some parents of our children's friends have told Julie that their children are scared of me because I am so strict with my own children. I know I have quite a demonic image in a few families' eyes. But I want to make my children into the sort of children I want them to be. We live in a terribly liberal age when people feel they should take a back seat in making moral decisions. I don't think that children should make up their own minds – and saying that is about as unfashionable as you can get. But if you don't influence them, they will only be influenced by others. I don't believe in reasoning with my children. They do what mummy and daddy say. If you say to a child, 'Would you like to go to bed now?' no child in his right mind will agree, and if he does, he needs to be seen by two psychiatrists immediately. Julie and I don't let our children watch television after 6pm, ever. It's important to think through why a program is being made. If it's fun, that's fine, but I can't stand all those Saturday morning programs that are really just to promote the latest pop 62

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records and to persuade people to buy accessories. Our children watch it for an hour after school and then it goes off. They never ask to turn it on again. I think it's a parent's job to preserve childhood as long as possible – which is also terribly unfashionable. We are proud of the fact that Jacob, at 10, still likes cuddly toys. In our house we never buy toys which are fashionable crazes, such as Furbies. We held out against getting a Nintendo for a year, even though everyone else in Jacob's class had one. But I cracked when he said, ‘I don't understand why, if I'm good and I do all my homework and I do everything right, I don't have a Nintendo and all the bad boys do.' I thought that was a very strong argument. Jacob could not believe it when we got him a Nintendo for his birthday. But we still lay down rules about its limited use, which he has never argued with because that is the atmosphere in the house. I am strict about homework and achievement. Our children will work hard until they finish university, and I think they will thank me for the rest of .their lives. If they do drop out, at least they will have made a conscious choice. At the moment the older two are doing well at school and sometimes I try to raise the amount of homework they are given. Jacob protests because I make him take it into school, which makes him look clever. He is already at the top of his form – and that in itself is very difficult for him. I don't watch football, so nor does Jacob. That is also hard for him. Last year he had a tough time at school in terms of low-intensity bullying. Had he been interested in football, he would have had a lingua franca with the others in his year. I was not prepared to change, however. I don't like the attitudes in football. Source:https://arhivinfo.ru/2-93752.html

II. Translate into English: вести себя как зрелый человек, быть достойным, болтаться без дела, счастливый случай, возвыситься в чьих-то глазах, подвести кого-либо, авторитарный, либеральный, устраниться, занять позицию наблюдателя, принимать решение, рассуждение, в своем уме, cохранить, мягкие игрушки, модная лихорадка, уступить, определять правила, сознательный выбор, «дедовщина», настрой/ позиция. III. Explain the idea in your own words: 1) He’d made me secure enough not to worry about having a proper job. 2) I have an image of him wearing a smart suit and tie and behaving maturely – an image I feel I should live up to. 3) I was elevated in their eyes. 4) I believe strongly in proper bedtimes. 5) We live in a terribly liberal age when people feel they should take a back seat in making moral decisions. 6) I think it's a parent's job to preserve childhood as long as possible. 7) If they do drop out, at least they will have made a conscious choice. 8) Last year he had a tough time at school in terms of low-intensity bullying. IV. True or false? 1) Jonathan Myers’ father was proud when Jonathan told him that he was going to become a writer. 2) The author likes slobbing around at home in shorts and no shoes. 63

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3) When the author didn’t win an Oscar, he let his children down. 4) Jonathan’s children are allowed to be rude to him. 5) Some children are scared of the author because he’s got quite a demonic image. 6) The author doesn’t believe that children should make up their minds. 7) Television is forbidden for Jonathan’s children. 8) Jacob’s parents bought him Nintendo after he’d thrown a temper tantrum. 9) Jacob was bullied at school. 10) The author doesn’t like advertising in football. V. Discuss the questions: 1) What kind of image does the author have of his father? Why does he think he should live up to it? 2) Why do the children want to be proud of their parents? Do you agree with author’s opinion? 3) Is the author authoritarian or liberal? Prove the point. 4) Is it really a true parent’s job to preserve childhood as long as possible? What do you think a parent’s job should consist of? 5) Should boys at 10 like cuddly toys, to your mind? Or it’s a bit over-the-top? 6) Do you support the opinion expressed in the title? Why? Why not? 7) What rules would you lay down for your own children? Make a list. Discuss with your neighbor. 8) Were you spoiled as a child? What does 'spoiling' a child mean to you? VI. How many of the following things do you consider 'spoiling a child'? · Giving a five-year-old pocket money. · Taking a four-year-old child to Florida to see Disneyworld. · Giving a child sweets every day. · Letting a seven-year-old child stay up till 11 at night. · Buying a child expensive toys. · Sending a child to a private school. · Buying a child the latest clothes. · Letting a child watch as much television as he or she wants. What other things do you consider spoil children? PUNISHMENT I. Read the paragraph. Then follow the directions. Ideas about how to punish children have changed over time. Also, they differ from culture to culture and family to family. Some parents believe that spanking children is the best way to punish. Others think that parents should never hit their children. Most parents punish their children in the same way that they were punished by their parents. Although all parents agree that children must learn the difference between right and wrong, there is a lot of disagreement about the best way to teach them this lesson. II. Discuss these questions in a group 1. How did your parents punish you? How did you feel about the punishment then? How do you feel about it now? 2. Do you think it is a good idea for parents to 64

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punish their children by spanking or hitting them? Why or why not? 3. What other types of punishment could parents use?

HOW TO DISCIPLINE CHILDREN'S BEHAVIOUR? A book has just been published to help parents to deal with their children's naughty behavior at home. The author, Dr James Bruno, says that the first positive discipline technique is for parents to remain calm because nervous parents don't get good results. Parents who cannot often remain calm find that their children stop taking any notice of them. The second challenge is to know how to correct bad behavior in an effective way. For instance, punishing children by preventing them from watching their favorite TV program is not an ideal solution. Dr Bruno believes parents should establish clear rules for children to follow. If children refuse to follow these, they know they will be disciplined. Finally, the most effective way of encouraging good behavior is to give positive feedback as often as possible, to show that it is not only naughtiness that attracts attention. Source: https://www.grammarbank.com

I. According to the article, when parents get angry too often, ----. A. they yell at their children to make them obey an order. B. they tell them off in front of their friends. C. children often act as if they didn't hear them. D. they utter increasing number of verbal warnings. E. children get scared and obey their parents. II. The author of the book seems to suggest that in order to discipline children, parents first of all should ----. A. find an effective way to correct their children's behavior. B. treat them as harshly as possible. C. stop beating them. D. not lose their temper. E. teach them how they have to behave themselves. III. We learn from the reading that ----. A. clear rules which are set by the parent must be followed by the children unconditionally. B. restricting the activities that children like doing is not useful when disciplining a child. C. giving feedback all the time is not advised when correcting bad behavior. D. the book by Dr James Bruno helped the parents a lot who try to discipline their naughty children. E. the best punishment for naughty children hasn't been suggested in Dr Bruno's book.

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UNIT 6. CHILDREN´S UPBRINGING BRINGING UP CHILDREN Answer the questions according to the reading passage. In bringing up children, every parent, regardless of ethnicity, income, education, or geographic location, watches eagerly the child's acquisition of each new skill. However, it is often tempting to hurry the child beyond his natural learning rate, which can set up dangerous feelings of failure and states of worry in the child. This might happen at any stage. A baby might be forced to use a toilet too early, a young child might be encouraged to learn to read before he knows the meaning of the words he reads. On the other hand, though, if a child is left alone too much, or without any learning opportunities, he loses his natural enthusiasm for life and his desire to find out new things for himself. Parents vary greatly in their degree of strictness towards their children. Some may be especially strict in money matters. Others are severed over times of coming home at night or punctuality for meals. In general, the controls imposed represent the needs of the parents and the values of the community as much as the child's own benefit. Source: https://www.grammarbank.com

I. According to the passage, in the process of children's learning new skills, parents ----. a) must encourage them to read before they know the meaning of the words they read b) should achieve a balance between pushing them too hard and leaving them on their own c) never expect too much of their children d) should create as many learning opportunities as possible for themselves e) must exert strict control over the children II. It is pointed out in the reading that ----. a) parents should be strict with their children b) parental controls reflect only the needs of the .parents and the values of the community c) parents must maintain strict control over their children's pocket money d) parents often enforce strict regulations on their children's eating habits e) parental restrictions vary, and are not always enforced for the benefit of the children alone III. As we understand from the passage, watching the child's acquisition of new skills ----. a) sets up dangerous states of worry in the parents b) is universal among parents c) ensures the security of their children d) will make him lose interest in learning new things e) is what parenting is all about 66

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FEARS OF CHILDREN Answer the questions according to the reading Parents teach their children to be fearful and cautious of specific dangers, such as fire or crossing the road. Anxiety can be useful, because it helps protect the child from harm. However, children can be fearful of situations or objects that adults don't consider threatening. The sources of fear may change as the child matures; for example, a fear of the dark or monsters under the bed may give way to fears of burglary or violence. Tactics that don't work include teasing the child for being afraid, or compelling them to confront fearful situations. Helping the child to deal with fear includes taking their feelings seriously, encouraging them to talk about their anxieties, telling them the facts, and giving them the opportunity to confront their fears at their own pace and with your support. Source: http://www.grammarbank.com

a) b) c) d) e) a) b) c) d) e) a) b) c) d) e)

I. It is stated in the article that ----. parents should not teach their children to be cautious of specific dangers the best way to avoid fears during childhood is to ignore them every single child has a fear of burglary and violence making fun of the child's fears is the best way to get rid of them the fears of the childhood can lead to some other fears in the adulthood II. It is clear from the passage that forcing the child to face his fears directly ---. works when the child isn't eager to talk about his fears helps the child to learn the facts and realities may protect him from same certain dangers can be useful with same trivial fears is not a good way to follow III.It can be understood from the article that adults ----. prefer to cope with difficult situations at their own pace should talk to the child about his fears in an open and honest way should talk to the child about his fears in an open and honest way may have same fears but may not be aware of them do not want to talk about their own fears unlike children are much more vulnerable to fearful situations than children

UPBRINGING CHILDREN Read and translate the text Each person´s knowledge of how to bring up aa child usually comes from their surroundings and their own upbringing. Psychologists define several models of upbringing in a family. The first one is non-interference. It’s a model of upbringing, when a child is left to his own resources. Some parents think it is good for children to be allowed to run wild without control or supervision. They say that this enabels childrens´ personalities to develop naturally and that they will learn to be responsuible for the mistakes they make, cope with problems, be self-relient and store experience. Making mistakes the child 67

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correct them by himself. This method is not good because the child can become impersonal to his parents. A child who didn’t have caring, responsive and sympathetic perents will become timid and suspicious. Non-enterference can also lead to juvenile delinquency with the children ending up in the courts or it might simply make children self-centered without any consideration for others. Another model of upbringing is dictation. When parents are always repressing and demanding. Adults suppress the child´s initiative. As a result resistence develops in a child. If a child is weak he becomes repressed, mistrustful, irresolute. A child start being afraid of punishment for faults so much, that he becomes inactive and unmotivated. And a child loses natural sence of adventure and curiosity. This model is also not very good. One more wrong model of upbringing is when parents are too caring, they try to protect a child from all the difficulties and give him everything he asks. A child becomes immature, self-centered, impudent and arrogant and unable to cope with difficulties. From his childhood surrounded with care, this person starts feeling weak in any situation where he needs to be strong morally and physically. Source: https://www.studymode.com

Upbringing It is generally accepted that the experiences of the child in his first years largely determine his character and later personality. Every experience teaches the child something and the effects are cumulative. 'Upbringing' is normally used to refer to the treatment and training of the child within the home. This is closely related to the treatment and training of the child in school, which is usually distinguished by the term 'education'. In a society such as ours, both parents and teachers are responsible for the opportunities provided for the development of the child, so that upbringing and education are interdependent. The ideals and practices of child rearing vary from culture to culture. Generally, in rural communities the customs of child upbringing are more strict. In more technologically developed societies, however, the period of childhood and adolescence tends to be extended over a long time, resulting in more opportunity for education and greater variety in character development. Early upbringing in the home is naturally affected both by the cultural pattern of the community and by the parents' capabilities and their aims and depends not only on upbringing and education but also on the inborn abilities of the child. Wide differences of intelligence and temperament exist even in children of the same family. Parents can ascertain what is normal in physical, mental and social development, by referring to some of the many books based on scientific knowledge in these areas, or, less reliably, by comparing notes with friends and relatives who have children. Intelligent parents, however, realize that the particular setting of each family is unique, and there can be no rigid general rules. They use general information only as a guide in making decisions and solving problems/For example, they will need specific suggestions for problems such as speech defects or backwardness in learning to walk or control of bodily functions. In the more general sense, though, problems of upbringing are recognized to be problems of the relationships within the individual family, the first necessity being a secure emotional background with parents who are united in their attitude to their children. 68

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All parents have to solve the problems of freedom and discipline. Usually when the child is younger, the mother gives in to his demands more readily to avoid disappointing him. She knows that if his energies are not given an outlet, her child's continuing development may be affected negatively. An example of this is the young child's need to play with mud and sand and water. A child must be allowed to enjoy this "messy" stage of discovery based on his senses before he is ready to go on the less physical pleasures of toys and books, Similarly, throughout life, each stage depends on the satisfactory completion of the one before. Source: http://edu.semgu.kz

II. Make the test. 1. Which of the following statements is the main idea of the text? Parents who have intelligence know that each family has its own rules. a. The cultural patterns, the capabilities of the parents and the inborn abilities of the child affect the early upbringing in the home. b. A person’s character and personality is determined by the early experiences in his childhood. c. It is usually difficult to solve the problems of freedom and discipline when the child is younger. 2. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the text? Parents should let their children enjoy pleasures that depend on their senses before toys and books. a. Different cultures have different practices of upbringing. b. Parents refer to books, friends and families to find out the best for their child. c. In rural areas problems of upbringing are more serious than the ones in more technologically developed societies. 3. Another appropriate title for this text would be: Child Rearing a. Solving all the Problems of Upbringing. b. Culture and Upbringing c. Parents and Children III. Answer the following questions: What helps to have a variety in character development? What are the three factors that influence early upbringing in the home? Why must children be allowed to play with mud and water? IV. State the following statements true or false. Correct the false ones. 1.____ The customs of the society are one of the factors that affect child development. 2.____ Children in technological societies have stronger characters than those from rural areas. 3.____ Reference to scientific books should be the only way to obtain information on child behavior. 4.____ Intelligent parents do not care for outside advice with child problems. 69

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5.____

A secure emotional background can be obtained even if the parents have different attitudes to their children. V. What do the following words refer to? 1. ‘this’ line 4 : 2. ‘they’ line 22: 3. ‘one’ line 36: VI. Match the following words with their synonyms/definitions: 1. ascertain a) quickly and willingly 2. rigit b) find out 3. readily c) continuous 4. cumulative d) making greater 5. extended e) firm request 6. demand f) strict

PRIMARY EDUCATION English children must go to schools when they are five. First they go to infant schools where they learn first steps in reading, writing and using numbers. The curriculum for «strong» and «weak» groups is different. When children leave the infant school, at the age of seven, they go to junior schools. Their school subjects are English, Mathematics, History, Geography, Nature Study, Swimming, Music, Art, Religious Instruction and Organized Games. When children come to the junior school for the first time, they are divided into three «streams» – A, B and C – on the basis of their infant school marks or sometimes after a special test. The brightest children go to the A stream and the least gifted to the C stream. In primary schools pupils are mostly taught by a class teacher who teaches all subjects. Methods of teaching vary, but there is a balance between formal lessons with the teacher at the front of the classroom and activities in which children work in small groups round a table with a teacher supervising. The junior classroom often looks like a workshop, especially when the pupils are working in groups making models or doing other practical work.

