270 111 11MB
English Pages 802 [797] Year 2015
CHESS OPENINGS THEORY AND
PRACTICE
L A. Horowitz
CHESS OPENINGS THEORY AND PRACTICE
Simon and Schuste� New YOrk
For Edna
All rights reserved including the right of reproduction in whole or in part in any form Copyright© 1964 by I. A. Horowitz Published by Simon and Schuster, Inc. Rockefeller Center, 630 Fifth Avenue, New York 20, N. Y FIRST PRINTING
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 6424336 Manufactured in the United States of America Printed by The Murray Printing Company, Forge V illage, Mass. Bound by The Book Press, Brattleboro, Vermont
CONTENTS I NTRODUCTION VII
SECTION ONE: KING'S PAWN OPENINGS CHAPTER
2
1.
Bishop's Opening
2.
Center Game
3.
Danish Gambit
4.
Four Knights' Game
5.
Giuoco Piano
6.
Unusual Openings [ EVANS GAMBIT, H U NGARIAN
6 10 13
25
DE F E NSE, HALF GI UOCO GAM E )
39
43
7.
King's Gambit
8.
Petroff's Defense
9.
Ruy Lopez
69
82
A. SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE MOVE 3 . .. PQR3 B. SYSTEMS WITH THE MOVE 3 .. . PQR3
195
10.
Scotch Opening
1 1.
Two Knights' Defense
12.
Vienna Game
13.
Unusual King Pawn Games
14.
Alekhine's Defense
15.
Center Counter Game
221 230
16.
CaroKann Defense
17.
French Defense
18.
Nimzowitsch Defense
19.
Pirc Defense
20.
Sicilian Defense
203
252 259
285 356 363
352
224
107
85
VI
• CONTENTS
SECTION TWO: QUEEN'S PAWN OPENINGS 448
21.
Queen's Gambit Accepted
22.
CambridgeSprings Defense
23.
Catalan Opening
24.
Irregular Queen's Gambit Declined
25.
Manhattan Variation
26.
Meran Defense
27.
Orthodox Defense
28.
Queen Pawn Games Without Early PQB4
29.
Slav Defense
30.
Tarrasch Defense
3 1.
Benoni Defense
32.
Budapest Defense
33.
Dutch Defense
34.
GrunfeldIndian Defense
469
475 485
492
494 508
536 558 566 587 592 617
3 5. King's Indian Defense
638
36.
NimzoIndian Defense
676
37.
Queen's Indian Defense
712
SECTION THREE: OTHER OPENINGS 732
38.
Bird's Opening
39.
English Opening
738
40.
Indian in Reverse
744
41.
RetiSystem
42.
Sicilian Attack
43.
Irregular and Unusual Openings
INDEX
785
758 765 775
5 30
• VII
INTRODU CTION AccoRDING to William Cook's The Evolution
of the Chess Openings} the oldest
work on the openings is a thirtypage manuscript by an unknown author, written in 1490 and discovered at the University of Gottingen in the latter part of the nineteenth century. While presentday nomenclature was naturally not then in use, this early text contains such openings as the Petroff Defense, the Philidor Defense, the Ruy Lopez, the Giuoco Piano, the English Opening and Bird's Opening. The manuscript, of course, is more interesting for its age than its utility. It may be noted in passing that before the appearance of this ancient work, rules of play were quite different from those in the modern game. For example, there was no provision for castling; at one time the King could leap like a Knight once during a game; a Pawn could not initially traverse two squares; the Queen's move, far from being allpowerful, was severely limited. Following the 1490 tract were others by V incentz ( 1495), Lucena ( 1497), Damiano ( 1512), Ruy Lopez ( 1561), Polerio ( 1590), Captain Bertin ( 1735) and Philidor ( 1749). These prepared the ground for more comprehensive works. Bilguer' s Haudbuch was the dominant reference for some time until it was superseded by a number of international treatises, which, in the Englishspeaking countries, included Modern Chess Openings and Practical Chess Openings.
I Chess openings are definitive patterns of play formed in the first dozen or so moves. Their names are derived variously from the locality or tournament where they made their debut, from the players who originated or popularized them, from common consent as it has crystallized over the years, and occasionally even from the caprice of some prominent eccentric. Popularity, as well as soundness, plays an inevitable part in determining how much space may be usefully devoted to the discussion of any particular opening. Needless to say, if a variation is unquestionably refuted, nothing more can be said. Certainly no informed player will permit the Tarrasch Trap in the Ruy Lopez. But the Giuoco Piano, an oldtime favorite, is also not seen much these days, even though no one could reasonably maintain that it is unplayable. The fianchettoes, on the other hand, are currently fashionable and therefore exten sively analyzed, in startling contrast to the time not so long ago when they languished in the archives.
VIII
• INTRODUCTION
Designed to replace older works on openings, which have become obsolete, this book stresses completeness, ease of reading and reference, currency of mate rial and exhaustive analyses culled from the most authoritative sources. Prefaced by a diagram and a theoretical discussion, the analysis of each opening is categorized into Idea Variations, Practical Variations and Supplementary Variations. Idea Variations, as the term implies, present the inherent ideas and objectives of an opening before it has been subjeaed to the roughandtumble of tournament play. Practical Variations are just thatlines developed through practice, honed and shaped by innumerable tests in masters' tournaments and matches. Branching off from the main lines are byproducts and mutations des ignated as Supplementary Variations. Entire games from major chess events are presented, illustrating salient opening features in depth; and such important openings as the Ruy Lopez, the Queen's Gambit Declined, the King's Indian, the Sicilian, the French, the CaroKann, the NimzoIndian and many others are worked out step by step, variation by variation. Each variation is appraised by means of a symbol placed at the foot of the column:
nteans a better game for White means a better game for Black = means approximate equality ±
=t=
Further signs indicating "hopelessly lost" or "markedly superior but without immediate forced win" have been dispensed with, for such symbols would not only clutter the text with unnecessary complexity, but would tend to stifle even a minimal initiative by the reader in forming a basic judgment.
Theory and Practice
Chess Openings:
is a guide, not a gospel.
I am deeply indebted to former world champion Dr. Max Euwe and a large company of collaborators who have made this work possible. They are Jack Straley Battell, Hans Bouwmeester, Theodore A. Dunst, Arthur Feldman, Ernst Griinfeld, William Miihring, P. L. Rothenberg, Aben Rudy, Theodor D. Van Scheltinga, H. L. Tan, and Carel B. van den Berg. This doubledistilled essence of master play, which has been centuries in the making and reflects judicious thinking on contemporary practice, is offered both to presentday and future generations in the confidence that it will prove an "open sesame" to the creative and strategic planning of the openings. AL HoRowiTz
•t
Section One: KING'S PAWN OPENINGS
2 • CHESS OPENINGS
chapter 1Bishop's Opening 1 PK4, PK4 2 BB4, NKB 3A 3 PQ4B, PxP 4 NKB 3c
KEY PosiTION
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION A The socalled Berlin Defense, which is the most active. Other good moves are 2 .. . NQB3 and 2 . .. BB4. There is a chance for transposition into other openings: the Giuoco Piano, the Vienna and the King's Gambit. But 2 . .. PQB3? is inferior: 3 PQ4, NB3 4 PxP, NxP 5 QK2 and White has the edge. B Other moves transpose into other openings. After 3 PQ3, Black can play advantageously 3 .. .PQB3. c On 4 PK5, Black plays 4 .. . PQ4! Or 4 QxP, NQB3 which leads to a variation of the Center Game favorable to Black.
Today this is considered the most important position of the rarely played Bishop's Opening. White sacrifices his King Pawn for the sake of an advance in development. A specialist in this gambit is the Russian master, F. Estrin, who has had a number of fine successes with White. The defense is indeed rather difficult for Black. Emanuel Lasker's recommendation (Prac. Var. 3) is prob ably suitable for the safe maintenance of Black's extra Pawn. If Black wishes to avoid the complications arising from 4 . . . NxP, he can satisfactorily decline the gambit in sev eral ways : 4 . . . NB 3, 4 . . . BB4, or 4 . . . PQ4. It is worth mentioning that the key position may also be arrived at via the Steinitz Variation of Petroff's Defense in this manner : 1 PK4, PK4 2 NKB3, NKB3 3 PQ4, PxP and now not 4 PK5 but 4 BB4. IDEA VARIATIONS 15 : { 1 ) 4 . . . NxP 5 QxP, NQ3? 6 00! NB 3 ( 6 . . . NxB 7 RK1 t BK2 8 QxNP and wins) 7 RKl t, NK2 8 BN3. White has a winning position; Black is completely tied down. . ( 2 ) 4 . . . NxP 5 QxP, PQ4? 6 BxP, NKB3 (6 . . . NQ3 7 00) 7 BxPt, KxB 8 QxQ, BN5 i" 9 QQ2 and White is a Pawn to the good. ( 3 ) 4 . . . NxP 5 QxP, NB4 (only 5 . . . NKB3 is correct; see Prac. Var. 13 ) 6 BKN5 !, PKB3 7 BK3, PB3 8 NB3, P""""' Q4 9 000, BK2 1 0 QR4, QNQ2 { 1 0 . . . 00 1 1 NxP ! or 1 0 . . . BK3 1 1 KRK1 ! ) 1 1 NxP!, PxN 1 2 QR 5 t with a winning attack for White (EstrinTaimanov, Leningrad 1 949 ) .
BISHOP'S OPENING
(4) 4 . . . NQB3, which is a sound way of de clining the gambit, leads into the Two Knights Defense : 5 00, NxP 6 RK1 , PQ4. ( 5 ) Most comfortable for Black i s probably 4 . . . PQ4 5 PxP, BN 5 t PB 3, QK2 t . PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 1 5 : 1 PK4, PK4 2 BB4, NKB3 3 PQ4, PxP 4 NKB3 2
1
3
4
5
4
BB4 00 PQ3 PB3 PQ6 QxP NB3 8
NxP
5 QxP NKB3 6 BKN5 BK2 7 NB 3 PB3 1 8 000 PQ4 9 KRK1 BK3 1 0 BQ3 QN"Q22 1 1 QKR4 NB43 1 2 NQ4 !4



NB 3 ! QR4 PQ3 000 BK3 BQ3 QQ2 BN5 00 NQ45
P�Q4 ! 000 BK3 KRKl 00 ! 6 BQ3 PKRY
+
PK5 PQ4 PxN PxB QK2 t BK3 PxP RN1 BN5 QQ49
+
+
Notes to practical variations 15:
1 For 7 . . .00?, see Game 1. 2 Steinitz recommended 10 .. . QR4 11 KN1, QNQ2
12 NK5, NxN 13 RxN, 000 with a satisfactory game for Black. But Keres' recommendation, 11 BB5 !, is stronger for White. 3 11 .. . QR4 12 NQ4, 000 13 NxB, PxN 14 RxP, BN5. White has recovered the Pawn with a likely edge (EstrinKlaman, 1945). 4 Black is in great danger according to Estrin: 12 ... NN1 13 PB4, KB1 14 PQN4 ! Or 12 . ..KNQ2 13 BxB, QxB 14 QxQt, KxQ 15 PB4, threatening 16 PB5. 5 White has good chances for the Pawn (MiesesRubinstein, Breslau 1912). See Game 2. A strong continuation for White is 12 NK5, QQ1 13 NxN, PxN 14 BQ3, PKR3 15 PB4. 6 The text move is recommended by Emanuel Lasker. In ferior for Black is 10 .. . PKR3 11 BxN, BxB 12 QR5, BxN 13 RxBt KBl 14 RxQP with a winning attack (Terestchenko Rotlevi, St. Petersburg 1909).
continued �
•3
4 • CHESS OPENINGS 7 Now the sacrifice 12 BxP is met by 12 . .. NK5 13 QB4, BQ3 14 QK3, BQB4 15 QB4, NxP ! Or 15 . . . BQ3 which leads to a draw by repetition of position. 8 SpielmannAlekhine, Stockholm 1912. 9 The position is similar to the Max Lange and hard to assess: 1) 10 NB3, PxN 11 RQ1, BxPt 12 KB1 ! with obscure complications. 2) 10 NB3, PxN 11 RQ1, PxP 12 �. PN8(Q) 13 RxQ/5, BxPt, again without clear results. 3) 10 NB3, BN5 11 �o. BxN 12 PxB, NB3 13 BB6! with an edge for White.
Bishop's Opening Game WHITE: Schlechter WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
PK4 BB4 PQ4 NKB 3 QxP BKN5 NB3
000
KRK1 QR4 BxQP ! BQB4 BQ3 KNxP BR7t BB 5 ! NxP! BK6t PB4 QN4t BB7? RK6t NK4 ! QxN RxQ
I
BLACK: Neustadt and Afieses Carlsbad 1907 BLACK
PK4 NKB3 PxP NxP NKB3 BK2 00 ? PB3 PQ4 PKR3 ? QNQ2 PN4 PxB RK1 KB 1 KN1 ! KxN KN3 NR4 ! KR3 NxP KR2 NK4 BxR NxB
WHITE
26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49
RxQR QB7 ! QxBP NxN KN1 QQB3 QQ2 QQ3 t QKN3 ! QKB3 NxP ! QKN3 QB2 NQ4 ! QR4t NxB PR4 QR5 t PR4 QB7t PKR5 QN7t PR6 PN4t
BLACK
RxR RK1 N" Q3 BN4'1 BQ2 RK6 RK4 BB4 RQ4 BK3 RK4 BB5 BN4 BK6 KN3 RxN KB4 PN4 RK5 KK4 RR5 KB4 BQ5 Resigns
BISHOP'S OPENING
Bishop's Opening Game 2 WHITE: 1HieseJ BLACK: Rubinstein Breslau 1 9 1 2 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
PK4 BB4 PQ4 NKB3 QxP BKN5 NB3 QR4
000
BQ3 BN5 NQ4 BQ3 PB4
WHITE
BLACK
PK4 NKB3 PxP NxP NKB 3 BK2 NB3 PQ3 BK3 QQ2
00
PQR3 NK4 NxBt
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
RxN RN 3 ! NB 3 BxB NKN 5 RK1 R/3K3 N/3K4 NB6! QxN NxRP! RKN 3 KQ2 Draw
BLACK
PB4 KR1 NN 1 QxB NR3 QQ2 KRK1 BB4 PxN BN3 BxN RxRt RK7·r
•5
6 • CHESS OPENINGS
chapter 2Center Game 1 PK4, PK4 2 PQ4, PxP 3 QxP, NQB3 4 QK3, NB 3 5 NQB 3A
KEY
PosiTio:r.;
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION A 5 PK5 is premature: 5 . . . NKN5 6 QK4 (or 6 QK2, PQ3!), PQ4! 7 PxP e.p.t, BK3 8 BQR6 (if 8 PxP, QQ8t!), QxP 9 BxP, QN5t 10 QxQ, NxQ 11 NQR3, RQN1 12 BK4, BQB4 and Black has a promising game.
This opening is rarely adopted today. White im mediately opens and exerts pressure on the Queen file, bringing, however, his Queen somewhat prematurely into play. Black has two ways to obtain a fully satisfactory game : ( 1 ) Enterprisingly, with 5 . . . BN5, intending to put the King Pawn under fire after . . . 00 and . . . RK1 . In this case, White can sacrifice his King Pawn for good attacking chances. Black, on the other hand, can rej ect the sacrifice, still obtaining a good game. ( 2 ) Staidly, with 5 . . . BK2, soon followed by . PQ4, and establishing full balance in the center. IDEA VARIATIONS 1  3: ( 1 ) 5 . . . BN5 6 BQ2, 00 7 000, RK1 8 BB4, BxN ! ? 9 BxB, NxP 1 0 QB4, NB3 1 1 NB 3, PQ3 12 NN5, and White has a dangerous attack (WinawerSteinitz, Nuremberg 1 896; See Game 1 ) . ( 2 ) 5 . . . BN5 6 BQ2, 00 7 000, RK1 8 BB4, PQ3 ! 9 NB3 (nor is 9 PB3 satisfactory [see Prac. Var. 1 ), but 9 QN3 deserves consideration) , BK3 1 0 BxB, RxB 1 1 NKN5, RK1 1 2 PB4, PKR3 with complications favoring Black (TartakoverReshevsky, Stockholm 1 937; see Game 2 ) . ( 3 ) 5 . . . BK2 6 BB4, 00 (also good is 6 . . . NQN5 so as to meet 7 BN3 or 7 QK2 with . . . PQ4 ) 7 KNK2 (better is 7 BQ2, followed "by 000 or 7 NKB3) , NKN5 ! 8 QQ2 (if 8 QN3, BR5 ! 9 QxN, PQ4) ,BB4 9 NQ1 (9 00 fails : . . . QR5·1o QB4, BQ3 ) , QK2 with a promising game for Black (Troia nescuSpasski, Bucharest 1 95 3; see Game 3) .
Center Game IVHITE:
1
Winawer Nuremberg 1896
WHITE
1 PK4 2 PQ4
BLACK: Steinitz
BLACK
WHITE
BLACK
PK4 PxP
3 QxP 4 QK3
NQB3 NB3
CENTER GAME
WHITE
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
BLACK
BN5 00 RK1 BxN NxP NB3 PQ3 BK3
NQB3 BQ2 000 BB4 BxB QB4 NB3 NKN5
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
WHITE
BLACK
BQ3 PKR4 BR7t RxN BK4 BxB PxP PN6!
PKR3 NQ4 KR1 BxR PB3 ? BPxN NK4 Resigns
Center Game 2 BLACK: Reshevsky
WRITE: Tartakover Stockholm 1937 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
PK4 PQ4 QxP QK3 NQB3 BQ2 000 BB4 NB 3 BxB NKN 5 PB4 PKR4 QB3 NQ5 PxN QQ3 KN1 RxB NR7t NB6t QN3t PR5 PxN RB2 QQB3 RxBP PxQ RB2 RK2 R/1K1
BLACK
PK4 PxP NQB3 NB3 BN5 00 RK1 P�Q3 BK3 RxB RKl PKR3 QB 1 KB l ! NxN! NQ5 NK7 t BxB NxP KN1 PxN NN3 QB4 PxP QN4 QK4 ! QxQ KN2 RKB1 QRKl RxR
WHITE
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61
RxR KN2 PB4 KB 3 PB5 KB4 KxP KQ4 PB4 PR4 RK4 RxP RN4 PR5 KB3 PB5 RN8 RN4 PB6 RN6 RN4 PQ6 PxP PB8 (Q) KB4 KN5 KR4 KN3 KB3 KQ4 Resigns
BLACK
RBBt KB2 PKR4 PKN4 PxP PN5! PN6 PR5 PN3 RB7 RxP RQR7 PN7 PxP PR5 KB3 KB2 PR4 KK2 KB2 RB7! PR6 PR7 PR8 (Q) t RB7t QBBt RR7t QNBI" RB7t PNBjQ ·r
•
7
8 • CHESS OPENINGS
Center Game 3 BLACK: Spasski
WHITE: Troianescu Bucharest 1953 BLACK
WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
PK4 PQ4 QxP QK3 NQB3 BB4 KNK2 QQ2 NQ1 PKB3 PN3 PxQ KB1 KN2 BxP BxN NB3 BKB4 NR4 . KB2 NxB
WHITE
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
PK4 PxP NQB3 BK2 NB3 00 NKN5 BB4 QK2 QR5 t N/5K4! NxPt PQ4 ! NxQ BKN5 BxN BR4 NQ5 BB6t BxR PB3
BB4 NxN KK3 RKN1 BK5 RN3 BN3 PB4 PxP BB2 PR5 RN2 BxB KK2 RB2 PQR3 PxP KB 1 KxR Resigns
BLACK
NK3 PxN BN7 BR6 PKN3 PQN4 PB4 BB8 PBS QRQ1 BQ6 RB8 RxBt RB8 RQR8 RQB8 RB7t RxRt PxP
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 15 : 1 PK4, PK4 2 PQ4, PxP 3 QxP, NQB3 4 QK3, NB3 5 NQB3 1 5 BN5 6 B�Q2 00 7 000 RK1 8 BB4 PQ3 9 PB3 NQR4 10 BQ3 PQ4
2
3
4
5

NQR4 !2 BQ3 PQ4 PK5 PQ5
QN3 RxP!4 BKN5 BxN QxB PKR3
BK2 BQ2 PQ4 PxP NxP QN3 NxN BxN BB3 BQ3· BxB t
NxN QxN NK2 BKN5 NB4 QQ2
CENTER GAME • 9
1 1 1 QN5 PKR3
12 QR4
PQ5 1 +
2 QN3 PxN BKN53 +
3
4
PB3 RKl BR4 PQ35
PxB 00 NK2 QK26
+
+
Notes to practical variations 15 :
5 PKB 3 BB4 000 0007
1 13 NK2, BxBt 14 RxB, PB4 and Black has a strong attack (FeilitschKeres, Correspondence Game 1933). 2 A suggestion by Keres, which Sokolski has elaborated. 3 Sokolski now proceeds 12 ... NK5 13 BxQ, NxQ 14 RPxN, BKB4! 15 BxB, QRxB 16 BxPt, KB1 17 RxR, RxR 18 BQ3!±. However, Black has better by playing first 12 ... PxPt 13 KN1 and then 13 ... NK5! 4 After 8 ... NxP 9 NxN, RxN White obtains good chances with 10 PQB3, followed by 11 BQ3 and 12 NB3. In the above line, weaker is 10 BKB4? Q B3! (Miesescapablanca, Berlin 1913). And if Black varies from the text with 8 . . . PQ3 ?, the continuation favors White: 9 PB3, BK3 10 NR3, QK2 11 NB4 (MiesesSpielmann, Munich 1914). 5 White lacks sufficient compensation for the Pawn. 6 White's Queenside Pawn structure is perforated. 7 White's initiative is at a minimum.
10 • CHESS OPENINGS
chapter 3Danish Gambit 1 PK4, PK4 2 PQ4, PxP 3 PQB3
KEY
PosiTION
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION White intends to accelerate his development by the sacrifice of two Pawns. If both are taken, he may obtain a very strong attack. Black faces a difficult task if he wants to keep his material advantage, but he has it in his power to get a satisfactory position by returning the Pawns in good time. Simpler, however, is to decline the gambit by 3 . . . PQ4, whereupon Black easily obtains equality. IDEA VARIATIONS 13 : ( 1 ) 3 . . . PxP 4 BQB4, PxP 5 BxP, BN5t 6 KB1 (the most enterprising move, though Mieses' con tinuation of 6 NB3 is also promising) , NKB 3 (6 . . . KB 1 or 6 . . . BB 1 may be better) 7 PK5, PQ4 (recommended by theory but unsatisfactory; for 7 . . . NN1 see Game 1 ) 8 BN5t, KNQ2 (if 8 . BQ2 ? 9 QR4 ! and if 8 . . . PB3 9 PxN, PxB 1 0 PxP, RN1 1 1 QB2 ! ) 9 QN4 (Bilguer's Handbuch now gives 9 PK6, PxP 1 0 BxP, KB2 !, when 1 1 BN2 offers White good chances) , BB 1 1 0 PK6, PxP 11 QR5t, KK2 1 2 BR3t, PB4 1 3 BxPt, NxB 14 QN5t winning the Queen (Keres) . Note also 3 . . . PxP 4 BQB4, PxP 5 BxP, PQB3! This move has hardly been tested professionally, though it may well be the refutation of the Danish. Against a move like 6 QN3, Black plays . . . QK2 and threatens to exchange Queens by . . . QN5t and also . . . PQ4, neither of which White can afford. But in addition, Black threatens to play a game of attrition with some such series of moves as . . . PQ3, . . . NQ2B4, followed by . . . BK3. In this way Black builds a barrier difficult to penetrate and in the long run, after beating back White's initiative, assumes the lead  and with two Pawns ahead. The difference between this and Prac. Var. 2 is the sequence of the moves. ( 2 ) 3 . . . PxP 4 BQB4, PxP 5 BxP, PQ4 ! This is Schlechter's Defense. Black returns his material advan tage for a steady position. 6 BxQP (not 6 PxP, NKB3 7 NQB 3, BQ3 which blocks White's attacking lines ) , NKB 3 7 BxPt (Keres suggests 7 N:QB3, BK2 8 QN3, 00 9 000 or 9 RQ 1 , and White has good attacking chances ; in this line not 7 . NxB because of .
.
.
.
DANISH GAMBIT
8 NxN, threatening NB6t ) , KxB 8 QxQ, B·N 5 t 9 QQ2, BxQt 1 0 NxB, PB4 =. ( 3 ) 3 . . . PQ4 ! 4 KPxP, NKB3 (better than 4 . . . QxP; see Prac. Var. 4) 5 PxP (if 5 PQB4, PB4 ; if 5 BN 5 , BK2; and if 5 BQB4, NxP 6 QxP, BK3 ) , BN5 t 6 BQ2, BxBt 7 QxB, 00 8 NKB3, NK5 9 QB4, QxP 1 0 BQ3, QR4t 1 1 QNQ2, NxN 1 2 QxN, RK1 t 1 3 NK5, QxQt 1 4 KxQ, BK3 and the end game ·slightly favors Black (RetiSchlechter) . For 5 NB 3, see Prac. Var. 5 . PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 1 5 : 1 PK4, PK4 2 PQ4, PxP 3 PQB3
1 3 4
5
 PxP BQB41 PxP BxP NKB 3 NQB 3 NB3 NB3 BN5 QB2 PQ3 000 BxN2
2
QK2 NQB3 PB 3 QB2 7 PQ3 000 8 BK3 NQ5 ! 9 PxN PxP 10 QxB QN4t BK3 1 1 KRK1 RQ2 BB4 BxB QN34 12 QxB +003
6
3
PQ3 PB4 BK3 BxB PxB QN3 QB 1 NKB 3 NQB 3 NN5 NQ1 005 +
4
PQ4 ! 6 KPxP QxP PxP NQB 3 NKB3 BN5 BK2 NB3' NB3 QQR4 !8 00 BQ39 BK3 0010
5
NKB 3 ! NB 3 NxP QxP NQB3 BQN5 BK2! 0011 00 BxN PxB RK1 BN2 NR3 KRK1 ! NB4 PQB4 12 
Notes to practical variatio;u 15: 1 Alekhine's recommendation is 4 NxP, which transposes into the Goring Gambit of the Scotch. 2 Weaker is 9 . . .00? 10 PK5, NN5 11 PKR4, PKR3 12 KNl, RKl 13 NQ5 !, BK3 14 NN5! with a winning attack for White. In the above line Black may vary at his 11th turn: 11 ... QNxP, then 12 NKN5, PKN3 13 QNK4, BKB4 14 QN3 with complications favoring White. 3 13 PK5, NKl 14 RK3 and, according to Fine, White has sufficient compensation for the Pawns. 4 In the opinion of Mieses, White has a strong attack for
continued �
• 11
12 • CHESS OPENINGS
the piece: 12 . . . NQ2 13 NB3, QR3 14 QxP, RN1 15 QB7. 5 White has excellent compensation for the Pawns, accord ing to the analyst Nielsen. If 11 .. . PKR3, then 12 QKR3! 6 Inferior is 3 . .. QK2 because of 4 PxP! QxPt 5 BK2 (5 BK3 is also playable), QxNP 6 BB3, QN3 7 NB3, BN5 8 NK2, and White obtains good attacking chances for the Pawns. 7 Or 7 . . . ooo 8 BK3, BN5t 9 N�B3, KNK2 10 oo, QQ2 11 QR4 with even chances. BN5 9 00. Also weaker than the 8 Weaker is 8 . text move is 8 . QKR4 9 PKR3, 00Q 10 QR4. 9 The text is safer here than 9 . . . ooo 10 BK3, BQB4 11 QN3. 10 White's center and easy development compensate for his isolated Pawn. 11 If 8 QxNP, BB3 followed by . ..QK2t and the develop ment of the Queen Bishop and .. .ooo favors Black (Alek hine). 12 Black has a fair game (AlekhineMoling, handicap game, Buenos Aires 1926). After 13 QQ1, however, he should have played 13 ... RQN1 (if 14 NR5, then 14 ... BRl). .
.
.
.
Danish Gambit Game I BLACK: P. Gonzalez W/HfTE: Denker Simultaneous Exhibition 1945 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
PK4 PQ4 PQB3 BQB4 BxP KB1 PK5 QN4 QB3
BLACK
PK4 PxP PxP PxP BN5t NKB3 NN1 BB1 NKR3
WHITE
10 11 12 13 14 I5 16 17 18
NB3 NQ5 NB6t! NR3 PxB QB4 NN5 NxPt! QR6!
BLACK
BK2 00 KR1 BxN PKN3 NB4 NQ3 NxN Resigns
FOUR KNIGHTS' GAME • 13
chapter 4Four Knights' Game This once popular opening arising after 1 PK4, PK4 2 NKB3, NQB3 3 NB3, NB3, is rarely played today. Especially well known is the Spanish Four Knights' Game resulting from 4 BNS. The continuations 4 BB4 and 4 PQ4 are dealt with under the Giuoco Piano and the Scotch Opening. The Three Knights' Game is briefly handled in Sup. Var. 35 . The Spanish Four Knights' Game disapperaed from the immediate scene about 1910 after Rubinstein intro duced 4 . . . NQS . Nowadays, this line is considered an effective means for White to play for a draw. There are, of course, some finesses to know and some problems not to be underestimated. Black is well advised not to maintain the symmetry too long which, by the way, is a rule to be observed in all openings with a symmetrical beginning. Sound play on Black's part leads rather easily to equality, which is why this debut has little popularity to day. Rubinstein contributed a great deal to the theory of this opening, particularly by introducing the defense which bears his name. part 1METGER VARIATION
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION A This is the classical way to handle the Four Knights' Game. The move 4 . . . PQ3 gets Black into an unfavorable variation of the Ruy Lopez. Playable, however, is 4 . . . PQR3. See Sup.Var.1. B A little known mistake is 5 PQ3 ?, NQ5! C 6 NQ5, NxN 7 PxN, PK5 leads to a good game for Black. D Marshall's 6 . .. PQ4 is risky because of 7 NxQP, NxN 8 PxN, QxP 9 BQB4, QQ3 10 PQR3, BQB4 11 PQN4 � with pressure on both wings. Playable for Black, however, seems to be 6 . . . NQ5, and after 7 BQB4, PB3 8 NxN (if 8 NxP, QR4!), PxN 9 NK2, BB4, the chances are even. E The most energetic. For the quiet 7 NK2 (Maroczy), see Part 3.
This setup occurs with comparative frequency; the pin of the Knight offers White a slight initiative, requir ing accurate counterplay. The best examples are the so called symmetrical variations treated in Idea Var. 1. Idea Var. 2 deals with the Metger System proper, in which
1
2 3 4 5 6 7
PK4, PK4 NKB3, NQB3 N�B3, NB3 BNS, BNSA 00B, 00 PQ3C, PQ3D BNSE
KEY PosiTION
1
14 • CHESS OPENINGS
Black anticipates White's NQ5 and is able to strengthen his center. He obtains a steady but somewhat passive position. IDEA VARIATIONS 1 and 2 : ( 1 ) 7 . . . BN 5 ? 8 NQ5, NQ5 9 NxB, NxB 1 0 NQ5 , NQ5 1 1 QQ2 !, NxNt (Black also loses with other moves: e.g., 1 1 ... QQ2 1 2 BxN, BxN 1 3 NK7t, KR1 1 4 BxPt, KxB 1 5 QN5 t and mate next move. ) 1 2 PxN, BxP 1 3 PKR3 ! (not 1 3 BxN?, PxB 1 4 QR6, KR1 1 5 NxKBP, RKN1 t and wins) , PB3 1 4 NxNt, PxN 1 5 BR4, KR1 16 KR2, RKN1 17 RKN 1 ) RN3 1 8 QK3, BR4 1 9 PKB4. ( 2) 7 . . . BxN 8 PxB, QK2 (preparing the char acteristic maneuver . . . NQ1 K3, which counteracts White's impending PKB4) 9 RK1 (the following alternative is of no promise for White : 9 BxQN, PxB 1 0 PKR3, PKR3 1 1 BK3, BK3 ) , NQ1 1 0 PQ4, NK3 (best ; for 1 0 . . . PB3 and 1 0 . . . BN5, see Prac. Var. 1 and 2 respectively) 1 1 BQB1 , PQB4 (the too passive 1 1 . . . PB3 leads again to Prac. Var. 1 ) 1 2 PxKP ( introduced by Keres and most likely best; the alternative lines are comfortable for Black : 1 2 BKB 1 , BPxP ! 1 3 PxP, QB2 o r 1 2 PQ5, NB2 1 3 BQ3, PQN4 ! ) , PxP 1 3 BQB4 (if 1 3 NxP, NB2 wins a piece) . White has a slight edge but experience to the point is lacking. PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 1 and 2 : 1 PK4, PK4 2 NKB 3, NQB 3 3 NB 3, NB3 4 BN5, BN5 5 00, 00 6 PQ3, PQ3 7 BN5
1
2
7. 8
9 10 11 12 13
BxN1 PxB QK2 RK1 NQ1 PQ4 PB3 B�KB 1 NK3 BB 1 RQ1 2 PN3 QB2
1 1 4 BN23 15 16 17
BN55 PKR3 BR4 PN4 BN3 NR46 PKR3 !
18
19
PB4 PQ5 NB 1 NR4 NN3 NB5 NK2 PN4 NK1 RK3 !4 +
2
B__;QB4 !7 NK38 NxB PxN PB4 PxB PB5 PxP NP xP PKN 3 ! BxNt KN29
FOUR KNIGHTS' GAME • 15
Notes to practical variations 1 and 2 : 1
For 7 . ..NK2, see Part 2.
2 Nor is 12 ... QB2 any better. See Game 1. 3 Somewhat risky is 14 NR4, PQ4 15 PKB4! ?, NxKP! 16 BPxP, NxBP 17 QB3, NK5 and the chances are hard to assess. 4 Black is cramped. 5 Preferred by Capablanca. 6 13 PQ5 is probably a little better. After 13 . .. PB3, the chances are even. 7 For 14 NxB, see Game 2. 8 Also so good is 14 ... BR2. 9 Dangerous for both sides.
lVHITE: Duras WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
PK4 NKB3 NB 3 BN5 00 PQ3 PxB BN5 RK1 PQ4 BQB 1 BB 1 NR4 Q�Q3 PN3 BN2 PKB4 PxP PBS
Four Knight/ Game 1 BLACK: Rubinstein Carlsbad 1917 BLACK
PK4 NQB3 NB 3 BN5 00 BxN PQ3 QK2 NQ1 NK3 PB3 QB2 RK1 BQ2 QRQ 1 BB1 PxBP NB 1 PKR3
WHITE
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37
BQ2 NB 3 PKR4 NR2 RK3 BB3 R/1K1 ? QK2 QN2 BB1 NxB BxR Q.R3 KR1 QR2 BN1 BxN NN1 Resigns
BLACK
N/1R2 RK2 PB4 ! R/1 K1 PQN3 BN2 PB5 BxP PQ4 BxB RxR RK5 ! RN5"f RN6 NN5 NxQ QB5 QxRP
16 • CHESS OPENINGS
JVHITE: Wolf
7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
WHITE
BLACK
WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6
Four Knights' Game 2 BLACK: Rubinstein TeplitzSchonau 1 922
PK4 NKB3 NB3 BN5 00 PQ3 BN5 PxB RK1 PQ4 PKR3 PN4 NR4 NxB? BB4 t BR4 BKN3 QB 3 QK3 BNS? · PQR4
PK4 NQB3 NB3 BNS 00 PQ3 BxN QK2 NQ1 BNS BR4 BN3 PKR3 PxN KR2 PKN4 NB2 QRK1 PQN3 RQ1 NR1 !
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42
PR5 PB3 BB1 BxN QB2 PQ5 BN2 QK2 KB2 KRQNl QNs KRPxP RR1 RxR BR3 QxP RQN1 RN4 KK2 QR1 KQ2
BLACK
NN3 NB S KR1 NPxB PKN4 PR4 KN2 RKR1 RQR1 NQ2 RPxP NB4 RR5 ! PxR PxP ! QQ1 RN1 PR3 RN3 KN3 KN4
WHITE
43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
RN1 RR1 BN2 QK1 QQB 1 BB1 BB4 BR2 RR3 QB 1 RR1 QQB 1 QxP QN2 BB4 BK2 RxP KKl Resigns
BLACK
QN1 PR4 ! ! PRS QKR1 RR3 RR1 PQR6 QR2 NQ2 QR 1 NB4 RQN1 ! ! RR1 PR6 ! QRS QB7 ! ! QK6t NRS
part 2PILLSBURY VARIATION
1 PK4, PK4 2 NKB 3, NQB3 3 NB3, NB 3 4 BNS, BNS 5 00, 00 6 PQ3, PQ3 7 BNS, NK2A
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 2 A If Black wants to play this variation, he should omit the capture of the Queen Knight. Here is a single example of the disadvantage following 7 . BxN: 8 PxB, NK2 9 NR4, PB3 10 BQB4, PQ4 11 BN3, QQ3 12 PKB4 (12 .. . QB4t 13 PQ4 !), PxKP 13 QPxP, QB4t 14 KR1, NN5 15 PBS 1, NK6 16 QB3 !, NxR 17 RxN with an overwhelming attack. .
Black allows the doubling of his King Bishop Pawn, but experience shows that accepting the challenge is not to be recommended for White. It remains to be seen, though, whether White can achieve something tangible with a quieter method. Usually Black can simplify the situation by a timely PQ4, possibly preceded by PQB 3, in which case White has no more than an even game. .
KEY
PosiTION
2
..
.
.
.
.
.
IDEA VARIATIONS 3 and 4 : ( 3 ) 8 BxN (tempting but not effective ; White lacks the means to profit from the weakening of the Pawn struc
FOUR KNIGHTS' GAME • 17
ture ) , PxB 9 NKR4, PB3 (the immediate 9 . . . NN3 also serves well) 1 0 BB4, NN3 1 1 NxN (White actually admits that his plan has failed ; but 1 1 QR5 leads to nothing because of 1 1 . . . NxN 1 2 QxN, PKB4 ! ) , RPxN 1 2 PB4, KN2 1 3 QB3, BB4t 1 4 KR1 , BK3 and Black has the better of it. (4) 8 NKR4 (theoretically White's best chance ) , PB3 9 BQB4, PQ4 (for other possibilities see Prac. Var. 3 and 4 as well as Game 3 ) 1 0 BN3 (or 1 0 PxP, N/2xP ! 1 1 KBxN, PxB=) , QQ3 (also good is 1 0 . . . PxP 1 1 PxP, BN5 ) 1 1 PKR3 (TarraschYates, Hastings 1 92 2 ; sharper is 1 1 PB4, although it allows . . . BB4t 1 2 KR1 , NN5 ) , PKR3 1 2 BxN, QxB 1 3 QR5, BxN 1 4 PxB, PxP ( in the aforementioned game, Yates played 14 . . . KR2, getting into trouble, however, after 1 5 NB3, NN3 1 6 PxP ) 1 5 PxP, BK3. The game is even, according to Filip.
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 3 and 4 : 1 PK4, PK4 2 NKB3, NQB 3 3 NB3, NB3, 4 BN5, BN5 5 00, 00 6 PQ3, PQ3 7 BN5, NK2
3 8 NKR4 PB3 9 BQB4 NN3 1 0 NxN RPxN 1 1 PB4 BK3 1
4
3 12 13
NK1 Q R5 2 NB2 NB5 QBxN 
14 15
4 PxB PQ4 PB6 PKN3 ! 3 PxN4 BxP BxB QxB5 t
Notes to prcutical variations 3 and 4:
1 For the enticing 11 . . .QN3t, see Game 3. The text move offers Black sufficient counter chances. 2 10 PB4 constitutes a dubious sacrifice: 10 ...BxN 11 PxB, PQ4 12 BN3, PB3 13 PxKP, PxB 14 RxRt, KxR 15 QB3t, KN1 16 RKB1, NB2 17 QB7t, KR1 18 QB8t, QxQ 19 RxQt, NN1! 3 Too dangerous is 13 . . . PxP 14 BxBP, QQ2 15 PB4 ! . Also risky i s 1 3 . . . PxB 1 4 PxNP, RK1 1 5 NK4 with a winning attack. 4 Not 14 QR6 ?, NB4! 5 Black recovers the piece.
18
• CHESS OPENINGS
Four Knights' Game 3 WHITE: Opocensky BLACK: Hrdina Prague 1 913 BLACK
WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
PK4 NQB3 NB 3 BN5 00 PQ3 NK2 PB3 NN3
PK4 NKB 3 NB3 BN5 00 PQ3 BN5 NKR4 BQB4
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
WHITE
BLACK
NxN PB4 KRl QK1 ! PBS ! PB6 QR4 PN4 PxB PR6 ! !
RPxN QN3 t? NN5 NK6 NxB BN5 BR4 NK6 NxR Resigns
pa rt 3SVENONIUS AND MAROCZY
SYSTEMS
1 PK4, PK4 2 NKB 3, NQB3 3 NB 3, NB3 4 BN5, BN5 5 00, 00 6 PQ3
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 3 The above position leads to two different Jines. ( 1 ) The Svenonius  Idea Var. 5  is sharp and risky and involves the sacrifice of a Pawn on Black's part. It is best for White to decline the offer and exercise pressure instead on the enemy King Pawn. In doing so, White gets the edge. ( 2 ) the Maroczy is safe and steady, but of little promise for the first player. IDEA VARIATIONS 5 and 6 : ( 5 ) 6 . . BxN 7 PxB, PQ4 8 PxP (also important is 8 BxN; see Prac. Var. 5 ) , QxP (or 8 . . . NxP 9 BxN, PxB 1 0 NxP, NxP 1 1 QQ2, NQ4, 1 2 PQB4, with an edge for White, according to Keres; but not 1 2 NxQBP?, QB 3 ! ) 9 BQB4 (also good i s 9 PB4, QQ3 1 0 BxN, PxB 1 1 BN2, RK1 1 2 QK 1 ! ) , QR4 1 0 RN 1 , PQR3 1 1 RK 1 , PQN3 1 2 QK2, BN5 1 3 BKN5 and White has the better of i t (LasketrReti, Moscow 1 9 2 5 ) . ·
KEY
POSITION
3
.
7 . . . PQ4 initiates the system of the Swedish analyst Svenonius. Instead 7 . .. PQ3 8 BN5 transposes into a variation of Part 2 . ( 6 ) 6 . . . PQ3 7 NK2, NK2 (best; for 7 . . . QK2 or 7 . BN5, see Prac. Var. 6 and Game 4 ) 8 PB3 BR4 9 NN3, PB3 1 0 BR4, NN3 1 1 PQ4, .
.
FOUR KNIGHTS' GAME
RK 1 (safer than 1 1 . . . PQ4 1 2 BKN5 ! ) 1 2 BN3, PxP (another satisfactory move is 12 . . . PKR3 ) 1 3 PxP, BK3 1 4 NN5 , BxB 1 5 QxB, QQ2 (Alekhine Euwe, Amsterdam 1 936) . 7 NK2 is characteristic of the Maroczy. White avoids the exchange of his Queen Knight. =
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 5 and 6: 1 PK4, PK4 2 NKB 3, NQB3 3 NB3, NB3 BN5, BN5 5 00, 00 6 PQ3
5 6  BxN
7 PxB PQ4 BxN PxB 9 NxP QQ3 1 0 BB4 RK1 1 1 PxP 1 8
4
6 PQ3 NK2 QK2 PB3 BQB4 NN33 +
RxN
12 PQ4 RK8 !
1 3 BxQ RxQ
14 KRxR PxB
15 PxP
B K3 2 +
Notes
to
practical variations 5 and 6:
1 11 QB3 is of no promise: 11 . . . PxP 12 PxP, RxN 13
QRQ1, BN5 14 RxQ, BxQ 15 RxN, PxR 16 BxR, PxB 17 PxB, RN1=. 2 The position is obscure, though 16 KRN1 offers some winning chances. 3 Black has difficulty bringing out his pieces (Maroczy Swiderski, Vienna 1908).
• 19
20
• CHESS OPENINGS
Four Knight/ Game 4 WHITE:. Rubinstein BLACK: }\tlarshall Lodz 1908 WHITE
1 2 3 4 s 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 IS 16 17 18 19
PK4 NKB3 NB3 BNS 00 PQ3 NK2 BK3 BxN NK1 PKB3 PN4 ! NN 3 ! BQ2 NN2 PN3 NBs NPxB RB2
BLACK
PK4 NQB3 NB3 BNS 00 PQ3 BNS NKR4? PxB PQ4 BK3 NB 3 PQS ? BK2 RN1 PB4 BxN RN3 QQ2
WHITE
20 21 22 23 24 2S 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 3S 36 37 38
BLACK
QK2 PB4 BxP NPxP RxR RB 1 PKs BN3 PB6! QN4 PK6! NK1 ! PxPt NB 3 ! NN s t RxN! QB4t QB7t NK6t
KRQN1 PxP PBS RN8t RxRt RN7 NK1 QRS BB1 PN3 RxBP RxQRP KxP NxP KN2 KxR KK2 KQ1 . Resigns
pa rt 4RUBINSTEIN VARIATION
1 PK4, PK4 2 NKB3, NQB3 3 NB3, NB3 4 BN5, NQ5
KEY
PosiTION 4
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 4 It is Rubinstein's move, 4 . . . NQ5, which actually drove the Four Knights into disrepute. The counter on his Bishop presents White with a difficult problem. True, he can simply play for a draw (see Idea Var. 7 ) ; but any attempt to achieve more leads to great complications in volving some risk. The point is that Black gets excellent chances by parting with one or more Pawns, as has been demonstrated by Rubinstein in a number of brilliant games. As to the best way of meeting the defense, there is still difference of opinion. IDEA VARIATIONS 7 and 8 : ( 7 ) 5 NxN (an entirely harmless continuation ) , PxN 6 PK5 (better than 6 NQ5, NxN 7 PxN, QB3! 8 00, BK2 ) , PxN 7 PxN, QxP (not 7 . . PxPt ? 8 BxP, QxP 9 00 and White has good chances ) 8 QPxP, QK5 t 9 QK2 , QxQt 1 0 BxQ=. ( 8 ) S BR4 (the most important continuation, accord ing to present opinion; for other continuations see Prac. .
FOUR KNIGHTS' GAME • 21
Var. 7, 8 and 9) , BB4 (this gambit is characteristic of the system) 6 NxP, 00 7 NQ3 (for 7 PQ3 see Game 5 ) , BN3 8 NB4 (Canal's move; interesting is 8 PK5, NK1 9 00, PQ 3 10 PxP, NKB 3 ! 1 1 PQ7 ( 1 1 PxP?, QQ3 ! ) , BxP 1 2 BxB, QxB 1 3 NK 1 , QRKl and Black has sufficient compensation for the Pawn) , PQ4 9 PQ3, BN5 1 0 PB3 , NR4 1 1 NxN (or 1 1 PxB, QR 5 t 1 2 PN 3, NxP 1 3 NN2, QB 3 14 PxN, NB6t 15 KK2, NQS t 1 6 KK 1 , NB6t, with perpetual check ) , BxN 1 2 NxP, PQB3 ! (an important improve ment by Keres) 1 3 NxB (if 1 3 NB4 ?, NxKBPt ! ) , PxN 1 4 BN3, QR s t 1 5 KB1 (not good is 1 5 PN3, QR6 and Black holds all the threats) , NxB 1 6 BPxN, PKB4 and Black has powerful compensation for the Pawns. PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 79 : 1 PK4, PK4 2 NKB 3, NQB3 3 NB�, NB3 BN5, NQ5
9
8
7
5 NxP QK2 !1
6 PB42 NxB 7 NxN PQ3 8 NKB 3 QxPt 9 KB23 NNs t
00 NxB NxN PB3 NB 3 PQ3 PQ4 QB2 PKR3 PQN4 !6
4
7
1 0 KN14
BB4 BB4F NxP QK2 NB3 8 PQ4 NxP9 QxPt NK3 BKN5
QB3
1 1 QK2 t BK2
1 2 PKR3 QN3t
13 PQ4 NB3
14 KR2 BQ2
1 5 RKl 005 +
Notes to practical variations 79:
1 The correct reply.
5 . . . BB4 is effectively met with
6 BK2! 2
Safer is 6 NB3.
However, 6
.
.
.
NxB 7 NxN, QxP"f
8 QK2, QxQt 9 KxQ, NQ4! gives Black a good game. 3 9 QK2 leads to nothing. 4 For 10 KN3, QN3! see Game 6. 5 Black has the edge, according to Keres. 6 Black's Bishop pair compensates for White's center con
trol. 7 Here, too, a promising gambit. 8 Not 7 BxPt?, KBl ! Nor 7 NxBP?, PQ4! And if 7 NQ3 then the effect of 7 . . PQ4 is even stronger. 9 For 8 NxN see Game 7. 1 0 White can free himself by returning the Pawn or per mitting the doubling of his King Bishop Pawn. .
8
9 BK2 NxB QxN 000 PQ3 QK3 00 NQ4 1 o
22 • CHESS OPENINGS
Four Knights' Game 5 WHITE: Tarrasch BLACK: Rubinstein San Sebastian 1912 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
PK4 NKB3 NB3 BN5 NxP BR4? PQ3 BKN5 QQ2 PB4 BN3 BKR4 BxQ KxN
NK2 KxN KBl PB3 NN4 NB2 BQl PKN3 BB3 KN2 PxBP PB4! BPxP KRQl NN4
WHITE
BLACK
PK4 NQB3 NB3 BB4 NQ5 00 PQ4 PB3 RKl PN4! PKR3 NxP! NxQ RxB NxN RKl BN2 PB3 PKR4 BK6 PR5 PR4 PN5 NPxP BR3 QRQl BPxP RK2 PxP
30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56
PxP QRBl RB2 NB2 RxR RQ2 NR3 RQB2 PB5 BQl BxR PN4 KB3 BN3 KK2 BB2 PR4 KB3 KxB KK2 NB4 NK6 NxPt NN5 KK3 NxP KQ4 Resigns
BLACK
BeQ5 RN2 KB2 RN7! BxR BQ5 K�K3 KQ3 RQBl! RxRt KK4 BK6 KQ5 BN2 BQR3 BQN4! BQ2! KB6 PQ5t! KxB BxRP BN6! KN7 PR5 PR6 KxN KN5!
Four Knights' Game 6 WHITE: Spielmann BLACK: Rubinstein BadenBaden 1925 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
PK4 NKB3 NB3 BN5 NxP PB4 NxN
WHITE
B LACK
PK4 NQB3 ·NB3 NQ5 QK2 NxB PQ3
8 9 10 11 12 13 14
NKB3 KB2 KN3 QK2t RKl N/5Q4 KB2
BLACK
QxPt NN5t QN3! KQl BQ2 NK6t NxBP
FOUR KNIGHTS ' GAME • 23
WHITE
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
NxN PQN4 BR3 BxP QK3 QRQB 1 KN 1 QB3 PxP KR1 NQ4 QK3 BB3 NB 3 BB6t QB 3
WHITE
BLACK
QxN PQR4 ! PxP QKB4 PR 3 ! RKN1 ! PKN4 RB 1 PxP PN5 QQ4 ! PN6! RQR1 PxP KB 1 QQB4
31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45
QQ3 NK5 KxR RxP QN3 KxQ KxP KN1 RKR 5 BK5 KBl BN3 KK1 KQl RB3 Resigns
BLACK
QKR4 KRxP! ! PxN QN 5 t QxQt BQ3 RxP RxP ! PN3 BB4t KN2 BN4t RK7t RKN7 BK7t
Four Knights' Game 7 BLACK: Rubinstein WHITE: Spielmann San Sebastian 1912 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
PK4 NKB3 NB3 BNS BB4 NxP NB3 NxN NB3 00 PQ4 PxP PxN PQ4 QQ3 PKR3 PQR4 QB4 QxQ BR 3 ! BxB KRKl RK7
WHITE
B LACK
PK4 NQB3 NB3 NQ5 BB4 QK2 PQ4 PxB NxP oo· PxP e.p. NxN BKN5 BQ3 QRK1 BR4 BN3 QK7 ! RxQ RB7 PxB RxQBP RN1
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45
PR 5 ? RQ7 ? RxQP RN 1 RR6 RxB NN5 RK1 PB4 NxPt NN5 RK5 PQ5 RxPt RN5 RN4 RB4t NK4 RR4 PN4 RQ4t NB3 Resigns
BLACK
KB 1 BB4 ! BK3 ! RB 2 ! RR1 PxR KK2 KB3 ! RB3 KK2 KQ2 RKBl PxP RQ3 KB3 RB4 KQ2 ! RQB3 RQR3 Rj4xRP KB2 RQ3
24
• CHESS OPENINGS
SUPPLEMENTARY VARIATIONS 15: 1 PK4, PK4 2 NKB 3, NQB 3 3 NB3 (The Russian Three Knights' Game PK4, PK4 2 NKB3, NKB3 3 NB 3, BNS 1s treated under "Petroff's Defense. " )
1 3  
3
2
NB 3
4 BNS PQR3
5 BxN1
00 PQ36 PQ4 PxP NxP BQ2 NBS !
QPxB 6 NxP NxP2 7 NxN QQS
8 00 9 10 11 12 13
BB4
QxN/4 00 BNs RK1 BxN BK3 PxB PQ4 QKB4 ! 3 NQ5 BQY BN5 +PR3 !4 QQ3 KQ2 BR4 QQN4 5
BB4 NxP ! NxN PQ4 BQ38 PxN BxP PB4 BxNt PxB PQ3 QQ4 QRs t PN3 QK2 BKN2 NB3
5
4 PKN3 PQ4 PxP NQS ! BN2 BKN5 PB3 BKB4 PQ3 NxP 10
BNS NQS ! NB3 BB4 1 1
00 0012 +
+
00 00 BQR39 +
NoteJ to JUpplementary variationJ 15:
1 5 BR4 establishes the Ruy Lopez.
.QK2 is insufficient because of 7 PKB4. ..QQ4 because of 11 NN5!, ooo 12 NxB, PxN 13 QN4 !, QxQP 14 QxPt with a substantial posi tional advantage. 4 11 ...BQ3 12 PKN4 � 5 There is no good way to penetrate Black's King position, awkward though it may appear. 6 Or 5 .. 00 6 NxP, RK1 7 NB3!±. 7 With a clear advantage for White, according to Pachman. 8 An offhand game won by Reti (White) went as follows: .. . BxP 6 QxB, QB3 7 NN5!, KQ1 8 QB5! 9 White's center, two Bishops, and threat of PK5 are in his favor. 10 White's development is far superior. 11 Instead 5 NxB, NxN 6 NxP, PQ3 leads to no advantage. 12 White has a minimal initiative.
2
6
.
.
·
3 Faulty is 10
.
.
GIUOCO PIANO • 25
chapter 5Giuoco Piano The Giuoco Piano is one of the oldest openings; and the first ever subjected to close analysis. The Portuguese, Damiano, used to play it at the beginning of the sixteenth century and the Calabrian, Greco, at the beginning of the seventeenth. Variations were worked out then which are valid even today. Greco can be considered as the father of opening theory. The Giuoco Piano arises after 1 PK4, PK4 2 NKB3, NQB3 3 BB4, BB4. One can imagine what great appeal this enterprising deployment must have had for the players of the nineteenth century, when the im mediate attack on the King was the ruling passion of the chess fraternity. Both King Bishops are actively placed, and White's Bishop particularly is more or less at the point of crashing into B7 in kamikaze fashion. Together with some related openings, the Giuoco Piano was extremely popular for many years ; but the gradual change of insight, as far as handling of the opening is concerned, tended more and more to a lasting initiative rather than a splurge of brief fireworks and has slowly replaced the Giuoco Piano and the King's Gambit with the Ruy Lopez and the Queen's Gambit. The frequency of the Giuoco Piano has dropped from about 30 per cent to probably not more than 1 per cent. Even so, the Giuoco Piano must still be considered as a good opening. Black has to know a great deal to emerge from this enterprising debut without damage. The ensuing discussions of the opening will explain why.
part 1MOLLER VARIATION
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
PK4, PK4 NKB3, NQB3 BB4, BB4 PB3A, NB3B PQ4, PxPC PxPD, BN5 tE NB3F, NxKPG
00
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 1
A The consistent continuation: White aims at building a strong center. The quieter continuations, 4 PQ3, 4 NB3 and 4 � are treated in the supplementary variations. B In attacking the King Pawn, Black actually meets his op ponent's plans. 4 . . . QK2 is treated in Part 3 and 4 . . . PQ3 in the supplementary variations. The continuation 4 . . . BN3 leads, after 5 PQ4, QK2 to Part 3. Other moves are less commenda�•le : 1) 4 . . . PB4? 5 PQ4 (also good i s 5 PQ3), BPx.P (5 .. . KPxP 6 NN5!) 6 NxP, NxN 7 QR5t with great advantage for White.
KEY
POSITION
1
26
• CHESS OPENINGS
2)
4 . . . QB3 5 PQ4 !, PxP 6 PK5, QN3 ( 6 . . NxP ? 7 QK2 and White wins a piece) 7 PxP, BN5t 8 NB3, QxP 9 RKN1, QR6 10 BxPt ! O r , in this line, 5 . . . BN3 6 0D, PKR3 ( 6 . . . PQ3 7 BKN5, QN 3 8 PxP, PxP 9 NxP ! ) 7 PQR4, PQR3 8 PxP, NxP 9 NxN, QxN 10 QB3 with advantage for White. .
c 5 . . . BN3 costs Black a Pawn, e.g., 6 NxP, NxN 7 PxN, NxP? 8 BxPt or 8 QQ5 . D 6 PK5 is treated in Sup. Var. 1 . J.J 6 . . . BN3 ? concedes White the center. Mter 7 PQ5, NK2 ( if 7 . . . NQR4, then 8 BQ3, threatening 9 PQN4 ) 8 PK5, Black is in difficulties because of 8 . . . NN5 9 PQ6, PxP 10 PxP, BxPt ( 10 . . . NxBP 1 1 QN3 ! ) 1 1 KK2, NB4 12 QQ5 winning a piece. F For 7 BQ2, see Part 2. O n 7 KB 1 , the socalled Cracow Variation, Black's best reply is 7 . . . PQ4, e.g., 8 PxP, NxP/4 9 NB3 , BK3 10 QK2, 0D 1 1 NKN5 ? NxP ! G The consistent continuation. Black must take the Pawn or face difficulties :
1)
7 . . PQ3 8 PQ5, BxNt ( forced ) 9 PxB, NK2 10 0D and White stands better.
2)
7 . . . 0D 8 BKN5, PKR3 9 BxN, QxB 10 0D and White for choice. We may add that 8 PK5 is of less promise because of 8 . . PQ4 !
3)
7
.
.
. . PQ4 8 PxP, NxP 9 0D, BK3 10 BKl'l' 5, BK2 11 BxN, QBxB 1 2 NxB, QxN 13 BxB, NxB 14 RK1, PKB3 1 5 QK2, QQ2 1 6 QRB 1, KB2 ! yet White has a tiny edge. If 1 1 BxB, N/3xB 1 2 QN3, NxN 1 3 BxB, Black's best i s now 1 3 . N/6Q4. For 16 . . . PB 3, see Game 1 . .
A wild position. Black is a Pawn t o the good, but White has an advantage in development while the posi tion is open. White therefore must depend on energetic play, regardless of the loss of additional Pawns or even greater material. Black's aim is consolidation; especially, safety for his King. His task is anything but simple, often requiring radical methods. Black must not forsake this aim on behalf of merely retaining a material advantage.
Gittoco Piano Game 1 WHITE: Steinitz BLACK: Von Bardelebe;z WHITE
PK4 2 NKB3 3 BB4 4 PB 3 5 PQ4 1
BLACK
PK4 NQB3 BB4 NB 3 PxP
WHITE
6 7 8 9 10
PxP NB3 PxP 00 BKN5
BLACK
BN5 t PQ4 KNxP 'BK3 BK2
GIUOCO PIANO • 27
WHIT E
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
BxN NxB BxB RK1 QK2 QRB1 PQ5 ! NQ4 NK6 QN4 NN 5 t RxNt RB 7 t !
BLACK
QBxB QxN NxB PKB 3 QQ2 PB 3 ? PxP KB2 KRQB1 PKN3 KK1 KB l KN 1
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35
WHITE
BLACK
RN7 t ! ! RxPt RN7t QR4t QR7t QR8t QN7t QNst QB7t QB8t NB7t QQ6 mate
KR1 KN l KR 1 KxR KB 1 KK2 KK1 KK2 KQ 1 QKl KQ2
IDEA VARIATIONS 1  5 : ( 1 ) 8 . . . NxN 9 PxN, BxP 1 0 QN3, BxR? ( 1 0 . . . PQ4 ! ) 1 1 BxPt, KB 1 1 2 BN5, NK2 1 3 NK5 !, BxP 1 4 BN6!, PQ4 1 5 QB 3 t, BB4 1 6 BxB, BxN 1 7 BK6t, BB3 1 8 BxB, and White wins. ( 2 ) 8 . . . NxN 9 PxN, PQ4 1 0 PxB, PxB 1 1 RK1 t, NK2 12 QK2, BK3 13 NN5 , QQ2 1 4 NxB, QxN 1 5 BN5, QxQ 1 6 RxQ, PKB 3 1 7 QRK 1 , 000 !, and Black has a satisfactory game. ( 3) 8 . . . BxN 9 PQ5 ! (the Moller Variation proper) , NK4 1 0 PxB, NxB 1 1 QQ4, N/BQ3 ( 11 . PKB4 ! ) 1 2 QxNP, QB3 1 3 QxQ, NxQ 1 4 RK1 t, KB 1 ? ( 1 4 . . . N/BK5 15 NQ2, PB4 16 PB3, and White for choice) 1 5 BR6t, KN1 1 6 RK5, N/QK5 ( 1 6 . . . N/BK5 1 7 QRK 1 , PKB4 1 8 RK7, and White wins ) 1 7 NQ2 ! PQ3 1 8 NxN, PxR 1 9 NxN mate. .
.
(4) 8 . . . BxN 9 PQ5, BB3 1 0 RK1 , NK2 1 1 RxN, PQ3 1 2 BKN5 , BxB 1 3 NxB, 00 1 4 NxRP, KxN 1 5 QR 5 t, KN1 1 6 RR4, PKB4 1 7 RR3 (preventing 1 7 . . . NN3 ) , PB5 1 8 PKN4 ! PxP e.p. 1 9 QR7t, KB2 2 0 QR5 t, KN1 ( not 2 0 . . . NN3 ? 2 1 RxP, QB3 2 2 BQ 3 ) 2 1 QR7 with perpetual check. ( 5 ) 8 . . . BxN 9 PQ5, BB3 1 0 RK 1 , NK2 1 1 RxN, 00 1 2 PQ6, PxP 1 3 QxP, NB4 1 4 QQ5, PQ3 (safer is 1 4 . . . NK2 with a repetition o f position ) 1 5 NN5 , BxN 1 6 BxB, QxB ? 1 7 QxBPt and mate follows.
28
• CHESS OPENINGS
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 1 8 : 1 PK4, PK4 2 NKB 3, NQB 3 3 BB4, BB4 4 PB 3, NB3 5 PQ4, PxP 6 PxP, BN5 t 7 NB 3, NxKP 8 00
2
1 8 
3
NxN1
9 PxN 10 ZI
BxP QN 3 PQ42 BxP
00
12 BxPt 13
14 15 16
KR1 3 QxB RxB QN3 RB4 RK 1 BQ2 PQ5 4 +
17 18
4
5
6
7
8

BR35 PQ46 BN5 BxR RK 1 t BK3 QR47 ±
PQ4 ! PxB PxB RK1 t NK2 BN5 8 PKB 3 QK2 BN59 BB4 KB2 QxPt NQ4 NQ21o BK3 BN3 PB3 NK4 11 ±
BxN PQ5 12 BR4 PxN
0013
QQ5 NQ3 BQ3 BN3 BxPt KxB QRst KN1 NN5 14 +
NK4 PxB NxB QQ4 PKB415 QxNjB PQ3 NQ4
00
PB3 NB3 BN5 PKR3
BB3 RK1 NK2 RxN
00
PKN416 NN3 PQ6 PxP PN5 BK2 BQ5 17
PQ3 BKN5 BxB 18 NxB PKR3 1 9 BN5 t ! PB32o NxP ! KxN QB3t BB421 PxP PxP BxP RQB 122 +
00 NxRP KxN QRs t KN1 RR4 PKB423 RK124 NN3 ! RR3 RB 3 !25 +
N oteJ to practical variationJ 1 8 : 1 The Greco Variation, which 1s not quite satisfactory for Black . 2 Suggested By 0. Bernstein. For 10 . . . BxR see Idea
Var. 1. Another inferior variation for Black is 10 . . . BxP ? 1 1 BxPt, KBl 1 2 BN5, BB3 1 3 QRKl , NK2 1 4 BR 5 , PQ4 1 5 RxN !, QxR 16 RKl with an irresistible attack for White. 3 Not 12 . . . RxB because· of 13 NN 5 , BK3 1 4 QxKB. 4 16 . . . NK2 fails against 17 BN 5 . 5 This may b e even stronger than 1 0 QN3. · 6 Or 10 . . . NK2 11 QN3 !, or 1 0 . . . QB3 11 RB I , BN5 1 2 BxB, NxB 1 3 RK l t with a great advantage for White. 7 White has a winning attack. See Game 2 . 8 For 1 2 QK2, see Idea Var. 2 .
GI UOCO PIANO • 29
9 1 3 . . . PxB 14 QxP offers White excellent attacking chances. 10 1 6 BxP fails against 1 6 . . . QRB l . 1 1 White has a slight edge, despite his isolated Pawn. 12 After 9 PxB, PQ4 Black has a satisfactory game. The text was suggested by the Danish analyst, Moller. 13 White also gets the advantage after 10 . . . QPxP 1 1 QR4, BN3 1 2 BxPt and 10 . . . NPxP 1 1 NK5, NQ3 12 QN4. 1 4 White has a winning attack. 1 5 For 1 1 . . . N/BQ3, see Idea Var. 3 . 1 6 For 1 2 PQ6, see Idea Var. 5 . 1 7 White exercises strong pressure   a t t h e heavy expense, however, of two Pawns. 1 8 O r 1 2 . . . 0{), which is met by 1 3 BxB, PxB 1 4 QQ2, NN3 15 QRK1 , and now 15 . . . PKB4 has the serious draw back of allowing 16 QR6 ! ( SpielmannDuras, Karlsbad 1 907 ) . 1 9 After 1 3 . . . BB4 1 4 QB3 ! White has a superior game, e.g., 14 . . . QQ2 1 5 BN5, QxB 16 QxB, PKB3 17 RxN·i· , ::tnd White wins. 20 Or 14 . . . BQ2 15 QK2, KB1 1 6 QRK 1 , with a promising game for White. 21 1 6 . . . KK1 loses t o 1 7 PxP, a s does 1 6 . . . KN 1 to 17 QRKl . Also bad for Black is 16 . . . KN3 because of 1 7 RxN ! Finally, 1 6 . . . NB4 leads to a great advantage for White after 17 PxP, PxP 18 BxP, RQN1 19 PKN4, PN3 20 QRKl . 22 With 1 9 QRK1 , White maintains a strong attack. 23 White seems to have a promising attack, yet he can hardly achieve more than a draw. 24 The text is White's best, though it offers no winning chances. No more promising is 17 BK2, RK 1 18 RK 1 , KB l . And after 1 7 QR7t, KB2 1 8 RR6, RN1 19 RK1 , KB 1 , it is Black who can play for a win. For 1 7 RR3, see Idea Var. 4. 25 Black is out of danger, e.g., 1 9 QR7t, KB2 20 RK6, NB 1 ! 2 1 QR5t, PN3 22 QR8, BxR 23 PxB, RxP and White's attack has spent itself.
Giuoco Piano Game WHITE: Corte WHITE
PK4 NKB3 BB4 PB3 PQ4 PxP NB 3
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 00 9 PxN
2
BLACK: Bolbochan WHITE
BLACK
PK4 NQB 3 BB4 NB3 PxP BN5 t NxKP NxN BxP
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
BR 3 � BNS RKl t QR4 NKS BxNt QxPt NxPt BK7 mate
BLACK
PQ4 BxR BK3 RQN1 QB 1 PxB KQ1 BxN
30 • CHESS OPENINGS
pa rt 27
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 2 A This quiet continuation enables White to avoid a material
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
PK4, PK4 NKB 3, NQB3 BB4, BB4 PB3, NB3 PQ4, PxP PxP, BN5t BQ2A, BxBtB QNxB, PQ4 9 PxP, KNxP 10 QN3, QNK2c 1 1 00, 00 1 2 KRK1 , PQB 3
KEY
PosiTION
BQ2 VARIATION
sacrifice, but his advantage in the center is substantially diminished. B 7 . . . NxKP may take the bold course of 8 BxB, NxB 9 BxPt, KxB 10 QN3t, PQ4 1 1 NK5t, KK3 ( 1 1 . . . KB3 12 PKB3 ) 12 QxN, PB4 1 3 QR3, PxP 14 NKB3 or 14 NQ3 with an adventurous game. The risk, however, is all Black's. C 10 . . . BK3 is answered by 1 1 QxP, NR4 12 BN5t, KB 1 13 QR6, PQB3 1 4 BR4. 10 . . . NR4 is unfavorable for Black, as in 1 1 QR4t, PB3 1 2 BxN, QxB 1 3 0D, in which Black's Knight is illplaced. But 10 . . . 0D ! ? 1 1 BxN, NR4 deserves consideration.
White has an isolated Queen Pawn, but he enj oys far greater freedom of movement. A situation like this may become dangerous for either side. Failure to act energeti cally may hurt White in that his isolated Queen Pawn be comes a liability. On the other hand, even a slight in accuracy may cause serious damage to Black. IDEA VARIATIONS 6 and 7 : (6) 1 3 PQR4, QN3 1 4 PR5, QxQ 1 5 NxQ, BB4 ( 1 5 . . . RQ1 ! ) 1 6 NK5, NN5 1 7 QRB l , KNQ4 1 8 PR6 with an edge for White. ( 7 ) 1 3 NK4, NQN3 1 4 NB5, NxB 1 5 QxN, PQN3 1 6 NQ3, BK3? ( 1 6 . . . QQ3 or 1 6 . . . BN2 gives an even game) 1 7 RxB !, PxR 18 QxPt, KRl 19 QNK5 , QK1 20 NN5 and White wins.
2
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 91 1 : 1 PK4, PK4 2 NKB3, NQB3 3 BB4, BB4 4 PB 3, NB3 5 PQ4, PxP 6 PxP, BN5 t 7 BQ2, BxB t 8 QNxB, PQ4 9 PxP, KNxP 1 0 QN3, N/3K2 1 1 00, 00 1 2 KRK l , PQB 3
9 1 3 NK4 QN31 1 4 NB3 2 QxQ 15 BxQ BK3
10
10
9
11
1 6 NKN5 NB 5
PQR4 QN3 PR54 QxQ NxQ RQl 5
QB2 7 QRB l QB58 NK4 BB4
BQ2 1 7 RK53 +
18
RNl 6
11
NB5 PQN3 NQ3 BxN BxB QRQ1 9
NoteJ to practical variatiom 91 1 : 1
2
For 1 3 . . . NQN3, see Idea Var. 7 . After 14 QR3, BB4 1 5 NB5 , QRQ1 1 6 NK5, BB l
GI UOCO PIANO • 31
1 7 QRQ1 , White has a slight superiority in space. 3 BogoljubovEuwe, 7th Match Game 1 94 1 .
After 1 4 QR3, BK3 1 5 PR5, QB2, Black i s sait. For 15 . . . BB4, see Idea Var. 6. 6 Black has equality at least. He may soon proceed with . . . PQN 3 . 7 For 1 3 . . . PQR4, see Game 3 . 8 On 1 4 . . . NB 5 , there follows 1 5 NN 5 , N/2N3 1 6 RK8 ! ( SchiffersHarmonist, Nuremberg 1 887 ) . 9 SchlechterBreyer, Baden 1 9 1 4 . 4
5
lf/'H/TE: Gligo1·ic WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33
PK4 NKB 3 BB4 PB3 PQ4 PxP BQ2 QNxB PxP QN3
00 KRK l PQR4 NK4 NN3 NK5 NxB RK5 R/1 Kl NK4 QN3 PR4 PxR NQ6 PN3 RK2 KR2 QxQ RQ2 PN4 KN3 PB4 BK2
Giuoco Piano Game 3 BLACK: H. Kramer Amsterdam 195 0 WHITE
BLACK
PK4 NQB3 BB4 NB 3 PxP BN 5 t BxBt PQ4 KNxP N/3K2
00 PQB3 PQR4 BB4 BN3 NN5 RPxN N/2Q4 QQ2 QRK1 PN3 RxR QB4 QB7 QQ7 QBst QB5 NxQ N/BQ4 RQ1 KB l NK6 KK2
34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66
KB3 NB4 KN3 BB 3 PB 5 PxP PR5 PR6 PB6t BR5 KB 3 BN4t KxR NxP PxP NB4t RKR2 J\!K5 t KB5 NB4 RxP KK4 NK3 RR5 NxP NN7 t RR6t NK6t NxP KQ4 RR7 KB4 RR6
BLACK
Nj6Q4 RKRl R QB l RQl PxP RKRl RQl PxP KQ2 RN1 t KK3 RxB PN4 PxP KxP KxP KN3 KN2 PB3 KB2 NK2t K.K3 PQB4 PB4t N/2Q4 KQ3 KB2 KN1 KR2 NB2 KNl NB 3 Resigns
32
• CHESS OPENINGS
pa rt 3CENTERHOLDING VARIATION
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
PK4, PK4 NKB 3 , NQB 3 BB4, BB4 PB3, QK2A PQ4, BN3B 00°, PQ3 PKR3D, NB3 RK1, 00E
KEY PosiTION 3
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 3 A With this move Black intends to hold the center. Whether this setup is ultimately satisfactory remains to be determined, but experience to date seems to justify Black's strategy. As was men tioned before, the variation can arise from a transposition of moves, i.e., 4 . . . BN3 5 PQ4, QK2. B 5 . . . PxP is inconsistent. The game develops a wide open character, and the position of Black's Queen becomes unsafe. White proceeds with 6 00, and now there are three plausible variations to consider : 1 ) 6 . . . PQ6 7 PK5, PKR3 ( 7 . . . PQ3 ? 8 BKN5 ) 8 PQN4, BN3 9 PQR4, PQR4 10 BR3, PxP 1 1 PxP, NxP 1 2 QN3, BB4 1 3 NB3 with advantage for White ( RossolimoEvans, Hastings 194950 ) . 2 ) 6 . . . PxP 7 NxP, PQ3 8 NQ5, QQ1 9 PQN4 with good chances for White. 3 ) 6 . . . NK4 7 NxN, QxN 8 PB4, PxPt 9 KR 1, PxP? 1 0 PxQ, PxR ( Q ) 11 QQ5 ! with a winning attack. c The interesting 6 PQ5 is treated in Sup. Var. 4 and 5 . D 7 PQR4, PQR3 8 PKR3 constitutes a transposition of moves. To allow Black to play . . . BKN5 is not recommended for White : e.g., 7 PQR4, PQR3 8 PQN4, NB3 9 BR3, BN5 1 0 PN5, NR4 1 1 QNQ2, NxP with a clear advantage for Black ( RossettoEuwe, Buenos Aires 1 947 ) . E 8 . . . PKR3 with the idea of launching a Kingside at tack with . . . PKN4 is best answered by 9 PQR4, PQR3 1 0 BK3 : e.g., 10 . . . PKN4 1 1 PxP, PxP 1 2 BxB, RPxB 1 3 NR2, and White has the superior position.