SECONDARY EDUCATION Formerly, at the age of eleven children went to a grammar school or secondary modern school. At present, the state school system has changed at the secondary school level to provide, in place of grammar and secondary modern schools, a single comprehensive school system, where children, at every age, find their own level according to ability. Formerly, children took an exam at the end of their primary education. Then they continued their education at secondary modern or grammar schools. At secondary moderns pupils received a more practical education. At grammar schools the emphasis was academic. Now about 90% of all secondary schools are comprehensive. Pupils go there automatically, regardless of intelligence. However, some comprehensive schools do 70

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not have the full range of academic courses for six-formers. Pupils can go either to a grammar school or to a six-form college to get the courses they want. Parallel to the state system, there is a private education system. Private schools charge fees for education. Many private schools are also boarding schools, at which pupils live during the term time. Since 1988, most sixteen-year-olds have taken the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) in five, ten or even fifteen subjects. The exams are taken as individual subjects, so a pupil may take as many subjects as ability and time permit, and success or failure in one subject will not influence another. Pupils going on to higher education or professional training usually take A level examinations in two or three subjects. These require two more years of study after GCSE, either in the sixth form of secondary school or in a separate sixth-form college. Other pupils may choose vocational subjects such as tourism, secretarial and building skills. Subsidized courses in these subjects are run at colleges of further education. Source:http://edu.semgu.kz

Vocabulary notes strong adj – сильный, e.g There are many subjects for strong pupils in infant school. weak adj – слабый, e.g These weak pupils study less subjects. stream n – поток, e.g In junior schools pupils are divided into streams. bright adj – умный, e.g The bright children study in the A stream. gifted adj – способный, e.g The least gifted pupils go to the C stream. supervise v – наблюдать, e.g There are some activities in which children work in small groups and a teacher supervises. workshop n – мастерская, e.g In primary schools junior classrooms often look like workshops. term n – семестр, e.g Autumn term starts at the beginning of September. Grammar school n – грамматическая школа, e.g Formerly, pupils went to grammar school when they were eleven. secondary modern school n – средняя современная школа e.g At present, there are few secondary modern schools in Great Britain. comprehensive school – общеобразовательная школа, e.g Comprehensive schools combine all types of secondary education. private school n – частная школа, e.g The state does not control private schools. fee n – плата, charge a fee, e.g Private schools charge a fee for education. boarding school n – школа-интернат, e.g At boarding schools pupils live during the term time. Certificate n – свидетельство, e.g Soon he will get a certificate. General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) n – cвидетельство об общем среднем образовании, e.g The General Certificate of Secondary Education is a nationwide exam system. A level (Advanced level) n – повышенный уровень, e.g A two-year course leads to Advanced level in two or three subjects. success n – успех, e.g Success in one subject does not influence another. 71

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failure n – неудача, e.g His failure in English didn’t influence Maths. vocational adj – специальный, e.g Some pupils may choose vocational subjects such as tourism, secretarial and building skills. subsidized adj – финансированный, e.g Colleges of further education have subsidized courses in vocational subjects. be run быть включенным, предусмотренный, e.g Subsidized courses in some vocational subjects are run at colleges of further education. I. Pronounce correctly and write the transcription of these words. Secondary, term, stream, level, general, advanced, strong, charge, fee, comprehensive. II. Read the words paying attention to the pronunciation of the letters in bold type: a) Education, supervise, tutor, opportunity, unit, duty, use, popular. b) Success, study, subject, summary, adjustment, public, run, fun, lucky. III. Give the Russian equivalents of the following word combinations: to send a child to school; nursery schools; to divide children into groups according to their mental abilities; strong pupils; to look like a workshop; the brightest children; the least gifted children; boarding schools; a comprehensive school. IV. Translate into Russian. Pay attention to the verb to fail and noun a failure. 1. She has failed in English this year.2.Speak to her without a fail. 3. His memory fails him. 4. The book is a failure, isn`t it? 5. Have you ever failed in an exam? 6. They will never fail. 7. Ring her up without a fail. 8. He has saved the concert from being a failure. 9. Has she failed to make friends with them? V. Answer the questions using Vocabulary Notes. 1. When do English children begin to go primary school? 2. Why are English children divided into groups? 3. What subjects do pupils learn in junior schools? 4. How many teachers are children taught by in primary schools? 5. What types of secondary schools do you know? 6. Are all schools free in England? 7. When do pupils take the General Certificate of Secondary Education? 8. Do pupils going on to higher education take A-level examinations in two, three or five subjects? VI. Read the text. Find and translate the passages dealing with. a) Infant schools. b) Junior schools. c) Primary schools. d) The school year. VII. Find information to prove that. 1. At present, the state schools system has changed. 2. Pupils go to comprehensive schools automatically. 3.Formerly, children took an exam at the end of their primary education. 4. Parallel to the state system, there is a private education system. 5. At present, there are two nationwide exam systems. Topical Vocabulary. Types of schools: state, private, independent, nursery, infant, junior, secondary grammar, secondary modern, comprehensive, first, middle, upper, mixed ( coeducational) Examinations: General Certificate of Education, Certificate of Secondary Education, Ordinary level, Advanced level, to take an exam, to pass an exam. 72

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UNIT 7. HOBBY AND FREE TIME HOBBY AND FREE TIME I. Read the text As a rule, in their free time people like to entertain or amuse themselves. They can arrange a party or go out, for example, go to a disco or some club. Generally they do it to have fun or to have a good time. When people have nothing to do they easily get bored. As a rule, boredom is an awful state which can lead to depression. That is why it is necessary to get yourself occupied. Nowadays the most common activity to get rid of boredom is surfing the Internet. This mass media offers a lot of opportunities for entertainment. Socializing in social networks is the most popular activity not only for the young but also for the grown-ups. Using the Internet helps you to kill your time browsing, sharing your pictures in Instagram or chatting with «friends». Gossips or «yellow press» (tabloids) do you more harm than good as they make your brain work in the wrong direction. Well, sometimes concerned parents try to make their children be occupied all time. That is why schoolchildren don’t have much free time. But if they have, they usually spend it indoors playing computer games or chatting in the net. They can do it for hours. Some years ago people had a lot of hobbies. As a rule, in their free time people like to entertain or amuse themselves. Knitting is a hobby which used to be very popular. Nowadays women prefer buying clothes because they cost so little. But hand knitting is still fashionable. Do you know why? There is no doubt that the process of knitting calms. And it is the first reason. Second, creative women enjoy inventing different knitting patterns. Besides, the fact that a self-made sweater or a pullover is unique, makes its creator proud. Although learning to knit is not so easy, it is worth taking pains as it can be very useful leisure activity for a woman. Hobby is what we like doing in our free time Source:http://englishinn.ru

Free time = spare time = leisure time = pastime rule, in their free time people like to entertain or amuse themselves. to entertain – развлекать to amuse oneself – забавляться II. Answer the questions: 1. Do you like making things? 2. Do you spend most of your free time playing computer games? 3. What do you do in your free time? 4. What kinds of hobby do you know? 5. What can be collected?

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WHY ARE AFTER-SCHOOL-ACTIVITIES SO IMPORTANT FOR CHILDREN? I. Read the article Find out why joining an after school activity is so important for your child – and wealth of benefits they can look forward to. From chess to Capoeira, our children are often spoiled for choice when it comes to picking after school activities. And while each activity will teach your child different skills, there are some common benefits you can look forward to, whichever one you pick. Olivia Bland from Dancewear Central explains how joining after school activities can have a positive impact on children’s health, education and social skills. Afternoon activities also help to tire your child out, which makes it more likely they’ll get a good night’s sleep. Which in turn will make them more alert at school. Helps Them to Develop Good Teamwork Skills Teamwork skills are important life skills, improving our confidence and employability and making it easier to make and keep good friends. And getting your child involved in a team after school will help them learn how to work with others from an early age and teach them important social skills. It will also help them in school; during class, pupils are often asked to participate in group work to help them to develop their team building skills. If your child is used to removing the focus of the individual and working towards a common goal with teammates, they’ll have a head start on some of their classmates. There are plenty of team-building after school activities to choose from, including sports like netball, football and hockey which help to keep them moving as they learn to interact with others. If sport isn’t their thing why not look into local dance schools? Dance is a fun way to get active. And dancing as part of a class and in performances not only develops your child’s teamwork skills, but it can do wonders for their confidence too. They Will Learn a New Skill After school activities are also a great opportunity to pick up a new skill. From chess to cricket, ping-pong to piano, and singing to scuba diving, your child can develop his skills in a safe, fun environment. Sometimes its hard to pick which after school activity to participate in. If you’re spoilt for choice or stuck on which club to join, Brownies and Cubs are great options. Your child can learn new skills, spend time outdoors, work their way to positions of leadership and are rewarded for different activities with patches! 74

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They Will Develop Socially Joining after school activities will give your child the chance to make new friends and socialize with other children outside their school. They’ll learn how to act in different situations, play more fairly and focus on working as a team rather than for themselves. This will help them to build up confidence and grow into a more positive and self-assured adult. They Will Get More Exercise Exercise is vital for good mental and physical health. And if your child is part of an outdoor after school club they will be getting the exercise they need to keep them healthy, reduce their stress levels and tackle issues like obesity. It doesn’t matter whether your child is budding ballerina or a football fan, every minute of exercise counts. Source:https://www.talentedladiesclub.com

II.

Make the plan of the text.

AFTER SCHOOL CLUBS I. Fill in the gaps Last year I started a new school. We have lots of clubs and … (society) at our school and we are supposed to be involved in quite a few after school. Some of them are pretty boring but could be … (bad)there is a lot of choice and it can make a nice change from the unnatural quantities of homework or even from natural quantities computer games and TV! My favourite is the Drama Society. It is currently the … (fast) growing as our next production is «Much Ado About Nothing» and someone will get the chance to kiss Kim White on stage. That really is a strong motive! I shall be doing … (I) best to impress the casting director (Mr. Corner – the Maths teacher) with amazing acting skills of mine. If that doesn’t work I am almost sure I … (not get) the part. Tragically enough only myself (and possibly my Mum) might argue I have the good looks needed for a romantic hero. But a good idea … (come) to my mind suddenly. I am going to join the chess club instead! Chess! What a marvelous game! It’s a battle of wits and intellectual strategy. Please don’t get the wrong idea. It is nothing to do with the fact I just learned that Kim White (join) the chess club. Source:http://stud24.ru

HISTORY OF THE TERM «HOBBY» I. Read the text A hobby horse is a wooden toy made to be ridden just like a real horse (which was sometimes called a «Hobby»). From this came the expression «to ride one's hobby-horse», meaning «to follow a favorite pastime», and in turn, hobby in the modern sense of recreation. 75

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Hobbies are practiced for interest and enjoyment, rather than financial reward. Examples include collecting, creative and artistic pursuits, making, tinkering, sports and adult education. Engaging in a hobby can lead to acquiring substantial skill, knowledge, and experience. However, personal fulfilment is the aim. What are hobbies for some people are professions for others˸ a chef may enjoy cooking as a hobby, while a professional game tester may enjoy playing computer games. Generally speaking, the person who does something for fun is called an amateur (or hobbyist), as distinct from a professional. In the UK, the noun «anorak» is often applied to people who are keen on a particular hobby that is considered boring, such as train spotting or stamp collecting. While some hobbies are trivial and boring for many people, hobbyists find something compelling and entertaining about them. Much early scientific research was a hobby of the wealthy; more recently, some fields of science began as a student's hobby. Furthermore, the hobby of aircraft spotting probably originated as part of a serious activity designed to detect arriving waves of enemy aircraft entering English airspace during World War II. In peacetime it clearly has no such practical or social purpose, but many people still adore this activity. II. Match each word with its definition˸ a toy important or valuable a pastime relating to or considered as one thing or person as distinct from others; individual a reward to gain for oneself, to come into possession of to acquire of society or its organization, esp. of the relations of people or classes of people substantial a thing which provides amusement an experience to examine to test to begin, to initiate particular a recreation or a hobby to originate an observation of or practical acquaintance with facts or events social a compensation III. Fill in the gaps with an appropriate word: 1. In the past the word «hobby» denoted a wooden … which children could ride as a real one. 2. The primary aim of any hobby is personal … 3. Hobbies can bring both … and enjoyment. 4. A person does something but not professionally is an … 5. People who like train spotting are often called … 6. … research was a hobby for rich people in the past. 7. Aircraft spotting has no … nowadays but many people still enjoy it.