Black has succeeded in maintaining the center, but White has a superiority in controlled space with chances of building an attacking position on the Kingside. Chances on the Queenside may also arise because of the somewhat precarious position of Black's King Bishop. A third possibility for White exists in the tentative opening of the diagonal QR3KB8 by a timely PxKP. None of these plans constitutes an immediate danger in itself, but in combination they may become fatal for Black. A good strategy for Black consists in the strengthening of his cen ter (after castling) by maneuvers such as . . . KR 1 , . . . NKN1 and . . . PKB3 . IDEA VARIATIONS 81 1 : ( 8 ) 9 NR 3, NQ1 1 0 BB 1 , NK1 ? ( 1 0 . . . NQ2 ) 1 1 NB4, PKB 3 1 2 PQR4, PB3 1 3 NxB, PxN 1 4 QN3t, and White wins a Pawn. See Game 4. ( 9 ) 9 NR3, NQ1 10 BQ3, PB3 1 1 NB4, BB2 1 2 PxP !, PxP 1 3 PQN3!, PQN4 14 BR3, PB4
G I UOCO PIANO • 33
1 5 NK3 with a positional advantage for White. ( 1 0 ) 9 PQR4, PQR3 1 0 PQN4, KR1 1 1 BR3, NKN1 1 2 PN5, NR4 1 3 NxP? PKB 3 14 BxN, PxN 1 5 BR2, PxP 1 6 PxP, QB 3, and Black has the superior game (Van ScheltingaEuwe, Maastricht 1 946) . ( 1 1 ) 9 PQR4, PQR3 1 0 PQN4, PR3 1 1 BR3, NQ2 12 PN5, NQ1 1 3 QNQ2, QB3 14 NB1 (or 1 4 BN 3 ) leads to an excellent game for White.
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 1 2 1 4 : 1 PK4, PK4 2 NKB 3, NQB3 3 BB4, BB4 4 PB3, QK2 5 PQ4, BN3 6 00, PQ3 7 PKR3, NB3 8 RK 1 , 00.
12 9 PQR4 PQR3 BK3 1 PxP2 1 1 BxP3 NxB 1 2 PxN BK3 1 3 QNQ2 NR44 10
13
NR3 KR1 NB2 NKN1 NK3 BR2 NQ55 QQ16
14 NR Y KR1 8 NB29 NQ1 10 PQN3 1 1 BK312 BB 1 13 NN1 NK3 PKB3
12
13
14 15 16
NoteJ to practical variationJ 121 4 : 1 For 10 BKN5, see Game 5 . 2 This exchange i s basically not good for Black, but here it incidentally works because White is unable to profit from the situation on the Kingside.
3 1 1 PxP, QxP constitutes a dubious gambit. 4 ChristoffelSmyslov, Groningen 1 946. 5 1 3 NB5 offers better chances. 6 Black has a satisfactory game. See Game 6. 7 The postponement of PQR4 is considered an improvement. White aims to bring his Knight, via QB4 or QB2, to K3 and possibly to Q5 or KB5. 8 For 9 . . . NQ 1 , see Idea Var. 8 and 9. 9 1 0 B�B 1 , PxP 11 PxP, NxP is safe for Black. Or 10 BN3 , NKN1 11 NB4, NR4 ! 1o After 10 . . . NKN1 , White's 12 NK3 has a good effect. 11 With the threat of 12 BR3 .
12
Now, on 1 3 BR3, Black has 1 3 . . . BxB 14 PxB, PBt
1 3 RossolimoEuwe, Gijon 1 9 5 1 , continued 12 BQ3, NN I
13 NK3, PKB3 14 NQ5, QB 2 with a good game for Black. 1 4 Well worth considering is 15 . . . PQB4. 15 BouwmeesterEuwe, Enschade 1 9 5 2 .
14 NQ5 QB2 PB4 BR414 RK2 NB315 
34 • CHESS OPENINGS
Gittoco Piano Game 4 WHITE: Tartakover Venice 1948 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
PK4 NKB 3 BB4 PB3 PQ4
00 PKR3 RK1 NR3 BB1 NB4 PQR4 NxB QN3 t QxP BQB4 PR4 RPxP? PxP BK3 PKN3 ? KN2 ?
B LACK
BLACK: Ettwe
WHITE
PK4 NQB3 BB4 BN3 QK2 PQ3 NB 3
23 24 25 26 27 28 29
00
.30
NQ1 NK1 ? PKB3 PB3 PxN NK3 PN4 PR3 KR2 RPxP QPxP RR1 KN3 NB5 t
31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42
PxN KN3 BxP NR2 KxP KK3 NB3 KxR KQ3 KQ4 KQ3 KB2 PN3? KN2 RN1 t QRQB 1 KR3 PxN KxR KN4 Resigns
BLACK
BR6+ KPxPT QQ2 PxBt RR 5 t BN7 RxPt NQ3 t QB4 ·r QB5 t QxBt BxN BK5 t QQ6 KB2 QQ7t NB 5 t RxPt QR7 t Q N7 t
Gittoco Piano Game 5 WHITE: Tarrasch
BLACK: Alekhine BadenBaden 1925
WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
PK4 NKB3 BB4 PB3 PQ4
00
RK1 PQR4 PR3 1 0 BKN5 1 1 BK3
WHITE
BLACK
PK4 NQB3 BB4 BN3 QK2 NB3 PQ3 PQR3
00 PR3 QQ1
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
BQ3 QNQ2 QB2 NxP BB 1 QRB 1 NN3 BKB4 NxN PxP? BQ3
B LACK
RKl BR2 PxP NK4 PQ4 PB4 QB2 NB6t ! QxB BKB4 BxP
GI UOCO PIANO • 35
23 24 25 26
WHITE
BLACK
PxB RxRt BB 1 PB4
QxN RxR RK4 RN4"1
WHIT E
27 KR2 28 PxN Resigns
Giuoco Piano Game 6 JJ7HITE: Contedini Leipzig 1960 WHITE
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
PK4 NKB 3 BB4 PB3 PQ4
00 PQR4 PKR3 RK1 NR3 NB2 NK3 NQ5 BK3 PQN4
BLACK
PK4 NQB3 BB4 BN3 QK2 PQ3 P"QR3 NB3
00 KR1 NKN1 BR2 QQ1 PB3 N/3K2
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
BLACK
NN5 t RxNP
BLACK: Euwe
WHITE
BLACK
PxP BxN RxB BN3 PB4 PB5 PxP QQ5 PxB NxN KR1 NB 5 KN1 Resigns
NxN BxB BPxP QB3 NK2 PxP NN3 BxP ! NR5 QxPt QxR QxRPt RB3
SUPPLEMENTARY VARIATIONS 1  1 0 : 1 PK4, PK4 2 NKB3, NQB3 3 BB4, BB4. The method given in Sup. Var. 1 constitutes an attempt to intensify the struggle. How good this strategy is for White remains to be seen. The system adopted by Black in Sup. Var. 2 and 3 is somewhat meek; he abandons the center and acquiesces in advance to a cramped position. Variations 4 and 5 involve interesting Pawn sacrifices, offering White considerable pressure. Variations 6, 7, 8 and 9 illustrate quiet forms of the opening "Giuoco Pianissimo. " Finally, Sup. Var. 1 0 shows an unsuccessful attempt to force the Max Lange Variation of the Two Knights' Defense.
36 • CHESS OPENINGS
PK4, PK4 2 NKB 3, NQB3 3 BB4, BB4
1 4 PB3
2
PQ3 PQ4 PxP4 PxP 6 PK5 PxP PQ4 ! 1 BN35 7 BQN5 2 NB3 NB3 NK5 BK3 8 PxP BN3 BN5 BN36 9 NB3 00 00 1 0 BK3 QQ3 RKl PB3 1 1 QN3 007 BKR4 NxN 1 2 PxN NQ2 BN5 ! 3 NKN5 8 13 NQ5 NxB PxN 14 RKB l RB29 15
3
NB 3
5 PQ4
+
BxN PxB NKR4 10 NK2 ! 11 QR5 KN2 1 2 NK2 RKN l NN3 13
4 QK2 PQ4 BN3 PQ5 NNl PQ6 1 4 QxP QxQ PxQ NN5 ! 1 5 NKR3 PQR4 NB3 PQN4 PB3 NB 3 NB2 PR5 BB2 NR3 PQR3 BQ5 NK2 1 6
5
NQl ! PQ61 7 QxQ QxQ PxQ NR3 NK3 BQ5 NB3 PB4 BB2 18
+
Notes to supplementary variatiom 1 1 0 :
1 O r 6 NK5 ? 7 BQ5 ! 2
If 7 PQN4, Black's best is 8 . . . NK5 !
3 Black has equality at least. 4
5 . . . BN3 costs Black a Pawn.
5 6 . . . BN 5 t is supposed to be refuted by 7 KB 1 , threat
ening 8 PQ5 ; but after 7 . . . BR4, Black has sufficient coun terchances. Therefore 7 BQ2 is actually stronger. 6 The text move prevents 9 . . . NxKP. 7 1 1 000 also deserves consideration. The possible doubling of White's King Bishop Pawn is no particular danger, as Black lacks the means to start an effective attack on the King side. 8 12 . . . BN3 is answered by 1 3 PQ 5 , NK4 14 QK2 . 9 White enjoys open lines. 1 0 Threatening to win by 1 3 . . . BxP 14 BxB, NB5 ! 11 Not 1 3 NQ5 because Black gains an important tempo with 1 3 . . . RK3 ! 12 Not 14 KR1 because of 14 . QR6 1 5 NN3 1, NxP ! 16 BxN ?, NB5 � 1 3 After 16 KR 1 , White has the edge : e.g., 1 6 N/ 3B5 1 7 NxN, NxN 1 8 QB4 with numerous threats. 1 4 An interesting Pawn sacrifice.
GI UOCO PIANO • 37
6
NB3 1 9 NB 3 PQ3 PQ3 2o BK3 BN3 QQ2 BK3 BQN5 00 PQ4 PxP NxP NxN BxN BxB QxB PQ4
8
7
BKN5 21 PKR 3 BxN QxB NQ5 QQ1 22
PB3 PR3 23 00 00 PQR4 BR2 QK2 NK2 NK3 NN3
10
9
NQR4 BxN PxB NKR4 NxB PxN PB4 NxP BxN PxB QR5 QB 3 QxBP QxP KQ2 24 QN3 QxQ RPxQ KRKN1 25
QxB ! NQs QQl PQN4 PQB Y6 PxB NxB PxN PxN QxP21 QR4t KBl 28 QxBP QxQ PxQ NxP BK3
+
00 NB3 PQ4 BxP29 NxB NxN PB430 PQ3 PxP PxP BKNS BK3 NQ2 QQ2 BxN PxB RxBP 003 1 +
+
1 5 The text is stronger than the oldfashioned continuation 9 NR3, NKB3 10 BQ5, NxB 1 1 PxN, PB3 1 2 NQ2, KK2 1 3 N/2B4, BB2, after which Black safely emerges from the pressure. 16 White's strong pressure compensates for the Pawn. 1 7 7 00, while Black's Queen Knight is inactively placed, merits consideration, but leads to no advantage after 7 . . . PQ3 8 PQR4, PQR3 . On 7 PQR4, BxPt 8 KxB, QB4t 9 BK3, QxB 10 QNQ2, QR3 11 NxP, QB3t, Black has an equal game. 1 8 Black is safe. 1 9 4 PQ3, NB3 5 NB3 leads to the text column. 20 The initial position of the Italian Four Knights' Game ( the Giuoco Pianissimo ) . 21 This sharp continuation breaks away from the ordinarily serene course of the Italian Four Knights' Game. 22 8 . . QN3 9 NxPt, KQ1 10 NxR, QxNP 1 1 RKB 1, BKN5 is promising for Black, but White has better: 9 NR4, QN4 10 PKN3 , BN3 1 1 PQB3, BN5 1 2 PB3, BR6 1 3 PQR4, 00 1 4 PQN4, and White has the edge ( BlauPorreca, Vevey 1 9 5 3 ) . 23 Also plausible is 9 . NK2 1 0 NK 3 , 0D 1 1 00, BN3 1 2 PQ4, NN3 . For 10 BK3 in this line, see Game 7 . .
.
.
.
.
.
continued �
38 • CHESS OPENINGS
24 Also favoring White is 1 3 . . . 0D 14 QK4, BQ5 1 5 0DD. 25 The ending favors White ( CortleverTrifunovic, Utrecht 1 950 ) . 26 Black can also reach this variation via 9 . . . NxB 10 PxB, PB3 ! 27 Critical for White is 1 2 PxPI6, PxKP ( 1 3 NxP ? QR4 t ! ) Or 1 2 BPxP/5, QR4t 1 3 QQ2, QxBP with a positional edge for Black. 28 Not 1 3 KK2 because of 1 3 . . . BK3 ( 14 QxNP ? or QxQP ?, BxPt ) . 29 5 . . . PxP leads to the Max Lange Variation of the Two Knights' Defense. 30 7 BN5 leads to Game 8 . 31 Van ScheltingaAlexander, Maastricht 1 946. .
Giuoco Piano Game 7 BLACK: Eliskases WHITE: Capablanca Moscow 1936 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
PK4 NKB 3 BB4 NB 3 PQ3 BN5 BxN NQ5 PB3 NK3 BxB QN3 PQ4 NxP PxB 00 QRB l RB3
WHITE
BLACK
PK4 NQB3 BB4 NB3 PQ3 PKR3 QxB QQl NK2 BK3 PxB QBl PxP BxN 00 QQ2 QRNl PQ4
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
QB2 PK5 QQl PB3 PKN3 PB4 NxN PKR4 KN2 PR3 Rj3B 3 QB2 PKN4 KR3 PN4 RKN l QQ2 QKB2
BLACK
PB3 RB5 R/1 KB l QQl R/5B2 NB4 RxN PKN3 QK2 QN2 QK2 KN2 R/4B2 QQ2 RKN l KR l RR2 PKR4 ?
37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54
PxP RN5 QN3 QN4 RN3 RN2 KN3 RR2 RR3 RxR QxQ PB 5 ! K�4 KxP PK6 KK5 KQ6 RK3
RxP QR2 QR3 RN2 KR2 KRl KR2 RK2 KN2 QxR PxQ PxP RK3 RN3 RN5 RK5 t RxP
Resigns
Giuoco Piano Game 8 WHITE: Rosentreter BLACK: Hoefer Berlin 1 899 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
PK4 NKB 3 BB4 00 PQ4 NxB BKN5
BLACK
PK4 NQB3 BB4 NB 3 BxP NxN PKR3
8 9 10 11 12 13
WHITE
BLACK
BR4 PB4 ! ! RxP ! QxN BxN BR8 !
PKN4? NPxP PxR 00 QKl Resigns
UNUSUAL OPENINGS • 39
chapter 6  Unusual Openings Beginning with 1 PK4, PK4 2 NK B3, NQB3 3 B 84
(The Evans Gambit, The Hungarian Defense and the Half Giuoco Game) Apart from the Two Knights' Defense, some other openings arise after 1 PK4, PK4 2 NKB3, NQB3 3 BB4; but these are so rarely played today that they hardly j ustify independent treatment. Practical Variations 14 deal with the Evans Gambit, once the Queen but now the Cinderella of the openings, left behind by the steady progress of theory. The gambit player aims at wild positions where he may take his opponent by surprise. A century ago such an objective was realistic and efficient. Sacrifices of all sorts could be j ustified if they produced complications which readily confused the defender. In modern ti�es, however, the openings are too well known for such speculations to succeed. The informed defender knows how to handle typical gambit variations, so that they can not be expected to pay adequate dividends. Thus most gambits have practically disappeared from the scene, and with them the Evans. In this discussion of the Evans, therefore, we will make no attempt to dwell on large numbers of obsolete variations but rather restrict ourselves to those which still have a limited survival value. See especially Prac. Var. 3 which leads to quiet and re liable positions for Black. For one old and one modern example of the Evans Gambit, see Games 1 and 2. Prac. Var. 5 treats the Hungarian Defense, and Prac. Var. 6 the "Half" or "Lesser" Giuoco Piano. Both solid debuts.
40 • CHESS OPENINGS
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 1 6 : PK4, PK4 2 NKB 3, NQB 3 3 BB4
1
2
3
4
3 BB4
4 PQN41 BxP
5 PB3
BR42
BK2 !9 PQ4 NR4 10 NxP11 NxB NxN PQ4 PxP QxP NK3 QQ1 12 00 NB3 PQB4 0013
6 PQ4 PQ33
7 QN34 QQ2 !
8 PxP5 PxP
9 00 BN 3
1 0 RQl QK2
1 1 BR3 QB 3
BN3' PxP NR4 QN4 NxB QxN QxP8
1 2 QNQ2 KNK26
13
BN3 1 4 PQR4 1 5 PQR3 BN2 PQ3 PN 5 PxP PxP RxR BxR NQ5 NxN PxN PQB 3 NB3 00 00 PQ3 t 6
5
6
BK2 17 PQ3 22 PQ4 PQ4'3 PQ3 13 BN5 PKR3 !19 PB3 NB 3 QQ2 24 PQ5 2s NB3 +0020 00 21 +
+
Notes to practh·al variations 16 :
1 This is the Evans' Gambit, named after the English Cap tain, W. Evans, who introduced this Pawn sacrifice in 1 824. White sacrifices a Pawn with the obvious intention of accelerating the formation of a strong center by means of 5 PB3 followed by 6 PQ4. 2 5 . . . BB4 assists White in achieving his aim, e.g., 6 PQ4, Px:P 7 Px:P ( or 7. 00, PxP 8 NxP or 8 BxFt ) , BN5 t 8 KB1 ! with good attacking chances for White. 3 6 . . PxP 7 00 offers White good attacking chances, e.g., 7 . . . PxP 8 QN3, QB3 9 PK5, QN3 10 NxP, KN K2 1 1 BR3, 00 12 QRQ1 and White's edge in development is well worth the two Pawns. Black, however, may do better with Pachman's 7 . . KNK2. 4 The recovery of the Pawn after 7 PxP leads to an even end game. Worth consideration is 7 B:KN5 . 5 With a Pawn down, White must open lines. 6 Black proceeds with 13 . . . BK3 with an even game. 7 The most solid continuation. 8 White has more freedom. Black has the two Bishops and the better Pawn structure. 9 The safest, and at th� same time Black's best chance for an opening advantage. 10 The point of Black's preceding move. .
.
UNUSUAL OPENINGS • 41 11
AlexanderEuwe ( Maastricht 1946 ) continued : 7 BQ3, PQ3 8 QR4 t, PB3 9 BR3 and White has attacking chances. Simpler is 7 . . PxP 8 PxP, PQ4. 1 2 This is safer than 10 . . . QQR4 1 1 0Q, NB3 1 2 RK1 and Black will find i t dangerous t o play 1 2 . . oo because of 1 3 NB4. 1 3 Black has a sound Pawn formation and the two Bishops. 1 4 The Evans Gambit Declined, which offers White fair chances for attack. 1 5 Too ambitious is 5 PN5, NR4 6 NxP, NR3 ar1d White will have trouble meeting Black's 7 . . . PQ3. 1 6 TartakoverRubinstein, The Hague 192 1 . 1 7 The Hungarian Defense where Black maintains his Pawn on K4. The exchange of this Pawn ( . . . KPxQP ) leads to a quiet variation of the Two Knights' Defense. 1 8 Or 4 . . . PxP 5 PB3 ! and now Black must not play 5 . . . PxP because of 6 QQ5 ! Black's best is 5 . . . NR4. 19 White obtains a slight edge by 5 PxP, PxP 6 QxQt, BxQ 7 NB3 ( RossolimoEuwe, Beverwijk 1 9 5 3 ) . 20 The alternative, 6 . NxKP 7 NxN, PQ4, favors White because of 8 BQN5, PxN 9 NxP ! 21 The reply 7 . . NxKP still favors White because of 8 NxN, PQ4 9 NB3, PxB 10 PQ5 ! 22 The "Lesser" or "Half" Giuoco Piano, introduced by Alekhine. It does not seem quite sufficient for equality. 23 Alekhine gave 4 PB3, QK2 5 0Q, PKN3 as satis factory for Black. 24 5 . . . NB3 courts danger because of 6 QN 3 . 25 Or 6 BQN5 and White has some superiority i n space. .
.
.
.
.
Unusttal Openings Game 1 BLACK: Schumacher WHITE: Sokolski Postal Game 1954 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
PK4 NKB3 BB4 PQN4 PB3 PQ4 QN3 PxP QNQ2 BR3 QN4 QN2 NxN RQ1 NQ6t 00
BLACK
PK4 NQB3 BB4 BxP BR4 PQ3 QQ2 BN3 PxP NR4 PQB4 NxB PB3 QB3 KK2 NR3
WHITE
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
PB4 NxBt RQ5 QB2 NR4 NB5 KPxR PB4 PxP BN2 QB2 QR4 BB1 BxN QN4 ! !
BLACK
NB2 QRxN KRQ1 PQR.3 KB 1 RxR QQ2 BQ1 NxP NB2 PQN4 NN4 PN3 PxB Resigns
42
a CHESS OPENINGS
Unusual Openings Game 2 WHITE: Tchigm·in BLACK: Dorrer 1 884 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
PK4 NKB3 BB4 PQN4 PB 3 PQ4 00 PxP NB 3 ! BKN5 BB4 QR4t QxN NQ5 QR4t
B LACK
PK4 NQB3 BB4 BxP BR4 PxP PQ3 BN3 NR4 PKB 3 ! NxB QQ2 QB2 BK3 BQ2
WHITE
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
QB2 ! PQR4 KRN1 NxN RxP RxRP RR6 PR5 ! QB4t QxR QxB QxP QxB QR7
BLACK
RB J BR4 NK2 QxN 00 BN3 RR1 RxR KR1 BxRP QxP QxB RQN1 Resigns
KING'S GAMBIT • 43
chapter 7King's Gambit The King's Gambit has definitely lost the preeminence that it had in the previous century. Yet, even today, it is still appealing because of its unparalleled wealth of varia tions and ideas. The adoption of this opening, however, requires profound theoretical knowledge as well as more than ordinary courage in view of the risks involved, which are greater than in any other opening. In our time there are only a few players, such as Spasski, Bronstein and Robert Byrne, who now and then take a chance with the King's Gambit, often with success against prominent adversaries. The King's Gambit is based on a strategic idea : after 1 PK4, PK4 2 PKB4, PxP, White has obtained the Pawn maj ority in the center and is able to open the King Bishop file. The general idea of this debut finds its classical expression in the Kieseritzky Gambit after 3 NKB3, PKN4 4 PKR4, PN5 5 NK5 (Part 1 ) . A sharp struggle is thus initiated where, even today, White's chances, good or bad, are no more problematical than Black's. With 3 . . . PKN4, Black is definitely committed to the protection of the Gambit Pawn, which is a reason enough why most players prefer some more subtle system of development, possibly combined with the return of the Pawn. Apart from the Modern Defense 3 . . . PQ4 (Part 4 ) , the Reformed Cunningham Gambit, 3 . . . BK2 4 BB4, NKB3 ! (Part 3 ) , is also quite usual. Further more, Becker's idea 3 . . . PKR3 is worth consideration (see Part 2 and Sup. Var. 3 ) . If Black wants to decline the gambit he has the choice between 2 . . . BB4 (Part 5 ) and 2 . PQ4 (the Falkbeer Counter Gambit, discussed in Part 6) . Both lines are fully satisfactory but not stronger than the pre viously mentioned Modern Defense or Reformed Cun ningham Gambit. For White, the best form of this opening, according to presentday views, is the Knight's Gambit (1 PK4, PK4 2 PKB4, PxP 3 NKB 3 ) . Other variants, such as the Bishop's Gambit and Breyer's Gambit (Sup. Var. 6 and 8 respectively) , are definitely weaker. .
.
44
• CHESS OPENINGS
part
PK4, PK4 PKB4, PxP 3 NKB 3, PKN4 4 PKR4, PN S 5 NK)A 1
2
KEY
PosiTION 1
1 KIESERITZKY GAM BIT
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 1 .\. 6 NN5 is the Allgaier Gambit. This is the most important position of the classical King's Gambit when Black plays 3 . . . PKN4. White has disrupted the enemy Pawn chain by 4 PKR4. If he now succeeds in recovering the weak Gambit Pawn, his advantage in the center is evident. Hence, Black must hasten to eliminate White's important King Pawn ; this he can best do by adopting the Berlin Defense, 5 . . . NKB3 . Then the enticing attack on Black's KB7 by means of 6 BB4 leads, after 6 . . . PQ4, to advantage for Black. White must therefore treat the position stra tegically rather than tactically. His best answer to 5 . . . NKB3 is 6 PQ4. After 6 . . . PQ3 7 NQ3, NxP 8 BxP, White maintains sufficient material compensation for the Pawn. At his fifth turn, Black has a great variety of con tinuations at his disposal, but none as good as 5 . . . NKB 3. IDEA VARIATIONS 13 : ( 1 ) 5 . . . NKB3 6 BB4 (oldfashioned ) , PQ4 7 PxP, BN2 (Paulsen's move, which is stronger than Tchi.gorin's 7 . . . BQ3 ) 8 Pq4, NR4 9 00, QxP 1 0 QK1, QxQ 1 1 Rx Q, 00 1 2 NQB3, NQ2 with a good game for Black (R. ByrneKeres, USSRUSA, Moscow 1 95 5 ; see Game 1 ) . Black fares even better with 1 2 . . . PQB4 ! ( 2 ) 5 . . . NKB3 6 PQ4 !, PQ3 7 NQ3, NxP 8 BxP, BN2 (more usual is 8 . QK2; see the next Idea Var. ) 9 NB 3 ? ! (also possible is 9 PB3 followed by NQ2 ) , NxN 1 0 PxN, PQB4! 1 1 BK2, PxP 1 2 00, NB3 ! with chances for both sides (SpasskiFischer, Mar del Plata 1 960; see Game 2 ) . ( 3 ) 5 . NKB 3 6 PQ4 !, PQ3 7 NQ3, NxP 8 BxP, QK2 9 QK2, BN2 1 0 PB 3, PKR4 (Black does better with 1 0 . . . BB4 ; see Prac. Var. 1 ) 1 1 NQ2, NxN 1 2 KxN, QxQt (else follows 1 3 QB2 ) 1 3 BxQ, and White has ample compensation for the Pawn (Stoltz Saemisch, Swinemunde 1 9 3 2 ; see Game 3 ) . Black prob ably can still achieve equality with 1 3 . . . NB 3 1 4 QRK1 , BK3. .
.
.
.
KING'S GAMBIT • 45
King's Gambit Game 1 WHITE: R. Byrne Moscow 1955 WHIT E
1 PK4 2 PKB4 3 NKB 3 4 PKR4 5 NK5 6 BB4 7 PxP 8 PQ4 9 00 1 0 QK l 1 1 RxQ 1 2 NQB 3 1 3 NN5 1 4 NB7? 1 5 NxR 1 6 BQ2 1 7 PxN 1 8 NB7 1 9 QRB l 20 NQ5 2 1 BxP 22 NK7t 2 3 BN5 24 NB6
WHITE
BLACK
PK4 PxP PKN4 PN5 NKB 3 PQ4 BN2 NR4 QxRP QxQ 00 NQ2 PQB3 PxP PxB NxN BB4 BxBP BQ6 PN4 RQl KB l RKl NN6
25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48
R/BQl NxP NxP RxN RQ8t RxRt KB2 NB3 KK3 BB4 KQ2 PKN3 NQl NB3 PN4 PN5 t ? PR4 NQ5 NB 3 KK3 KQ2 BQ6 BB4 BQ6
BLACK: Keres
BLACK
RK3 BxP NK7t BxR RKl KxR BQ6 KQ2 BR7 BN8 t PR4 BKB7 BQ5 KB3 ? BB3 KN2 BQl BK5 BB6 BN3 t PB3 BR4 BK5 BQ6
WHITE
49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66
BB4 BK3 PxP PKR5 PR6 BB2 BNl BR2 PR7 KK2 BxQ NQ5 NxP NQ3 KxB KB2 KN3 KB2 Resigns
BLACK
BN5 ! PR5 PN6 PN7 PB4 PB5 BR4 BN3 BxP PN8/Q BxB BQ5 PB6 BxNt KN3 KR4 BK4 KxP
King's Gambit Game 2 WHITE: Spasski
BLACK: Fischer Afar del Plata 1960
WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
PK4 PKB4 NKB3 PKR4 NK5 PQ4 NQ3 BxP NB 3 ! ? PxN
B LACK
PK4 PxP PKN4 PN5 NKB 3 PQ3 NxP BN2 NxN PQB4
WHITE
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
BK2 00 BxNP BxB QN4 QN3 QRKl ! KRl BxP BK5 t
BLACK
PxP NB 3 ! 00 RxB PB4 PxP KRl RKN l BBl ? NxB
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
WHITE
BLACK
QxNt RxP KN l RB2 RK4 QQ4 RK5 ! QK4 RB4
RN2 ! QxPt QKN5 BK2 QN4 RBl ? RQl QR5 Resigns
46 • CHESS OPENINGS
King's Gambit Game 3 BLACK: Saemisch Swinemunde 1 932
WHITE: Stoltz
10
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
PK4 PxP PKN4 PN5 NKB3 PQ3 NxP QK2 BN2 PKR4
PK4 PKB4 NKB3 PKR4 NK5 PQ4 NQ3 BxP QK2 PB3
BLACK
WHITE
B LACK
WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
NQ2 KxN BxQ KRKB 1 NN4 BN5 t QRK l t BN5 ! RxN
NxN QxQt BB4 NQ2 ? NB3 BQ2 KQ1 BxB Resigns
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 15 : 1 PK4, PK4 2 PKB4, PxP 3 NKB 3, PKN4 PKR4, PN5 5 NK5
1 5  
NKB 3 BN2 PQ43 PQ3 NKB34 NQ3 NQB 3 NxP PQ3 BxP NQ3 00 QK2 QK2 NxP BN2 NxP PB 3 NxN BB4 RK1 NQ2 KB2 NxN RxN KxN1 PB3 QxQt QB3 BxQ PKN3 NQ2 2 BR3 BQ3 BxN BxB5
6 PQ4 7 8 9 10
11 12 13 14 15
2
3 PQ4 PQ4 NKB 3 BxP NxP NQ2 NxN QxN BQ3 000 BK3 BQ3 NQ2 6 QRK1 NxN BxN BxB RxB QQ2 QN5 !7
4 PQ3 NxNP BK2 8 PQ4 BxPt NB2 QB39 QB3 BN6 NB3 QxP BxP BxNt QxB QxQt KxQl o +
4
5 PKR411 BB4 RR2 12 PQ4 BQ3 NQB3 NQB 3 BxPt RxB NxR KxN BxP BxB 00 QxP RxBtlJ ±.:
+
Notes to practical variatiom 15 : 1 White · does better, accordiP.g to Keres, with 12 QxQt, KxQ 1 3 KxN. 2 According to Pachman. 3 According to Schlechter, 6 NxNP is also good : 6 . . . PxQ4 7 PQ4 !, PxP 8 BxP, QxP 9 QxQ, BxQ 10 PB3 , BxN 1 1 PxB, NQB3 1 2 BQN5, ooo 1 3 BxN, PxB 1 4 0D.
KING'S GAMBIT • 47
4 6 . . . PQ3 provokes a sacrifice which is very promising
for White : e.g., 7 NxBP, KxN 8 BB4t, KK1 9 BxP. 5 The sacrifice of the exchange is worked out in Bilguer' s Handbuch as favorable for Black : 1 5 . . . RxBt 16 PxR, QxPI 7 KN2 ? PN4 ! Rubinstein, however, gave the following refuta tion : 1 7 KK2 !, PN6 18 QQ2 ! 6 After 1 1 . . . PKB3 ? 12 QRK 1 , White has an irresistible attack. 7 The text move, according to Keres, leads to an advantage for White : e.g., 1 5 . . . QK2 16 £B5, QxQ 17 PxQ. Instead, the older continuation 1 5 BB5 , 0DD leads only to equality. a Or 6 . PKR4 7 NB2, NKB3 8 PQ4, BR3 9 NB 3 , NN5 1 0 N x N !, B x N ( 1 0 . . . PxN 1 1 NQ5 ! ) 1 1 QQ3 . 9 O r 8 . . . QN4 9 QB3, NQB3 1 0 QxP, QxQ 1 1 BxQ, BxNt 1 2 KxB, NxP 1 3 BQ3, and White has positional com pensation for the Pawn. 1 0 13 . . . NKB3 14 BK2, QNQ2 1 5 NN 5 , KQ1 1 t.J BB3 slightly favors White ( KosticTomovoc, Zagreb 1 949 ) . 1 1 An obsolete defense. Insufficient also are : 1 ) 5 . . . BK2 6 BB4 !, BxPt 7 KB 1 , PQ4 ( 7 . . NKR3 8 NxNP ! ) 8 BxP, NKR3 9 PQ4, BN4 1 0 NQB3 ! 2 ) 5 . . . QK2 6 PQ4 !, PQ3 7 NxNP, P_:_KB4 ( 7 . . . QxPt 8 QK2 ) 8 NB2, NKB3 ( 8 . . PxP 9 QR5t ) 9 BxP, NxP ( 9 . . . PxP 10 PQ5 ! ) 10 QR5t. 3 ) 5 . . . NQB3 6 PQ4 !, NxN 7 PxN, PQ3 8 BxP, BN2 (8 . . QK2 9 BN 5 t ) 9 NB3, PxP 10 QxQt, KxQ 1 1 000t, BQ2 12 BK3. 1 2 Or 6 . . . NKR3 7 PQ4, PQ3 8 NQ3 , PB6 9 PxP, PxP 10 QxP, BN5 1 1 QB2, QK2 12 NB3 ! with advantage for White. 1 3 White has a very strong attack ( BronsteinDubinin, Leningrad 1 94 7 ) . See Game 4. .
.
.
.
King's Gambit Game 4 WHITE: Bronstein BLACK: Dubinin Leningrad 194 7 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
PK4 PKB4 NKB3 PKR4 NK5 BB4 PQ4 NQB3 NxBP! BxRt BxP ! 00 RxBt QQ2
BLACK
PK4 PxP PKN4 PN5 PKR4 RR2 BR3 NQB 3 RxN KxB BxB QxP? KN2 PQ3
WHITE
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
QRKB 1 NQ5 ! PK5 ! PxP PK6! RB7 t ! RxNt QB3 t RxN QxQt QB 5 t QxB QQ7
BLACK
NQ1 BQ2 PxP BB3 BxN NxR KR1 NB3 QxR KR2 KR3 KN3 Resigns
48 • CHESS OPENINGS
part 2PHILIDOR AND HANSTEIN GAM BITS
1 2 3 4
PK4, PK4 PKB4, PxP NKB 3, PKN4 BB4, BN2
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 2 In the last century the continuation 4 BB4 was very usual. Today, however, 4 PKR4 is preferred, so as to accentuate the weakening of Black's Kingside. The move 4 BB4 allows Black to consolidate his Kingside by means of 4 . . . BN2 and . . PKR3. 4 . . . PN5, instead, has a weakening effect on Black's Pawn skeleton, enabling White to obtain fine attacking chances (see the Muzio Gambit, Sup. Var. 2 ) . Yet key position 2 has great theoretical significance even today, for it leads to variations which may also arise via Becker's Defense, 3 . . . PKR3 (Sup. Var. 3 ) . The key position offers White the choice between two gambits, 5 PKR4 (the Philidor) and 5 00 (the Han stein ) . 5 PKR4 is a belated attempt to break up Black's Pawn chain on the Kingside. 5 00 initiates an attempt by White to open up the KB file by means of PKN3, possibly followed by a Knight sacrifice if Black counters . . . PN 5 . .·
KEY
POSITION 2
IDEA VARIATIONS 46 : (4) 5 PKR4, PN5 6 NN5, NKR3 7 PQ4 favors White : e.g., 7 . . . NQB3 (on 7 . . PKB 3 ? White gets a strong attack with 8 BxP ! ) 8 PB3, PQ3 9 QBxP, NR4 1 0 BQ3, PKB3 1 1 QQ2, NN1 1 2 PQ5 . ( 5 ) 5 PKR4, PKR3 6 PQ4, PQ3 (after 6 . PN5 ? 7 QBxP, PxN 8 QxP, White has an ideal attack ing position 7 PB3, NQB3 (7 . . PN5 8 NN1 ! ) 8 QN3, QK2 9 00. Bilguer's Handbuch now gives 9 . . . NB 3 (see Prac. Var. 6) . It is an open question, however, whether this is Black's best. Black may also try 9 . . . PN5 , when it appears that White has no better than to sacrifice a piece with no clear compensation : 1 0 QBxP, PxN 1 1 RxP. Keres suggests for Black the quiet 9 . . PQR3, so as to proceed with . . . NQ1 , followed, after due preparation, by . . . PQN4. The immediate 9 . . NQ1 ? fails because of 1 0 PxP, PxP 1 1 QN 5 '1 followed by QxKNP. (6) 5 00, PQ3 (or 5 . . . PN5 6 NK1 ) 6 PQ4, NQB3 7 PB3, PKR3 (so as to preclude the sacrificial possibility of NxP, followed by QBxP) 8 PKN3, PN5 9 NR4, PB6 1 0 NQ2 (for other moves see Prac. Var. 9) , BB3 1 1 QNxP (a characteristic sacri.
.
.
.
KING'S GAMBIT • 49
fice) , PxN 1 2 QxP, RR2 ? 1 3 NN6! and White has a tremendous attack (SpielmannGrunfeld, TeplitzSchoenau 1 92 2 ; see Game 5 ) . Grunfeld gives 1. 2 . . . BR6 ! as a refutation of White' s attack. Spielmann contends, how ever, that, after 1 3 RB2, followed by 1 4 PKS, White has the better prospects. The last word is Panov' s who claims that Black's defense remains sufficient after 1 3 . . . QQ2, threatening . 000 :. e.g., 1 4 PKS, PxP 1 5 PxP, BxN 1 6 BxPt ( 1 6 PK6, BxKP 1 7 BxB, QxB 1 8 RK2, QxR, 1 9 QxQt, BK2 ! ) , KK2 1 7 PK6, BxKP 1 8 BxB, QxB 1 9 RK2, NK4 20 QxP, NKB3 ! .
.