HOBBIES AND PASTIMES I. Fill in the gaps. Choose from the given words. They _______all day swimming and sunbathing at the beach. (used, spent, occupied) 76

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Some years ago she got interested _____ sewing and knitting. (in, at, of) Johnny very much likes putting together the pieces of a ______ (puzzle, crossword, mosaic). Kate goes jogging every morning to keep________ (exercised, trained, fit). I’m afraid I don’t find volleyball________ (interested, very interesting, of any interest). Collecting matchbox labels is Brenda’s favourite_________ (leisure, business, pastime). People get bored when I talk about my stamp __________ (album, collection, collecting). Bring your racket and I will meet you at the tennis_____ (field, gym, court). She _________aerobics (goes in for, trains, takes). Have you ever _______in winter sports? (played, done, taken part) Clare has been keen (on, at, about) _________flower arranging since she was ten years old. Playing computer games is the most popular hobby (among, with, about) ________young people. II. Act out a dialogue with your friend who you are going to spend a weekend by nature. Your camera is broken but you need to take pictures for a portfolio.  Ask him if he (she) has a camera that he (she) can lend you for a day. Explain why.  Answer your friend’s questions about pictures you usually take.  Answer your friend’s questions if it is popular with his (her) friends to take pictures and make videos.  Arrange a date and a place to meet.

HOLIDAY HOBBIES I. Read the dialogue «Holiday hobbies». Lesie talks about what she like to do when she has free time. Simon: Hi! What's your name? Lesie: My name is Lesie Gregory. Simon: And do you want to tell us about your hobbies? Lesie: Sure, I'll tell you about my hobbies. Simon: OK. What are they? Lesie: My first hobby is going to the gym. I go to the gym three times a week. I do floor execises, aerobics classes, swimming and I do weight training. Simon: Of all those things, what are your favourites? What's your favourite? What's your favourite thing to do? Lesie: My favorite thing to do is either swimming or what they call auqa-aerobics. 77

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Simon: Aqua-aerobics? What's that? Lesie: Well, actually, there's different kinds of aqua-aerobics. It's just like an aerobics class but it's in a swimming pool, so there's, so you're not putting pressure on your joints when you're jumping up and down. Simon: Ah, cool! Any other hobbies? Lesie: Yeah, um, because it's going to be Christmas soon, I'll be able to enjoy my hobby of baking. Simon: So what kind of things do you bake? Lesie: Oh, well, sometimes I bake pies, like pumpkin pies or pecan pie. Pecan pies are very famous where I come from in Florida because we have pecan trees and then sometimes I do cakes, like really rich cakes like red velvet cakes, or carrot cakes, but this year I'm going to be baking cookies. Simon: Cookies! What kind of cookies, Leslie? Lesie: Ah, let's see this year's cookies are going to be the traditional Christmas sugar cookie, which is a big cookie in a kind of a Christmas shape, like a Christmas tree or Santa Claus with icing or some colored sugar, very yummy, and some M&M cookies with red a green M&M's. Simon: Oh, wow! Sounds interesting! OK. I've got a question, or I've got something to ask you. Lesie: Describe how your cookies taste? Use your three favorite adjectives? Three favorite adjectives? Soft, moist, and sweet! Source:http://www.elllo.org

II. Fill in the gaps: 1. Lessie: My favorite thing to do is either … or what they call aqua-aerobics. 2. Ah, let’s see this year’s cookies are going to be the … Christmas sugar cookie, which is a big cookie in kind of a Christmas shape, like a Christmas tree or Santa Claus with icing or some colored sugar, very yummy, and some M&M cookies with red a green M&M´s. 3. OK. I’ve got a question, or I’ve got … to ask.

CLUB CULTURE IN BRITAIN I. Read the text Going to nightclubs, or «clubbing» as it called, is very popular in Britain. From the age of about fifteen young people like to go clubbing at the weekend. Usually friends meet in the evening and go to a pub or a cafe, or just sit at home and chat. Then, late in the evening, after 10 pm, they travel to the centre of the town and wait in a queue outside the nightclub. The clubs are usually special buildings with a big space inside for dancing. Some clubs only play one kind of music, but most have different music on different nights. There is a chill out room in the club. It is for people who are tired of dancing. They can relax there. When you go clubbing, you need a special outfit. And it’s very hot there so you should wear light clothes that are easy to dance in. It’s a good idea to come to the club in a taxi and also order a taxi to take you home. It’s very expensive, but teens usually share the fare. There is usually a bar there. If you want beer or cocktail, the 78

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barman must check your identification. You have to prove you are old enough to drink. If you are under eighteen, you can’t drink. The legal age is eighteen. There are often «undereighteens» nights. Normally you must be eighteen to get into a club. At the door one can usually see a bouncer. On a normal night he checks the identification of all the clubbers as they enter the club. You need to show a card with a photograph, like a driver’s license. The bouncer also collects the cover charge from the clubbers. A teen usually spends about forty pounds on a night out, including the taxi home. Source:https://www.yaklass.ru

II. Write true or false: 1. Usually friends meet in the evening and go only to a cafe, or just sit at home and chat. 2. It’s a bad idea to come to the club in a taxi and also order a taxi to take you home. 3. The writer says that normally you must be eighteen to get into a club.

UNIT 8. CHILD´S HEATH CARE OF CHILDREN'S TEETH I. Read the following text and find all the sentences with modal verbs. Translate the text into Russian. Note: Must expresses a strong obligation, have to expresses a general obligation based on a law or a rule, should expresses advice, or a mild obligation. Can (could) and may, might are used to express degrees of probability. Even though baby teeth fall out and are replaced by adult teeth, it is important that they be retained for the proper time and not prematurely lost. Early loss of baby teeth can effect the development of the adult teeth and may result in need for orthodontic treatment, as well as alteration of facial structures, speech and eating ability. First teeth need regular cleaning in order to remove plaque, a sticky substance composed of bacteria and food debris. Plaque begins forming on the teeth as soon as they have erupted into the mouth. Bacteria in the plaque feed on sugars and produce acids. When food, containing sugar is eaten, some of it sticks to the plaque and is turned into acid by plaque bacteria. The acid forms within the plaque and dissolves the underlying enamel to produce caries. It must be explained to expectant and nursing mothers that caries cannot be prevented if plaque is not thoroughly removed daily. Before the teeth erupt, baby's gums should be wiped gently with a soft wet washcloth (салфетка из махровой ткани) once a day, preferably at bedtime. When the teeth start appearing, a washcloth should be used to clean them and then progress to a soft child's toothbrush. 79

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Inappropriate feeding of children can lead to the type of caries called Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (early childhood caries). Infants should not be put to sleep with a bottle containing milk, juice or other sweetened liquid. Infants should start to supplement their diet with non liquids at 4-6 months of age. Oral hygiene should be started with eruption of the first primary tooth. Source:http://vmede.org

Note: nursing mothers – кормящие матери II. SPEECH EXERCISES Answer the questions to the text «Five Steps to Dental Health»: 1. What does the text deal with? 2. Why is dental health so important? 3. Аге dental diseases preventable or not? 4. Why is it necessary to brush the teeth after meals? 5. What is the use of flossing? 6. How is it recommended to brush teeth? 7. Is it necessary to change the position of a toothbrush when brushing teeth? 8. How long does tooth brushing usually take? 9. What is the relationship between diet and dental health? 10. What factors are involved here? 11. Why is the intake of fluoride so important? 12. What are the 5 steps of tooth decay prevention? 13. Do you think it is important to see the dentist regularly? Why? III. Speak on the importance of the 5 steps of dental disease prevention. IV. Read the text and try to answer the questions given after the text Entitle it. How much does your health mean to you? Do you understand the importance of disease prevention? Everybody must remember: if you smoke, STOP. If you don't smoke, DON'T START. In addition to chronic bronchitis, emphysema, heart disease and lung cancer, there is also the risk of cancer developing in the throat and mouth. Nine thousand people die each year from oral cancer, and smokers have the risk of dying from oral cancer five times greater than non-smokers. It's a tragedy that can be prevented. Alcohol consumption is also considered to be the risk factor for developing oral cancer. In addition to these 2 definite risk factors – tobacco and alcohol – there are other risk factors. They include poor dental health, inadequate diet, geographic location and occupation. Men are more likely to develop oral cancer than women. The disease can involve lips, tongue, floor or roof of the mouth, the inner lining of the cheeks, gums and other intraoral tissues. Many of these symptoms are painless and people ignore them. This is a serious mistake. The sooner the cancer is diagnosed, the sooner the treatment can begin. Early detection of oral cancer makes successful treatment possible.

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V. Questions to be answered: 1. Can cancer be prevented? 2. What risk factors are mentioned here? 3. Why is smoking so dangerous? 4. Do many people die of oral cancer? 5. Who are more likely to develop oral cancer: men or women? 6. What organs does the disease involve? 7. Are the symptoms painful? 8. What makes successful treatment possible?

SIX RULES FOR COPINDG WITH EXAM STRESS I. Read the text and describe how you revise for the exams. 1. In the weeks to come before the beginning of exams, give yourself plenty of time to revise. Most students perform best by revising over the longer period, rather than just ‘cramming’ a few days before the exam. Whatever time you’ve got now – use it. Don’t wait until the night before. 2. Plan your revision. Work out how many days there are before the exam, and mark down how many hours you will spend on revision, homework and projects. Stick to these hours, revise all areas properly – not just the things you are good at. In the case of your English exams, revise areas of grammar and vocabulary (particularly areas you’re weak at), practice listening and reading comprehension and practice writing timed compositions. Be methodical – plan what you are going to revise and revise it thoroughly. Don’t jump about in a panic from one area to another. 3. Don’t revise one area too much, at the expense of others, just because it interests you. For example, don’t get carried away with revising vocabulary for your English exam. That’s only one aspect of the language! 4. Keep your working area neat and simple. Just have the notes and books you need around you – not untidy piles that just remind you of how much work there is to do! 5. Take breaks. Don’t work hour after hour without stopping – you just won’t be concentrating properly. Work for twenty-minute stretches, then have a short break, or change your activity. But remember that exams can be long. The exam papers are up to two hours long – so make sure you are able to concentrate for this long as well. 6. Work on what you need to remember. Don’t just read and re-read notes or books. Do something with the information. Re-write notes as diagrams, summarize information on cards, and put these where you can look at them frequently. In the case of revising for an English exam, of course – use the language: write in it, practice speaking in it. Source:https://studfiles.net 81

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

II. What questions could you ask to get these answers? No, they have to finance their own studies. There isn't much difference; it's just that the courses are more practical in a polytechnic instead of being very academic. Well, they learn one or two things, like recognizing a few numbers, but most of the time they play around. Because I wanted to be a teacher, no other reason. It's sixteen, but a lot of kids stay on until eighteen. Well, I've been up all night revising for an exam. No, ours are given in grades, you know, B+, A, that sort of thing. No, I was ill. I didn't miss it deliberately.

A POSITIVE SCHOOL CLIMATE CAN MEAN A SUCCESSFUL SCOOL YEAR I. Read the text and choose the titles for its 4 parts Introduction As the new school year begins so, too, does the excitement and expectations felt by students, parents, teachers, and school staff. But sadly, that initial enthusiasm often fades as the routine of school takes over. What if we could gather up all the back-to-school energy and use it as fuel to propel students, school staff, and families through the school year to raise the achievements of students and staff alike? An increasing number of schools and school districts across the country are focusing on creating a positive school climate, guided by a significant body of research attesting to the educational and developmental benefits of this approach. But what, exactly, does a positive school climate look like for students, staff, and families on a day-to-day basis? 1. _______ Students are engaged. They want to go to school, strive to do well, actively participate in the learning process, and take responsibility for their school work. Students have supportive relationships at school with both peers and adults; they have friends and study partners; and they’re not afraid of being bullied (and they’re not bullying others either). Students feel they can go to teachers or support staff for help when needed, for both academic and social problems. Disciplinary actions are based upon written policies that are administered fairly and consistently for all students, which may also include processes for filing grievances. School conduct codes and disciplinary experiences are viewed as learning opportunities, not as vehicles for excluding students; everyone in the school community – including principles, teachers, support staff, school resource officers, bus drivers, athletics personnel, guidance counselors, and others – work actively and continuously throughout the year to promote and reward positive behavior. 82

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Supports are available for students who struggle with concerns ranging from learning disabilities or mental health challenges to families experiencing financial or other difficulties that affect students’ abilities to attend or succeed at school. Schools – often working with community partners – provide direction and resources to help with these very difficult issues. 2.______ Parents partner with teachers to support their children’s learning. They get to know their children’s teachers during open houses and parent-teacher conferences or by scheduling individual visits, and they are comfortable exchanging information with teachers about their children’s progress. Parents understand school discipline policies and know that these policies are rooted in supportive approaches aimed at teaching students’ appropriate behavior and problem solving skills, as well as minimizing exclusionary practices. Parents talk to their children about school to learn firsthand about their experiences. When problems arise, parents participate in the disciplinary process to advocate for a fair and appropriate response. 3._____ School staff have a good rapport with many students and are responsive to their individual needs at many levels. School staff regularly experience two-way communication with families and other staff about not only academic achievement but also students’ needs and home and school events that affect learning. School staff have at least the minimum necessary space, equipment, and supplies to do their job in a comfortable physical environment that is conducive for teaching and learning. School staff is trained and equipped to follow the protocols for recognizing and managing student academic, behavioral, mental health, or social difficulties. When certain students need more help than staff can provide, there are resources to turn to for support, in the form of teams, mentors, management, or services. School staff communicates with subject area or school improvement team leaders and officials (such as the principal, superintendent, or school board members) about what their students need to effectively teach and learn. 4.____ The school building is in adequate physical condition, and the staff, students and others in the community work actively to maintain the facility. Students and staff feel safe at school; families feel safe sending their children to school. The overall school experience remains positive regardless of race, ethnicity, learning ability, sexual identity, religion, or economic status. When difficulties arise, there are avenues for both students and adults to have respectful and constructive conversations aimed at resolving problems. These elements of positive school climate are a renewable energy source, fueling the hopes and aspirations of the new school year from fall to winter to spring. 83

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Schools, families, and communities can work together to develop and maintain a positive school climate that benefits student well-being and academic achievement. Source:https://www.childtrends.org

UNIT 9. FAILURE OR SUCCESS A PERSONALLY ORIENTED APPROACH TO EFL TEACHING I. Read the article II. Translate it into Russian In the language classroom we often ask students to talk about or refer to their personal situation and experiences. This is seemingly good practice. However, with some learners, particularly younger ones, this focus on their personal lives can bring personal problems to the fore, which may actually hinder their language learning or affect their confidence in class. This article discusses this problem through actual situations and suggests a practical way to solve the problem, a way that actually widens students' communicative abilities. My first problem My first experience with a personality oriented approach to EFL teaching occurred about seven years ago, when after many years as a university lecturer I began to work at school, and with junior classes at that. A ten-year-old girl, one of my best students, suddenly stopped doing homework, refused to answer in the lessons, and finally went into hysterics. When everyone left the classroom, I asked her what the matter was, whether I had irritated her in some way. A few minutes of silence, then she blurted out, «You are always by your children's side, I also want to be hugged by mum!» She burst into tears, I hugged her, feeling her whole small body shake, thinking, «That's it, our current topic is 'Family', and the Russian EFL textbooks are full of questions which children see as very personal». Is a correct answer a true answer? Such problems do not occur in lessons of physics or Maths, for instance. But in any lesson, a child is conditioned into giving a 'correct' answer, which they sometimes perceive as a 'true' one. I talked to the girl's grandfather and learned about a very typical modern situation. The girl's parents divorced a long time ago; the father had a new family and had forgotten about his daughter; the mother went abroad for a long time, so the child remained with her grandparents. There are plenty of such 'forgotten' children around. If they live with a relative or guardian, that's not the worst that may happen. So I began to work out my own personality oriented approach.

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Looking for personal reasons I know that today, at least in Russia, what's meant by a 'personality orientated approach' is that every student requires an individual approach according to the abilities shown. One should get an extra task so as not to be bored, another barely manages to follow the lesson, yet another needs a lesser task and some extra attention. A teacher should look for new sources of motivation and encouragement, which is quite difficult, considering that Russian teachers' salaries are very small and they are habitually delayed. It was my belief that the new approach must include the teachers' ability to look beyond a student's refusal to answer or occasional bad discipline, to see if there aren't any personal reasons which have nothing to do with school or subject. Every year, when getting a new class, I check their families, talk to homeroom teachers, listen to the children themselves. Naturally I do get my share of lazybones, hooligans and incapable kids. But they are all children. They cannot always control their emotions or cope with their problems. A teacher is a substitute parent for some of them. A real situation, a real problem Family is traditionally included into the list of the school final EFL exam, in the 10th (the last but one) grade we are to discuss it during the whole second term. Youth problems, family structure, questions like «who takes after whom in your family», the vocabulary which includes words like «supportive, understanding, dysfunctional…». On the other hand, I deal with real teenagers. Every year, I check my groups. Two single-parent families in one group, four in another, an orphan and divorced parents in the third… There are also normal two-parent families. Still, when I know that a kid's mother, aged 37, died recently, should I forget about that one bereaved kid and ask them those questions from the textbook, who takes after whom, who cooks, who sews? A practical approach, a practical solution Children often perceive the questions as something to be answered fully and truthfully, they become confused and don't know what to do when asked something totally innocent, which they see as something personal. So, I start preparing in September, when we study a totally neutral topic 'Education'. When we come to a speaking task, I explain seriously what is expected. We are learning how to build sentences in English which are grammatically correct. It is OK to answer anything, as long as it is sensible and up to the point. For example, if I ask you, «Where's the Pacific ocean?», and you've forgotten, just answer, «I don't remember exactly but I know it is somewhere on Earth». This way; you show me that you understood my question; you built your own sentence; communication has been achieved. By November, the end of the 1st term, all my students are well-trained. The results? A boy whose father recently left them stopped trembling at every «personal» question and confidently talks about modern family values. A girl whose mother died stopped crying silently and now takes part in all the discussions. The whole group stopped turning their heads when we come to questions and comments. 85

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Conclusion I wrote several lessons to supplement the textbooks. My students passed their final exams very well. After all, no teacher can know all the circumstances that may influence a student's answer or behavior when an examination board member may ask any questions on the theme. My students are always ready, they know how to discourse, how to cope when they hear a 'personal' question. Source:http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk

SOME TRAITS OF CHARACTER WHICH A PERFECT TEACHER MUST OBTAIN I. Read the text Being a teacher is a noble and complicated job that demands a lot of inner and outer efforts from a person. It stands to reason that not every man who wishes to be a teacher can become it. The point is a real teacher must combine a great number of qualities. The qualities can be divided into some group: innate qualities, qualities of mind, volitional powers and qualities related to other people. Let’s start with innate qualities. A real teacher cannot be without cheerful character because each lesson should be started with a teacher’s smile .Teacher’s calm and neat appearance help children tune up to a working mood. If you are inert or a bore, there is no road for you to the teacher profession. Moreover, a teacher must be self-denying and self-critical. It goes without saying that a good teacher cannot be without broad mind. He must acquire bright and clever head; he must be well-read, intelligent and deep in his subject. Students or pupils cannot accept teachers who are ordinary or shallow. Teacher’s job requires a lot of volitional powers. Children are not creatures who are easy to get along with. Children are different with various trends of character, facilities and abilities. That is why only firm and strong-willed teachers can succeed in the relationship with pupils. If you feel that you are unable to control your emotions or you are hesitant and weak-willed, just drop the ideal of being a teacher. Together with all above mentioned qualities a real teacher must acquire communicable and amiable character. He should be considerate and flexible. A teacher always comes across with so called «a pain in the neck» students, with real troublemakers, whose language is awful, who talk back, resent any advice, can seem to have lost interest in school. While working with such students a teacher must try to analyze the feelings and to find an explanation for this behavior. It is difficult indeed: it requires a lot of power and tolerance. We, future teachers, should remember that pupils need our presence and love. One of the greatest people on the Earth said: A good teacher can govern the state. So the point is being a perfect teacher equals to being a real person. Source:http://www.solgpi.ru

VOCABULARY NOTES demand v – требовать (of; from); нуждаться, e.g. This problem demands attention. He demanded from me a total obedience. 86

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mind n – ум, e.g. Qualities of mind are important for all people. Volitional adj, волевой – e.g. These teacher is a volitional person. related adj – относящийся, e.g. These are qualities related to every teacher. appearance n – 1. появление, e.g. His appearance on the stage made the audience smile; 2. внешний вид, e.g. Mary’s neat and pleasant appearance attracts people’s attention; to all appearance(s) – судя по всему; по-видимому, e.g. To all appearance he feels bad today. require v – требовать, e.g. It requires careful consideration. character n 1. Характер, e.g. a man of character; 2. фигура,личность, e.g. a bad character; a public character; traits of character – черты характера, e.g. What traits of character do you appreciate in people? drop v – бросать, e.g. She dropped the idea of being a doctor. Let’s drop the subject. You need to drop smoking. amiable adj – дружелюбный, e.g. Every teacher should have amiable character. troublemaker n – нарушитель порядка, e.g. I can’t do a thing with him! He is a real troublemaker. resent v – отвергать, e.g. My children resent any advice. behaviour n – поведение, e.g. Your behavior leaves much to be better; to put smb on his good behavior – дать человеку возможность исправиться, e.g. The teacher put Tom on his good behavior abilities n – способности, e.g. Teaching demands abilities and talent. decision n – решение, e.g. We know that teaching is a constant stream of decisions. agnorant adj – необразованный, e.g. Ignorant teachers shouldn’t work at school. fear n – боязнь, e.g. Some teachers stimulate fear. II. Pronounce correctly and write the transcription of these words. Noble, ability, efforts, qualities, amiable, appearance, require, creatures, mind, unique, ignorance, fear, boredom. III. Read the worlds paying attention to the letters in bold type: a) troublemaker, resent, character, ignorant, stay, enter, represent; b) demand, drop, mind, related, decision, dedicate, find, develop. IV. Find the Russian equivalents of the following word combinations and expressions: to get through to them; I was not making the grade; don’t give it up ;the suggested methods; to meet my particular need; I look pains with …; I am at a loss; to be familiar with. V. What would you say of a person: a) who always achieves his aim? b) who is easy to get along with? c) who makes friends easily? d) who is lazy all the time? e) who knows little and doesn’t like reading? f) who is simple without a fire in the soul? 87

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g) who pays a lot of attention to others? h) who takes everything he wants? i) who finds the way our of various difficult problems? VI. Complete the sentences using the following words and word combinations: appearance, traits of character, behavior, requires, troublemaker, behaves, resent, dropped behind, drop in. 1. This question … our great attention. 2. Ann missed several lessons that is why she … the group.3. You need to consult the psychologist. Your son’s … troubles me a lot.4. The director … our requirements to raise the salary. 5. I appreciate people who are sociable and kind-hearted. These … … … are important for me. 6. My students are excellent ones. But one of them is a real … . He always plays tricks on the others and … in a bad way. 7. Yesterday it was the day off and decided to … … to our friends. 8. Where have you been? What is the matter with your … ? Your face is all black and the clothes are dirty. VII. Read Техt and answer the questions. 1. They say that not еvеrу mаn саn bесоmе teacher. Is that true? 2. What groups оf qualities must а perfect teacher possess? З. What аге the innate qualities of а teacher? 4. What саn уоu say about the qualities of teacher's mind? 5. In what way do уоu understand the statement: «Teacher's job requires a lot of volutional qualities»? 6. Why is it so important for the teacher to bе sосiаble аnd соmmuniсаblе? 7. Dо you agree with the: «А good teacher is able to govern the statе»?

HOW TO DEAL WITH PROBLEMS EFFECTIVELY. ADVISES TO YOUNG TEACHERS Topical Vocabulary a career; a profession; a job; work; rewarding/stimulating work; occupation to consider teaching as a career; to take up job; to go in for teaching; to be devoted to smth/smb; to take/accept responsibility; to cope with; to provide the children with the sort of intellectual challenge; to take pains with the planning of the lessons; to create various problems within the domestic framework; to encourage children’s participation at the lesson; to possess personal and professional qualities. Before-reading task: transcribe, practice the pronunciation and translate the following words: to worsen, mortality, to cease; insurance policy; to recede; immune; persuasion; compulsion; cash allowances; maternity leave; expanded; privileges; psychology. There’s no way of escaping problems arising but there are ways to solve them. Here are some fool-proof methods of dealing with difficult issues Your first year will probably be the hardest you’ll ever experience. You’re learning how to do the job, learning the names of the pupils, learning how the school works, learning what teaching a full timetable is like; there is a lot to absorb. You will inevitably hit problems: pupils off task, behavior below your expectations, too much marking, mountains of planning, the list goes on. There’s so 88

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much to get your head around – and so little time to do it – that difficulties are only expected to pop up. But, as we tell our pupils, problems create opportunities. You need to remember that you are not alone. Running into issues is a natural part of being an NQT – all of us experience problems during our first year on the job, and it’s all part of the trial-and-error process of learning how to teach. You are not an anomaly and you can be certain that thousands of other newly-qualified teachers all over the country are feeling the same as you. While this doesn’t make the problems go away, it does put them into perspective, because knowing that the difficulties you face are shared by others is an excellent corrective to anxiety, worry and frustration. It’s good to share Discussing problems with fellow NQTs is a great tactic. Talking things over with colleagues or friends will make you feel better, allow you to articulate and reflect on whatever is the matter, and give you the opportunity to problem-solve with others. You can help each other out. Learn from mistakes Acknowledging that a significant part of the NQT year is about making mistakes – and learning from them – leads to seeing problems in a different light. While they may not be any less uncomfortable to experience, you can remain confident that meeting them head on will help you to learn, grow and develop. This attitude – a growth mindset – will stand you in good stead no matter what difficulties come your way. Sometimes, however, you might find it easier to work it all out on your own, in which case you’ll need tried-and-tested approach that you can rely on. State your problem out loud – verbal articulation helps clarify thinking. Then, cut it down to its simplest form, and write it out. You could make bullet points, type it up, or scribble down a paragraph – whatever works best for you. Simplifying the issue will allow you to see the problem for what it is, and writing it down externalizes it, so that you’ll be able to dedicate your entire working memory to solving it. Establish solutions – figure out what your ideal outcome would be and say it out loud, then simplify it, and make a note of it. Now you have in front of you a clear definition of what the problem is, along with what you want to achieve by solving it – your ‘A’ and your ‘B’. What’s left to do now is take action and defeat it. Often, when we face a problem, we use up the majority of our energy worrying about it. Someone once said that worrying is like walking around with an umbrella on a sunny day, waiting for it to rain. Acting this way is understandable, but ineffectual – worrying doesn’t bring on any positive change, does it? So, instead of worrying, take active control of the problem. Finally, identify three things you can do to get to your desired outcome, creating the link between your own efforts and the result you really want to see. You 89