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 61 0 : 1 PK4, PK4 2 PKB4, PxP 3 NKB3, PKN4 4 BB4, BN2
6 5 PKR4
7
8
PKR3
6 PQ4 7 8 9 10 11 12
. PQ3 PB3 NQB3 QN3 QK2 00 NB 3 PxP PxP NxP NxP NxN!l
QQ3 NQB 3 PxP PxP RxR BxR PKS BN2 2 QR7 KB 1 QRS NR3 !3
NB3 NQB3 NK2 QK2 QQ3 BQ2 BQ2 000 0004
9 00 PQ3 PQ4 PKR3 PB3 NQB3 PKN3 PNS NR4 PB6 QN35 QK2 NB5 6 BxN QxP!7
10
BR6 PxP BxR QxB PxP QBxP QB3 BN3 0008
+
NoteJ to practical variationJ 61 0 : 1 12 RK 1 ? fails against 12 . . . RRst 1 3 KxR, NB7t 14 · KR2, QxR 1 5 BxPt, KQ1 16 BxP, NN5t with a winning attack for Black ( Bilguer) . The text move has been recommended by Keres. 1 2 . . . QxN ( 1 2 . . . NxP ? 1 3 QQ 1 ) 1 3 QBxP and, according to Keres, the attacking chances belong to White. Panov, however, gives the following continuation as being favorable for Black : 1 3 . . . NxP 1 4 QQ1 , NB6t 1 5 QxN, QxKB ! Therefore, Panov believes, White must replace 1 3 QBxP by 1 3 BxPt, KQ1 1 4 RxP, after which Black must be content with a draw by perpetual check : 14 . . . QKst 1 5 RB1 , QR5 16 QQ5, QRst 1 7 KB2 , QR5t 18 KN 1 , QR8t. 2 10 . . PQ4 11 QR7, KB 1 is unfavorable for Black : e. g., 1 2 BN5 ! ( not 12 QxB, PxB 1 3 PB 3, BN5 [Bilguer] ) .
continued �
50 • CHESS OPENINGS
BN2 1 3 BxN, PxB 1 4 PQN3 ! with a winning attack for White ( Kmoch ) . 3 1 3 NxP, BN5 1 4 QR4, NxP favors Black. 4 Keres now considers White's position satisfactory, pointing out that Black's extra Pawn hardly matters : e.g., 1 1 . . . RK1 1 2 KRK1 , QxP 1 3 QR3 or 1 3 QxQ, RxQ 1 4 PxP. 5 On 10 NR3 or 10 BB4, there follows 10 . . . BB 3 . 6 On 1 1 BB4, Black's best reply is 1 1 . . . NB 3 : e.g., 1 2 NQ2, NKR4 1 3 NB5 , BxN 1 4 QxP, RQN1 1 5 QxNt, QQ2. But not 1 1 . . . BB3 ?, upon which 1 2 NB 5 , BxN 1 3 QxP, RN 1 1 4 QxNt, QQ2 1 5 QR6, QBxP 1 6 NQ2, BN3 17 QxRP, RxP 18 BN3 results in great advantage for White ( CortleverScholtens, Leeuwarden 1 943 ) . 7 This complicated position offers about even chances. Weaker than the text move is 12 PxB, ooo ! 1 3 BxP, QK7 1 4 QK6t ( 14 RB2, NxP ! ) , RQ2 ! 1 5 RB2, QQ8'f 1 6 RB 1 , QB7 with advantage for Black. a 1 3 QNQ2, KNK2 14 QR3t, KN 1 1 5 RKB1 , QN3 16 NR4, QN4 1 7 KNB3, QN3 18 NR4 and draws. If 1 8 . . . QR2 ? 1 9 PQN4 ! and Black gets into trouble ( Spielmann Grunfeld, Carlsbad 1 92 3 ) .
King's Gambit Game 5 JVHITE: Spielmann BLACK: Gmnfeld TeplitzS choenau 1 922 WHITE
1 2 3 4
PK4, PK4 PKB4, PxP NKB 3, BK2 BB4, NKB 3 !A
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
PK4 PKB4 BB4 NKB 3 00 PQ4 PB3 PKN3 NR4 QNQ2 Nj2xP QxP NN6! NB4 QN2 PKR3
pa rt
BLACK
PK4 PxP NQB3 PKN4 PQ3 BN2 PKR3 PN5 PB6 BB3 PxN RR2? RN2 BN5 BN4 BQ2
WHITE
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
NR5 PK5 ! QK4 RxP QxB BxB RKB 1 BxN QB8'! QxR NB6t QKB8 KN2 RB2 QR6
BLACK
RR2 PxP PB4 BxR RK2 PxB QQ3 PxP KQ2 QB4 KQ3 QK4 PQ6 QK8 Resigns
3CU N N I NGHAM REFORMED GAM BIT
OBSERVATIONS O N KEY POSITION 3 KEY
POSITION
3
A After 4 . . . BR5t 5 KB1 , B B3, the strongest continua tion for White is 6 PQ4 ( 6 PK5, BK2 7 PQ4, PQ4 8
KING'S GAMBIT • 51
BK2 offers Black good counterchances after 8 . . PKB3 ! ; but not 8 . . . PKN4 9 PKR4, PN5 1 0 NR2, with advantage PN5 or 7 0 0 PKR3 for White) , PKN4 7 PKR40 Now 7 is answered by 8 NK5 .
.
0
.
.
0
Cunningham's original idea was 4 . . . BR5 t. This check, however, is harmful only to Black. The modern continuation 4 . . . NKB 3, introduced by Schlechter and refined by Kmoch, offers Black a satisfactory game. The attack on the King Pawn practically forces 5 PK5, after which Black plays 5 . . . NN5, threatening to eliminate the hostile King Pawn by . . . PQ3 or stabilize the center with . . . PQ4. White can oppose these plans to a cer tain extent, but he cannot really prevent them. The pro tection of the White Pawn by 5 NB 3 is answered by 5 . . . NxP ! , which is the main point of 4 . . . NB 3. IDEA VARIATIONS 71 0 : ( 7 ) 5 P...K ... 5, NN5 6 PKR3 ? BR 5 t 7 KB 1 , NB7 8 QK1 , NxR 9 QxB, QxQ 1 0 NxQ, NN6t, and Black has won the exchange. White's blunder in this line is 6 PKR3 . Had this move been omitted, Black's Knight could not have escaped and White would have emerged with two pieces for a Rook. ( 8 ) 5 PK5, NN5 6 PQ4, PQ4 7 BN3? ( 7 PxP e.p., and if 7 . . . QxP 8 NB3 o r i f 7 . . . BxP 8 QK2t, QK2 9 QxQt, KxQ 1 0 00, and White still has a chance to recover the Pawn and obtain equality) , BR5 t 8 KB 1 , PQN3 9 QBxP, BR3t 1 0 PB4, PxP 1 1 BR4t, PQN4 and Black won (KramerEuwe, 6th Match Game 1 94 1 ) . (9) 5 PK5 , NN5 6 00, PQ4 (stronger is 6 . . . NQB 3 ! ; see Prac. Var. 1 1 ) 7 PxP e.p., QxP ( 7 . . . BxP 8 RK1 t ) 8 PQ4, 00 9 NB3, NK6 (better is 9 . . . PQB 3 1 0 NK4, QKN3 ! ) 1 0 BxN, PxB (Bronstein Koblentz, USSR Championship 1 945 ) . Boleslavski points out that White gains the advantage as follows : 1 1 NQN5 ! , QQ1 ( or 1 1 . . . QQN3 1 2 NK5, BK3 1 3 BxB, PxB 1 4 RxRt, BxR 1 5 QB 3 ! ) 1 2 NK5, BK3 (or 1 2 . . . BB3 1 3 NxKBP, RxN 14 QR5 with a win ning attack for White) 1 3 BxB, PxB 14 RxRt, BxR 1 5 QN4! ( 1 0) 5 NB 3 ? NxP ! 6 NxN, PQ4 7 BQ3, PxN 8 BxP, PKB4! with a clear advantage for Black (Stoltz Reicher, Bucharest 1 9 5 3 . See Game 6) . In this line only 6 NK5 offers chances for White. See Prac. Var. 1 4. 6 BxPt, KxB 7 NK 5 t , KN1 8 NxN, PQ4 favors Black.
52 • CHESS OPENINGS
King's Gambit Game 6 WHITE: Stoltz
BLACK: Reicher Bucharest 1953 BLACK
WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
PK4 PKB4 NKB3 BB4 NB3 NxN BQ3 BxP BQ3 QK2 PB3 BB2
WHITE
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
PK4 PxP BK2 NKB 3 NxP PQ4 PxN PKB4 QQ3 NB3 BQ2
000
1 3 00
PKN4 BB3
1 4 PQ4
BQ2 PKR4 NK 1 QB3 PxB QQ l KR1 KN1 RB2 KB1 PR4 KN1 BxPt Resigns
BLACK
PKR4 PxP KRK1 BxPt ! NxP NK7i" NN6t QB4 t NK7t BN4 NN6t RK7 NxB
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 1 1  1 5 : 1 PK4, PK4 2 PKB4, PxP 3 NKB3, BK2 BB4, NKB3
11 5
6 00 7 8
9 10 11
12
13
PKS NN5
NQB3 ! PQ4 PQ4 PxP e.p. BxP RK1 t 1 NK2 PKR3 NB32 NK5 3
NB 3 ! PQ3 PxP4 BxP5 QK2t QK2 QxQt KxQ6 NQ5 t KQ1 PQ47
PQ4? BxP8 BR 5 t KB1 NQB3 BxNt PxB PQ3
00 BxP9
14
15
NB3 NxP NK5 NQ3 1 o BN3 BR5 t 1 1 PN 3 ! PxP
PQ3 1 4 PQ4 PxP NxP BxN QxB BxP
00!
PxPt KR1 BB3 1 2 PQ4 J 1 3
4
00 0015
BB3 PQ4 PQB416
t
Notes to practical variations 1 1 1 5:
1 Weaker is 9 NB3, 0D 1 0 NK2, NK6 1 1 BxN, PxB 1 2 PQR3 ( better is 1 2 QQ3, QK2 1 3 QRK 1 ) , QB 3 ! ( KeresAlatortsev, USSR Championship 1 9 50 ) . On 1 3 NK5 , there follows 1 3 . . . QR3 ! 2 Stronger is 10 . . . NR3 ( Black of course cannot play 10 . . . NK6 because of 1 1 BxN, PxB 12 NN5 ! ) : 1 1 NK 5 , BxN 1 2 RxB, N/3B4 1 3 PB3, 0D. a n d n o w 1 4 QBxP fails
KING'S GAMBIT • 53
against 14 . . . NN3 1 5 RQ5 ( or 1 5 RK4 ? PQN4 ! followed bv 16 . . . BN2 ) , QR5 16 BQ2, BK3 17 RQB5 , QN6
with positional advantage for Black. 3 White has practically equalized ( A. R. B. ThomasEuwe, Plymouth 1 948 ) . 4 7 PQ4, PxP 8 PxP, QxQt 9 NxQ, BK3 leads to equality. 5 The text move is safer than 7 . . . QxP 8 PQ4, 0D 9 PQ4, PQB3 1 0 NK4, QB2 1 1 PKR3, whereupon White has good attacking prospects. 6 9 . . . BxQ 10 PQ4, BQ3 1 1 NK4 is weaker ( Bron steinLemoine, Munich 1958 ; see Game 7 ) . 7 White recovers the Pawn with approximate equality. 8 7 NxP, BR 5 t 8 KB 1 , PQB3 9 NB3 (9 NxP ? NK6t ! ) , PQN4 10 BK2, BB4 is promising for Black : e.g., 11 PQ3, BB7 ! 12 BxP, BK6 13 BN3, BN3. 9 White has a good game : 11 . . . PB3 1 2 PK6, PKB4 1 3 NxB, QxN 14 QK1 ! ( Panov ) . 10 Black's best defense is 6 . . . NN4 ! But 6 . . . NxN loses outright to 7 QR5 ! while 6 . . . BR5 t 7 PKN3 !, PxP 8 00 offers promising prospects for White. 1 1 Enticing, but dubious. Sound for Black is 7 . . . 0D 8 0D, NB3 9 PQ4, NxN 1 0 PxN, NK l . 12 Black also faces difficult problems after 1 0 . . 0D 1 1 PQ4 ! ( 1 1 QR5, QN4 ! ) , BB3 : e.g., 1 2 QR 5 , NB3 1 3 RB3 ! with a winning attack for White. 13 White has an attacking position of great promise ( Pod gornyStulik, Prague 1 946 ; see Game 8 ) . 14 On 5 QK2, Black's best is 5 . . . PQ4 ! ( not 5 . . . 0D 6 PK5, PQ4 7 PxN, BxP 8 00 ! ) . 15 If 9 BxP ? RK 1 , and White cannot castle because of 10 . . . QB4t . 1 6 The game is even : 1 1 NB3 , BxPt ( 1 1 . . . QB4, BQ6 ) 1 2 NxB, QxNt 1 3 QxQ, PxQ 14 NN 5 , NB3 . .
King's Gambit Game 7 BLACK: Lemoine WHITE: Bronstein Munich 1 958 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
PK4 PKB4 NKB3 BB4 PK5 NB3 PxP QK 2 t QxQt PQ4 NK4 NxBt BxP
BLACK
PK4 PxP BK2 NKB3 NN5 PQ3 BxP QK2 BxQ BQ3 NQ2 PxN NN3
WHITE
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
BQ3 00 PQN3 QRK1 RK7 BK5 BxN NK5 BR6 BN5 BB6 NxP ! RxN !
BLACK
PQ4 00 NB3 BN5 N/NQ2 PQN3 NxB BK3 BB 1 PQR3 RN 1 BN5 Resigns
54 • CHESS OPENINGS
King's Gambit Game 8 WHITE: Podgorny BLACK: Stulik Czechoslovakian Championship 1 95 6 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
PK4 PKB4 NKB3 BB4 NQB3 NK5 BN3 PN3 00 KR1
pa rt
1 2 3 4
PK4, PK4 PKB4, PxP NKB3, PQ4 PxP.A, NKB 3n
BLACK
PosiTION
4
PQ4 QR5 KxP QR6 NxKBP! ! NxNt BB7t BxB BxQ
BLACK
PQN 3 BN2 t PN3? BN2 BxQ PxN KK2 QN1 Resigns
4MODERN VARIATION
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 4 4 PK5 is weak because of 4 . . . PKN4. 4 . . . QxP ( 4 . . . BQ3 5 PQ4, PKN4 6 PB4, PQN3 7 BQ3 favors White ) 5 NB3, QK3 t 6 KB2 ! results in ad vantage for White after 6 . QN3t 7 PQ4, NKB3 8 BN 5 t PB3 9 RKl t, BK2 1 0 B'B4. A
B
.
KEY
WHITE
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
PK4 PxP BK2 NKB3 NxP NQ3 BR5t PxP PxPt BB3
.
This defense, which considerably restricts White's chances for attack, is often played in modern tournaments. Black abstains from protecting the Gambit Pawn, obtain ing fine activity for his pieces instead, thanks to the open center files. Although it is difficult for White to treat the position as aggressively as a gambiteer might wish, the chances, by and large, remain balanced. White's best possibilities are offered through 5 BN5 t, an oldfashioned continuation to which Russian masters have returned in recent years. IDEA VARIATIONS 1 1  1 3 : ( 1 1 ) 5 NB3, NxP 6 NxN, QxN 7 PQ4, BK2 ! 8 PQB4 (8 BQ3, PKN4 ! ) , QK5 t 9 KB2 (too ambi tious ; 9 BK2, as in Prac. Var. 2 0, leads to equality) , BKB4 1 0 PB5, NB3 ! 1 1 BN5, QQ4 ( 1 1 . . . 000? costs a piece because of 1 2 RK 1 , followed by 1 3 BxN ) 1 2 BxP ( or 1 2 RK1 , BK5 1 3 QK2, PB4 ) , 000 with a good game for Black (KieningerEliskases, Stuttgart 1939; see Game 9 ) .
KING'S GAMBIT • 55
( 1 2 ) 5 BN5 t, QNQ2 6 00 (6 PB4 is not good because of 6 . . . PQR3 7 BR4, BQ3 8 PQ4, PQN4 9 PxP, 00 ! ) NxP 7 PB4, NB3 (preferable is 7 . . . NN3 8 RK1 t, BK2 9 PB5 , PQB 3 ! ) 8 PQ4, BK2 (8 . . . PB 3 9 BR4, BQ3 1 0 RK1 t, KB1 1 1 NB3 gives White sufficient positional compensation for the Pawn) 9 BxP. White has recovered the Pawn and re tains a positional advantage. See Game 1 0. 5 . . . PB 3 is stronger than 5 . . . QNQ2 . See Prac. Var. 1 618 . Also worthy of consideration is 5 . . . BQ2 6 BB4, BQ3 7 00, 00. ( 1 3 ) 5 BB4 (5 PQ4 is weak because of 5 . . . NxP and an eventual . . . NK6) , BQ3 ! (and not 5 . . . NxP 6 BxN, QxB 7 NB 3, as White gets a great lead in development) 6 00, 00 7 PQ4 with even chances.
Kinl s Gambit Game 9 BLACK: Eliskases WHITE: Kieninger Stuttgart 1 939 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
PK4 PKB4 NKB3 NB 3 PxP NxN PQ4 PB4 KB2 PBS BN5 BxP BK3 QR4 BxN QxQ QRQ1 KRK1 KxB BxB RxR RK7 RK8t RK7 PQN4
BLACK
PK4 PxP NKB 3 PQ4 NxP QxN BK2 QK5 t BKB4 NB 3 ! QQ4 !
000 BB3 BK5 ! QxB BxQ KRK1 BxN! BxP ! RxR RxB RQ2 RQ1 RB 1 PQR3
26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
WHITE
B LACK
PQR4 RK4 PN5 PxP RQ4t RK4 t RQ4 KK4 KQ5 RQ2 PxP KQ6! RQ5 ! PN4 KB6 PxP KxP KB6 PN6 PN7 RQ6t KB7 RQ8 RQ7 RQ8
KQ1 KQ2 PxP RQR1 KK3 KB3 RR6t RQB6 PN4 PN3 PxP RB4 RB7 RxP PR4 RxP KK3 PB4 RR1 PN5 KK4 PN6 RR2t RR1 Draw
56
1.: CHESS OPENINGS .
King's Gambit Game 1 0 BLACK: Ragozin lVHITE: Bromtein Saltsjobaden 1 948 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
PK4 PKB4 PxQP NKB3 BNs t 00 PB4 PQ4 BxP BR4 BN3 NB3 QQ2 PQR3 BR2 QRKl NKN5 KRl NB3 BK3 QQl BQ2 PBS !
WHITE
BLACK
WHITE
PK4 PQ4 PxP NKB3 QNQ2 NxP NB3 BK2 00 NN3 BNS PB3 PQR4 PR5 N/NQ2 RK l BR4 BN3 NR4 QB2 QR4 QR2 PN3 ·
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46
BN5 ! NxB RxRt QxP NxQ PxP BB4 BN3 NKB 3 BQl KNl ! NxN RKl NxR KB 2 KK3 PQN4 BK2 NB3 KQ4 BB l NQ2 KB 3
BLACK
BxB N/4B3 RxR QxQ PxP RK7 RQB7 RK7 NK5 RK6 N/SxP NxN RxRt KB l
KK2 KQ3 NR.3 NB2 NQ4t NB S PB3 NK3t NB2
WHITE
47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67
NB4t NN6 KN2 PQR4 KB3 KQ4 NB4t KB 5 NQ6 BK2 PN3 PxP NxN BB3 PR5 BK2 PxP BB3 BxP PNS P�R6
BLACK
KK2 NN4t BB4 NR2 PKR4 KQ3 KB2 BQ2 PRS PB4 PxP NB l BxN BN2 PN4 PBS PxP BR3 BK7 PB6 Resigns
King's Gambit Game 1 1 BLACK: Botvinnik WHITE: Bronstein USSR Champiomhip 1 952 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
PK4 PKB4 NKB 3 PxP BNs t PxP BB4 PQ4 00 NQB 3 PxN QQ3 PN3 ! ?
BLACK
PK4 PxP PQ4 NKB3 PB3 PxP NQ4 BQ3 00 NxN BKNS NQ2 NN 3 !
WHITE
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
BN3 PB4? NKs PxB BxP KRK l PR4 QQB3 PR5 BR4 KN2 QR3 Resigns
BLACK
PB4 ! QB 3 BxN QxP QR4 KRKl BK7 ! NQ2 NB3 RK3 NKS PN4
KING'S GAMBIT • 5 7
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 1 620 : 1 PK4, PK4 2 PKB4, PxP 3 NKB 3, PQ4 PxP, NKB 3
16 5
6 7 B
9 10 11 12
17
BN5 "! PB3 PxP PxP BB4 BQ3 QK2t QK2 QxQt KxQ 00 1 BK3 RK1 QNQ2 PQ42 +
13
NQ4 ! PQ43 BQ3 00 00 NB 3 NxN PxN BKN54 QQ3 NQ25
18
00 ! BQ36 NB 3 BKY NK4 BK2 BN3 00 PQ4 8
19
20
PB4 PB 3 PQ4 BN5 P NB 3 PxP BxP 00 BQ3 RK 1 t BK5 NB3 10 00 NxB NxN PxP BxP BK3
NB3 NxP NxN QxN PQ4 BK2 ! PB4 QK5 t BK2 NB3 00 BKB4 RK1 000 BBl QB7 11
4
N oteJ to practical variationJ 1 620 : 1 10 PQ4, BKB4 1 1 NK5 is also good ( Nimzowitsch
Schweinburg, 1 9 34 ) . 2 Bhend�Barcza, Zurich 1959. 3 8 QK2t, BK3 ! 4 Also good is 10 . . . NQ2 1 1 BQ3, PQB4 ( Bron steinLilienthal, Moscow 1 95 3 ) . 5 Black has a good game ( BronsteinBotvinnik, USSR Championship 1 9 5 2 ) . See Game 1 1 . 6 Worthy of consideration is 8 . . . BK3 in order to pre vent 9 NB 3 . 7 9 . . . NxN is answered b y 1 0 RK1 t ! 8 1 2 . . . NQ2 1 3 QK2 !, PN4 1 4 P�B4, N/4N3 1 5 PKR4 ! , P�KR3 1 6 PxP, PxP 1 7 N/3xP ! , BxN 1 8 BxP with a strong attack for the piece ( SpasskiLutikov, USSR Championship 1 960 ) . 9 The immediate 6 . . . PxP allows 7 PB 5 ! 10 1 0 . . . BK3 1 1 PB5 ! , NN5 1 2 0D, BxN 1 3 PxB, NK6 14 BxPt, KR1 1 5 QQ2 !, NxR 16 QR6, PB3 17 QR5 with a winning attack ( RetiDuras, 1 9 1 2 ) . 1 1 SpielmannMilnerBarry, Margate 1 9 3 8 .
58 • CHESS OPENINGS
SUPPLEMENTARY VARIATIONS 15 : 1 PK4, PK4 2 PKB4, PxP 3 NKB 3 The Allgaier Gambit, 3 . . . PKN4 4 PKR4, PN5 NN5 (Sup. Var. 1 ) , is not correct, according to present opinion. Black accepts the Knight sacri fice and is able to muster a sufficient defense. The Muzio Gambit (Sup. Var. 2 ) , which has been extensively analyzed in the course of time, offers White a strong attack for the piece, supposedly sufficient for a draw. Neither side can safely play for a win. Becker's Defense (Sup. Var. 3 ) , has basic significance. It aims at the setup 4 . . . PKN4 and 5 . . . BN2, negating the sting of White's PKR4. The column shows an independent variation on the part of White, which is sharp, rather obscure and so far insufficiently tested. Sup. Var. 4 and 5 deal with 3 . . . NKB 3. Black avoids the classical defense 3 . . . PKN4 and, as In the Modern Variation and the Cunningham Reformed, aims at a more positional treatment of the opening. The move 3 . . . NKB 3 must be considered satisfactory for Black. 5
1
2
3
4
5
3
PKN4 BB4 PN5 PN5 5 NN5 00 ! PKR3 PxN 6 NxBP QxP KxN QB3 1 BB4t PK5 7 QxP PQ4 PQ3 8 BxPt BR3 KN2 9 PQ4 NB 3 PB6! NK2 1 0 PxP BQ2 NKB 3 ! QNB 3 QRK1 1 1 NB 3 BQN5 QKB4 1 2 BQB4 NQ5 KQ1 PxP 1 3 RN 1 t QK2 ! NN5 2 QK33
4 PKR4
+
PKR3 PQ4 PKN4 PKR44 BN2 PKN35 PN5 NR2 PxP NxP6 PQ3 PB3 NKB 3 NxNt QxN BKY
NKB 3 PK5 NR4 QK2 ! ? BK2 PQ4 00 PKN4 PxP e.p. QN2 8 PQ3 RPxP BN5 NR2 NxP ! RN1 9 BB4 ! BKB4 1 0 BK5 ! +
PQ4 PQ3 NB 3 BN5 11 BB4 NQB3 12
KING'S GAMBIT • 59
Notes to Jupplem entary variatio:u 15 :
1 7 PQ4, PB6 leads into the text line : 8 BB4 t ( 8 PxP, PQ4 ) , PQ4. Weak is 7 QxP because of 7 . . NKB3 8 QxP, BQ3 ! 2 Consultation game, MarcoSchlechter, 1 90 3 : 1 4 QxP, QxPt 1 5 RN3 , RB I 16 BB4, but now 16 . . . BK2 ! instead of 16 . . . QB3 as played. 3 Bad for Black is 1 3 . . . NxN 14 BxN, QxB 1 5 BB3 . B u t 1 3 BB3, RKl 1 4 BB6, BN4 favors Black. After the text move, White has nothing better than a repetition of moves, e.g., 14 QB3 , QB4 1 5 QK2, QK 3 . 4 5 BB4 transposes into t h e Philidor and Hanstein Gambits ( Part 2 ) . 5 After 6 PxP, PxP 7 RxR, BxR 8 PKN3, Black has the active defense 8 . . PQ4 !, e.g., 9 KPxP, QK2 t or 9 NPxP, PN5 10 NN5, PKB3 . 6 8 QxP i s insufficient because o f 8 . . PxN 9 QxB, QxPt 10 KQl, QB3 . 7 Stronger than 1 1 QK2, PQB4 ! ( DenkSaemisch, Prague 1 943 ) . Pachman appraises this sharp position as approximately even. 8 8 NB3, PQ4 9 BQ2, NQB3 10 00o, BKN5 favors Black ( KeresAlekhine, Salzburg 1942 ) . 9 1 1 NxB ( 1 1 QxN ? ?, BR5 ) , NxR 1 2 QxN, BR 5 t 1 3 KQl , NB3 favors Black. The text move i s supposedly an improvement, but is not sufficient either. 1 0 WadeAlexander, Centenary Tournament 195 1 . 11 If 6 . . . PxP, then 7 QK2 ! (7 . . . NQB3 8 PQ5 ) . 12 Black has a satisfactory position and threatens 7 . . . PxP. The immediate 6 . . . PxP is bad because of 7 BxPt . .
.
.
SUPPLEMENTARY VARIATIONS 6 1 0 : 1
PK4, PK4 2 PKB4, PxP
The continuations other than 3 NKB3 which White has at his disposal are all inferior to the Knight's Gambit and very rarely adopted. The Bishop's Gambit with 3 BB4 (Sup. Var. 6) has the drawback of exposing the Bishop to attack by PQ4 The lesser Bishop's Gambit with 3 BK2 (Sup. Var. 7) fails to fit into the aggressive nature of the King's Gambit. Black easily obtains a good game, again, by means of . . . PQ4. Nor does the Breyer Gambit with 3 QB3 cause Black any difficulties ( Sup. Var. 8 ) . Dangerous for White are the Mason Gambit with 3 NQB3 and the Steinitz Gambit with 3 PQ4. In these cases 3 . . . QRS t is, by way of exception, very effective, as White cannot reply KBl .
60 • CHESS OPENINGS
1
PK4, PK4 2 PKB4, PxP
6
7
8
3
BB4
BK2
QB 3
NQB3
PQ4
NKB 3 ! PQ4 !
NQB 3 !
QRs t
QR s t
4
NQB3 1 PxP
PBY
KK2
KK2
PB 3 !
NKB 3 !
NB 3
PQ4 !
PKB4 !
PB45
PQ4
NxP
NKB3
5 BN32
6
PQ4
PB 3
PQ4
BN S t
QR4
PQ4
PKS
PKS PKN4
PxP BQ3
BNS t
NKS
NB3 B Q 3 1 o
KBl
BxP
PQ4
PKR4
PxP
PB 3 !
NQB3
NQB 3
BQN5 8
PKS
BK2
000 !
PxP
BxP
BxP9
KNK2
KNK2 BxP
00 9 003 PKN4 !
10
10
PxP
7 PQ4
8
9
NxQP
PxP ! 6 +
1
NB34
1
PB41 1 1
1
Notes to supplem entmy variations 61 0 :
1 4 PK5 is weak because of 4 . . . PQ4 ! E.g., 5 BN3, NK5 6 NKB3, BKN5 7 0D, NQB3 . 2 Nor are other possibilities satisfactory : 1 ) 5 QB3, PQ4 ! 6 PxP, BQ3 ! 2 ) 5 QK2, PQ4 ! 6 PxPt, BK2 ! 3 ) 5 NB3 , PQN4 6 BN3, PN 5 ! 4 ) 5 PQ4 or 5 PQ3, BN5 ! 3 White has no time for 9 QBxP because of 9 . . . BxB 10 NxB, NN5 ! 4 Black clearly has the advantage due to his 4 to 2 Pawn majority on the Kingside ( SpielmannBoguljubow, Mahrisch Ostrau 1 9 2 3 ) . 5 Better i s 5 NQB3 or 5 NKB3 . 5 PQ4, NxP 6 NKB3 , BN5t 7 PB3 , BK2 8 0D, 00 9 PB4, NK6 yields a slight edge for Black ( TartakoverAlekhine, New York 1 924 ) . 6 9 BxN ? NQ4 favors Black ( TartakoverCapablanca, New York 1924 ; see game 1 7 ) . 9 BxP, 0D favors Black. 7 Unsatisfactory is 4 NK2, PQ4 ! But 4 QxP offers chances for equality, e.g., 4 . . . PQ4 5 PxP, NN5 6 QK4t, QK2 7 QxQt, BxQ 8 KQ1 , NKB3 9 NQB3 . 8 Or 8 BQ3, PxP 9 BxN, PxKB 1 0 QxP, BK 2 , and Black has sufficient compensation for the Pawn. 9 Black has the advantage : 1 ) 1 0 NK2, 00 1 1 0D, PN4 ! ( SpielmannTarrasch, Berlin 1 9 1 9 ) with a winning attack for Black. 2 ) 1 o NQ2, NxN 1 1 KxN, 0D with a strong game for Black ( KeresJohansson, Correspondence Game 193739) . 10 The theoretical continuation is 6 . . . NQB3 ' 7 NxPt, KQ1 8 NxR, NK4 9 QK1 !, NxN 1 0 QxQ, NxQt with ad vantage for Black. 1 1 SpasskiFurman, Tallinn 1959. Black should now have played 10 . . . BQN5 ; maintaining his advantage.
KING'S GAMBIT • 61
King's Gambit Game 1 2 BLACK: Capablanca WHITE: Tartakover New York 1924 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
PK4 PKB4 BK2 PxP PB4 PQ4 KB 1 BxP BxN KB2 BxP NKB 3 NB3 BQ3 KN 1 BB5
pa rt
BLACK
PK4 PxP PQ4 NKB3 PB3 BNS t PxP PxP NQ4! RxB 00 NB3 PQN4 NNS t BN2 BxN
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
WHITE
BLACK
PxB BxP t QQ3 PxB BK4 QQ2 KB1 BB6 PQS RQ1 PxR RxR RQ6 KN2 Resigns
NK6 KR 1 BxN NQ4 NBS QRS PB4 RB 3 RQ1 RxB RxQ NK3 QB4t QK7t
5KI NG'S GAM BIT DECLINED
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 5 Declining the King' s Gambit by 2 . . . BB4 is based on the supposition that White's second move has weakened his Kingside. Black inhibits the enemy's castling and commits himself to the maintenance of his King Pawn. Consequently, White's main continuation is 4 PB 3, in order to neutralize the functions of the enemy Bishop and the King Pawn . Yet White 's chance of obtaining an advantage in this way is very slight, because the exchange of center Pawns opens the position, leaving Black some advantage in development. White's alternative is the classical 4 NB3, followed by BB4 and PQ3. His aim is the elimination of the enemy Bishop by NQR4. The upshot is lively play with pieces, offering even chances. IDEA VARIATIONS 1 4 1 8 : ( 1 4 ) 4 PB3, NKB3 (or 4 . NQB3 5 BNS ! followed by PQ4 ) 5 PQ4, PxP 6 PxP, BN3 (6 . . . BN S t 7 BQ2 ) 7 NB 3 . Tartakover considered White's position as sound, but there is not enough experience to form a definitive conclusion. .
.
1 PK4, PK4 2 PKB4, BB4 3 NKB 3, PQ3
K EY
PosiTION
5
62
• CHESS OPENINGS
( 1 5 ) 4 PB3, NKB3 5 PxP, PxP 6 PQ4 (the text is more enterprising than 6 NxP, for which see Prac. Var. 2 1 ) , PxP 7 PxP. And now promising for White is 7 . . . BN5 t 8 BQ2, BxB t (8 . . . QK2 ! ) 9 QNxB, 00 1 0 BQ3, PB4 1 1 PQ5, BN5 ( 1 1 . . . QK2 1 2 QK2 ! ) 1 2 00, QNQ2 1 3 QB2, RK1 1 4 QRK1 � (SpielmannVan Scheltinga, Amsterdam 1 938 ) . 7 . . . NxP leads to great complications, such as 8 PxB, QxQt 9 KxQ, NB7 t 1 0 KK 1 , NxR 1 1 PKN3, 00 1 2 BN2, RK1 t 1 3 KB 1 , NxPt 1 4 PxN, NR 3 ! Black emerges with a Rook and three Pawns for two minor pieces. Safest for Black is 7 . . . BN3 with even chances. ( 1 6) 4 NB3, NKB3 (4 . . . NQB3 5 BN5 ) 5 BB4 (the win of a Pawn by 5 PxP, PxP 6 NxP, QQ5 7 NQ3, BN3 is too risky ) , NQB3 6 PQ3, NKN5 (this enticing sortie is unfavorable) 7 NKN5 ! ( 7 RB 1 ? NxP ) , 00 ( 7 . . . PKR3 ? 8 PB5 ! ) 8 PB5, BB7 t 9 KB 1 , NK6t 1 0 BxN, BxB 1 1 PKR4, BxN 1 2 PxB, QxP 1 3 RR5 with a clear advantage for White (Kamis chowPanov, Match 1 944 ) . ( 1 7 ) 4 NB3, NKB3 5 BB4, NB 3 6 PQ3, 00 (castling at this point achieves nothing with respect to the central squares and is actually a loss of time) 7 NQR4, BKN5 8 NxB, PxN 9 PB3 (or 9 00, PxP 1 0 BxP, NQR4 !, and Black has achieved equality ) , and White has the better game. ( 1 8 ) 4 NB3, NKB 3 5 BB4, NB3 6 PQ3, PQR3 ! 7 PB5 (steadier is 7 PxP, PxP 8 BKN5, PKR3 9 BxN, QxB 1 0 NQ5, QQ3 [Spielmann Yates, Moscow 1 92 5 ) ) , NQR4 8 BKN5, PB3 9 QK2, PN4 1 0 BN3, QN3 1 1 NQ1 , RR2 1 2 NB2, PKR3 with a good game for Black (TchigorinJanowski, Barmen 1 90 5 ) . 6 . . . PQR3 ! is an old, safe continua tion which opens a square of retreat for the Bishop, at the same time cancelling out the possibility of BQN 5 . For the sharp 6 . . . BKN5, which formerly was very usual, see Prac. Var. 24 and 2 5 . A steady alternative is 6 . . . BK3. PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 2 1 2 5 : 1 PK4, PK4 2 PKB4, BB4 3 NKB3, PQ3
21 4 PB3
22
NKB 3 BN5 PxP PxP PxP
5 PxP
23
24
PKB4 PxKP ! QPxP
NB3 NKB3 BB4 NB 3
25
KING'S GAMBIT • 63
22
21 6 NxP QK2 1 7 PQ4 BQ3 8 NB3 2
QR4t BQ2 4 QB 2 NQB 3 PQN4 BQ3 BQB4 NB3 PQ3 QK2
NxP 9 BK2
00 1 0 00
PQB4 1 1 QNQ2 00 NxN 000 1 2 BxN PQR4 !5 tPxP 1 3 PxP NB33
23
24
PQ4 PxQP BQB4 ! NQB36 PQN4 ! BN3 QN3 NR3
PQ3 BKN5 PKR3 BxN QxB PxP ! 1 1 BN5 1 2
007
BxN PxB BxP1 3
PxKP BKN5 8 Q�Q3 NR 3 BKB49 NR4 BN3 10
00
25
NQR4 NQ5 1 4 NxB PxN PB3 NxNt PxN BR4 QK2 QQ3 15 PxP QxP PB4 1 6 t
NoteJ to practical t·ariationJ 2125 :
1 6 . . 00 7 PQ4, BQ3 8 NB3, NxP 9 BQ3, NKB3 10 0D slightly favors White ( KeresKubanec, Prague 1 94 3 ) . See Game 1 3 . 2 8 NB4 i s probably a little stronger. J Choice is a matter of taste. 4 6 . . . QQ2 fails because of 7 BN5, PQB3 8 NxP ! On 6 . . . NB3 7 NxP, QR 5 t 8 PN3 , BB7t 9 KxB, QBH 10 KN 1 , QxN 1 1 BN2, Black has hardly sufficient compen sation for the Pawn. 5 BronsteinPanov, Moscow 1 947. See Game 1 4 . 6 Other moves are weaker: 1 ) 7 . . . NKB3 8 PK5, NK5 9 PxP, BN3 (9 . . BN 5 t 1 0 BQ2 ) 1 0' NB 3, NB3 1 1 BK3, and White has the better of it. 2 ) 7 . . . PxKP 8 NK5, NKB3 9 NB7, QK2 1 0 NxR, and Black has insufficient compensation. 7 White's attacking chances a re most likely better after 1 0 BKN5 , QQ3 1 1 QNQ2 ! or 1 1 PxBP, according t o Keres. 8 Reti's continuation 1 1 NxP, NxN 12 BB7t is surprisingly refuted by 12 . . . KK2 ! : 1 3 BN 5 t, KB l or 1 3 PxN, BxPt followed by 14 . . . BxR ! 9 1 2 . . . PxPt 1 3 KR1 , QxP 14 QRKl ! offers White a stronger attack, the exchange of Queens notwithstanding. 10 1 4 QRKl , PQ6t 1 5 KR l , PQ7 16 RK2 , PK6 with a rather obscure position ( FudererRabar, Zagreb 1 9 5 3 ) . 11 The text is simpler than 8 . . . NQ5 9 QN3 !, QK2 1 0 PxP, PxP 1 1 KQl , PB3 1 2 PQR4 and White for choice ( RubinsteinHromadka, MahrischOstrau 1 9 2 3 ) . See Game 1 5 . Black has better counterchances with 9 . . . PxP 1 0 QxNP, RKB I ; weak is 9 . . . NxPt 10 KQl , NxR 1 1 QxP, KQ2 ( 1 1 . . . RKB I 1 2 PxP, PxP 1 3 BKN5 , BK2 14 RB I ! ) 1 2 PxP, PxP 1 3 RB 1 , BK2 1 4 BKN 5 . .