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could write them down as a list, for example, and you might find it helps you and your motivation to tick off the tasks you have completed so far – the problem will be gone in no time, all thanks to your determination to face the difficulties of your first year as a teacher. Source:https://www.tes.com

UNIT 10. TV EFFECT ON CHILDREN TV EFFECTS ON CHILDREN I. Answer the questions according to the reading. A recent opinion poll discovered that many people were very concerned about the amount of sex and violence depicted in movies, television shows, and popular music. This poll also discovered, however, that most people thought that individuals should take responsibility to correct the problems. The vast majority favored such solutions as tighter parental supervision, warning labels on records, and voluntary selfrestraints by entertainment companies. Only 27 per cent favored government censorship. At the same time, there was growing concern about the impact of television on children. Research has shown that by the time our children reach age 18, they have spent more time watching television than in school. The problem was that our television system was attuned to the marketplace. Children are treated as a market to be sold to advertisers at so much money per thousand eyeballs. II. According to the reading, to prevent the bad effects of television, only a minority -----. a) support individual action b) say parents should supervise their children c) believe in the necessity of censorship applied by governments d) think television companies have to control their own broadcasting e) require the records be put labels III. It is stated in the passage that ----. a) many people think pop music videos are not so violent as movies movies b) oday are a good means to show the young the possible dangers awaiting for them in the real world c) parents believe there should be more TV shows on television suitable for the young's sexual education d) television has covered more place in an eighteen-year-old teenager's life than school e) parents believe schools are the places where our children first learn what violence is IV. It is emphasized in the reading that ----. a) many children have eyesight problems due to watching television excessively b) children are a main focus of the advertisers 90

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c) there are not enough advertisements on television d) our television shows should be designed according to our children's preferences e) children should learn what to watch on television at school

TELEVISION AND CHILDREN I. Read the text Television is doing a great harm. It is a real monster. How often we hear statements like this. Television hasn’t been with us all the time, but we are already beginning to forget what the world was like without it. What did we use to do before there was television? First of all, we never found it difficult to spend our free time. We used to enjoy civillized pleasures. For instance, we used to have hobbies, we used to entertain our friends and be entertained by them, we used to go outside for our amusements to theatres, cinemas, restaurants and sporting events. We even used to read books and listen to music. All that belongs to the past. Now all our free time is regulated by the “magic box”. We rush home to be in time for this or that program. A sandwich and a glass of tea will do – anything if only it doesn’t interfere with the program. Whole generations are growing up addicted to the telly. Food is left uneaten, homework undone and sleep is lost. It is now standard practice for mother to keep the children quit by putting them in the living –room with the telly alone: It doesn’t matter what the children will watch – what so long as they are quiet. Television encourages passive enjoyment. It is so easy to sit in our armchairs watching oters working. Little by little, television cuts us off from the real world. We get so lazy, we choose to spend a fine day in semi-darkness, glued to our sets, rather than go out into the world itself. Television is a splendid means of communication, but it prevents us from communicating with each other. We only understand it when we spend a holiday by the sea or in the mountains, for away from civilization, in quiet, natural surroundings. II. Say your opinion about the following Children and TV is a great problem. Television prevents children from spending their pastime in the street, on the other hand, it helps them to learn a lot about our world and develop their imagination. What is more important? 1. How many hours a week do you spend watching television? Less than 5 hours 10 hours 15 hours more than 20 hours 2. What sort of program do you like watching? 3. What is your favorite program?

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CHILDREN AND CARTOONS I. Read the text and translate it into Russian Cartoons help them to learn more about the world and understand it even if it is an imaginary world. Also they want to learn their place in the world and they are looking for a good model for themselves. If their surroundings do not interest and supply their needs so much, then they face with television. While they are watching some of cartoons, they see that some main characters are so powerfull, they beat all the bad characters, they save the world/people. They are hero and nearly everbody love them. Some of them are funny, clever, foxy and successful, they do and take all they want and they always find a way out of difficulty. So these characters supply their needs of model. Also the beautiful colors and the interesting shapes attract them. They improve children’s imagination. Of course I'm not saying that they improve it only in good side. Almost every child in the world today watches cartoons. They are designed to capture children’s attention and amuse them. Most children enjoy watching an hour or so of television after school or on weekend mornings and cartoons are their favorite choice. While many people disagree with children watching too much TV, my view is that cartoons are good, clean fun for young people. First off all, cartoons are good because they are funny and make children laugh. In today’s world, even young children feel stress and they need a chance to laugh and have a fun. Cartoons offer a great way to do this. Watching something amusing and entertaining is a great escape from everyday difficulties. Secondly, everybody needs to relax now and again. When kids come home from school, they want a break from their studies before they do their homework. This can help them prepare for a few more hours of studying. Although it may not look like they are doing anything when watching cartoons, children are actually relaxing and they will work better. In conclusion, cartoons are a harmless, fun way of passing a little time. They amuse children and help them relax. Too much TV might cause problems, such as wasting time, but a reasonable amount of time spent watching cartoons benefits children.

INFLUENCES OF CARTOONS ON CHILDREN Children watch on television a lot of cartoons like Tom and Jerry, Sponge Bob, Mickey Mouse and others. Many parents agree that every child is interested in cartoons. It is very good if a child watches only educational cartoons, but there are a lot of cartoons which have bad influences on children. However, nowadays children become addicted to watching cartoons and, as a result, there are a lot of debates about whether children are affected by cartoons more positively or negatively. Some people, especially elder people, state that cartoons in the Soviet Union were kinder, more colourful and harmless. 92

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Unfortunately, these people claim that modern cartoons have more violent acts than cartoons during their childhood. In contrast, younger generation believe that cartoons are not bad for children. Also, a research review on watching cartoons and language in the early years, conducted by Robin Close on behalf of the National Literacy Trust, found that for children aged two to five good-quality educational television can have a positive impact on attention and comprehension, receptive vocabulary, some expressive language, letter-sound knowledge, and knowledge of narrative and storytelling. So, although, cartoons can be educational and entertaining, many people believe that modern cartoons are very violent, create false sense of reality and negatively affect the development of children’s social skills. Firstly, while watching cartoons, children’s brain processes a lot of violent acts. There are a lot of children who suffer from mental and psychological diseases because of cartoons. Most people think that cartoons are colourful and harmless movies for children. However, it is not always true. Children from the age of two or earlier begin to watch cartoons. Unfortunately, they see some materials, which are not acceptable for their age. Also, most cartoons contain violence, which can affect child’s mind. One example of such kind of cartoon is Tom and Jerry. Tom always tries to hurt and catch Jerry, but usually he is the one who is injured. One of the studies indicates that boys are more affected by violent cartoons than girls. Also, cartoons can be addictive. Children spend more and more time watching cartoons and cannot live even a day without them. Adults have to understand that cartoons with violence will influence child’s brain. So, cartoons can negatively affect children and lead to some diseases. Secondly, children are unable to make the distinction between reality and fiction, they cause harm to themselves by imitating what they see in cartoons. There are a lot of cartoons which show how some characters are jumping, diving and shooting each other. In cartoons, people jump from high buildings and they do not have any injuries. After watching such kind of cartoons, children have an incorrect sense of real life. It can lead to some injuries or dangerous situations or even it can kill a child. Children can try to do what their hero did. «There are three major television effects on children: not sensitive to the pain of others, children who watch violence do not fear violence nor are they bothered by violence in general». Finally, kids might become aggressive and even can hurt others. There is a growing body of opinions among professionals that an increasing number of children are suffering from communication difficulties. Children need to be confident communicators in order to have happy, fulfilled and successful lives. Verbal communication is the method used by the vast majority of people to communicate. However, there are a lot of educational cartoons on television which can give moral lessons and entertainment to children. Educational cartoon characters help children become comfortable to express their feelings. Children learn so many new things. When a child begins to watch educational cartoons he finds out a lot of new things before going to school. While watching cartoons, children try to repeat everything that their favorite character says. They try to speak in the same manner. After that, they can tell it to other people. So, they improve their speaking skills. 93

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Cartoons are also a source for entertainment. Each child spends around two or three or even more hours per day watching cartoons. Indeed, it is really interesting for children to watch cartoons and it is real a good source for entertainment. In conclusion, adults have to understand that it can really influence child’s brain and can push a kid to do terrible things, it can be dangerous for children because they try to do unreal things after watching cartoons. On the other hand, there are many cartoons which teach children new things which can be useful in their future life. So, parents should choose a good environment for their children which will protect them from some failures. Source:http://www.ehow.com

THE IMPORTANCE OF COLOUR AND CARTOONS FOR YOUR CHILD DEVELOPMENT I. Read the article There are many things that are important to a child’s development. Visual learning is a vital aspect of this and everything from colours to cartoons influence how a child discovers the surrounding world. To a child, the world is an interesting place, with so much to discover and explore. It is important, therefore, to present children with as many opportunities as possible to learn from the environment around them. On the visual spectrum, both colour and cartoons play a significant role in engaging a child, helping to both inspire them and pique their curiosity. Stimulation in Childhood One of the most important aspects of a child’s early development is stimulation. A child needs this to let them experience, react and ponder all around them. This can be promoted in any number of ways to ensure the child has the best possible start with connecting to and understanding the larger world at hand. From listening to music to playing Cartoon Network games to exploring tastes and textures, all five senses are taken on an exciting roller coaster ride of learning and discovery in the first few years of life. The Role of Colour From Birth One of the first external factors that a child will react to other than instinctive emotions is color. Even though a newborn baby’s sight is far from developed, research has shown that color is still strongly perceived. Color is used in many ways, for everything from setting a mood to sending a mental message and its role in a child’s life is little different. Soft, muted tones have been shown to have a relaxing effect, perhaps the reason why powder blues and yellows are a consistently popular option for a child’s bedroom. Meanwhile, bright colors, such as reds and sunshine 94

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yellows, will entice children into activity, whether this is through toys, Cartoon Network games or even cartoons. The Cartoon Dilemma One of the most powerful visual mediums is no doubt the television and, in relation to children, cartoons. Brightly colored moving images that capture a child’s attention even before they are of an age to understand the message, provide a mesmerizing experience to many little ones. However, as with many things, cartoons have been the subject of much disagreement over the years. Some parents sing their praises whilst others condemn cartoons for a perceived lack of interaction on the part of the child or for promoting what they see as negative messages. The Positive Influence of Cartoons However, although often a point of controversy, cartoons need to be given their due credit and hold a special role that few other mediums can recreate. Whilst a child may not be able to interact with a cartoon in a physical sense, in many ways cartoons promote the learning of both skills and morals. Cartoons undeniably serve an educational purpose, teaching everything from counting to good behavior. They can also create some excellent role models to help instill morals and a sense of right and wrong within a child. It is important for adults to remember that children see the world a lot differently and cartoons in many ways help to provide an understanding of the world around them and the grounding for development into older childhood and into an eventual adult. Being vital to a healthy development, it is important that children get to experience a wide range of both mental and physical stimuli in their early years. Awakened senses mean an awakened mind, allowing an extensive capacity for learning and understanding. As with other sensory stimulants, from color to cartoons, the knowledge that can be gained from visual experiences cannot be undermined.: Source:http://kidsgoals.com

CARTOONS IN CHILDREN’S LIFE. FIRST A BIT OF HISTORY Animation films are older than natural film production. Time origin should be started from the moment of invention of apparatus that could «animate» drawings. On 20th July 1877, a talented inventor, a self-educated engineer Emile Raynaud delivered a report on the results of his work in the academy in France and demonstrated an apparatus called praxinoscope, that he had constructed. It looked like a mechanic toy with a tape covered with drawings and a rotating mirror cylinder. Later on Emile Raynaud improved his apparatus. Nowadays there are other animation techniques, such as puppet animation, silhouette and collage animation, computer animation. First animation film studios were organized by Barr and Bray. Cartoon characters were borrowed from newspaper comic strips or made up at the studios. The most popular animation film character was the cat called Felix, 95

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made up by P. Salliwan in 1917 and improved by O. Mesmer in 1920s. To report dialogues they used “bubbles”, as in comic strips, or subtitles as in films. A young animator from Los Angeles Walt Disney filmed his first cartoon «Steamer Willy» with synchronized sound in 1928. It was the first cartoon about Mickey Mouse. Vladislav Starevich, the founder of three-dimensional animation in Russia, started his work at Hanzhonkov’s firm on 3-D cartoon «Development of Tadpole» making frame-byframe filming of living tadpoles in the water. So 1911 can be admitted as the year of foundation of Russian animation. Animation is a derivative from the Latin word ‘anima’- the soul, that is why animation means ‘making alive’. In our film industry animation is mostly called multiplication, which means ‘making multiple (pictures)’. Developing multiplication is a time-taking and laborious process. Producer defines the theme in general, script-writers work out the plot and screen script, which is divided into episodes and scenes illustrated with a string of sketches. But notwithstanding the fact that cartoons are created in many countries of the world it turns out that not all of them are recommended to watch. What can we watch on our TV screens? Why do some cartoons arouse a storm of happiness, a desire to imitate the favourite characters and form positive emotions but other cartoons do real harm and make children angry? There are two groups among cartoon creators. On the first hand, there are those who imitate grown up life in the cartoons, on the other hand, there are producers who create children’s world with its own mode of life Modern children tend to imitate adult life with its evil and aggression that is why they prefer the first kind of cartoons. We asked in the video shop what kind of cartoons parents tend to buy for their children. We were answered that the majority of purchases are new foreign products. It is not so interesting for many children to watch Russian cartoons after foreign colourful action cartoons. All children chose cartoons according to the principle of brilliance and interest, to the trend in the class or kindergarten. Many Russian cartoons were based on the plot of Russian fairy-tales. Soviet cartoons were interesting and made viewers think. How are things getting on with foreign cartoons? Almost 50% of foreign cartoons are produced on the well-known old principle: the start – culmination – the upshot, the crime – the investigation – the punishment. Therefore, the main plots of American cartoons are conflicts and crimes. The majority of modern cartoons have the following features: 1. Bright, actions occur very quickly. 2. An easy clear plot, repeated in all cartoons. 3. Significance of speech for understanding the cartoon is minimized. 4. The cartoon is voiced by interpreters with similar voices. 5. There is much aggression. 6. Music is monotonous.

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THE COMPARISON OF HOME AND FOREIGN CARTOONS I. Read the text Now let’s try to make an experiment. Watch one episode of a serial «Woody and his friends», which lasts for 10 minutes and retell it. What result are you going to have? Well, I think 1 – 2 sentences about hitting one another and knocking down somebody else and then Woody cried out his famous “Hi-hi-hi-hi-hi. Now, watch, for example, a cartoon «Oh and ah», which also lasts for 10 – 15 minutes. Answer one question, please, «What does the story teach you?» Children sponge everything they can watch on TV. They can’t distinguish fabrication from reality. For them all characters are alive and real. Little ones will imitate them in their behavior, intonation and games. Abroad «Tom and Jerry» DVDs are marked 6+.You bet a child takes it as something natural that one can skin a cat but it will stay alive and have fun or, a mouse can be hit on the head, blown up, poisoned but it will remain safe and sound and will continue plotting against miserable Tom. Now let’s make a detailed comparison of cartoon characters and what cartoons of foreign and home production teach. Let us survey some cartoons of home and foreign production. «The Tiniest Gnome» is a cartoon about the tiniest gnome called Vasia, who as learning how to do good. In each episode he rescues the characters of some fairy-tales, for example, Little Red Riding Hood, seven little goats, three little piglets and so on. It forms wonderful image of a saver. «Magic Sack» The plot is quite recognizable. A well-brought-up bear Spiridon has got grandson Ivashka, who he is taking care of. Ivashka is very naughty and does only the sings that he likes doing. Animals complain about it, the grandfather feels worried an, at last, he decides to make a pedagogic experiment. «If you want to be naughty, then let it be as you like it, but first fill in this sake with stones». Hurray! Long live tricks! «The biggest friend» It transfers us from native widths to mysterious Africa where an angry crocodile lives with an African girl and her friends – a puppy, a chicken, a hand bell and a hippopotamus. The hippopotamus applies to be the biggest friend. The animated film (which comes to a good end, of course), is very intelligible even for the smallest ones. At the end of the cartoon the girl explains to the hippopotamus: «Look! They are very small, but all of them are my great friends». Well, there is nothing to do for the hippopotamus but only to shed flood of tears. In this cartoon we find out who is the best friend. And, of course, it is clear for everyone we must help our friends. Look at the baby who is watching a kind cartoon film. You can see a squall of emotions on his face. Here he laughs with the main character, here frowns his brows, empathizing and being sorry, here – repeats words of a familiar song … Kind animated films have a huge educational value. They can teach the kid to make friends 97

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and sympathize, to help and stand up for the weak, to be generous, to love parents and grandparents, they will show how to overcome difficulties. Watching this cartoon film a small viewer will be convinced that the evil will be punished while the good will always triumph. Let's consider a typical American animated cartoon «Goofy and his friends». Having watched several series of this infinite animated film we can isolate one often repeated plot: there is a certain person who is occupied with any very important business. As a rule, he is busy with something quite useful if not socially (the employee of any company which services population), but for himself personally (builds something, grows up, etc.). Also there is an idler who is extremely busy entertaining himself. Considering the plot we can see the conflict between the main character – Goofy and subjects. Being a hero Goofy naturally must win. As a result, it turns out that the slogger who disturbs a woodpecker in his entertainments is defeated while Goofy is shown as brave, extremely inventive hero, exposing his enemies as fools and losers. Let's take for an example another animated film «Ninja». Schröder and all these cyborgs are a modern embodiment of the evil. It isn't typical for Russian children, there is a constant opposition to bad, the main characters constantly kill and it makes you doubt if they are good? We can see the girl’s image is also cruel in American plots. Traditional qualities for female like shyness, unselfishness, modesty, and the most important motherhood are derided. Everyone saw an episode from “Shrek” (When the bird bursts out from troll’s singing). Children always laugh at this moment. In this way consciousness shift is reached. So we can see that our kid’s mentality is being changed. It isn’t only a scene of a «beautiful» murder; it is a good example of death. The main positive female character of our fairy tale can’t be like that, she can’t be cruel, can’t kill people, animals, birds any living thing. There are monsters and mutating people in all the American cartoons. The main characters shoot, burst, kill, fly by unclear for our brains planes, spaceships. We can hardly call these cartoons kind. Source:https://www.fernbyfilms.com

What it leads to: 1 .Animated cartoon’s brightness allows to attract kind’s attention easily. As a result the child shouldn't make any efforts to learn how to concentrate attention. Inability to concentrate attention develops, and at school the child can't sit the whole lesson and remember all the material. 98

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2. Clear, simple plot doesn’t give opportunity for imagination and fantasy to appear. And after all, you know that animated cartoons are one of the ways to develop thinking, attention and memory. 3. Child’s speech develops intensively in the school period. Therefore, it is very important to hear correct, beautiful native speech, to hear correct intonation and feelings given by speech. The lack of correct speech can lead to lag in its development. 4. Watching animated cartoons a child can observe behavior models, different actions, studies how to achieve his or her aims. Unfortunately, it is a way of aggression. According to numerous researches, children who mainly watch foreign animated cartoons have increase of cruelty and aggression. II. Make the questionnaire: 1. Do you watch animated films? (yes/no) 2. When do you prefer watching animated cartoons? (In the morning, during the lunchtime, in the evening). 3. What kind of animated films do you prefer? (Russian or foreign) 4. What is your favorite cartoon? 5. Who is your favorite character? The questionnaire results 1. Do you watch animated films? (yes/no) 2. When do you prefer watching animated cartoons? (in the morning, during the lunchtime, in the evening). 3. What kind of animated films do you prefer? (Russian or foreign). 4. What is your favorite cartoon ? 5. Who is your favorite character? We have made our research in the form of a questionnaire. The research showed that all the children love animated films. The majority of parents don’t want to limit their children’s choice of a cartoon to watch. The child has a right to choose. It is a very alarming sign. Children choose foreign animated films, preferring such animated films as «School of magicians», «Lillo and Stitch», «The Simpsons», «Futuram» and etc. They watch cartoons more than 4 hours a week that is harmful for their eyes and health. Main characters that can kill or commit a murder make something cruel become their favorite characters. What if our children start imitating their behavior in everyday life? Unfortunately they can hardly name 10 Russian or Soviet cartoons. This is our history and culture. We consider parents should observe what their children watch. In this way, we offer the following recommendations for choosing cartoons: Cartoons must: 1) Teach to love animals. Animals are often used as main characters in cartoons. 2) Teach how to make friends. 3) Help to study world around you. 99

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4) Teach how to do our duties. Therefore characters must set a good example for children. 5) Refuse watching animated series. Every cartoon must have a plot. 6) Watch cartoons no more than 2 hours a week. 7) Retell the mother and the father the contents of an animated film. 8) Read works stories on which animated films are based (for example, read «Dunne and his friends» by V. Nosov) then watch the animated film based on it. Conclusion All children enjoy watching cartoons, but not everything we like is useful. If a child takes some damaging object and starts playing with it, parents take it away. But when children are watching cartoon not all parents pay attention to the fact, whether the plot is «damaging» or not. You can clearly see little respect, cynicism, cruelty that characters of some cartoons show to their relatives, parents, brothers and sisters. In many cartoons these qualities belong to the character that is meant to be positive. It is well known that positive characters should be imitated so these evil traces of character eat into children’s mentality So let us sum up. Recently psychologists have made investigations different cartoons’ impact on children’s mentality. It was found out that after The Soviet cartoons children relax, become friendlier their night sleep and appetite improve. After American computer animation children’s fears widen. They get naughty, start fighting and broking toys. However, nowadays you can hardly see Cheburashka and Winnie-the-Pooh on TV screens. On the contrary aggressive cartoons serials have filled the majority of programs. Of course, cartoons can’t be easily divided into bad or good. As our cultures are different Russian children should better watch home cartoon production. In the experiment our hypothesis was proved. We have shown that not all cartoons influence children positively. That is why in our opinion it is preferable for our children to home made cartoons.

UNIT 11. THE INTERNET. THE EFFECT OF THE INTERNET ON CHILDREN THE INTERNET. WHAT IS THE INTERNET? An easy way to explain the internet is to think of your school computers all linked together into a network that you can put information into and get information out that you and other people in your school have put in. Now imagine that a friend from another school wants to use your information and give you some of hers. You both connect your computers to modems that allow your computers to share information. Other networks can connect to yours and to other networks. This is called internetworking or the internet as it became known. 100

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It is a way of sending information from one computer to another anywhere in the world using phones or satellites, radio links and a lot of other ways. How do kids use the internet?  Here is a list of how some kids use the internet.  Research for projects.  Games, finding and playing them.  Surf report and surf sites.  CD stores and music sites.'  Downloading music.  Finding pictures for hobbies, projects and your own interest.  Looking at girl's sites or boy's sites.  Email, sending messages to my penfriends and keeping in touch with family.  Talking to friends on your personal network.  Kids site chat rooms.  Interactive projects at school.  Looking at school sites.  Making your own web site.  International internet projects.  Social networking sites.  Blogs. Keeping yourself safe on the internet There are two things that you have to be aware of on the internet. 1. Keeping your personal details safe. 2. Being aware that people are not always who they pretend to be. Email You need to take care with email because:  Hackers can access personal email, and if you have personal information that you don't want everyone to know then don't use email to tell your friend about it.  Don't open files or documents on email unless you recognise the person who sent it. You might get a computer virus from a document that comes through email. Rachel says, «Unless you are sending an email to a friend, don't give any personal information like your real name or address or you could get nasty people sending you nasty emails. Just delete any that are from someone you don't know without opening them». Georgia says, «Someone sent my sister an email that had a virus in it and it damaged our computer, Dad was mad because he lost some work files». 101

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 You could get your name on a list and have heaps of adverts sent to you (called 'spam'). If this is happening to you ask mum or dad to talk to your service provider and find out how to block unwanted stuff. Chat Rooms Some sites on the internet are especially for kids and so you should be safe going into their chat rooms. The only problems are that some of the people may not really be kids, but adults who are not very nice people. Here are some ideas to keep you safe.  Always use a nickname; never use your real name.  Never give any personal information like your address, phone number, your family, or even your email address.  Don't send close up photos of yourself, where you live or go to school.  Close the conversation at once if you feel uncomfortable and tell mum or dad about it.  Don't post pictures which could embarrass you or your friends.  Tell your parents, your school or report to the police if you are being cyberbullied. Our topic 'Cyber bullying – bullying from a distance' will tell you more. Did you know? In the 1960s a group of researchers working for the USA Government Defence Department invented a computer network that could keep working even if some of the computers were lost or damaged, eg during a war or a natural disaster. Over the next 20 years or so big businesses, universities and other researchers joined this network until they made a web of networks that were all linked. Then ordinary people started to use the internet and today there are millions of people all over the world who can use the internet in lots of different ways. What kids said  I just don't click on any website or link that I don't know. (Simone)  I use Skype to stay in touch with my family. (Peter)  I like to play Ferraria; it's a really fun game. (Alice)  I play Minecraft with a group of friends who I already know. (Gabe) Dr Kim says: «The internet is a great way to find and exchange information, talk to friends and have fun, BUT don't spend too long at a time on there. You need to get out and exercise, play in the fresh air with your friends and spend time with your family. 102

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Make sure that you sit on a chair that supports your back and is the right height for you and move around often (even if you are in the middle of a really exciting project!)» The Internet Many people use the net, And most haven’t had trouble yet. They will never get the flu But they will get a virus or two. Internet can be really great. But sure that your real name isn’t known And that your face isn’t shown. Source: http://www.cyh.com

11 NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF INTERNET ON STUDENTS AND TEENAGERS The early years of the 21st century have witnessed an explosion in the Internet usage. The popularity of this global system of interconnected network keeps growing nonstop from the day it appeared in human life. Obviously, with the universal access to information and an interactive mechanism to communicate that Internet offers, it is no hard to understand why people all around the world get addicted to it. ECommerce, E-Business and E-Marketing are phenomena that appear as the result of the Internet invasion. There is definitely no doubt about the benefits provided by the use of Internet in daily life. According to the study by Stephen Siwek businesses that are related directly to the Internet created approximate $966 billion in 2014 for the US economy. However, there is a rising concern developing along with the growth of this global system. It is about the negative effects of Internet. The lack of control over information sources, security leaking or internet addiction is mentioned more frequently than ever. Never in the past did the negative effects of Internet receive as much as attention in comparison to this century. So, what exactly are these problems and how do they affect our society. I. Lack Of Face To Face Communication It sounds quite ironic when the lack of face to face communication is mentioned as one of the negative effects of Internet because the Internet is supposed to bring people closer. But the fact is that somehow many people find it easier to communicate through the Internet instead of the traditional direct way. They prefer to discuss over Messenger, Viber or other apps available on the Internet. The idea of taking face to face is becoming a tough decision. Research issued in the International Journal of Organizational Design and Engineering has stated that the face to face communication in teamwork helps people build mutual trust, creative and provide a higher result. When teenagers and students and tend to choose Internet communication and avoid talking directly, their personal relationships with friends and family will be 103