·
continued �
64
• CHESS OPENINGS
12 If 9 QBxP, Black, according to Alekhine, replies 9 . NQ5 with a strong attack : e.g., 10 QQl ( 1 0 QN3 ?, NR4 ! ) , PB3 1 1 QQ2 ( MiesesSpielmann, BadenBaden 1 9 2 5 ) , PQ4 1 2 PxP, 0Q ! 13 ( analysis by Rubinstein ) . 1 4 Or 7 . . BxN 8 QxB, NQ5 9 QN 3 ! , and White ob tains a winning attack, according to Keres : e.g., 9 . . NxPt 10 KQl , NxR 1 1 QxP, RKB1 1 2 NxB, PxN 1 3 PxP, NxP 14 RB I , QK2 ( 14 . . . QQ2 1 5 BxPt ) 1 5 BR6 ! ( 1 5 . . . ooo 1 6 QN4t ) . Black's best is 7 . . BN3 or possibly QK2 followed by 000. 7 1 5 1 1 . . . NQ2 is a little better. 1 6 13 . . . QK2 14 QN2 . .
.
.
.
.
.
U7HITE: WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
PK4 PKB4 NKB3 PxP PB3 NxP PQ4 NB3 BQ3 00 QNQ2
.
King's Gambit Game 13 BLACK: Schlechter Tartakover St. Petersburg 1909
BLACK
PK4 BB4 PQ3 PxP NKB3 00 BQ3 NxP RK1 PKR 3 ? NKB3
l VHITE:
.
BLACK
WHITE
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
PB4 PxP KxN KN1 RK8t RxRt BB1 QB3 QB4 BxN BK3
NB4 N/3K5 NxBP! QR5 t RxN RB 1 BxR BxP ! BN5 NQ6! BB4t
King's Gambit Game Bromtein
WHITE
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
RKB1 BxQ BQ3 PxP QB3 BK3 PKN4 QB6 BR7t QxBt
BLACK
QxR t NQ2 NB 1 BKB2 NK3 RN1 PKN4 BB1 KxB Resigns
14
BLACK: Panot·
i\1oscow 19 4 7 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5
6 7 8
9 10 11
PK4 PKB4 NKB3 PB3 PxP QR4t QB2 PQN4 BB4 PQ3 00
B LACK
PK4 BB4 PQ3 BKN5 PxP BQ2 NQB3 BQ3 NB3 QK2 000
WHIT E
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
PQR4 PN5 QNQ2 NN3 BK3 QRK1 BxB KR 1 N/NQ2 BN1 NB4
BLACK
PQR4 NQN1 BKN5 PQN3 N/1 Q2 BK3 QxB QK2 NN3 PR4 PN4?
WHITE
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
NxB t NQ2 NB4 BxP ! NxRPt NB6 PR5 PN6t ! PR6t ! RN 1 t
BLACK
PxN PB3 KN2 NxB KB2 QK1 NQ2 KN2 KxNP Resigns
KING'S GAMBIT • 65
King's Gambit Game 1 5 WHITE: Rubinstein BLACK: Hromadka MahrischOstrau 1 923 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
PK4 PKB4 NKB 3 NB3 BB4 PQ3 PKR3 QxB QN3 PxP KQ1 PQR4 RB1 NK2 NxN
pa rt
BLACK
PK4 BB4 PQ3 NKB3 NB3 BN5 BxN NQ5 QK2 PxP PB3 RKN1 PKR3 000 BxN
WHITE
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
PB3 PR5 BK3 KB2 RB3 BN1 QB2 ! PKN3 ! RxP QN6 ! BB5 ! ! BxQ QxR BB5
BLACK
BN3 BB2 KN1 KRl NQ4 NB5 BN1 NxKRP QQ3 RQ2 RxR RB7t NxQ Resigns
6FALKBEER COU NTER GAM BIT
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 6 Declining the gambit by 3 NKB3 is convenient for Black : 3 . . PxKP 4 NxP, NQ2 ! 5 PQ4, PxP e.p. B The proper answer to 3 . . . PQB3 is 4 NQB 3 ! Black can lead into the Modern Variation by 3 . . . PxP. But 3 . . . QxP is weak because of 4 NQB3 . A
.
The Falkbeer Counter Gambit is based on a sound positional idea. Black counteracts both the opening of the King Bishop's file and the building up of a strong enemy center. The advance of White's King Bishop Pawn has lost significance, while Black's King Pawn ex ercises pressure, hampering the development of the enemy pieces. White therefore must aim at the elimination of the enemy King Pawn by PQ3, rather than try to hold his own Pawn on Q5. Having achieved this aim, however, White must quickly develop his pieces and not try to profit from the possible pin along the King file after PxP, NxP. Black, too, is better served by a rapid mobilization of his pieces than by the quick recovery of the White Pawn on his Q4 ; otherwise he may get into positive trouble. Proper play on both sides keeps the chances balanced .
1 PK4, PK4 2 PKB4, PQ4 3 PxQPA, PK5B
KEY
PosiTION
6
66
• CHESS OPENINGS
IDEA VARIATIONS 1 922 : ( 1 9 ) 4 NQB3 ( 4 PB4 is weak because of 4 PQB 3 !, but playable is 4 BN5 t, as illustrated in Prac. Var. 30) , NKB 3 5 BB4, BQB4 6 KNK2, 00 7 PQ4, PxP e.p. 8 QxP, and Black has now sufficient com pensation for the Pawn :, e.g., 8 . . . NN5 9 NQ1 , RK 1 1 0 PKR3, NR3 1 1 NK3, PQB3 . But less logical is 8 . . . RK1 9 PKR3, NR4 10 QB3, QR5 t 1 1 KQ1 (TchigorinMarshall, Karlsbad 1 907 ) . Also good for Black is 8 . . . PQB 3. If 9 PxP, then 9 . . . QN3 ! ( 2 0 ) 4 NQB 3, NKB 3 5 QK2, BKB4 6 NxP, NxN 7 PQ3. Rubinstein gives a continuation favorable for White : 7 . . . QxP 8 BQ2, BK2 9 PxN, QxKP 1 0 QxQ, BxQ 1 1 000 ! But Black has a finesse which offers him equality : 7 . . . QR 5 t 8 KQ 1 (8 PN3?, QK2 ) , QK2 9 PxN, BxP. ( 2 1 ) 4 PQ3, NKB 3 ( 4 . . . QxP 5 QK 2 ! NKB3 6 NQB 3 or 6 NQ2 favors White) 5 PxP, NxP 6 NKB3 ( 6 QK2, QxP 7 NQ2, PKB4 8 PKN4, NQB3 ! favors Black [Pillsbury] ) , BQB4 7 QK2, BB4! (7 . . . BB7t 8 KQ1 , QxPt fails because of Alapin's 9 KNQ2 ! ) 8 PKN4? (correct is 8 NB 3 ; see Prac. Var. 2 6) , 00 ! 9 PxB, RK1 , and Black has an irresistible attack for the piece (SpielmannTarrasch, MahrischOstrau 1 92 3 ) . See Game 1 6. ( 2 2 ) 4 PQ3, NKB3 5 QK2, QxP? (good is 5 . . . BKB4 or better BKN5 !, as in Prac. Var. 2 8 ) 6 NQB 3, BQN5 7 BQ2, BxN 8 BxB, BN5 9 PxP, BxQ 10 PxQ, BxB 1 1 KxB, NxP 1 2 BxP with a better end game for White (BronsteinSzabo, MoscowBudapest 1 949) . See Game 1 7. 9 . . . QxKP 1 0 QxQt, NxQ 1 1 BxP, RN1 1 2 BK5, NQB 3 1 3 BQ3 also favors White (RetiTar rasch, Goteborg 1 920) .
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 2630 : 1 PK4, PK4 2 PKB4, PQ4 3 PxQP, PK5
26
27
4 PQ3 NKB3 5 PxP NxKP 6 NKB3 BK3 BQB4 BQ3 2 NKB3 7 QK2 00 BB4
28
QK2 BKN5 ! NKB 34 QxP QNQ2 BKB4
29
30
NQ2 PxP BxP NxP QK2 t 6 BK2
BN 5 t PB3 PxP NxP8 PQ3 NB3 NQB3 BQN59
KING'S GAMBIT • 67
26 8 NB3 QK2
9 BK3 BxB
1 0 QxB NxN
1 1 QxQt KxQ
1 2 PxN
BK5 ! 1
27
28
29
BB4 NQ2 00 RKl RKl KNB 3 KRl NN5 BN l NN33
NR4 BKN5 KNB3 BKB45
NK47
30 B Q2 BN5 NK2 0Q1 0
Notes to practical variatiom 2630 :
1 The text move was suggested by Rabinowitsch. Inferior is 12 . . . BxP 1 3 KQ2 ! ( WheatcroftKeres, Ma rgate 1 939 ) . After 1 3 PB4, BxN 14 PxB, NQ2 1 5 BQ3, K Q3, White has only eq u a l i ty at best, his extra Pawn notwithstanding. 2 After 6 . . . QR5t, White may sacrifice the exchange, which is a fair try, e.g., 7 PN3, NxP 8 PxN, QxR. The alter native 8 N�KB3, QR3 ( 8 . QK2 9 PxN, QxBt= ) 9 RN 1 , NxB 1 0 RxN, BKN5 leads t o equality. 3 1 3 BN3, BxP 14 NB3, RxR 15 QxR, BB4 with even chances ( BronsteinUnzicker, Alekhine Memorial Tourney, Mos cow 1 9 56 ) . 4 6 QK3 offers Black the choice of two promising con tinuations : 1 ) 6 . . . NxP 7 QxPt, BK2 8 PB5 , NKB3 9 QxP, QNQ2, and Black has development for the Pawn ( Pachman ) . 2 ) 6 . . . BN 5 t 7 PB3 ( 7 BQ2, 0D ! 8 BxB, NxP ) , 0D 8 PxB, NxP 9 QN3, PxP and Black has a danger ous attack for the sacrificed material ( Persitz ) . Also, after 6 QK3, sufficient for equality is 6 . . . QxP 7 NQB3 , &N5 8 &Q2, BxN 9 BxB, QNQ2. 5 With a draw by repetition. White, of course, cannot play 9 QK3 ? because of 9 . . . BB4 ! 6 Weak is 7 NK4 ? NN5 ! 8 BN5t, PB 3 ! 9 QxQt, KxQ 10 BR4, BKB4 ( CastaldiTrifunovic, Hilversum 1 947 ) . 7 Keres considers the chances approximately even. Vukovic mentions the interesting possibility 8 . . NN5 9 BB4, BN5 10 QxB, NxPt 1 1 KK2, PKN3 ! with obscure complications. Simple and good is 8 . . 0D or 8 . . QNB3 . 8 More natural than the oldfashioned 5 . . . PtP 6 BB4, NB3, when 7 PQ3 serves better than 7 PQ4. 9 Worthy of consideration is 7 . . . BKB4. 10 Black has sufficient compensation for the Pawn : e.g., 10 PxP, BxQN 1 1 BxB, NxP 12 QxQ, QRxQ 13 00, BxN 14 BxB, NxB 15 PxN, KRK1 with an even end game ( Fuderer Pirc, Munich 1 9 54 ) . 
.
.
.
.
.
68 • CHESS OPENINGS
TV'HITE:
King's Gambit Game 1 6 BLACK: Spielmann MahrischOstrau 1 923 BLACK
WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
PK4 PKB4 PxQP PQ3 PxP NKB3 QK2 PKN4? PxB BN2 NK5 BxN NQB3 NK4
PK4 PQ4 PK5 NKB 3 NxKP B�QB4 BB4 00! RK1 NB7 NxR NQ2 ! PKB3 PxN
WHITE
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
NxB PxP KB 1 KN 1 BK3 RK1 QB4 BK4 BQ4 RK2 BxN PKR3 Resigns
Tarrascb BLACK
NxN QRs t RKB1 QQ5 t QxKP NQ2 KR1 QRK1 QB 5 NB3 PxB RN1 t
King's Gambit Game 1 7
WHITE: Bronstein
BLACK: Szabo
A1oscow vs. Budapest 1947 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
PK4 PKB4 PxQP PQ3 QK2 NQB3 BQ2 BxB PxP PxQ KxB BxP RK1 t RQ1 BQ4 NB 3 PKN 3 BK3 KN2 KRKB 1 NR4 BQ4 RB2
BLACK
PK4 PQ4 PK5 NKB 3 QxP? BQN5 BxN BN5 BxQ BxB NxP RN1 KQ2 KB3 NxP NQ2 NK3 PN3 QRK1 PB4? NN2 RK7t RxRt
WHITE
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45
KxR RK1 ! RK7 BK5 ! BxN BxN KB3 BN4 KK2 BB 3 t PKR3 KB2 NB3 t NQ4 NK6 NxP KB3 NN5 NB7 PQR4 NQ5 KN2
BLACK
NK1 N Q3 NKB l NN3 NxR KQ4 KK3 R Q1 KB3 KN4 RK1 t RQ1 KR4 KN3 RQ8 RB8 RxP PQR3 PQR4 RBS RB8t Resigns
PETROFF'S DEFENSE • 69
chapter 8 Petroff's Defense This opening arises after 1 PK4, PK4 2 NKB 3 when Black, choosing not to defend his Pawn, counters with 2 . . . NKB 3. The Petroff has been known for centuries, but not until 1 8 5 0 was it closely investigated by the Russian masters Petroff and Jaenisch , and in some countries it is known as the Russian Defense. Later on, the Americans Pillsbury and Marshall contributed sub stantially to our knowledge of this debut. Considered from the standpoint of strategy, Black's counter may seem premature. Yet there is no such thing as a refutation if Black takes care not to exaggerate his ag gressive attitude. White is able to steer this opening into symmetrical channels, always to some extent making his initial tempo count; and this fact explains why the Petroff is so rarely adopted today. White's advantage however, apparently is no more than the edge of the first move. Petroff's Defense is split into two main groups of variations beginning with ( 1 ) 3 NxP, PQ3 4 NB 3, NxP 5 PQ4, PQ4 6 BQ3 (Part 1 ) and ( 2 ) 3 PQ4, PxP 4 PK5, NK5 5 QxP, PQ4 6 PxP e.p., NxQP (Part 2 ) . For a long time the move 3 NxP was considered White's best, although White achieves littl e more than slight su periority in controlled space. Today, 3 PQ4, strongly recommended by Steinitz, is preferred. This thrust offers White full activity for his pieces and chances to push an initiative. In the first mam vanatwn, there are two important subvariations after Black's 4th move, ideas advocated respectively by Emanuel Lasker and Keres. Lasker's line is 1 PK4, PK4 2 NKB3, NKB 3 3 NxP, PQ3 4 NKB3, NxP 5 QK2, whereupon White, after an exchange of Queens, obtains a slight edge in development. Keres' line varies from the above on White's 5th move. He plays 5 PB4, making it more difficult for Black to maintain his Knight on its outpost than after the classical 5 PQ4. In a number of games, Keres has demonstrated the full significance of 5 PB4. The protection of White's King Pawn by 3 NB3 leads to the Three Knights' Game after 3 . . . BN 5 . Black can also proceed with 3 . . . NB 3, transposing into the Four Knights' Game.
70 • CHESS OPENINGS
pa rt
1 PK4, PK4 2 NKB3, NKB 3 3 NxP, PQ3A 4 NKB3B, NxP 5 PQ4c, PQ4 6 BQ3
KEY PosiTION 1
I CLASSICAL VARIATION
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION A 3 . . NxP is bad because of 4 QK2, QK2 5 QxN, .
PQ3 6 PQ4, PKB3 7 NQB3, QPxN 8 NQ5, QQ3 9 BKB4, NQ2 10 0DD with a big advantage for White. Or 4 . . . PQ4 5 PQ3, QK2 6 PxN, QxN 7 PxP, and White remains a Pawn plus. In the first line with 4 QK2, if 6 . NQ2, then 7 NQB3, PxN 8 NQ5, NB3 9 NxNt, PxN 1 0 BN 5 t ! 3 . . . QK2 is also weak because of 4 PQ4, PQ3 5 NKB3, QxPt 6 BK3, NN5 7 QQ2, NxB 8 PxN, PQ4 9 NB3, QK3 10 BQ3, PKB4 1 1 NK5, and White has the initiative ( analysis by Loewenfisch ) . B For 4 NB4, see Sup. Var. 4. c For 5 QK2, 5 NB3 and 5 PB4, see Sup. Var. 1, 2 and 3 .
The pivotal point of this pos1t10n is the maintenance or dislodgement of Black's centralized Knight. In this complicated struggle, White has the better chances, par ticularly if Black plays too sharply for an attack, though Marshall often successfully did so by continuing 6 . . BQ3 . But this continuation, designed to maintain th e Knight on K5 and attempt a Kingside attack at the expense of a Pawn, is not quite sufficient. . Modern experience has shown that White can stem the assault and hold the Pawn (Idea Var. 1 ) . Black's best continuation in key position 1 today is considered to be 6 . . . BK2, a move which was supposed to be inadequate until Maroczy in 1 902 in troduced an important improvement for Black (Idea Var. 2 ) . The best way for White to meet 6 . . . BK2 is to un dermine the enemy Knight by PQB4, possibly combined with KRK1 . Black must then retreat his Knight, con ceding to White superior freedom of movement. .
IDEA VARIATIONS 1 and 2 : { 1 ) 6 . . BQ3 7 00, 00 8 PB4, BKN5 9 PxP, PKB4 1 0 NB3, NQ2 (to maintain some chances, Black must sacrifice another Pawn ) 1 1 PKR3 (also good is 1 1 RK1 ; Black must reply with 1 1 . . . QNB3, not 1 1 . . . BxPt, because of 1 2 KxB, NxP 1 3 BKN5 ! ) , BR4 1 2 NxN, PxN 1 3 BxP, NB3 1 4 BB5, KR 1 1 5 PKN4 ! { 1 5 BK6 is weak because of 1 5 . . . NK5 ! .
PETROFF'S DEFENSE • 71
[ MichellMilnerBarry,
Hastings
BK6 ! BB2 1 7 NN5 !
1 9 34 3 5 J )
NxQP
16
( Alexande( s continuation which
wins the exchange and refutes Black's system ) , BxB 1 8 NxB,
QR5
1 9 QN3
(threatening t o win the Queen
with 20 BN 5 ) , NB5 20 BxN, BxB 2 1 NxR, and White won easily ( A lexanderMallison, Brighton 1 9 3 8 ) . 8
RK1
instead of 8 PB4 is more convenient for
Black because of 8
.
.
. RK 1 , in
which
case Black's
Bishop is better placed on Q3 than on K 2 . T h e offer of a Pawn a t B lack's 8 t h turn is consistent with his scheme of attack. For variations on Black's 8th move, see Prac. Var.
1
and 2 . 1 0 RK1 fails because o f 1 0 . . . BxPt 1 1 KxB, NxP 1 2 QK2, NxB 1 3 QxN, BxN 14 QxB, QR 5 t winning the Rook. (2)
6 . . . BK2 7 00, NQB3 ( this very old con
tinuation
recommended
by
J aenisch
serves
to
increase
Black's pressure on the center ) 8 RK 1 , BKN5 9 PB3 (9 BxN, PxB 1 0 RxP achieves nothing because of 1 0 . . . BxN 1 1 QxB, NxP and 1 2 . . . NK 3 ) , PB4 1 0 PB4 (until recently this peculiar continuation was considered . the refutation of Black's deployment, since White intends to profit from the weakening of the QN3KN8 diagonal incurred by Black ' s . . . PKB4 ; however, the time wasted in making two moves with the Bishop Pawn enables Black to launch a dangerous attack, so that consistent and prefer able is 1 0 QN3, as illustrated in Prac. Var. 3 ) , BR5 ! and now :
1)
1 1 PxP, BxPt 1 2 KB 1 , BxR 1 3 PxN, BxN 1 4 PxB, QxP 1 5 QK2, 000 + .
2)
11
BxN,
QPxB
1 2 PQ5 , NK4 !
13
QR4 t,
PN4 ! 14 QxPt, PB3 1 5 PxP, NxNt 16 PxN, BxPt 1 7 KxB, QR 5 t 1 8 KB 1 , 00 (after 1 9 PxB, Black can choose between drawing b y per petual chec� with 19 . . . QR6t, or continuing his assault by means of 1 9
.
.
.
PxPt
20 KK2,
QRQ 1 ) . 3)
1 1 BK3, 00 1 2 PxP, NN 5 1 3 PQ6, NxB 1 4 QxN, BxN 1 5 PxB, and Black can proceed favorably with either 1 5 QN4t
. . . PB 5
1 7 KR 1 , QRK 1
simply 1 5 . . . NxQP.
( 1 6 QxN,
1 8 QxNP, PxB )
or
72 • CHESS OPENINGS
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 1 8 : 1 PK4, PK4 2 NKB3, NKB3 3 NxP, PQ3 4 NKB3, NxP 5 PQ4, PQ4 6 BQ3
1 6 
2
BQ3
7 00 00 8 PB4 PQB3 9 QB2 ! 1 NKB3 2 1 0 BKN5 PKR3 1 1 BR4 PxP 12 BxP QNQ2 1 3 NB 33 +
14 15
4
3
6
5
7
8

BK3 NB 3 !4 NxN PxN PxP BK4 QB 1 RN1 PQB3 NN5 BKB45 BxB QxB RxP6
BK2 00 NQB 3 RK1 BKN5 PB3 PB4 QN3 00 QNQ27 KR1 QxNP RB 3 QN3 RN3 BKB 1 !8
PB4 NB3 PxP NxP/4 NB 3 00 BK49 BK3 1o
PB4 11 BKN5 12 NB 313 NxN 1 4 PxN 00 RN1 PxP BxP NR4 BQ3 PQB4 1 5 +
NKB3 NB3 00 PxP NQN5 16 BQB4 QNxP RK1 PB3 BKN5 BK3 QN3 1 7
00 RK1 NQ3 ! 18 NB3 PQB 3 BKB4 BN5 PKR3 BR4 BR219 
PQB4 ! NKB 3 PxP NxP NQB3 BKN5 20 BK4 PQB 3 QNY1 +
+
+
Notes to practical variatiom 1 8 :
1 If 9 NB3, then not 9 . . . PKB4 ? 1 0 QN3, but 9 . . . NxN 1 0 PxN, BKN5 ! 1 1 PKR3, BR4 1 2 PxP, PxP 1 3 QN3, BxN 1 4 QxNP, NQ2 15 PxB, NN3, and Black has ample compensation for the Pawn ( CapablancaMarshall, Match 1 90 9 ) . 2 Panov recommends the Pawn sacrifice 9 . . . NR3 with these possibilities : 10 BxN, PxB 1 1 QxP, RK1 12 QQ3, BKN5 13 NN5, PKN3, or 10 PQR3, PKB4 1 1 NB3, NB2 . Th� continuation 9 . . . PKB4 is effectively countered by either 1 0 QN3 o r 1 0 NB3, and, after 9 . . . RK 1 , White proceeds with 10 NB3. 3 IlyinGenevskiPolyak, Leningrad 1 938. 4 After 9 QB2, PKB4 both 1 0 PB5, BK2 11 PQN4 and 1 0 QN3, PxP ! 1 1 QxNP, NQB3 ! 1 2 BxN, PxB 1 3 NN5, BQ4 1 4 NQB3, RN1 15 QR6, NN5 are satisfactory for Black. 5 13 . . . PKR3 14 NxB, PxN 1 5 KRK1 offers White sufficient compensation for the Pawn. 6 White has a slight edge, according to Keres. 7 1 1 QxP is very risky because of 1 1 . . . RB3 1 2 QN3, RN1 13 QB2, RKN3 1 4 BK2, BQ3, while 11 BB4 is met by 1 1 . . . BxN 12 PxB, NN4 13 KN2, QQ2+ ( Lasker Pillsbury, St. Petersburg 1 89 5 ) .
PETROFF'S DEFENSE • 73
8 It is questionable whether Black's attacking chances com pensate for the Pawn ; White's position is solid ( UnzickerAlex ander, Biel 1960 ) . 9 1 2 PKR3, BK3 1 3 NK4 is a good alternative, since 1 2 . . . BR4 ? fails against 1 3 BxPt ! ( see Game 1 ) . 1 0 Best. In the following cases, White's chances are greater than in the column : ( a ) 1 2 . . . NxN 1 3 PxN, QQ2 14 RN 1 ; ( b ) 1 2 . . . BN5 1 3 NxN, BxR 1 4 QxB, PKB4 1 5 BKN5 ! ; ( c ) 1 2 . . . NB3 1 3 PQ5 , NN5 1 4 PQR3, NxB 1 5 RxN, BxN 1 6 QxB, NR3 17 BK3 ( Keres ) . 1 1 Sharp in appearance, but really no stronger than 8 RK l . 12 8 . . . BK3 i s met by 9 RK l . 1 3 9 RK1 reverts to Prac. Var. 4 . 1 4 9 . . . BxN 1 0 PxB, NKB3 1 1 PxP, KNxP 1 2 BK4 favors White. 1 5 White's position is slightly more comfortable. 1 6 1 0 . . . NxP/4 1 1 RK 1 , BN5 i s another transposition into Prac. Var. 4. 17 UnzickerRabar, Munich 1954. 18 A remarkable idea : Black prevents PQB4. 1 9 White has perhaps a microscopic advantage ( see Game 2 ) . 20 1 0 . . . NQB3 i s effectively met by 1 1 QN3, N/4N5 1 2 BK4. 21 White has a very good game, e.g., 1 2 . . . NN3 1 3 BK3, QNQ2 14 PQ5 ! ( SchlechterForgacs, Vienna 1 9 1 0 ) .
pa rt
2STEI N ITZ VARIATION
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 2 A 4 BB4 transposes into the Bishop's Opening. B Steinitz's own intention was 5 QK2, when 5 . . . BN 5 t !
6 KQ1 , PQ4 7 PxP e.p., PKB4 exposed him to a fierce attack (SteinitzPillsbury, St. Petersburg 1895 ) . Fischer, ever un· daunted, resuscitated the line in the 1 962 Interzonal Tournament at Stockholm, and found his opponent unequal to the challenge ( see Game 3 ) .
White enj oys the better development as well as the control of more space. It is quite a problem, though, to make this slight advantage tell. For one thing, 7 BKN5, which strongly suggests itself, leads to hardly more than equality. Nonetheless, modern tournament play has produced two methods which offer White attacking chances. Soviet masters favor the enterprising 7 NB3 soon to be followed by 000, while in the West a quick development of the Kingside by means of 7 BQ3 and 00 is preferred. As of this date the latter method, affording Black less counter play, has proved the more reliable.
1 PK4, PK4 NKB3, NKB3 3 PQ4, PxP 4 PK5A, NK5 5 QxPB, PQ4 6 PxP e.p., NxQP 2
KEY
PosiTION
2
74
• CHESS OPENINGS
Petroff Defense Game WHITE: Olafsson Hastings 1 9 5 5 WHITE
1 PK4 2 NKB3 3 NxP 4 NKB3 S PQ4
BLACK
PK4 NKB 3 PQ3 NxP PQ4
1
BLACK: Per.ritz
WHITE
PB4
1 6 NK6
QQ3
1 7 NxN
KR2
1 8 NxB
NxN
1 9 BB4
QQ2 QK1
BK2
20 NBS
7 00
NQB3
2 1 BNS
8 RK1
BKNS
22 QKN 3
6 BQ3
9 PB4 1 0 PxP 1 1 NB3 1 2 PKR 3 1 3 BxP t ! 1 4 NN s t
lJ7 HITE: Pilnik WHITE
1 PK4 2 NKB3 3 NxP 4 NKB 3 S PQ4 6 BQ3
BLACK
1 S QQ3 .t
RB2 PQN3
NB 3
2 3 NQ3
PN3
NxP/4
24 QR4
QN4
00
2 S NK5
RN2
BR4?
26 BxN
PBS
KxB
27 BB6
R/2Nl
KN3
28 NB3
Resigns
Petroff Defeme Game 2 BLACK: Olafsson Reykjavik 1 955 BLACK
PK4 NKB 3 PQ3
WHITE
2 2 RK2 2 3 PKN 3 ? 24 QRK1
BLACK
BQ3 NN2 QB3
2 S KN2
N/2K3
PQ4
26 BN1
QRQ1
BK2
27 RQ1
RR2
NxP
00
28 PQB4
8 RK 1
NQ3
29 BPxNP
BxP !
9 NB 3
PQB 3
30 NxB
RxP !
7 00
PN S !
1 0 BKB4
BNS
3 1 PxBP?
1 1 PKR3
BR4
32 KB 3
QRS
1 2 BR2
PKB4
3 3 BB2
NR2
1 3 NK2 !
PKN4
34 RKN 1
NB s ·r
NN4t
14 NN3
BN3
3 S KK3
RK 1 t
1 S NKS
NQ2
36 KQ2
NB 6 t
37 KB 3
NxRt
1 6 NxB
PxN
1 7 QK2
RB2
38 NxN
QxB
1 8 NB 1
N KS
39 RxPt
KR 1
NQ3
40 QB1
RK6
NKB J
4 1 NB4
RK8
1 9 PKB 3 20 PB3 2 1 QQB2
NK1
Resigns
PETROFF'S DEFENSE • 75
UVHJTE: Fischer WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
PK4 NKB 3 PQ4 PK5 QK2 NxP NxN NB 3 PB4 QB 2 ! BK3 000 PKN4 NK2 NQ4
Petroff Defense Game 3 BLACK: German Stockholm 1962 BLACK
PK4 NKB3 PxP NKS NB4 ? NB3 NPxN R_:_QN1 BK2 PQ4 NQ2 00 BNS NN3 QK1
WHITE
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
PB 3 PBS NNs BKB4 NxP/3 BQN5 ! NxN NB 3 KRK1 PB6! BNS PxPt BB6t QR4 NxR
BLACK
BK2 PB4 PQS PxP NRS RxB RNS BN2 KR1 BQ1 RQS KxP KN l RxRt Resigns
IDEA VARIATIONS 36 : ( 3 ) 7 BKNS, NB 3 ! 8 QB 3, PKB3 9 BKB4, QK2 t 1 o BK2, BK3 1 1 QNQ2, 000 1 2 00=. 8 BxQ, NxQ 9 NxN, KxB gives Black the two Bishops, while 8 QK3t, BK2 leads only to equality. (4) 7 NB3, NB3 8 QKB4, PKN3 (8 . . . BB4 is weak because of 9 BNS !, BxP 1 0 NKS ) 9 BQ2, BN2 1 0 000, 00 (it may be better to postpone 1 0 . 00 and play 1 0 . . . BK3 instead, as in Prac. Var. 91 1 ) 1 1 PKR4, PKR3 ! (cumbersome are both 1 1 . . . QB 3 because of 1 2 QxQ, BxQ 1 3 NQ5, and 1 1 . . . BK3 because of 1 2 PR5, QB 3 1 3 QxQ, BxQ 1 4 NKN5 ; here 1 2 . . . RK1 1 3 QR2 ! leads to Game 4) 1 2 BQ3, BK3 1 3 KRK1 , RK1 ! 1 4 PQR3, QB3 1 5 QxQ, BxQ 1 6 BxRP, BxN 1 7 PxB, BNS, and Black has fair compensa tion for the Pawn (BoleslavskiTrifunovic, Zagreb 1 95 8 ) . ( 5 ) 7 BQ3, NB3 8 QKB4, BK2 9 00, BK3 1 0 NB3, BB 3 1 1 BK3, 00 1 2 QRQ1 , QB 1 1 3 BQB5 , RQ1 1 4 NKN5 ! + (UnzickerKeller, Lugano 1 95 8 ) . (6) 7 BQ3, NB3 8 QKB4, PKN 3 ! 9 00, BN2 1 0 RK1 t, BK3 1 1 NN5 , 00 1 2 NxB, PxN 1 3 QN4, BQ5 ! 1 4 QxKPt, KR1 1 5 RK2, QRS, and .
.
76 • CHESS OPENINGS
Black has good compensation for the Pawn. In the foregoing, 1 0 RK1 t is enticing but harmless. More effective is 1 0 NB3 or 1 0 BQ2 (see Prac. Var. 1 3 and 1 4 ) . 1 6 PKN3 is correctly met by 1 6 . . . QR4, not by 1 6 . . . RxP 1 7 RxR, BxRt 1 8 KN2 !
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 91 6 : 1 PK4, PK4 2 NKB3, NKB3 3 PQ4, PxP PK5, NK5 5 QxP, PQ4 6 PxP e.p., NxQP
10 9 7 NQB3  8 9
10 11 72 13 14 15
16
NB3 QKB4 PKN3 BQ2 BN2 000 BK3 BQ3 00 PKR4 QB3 QR2 1 NK4 BKN5 2 NxN PxN3 QxP4 1


11
12


NKN5 00 PKR4 PKR3 KNK4 QK2 5 NxN PxN BQB4 QRB 1 BN3 6 I
NQN5 7 QK2 8 BB3 BxB NxB 000 BQ3 KRK1 KRK1 PB49 NKN5 10
BN5 BN2 BxNt PxB 00 00 BK3 PQR4 BQ4 RKl BxB KxB KRK1 RxRt RxR1 1
1
I
14
13 BQ3 NB 3 QKB4 PKN3 00 BN2 NB3 00 BK3 BK3 12 QRQ1 13 QB3 QQR4 14 NK4 NxN QxN KRK1 KRK1 BKB4 QQB4 1s
BQ2 16 QB Y 7 QxQ BxQ NB3 BK3 NKN5 1 8 I
17
15
QK2 t ? BK3 PKN3 NB3 BK3 00 1 9 BN2 KRK1 00 BB5 ! PN3 BR3 BxN PxB QQ2 QRQ1 2o ±
4
16
QK2 t BK3 BB42t NB3 NB3 QQR4 BxB PxB QQ2 PQ4 BK2 PQ5 NNI QN3 00 00 BB3 QRB 1 PQR4 KRQI 22 1
Nott:J to p1'actical va1'iationJ 9 1 6 :
1
1 3 QxQ, BxQ 1 4 NKN5 leads to nothing after 1 4
NN5 !
2 14 NxN likewise offers no advantage.
3
15 BxQ, NxQ 16 BxB, KxB 17 RxN, leading to equality,
is preferable. 4 White lacks sufficient compensation for the Pawn : 16 PR5, QxRP 1 7 QxQ, PxQ 1 8 RxP, PKB4 ! 1 9 Rl lR 1 , RB2 + ( KrogiusCholmov, USSR Championship 1 9 59 ) . In this line 1 7 QB4 i s met by 1 7 . . . QN 5 . White's best chance i s probably 16 QRN l . 5 1 3 . . . NxN 1 4 NxN, QK2 1 5 BB3 leading to the ex change of Black's King Bishop favors White.
PETROFF'S DEFENSE • 77 6 1 6 NQ5 ? BxN ! 1 7 BxB, NQ5 leads to an excellent game for Black. After the text move, 16 . . . NQ5 is best. The immediate threat is 17 . . . RxN followed by 18 . . . NK7t . 7 Bronstein's innovation. 8 The critical continuation is 1 1 . . . PQR3 12 BB3, PxN 1 3 BxB, RxP 14 RxN, PxR ; then 1 5 BxR, QR4 offers Black a strong attack for the piece, while 1 5 KN 1 , QR4 16 PQN3, RKN 1 leads to a wild position with approximately even chances. 9 15 . . . PB3 is met by 16 NQ5. 10 BoleslavskiTchoukayev, Spartakiade 1959. 1 1 BronsteinMaschlov, Spartakiade 1959. 1 2 1 2 . . . QB3 proves premature after 1 3 NQ5 ! ( Olafs sonLopez Garcia, Bergen Dal 1950 ) . 1 3 1 2 BQB5 ! i s extremely troublesome for Black, as the following examples show : ( a ) 12 . . . QB3 1 3 QxQ, BxQ. 1 4 NQN5 ! and White wins a Pawn ( UnzickerJimenez, Leipzig 1 960 ) ; ( b ) 12 . . . PN3 13 BR3, NK2 14 QRQ1 , BxN ? 1 5 PxB, NQ4 1 6 QR6, QB3 1 7 NN5, QN2 1 8 QxQt, KxQ 19 BK4 ! ± ( YanofskyGerman, Stockholm 1 962 ) . 1 4 After 1 3 QN3, Black plays 1 3 . . . NK4 with the same effect. 1 s UnzickerAlexander, Hastings 1 9 54. 1 6 Duckstein's variation. White aims to exchange Black's effectively fianchettoed Bishop. 1 7 10 . . . BxP 1 1 BB3, BxB 12 NxB favors White ( see Game 5 ) . Still worse for Black in this line is 1 1 . . . BxR 1 2 BxB, RKN 1 1 3 BB6. 18 White's edge is only slight. 1 9 Equally good is 1 1 NQ4, BN2 12 NxN, PxN 1 3 QQR4 ± ( KorchnoiAverbach, USSR Championship 1 9 58 ) . 20 See Game 6. 2 1 8 . . . NB4 is weak because of 9 BxN, BxB 10 NB 3 . 8 . . . NB3 9 QKB4 reverts t o Prac. Var. 1 5 . 22 Bronsteincholmov, USSR 1 958.
Petroff Defense Game 4
lVHITE: Zjilin
BLACK: Gmakov USSR
WHITE
1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10
PK4 NKB3 PQ4 PKS QxP PxP e.p. NB3 QKB4 BQ2 000
1 960
BLACK
PK4 NKB3 PxP NKS PQ4 NxQP NB3 PKN3 BN2 00
WHITE
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
PKR4 PRS QR2 PxP BKNS QR7t NQS QR8 t ! RxBt RR7t
BLACK
BK3 RK1 BB4 RPxP QQ2 KB l PB3 BxQ KB2 Resigns
78 • CHESS OPENINGS
SUPPLEMENTARY VARIATIONS 1 PK4, PK4 2 NKB 3, NKB3
1 3 NxP
2
PQ3 4 NKB3 NxP 5 QK2 QK2 6 PQ3 NKB31 7 BN 5 QxQt 2
8 9
10 11 12 13
NB3 NxN QPxN BK2 BQ3 NB3 BxQ BK35 BK2 BN 5 NQB3 BK4 BQ2 QQ2 000 QQ2 000 NB3 000 PQ4 PKR33 KRKl NQ4 BR4 0004 PQ46
3
6
5
4
PQ4 NxP BQ3 NB4 NxP PQ4 0 1 NxP NB 3 BQ 3 NxN O Q1 4 NPxN PKN3 ! 11 00 PQB4 PQ41 2 PQB3 1 5 BN2 NQB3 PKR4 NxN 00 BN5 PxN BxN 1 6 QKl t PxB NK3 PxP PQB4 BxP PKR5 QxQ NB3 RxQ PxNP BB4 BPxP1 3 BR3 ! +RK1 PKB417
PQB4 PQ47 NB3 BQB48 PQ4 BQN5 BQ2 NxB QxN 00 PxP'

14
BK2 00 00 PQB4 NKB3 NQB3 QNQ2 1a BN5 PxP BxP NN3 BN3 KNQ4 BxB NxB QB31'
1 8 :
7 NB3 BN5 NxP 00 BK2 20 RK1 NQ3 BxN QPxB NxP 00 PQ3 BK3 21 +
8
BB4 00 00 NB3 PQ3 BxN PxB PQ4 PxP NxP RKl BN522 I
+
+
Notes to Supplementary Variations 18 :
1 6 . . . NB4 7 NB3 ! ±
2 In exchanging Queens, Black indeed loses a tempo, but
this is of minor importance. At any rate, other moves are in ferior. After ( a ) 7 . . . BK3 8 NB3, PKR3, there are two possibilities. The first is 9 BR4, in which case Black must not proceed with 9 . . . QNQ2 as in Game 7, but with 9 . . . NB3, e.g., 1 0 NK4, PKN4 or 1 0 PQ4, PKN4 11 BN3, NQ4 ! followed by . . . NxN and . . . PKB4 ; the second possibility is 9 BxN, QxB 1 0 PQ4, BK2 1 1 QN5t, NQ2 12 BQ3, PKN4 1 3 NK4, QN2 14 PKR3 followed by NN3 with slightly better chances for White according to Keres. If ( b ) 7 . BN5 8 BxN, Black must submit to a weakening of his Pawn formation, since 8 . . BxN ? loses a piece to 9 QxQt, and if ( c ) 7 . . NB3, 8 NB3 ! ± . 3 11 . ooo is inaccurate because of 1 2 PKR3 ! ( 1 2 BK3, NKN5 ! ) , PKR3 1 3 BK3, PQ4 1 4 NK5 , BK1 1 5 PR 3 ± . 4 White has a slight pull, but Black has little difficulty in holding his own ( FineKashdan, New York 1 9 34 ) . .
.
.
.
.
.
PETROFF'S DEFENSE • 79 5 Pachman suggests 8 BKB4, BK3 9 QQ2, QQ2 1 0 ooo, 0o with a minimal advantage for White. 6 13 NxN, QxN 14 BxP, QQR3 offers White no more than equality ( NimzowitschMarshall, St. Petersburg 1 9 14 ) . 7 5 . . . BK2 6 PQ4, 0D 7 BQ3, PQ4 8 00 trans poses into Prac. Var. 8. 8 6 . . . NxN 7 QPxN, PQB3 8 QQ4, BK3 9 NN5 ! cedes White the two Bishops ( KeresRibeiro, Leipzig 1 960 ) . Best according to Keres is 6 . . . NKB3 7 PQ4, BKN5 . 9 Most accurate now is 1 0 . . . BxN. After 1 1 PxB, QxP as well as after 1 1 QxB, NQ2 the position offers about even chances. For 10 . . . NQ2 ? 1 1 PQR3 !, see Game 8. 1 o 5 PQ3 ? ! is a foxy psychological "gambit" : after 5 NKB3 6 PQ4, PQ4 7 NK5 Black finds himself on the White side of the Petroff ! 11 6 . . . BK2 7 PQ4 favors White : ( a ) 7 . . . NQ2 8 BQ3, NN3 9 NK3, PQ4 10 0D, 0D 1 1 PKB4 ( Fuderer Kostic, Ljubljana 1 95 1 ) ; ( b ) 7 . . . NB3 8 BQ3, BB3 9 0D, oo 10 NK3, PKN3 1 1 PKB4, NK2 1 2 PB5 ( GligoricVidmar, Ljubljana 1 9 5 1 ) ; ( c) 7 . . . 0D 8 BQ3, RK1 9 0D, NQ2 10 PB4, NB 1 1 1 QB3, PKB4 1 2 NK3, PKN3 1 3 PN4 ( MatanovicPaoli, Bad Pyrmont 1 95 1 ) . 1 2 7 BK2, BN2 8 0D, 0D 9 PQ4, NQ2 1 0 NK3, NN3 1 1 PQB4, BK3 12 PQB3, PKB4+ ( MatanovicAlex ander, London 1 95 1 ) . 1 3 The complications resulting from 1 3 BB4t, BK3 14 PQ5, BB2 most likely favor Black ( FudererMatanovic, Sarajevo 1 95 1 ) . 1 4 6 PQB4 ! is a forceful alternative: ( a ) 6 . . . BN 5 t 7 KB 1 ! ; ( b ) 6 . . . NQB3 ? 7 PxP, NxQP 8 QR4t, and White wins ; ( c ) 6 . . . PB3 7 0o, oo reverts to the column, but White has steered clear of the equalizing line suggested for Black in the following note. 15 As the following variations indicate, 7 . . . NQB3 is far more promising : ( a ) 8 PxP, NxQP 9 BxN, BxN 10 PB4, BB3 1 1 NB3, BB4 12 QQ3, BxB 13 NxB ? ( 1 3 QxB= ) , QxP 1 4 NxBt, PxN+ ( AlekhineAlexander, Hastings 1 9 3 3 ) . In this line 10 BxPt loses the exchange after 10 . . . KxB 1 1 QR 5 t , KN1 1 2 QxB, NB7. White's only chance to maintain the initiative is 9 NB4. ( b ) After 8 PB4, Black must not play 8 . . . NxQP because of 9 BxN, BxN 10 BxPt. Correct is 8 . . BxN which leads to equality after 9 BPxB, NxQP as well as after 9 QPxB, PB4. Lastly, ( c ) 8 NxN, PxN 9 PB5, BK2 10 NQ2, BB3 ! offers good counterplay to Black. 1 6 9 . . . BK3 gives Black better chances. 1 7 Analysis by Keres. 1 8 8 . . . BK3 is effectively met by 9 PB5 ! (Alekhine Levitsky, St. Petersburg 1 9 1 3 ) . Other possibilities favoring White are 8 . . . PxP 9 BxP, NB3 10 BK3, BQ3 1 1 PB4, NK2 1 2 QN3 ! and 8 . . . PB3 9 QN3, QN3, 10 PB5 , QxQ 1 1 PxQ. 1 9 GligoricGudmundsson, Amsterdam 1 9 5 0 . 2 ° For 5 PQ3 ?, see Game 9. 21 TarraschGrunfeld, Vienna 1922. 2 2 BernsteinAlekhine, Match Game 1 9 3 3 .
80 • CHESS OPENINGS
Petroff Defense Ga m e 5 WHITE: Neumann BLACK: Spala European Postal Championship 1 958 WHITE
PK4 NKB 3 PQ4 PK5 QxP PxP e.p. BQ3 8 QKB4 9 00 10 BQ2 1 1 BB3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
BLACK
PK4 NKB 3 PxP NK5 PQ4 NxQP NQB 3 PKN3 BN2 BxP? BxB
WHITE
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
NxB KRK 1 NKN5 QKR4 QR6 ! BB4 BxB QRQ1 N/3K4 PQB4
BLACK
BK3 00 NK1 NB3 BQ4 NQN5 N/5xB PB3 R K1 Resigns 
Petroff Defense Game 6 WHITE: j\1atampvoc BLACK: Kieninger Hamburg 1 955 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10 11 12 13
PK4 NKB3 PQ4 PK5 QxP PxP e.p. BQ3 QKB4 BK3 NB3 00 KRK1 BQB5
BLACK
PK4 NKB3 PxP NK5 PQ4 NxQP NB 3 QK2 t ? PKN3 BK3 BN2 00 PN 3
WHITE
14 15 16 17 18
19 20 21 22 23 24 25
BR3 PxB QRQ1 QR6 ! BxP ! QxPt BxN RxB RQ4 RxQ QR5 t QN4t
Petroff Defense Game
BLACK
BxN? QQ2 NR4 PKB3 PxB KR1 PxB QxR QB5 NxR KN 1 Resigns
7
BLACK: Marshall
JVHITE: Lasker St. Petersburg 1914 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6
PK4 NKB3 NxP NKB3 QK2 PQ3
BLACK
PK4 NKB 3 PQ3 NxP QK2 NKB3
WHITE
7 8
9 10 11 12
BKN5 NB3 000 BR4 BN3 PQ4
BLACK
BK3 QNQ2 PKR3 PKN4 NR4 NxB
PETROFF'S DEFENSE • 81
WHITE
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
RPxN NKR4 QN5 QR5 BxP! QxRPt NN5 RQ3 KN1
BLACK
PN5 PQ4 ? 000 PR3 PxB KN1 NN3 QN4t ? BQ3
WHITE
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
RN3 PR4 NR7 PR5 PxN KR2 NN5 QR7 t
BLACK
KRK l BKB4 BQ2 QQ7 RK8 t PQB 3 PxN Resigns
Petroff Defense Game 8 WHITE: Keres
BLACK: Keller Zurich 1959
WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
PK4 NKB 3 NxP NKB 3 PB4 NB3 PQ4 BQ2 QxN PxP PQR3 BK2 00
WHITE: Lupi WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
PK4 NKB3 NB3 NxP PQ3? PQR3 PxB PKB4 PQ4 PB4 BK2 PB 3
BLACK
PK4 NKB 3 PQ3 NxP PQ4 BQB4 BQN5 NxB 00 NQ2 RK 1 t BB1 NN3
WHITE
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
QRB 1 KRK1 BN5 RxR NK5 BB 1 QB4 ! QxQ NQ3 PN3 BN2 NQ 1 ! NBS
Petroff Defense Game 9 BLACK: Alekhine Lisbon 1946 BLACK
PK4 NKB3 BN5 00 PQ4! BxNt RK1 PxP NQ4 ! NK2 NB4 QR5 t
WHITE
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
KB1 QK1 KN1 PxN RN1 BN2 RQ1 RQ5 BR1 BQ1 Resigns
WHITE
HLACK
BKB4 BQ3 RxRt QB3 PQR3 RKB 1 BB l PxQ RQ1 KN2 PR3 BKB4 BxN
BLACK
PK6 QxP ! NxP! QxP QxN QKB4 NB 3 QB7 BB4 QN8
27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39
NK3 ! NxBt NK3 RK2 RB2 KB 1 NB 5 PN3 RxP PQ6 BB3 RN7 NK7t
BLACK
BKB1 KNl NRS RK1 BQ3 PN4 BB1 NN3 BxP BN5 RQl NQ2 Resigns
82 • CHESS OPENINGS
cha pte r 9  Ruy Lopez The Ruy Lopez was named after a Spanish clergyman, Ruy Lopez of Safra, in Estramadura. About the middle of the sixteenth century, he edited a systematic work which presented the results of research into the openings. First noticed, however, by the writer of the Gottingen Ms. ( 1 490 ) , and later analyzed by other authors, including Lopez, it was seldom adopted in actual play until the middle of the last century. Credit for discovering its p_otency is due the Russian analyst, Jaenisch, who attempted a critic , threatening NK4 with good counterchances. Szabo therefore proceeded with 8 NB3, NN3 9 BK2, BK2 10 PB4, 0D 1 1 BB3, keeping some advantage. 15 Also plausible is 5 NB3 or 5 QNQ2. 1 6 TolushKlamen, Moscow 1958, continued 5 . . . BQ4 6 NxP, PK3 7 PQR3, PB4 8 PxP, BxP 9 PQN4, BK2 10 BN2, NB3 with equality.
continued �
465
466
•
CHESS OPENINGS
1 7 A sharp move, designed to keep White's Bishop at bay. 1 8 Not 1 5 . . . NN3 16 QN4t, and not 1 5 . . . BB4 16 BR6 ! After the text move, however, 16 BR6 is also prom lSlng. In a game Van ScheltingaFlohr, Beverwijk 1 960, White played 16 BK2, resulting in a speedy draw. 1 9 The socalled 'Mannheim Variation which, for some time, was considered White's best. The alternative 4 NB3, QNQ2 5 PK4, NN3 6 P�QR4, PQR4 7 NK5 gives White a fine game. But in the above line, Black has better: 4 . . . PQR3 5 PQR4, NB3 6 PK4, BN5 , when the difficulties are White's. 20 4 . . . NB3 is unusual but not bad : 5 QxBP, BK3 6 QN5, BQ4 ! Or 5 PK3, PK3 6 BxP, BQ3 and Black effects a speedy PK4. 21 Leads the game into more quiet channels. 22 Very sharp. After 7 BxP, PxP 8 NxP, Black has a good enough game. 23 An important Pawn sacrifice. Weak is 8 . . . P�Q5 9 PxN, PxN 10 BxP, QxP 1 1 BKN5, QB4 1 2 00, and White. has the advantage ( DittmanDr. Herman, Leipzig 1958 ) . 24 Not 9 NxNP, NK5 1 0 BB4, BK2 1 1 PK6, 00 1 2 PxN, BxP 1 3 QR6, BKB3 1 4 RQN1 , PN4 1 5 NB7, PxB 16 NxR, QxN, which favors Black. 25 For a long time this complicated position has been attacked by analysts. One discovery is that 12 . . . PxNP 1 3 BxPt, KxB 14 NN5 t leads to a winning advantage for White no matter what Black plays : if 14 . . . KN 1 White mates next move ; if 14 . . . KK1 15 PB7t mates in a few moves ; if 14 . . . KxP 15 QB6t, KK4 16 QK6t and mate in two ; and if 14 . . . KN3 1 5 QK4t, KR4 1 6 PN4t and wins. Therefore Black must try 12 . . . RN5, but White still maintains a decisive advantage. True, 13 QB2, as recommended by Keres, is not convincing because of 13 . . . NxP. However, White plays 1 3 QQ 1 , NxP 1 4 BxPt, KK2 1 5 QxQt, KxQ 1 6 PxP, or 1 3 . PxNP 14 BxPt, KxB 1 5 QQ 5 t, KK1 16 PB7t, KK2 1 7 BxP, Rx B 18 00 with a winning attack. 26 Threatening to win the Queen with 9 . . . NN3, but this gesture is too easily parried to have any effect. 27 See Game 8. 28 This simplifying maneuver leaves Black with a cramped game. 29 After this Black is handicapped by the weakness of his Q3 square. Alekhine gave 8 . . . PQR4 as the better move. 30 AlekhineFine, Kemeri 1937. 31 A move which in combination with the ensuing system has undergone little testing. 32 If 8 PQ5, PxP 9 PxP, NQN5 . 33 Also plausible is 10 . . . BB4. 34 The position is balanced. 35 3 . . . PQB3 offers the possibility of a transposition into the Slav accepted. The text move is considered unsatisfactory. 36 5 . . . PK3 leads to an inferior game for Black after 6 PKN4, BN3 7 PKR4, PKB3 8 QR4 t , PB3 9 NxB, PxN 10 QxBP with a superior game for White ( AlekhineGrunfeld, Semmering 1926 ) . 37 Not 9 . . . QQ2 10 BxN, RPxB 1 1 NxP ! ( Bogoljubov Grekov, Kiev 1 9 1 4 ) .
QUEEN'S GAMBIT ACCEPTED
•
467
38 White's development is superior. 39 This attempt to hold the gambit Pawn as long as possible is not nearly as bad as its reputation. 40 Or 4 . . . PQB3 5 PQR4, QN3 6 PxP, PxP 7 PQN3, PxP 8 QxP, PN5 9 QQ5, BN2 10 BN5t, BB3 11 NK5 with advantage for White. 4l Only 6 PQN3 may lead to advantage for White : 6 . . . BPxP 7 PxP, PxP 8 RxR, BxR 9 BxPt. 42 GrunfeldHaberditz, Vienna 1948 . 43 A steady alternative to the usual 3 NKB3 . 44 3 . . . NKB3 leads to the more usual variations. 45 Favorable to Black is 4 PxP, QxQt 5 KxQ, BK3. 46 MarshallJanowski, New York 1924. 47 Somewhat optimistic. 48 Also possible is 3 . . . PK4 4 PxP, QxQt 5 KxQ, NQB3 6 PB4, BN5t 7 NB3, 000t, and Black has the better of it. In the above line White would do better on his 4th move to play 4 BxP, PxP 5 QN 3 ! Also, in the above line if 7 KB2, ooo 8 BxP, BQ8t 9 KB3, BN5 mate. 49 4 NKB3, PxP 5 QxP, QxQ 6 NxQ, BQ2 7 BxP leads to equality ( CapablancaRubinstein, Kissengen 1 928 ) . 50 White's powerful center is debited with an isolated Pawn, and Black retains a Queenside Pawn majority.
Queen's Gambit Accepted Game 7 WRITE: Golombek BLACK: Smyslov Budapest 1952 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
PQ4 · PQB4 NKB3 PK3 BxP 00 NB3 QK2 BN3 RQl ? BB2 PQR3 PQ5 PK4 BB4 BQ3 PxP e.p. BxP BxN BN5
BLACK
PQ4 PxP NKB3 PKN3 BN2 00 KNQ2 NN3 PQR4 PR5 NB3 BQ2 NR4 QKl N/3B5 PK4 QBxP RBl NxB BB5
WHITE
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
BxB QRBl NxP PxN RxR RNl PN3 RxR KN2 QQ3 NQ2 PB3 NB4 PB4 KB3 KN2 PK5 KR3 NK3 KN2
BLACK
NxB NxRP QxN RxR QxRP RBI RB8t QxR t QB3 PQN4 BB6 PN5 QN4 KN2 QR4t QQB4 QB3 t PR4 QK3 t QR7 t
41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59
WHITE
BLACK
KR3 QxQ NB4 KN2 KB3 NR3 PB5 KK4 NNl KQ5 PB6 PK6 PK7t KK4 KB4 KxP KR3 NB3 NQ5 Resigns
QQ7 BxQ BB8 PN6 PN7 PN4 PN5 t BQ7 BR4 KBl BN3 BN8 KKl BxP PR5 PxP BN8 BQ5 BK4
468 • CHESS
OPENINGS
Queen's Gambit Accepted Game 8 BLACK: Alekhine WHITE: Bogoljubov Mannheim 19 34 WHITE
1 PQ4 2 NKB3 3 PB4 4 QR4t 5 QxBP 6 NB3 7 PKN3 8 BN2 9 PK3 10 00 1 1 PQR3 1 2 QK2 1 3 PK4 1 4 PR3 1 5 QK3 16 PK5 1 7 NxN 1 8 BQ2 1 9 BB3 20 NKl 2 1 NxB 22 PB4 2 3 QB3 2 4 BQ2 2 5 PN4 26 PB5 27 NB4 28 PxP 29 NK6
B LACK
PQ4 NKB3 PxP PB3 BB4 PK3 QNQ2 BB7 BK2 00 PQR4 BN3 QN3 QR3 PB4 NQ4 PxN BK5 PB5 BxB PQN4 QR3 PN5 NN3 QQB3 PB3 KRBl BxP PB6
WHITE
30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58
PxP BB4 PN5 BK5 QR5 PxP PxN KRl QB3 RxQ R/3B l PB6 NxP PxR RB6 RRst RxR RB7t RNst RBSt RB l RB4t RxP KN2 RQNl RN3t RN5 RQ5 RB7
BLACK
NB5 NxP BQl RR2 NB5 NxB BN3t PQ5 t QxQt RB6 PQ6 RB3 RxN PxP BQ5 KxP PQ7 KN3 KB4 KK5 BxP KQ6 BN6 BK8 BR5 KK7 KK6 KK7 Resigns
CAMBRIDGE SPRI N G S DEFENSE •
cha pte r 22 Ca m bridge Spri ngs Defense This line arises after 1 PQ4, PQ4 2 PQB4, PK3 3 NQB3, NKB3 4 BN5, QNQ2 5 PK3, PB3 6 NB3, QR4. The great American master, Harry Nelson Pillsbury, introduced it at Nuremberg in 1 896. Hence it is also known as the Pillsbury Defense. It was only after the Cambridge Springs Tournament of 1 904, however, that the defense made an impression. Pillsbury's idea is based on counterattack : Black pins White's Queen Knight and can increase the pressure with . . . NK5 and . . . BQN5 . White must also take into consideration the attack on his Queen Bishop on KN5 after PxP. Although in most cases Black enjoys excellent counterplay, the defense is little used today for no dis cernible reason other than the dictates of fashion.
pa rt 1 BOGOLJ U BOV VARIATION OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 1 A Setting a wellknown trap : after 5 PxP, PxP 6 NxP ?, NxN 7 BxQ, BN5t, White loses a piece. B Now White actually threatens to win the Pawn. PxP, PxP 6 PK3 transposes into the Exchange Variation. C 5 . . . BK2 leads to the Orthodox Defense. D If White wishes to avoid 6 . . QR4, he can do so in several ways, as suggested in some of the supplementary variations. E Considered best ; 7 PxP is also important and is treated in Part 2. For 7 BxN, see Sup. Var. 1. 7 BQ3 ?, NK5 ! 8 BxN, PxB 9 NK5, BN5 ! is definitely favorable for Black. F For 7 . . PxP, see Sup. Var. 2 . G Not 8 QN3 ?, PxP ! Teichmann's recommendation, 8 QB l , is too passive. .
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
PQ4, PQ4 PQB4, PK3 NQB3, NKB3 BN5, QNQ2A PK38, PB3c NB3D, QR4 NQ2E, BN5�' QB2G
.
Black has laun NB3 8 PxQP, both 8 . . . KPxP 9 PxP, BxP 10 PQR3, PQR3 1 1 PQN4, BQ3 1 2 BN2, BN5 1 3 RB 1 ( Gligoric Euwe, Zurich 195 3 ) and 8 . . BPxP 9 PxN, PxN 10 QN3 !, QK2 1 1 NK5 ! ( BronsteinSzabo, Zurich 195 3 ) slightly favor White. F 6 . . . NB3 7 0D, PxP 8 BxP, BQ3 9 NQN 5 ! ( GligoricFischer, Leipzig 1960 ) gives White the edge. G Alternatives are: ( 1 ) 9 . . . QB2 10 BPxP !, KPxP 1 1 BN2, p....:B 5 1 2 BB2, RK1 1 3 NR4, NKN5 1 4 PN3, NK2 ± ( BronsteinSzabo, Amsterdam 1956 ) . In this line 10 Q;B2 ? is met by 10 . . . NQR4 ! ( 2 ) 9 . . . PQN3 10 BPxP, KPxP 1 1 NK5 !, QB2 12 NxN, QxN 1 3 PB3, PQR4 ! 14 QK2, PB5 15 BB2, PQN4 16 QK1 ! ± (Taimanov ) . .
,
1 PQ4, NKB3 2 PQB4, PK3 3 NQB3, BN5 4 PK3A, 00B 5 NB3C, PQ4D 6 BQ3E, PB4F 7 00, NB3 8 PQR3, BxN 9 PxB, PxBPG 10 BxP, QB2
,
.
This position has been a center of controversy for some years now. White has the two Bishops and must aim for an open game; he does so by playing for PK4. On the other hand, Black has no trouble completing his develop ment and has many chances for counterplay in the center. Theory has probed deeply, but whether White can force an advantage remains an open question. Practice alone will provide the answer. IDEA VARIATIONS 9 AND 1 0 : (9) 1 1 BQ3, PK4 1 2 QB2, RK1 ! (best; both 1 2 . . . RQ1 1 3 PR3, PQN3 1 4 PK4 ! and 1 2 . . . BN5 1 3 NxP, NxN 1 4 PxN, Qx:P 1 5 PB3!, BQ2 1 6 RK1 ! favor White, with 1 6 PK4 i n this latter line failing to 1 6 . . . BR5 ! ; for 1 2 . . . QK2, see Prac. Var. 1 2 ) 1 3 PK4 (for 1 3 NxP, see Game 8) PBS ( 1 3 . . . KPxP 1 4 PxP, BN5 ! introduces enormous complications) 1 4 BxP, PxP 1 5 PxP, NQR4 ( 1 5 . . . RxP is far too dangerous, e.g., 16 BQ3, RK2 17 PQ5 !, NxP 18 BxPt, KR1 1 9 BN 5 ! and White has a great advantage) 1 6 BQ3, QxQ
KEY PosiTION 5
690
•
CHESS OPENINGS
1 7 BxQ, NxP 1 8 RK1, BB4 19 BB4, NQ3 20 BR4, PQN4l= (DonnerLarsen, The Hague 1 9S 8 ) ( 1 0) 1 1 BN2, PK4 1 2 PR3 ( 1 2 BR2 also merits consideration; see Prac. Var. 14) , BB4 1 3 BN S, PKS 14 NR4, BQ2l (better than 14 . . . BK3 1 S PQB4, PxP 16 PxP, QRQ1 ? 1 7 PQS, NK4 1 8 QN3, BQ2 19 QN3, which greatly favors White) 1 S PQB4, PxP 16 PxP, QB5 1 7 PN3, QQ3 1 8 PQS ( 1 8 KR2, QK3 1 9 PN4, QQ3t + ) , NK4 1 9 BxB, N/3xB 20 QQ4, PB4l, and Black has good counterplay (Uhlmann Szabo, Wageningen 1 9 S 7 ) .
NimzoIndian Defense Game 8 WHITE: Gligoric BLACK: Euwe Leipzig 1960 BLACK
WHITE
1
2 3 4 S 6 7 8
9 10 11 12 13 14
WHITE
1S 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 2S 26 27 28
NKB3 PK3 BNs PB4 PQ4
PQ4 PQB4 NQB3 PK3 BQ3 NB3
00
NB3 BxN PxBP QB2 PK4 RK1 NxN QxP
00
PQR3 PxB BxP BQ3 QB2 NxP PxN
BLACK
PB3 BK3 RK1 QRQ1 RN1 PBS BB1 NQ2 PK4 NB4 BK3 NN6? PB4 QB2 BB1 PBS QB2 RxP? QxB BN6 PxQ QxQ BxP RxR RQ1l RR1 RxP and White won
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 1 21 S : 1 PQ4, NKB3 2 PQB4, PK3 3 NQB3, BN5 4 PK3, 00 S NB3, PQ4 6 BQ3, PB4 7 00, NB3 8 PQR3, BxN 9 PxB, PxBP 1 0 BxP, QB2 12 11 12 13 14
BQ3 PK4 QB2 QK2 PxKP NxP NxN QxN
13
14
QK24 PK4 PQ55 PKSl PxN6 NNSl PN3 PxN
BR2 PK4 PR38 PKS NR2 BB4 BN2 QRQ1
15
BN511 PQR312 BQ313 PK4 QB2 RK1 14 PK4 PBS
NIMZOINDIAN DEFENSE
12
13
1 5 PB31 BK3
14
15
QxP
QK2
NK47
RQ29
PxP
+
PKB4
PxP
16 RK12 KRQl
PxP
1 7 RNl PB5
BxP
e.p.
NQR4
RxP
NK5!15
BN310
BK3
+
BQ3
18 BBl NQ4!
QxQ
19 BQ2
BxQ
QB2
QRBl
20 PK4
BQ3
NK2
NN6
2 1 B K3
RNl NxQP
NB3
22 PB4
RxP16
PB33
+

Notes to practical variations 1215: 1
15 PK4? fails against 15· ...PB5·! 16 BxP, NN5 17
PN3, QKR4+.
On 15 RK1 Black's simplest,
according to
Pachman, is 15 ...PB5! 16 BxP, BB4 17 QK2, QxBP 18 BN2, QB7. Donner's 15 p..:KB4! may be best, e.g., 15 . QK2 16 PB4,
RK1 17 RK1, NK5 18 BN2,
PB3 19
BK5!±. 2
After 16 PK4, PB5 17 BK2, QB4t 18 KR1, NQ2
(BotvinnikEuwe,
Amsterdam
1954),
Black's position is
satis
factory.
3 PachmanRabar, Goteborg 1955.
4
An inferior continuation.
5
12 PxKP is relatively better.
6
13 NQ2, NK4 also favors Black.
7
There are many holes in White's position.
8
For 12 QB2, see Game 9.
9
15 ...RQ3 is a plausible alternative, e.g., 16 PQR4,
PQN3 17 KRQ1, KRQ1 18 NB1, NQR4. 10
Black has a fair game. The sacrificial line 18 RxN? !,
PxR 19 QB2, PB4 20 PK4, NK2! 21 KPxP, NxP 22 NN4, KN2 seems dubious for White. 11
BR3, RK1,
Additional alternatives are:
(a) 11 PQR4, PQN3! 12
BN2 13 BK2, KRQ1 14 QB2, NQR4+; (b) 11 PK4
12
PQ5, NQR4!
13
PQ6,
QN3 14
NxP,
NxB 15 NxN, QR3 and Black recovers the Pawn with a good game;
12
(c)
11 BK2, RQ1 12 BN2, PK4 13 QB2, BN5=.
Both 11 . . . BQ2 and 11 . . .PQN3 are reasonable
sidelines. 13
White hopes to cash in on the slight weakness he has pro
"oked in the enemy camp.
continued �
•
691
692 • CHESS OPENINGS 14 In this position 1 3 . . . QK2 probably serves better, e.g. , 14 PxKP, NxP 1 5 NxN, QxN 16 PKB4, QK2 17 PB4, PQN4=. 15 After 17 . . . NxB 1 8 QxN, QxQ 19 NxQ, NxP 20 NN6!±, White's policy pays off. 16 The tricky 22 . . . NxKP is adequately countered by 23 RN4.
NimzoIndian Defense Game 9 WHITE: Taimanov BLACK: Euwe Zurich 1 95 3 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
PQ4, NKB3 PQB4, PK3 NQB3, BN5 PK3, 00 NB3, PQ4 BQ3, PB4
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
PQ4 PQB4 NQB3 PK3 BQ3 NB3 00
PQR3 PxB BxP BR2 QB2 PQ5 ? PB4 PxB BN1 QB5 BxQ BK4 PxN PxP
BLACK
NKB3 PK3 BN5 PB4 PQ4 00
NB3 BxN PxBP QB2 PK4 BN5 NK2 BxN QQ2 NN3 QxQ NR5 NxB PB4 PK5
WHITE
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41
PB4 PK4 BN5 BxN RxP RK1 KB2 RK7 PB6 RxR RxNP RN5 RR5 RxBP RQR5 RR7 KN3 KN4 KR5 KR6 Resigns
BLACK
PxP e.p. QRK1 RxKP RxB RxQBP RN5t RQ5 RxQP RxP PxR PQR4 PR5 RQ5 RQ6 RxP RR8 PR6 PR7 PB4 PB5
0 0
pa rt 6SEM INORMAL VARIATION
KEY POSITION 6
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 6 In addition to 7 . . . NB3 (treated in Part 5 ) , Black has a number of other satisfactory continuations at his dis posal, many of which have the practical advantage of being little analyzed. Analyzed or not, however, the most prom ising of these from the objective standpoint is 7 . . . PxBP followed by 8 . . . PQN3.
NIMZO·INDIAN DEFENSE • 693
IDEA VARIATIONS 1 1 AND 1 2 : ( 1 1 ) 7 . . . QNQ2 (recent experience indicates that this move is inadequate) 8 PQR3 ! ( both 8 QK2, PQR3 9 PQR3, BR4 ! and 8 PxQP, KPxP 9 PQR3, BR4 are more convenient for Black) , PxQP (after 8 . . . BxN 9 PxB, PxBP 1 0 BxP, QB2 1 1 QK2, PK4, White, with 1 2 PK4!, can profit from Black's failure to exert sufficient pressure on White's Q4; 8 . .. QPxP 9 PxB, PxQP fails against 10 BxPt+, while 8 . . . BR4 is adequately countered by 9 QB 2 !, PQR3 10 PQN3) 9 NxP/5 !± (TalTolush, Riga 1 95 8 ) ; see Game 1 0. ( 1 2 ) 7 . . . PxBP 8 BxP, QNQ2 9 QQ3 !, PQR3 10 PQR4, RK1 1 1 RQ1, PxP 1 2 PxP, NN3 1 3 BN3, BQ2 14 NK5, BB3 1 5 QR3, and White has excellent attacking chances. 9 QQ3 ! is unusual, but quite prom1smg. Other possibilities are: (a) 9 QK2, PQN3 10 PQ5, BxN 11 PxP, NK4 12 PxB !, NxNt 13 QxN, BxP 1 4 BxB, PxB 15 PK4, QB2 != and (b) 9 QN3, PxP ! 1 0 QxB, PxN 1 1 QxBP, QB2=. 9 . . . QK2 in reply to 9 QQ3 ! followed by 10 RQ1, PQR3 11 PQR4, BR4 12 PQN3, BxN 13 QxB, PQN3 1 4 PxP, NxP 1 5 BR3 gives White a slight edge (FurmanStoljar, Moscow 1 9 5 7 ) .
NimzoIndian Defense Game 1 0 WHITE: Tal BLACK: ToluJh Riga 1958 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
PQ4 PQB4 NQB3 PK3 BQ3 NB3 00 PQR3 NxP/5 ! PxB BxP BN3 BxP BB5
BLACK
NKB3 PK3 BN5 PQB4 PQ4 00 QNQ2 PxQP PxN PxBP NN3 PxP N/NQ4 RK1
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
WHITE
BLACK
RK1 QxR BQ4 RQ1 BK5 BxN QK4! NQ4 QK5 ! QB6 NB6! NxNt RK1 ! NxP
RxRt PQN3 BN2 QK1 QN4 PxB QxP PB4 NK2 BQ4 QxB KB1 BK3 Resigns
694 • CHESS
OPENINGS
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 1 6 AND 1 7: 1 PQ4, NKB3 2 PQB4, PK3 3 NQB3, BN5 4 PK3, 00 5 NB3, PQ4 6 BQ3, PB4 7 00 16
17
78 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
PxBP PQN3 PxQP BxP PQN31 KPxP QK22 NK5 !9 BN2 BN2 RQ13 BQ21 0 PxP4 NB3 PQR3 PxP5 KBxN6 BxN PxB BxB NQ4 NxN QQ3 ! PxN NQ27 NK5 NN5 BxN N/2B38 PxB QN4! QK2 KRQ111 
+
Notes to practical variations 16 and 1 7 :
1 Another line o f interest i s Bronstein's remarkable 8 BQ2, e.g., 9 PxP, BB3 ! 10 NQN5, PQR3 II N/5Q4, BxP 1 2 BQ2, BQ4 1 3 RBI, BK2 14 QN3, QNQ2 1 5 BN4, B/2xB 16 QxB, QN3= (PetrosianBronstein, Moscow 1 957) . 9 PQR3, BxN 10 PxB, BB3 II RKI !, QNQ2 12 BQ3, BK5 13 BBI followed by 14 NQ2 and 15 PK4 gives White only a slight edge. 2 9 PQR3 is sharper. After 9 . . . PxP 10 PxP, BxN 1 1 PxB, BN2 1 2 QK2, QNQ2 1 3 NK5, QB2 1 4 P�B4, QRB1 15 BQ3, QxP 16 BN2, White's aggressive position more than compensates for his Pawn. 3 10 PxP also offers White some advantage, e.g., 10 . . BxN 11 PxB, PxP 12 BQ3 !, QNQ2 1 3 PK4 ! 4 If 10 . . . QNQ2, then 1 1 PQ5 ! 5 11 NQN5 is not a bad alternative. 6 Donne�Matanovic, Leipzig 1960, continued 1 1 . . . QNQ2 12 PQ5, PxP 13 NxP, RK1 14 QB2, NxN 1 5 BxN, BxB 16 RxB, QK2 17 BN5 !, when White has good chances. Black, however, can improve on this line and obtain sufficient counterplay, e.g., 12 . . . BxN 13 PxP, BxN! 14 PxQB, PxP 1 5 PxB, QB2 1 6 BxPt, KR1 (DonnerPortisch, Leipzig 1960) . 7 Stronger than 13 . . . QB2 14 NN5! (SzaboPortisch, 1958 ) . .
8 Black has a tenable game, although White's Bishops are a tiny edge.
NIMZOINDIAN DEFENSE • 695
9 9 BQ2, BN5 10 PQR3, KBxN 11 BxB, PB5 gives Black fine chances. For 9 PxP, see Game 11. 10 M ore accurate than 10 PQR3, PxP 11 PxP, BK2. 11
Bishops of opposite colors notwithstanding, White's oc cupation of the Queen file is a plus factor.