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affected. According to The Washington Post survey and its result, about 6% of participants replied that their relationships got hurt as a consequence of excessive Internet use. It is believed that some people who prefer online chatting because it somehow separates them from the real world. II. Lack Of Creativity The lack of creativity in teenagers and students is also another one of negative effects of Internet rooting from its benefits. One significant feature of Internet is the unlimited sources of information. This feature benefits users by quick access to needed info at ease. However, when everything is available, there is no need for creativity. Students now don’t have to pay much effort on their assignment or project because they only need a few minutes to get all information they need from the Internet then copy paste into their work. This problem is a warning for the increase in plagiarism, leading to the lack of creativity. When this habit happens several times, these young people will be dependent on the Internet to finish their studying. The same situation happens to not only students but also to users at any age. Things get easier in a way that it becomes a hindrance for learning and creativity. III. Cyber Bullying Cyber bullying is basically a term to describe the bullying using the Internet. This disadvantage can be considered as one of the evilest negative effects of Internet [1]. It is never easier for haters to give ugly words toward a person. Celebrities or some kinds of people in protected class are often the victims of cyber bullying. This type of harassment is safer and easier than physical bullying because there is hardly any regulation or law to control the problems. Victims of cyber bullying may feel insulted or embarrassed because of the wicked comments or opinions. The negative effects will be worse on teenagers, especially on those who are in puberty with all the vulnerability and sensitiveness. There is a positive relationship proved between cyber bullying and suicidal attempts by victims. Students are considered to be most bullied on the Internet. A couple of criticism from teachers or cheating from groups of friends can drive a student insane and finally to suicide. Therefore, it is important to be aware of these negative effects of Internet in advance. IV. Waste of Time It will be a mistake to forget the waste of time when it comes to the negative effects of Internet. The Washington Post revealed that 9% attempted to hide «nonessential Internet use». In addition, Stanford University also conducted a study showing that 12.4 percent of participants stayed online for a longer time than they intended very often [2]. It is obvious that if you spend too much time on the Internet, you will have to cut down on time for other activities. As an infinite storage of 104

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entertainment, the Internet is somehow similar to the black hole that leaves no way to get out. A lot of students and teenagers spend most of their time just on watching films, surfing Facebook and playing games instead of learning or doing other meaningful activities. If the original purpose of Internet was to help students and teenagers work more efficiently, it now makes them do no work at all. Especially for students, the explorations and advancement of Internet turn it into a promising distraction. As the result, their academic result goes down gradually while the electronic bill payment keeps increasing. V. Abandonment of Family The excessive using of anything always creates side effects. The Internet is not an exception. When students and teenagers use of Internet is too much, the abandonment of family will occur as one of the negative effects of Internet. The tragedy of a couple in Korea will be the most appropriate example for this effect because they were so busy with their virtual baby and forget about their real baby. Finally, this poor baby died of hunger and of the abandonment of his parents. When people spend most of their time on surfing the Internet, they become insensitive to the real life and people around them, including members of their own family. Obviously, the original purpose of parents when they equip their children with the Internet is to open a door to the new world, not to close themselves in a fiction planet without family. For many students, the Internet is the only friend they have. The time for family, for parents is replaced by hours of Internet browsing. They ignore the family and hesitate to talk or interact with other members. VI. Privacy Disrupted Occurring due to the free information flow of Internet, privacy threat is one of the negative effects of Internet that you should know about. Teenagers exchange their picture, private information or personal chat every day in social networking. Many students even update their ID number, their class number and other information relating to personal security. They are not fully aware of the risk privacy threat that their information can be easily approached by strangers and be misused. Their privacy stands a risk of being disrupted and hindered. Therefore, keep in mind that not everything is exchangeable on the Internet. For your best benefits and to stay away of these negative effects of Internet, be careful with all the private information you upload and make sure who is available to reach your information. VII. Insomnia For anyone does not know what insomnia is, it is a sleeping disorder that happens when people are not able to rest or sleep. And the powerful global system, the Internet, somehow is one of the reasons for insomnia. It cannot be denied that teenagers and students are sticking with the Internet all day. They take advantages of any time possible to browsing the Internet, even the sleeping time. Just after several days, they stay up late to check their Facebook or Instagram, it will become a habit and believe me, it is not easy to get rid of it. Moreover, the green light from the computer screen or other types of electronic items can keep you away from your sleep. 105

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We all know that staying up late is not good for our health. When the body cannot have enough time to rest, many health problems will appear. For the students and teenagers, who are at the age of development, insomnia will not only affect their mental health but also their physical growth. The eye strain will happen after a long time looking at the screen. Therefore, save yourself by turning off your Internet early tonight and build up a good habit of sleeping early to stay away of many health problems. VIII. Physical Inactivity When it comes to the negative effects of Internet, we cannot ignore physical inactivity. As we all learn it in school, a full education includes mental and physical development. It is the reason why there is break- time between classes so that students can relax and work out their body. The Internet only supports for the mental side. There is no exercise for teenagers and students in this global system. When people use the Internet a lot, they will lack time for physical activities such as playing sports. Moreover, because the Internet makes everything available, it also reduces the need for these activities. Students can submit their projects without going to schools. Teenagers can talk to their friends without getting out of their bed. The more convenient the Internet is, the fewer physical activities for students and teenagers. This tendency will affect a lot on the development of these young people. They are advised to go outside, do regular exercise and be more active at these ages. The emphasis on the Internet use should be reduced or, sooner or later, these negative effects of Internet will lead to mental health problems in students and teenagers. IX. Internet addiction The Internet addiction is not less dangerous than other types of addiction. From the day that Internet explosion occurred, this disadvantage has appeared and spread throughout the world without notice. The feature of people having trouble with Internet addiction is that they seem to marry their own phones or computers. Anytime you see them, their eyes are on the screen. For students and teenagers, online games or these social networking websites are a big attraction. 13.7 percent of people found it difficult to get away from the Internet for about a number of days at a time, based on the statistic given by Stanford University. An interesting fact is that males are more likely to addict to the Internet, based on a research from the University of Lowa. Not only being lured by these above factors, many students and teenagers come to the Internet as a way to hide from the real world. The pressure from parents’ expectation, from studying or even bullying scares them severely. They feel more comfortable and safer when living in a fiction world created on the Internet. The dangerous problem of internet addiction is not only about their life tendency but also their health. A study published on March 12, 2010, has shown a positive relationship between the use of the Internet and depression [5]. 106

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Specifically, people who are addicted to the Internet will be more likely to get depressed than normal people. According to Hilarie Cash, an American psychotherapist recommended that 8 – 10% of American teenagers get addicted to the Internet. This number means that approximately 2 million teenagers become depend on this system around the United States alone. It is a true alarm for people to recognize these negative effects of Internet on students and teenagers. X. Cheating It is true to say that the Internet creates a number of troubles for teachers. The cheating becomes much easier for students with a source of knowledge from all over the world. They can find the answer for all the homework without a lot of effort, resulting in an increase cheating, academic fraud, and plagiarism. Educators have realized this problem and tried to deal with it by developing websites that can check essay and research papers against published content as an effort to detect pilfered material. However, the cheating can still happen in several ways that are out of the control. Therefore, changing the cheating culture among students and raising their awareness will be more practical to prevent these negative effects of Internet. Source:http://vkool.com

MOBILE PHONES Do you think mobile phones are bad for your health? Find out why some health professionals are worried about mobile phone use in reding practice exercise below. You can find the meaning of the words in bold in the vocabulary list under the text, and check your understanding by doing the Mobile Phones Quiz. Can talking on a mobile phone be hazardous to your health? It is difficult to know for sure. Some research suggests that heavy users of mobile phones are at a greater risk of developing cancerous brain tumors. However, many other studies suggest there are no links between cancer and mobile phone use. The main problem with the current research is that mobile phones have only been popular since the 1990s. As a result, it is impossible to study long-term exposure to mobile phones. This concerns many health professionals who point out that certain cancers can take over twenty years to develop. Another concern about these studies is that many have been funded by the mobile phone industry or those who benefit from it. Over five billion people now use mobile phones on a daily basis, and many talk for more than an hour a day. Mobile phone antennas are similar to microwave ovens. While both rely on electromagnetic radiation (EMR), the radio waves in mobile phones are lower in frequency. Microwave ovens have radio wave frequencies that are high enough to cook food, and they are also known to be dangerous to human tissues like those in the brain. The concern is that the lower-frequency radio waves that mobile phones rely on may also be dangerous. It seems logical that holding a heat source near your brain for a long period of time is a potential health hazard. 107

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Some researchers believe that other types of wireless technology may also be dangerous to human health, including cordless phones, wireless gaming consoles, and laptop or tablet computers with wireless connections. They suggest replacing all cordless and wireless devices with wired ones where possible. They also say that many cordless phones can emit dangerous levels of Electromagnetic Radiation even when they are not in use. They even suggest keeping electronic devices such as desktop and tablet computers out of the bedroom, or at least six feet from the head while we're sleeping. A growing number of health professionals worldwide are recommending that mobile phone users err on the side of caution until more definitive studies can be conducted. They use the example of tobacco to illustrate the potential risks. Many years ago, people smoked freely and were not concerned about the effects of cigarettes on their health. Today, people know that cigarettes cause lung cancer, though it is still unknown exactly how or why. Some doctors fear that the same thing will happen with mobile phones. In May 2016, the UK's Independent newspaper reported on research by the US government's National Toxicology Program that showed a slight increase in brain tumors among rats exposed to the type of radio frequencies commonly emitted by mobile phones. This doesn't prove that mobile phones can cause brain tumors in humans, but it does show that it's possible. As a result, many experts now recommend texting or using head sets or speaker phones instead of holding a mobile phone to the ear. Source:http://www.englishclub.com

Vocabulary Word conduct verb definitive adj. device noun electromagnetic radiation (EMR) noun err on the side of caution idiom fund verb gaming console noun hazardous adj. logical adj illustrate verb long-term exposurephrase mobile phone noun potential adj. tissue noun tobacco noun

Meaning to carry out an activity like a survey, experiment, musical performance, etc certain; unlikely to be challenged or improved upon a piece of technology with a specific purpose electromagnetic energy that spreads in waves, incl. light waves, radio waves, microwaves, X-rays, etc. to not take a risk, esp. when you're unsure of the level of danger to provide money or a budget for something a hand-held device used for playing video games likely to cause health problems; dangerous rational, reasonable or making good sense 1. to use examples, evidence, records, etc. to explain something 2. to draw close proximity to a hazard for a long tim a wireless telephone with a network connection possible, esp. in the future a group of cells in the body that work together dried leaves smoked in cigarettes, cigars and pipes 108

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Mobile Phones Quiz 1. According to the text, do mobile phones lead to brain tumors? a) Yes, definitively b) Definitively not c) Too early to say 2. The text mentions the 1990s because this was when mobile phones a) were invented b) caused cancer c) became popular 3. Why does the article mention microwave ovens? a) They also use EMR b) They cause tumors c) They can be wireless 4. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the article? a) video game consoles b) digital televisions c) laptop computers 5. If mobile phones are shown to be hazardous, the mobile phone industry's profits will a) increase b) decrease c) stay the same 6. Which are NOT a form of electromagnetic radiation? a) sound waves b) radio waves c) microwaves 7. Many experts say electronic devices should be at least six feet from our heads when we're a) keeping them b) using them c) sleeping 8. Many health professionals say we should be careful until _______ studies on safety are done. a) definitive b) logical c) scientific 9. How is mobile phone use compared to tobacco use in this article? a) Both cause brain tumors b) Both need long-term studies c) They are equally hazardous 10.Which is recommended when using a mobile phone? a) Holding it to your ear b) Doing a handstand c) Using a headset 109

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UNIT 12. SPORT AND LEISURE SPORT I. Answer the questions 1. Do you like to play sport? 2. How often do you play sport? 3. Would you like to be a professional athlete? 4. Do you like to watch sport on the television? 5. Who do you normally play sport with? 6. What sort of sport is your favorite? 7. Why do you play sport? 8. Have you ever been to a sporting event? 9. What does a person have to do to become a professional athlete? 10.What do you think is the most dangerous sport? II. Read the text There are many different kinds of sports that are undertaken by a wide variety of different people. Some people do sport for their career and other people purely do sport for enjoyment and recreation. Some sports, like cricket, require the use of a lot of equipment, while others need very little in order to successfully play a game in that sport. Some people use public playing fields to play sport for free, while other sports such as squash, tennis, badminton and table tennis are usually paid for on an hourly basis in the comfort of a local leisure center. Most sports are played with a round object often known as a ball. Some sports use more than one ball and snooker is one of the unique sports that make use of a number of balls while being played. The game itself is often controlled by an impartial individual known as an umpire in cricket and a referee in sports like football and rugby. Most sports have a duration of not more than a few hours, however some athletic tournaments can last for up to a week and a game of cricket can be five days in duration before a winner is announced. Some people prefer to watch sport. This can either be done by going to a stadium, a local leisure center, park or on the television. It is often cheaper to watch sport from the comfort of a person’s home than to visit the stadium or a special event. Some sports, such as football and cricket, are really popular in the United Kingdom but not in the USA. In the USA people often play basketball and baseball. However, most countries put aside time to compete in world sporting events such as the football world cup or the Olympics, which occur every four years. Nowadays, people who suffer from any kind of disability are also encouraged to participate in sport and most sport equipment is adapted to suit the needs of a disabled person. This means sport is something that can be enjoyed no matter the physical ability of the person. The para-olympics takes place a week after the main event and it is equally popular. Participation in sporting activity is encouraged by doctors and at schools given the beneficial impact it has on the health of the 110

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individual that participates, and it is for this reason and the competitive nature of individuals that sport remains a very popular activity worldwide. Source:http://teachershelp.ru

III. Answer the questions to the text 1.Which sport requires the use of a lot of equipment? a) Football b) Athletics c) Cricket d) Rugby 2.What sport is popular in the United Kingdom? a) Baseball b) Cricket c) Basketball d) Athletics 3.What sport is popular in the United States? a) Cricket b) Baseball c) Football d) Squash 4) What sport can last longer than a day in duration? a) Football b) Baseball c) Rugby d) Cricket 5) How often is the Olympics held? a) Every year b) Every two years c) Every four years d) Every year