NimzoIndian Defense Game 1 1 WHITE: Gligoric BLACK: Kerer Zurich 195 3 WHITE
1 PQ4 2 PQB4 3 NQB3 4 PK3 5 BQ3 6 NKB3 7 00 8 PxQP 9 PxP 1 0 NK2 1 1 PQN3 1 2 BN2 1 3 PxP 14 PxB 15 NxN 1 6 BxP 1 7 KRl 1 8 RKNl 1 9 PB4 20 QB3 2 1 RN2 22 BN2 2 3 R/1KNl 24 BB4 25 BQBl 26 QB6 27 BQ5 28 RN4 29 BQN2 30 RxB 3 1 RxPt 32 BxR 3 3 BQ5 34 BxQ 35 RQl 36 RQ7t
BLACK
NKB3 PK3 BN5 00
PB4 PQ4 PQN3 KPxP PxP NB3 BN5 PQ5 BxN NxP PxN NR4 QR5 BQ3 NB3 BxP QRQl KRKl PN3 NK5 NQ7 KN2? QB3 QK4 QxB RK2 RxR QB3 QxQ RQBl NxP! KR3
WHITE
37 BQ5 38 RxP 39 RKB7 40 PR4t 41 BK4 42 KR2 43 RxPt 44 BNl 45 RQB7 46 RxNt 47 KN2 48 RQR5 49 RR8 50 PR4 5 1 PR5 5 2 KB3 53 PR6 54 KK3 5 5 PB3 56 KQ3 5 7 RQB8 58 KB4 59 KN5 60 RB4 61 RQR4 62 KB6 63 PR7 64 KN7 65 RxR 66 KB6 67 RR3 68 RR4t 69 RR3t 70 RR2t 71 RR3t
BLACK
NB4 NQ6 KN4 KxP RB6! NB4 KN4 RB8 RxB KB5 RN5 PN4 KB4 KN3 RQR5 KN2 RB5t RQR5 KR2 RKB5 RxPt RQR6 KN3 KB4 RN6t RNl RQRl RxPt PN5 KK5 KB5 KB6 KB7 KB6 Draw
696 • CHESS
OPENINGS
part ?B RONSTEI N VARIATION 1 2 3 4 5
PQ4, NKB3 PQB4, PK3 NQB3, BN5 PK3, PQN3 NK2, BR3A
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 7 A 5 . .. BN2 is no longer played because of 6
PK4 !, PQ3 9 PKN3, PB3 10 PxKP, PxP 11 NQ4± (Euwe O'Kelly, Groningin 1946) and 6 . . . BxNt 7 NxB, PQ4 8 BK2, PxP 9 0D !, BR3 10 PK4!, again with advantage to White.
KEY
POSITION
7
PQR3! Two
possible continuations follow: 6 . . . BK2 7 PQ5 !, 0D 8
In the latter line 7
.
. . 0D is met by 8 BQ3 !
Introduced by Bronstein in his 1 9 5 1 match against Botvinnik, and repeatedly adopted by Smyslov in his matches with Botvinnik, this variation has been the subject of close scrutiny. Black's basic idea is to exert pressure on White's Queen Bishop Pawn. He may increase this pressure by a later . . . PQ4. As an exchange of "whitebound" Bishops constitutes a slight strategic victory for Black, White's proper pro cedure is to refrain from BPxQP, protecting his QB Pawn by means of PQN3. In this case, Black must play for . . . PQB4 and a consequent liquidation: in the center.
IDEA VARIATIONS 1 3 AND 1 4 : ( 1 3 ) 6 PQR3 (adopted to the exclusion of almost every other continuation ; for the infrequently played 6 NN3, see Prac. Var. 1 9 ) , BxNt (introduced by Donner and consistently essayed by Smyslov) 7 NxB, PQ4 8 PQN3 (after 8 PxP, BxB 9 KxB, White's advantage is negligible) , 00 9 BK2 (or 9 PQR4, PB4 1 0 BR3, PxBP 11 NPxP, NB3 12 NN5 with approximately even chances, as in BotvinnikSmyslov, 1 3th Match Game 1957 ) , PxP 1 0 PxP, NB3 1 1 PQR4, QQ2 1 2 NN5 , KRQ1 1 3 BN2, NQR4 1 4 QB2, PB3 1 5 NR3, QK2= (BotvinnikSmyslov, 1 5th Match Game 1 95 7 ) . ( 14) 6 PQR3, BK2 7 NB4 (better than 7 NN3, PQ4 8 PxP, BxB 9 NxB, PxP 10 NN3, QQ2, which is quite satisfactory for Black [BotvinnikBronstein, 1 9th Match Game 1 961] ) , PQ4 8 PxP (after 8 PQN3, 00 9 QB3, PB3 1 0 PKN4?!, PB4 ! 1 1 PxQP, BN2 !, Black has good play) , BxB 9 KxB (for 9 PxP? !, see Prac. Var. 1 8 ) , PxP 10 PKN4, PKN4 ! ( 1 0 . . . PB3 is weak ; see Game 1 2} 1 1 NQ3, PKR4 1 2 PxP, RxP 1 3 NK5 ( 1 3 QB3 deserves the nod) , PB3 1 4 QB3, QB1 with equality.
NIMZOINDIAN DEFENSE • 697
NimzoIndian Defense Game 1 2 BLACK: Smyslov WHITE: Botvinnik Second Match Game, Moscow 1 954 BLACK
WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
NKB3 PK3 BN5 PQN3 BR3 BK2 PQ4 BxB PxP PB3 ? KNQ2 BQ3 PxP BxN
PQ4 PQB4 NQB3 PK3 NK2 PQR3 NB4 PxP KxB PKN4 ! PN5 PKR4 PK4 NxP BxB
00
WHITE
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
BLACK
PR5 NQ6 PQ5 BxR QB3 QxQ RB1 PN4 RR3 RQ3 PN5 BxN RxBP PR4 R/3QB3
RK1 RK3 RxN QxP QxQP PxQ NR3 PR3 KR2 NB3 NB4 PxB RQN1 RN2 Resigns
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 1 8 AND 1 9 : 1 p:.... Q4, NKB3 2 PQB4, PK3 3 NQB3, BN5 4 PK3, PQN3 5 NK2, BR3 18
BK2 NB4 PQ4 8 PxP BxB 9 PxP? ! BR3 10 PxPt KxP 11 PK41 PB4 7
18
19
6 PQR3 N...:.N 3 00
PK4 PQ4!4 PK5 NK5 !5 NxN' PxN BK2 NB3 BK3 NR47
12 BK3
19 
NB3 QN3t PB5 1 4 QQ1 BQ 3 ! 2 1 5 PK5 NxKP 16 PxN BxKJ>3 13
+
Notes to pra&tica/ uariations 18 and 19:
1 Insufficient for White is 11 QN3t, KK1 12 NK6, QQ2 !
2 Otherwise White's attack is overwhelming. 3 LombardyKeres, Mar del Plata 1957.
4 Alternatives favor White. Two examples are: 7 . . . PQ3 8
BQ2, PB4 9 PQR3, BR4 10 PQ5, PxP 11 BPxP (Resh
continued �
698 •
CHESS OPENINGS
evskrKeres, Zurich 1 95 3 ) and 7 PB4 8 PQ5, PxP 9 BPxP, BxB 10 KxB, PQ3 1 1 BN5 ( ReshevskyEvans, New York 1 9 5 5 ) . 5 Suggested by Filip and Pachman. 6 9 QB2 fails against 9 . . . PQB4! 7 Black has powerful counterplay. .
.
.
part 85 BQ3 VARIATION 1 2 3 4 5
PQ4, NKB3 PQB4, PK3 NQB3, BN5 PK3, PQN3 BQ3, BN2
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 8 Owing to the early development of his King Bishop, White faces some minor difficulty along the KR1QR8 diagonal. These difficulties are usually' resolved by 6 NB3, leading to several lines of play. There are two significant continuations, one based on . . . PQ4 and the other on . . . PQB4. Both systems offer Black fair chances for equality, although complications may arise. IDEA VARIATIONS 1 5 AND 1 6 : ( 1 5 ) 6 NB3 (too bold a n alternative i s 6 NK2, BxP 7 RKN1, BK5 !, when 8 BxB, NxB 9 RxP fails against 9 . . . NxP !, while 8 RxP, BN3 is hardly com· mendable; for 6 PB3, see Prac. Var. 2 1} , 00 ( 6 . . NK5 ! is a little known option; after 7 00, BxN! 8 Px�, NxQBP 9 QB2, BxN 10 PxB, QN4t 1 1 KR1, QKR4 12 RKN1, QxBPt 13 RN2, PKB4! 1 4 QxN, Black has a perpetual check starting with 14 . . . QQ8 t, while if 7 QB2, PKB4 8 00, BxN 9 PxB, 00, Black has equalized) 7 00, PQ4 8 PxP (other moves offer little; here is a single example : 8 BQ2, PxP 9 BxP, QNQ2 ! 1 0 QK2, PB4 1 1 PQR3, BxN 1 2 BxB, NK5= [TaimanovAverbach, Moscow 1 95 1 ) ) , PxP (not 8 . . . NxP because of 9 QB2 ) 9 PQR3 (after 9 NK5, sufficient for Black, according to Taimanov, is 9 . . . PB4 1 0 PQR3, PxP 1 1 PxP, BK2 ) , BxN (both 9 . . . BQ3 and 9 . . . BK2 are effectively answered by 10 PQN4) 10 PxB, RK1 1 1 BN2, NB3 1 2 PB4, NQR4= (PetrosianFilip, Goteborg 1 95 5 ) . ( 1 6) 6 NB3, 00 7 00, PB4 8 NQR4 (a sharp attempt to take advantage of tbe position of Black's King Bishop; both 8 BQ2, PxP 9 PxP, PQ4 10 PxP, NxP and 8 PQR3, BxQN 9 PxB, BK5 10 BK2, NB3 offer little to White) , PxP 9 PQR3 (the simple 9 PxP may be even better; if then 9 . . . PQ4, White plays 10 PB5 with advantage) , BK2 1 0 PxP, QB2 ( 1 0 . . . NK5 is worth consideration) 1 1 PQN4!, NN5 ( 1 1 . . . .
KEY PosiTION 8
NIMZOINDIAN DEFENSE • 699
PQR4 1 2 PN5, PQ4 1 3 PB5 !, PxP 1 4 PxP, BxP 1 5 BN2 assures White ample return for his Pawn) 1 2 PN3, PB4 1 3 NB3, PQR3 1 4 RK1, NQB3 1 5 BB 1 , QRK1 ! (for 1 5 NQ1, see Game 1 3 ) with approximate equality. .
_
.
NimzoIndian Defense Game 13 WHITE: Botvinnik BLACK: Bronstein 5th Match Game, Moscow 1951 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
WHITE
BLACK
PQ4 PQB4 NQB3 PK3 BQ3 NB 3 00 NQR4 PQR3 PxP PQN4 PN3 NB3 RK1
NKB3 PK3 BN5 00 PB4 PQN3 BN2 PxP BK2 QB2 NN5 PB4 PQR3 NQB3
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
BLACK
NQ1 BQ3 QxB NB2 QB2 QRK1 PQN4 PB5 ! PxNP PxP NB 3 RK4! QxR NxQ
BB1 BB4 BxB BN2 PB5 QRB1 NQR4 NB3 PQ5 BPxP QQ4 NKR4 RxR QxQ
WHITE
29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39
NB5 RQ1? RK1 ? NQ6 RR1 RxP N/3xP KxB NB5 RQ6 RxP Resigns
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 20 AND 2 1 :. 1 PQ4, NKB3 2 PQB4, PK3 3 NQB3, BN5 4 PK3, PQN3 5 BQ3, BN2 20
6 NB3 00 00 KBxN 8 PxB BK5 9 BxB1 NxB 10 QB2 PKB4 11 NK5 QK1 7
21 PB3 PK43 KNK24 PxP PxP PQ4 QR4t NB3 BN5 PxP BK4 QQ2
21
20
12 PB3 NKB3 13 BR3 PQ3 14 NQ3 PB4 15 NB4 NB3 16 PK4! 2 +
QBxN PxB 00 BxN PxB PB4 BB2 NK2 QxBP 0005 
Notes to practical variations 20 and 21 : 1 Also playable is 9 BK2. After 9 PB4 10 NQ2, BN2 1 1 NN3, PQ3 12 PB3 , QNQ2 1 3 PK4, PK4 14 PQR4, PQR4 1 5 PQ5 White's chances are excellent ( Bori•
.
.
.
continued �
BLACK
NB5 KR1 NxP BB3 NB7 PQ5 ! BxB NN5 ! PQ6 RxN N/7K6t
700 • CHESS OPENINGS
senkoSmyslov, 1950 ) . In this line, however, Konstantinopolsky suggests as an improvement for Black the more active 1 1 . . . QB2 1 2 PB3, PQ4. And, at an even earlier stage, Black may well do better to play 10 . . . BN 3 . 2 ReshevskyAlekhine, AVRO 1 9 3 8 . 3 6 . . . PB4 is an attractive alternative. 4 Better than 7 PxP, NN5 ! 5 BondarevskiRagosin, Match Game 1 946. Black has active counterplay.
part 9RUBI NSTEI N VARIATION 1 2 3 4
PQ4, NKB3 PQB4, PK3 NQB3, BN5 PK3
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 9 The idea of this variation is to prepare a timely PQR3 by first proceeding with KNK2 . Naturally enough this plan can be adopted in several forms. This section treats a number of divergent lines which exhibit the character istic maneuver of KNK2. IDEA VARIATIONS 1 71 9 : ( 1 7) 4 . 00 5 NK2 (although strongly favored by Reshevsky, this line, if properly countered, offers White little chance for the initiative) , PQ4 (after 5 . . . PQ3 6 PQR3, BxNt 7 NxB, PK4 8 BK2, White has a promising game) 6 PQR3, BK2 (6 . BxNt 7 NxB, PQN3 8 PQN4 ! favors White, as in ReshevskyVan den Berg, Amsterdam 1950) 7 PxP (nor is 7 NN3, PxP 8 BxP, PB4 of greater promise; for 7 NB4, see Game 14) , PxP (7 . .. NxP is also good, e.g., 8 QB2, NQ2 ! 9 BQ2, N/4B3 1 0 NN3, PB4 != or 8 PKN3, NQ2 9 BN2, N/4B3 10 NN3, PB4 != or 8 PKN3, NQ2 9 BN2, N/2N3 1 0 00, RK1 1 1 PN3, PQR4, when Black has nothing to fear ) 8 PQN4, RK1 (if 8 . . . PQR4, then 9 PN5) 9 NN3, QNQ2 (9 . . . PB3 1 0 BQ3, PQN4 is equal.ly satisfactory for Black [ReshevskyGligoric, New York 1 9 5 2 ) ) 1 0 BQ3, PB3 1 1 PN5, PxP (most probably stronger than 1 1 . . . PB4 1 2 00, PQN3 1 3 BQ2, BB1 14 PQR4! [ReshevskyLombardy, New York 1956) ) 1 2 NxNP, PQR3 13 NB3, PQN4 14 00, NN3, and Black has a good game. ( 1 8) 4 . . . PB4 5 NK2, PxP (recent experience indicates this as best; after 5 . . . PQ4 6 PQR3, PxQP 7 PxB !, PxN 8 NxP, White has a slight edge) 6 PxP, PQ4 (6 . .. NK5 merits attention ) 7 PB5 (7 PQR3, .
.
.
KEY PosiTION 9
.
NIMZOINDIAN DEFENSE • 701
BK2 8 PBS, 00 9 PQN4, P QN3 10 PKN3, PxP 1 1 QPxP, PQR4 ! 12 RQN1, PxP 13 PxP, NB 3 favors Black [GligoricSzabo, Helsinki 195 2]) , NKS (Spasski has experimented with 7 . . . NB3, but 8 PQR3, BR4 9 PQN4, BB2 10 PN3! gives White a slight edge) 8 BQ2, NxB (safer than 8 . . . NQB3 9 NxN, PxN 1 0 BxB, NxB 11 NB3!, QxP 12 QxQ, after which White has the brighter endgame prospects) 9 QxN, PQN3 10 PQR3, BxN 1 1 NxB, PxP 12 BNst, BQ2 13 PxP, PQR4 14 00, PRS 15 Q·Q4, BxB 16 QxNP, BxR 17 QxR t, KK2 18 QxQt, KxQ=. (19) 4 . . . NB3 (Taimanov's pet line) 5 NK2, PQ4 (after 5 . . . PK4 6 PQR3, BxNt 7 NxB, PxP 8 PxP, PQ4, White has the effective 9 PBS !) 6 PQR3, BK2 7 PxP, PxP 8 NB4, 00 9 BK2, BB4 (the immediate 9 . . . BK3 is stronger) 10 PKN4 !, BK3 11 NxB, PxN 12 00, QQ2 13 PB4, and Black must face an uphill struggle (BotvinnikTaimanov, 5th Match Game 1 95 3) .
NimzoIndian Defense Game 1 4 BLACK: Reshevsky WHITE: Olafsson Dallas 1957 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
PQ4 PQB4 NQB3 PK3 NK2 PQR3 NB4 PxP BK2 00 PQN3 BN2 NQ3 NxN NB4 RB1 BxR BQ2 ? ! BxN BB4 PQR4 PN3
BLACK
NKB3 PK3 BNS 00 PQ4 BK2 PB3 BPxP PQN3 BN2 NB3 RB 1 NKS PxN NR4 RxR QB2 RB1 PxB KR1 BQ3 BxN
WHITE
23 NPxB 24 QRS 25 RB1 26 KN2 2 7 QQ1 28 PR3 29 KR2 30 QN4! 3 1 BxP! 32 QB s t 33 QxBPt 34 QB6t 35 BBs t 36 QN6t 37 QxPt 38 QK6t 39 QB6t 4o QR8t 4 1 QN7t 42 QxB 43 QxPt
BLACK
BQ4 QQ2 PKR3 QK2 QB2 BN2 KR2 PN4? QxR KN2 KR1 KR2 KN1 KB1 KK1 KB1 KK1 KK2 KK1 RB2 Resigns
702 • CHESS
OPENINGS
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 22 AND 2 3 :. 1 PQ4, NKB3 2 PQB4, PK3 3 NQB3, BNS 4 PK3 22
NB3
PB4 BQ3
00
00
BQ3 PQ4
KNK27 PQ4
7 00 8
BNS3 PK44 10 BxN PxP5 11 PxP PxB 1 2 BNS PKR3 13 BR46 9
5 NB3 6
22
23
4
PxP1 BxP BQ32
00
NB3 PxQP8 KPxP
+
23
PxP9 BxP PQR3 BK3 PQN4 BQ3 NNS BN 1 BN2 NK4!1°
Notes to practical varrattons 22 and 2 3:
1 The Ragosin system, particularly favored by Fischer. 2 8 . . . QK1 is effectively countered by 9 NK5 ! (Tai
1 PQ4, NKB3 2 PQB4, PK3 3 NQB3, BNS 4 NB3
manov ) . 3 GligoricFischer, Leipzig 1960, continued 9 NQN5 . After 9 . . . BK2 1 0 PKR3, PQR3 1 1 NB3 , PQN4 1 2 BQ3, BN2 1 3 QK2 with a lasting initiative. B u t 9 . . . PK4 is to be considered. 4 Otherwise White proceeds with 10 PK4. 5 Best. Now White must not play to win a Pawn with either 1 1 BxP, BxB 12 NxP, QQ2 1 3 PB3 !, BK4 or 1 1 NxP, PxB 12 NxP, QK1 1 3 NQ4, BN2, when Black would have a strong initiative. 6 White has a superior Pawn skeleton and the better development. 7 Too modest. 6 NB3 is preferable. a 8 PQR3, BPxP 9 PxB, PxN 10 PxBP, PxP 1 1 BxP, QB2 yields Black an excellent game. .9 PQR3, PxP 10 PxP, BQ3 ! = 10 Despite his isolated Pawn, Black enjoys full mobility.
part
KEY
POSITION 10
10TH REE KNIGHTS' VARIATION
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 10 White's last move is an attempt to meet the Nimzo Indian with straightforward development. The idea is certainly not bad, but offers few real chances against prop er counterplay. In practice, 4 NB3 often serves merely to transpose into more usual lines of play.
NIMZOIND/AN DEFENSE • 703
IDEA VARIATIONS 20 AND 2 1 : (20) 4 . . . PB4 (not 4 . 00 5 QN3!, NB 3 6 PQR3 with White for choice) 5 PQ5 (most usual today; after 5 QN3, NK5! or 5 PxP, BxNt 6 PxB, QR4, Black has a satisfactory game) , PQ3 (for 5 . . . PxP, see Game 15; interesting is 5 . . . NK5 6 QB2, QB3 7 BQ2, BxN 8 PxB, NxB, when White's active position amply compensates for his weakened Pawn structure) 6 BQ2, 00 7 PK3, BxN 8 BxB, NK5 with even chances (SzaboReshevsky, Dallas 1957 ) . ( 21 ) 4 . PQ4 5 QR4t (for 5 PK3, PB4, see Parts 5 and 6; 5 BN5 and PxP lead to the Queen's Gambit) , NB 3 6 NK5, BQ2 7 NxB, QxN 8 PK3, PK4 9 PxKP, PQ5 10 PQR3!, BxNt 11 PxB, PxKP! 1 2 BxP ( 1 2 PxN?, PxPt 13 KxP, QB4t favors Black) , NKN5 13 BQ4, KNxKP! 1 4 PB4, NxB 15 QxQt, KxQ with equality (SpielmannFine, Zandvoort 1936) . .
.
.
.
NimzoIndian Defense Game 15 BLACK: Donner WHITE: Szabo Wageningen 1957 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
PQB4 PQ4 NQB3 NB3 PQ5 PxP PK3 PQR3 PxB PB4 PxP BN2 BB4 BQ3 00 BxP BxB QQ3 NN5 NxRP
BLACK
NKB3 PK3 BN5 PB4 PxP PQ3 QNQ2 BxNt 00 PQN4 NN3 QNxP NN3 PQR3 PxP BR3 RxB RR5 N/NQ4 NxN
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
WHITE
BLACK
QxN QB6 QB3 QK2 PB3 QQ1 BB1 RxQ RxP KB2 RxN KN3 PK4 RxP KB4 RxPt KxR KB6 KK7 RQ5!
NB3 QQ2 NK5 RN1 QN4 QN6 QxQ NB6 NK7'! NxB RN7t RxP R/6R7 RxPt PN4 t RxR RxP RR3·r RR4 Resigns
704 • CHESS OPENINGS
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 24 AND 2 5 : 1 PQ4, NKB3 2 PQB4, PK3 3 NQB 3, BNS 4 NB3 24
24
25
4 
PQN3 1 QB22 BN2 6 PQR3 BxNt 7 QxB NK53 8 QB2 PQ3 9 PKN3 NQ2 5
25
BN2 RQN14 11 PQN4 10
BxNt PxB PQ36 NQ27 PK4 PK4 NB3 BN2
00 1 2 00
PKB4 13 BN2 QK2 14 QRQ1 N/2B35
008
t
Notes to practical variations 2425:
1 This is actually a position of the Queen's Indian Defense. For a more detailed study of its complexities, refer to that opening. 2 For 5 BN5 ! and other possibilities, see the Queen's In dian. 5 QN3, QK2 6 PN3 , BN2 7 BN2 favors Black after 7 . . . NB 3 ! 3 Nimzowitsch preferred 7 . . . PQ3. After 8 BN5, QNQ2 9 PK3, NK5 ! 10 BxQ, NxQ 11 BR4, NK5 Black has achieved equality. 4 Taking the sting out of a possible 1 1 NN5 or 1 1 NQ2 . 5 MuellerAlekhine, Kecskemet 1927. 6 5 . . . PQN3 is also good. See Game 1 6. 7 Alternatives are 6 QB2, QK2 7 PK4, PK4 8 NQ2, NB3 9 BN2= and 6 PN3, 00 7 BN2, QK2 8 BQR3, PB4! =t=. 8 White's center Pawns abreast compensate for his awkward doubled Pawns.
NimzoIndian Defense Game 1 6 WHITE: Bogoljubov BLACK: Nimzowitsch Carlsbad 1929 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
PQ4 PQB4 NQB3 NB3 PxB PN3 BN2 00
BLACK
NKB3 PK3 BN5 BxNt PQN3 BN2 00 RK1
WHITE
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
RK1 QB2 QN3 BB1 PxP NxN BB4 PB3
BLACK
PQ3 BK5 NB3 PK4 NxP RxN RK1 BN2
NIMZOINDIAN DEFENSE •
BLACK
WHITE
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
NQ2 QB3 NK4 RK2 BB3 R/1K1 PKR3? KR1 QK3 PB4 QxP/4 QB2 NN3 NxB QxQ RKB1 BQ2 BxP
QRQ1 PK4 BN2 RQ2 R/1Q1 RKB2 BKB1 ? BK2 QR3 QB1 PxP QQ2 QQ4 BQ3 QxN PxQ PKB5 R/1Q2
WHITE
35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
R/BK2 BxR KB2 RQ5 RxR PB5 BR6 PQR4 PR5 KxP KK3 BB4 BR6 BB4 BR6 BN7 Resigns
BLACK
RxR RK1 RK4 PKN4 PxR PxP PK5 KN2 PxP KB3 KK4 BN5 PR4 PR5 BQ8 PN5
part I I SPI ELMANN VARIATION OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 1 1 This line enjoyed a brief popularity i n the yt::ars follow ing the First World War, but is entirely out of fashion today. The one obvious advantage of 4 QN3 over 4 QB2 is that by attacking the advanced Bishop, White somewhat restricts Black's freedom of choice; on N3, how ever, White's Queen is more vulnerable. IDEA VARIATIONS 22 AND 2 3 : (22) 4 . PB4 5 PxP, NB3 (the main contin uation, but 5 . . . NR3! also serves very weU; Eliskases Botvinnik, Moscow 1 936, continued 6 PQR3, BxBP! 7 NB3, PQN3 8 BN5, BN2 9 PK3, BK2 with a good game for Black) 6 NB3, NK5 (aiming for com plications ) 7 BQ2, NxB 8 NxN, BxP (best; after 8 . . . PB4 9 PN3! White has a distinct advantage, according to Trifunovic) 9 PK3 (9 PN3 merits consideration) , PQN3 1 0 000, BN2 1 1 BK2, and White has a slight initiative. ( 2 3 ) 4 . . . PB4 5 PxP, NB3 6 NB3, NK5 7 BQ2, NxQBP 8 QB2, PB4! (Black must keep control of K5 ) 9 PQR3 (in BogoljubovNimzowitsch, San Remo .
1 2 3 4
PQ4, NKB3 PQB4, PK3 NQB3, BN5 QN3
_
K EY
PosiTION
11
705
706 •
CHESS OPENINGS
1930, there followed 9 PK3, 00 10 BK2, PQN3 1 1 000, PQR4 ! 12 PQR3?, PR5! with advantage to Black; the text is an important improvement) , BxN 10 BxB, 00 11 PQN4, NK5 12 BN2 (for 12 PK3, see Game 17), PQN3 13 PN3, BN2 14 BN2 and White has a slight edge.
NimzoIndian Defense Game 17 WHITE: Stahlberg BLACK: Alekhine Hamburg 1930 NKB3 PK3 BN5 PB4 NB3 NK5 NxQBP PB4 BxN 00 NK5 PQN3 NxB BN2 NK2 QKl
BLACK
WHITE
BLACK
WHITE
1 PQ4 2 PQB4 3 NQB3 4 QN3 5 PxP 6 NB3 7 BQ2 8 QB2 9 PQR3 10 BxB 11 PQN4 12 PK3 13 BQ3 ? 14 QxN 15 00 1 6 BK2
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
KRQl PQR4? PR5 QxP QB3 PxP NK1 RR7 QK3 RR2 PB3 BQ3 BBl RKB2 KRl Resigns
RQl PBS PxKP NB4 PQ3 ! PxP PK4 NQ5 RQ2 R/2KB2 RB5 QR4f QN4! PR 3 ! RxP ! !
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 26 AND 2 7 : 1 PQ4, NKB 3 2 PQB4, PK3 3 NQB3, BN5 4 QN3 26 45 6 7 8
NB3 NB31 PQ3 2 PQ53 BxNt QxB PxP PxP NxP4
26
27
QxP QB3 QxQ NxQ PQN3 NK5 BN2 KRN15 NQ2 NB4 ! 6
QB 2 ! QRst PN3 QxQP PK4 NK210 BKB411
27 9

QK27 PQR38 BxNt QxB PQN39 PB3 PQ4 PxP NxP
10 11 12 13
+

Notes to practical variations 26 and 27:
1 5 PQ5 merits investigation.
2 Worth testing is 5 . . . PQR4.
After 6 PQR3, PR5 7 QB2, BxNt 8 PxB !, PQ3 9 PK4, PK4 10 PKR3, 00
NIMZOINDIAN DEFENSE • 707
1 1 BK3, the game is approximately even. On 5 . . . PQ4 White's best is 6 BN5 ! 3 For 6 PQR3, BxNt 7 QxB, see Part I. 4 If 8 . . . NK2, then 9 PK4. 5 For 12 . . . 00, see Game 1 8 . 6 Black's freewheeling Knights are a s good a s White's Bishops. 7 Unusual, but not bad. 8 On 5 NB3, Pachman recommends 5 . . . NK5 ! 9 6 . . . PQ3 7 NB3, QNQ2 is more promising. 10 1 1 . . . NK6? 1 2 QQ3 wins. 11 White has more than sufficient compensation for his Pawn.
NimzoIndian Defense Game 1 8 WHITE: Euwe BLACK: Kramer Hoogoven 1 950 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
PQ4 PQB4 NQB3 QN3 NB3 PQ5 QxB PxP QxP QxQ PQN3 BN2 NQ2 KxN
RB1 PKN4 RKN1 RN3 RKB3 PKR3 RKB4
BLACK
NKB3 PK3 BN5 NB3 PQ3 BxNt PxP NxP QB3 NxQ NK5 00
NxN PB3 BK3 PQ4 KB2 RKN1 PQ5 QRQ1 RN4
WHITE
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41
BN2 RQB5 PKR4 BR3 RB1 PN5t PR5 PR6 RxQP RQ3 PB3 RKR1 PxP RxR PK4 BB6 BxN PN6 PR7 BN2
BLACK
BQ4 KK3 RK4 PN3 RQ3 PB4 RQ2 NK2 PB4 RK5 RKR5 PQB5 BxP/5 KxR BK3 RB5 KxB PxP RKR5 Resigns
1 2 3 4
PQ4, NKB3 PQB4, PK3 NQB3, BN5 BN5
pa rt 1 2SPASSKI VARIATION OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 1 2 Some years ago Spasski scored a series of notable vic tories with this variation. Since that time, however, many of its menacing problems have been solved. Recent in vestigation reveals that Black definitely need not fear this line if he is familiar with its intricacies.
KEY PosiTION 1 2
708 •
CHESS OPENINGS
IDEA VARIATIONS 24 AND 25 : (24) 4 . . . PB4 (the interpolation of 4 . . . PKR3 is even stronger) 5 PQ5, PN4 (under these circum stances, a promising gambit) 6 PK4, PKR3 7 BxN, QxB 8 RB1 , 00 9 BPxP, PxP 1 0 QxP, QQN3 1 1 BB4, BN2 1 2 QB5, PQR3 1 3 PQR4? (correct is 1 3 PxP, BxP 1 4 BxB, RxB 1 5 NK2 which leads to equality) , PxP 1 4 PxP, BxNt 1 5 PxB, RR5 ! with advantage to Black (SteinerUnzicker, Stockholm 1 9 5 2). ( 2 5 ) 4 . . . PKR3 5 BR4, PB4 6 PQ5 ( 6 PK3, QR4 7 QN3, NK5 is certainly not to White's advan· tage) , P.Q3 (for 6 . . . PQN4, see Game 1 9; a remarkable alternative is 6 . . . PKN4! 7 BN3, NK5 8 BK5, 00, which led to a quick win for Black in the game ClarkeNiephaus, Wageningen 1 9 5 7 ) 7 PK3, PxP 8 PxP, QNQ2 9 BQ3 ! (better than 9 BQN5, PQR3 1 0 BxNt, BxB 1 1 NK2, PKN4!, when Black dominates the board) , QR4 10 NK2, NxP (declining the Pawn gives White a distinct advantage; see Game 20) 1 1 00, NxN 12 PxN, BxP 1 3 NxB, QxN 14 BK2 !, 00 1 5 BK7, RK1 1 6 QxP !, QK4 1 7 QxQ, NxQ 1 8 BxP and White has a slight edge (KorchnoiGipslis, Riga 1 9 5 5 ) .
Nimzolndian Defense Game 1 9 WHITE: Korchnoi BLACK: Durasevic Belgrade 1956 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
PQ4 PQB4 NQB3 BN5 PQ5 BR4 PK4 QB2 PxKP NB3 PxP NxN PQR3
WHITE
BLACK
NKB3 PK3 BN5 PB4 PKR3 PQN4 ! PQ3 00 NB3 ! BxP NQ5 PxN BR4
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
PQN4 BN3 PxB QQ2 QxP QN4 PxQ PB3 KQ1 KB1 KN2 KR3 Resigns
BLACK
PN4 ! RB 1 RxN NxP QxP QxQ RK1 RK6t BN6t RB1 t RB7t RQ7
NIMZOINDIAN DEFENSE • 709
NimzoIndian Defense Game 20
BLACK:
WHITE: Spasski
Filip
Gijteborg 1955 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
PQ4 PQB4 NQB3 BN5 BR4 PQ5 PxP PK3 BQ3 NK2
00 NxB BN3 PK4 RK1 BK2 RKB1 QQ2 PB4 RxP
WHITE
BLACK
21 PQR4 22 R/1KB 1 23 BR5 24 PR5 25 NQ1 26 BK2 27 R/4B2 28 NK3 29 BxN 30. PQ6 31 BB4 32 NBS 33 PKR4 34 BxNt 3 5 NK7 36 NxR/6 37 PR5 38 RxP 39 QxR 40 RB8
PB3 RB2 RN2 RKB1 RN4 NN3 NK4 RN2 QPxB QQ 1 BB3 RN4 RN3 R/1xB BxP RxN RN2 RxPt BxQ Resigns
BLACK
NKB3 PK3 BN5 PKR3 PB4 PxP PQ3 QNQ2
00 NK4 BxN NN3 QK2 BQ2 NK4 PKN4 KR2? NN1 PxP PR3
PRACTICAL VARIATION 28 : 1 PQ4, NKB3 2 PQB4, PK3 3 NQB3, BN5 4 BN5
28
28 4 

PKR3 5 BR4 PB4 6 PQS BxNt 7 PxB PK4
8 PK31 PQ3
9 QB2 10 11
QNQ2 BQ3 QK2 PB3 PKN42
Notes to practical variation 28:
1 The Russian theoretician, Zak, suggests
2
KeresO'Kelly, Budapest 1952.
8 PQ6 ! ? continued
�
710 • CHESS OPENINGS
SUPPLEMENTARY VARIATIONS 11 2 : 1 PQ4, NKB3 2 PQB4, PK3 3 NQB3, BN5
2
1
QB2 PQ4 5 PQR3 BxNt 6 QxB NB3 1 7 NB32 NK5 8 QN3P NR4 9 QR4t PB3 10 PB54
4
3
5
6
4
+
11 12 13
PB4 PxP BxP NB3 NB3 BN5 PQN35 PK3 BN2 BK2 QRB 1 00
BK2 QRQ1 PQ3 RQ2 PQR3 KRQ1
BxNt QxB NK5 QQ4 !B QR4t KQ1 ! PB4 PB3 NKB3 BQ29 +
PQN3? PK4 BxNt PxB PQ3 PB4 PK4 BQ3 QK2 NB3 NB3 00
BN2 RN1 000
PQB5 !1 °
006
BB4 NK17
14
+
PQ3 BN5 QNQ211 PK3 PQN3 BQ3 BN2 PB3 BxNt QxB PB4 NR3 PKR3 BB4 QK2 BN3 PK4 PxKP PxP
BxNt QxB NK5 QB2 PQ4 NB3 ! PQB4 PxBP QNB3 PK3 00
BQ2 !13
00012 +
+
Notes to supplementary variations 112: 1
Successfully adopted by Botvinnik on several occasions.
2 After 7 PK3, PK4 ! 8 PxKP, NK5 9 QQ3, NB4 1 0 QB2, PxP, Black has no particular difficulties ( KotovSzabo, Budapest 1950 ) . 3 8 QB2 ?, PK4 ! favors Black. See Part 2 . 4 The column i s suggested by Hans Mueller. 5 Two alternatives also in White's favor are 7 . . . PKR3 8 BR4, BK2 9 RQ1 , 0Q 10 PK3, PQ4 1 1 BK2, QR4 1 2 NQ2 !, RQ1 1 3 0Q ( RubinsteinAhues, Berlin 1 9 2 6 ) and 7 . . . NQ5 8 NxN, BxN 9 NN5 !, BB4 10 0QQ ! In this latter line if 9 PK3, Black equalizes with 9 . . . QR4 ! 6 Not 1 3 . . . QB2 14 BB4 !±. 7 White has a slight superiority in space, but its utiliza tion remains a problem. 8 A suggestion of Haberditz. 7 QQR3 is a worthwhile alternative. 9 Black's early incursion is repulsed. 1o NoteboomFlohr, Hastings 1 929. 11 5 . . . NB3 is met by 6 ooo. 1 2 AlekhineNimzowitsch, New York 1927.
+
NIMZOINDIAN DEFENSE •
8
7 00 PQR31 4 BxNt QxB PQN 3 ! NB315 BN2 BN5 PQ3 PK3 QNQ2 QB2 QKl NQ2 PB4 !16
PK3 00 NB3 PQ4 BQ3 PB4 00 NB3 PQR3 BR4 NK217 PxBP BxP BN3 PxP BxP PQN4 QxQ RxQ BK2 BN218
9
PxQP KPxP PxP BxP BxN PxB QR4 QB2 PK4 BK319
10 BQ2 00 NKB 3 PQN3 20 PK3 BN2 BQ3 PQ4 PxP PxP QRBl PQR3 NK2 BQ3 NN3 RK1 21
11
12
PB3 PQ422 PQR3 BK223 PK4 PxKP PxP PK4 ! PQ5 BQB4 BN5 PKR3 BR4 PQR4 BQ3 QQ3 ! 24
PKN3 PB4 PQ5 NK5 BQ22s BxN BxB NxB PxN PQ3 2' 1
1
1
1
13 RubinsteinNimzowitsch, Kissingen 1 928. 14 Too sharp is 5 PK4, PQ3 6 PK5, PxP 7 PxP, NN5 !, when Black stands well. 15 Nor does 7 BN5, BN2 8 PB3, NB3! offers White an advantage. 16 ReshevskyKeres, Moscow 1 948. 17 After 9 BPxP, KPxP 10 PxP, BxN 11 PxB, BN5! 12 PB4, PQ5 !, Black has sufficient counterplay. 18 SpasskiKrogius, Riga 1958. 19 White's last few moves were suggested by Donner. If now 1 3 . . . NKN5, White replies 14 NN5! 2o The simple 5 . . . PQ4 is also good. 21 Black has a minimal initiative. 22 After 4 . . . PQ3 5 PK4, 00 6 NK2, PK4 7 PQR3, White has an excellent game. O'Kelly recommends 4 . . . PB4 5 PQ5, PQN4! 23 For 5 . . . BxNt, see Prac. Var. 10. Simagin suggests 5 . . . BQ3 ?! and if 6 PK4, then 6 .. . PB4. 24 PortischSzabo , Budapest 1 960. 2s Not 6 QB2?, QB3!+. 26 White's Pawn structure is permanently damaged.