SPORT IS GREAT! Ade Adepitan was born in Nigeria in 1973. As a child, he contracted Polio, which left him unable to use his left leg and eventually prevented him from walking. Against all odds, Adepitan has become an extremely successful sportsman. As one of Britain’s best wheelchair basketball players, he has received many awards, including an MBE in 2005 for his services to disability sport. At just three years old, Adepitan moved to England with his mother to join his father. From an early age, he dreamt of becoming an international sportsman and, despite the difficulties he faced, decided to give it his best shot. In 2004, Adepitan competed as a member of the Great Britain team at the Summer Paralympics in Athens. The team gave the opposition a run for their money and won the bronze medal. Later, at the 2005 Paralympic World Cup they won hands down and took the gold medal home. Still a keen sportsman, Adepitan has not yet decided to throw in the towel, although he has also proven he’s 111

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not a one trick pony by working as a TV presenter, campaigner and charity worker. He sends a message of positivity to people and encourages them to believe that the ball is in their court and that they have the power to make their lives a success. Source:http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

I. Match idioms with their meaning against all odds a) awards to give it your best shot b) team to give someone a run for their c) medal money to win hands down d) campaigner to throw in the towel e) wheelchair to be a one trick pony f) Paralympics the ball is in your court g) opposition international h) keen disability sport i) charity worker

SPORTS AND LEISURE What do snowboarding, base jumping, skydiving, downhill mountain biking, and hang gliding have in common? They are all considered “extreme” sports because they involve some degree of danger, and lots of excitement. Many people choose these alternative sports over traditional options like soccer or tennis. Patrick, 25, started snowboarding when he was eight. He still feels he needs to be constantly on the edge. Catherine, 47, started bungee jumping a few years ago simply to add some variety to her life. Indeed, extreme sports, or alternative sports as others prefer to call them, attract people of all ages, including parents with their children. Paul, 35, enjoys skateboarding and mountain biking with his 10-year-old daughter. He says that skateboarding requires as much, if not more, training and skill as soccer, basketball, or boxing. Many parents like him feel that some of these sports create the perfect opportunity to teach children about safety, self-confidence and endurance, while engaging in new physical activities. Undoubtedly, fear is a special component of these cool sports that attract young and mature audiences alike. However, according to experts, with the development of appropriate equipment that enables us to do sports safely, risk of injury can be reduced. Unfortunately, in most cases, safety equipment is expensive, raising the cost of participating. For example, a 30-second bungee jump may cost from $50 to over $300 in different parts of the world. Source: http://www.hau.gr

I. Answer the questions to the text Who likes skateboarding? What examples of extreme sports are mentioned? What examples of traditional sports are mentioned? When did Catherin start bungee jumping? How long does a bungee jump take? 112

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How old are Patrick and Catherin? How old is Paul’s daughter? What sport does Patrick practice? Why are extreme sports usually expensive? How much does it cost to go bungee jumping? II. Decide if the following ideas are true or false 1 People of all ages practice alternative sports. 2 Paul’s daughter has been skateboarding for over ten years. 3 Fear discourages people from doing extreme sports. 4 Over 2 million people practice extreme sports in the US. 5 Safety was a problem when practicing extreme sports in the past. 6 Alternative sports produce better athletes than traditional sports. 7 Prices to go bungee jumping vary from place to place. 8 Extreme sports sometimes require more training than traditional sports. 9 Not all extreme sports involve danger. 10 Alternative sports are not suitable for children. III. Match each phrase taken from the text to its meaning. 1. have in common a) are similar to each other 2. choose sth. over sth. else b) prefer 3. be on the edge c) feel excited 4. add variety d) make more interesting 5. attract young and mature audiences alike e) be enjoyed by everyone 6. create the perfect opportunity f) be a good chance IV. Do you agree or disagree with the following statements and why? 1. Alternative sports are perfectly appropriate for children. 2. Everyone should try at least one kind of extreme sport in high school. 3. Children should practice the sports that their parents have practiced. 4. Everyone should investigate the risks involved before starting a new physical activity. V. Multyplichoise: 1. What is the main purpose of this article? a) to show the advantages of alternative sports b) to encourage people to take up sports c) to discuss the popularity of alternative sports d) to discuss the dangers of alternative sports 2. Why does Patrick practice snowboarding? a) He enjoys the excitement. b) It builds endurance. c) He finds it physically challenging. d) It helps to develop self-confidence. 3. According to Paul, what is true about snowboarding? a) It’s easier than soccer. b) It doesn’t require physical strength. c) It’s not expansive to do. 113

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d) It takes a lot of practice. 4. How can risks be reduced? a) by meeting with experts b) by training with an expert c) by using appropriate equipment d) by practicing in groups 5. What can be inferred about the author of this article? a) He has trained extreme sports in the past b) He believes children shouldn’t take part in extreme sports. c) He thinks extreme sports are not worth the cost. d) He is in favor of extreme sports. VI. Work in pairs. Which of the following are important for you when choosing a sport? Athletic skills, coach, cost, equipment, friends, fun, risk, safety, sense of danger, social status, team, time, training, uniform, venue. VII. Based on your partner’s answers which sports would you recommend him/ her? Match words taken from the text to its meaning. 1. constantly a) suitable 2. undoubtedly b) decrease 3. appropriate c) certainly, without a doubt 4. endurance d) not traditional, different 5. reduce e) all the time 6. alternative f) strength VIII. Fill in the correct prepositions: My sister and I have nothing … common with each other. I decided to choose English lessons … Spanish as I thought it would be more useful for my career. People … all ages will find the play entertaining. Your success at work depends … your ability to work well as part of a team. Garry shows no interest … his studies and may have to repeat the year. Our prices range … € 10.00 to € 50.00 per pair of shoes.

EXTREME SPORTS Extreme sports are nontraditional sports and activities that require participants to combine athletic skill with pronounced risk. An extreme sport is a popular term for certain activities which have a high level of danger. These activities often involve speed, height, a high level of physical training. We can call many kinds of sports extreme ones. Extreme sports are rarely sanctioned by schools. 114

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Usually athletes don't have a coach or may hire him later. People in extreme sports complete not only against each other, but also against weather and difficulties and conditions of exact kind of extreme sport. There are many extreme sports that take place in air, land, and water. For example there are some of them: ski jumping, sky diving, sky surfing, sky flying, indoor climbing, BMX (bicycle motocross), mountain biking, mountain boarding, skateboarding, snowboarding, powerboat racing, surfing, whitewater kayaking, windsurfing. All these sports need to have special equipment and glasses. For surfing we need a surfboard and swimming kits. For snowboarding we need a snowboard and special boots to fix them on the board and a suit and also sunglasses that help to look at the snow and a helmet. For BMX sport you need a special not high bike with small wheels. Sportsmen can dress fashionably, usually in shorts and a T-shirt, trainers, if they want they wear a cap. We can be sure that many new extreme sports will appear soon. Every year more and more people are interested in extreme sports and take active part in them. I'm sure that soon extreme sports will be on a high level. Source:https://www.catalogs.com

UNIT 13. POCKET MONEY POCKET MONEY I. Answer the questions: Do you argue with your parents because of money? Do children need pocket money? Do you get pocket money? How do you spend it? How can pocket money teach a teenager to be responsible? How often do your parents give you pocket money? What is the right amount of pocket money teenagers should get? Do you think one should keep his savings? Is it fair to pay children for house chores? Do you think children should do chores for free or get paid for that? Do you do chores for money or for free? Where do you think one should keep his savings? Do you budget? What buying is just waste of money in your opinion? Does it take a lot of time for you to decide on a new purchase? How can you ern extra money in your country? What expenses do you cut down when you have a small amount of money at your disposal?

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II. Grammar exercises. Write the verbs / words in the correct tense / form The main reason for (give) … children pocket money is to help them feel that they (be) … important members of the family. Besides, it helps teenagers to make a (choose) … . However, it can be a problem if there isn’t much money in the family, but even a small amount can give a child the (feel) … of independence. Besides, some teenagers often make bad use of their money or overspend it on unimportant things or even get hooked on bad habits like (buy) cigarettes. My (advise) … to those teenagers is that they should remember that their parents worked hard to win that money. So they must be very careful with it. III. Choose the correct alternative 1. My mother is always (complaint – complain – complaining) about our overspending. 2. Young children spend their allowance (on – in – at) sweets. 3. Spending money gives you a little (happiness – freedom – sadness). 4. I’m tempted (for – by – to) to purchase more and more goods. 5. Spending pocket money on (stashioneries – stationeries – stationnaries) is not a good habit. 6. Teens should learn how to manage their (salaries – charity – expenses). 7. My grandfather says «Money is (easy – fast – hard) to earn». Sometimes he adds «Money doesn’t grow (up – at – on) trees». IV. Match the sentence parts 1. I usually get more pocket money a) from a nearby kiosk 2. I hate spending it on useless things b) than my brother 3. Whereas Sam always buys c) he wants to keep all his money in stationeries the bank 4. As a result I always have money d) while Sam doesn’t leave any left in my purse savings e) like games or CDs V. Match the texts with their headings 1. Chores of two types 2. Beforehand agreement 3. From minimum to maximum 4. The way to go 5. When to pay 6. Economic relations 7. Some basic principles 8. The older, the more A. Some parents prefer to set chores that need to be done before their child ‘earns’ their pocket money. Again, this is entirely up to you and obviously will partly depend on how old your child is. Rest assured, if your child doesn’t do their chores and pocket money is withheld… well, even the youngest kids will learn from that quick smart! B. Of course, some parents may feel it unnecessary to pay their children for chores that should be done anyway. In this case, perhaps you can divide the chores into 116

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things that need to be done, such as cleaning their room or helping with the dishes, and extra chores they can earn pocket money from, like helping in the garden. C. Another option is to set a minimum amount of pocket money – say, £3 per week – then offer an extra 50 p (or whatever you think is appropriate) for any chores you’d like them to do that week, such as making the bed or tidying up the toys. As they get older and their pocket money increases, these chores should become part of what is expected of them, and you can offer different ‘bonus’ chores. It’s a good way to show not only the rewards that come from hard work, but also how important it is to contribute at home as part of the family. Making your child “earn” their money will also help them to start appreciating its worth. D. Once your kids hit secondary school, there’s little doubt the whole pocket money issue will need to be renegotiated. Suddenly, your child is going to find they ‘need’ a lot more things – the latest iPod, new DVDs, and brand name clothing only please! Be sensitive to all of this – remember, it’s not easy being a teenager and there’s a lot of pressure to ‘fit in’ – but don’t just cave in and give them more money when they’ve run out or buy whatever they want. Instead, use this as an opportunity to teach them about the value of things and the importance of saving. E. You might like to agree to pay for the necessities while giving pocket money for the fun extras, so decide with your child what you will and won’t pay for. Basic necessities might include: transport to and from school, school uniforms and supplies, clothing for day-to-day wear or a special occasion. Extras could be things like going to the cinema or other trips with friends, fast food and other snacks you’re unwilling to pay for, beauty supplies, and CDs or DVDs. For bigger purchases, perhaps you can agree to pay for half of it while they save for the rest themselves. F. Decide also when you will pay pocket money. You could decide to pay your child a lump sum at the start of the month, which has to last them till the next month – this will start teaching them the importance of budgeting and make them think about what they spend their money on, rather than blowing it all in one go. G. There are other handy tips for parents to consider. You may teach your kids to shop around – show them that the most affordable clothes can still be stylish, and that there isn’t always much difference (other than price) between these and designer labels. You may be willing to pay for some more expensive items if your teens are happy to choose cheaper options elsewhere. Help your children think for themselves by making them aware of peer pressure and advertising. Source: https://pandia.ru

HOW MUCH POCKET MONEY SHOUD YOU PAY? There is no right or wrong answer to this. How much you are prepared to give depends entirely on what you believe is fair, what you want your child to get out of it, and how much you can afford. According to Halifax’s 2009 statistics children received an average of £6.24 per week, a slight rise on the 2008 amount of £6.13. Children in London also fared much better than in other areas, with averages above £10, while children in the South 117

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West and East Anglia received £4.50 and £4.91 respectively. Research also showed that a child’s age played a big part in how much parents were willing to give, with 8 to 11 year-olds getting an average of £4.80 per week whilst 12 to 15 year-olds received a whopping £7.44. When it comes to deciding on pocket money for your child, start by considering what you think is appropriate for their age. Using the above figures as a guide, a couple of pounds a week would be quite reasonable if your child is under eight years old. If you share care of your child, speak with the other parent to come up with a figure you both think is fair – you might choose to each pay half of the amount. Also, think about what else you give your child. If you are happy to buy the majority of things they want or need, you might not want to give them too much pocket money as well. It could also be handy to have a chat with other parents, particularly those of your child’s friends, about how much they give their children. But whatever you do, don’t fall into competing with them! Research from Child Trust Fund provider The Children’s Mutual has shown that 16% of parents feel like they are paying too much pocket money, but are pressured into keeping up with what other parents are giving. Only you can know what best suits your child (and your pocket!), so never worry about «keeping up with the Joneses». Once you’ve decided an appropriate amount, sit down with your child and discuss it with them. You might like to make an agreement that they will get a ‘pay rise’ each birthday, or ‘bonuses’ for good work at home or school – this will give them something to look forward to, as well as some incentive to behave! Source: https://www.moneymagpie.com

Read the text and decide true, false or not stated There isn’t one and right decision how to give pocket money. 1) True 2) False 3) Not stated Parents from all over the world give pocket money to children. 1) True 2) False 3) Not stated The older a child is, the bigger sum he/she receives. 1) True 2) False 3) Not stated An eight-year-old should receive two pounds a week. 1) True 2) False 3) Not stated Both parents are responsible for the sum to give. 1) True 2) False 3) Not stated Parents shouldn’t give less than other parents nearby. 1) True 2) False 3) Not stated Children should have some encouragement to receive more pocket money. 1) True 2) False 3) Not stated Children prefer to receive more money for the birthday. 1) True 2) False 3) Not stated

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