711
712 •
CHESS OPENINGS
chapter 37 Queen's Indian Defense (including Bogolndian and Queen's Indian Knight's Game) The moves 1 PQ4, NKB3 2 PQB4, PK3 3 NKB3, PQN3 constitute the Queen's Indian Defense. Its rationale is White's neglect of his K4 by 3 NKB3, in stead of covering it with 3 NQB3. Black immediately focuses attention on that square by the coming fianchetto of the Queen Bishop, which he will augment with moves like . . . PQ4 and/or . . . PKB4. To boot, Black has . . . PQB4 in reserve in many positions to maintain the center tension. On the other side, White need not sur render the square. He may in due time challenge its con trol and/or attempt to enforce PQ5 and lock the opposing Bishop out of the game. Should White succeed in doing so, he will retain a lasting initiative.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
PQ4, NKB3 PQB4, PK3A NKB3, PQN3 PKN3, BN2B BN2, BK2c
Today the Queen's Indian is in reasonably good repute. Black has several lines which offer chances for equality. From White's point of view, it is a question which line grants him the most latitude. The classic deployment with PKN3 has had remarkably few supporters in recent years.
00°, 00
NB3E, NK5 QB2l!', NxNG QxNH part
I CLASSICAL VARIATION
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 1
KEY PosiTION 1
A 2 . . . PQN3 immediately is inferior. For instance, 3 NQB3, BN2 4 QB2 !, PQ4 5 PxP, NxP 6 NB3, PK3 7 PK4, NxN 8 PxN with a clear advantage for White in space, the center and mobility. B At present 4 . . . BR3 is also usual. See Sup. Var. 2 . c Other moves sometimes tried in this position are: (1) 5 . . . PQ4 6 oo, BK2 7 NB3 . See Part 2 . ( 2) 5 . . . PB4 6 PQ5 !, PxP 7 NR4 !±. ( 3 ) 5 . . . BN 5 t. See Part 3 . D I f 6 NB3 , NK5 !
QUEEN'S INDIAN DEFENSE • 713
This is considered strongest. Other possibilities are: ( 1 ) 7 QB2, NB3 8 NB3, PQ4l 9 PxP, NQN5 ! lead ing to an even game. ( 2 ) 7 PN3, PB4 ! 8 BN2, PxP 9 NxP, BxB 1 0 KxB, PQ4 with equal chances. (3 ) 7 PQ5 ! ?. See Sup. Var. 1 . F If 8 NxN, BxN 9 BB4, PQB3 ! G 8 . . . PQ5 also seems playable  but experience is lack
E
ing. H Not 9 NN5 ?, NxPt ! PKB4 ! 10 PQ5, QBI.
Good for Black is 9 PxN,
This is the most frequently occurring position in the Queen's Indian Defense. Black still controls K5, but White is ready to challenge this with 10 QB2 or 10 QQ3. Black can simply play 9 . . PQ4, but this has the draw back that it locks in the fianchettoed Bishop. Hence, more usual are the continuations 9 . . PKB4 and 9 . . BK5. In the former case, the counteradvance PQ5 plays an im portant role leading to sharp positions offering chances for White. Against . . . BK5 White must operate more conservatively, with precise play yielding some prospects for an initiative. .
.
.
IDEA VARIATIONS 1 AND 2: (1) 9 . PKB4 10 PQ5 (the sharpest, although also worth considering is the quiet 1 0 PN3; see Prac. Var. 1 ) , BKB3 ( 1 0 . . . PxP 1 1 NK1 is good for White) 1 1 QQ2 ( 1 1 QB2 also merits attention, as in 1 1 .. . PB3 [a Yugoslav suggestion] 1 2 PxKP, PxP 1 3 PK4 ! with good chances for White) , QK1 1 2 NQ4!, BxN ( 1 2 . . . NR3 1 3 RQ1, BxN 14 QxB, PK4 1 5 QB3, PQ3 1 6 PQN4 favors White; see Game 1 ) 1 3 QxB, PK4 1 4 QB3, PQ3 1 5 PQN4+. ( 2 ) 9 . . . BK5 1 0 NK1 (or 1 0 BB4, e.g., 1 0 . . . PQ3 1 1 QK3, BN2 1 2 KRQ1 , NQ2 1 3 PQN4, NB3 1 4 PQR4, NR4 with chances for both sides) , BxB 1 1 NxB, PQB3 (the immediate 1 1 . . . PQ4 is dubious because of 1 2 PxP, PxP 1 3 BB4, PQB4 14 PxP, PxP 1 5 KRQ1 with strong pressure against Black's center) 1 2 PQ5 ( otherwise Black can conveniently play 1 2 . . . PQ4) , BPxP 1 3 PxP, NR3 14 NB4, QB1 1 5 QB3, QB2 ( 1 5 . .. PK4 is strongly answered by 16 PQ6, BxP 1 7 NQ5 !+) 1 6 PK4, NB4 with approximately even chances. .
.
714 • CHESS OPENINGS
Queen's Indian Defense Game 1 BLACK: Geller
WHITE: Fuderer
Chess Olymp_ics, Amsterdam 1 954 BLACK
WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
WHITE
NKB3 PK3 PQN3 BN2 BK2 00 NK5 NxN PKB4 BKB3 QK1 NR3 BxN PK4 PQ3 QR4 QN3 QRK1
PQ4 PQB4 NKB3 PKN3 BN2 00 NB3 QB2 QxN PQ5 QQ2 NQ4! RQ1 QxB QB3 PQN4 BB3 BR3
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
PK3 BN2 PB4! PB5 ! PxQP RQ2 PN5 ! KPxP BxN BxP BxR PN4! RKN2 RK1 PQ6 QB8t R/1 xP PB5
BLACK
BB1 QR4? NN1 NQ2 PxQP NB3 PxP NK5 PxB PK6 KxB BxP PK7 RK2 RQ2 KB2 BK3 Resigns
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 13: 1 PQ4, NKB3 2 PQB4, PK3 3 NKB3, PQN3 4 PKN3, BN2 5 BN2, BK2 6 00, 00 7 NB3, NK5 8 QB2, NxN 9 QxN
1
2
PKB4 PQ3 PN31 QQ3S BKB3 NB3 RQ1 BN2 QB 12 PQR4 PK4 QQ2 PK4 PQ3 NK1 BK3 QB 1 NQ2 RQ1 PQR3 PQR4 PxP6 PQ5 NxP BxB3 NxN BxN PxP PKB4 NB4 PB4 !7 QxB4
3
910 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
+
QB18 BB49 PQ3 KRK1 BK5 BR3 !1° PQB 3 NQ2 BN3 PK4 NQ2 BK3 QB2 PB411 +
QUEEN'S INDIAN DEFENSE •
Notes to practical variations 13:
1 10 PQ5 leads to Idea Var. 1 . 2 Smyslov's move, which i s most solid.
Not bad either i s 1 1 . . . NB3, e.g. , 1 2 QRQ1, NK2 1 3 NK1 , BxB 1 4 NxB, PKN4 or 12 NK5, NxP 13 QxN, BxB 14 KxB, PQ3 15 QK3 , i n both cases with a n even game. 3 Better than 15 . . . PK4 16 PK4 !, PxP 17 BKR3 !±. 4 FilipSmyslov, Amsterdam 1956. 5 Also 10 QB2, PKB4 1 1 PQ5 !, PK4 1 2 PK4 offers White a slight edge. 6 1 4 . . . PR5 is preferable, according to Pachman. 7 LundinYanofsky, Groningen 1946. B Although adopted by Smyslov on several occasions, this move seems insufficient for equality. 9 Also good is 10 QB2; see Game 2 . 1 0 The wellknown method in positions o f this type: White avoids the exchange of Bishops. 1 1 LarsenD'Kelly, Hastings 195657.
Queen} s Indian Defense Game
WHITE:
Amsterdam vs. Brussels WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
PQ4 PQB4 NKB3 PKN3 BN2 00 NB3 QB2 QxN QB2 PxP BB4 NK5 QRB1 PK4 PxBP PQN4! QB7 PxP
1952
WHITE
BLACK
NKB3 PK3 PQN3 BN2 BK2 00 NK5 NxN QB 1 ? PQ4 PxP PQB3 RQ1 QK3 PQB4 BxP? BxP NQ2 QB4
2
BLACK: Van Seters
Bouwmeester
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38
NxP QxB QxQt BB7 KRQ1 PQ6 BQ5 t PxR RB4 PB4 KB2 KB3 PKR3 RQB2 RK2 PN4 PxP PN5t RK8
BLACK
QxN NB4 KxQ RQ2 RQB1 R/1xB KB3 RxP PQR4 RK2 KB4 PR4 KB3 RQB2 PKN3 PxP PQR5 KN2 Resigns
715
716 • CHESS OPENINGS
part 2CLOSED DEFENSIVE SYSTEM
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
PQ4, NKB3 PQB4, PK3 NKB3, PQN3 PKN3, BN2 BN2, BK2 00, 00 NB3
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 2 In addition to 7 . . . NK5 there are some other con tinuations which offer satisfactory chances. Since Black is obliged to prevent White's PK4, he must generally re sort to . . . PQ4, which gives the position a more or less closed character. After the exchange of Pawns on Q5, White usually ob tains some pressure on the halfopen QB file and some prospects on the Queenside. Thus, if he intends to treat the defense actively, Black must try to get in . . . PQB4; then he must acquiesce in hanging Pawns in the center. This gives him good chances in the central zone, though the hanging Pawns remain vulnerable.
IDEA VARIATIONS 3 AND 4 : KEY
POSITION
2
( 3 ) 7 . . . PQ4 (with the exception of 7 . . . NK5, this is the most popular continuation ) 8 NK5 ! (nothing is to be gained by other moves, such as 8 PxP, NxP 9 RK1, PQB4 !, with an even game) , PB3 (also important is 8 . . . QB1 ; see Prac. Var. 4 and Game 3) 9 PK4! (without this Pawn offer, White has little opportunity for an advantage; for 9 PxP, BPxP, see Game 4) , PxBP 1 0 NxP/4, BR3 1 1 PN3, PQN4 (Black must proceed con sistently, for otherwise White maintains a clear position al advantage) 12 NK 3 ! ( 12 NK5, PN5 1 3 NK2, PB4 ! is satisfactory for Black) , PN5 1 3 NK2, BxN (now 1 3 . . . PB4 is bad because of 1 4 PK5 ! ) 1 4 QxB, QxP 1 5 BN2, QN3 1 6 NB4, QN4 1 7 BxN, PxB (better than 1 7 . . . BxB 1 8 PK5, BK2 19 QRQ1 etc. ) 1 8 QRQ1 , and White has a strong attack for the Pawn (SmyslovGuimard, Groningen 1 946) . (4) 7 . . . QB 1 (unusual but not bad ) 8 PN3 (8 QB2 may well be answered by 8 . . PB4; see Prac. Var. 6) , PQ4 (the characteristic setup : wea� is 8 . . PB4 because of 9 PQ5 ! ) 9 PxP, PxP (if 9 . . . NxP, then 10 BN2, PQB4 1 1 RB 1 ! ) 10 QB2, QNQ2 1 1 BB4, PQR3 1 2 NK5, QQ1 1 3 RB l . White main tains some initiative. .
.
QUEEN'S INDIAN DEFENSE • 71 7
Queen's Indian Defense Game 3 WHITE: Lundin
BLACK: Botvinnik Groningen 194 6
WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
PQ4 PQB4 NKB3 PKN3 BN2 00 NB3 NK5 PxP NxN QN3 NQ3 ! BK3 KRQl QRB l RB2 R/1QBl NB4 QR4 QN3 QQ3 ? NR5 PB3 BB2 PN3 PKR3 PKN4
BLACK
NKB3 PK3 PQN3 BN2 BK2 00 PQ4 QB l NxP PxN· QK3 RQl PQB3 NQ2 NB3 NK5 QRBl QQ2 PQR4 PQN4 PKN4 PKB4 NQ3 RBl RKB2 QK3 QN3
WHITE
28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52
BN3? BB2 PxQ RKl RK5 KR2 PKR4 PxP KNl R/2K2 RB2 BBl PxP RN2 RKl RRl BKl BK2 BQl BxR KB2 BQl BxB KNl RN2 Resigns
BLACK
PB5 ! QxQ PN5 ! RQB2 NN4 BQBl PKR3 PxP BQ2 KBl RQR2 PR5 ! RxP NB6 RKR2 KB2 NN4 NxP PB4! NxPt ! BxP! NK4 ! NxBt RxN BB3
Queen's Indian Defense Game 4 BLACK: Nimzowitsch
WHITE: Saemisch
Copenhagen 1923 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
PQ4 PQB4 NKB3 PKN3 BN2 NB3 00 NK5 PxP
WHITE
BLACK
NKB3 PK3 PQN3 BN2 BK2 00 PQ4 PB3 BPxP
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
BB4 RBl QN3 NxN PKR3 KR2 BQ2 QQl NNl
WHITE
BLACK
PQR3! PQN4 NB 3 ! BxN QQ2 NR4 PB4 ! PN5 ! BQN4
19 20 21 22 23 24 25
RNl PK4 QxN QN5 KRl QK3 QRKl Resigns
BLACK
BQ3 BPxP RxP QRKBl R/1B4 BQ6 PR3 ! !
718 •
CHESS OPENINGS
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 46 :. 1 PQ4, NKB 3 2 PQB4, PK3 3 NKB3, PQN3 4 PKN3, BN2 5 BN2, BK2 6 00, 00 7 NB3 4
5
6
7  8 9 10 11 12 13 14
PQ4 NK5 QB 1 1 PxP NxP2 NxN3 PxN QN3 QK3 NQ3 ! RQl BK3 PQB3 QRB14
NK55 PxP PxP6 NxN PxN QB2 ! PKB4 BK3 NR3 QRBF
QBl QB2 PB4 PN38 PxP NxP BxB KxB NB3 RQl PQ49
I
I
Notes to practical variations 46 :
1 2 3 4 5
PQ4, NKB3 PQB4, PK3 NKB3, PQN3 PKN3, BN2 BN2, BN5t
1 Threatening to obtain a good position with 9 . . . PxP 1 0 NxiV4, PB4. Inferior i s 8 . . . QNQ2 9 PxP, PxP 10 QR4 ! , and White has the edge. 2 More comfortable than 9 . . . PxP. 3 After 10 PK4, NxN 1 1 PxN, NQ2, Black has a satis factory position. 4 For 14 KRQ1 , see Game 3 . 5 Introduced b y Capablanca. For 8 . . . PB3, see Idea Var. 3 . 6 O r 9 . . . NxN 1 0 PxN, PxP 1 1 PQB4±. 7 EuweCapablanca, AVRO 1938. 8 9 PxP, PxP rather favors Black. 9 If 13 PxP, NQN5 !
part
3THE SYSTEM WITH
5
. . .
8NS+
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 3 This system has been favored by Bogoljubov and Nim zowitsch, and even more by Capablanca . The check in itself is not quite logical, for after the exchange of the Bishop one of Black's active defenders is eliminated. Even so, Black still gets satisfactory chances in some variations.
KEY. PosiTION 3
IDEA VARIATIONS 57 : (5) 6 BQ2 (6 QNQ2 [Prac. Var. 7) has disap
QUEEN'S INDIAN DEFENSE • 719
peared from practical play; 6 NB3 leads to the Nimzo Indian ) , BxBt 7 QxB (after QNxB, PB4 !, Black has little difficulty) , 00 (after 7 . . PQ3 8 NB3, Black must not reply 8 . . NK5 ?, e.g., 9 QB4 !, NxN? 1 0 NN5 ! and White wins; Black must keep a n eye on this sort of thrust in this variation) 8 NB3, PQ3 (a com mon mistake is 8 . . NK5? because of 9 QB2, NxN 10 NN5 !, winning the exchange) 9 QB2, QK2 1 0 00, PB4 (for 1 0 . . . QNQ2, s e e Prac. Var. 8 ) 1 1 QRQ1 ( 1 1 PK4, NB3! leads to an equal game) , NB3 12 PN3 !, QRB1 1 3 QN2+ . ( 6 ) 6 BQ2, QK2 (this has little independent sig nificance) 7 00, BxB (otherwise 8 BN5 is somewhat unpleasant for Black) 8 QxB, 00 9 NB3, PQ3 (here. with the essence of Idea Var. 5 is reached ; weaker would be 9 . NK5 10 NxN, BxN 1 1 QB4 !, PQ4 12 PxP, PxP 1 3 QRB1 with advantage for White) . ( 7 ) 6 BQ2, BK2 ( a more or less surprising move based on the idea that White's Bishop does not serve best on Q2 ) 7 00, 00 8 NB3, PQ4 (if 8 . . NK5, then 9 PQ5 ! ) 9 PxP (after 9 NK5, PB3, White's ad vance, 10 PK4, is not playable because of 10 . . . PxBP, and White's Queen Pawn is loose; cf. Idea Var. 3 ) , NxP (for 9 PxP, see Prac. Var. 9) 10 RK1 , PQB4 1 1 PK4, NxN 1 2 BxN, PxP 1 3 NxP, QNQ2=. .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 79 : 1 PQ4, NKB3 2 PQB4, PK3 3 NKB3, PQN3 4 PKN3, BN2 5 BN2, BN5t 7
QNQ2 001 7 00 PQ42 8 QB2 QNQ2 9 PQR3 BK2 1 0 PQN4 PB4 6
8
11
BK2 00 00 NB3 PQ4 PxP PxP7 QB2 QNQ28
8
9
PK4 QRB 1 KRK1 PK4 PQ5 PB3 PxP BxP QK26
RB 1 RK19 BB4 PB310
7
9
BQ2 BxBt QxB 00 NB3 PQ34 QB2 QK2 00 QNQ25
12 13 14 15
PxQP KPxP QPxP PxP PxP NxP3
+
Notes to practical variations 79 :
1 Other good continuations are 6
. NK5 and 6 . . .
PB4.
2 Weak is 7 . BxQN. See Game 5 . .
.
continued
�
720 • CHESS
OPENINGS
FlohrAlekhine, AVRO 1938. For 8 . . . NK5, see Game 6. 5 Stronger is 10 . . . PB4. See Idea Var. 5. 6 Black's backward Queen Pawn is a handicap. 7 For 9 . . . NxP, see Idea Var. 7. 8 Better than 10 . . . NK5 ? 1 1 NxN, PxN 1 2 NK5±. 9 Premature is 11 . . . PB4, e.g., 12 PxP, PxP 1 3 BN5 !, RK1 14 NK1 ! followed by 15 NQ3 with strong pressure against Black's hanging Pawns. 10 If is difficult to expose a weakness. 3
4
Queen's Indian Defense Game 5 WHITE: Alekhine BLACK: Alexander Nottingham 1936 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
PQ4 PQB4 NKB3 QNQ2 PKN3 BN2 00 QxB PN3 BN2 QRQ1 ! QK3 PQ5 ! PxP
BLACK
NKB3 PK3 BN5 t PQN3 BN2 00 BxQN? PQ3 QNQ2 RN1 NK5 PKB4 PxP N/2B3
WHITE
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
NR4 BKR3 PB3 QN5 PQN4 PK4 ! QB 1 ! BxP! BK6 KRK1 PB4! RxN PN4
BLACK
QQ2 PN3 NB4 QN2 N/4Q2 NxKP N/5B3 KR1 BR3 NK4 NQ6 BxR Resigns
Queen's Indian Defense Game 6 WHITE: Euwe BLACK: Flohr Second Match Game 1 932 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
PQ4 PQB4 NKB3 PKN3 BN2 BQ2 QxB NB3 QB2 NK5 ! PxP 00
WHITE
BLACK
NKB3 PK3 PQN3 BN2 BN5 t BxBt 00 NK5 PKB4 PQ4 PxP NQ2
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
PB4 QRB1 QxN PQN4 RQB2 QR3 BPxN QK3 PQR3 QN3 PQR4 PR5
BLACK
N/2B3 NxN RB1 PB3 NQ2 NxN PQR3 QK2 RR1 KR1 PQN4 QK3
QUEEN'S INDIAN DEFENSE •
25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35
WHITE
BLACK
BR3 BxP BN4 KxR KN1 BB3 QB3 QQ2 RB1 BN2 PxP
QR3 ! PN3 RxRt RB 1 t QN4 PR4 KN2 QK2 PR5 PxP QK3
WHITE
36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46
QN5 PK4 BxP RB2 BQ3 RKR2 QB6t PxQt RxRt BK4 PQ5 !
BLACK
BB1 PxP BQ2 QB2 BK1 RR1 QxQ KN1 KxR KN1 Resigns
part 4NONFIANCH ETTO SYSTEMS OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 4 Since experience has shown that White's 4 PKN3 is not unfavorable for Black, other systems of countering the Queen's Indian Defens� have been tried in recent years. The moves most often seen are 4 PK3 and 4 BN5 . The examination of these continuations is in the early stage. So far nothing has been found other than that the varia tions give rise to complicated positions with chances for both sides. Black has nothing to fear, provided he is well aware of some important finesses. IDEA VARIATIONS 8 AND 9 : ( 8 ) 4 BN5 (the sharpest continuation) , BN2 5 NB3, BN5 (most frequently played; also possible is 5 . . . PKR3 6 BR4, BK2 7 QB2, PQ4) 6 PK3, PKR3 7 BR4, PKN4 (recent tournament experience does not encourage this line of play; probably stronger is 7 . . . BxNt 8 PxB, PQ3, as in Prac. Var. 10) 8 BN3, NK5 9 QB2, BxNt 10 PxB, PQ3 1 1 BQ3, PB4 (Tal� Gligoric, Candidates' Tournament 1 959, continued 1 1 . . ' NxB 1 2 RPxB, NQ2 1 3 PR4, PQR4 14 RQNl , PKN5 1 5 NR4, NB3 16 PQ5 !, and White has fine attacking chances) 1 2 PQ5 ! (a characteristic Pawn sacrifice in this line) , PxP 1 3 PxP, BxP 14 NQ4 ! (the point of White's 1 2th move) , QB3 1 5 PB3!, NxB 1 6 PxN, NQ2 1 7 BxP, NB4 (White also has a strong initiative after 1 7 . . 000 18 QR4! ) 18 NN5 with good chances for White. See Game 7. .
.
1 PQ4, NKB3 2 PQB4, PK3 3 NKB3, PQN3
KEY
PosiTION
4
721
722 • CHESS OPENINGS
(9) 4 PK3 (the idea behind this move is to prepare for PK4 with BQ3 and NB 3 ) , BN2 S BQ3, BK2 (in these circumstances S . . . BNS t can be met by 6 QNQ2 ) 6 NB3, PB4 (00 is also playable; see Prac. Var. 1 1 ) 7 00, PxP 8 PxP, PQ4 9 PxP (White tries to profit from Black's uncastled position, but most likely 9 PQN3 is stronger; see Prac. Var. 1 2 ) , NxP 1 0 BQNSt, BB3 1 1 QR4, QQ2 1 2 NxN ( 1 2 NKS is met by 12 . . . NxN! ) , QxN (not 12 . . . BxB 1 3 QxB ! ) 1 3 BxB, NxB 14 BK3 ( or 14 NKS, PQN4! ) , 00. Black has a slight edge.
Queen's Indian Defense Game 7 WHITE: Tal
BLACK: Duckstein Zurich 1959
WHITE
1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
PQ4 NKB3 PB4 NB3 BNS PK3 BR4 BN3 QB2 BQ3 PxB PQS ! PxP NQ4 PB3 PxN BxP NNS BN6t BB S t BxBt NQ4 QBs t QQS 000 PK4 NB s t QxQt RxP
WHITE
BLACK
PK3 NKB3 BNS t PQN3 BN2 PKR3 PKN4 NKS PQ3 BxNt PKB4 PxP BxP QB3 NxB NQ2 NB4 QN2 KQ2 BK3 NxB NB4 KK2 QB3 QRKBl QB2 KQ2 RxQ RxR
30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 SO 51 52 53 54 SS 56 57
NxR NN4 KQ2 RKl KK3 PKB4 PB s t PxP KQ4 PxP KQS NKs t ! NB6! PKS t KxN NxP RK2 KQ4 NB4 KQ3 RK3 PN3t RKs t RK4 NK3 KQ4 KK S KB6
BLACK
RR2 KK3 PN4 PR4 RRl PNS KB2 PxP PN6 RQNl RNS KB3 RxNP PxP KxP RxP RQR6 RRS t KBS PNS RR8 KB4 KB3 KN4 RR6t KR4 RR8 Resigns
QUEEN'S INDIAN DEFENSE • 723
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 1 01 3: 1 PQ4, NKB3 2 PQB4, PK3 3 NKB3, PQN3 11
10 4 5 6 7
BN5 BN2 NB3 BN5 PK3 PKR3 BR4 BxNt1 PxB PQ3 BQ3 QNQ2
13
12
BB4 BN2 PK3 NK5 ! BQ3 BN5 t QNQ2 PKB4
PK3 BN2 BQ3 BK2 NB3 005
PB4
00
00
PQ46 B QK2 QNQ2 9 PQN3 PQR3 1 0 00 BN2 QK22 BQ 3 1 1 NQ2 PK47 PKN43 NxP 1 2 BN3 NxN PKR4 PxN 1 3 PKR3 BxP 0004 BxB 14 QxB QK2 15 QRK18
PxP PxP PQ4 PQN3
00 0011
00
BN2 NB3 RB1 9 RB1 RK1 NQN5 BB1 NK5 10

+
Notes to practical variations l D1 3 :
1 Inferior is 7 . . . 00, e.g. , 8 BQ3 , PQ3 9 QN3, BxNt 10 QxB, QNQ2 11 000, QK2 1 2 NQ2 !, when White has a strong attack (AlekhineWheatcroft, 1 938) . For 7 . . . PKN4 , see Idea Var. 8. 2 1 0 . . . PKN4 11 BN3, NK5 1 2 NQ2 , NxN 13 QxN, PKB4 1 4 :PB4 , QK2 15 QRK1 , NB3 16 PB5, ooo 1 1 PK4 leads t o a good game for White, a s shown in LarsenDonner, Munich 1958. 3 11 . . . PK4 is well met by 1 2 BK4 ! 4 A difficult game with chances for both sides. 5 6 . . . PB4 leads to Idea Var. 9. 6 If 7 . . PB4, then 8 PQ5 ! 7 White's best chance. After 1 1 QRQ1 , NK5 ! , Black stands well. 8 fotovReshevsky, Zurich 1 9 5 3 . White exercises some pressure. 9 11 QK2 may cost a Pawn after 11 . . . NQN5 12 BN 1 , PxP 1 3 PxP , BxN followed by 1 4 . . QxP. It i s questionable whether White gets enough compensation. la See Game 8. Black has counterplay. 11 White's initiative is gone ( analysis by Pachman ) . .
.
724 • CHESS OPENINGS
Queen's Indian Defense Game 8 WRITE: Keres
BLACK :
Smyslov
Zurich 195 3 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
PQB4 NQB3 NB3 PK3 PQN3 BN2 PQ4 PxP BQ3 00 RB1 RK1 BB1 PQR3 RxN
part
1 PQ4, NKB3 2 PQB4, PK3 3 NKB3, BN5 t
K EY
POSITION
5
BLACK
NKB3 PK3 PB4 BK2 00 PQN3 PxP PQ4 NB3 BN2 RB 1 NQN5 NK5 NxN NB3
WHITE
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
NK5 ? RxN RR5 R/3KR3 RxP QQB1 ! QR6 BB1 QN5 QN4 BK2 PB4 BxR Resigns
BLACK
NxN BB3 PN3 PxP ! PB6 QxP KRQ1 BN2 QB3 PB7 RQ5 RQ8t QQ5 t
5BOGOI N DIAN SYSTEM
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 5 The BogoIndian, also called the Bogo system, is an unusual opening, but by no means bad for Black. Black's leading idea is that the exchange of pieces in general cases the burden of defense. Concerning his center formation, Black reserves the choice of . . . PQ4 or . . . PQ3. In most cases . . . PQ3 gets the preference, because . . . PQ4 may cause a weakness on the Black squares in consequence of the disappearance of Black's King Bishop. In many instances Black can still. proceed with the fianchetto of his Queen Bishop. In these cases we arrive at the variations treated in Part 3. IDEA VARIATIONS 10 AND 1 1 : ( 1 0 ) 4 BQ2, BxBt ( 4 . . . QK2 is also good; see Prac. Var. 14) 5 QxB (stronger than 5 NxB, PQ3 ! 6 PK4, 00 7 BQ3, PK4 !, when 8 PxP, PxP 9 NxP, NB3 ! leads to a good game for Black, e.g., 10 QNB3, NxN 1 1 NxN, QQ5 ! ) , NK5 ! (this continuation, at tributed to Gligoric, appears best, but 5 . . . PQ3 is also playable) 6 QB2, PKB4 7 PKN3, 00 8 BN2, PQ3 9 00, QK2 with a satisfactory game for Black (Foltys Gligoric, Prague 1 946) .
QUEEN'S INDIAN DEFENSE • 725
( 1 1 ) 4 QNQ2, 00 ( other possibilities are 4 . . PQN3, transposing into Prac. Var. 7, and 4 . . . PQ4, e.g., 5 PK3, 00 6 PQR3, BK2 with even chances) 5 PQR3, BxNt 6 QxB, PQN3 (transposition into the Queen's Indian is simplest for Black) 7 QB2, BN2 8 BN5, PQ3 9 PK3, PKR3 10 BR4, QNQ2 with about equal chances. .
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 141 6 : 1 PQ4, NKB3 2 PQB4, PK3 3 NKB3, BN5 t 14 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
BQ2 QK2 PKN3 NB31 BN2 BxBt2 QNxB PQ3 00 00 PK4 PQR4 !3 PN34 PK4 PQ5 NN1 NK1 NR35
15
BxBt QxB PQ46 NB3 00 PK3 QNQ2 RB 1 PB3 BQ Y +
16
NxB PQ3 ! PKN38 PQN3 BN2 BN2 00 00 QB2 QK2 PK4 PB49
Notes to practical variations 1 41 6 :
1 This has frequently occurred i n practical play, but 5 . BxBt 6 QxB, NK5, transposing into Idea Var. 10, is actually better. 2 Forcing White to recapture with the Knight because after . . 7 QxB, NK5 8 QB2, Black has the bothersome counter 8 QN5t. 3 This is stronger than 9 . PK4. See Game 9. 4 Or 10 PK5, PxP 11 PxP, NQ2 12 QK2, NB4 with an even game. 5 Black can hold his own. 6 See also Idea Var. 10. 7 White has the superior development. a For 6 PK4, see Idea Var. 10. 9 The chances are even, according to Pachman. .
.
.
726 • CHESS
OPENINGS
Queen's Indian Defense Game 9 WHITE: Euwe
BLACK: Flohr AVRO 1 938
WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
PQ4 PQB4 NKB3 BQ2 PKN3 BN2 QNxB 00 PK4 PQ5 PQN4 QB2 NR4 KPxP PQR3 QN3
BLACK
WHITE
NKB3 PK3 BN5 t QK2 NQB3 BxBt PQ3 00 PK4 NN1 BN5 PB3 PxP PQR4 NR3 QQ2
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
KRK1 BR1 PxP NN2 BxB NB1 NK3 PB5 ! NB4 NxP PQ6 QxPt RxR BK4t NN6t NK7t
BLACK
BR6 PxP NB2 BxN PR3 KRB 1 NR3 PxP QQ1 QNxP RxR KR2 QxP KR1 KR2 Resigns
pa rt 6QUEEN'S I NDIAN KNIGHT'S GAM E 1 PQ4, NKB3 2 NKB3, PQN3
KEY
PosiTION
6
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 6 Here are those variations where White omits an im mediate PQB4. This usually precludes PQ5 in answer to . . . PQB4. Consequently, Black's j ob is easier in general than in the regular Queen's Indian. In practical play this line is rarely used. In most cases White proceeds with 3 PQB4 and Black with 3 . . . PK3, reverting to the usual variations. The remaining general characteristics of this position are the same as dis cussed previously. IDEA VARIATIONS 1 2 AND 1 3 : ( 1 2 ) 3 NB3 (rarely played, but by n o means bad ) , BN2 ( 3 . . . PQ4 is probably better, after which Black can reply to 4 BN5 with 4 . . NK5 ! ) 4 BN5, PQ4 (Black does well to prevent 5 PK4) 5 NK5, PK3 6 PK3 (the Pawn sacrifice 6 PK4, PxP 7 BN5t, PB3 8 BQB4 also deserves consideration) , BK2 7 QB3, 00 8 BQ3 with good chances for White. .
Q U EEN'S INDIAN DEFENSE • 727
( 1 3 ) 3 PKN3, BN2 4 BN2, PB4 ! 5 00 ( 5 PxP, PxP 6 PB4?, PN3 is not commendable ; see Game 1 0 ) , PxP 6 NxP (6 QxP, NB3 7 QKB4, PQ4 leads to a good game for Black) , BxB 7 KxB, PN3 (7 . . . PQ4 8 PQB4, PxP 9 QR4t, QQ2 10 NN5, QB3t is also satisfactory for Black) 8 PQB4 (without this move White can hope for no advantage) , QB 1 ! ( after 8 . . . BN2 9 NQB3, QB1 , the reply 1 0 QQ3 ! is promising for White) 9 PN3 (9 QQ3 now is simply answered by 9 .. . NB3 1 0 PN3, QN2 1 1 PB3, PQ4 ! ) , BN2 1 0 NQB3, QN2t 1 1 PB3, PQ4!= (CapablancaBot vinnik, Nottingham 1 936) . Queen's Indian Defense Game 1 0 WHITE: Rubinstein
BLACK: Nimzowitsch Marienbad 1925
WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
PQ4 NKB3 PKN3 BN2 PxP PB4 PN3 BN2 00 NB3 QQ2 NK1 NB2 NK3 KxB PB3 N/BQ1 PxP
BLACK
NKB3 PQN3 PB4 BN2 PxP PN3 BN2 00 NB3 PQR4 PQ3 QQ2 NQN5 ! BxB QN2t BR3 PR5 KRK1
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33
WHITE
BLACK
BxN KB2 QxP RQN1 KN2 NxB QxP RB2 QxR PQR3 QK2 PB5 QxQ RR1 RxRt White soon resigned
PxB PB4 BN2 BQ5 BxN RxN RxPt RxRt RxP RxP RR1 QR3 NxQ NB2 NxRt
728 •
CHESS OPENINGS
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 1 71 9 : 1 PQ4, NKB3 2 NKB3, PQN3 17
PK3 BN2 4 QNQ2 PK3 5 BQ3 PB4 3
6 00 7 8 9
NB3 PB31 BK2 PK4 PxP NxP2 003
18
19
BB4 PK3 PK3 BN2 QNQ2 NR4 BN3 PQ3 BQ3 QNQ2 QK2 BK2 PB3 PQB44
BN5 BN25 QNQ2 PB4! PK3 PK36

Notes to practical variations 1 71 9 :
·
1 A sort o f Colle system. 2 9 PxP is answered by 9 . . . NQN5 10 BN 1 , BR3 1 1
RK1 , NQ6+. 3 With sharp play. 4 RomiCapablanca, Paris 1938. Black has no problems. 5 Better than 3 . . . NK5 4 BR4, BN2 5 QNQ2, NxN 6 QxN with some initiative for White ( Alekhine) . 6 Black's game is relatively easy.
SUPPLEMENTARY VARIATIONS 1 5 : 1 PQ4, NKB3 2 PQB4, PK3 3 NKB3, PQN3 1
2
3
4 PKN3 BN2
5 BN2 BK2 6 00 00
PQ5 ! ?1 PxP2 8 NQ4 PB3 !3 9 PxP NxP
7
BR36 QR47 BK28 NB3 009
PK4 PQ4 BPxP BxB KxB PxP
4 PQR3 BN2 NB3 BK2 BB4 PQ4
BN2 PB3 BB411 QB1 12 00
PQ4
5 BB4 BN2 QNQ2 NK5 PQR3 PKB4 PK3 PB415 +
QUEEN'S INDIAN DEFENSE • 729
1 10 11 12 13
2
PK5 BxN NK5 PxB NQB3 KN2 1 0 +BKB3 N/4N5 PQ5 !4 NxQP PQ45 
3
NK5 QN2 PxP13 BPxP KRBl PQN4 QQl RBl 1 4 
Notes to supplementary variations 15 :
1 With this interesting move, White scored a surprising success in the game O'KellyEuwe, Beverwijk 1 958. 2 Other moves are hardly better. 3 This is considered the best reply. An alternative is 8 . . . BB3 with the following possibilities : 1 ) 9 NxB, PxN 10 NB3, PxP 1 1 QR4, PQN4 1 2 QR5 with a promising game for White. Stronger, however, is 10 . . . PQ5 ! ( Vukovic ) . 2 ) PxP, BxP 1 0 BxB, NxB 1 1 PK4, NKB3 1 2 PK5, NK1 1 3 QB3, PQB3 14 RQ1 with more than suf ficient compensation for the Pawn. In this line if 1 3 . . . NQB3, then 1 4 NB5, RN 1 1 5 NB3 is very strong for White. 4 With this countersacrifice Black completely frees his game. 5 Black's position certainly is not inferior. 6 Interest in this old line of play was revived after some special Soviet researches. It offers sufficient chances. 7 Little is achieved with other moves, e.g., 5 QNQ2, PB4 6 BN2, NB3 7 PxP, PxP 8 0D, BK2 9 PN3, 00 with an even game ( NedelkovicBronstein, Belgrade 1 9 54 ) . 8 Also interesting is 5 . . . PB3 6 NB3, PQN4 ! ? 7 PxP, PxP 8 NxP, QN3 . Black has some compensation for the Pawn. 9 After 6 . . . BN2 ( to prevent 7 PK4 ) 7 BN2, 0D 8 BN5 ! is promising for White ( BronsteinPetrosian, Portoroz 1 9 58 ) . 1 o White's development is superior. 11 For 8 NK5 ?, QK1 !, see Game 1 1 . The text move threatens 9 BxN, winning a piece. 1 2 The Pawn sacrifice 8 . . . PQN4 9 PxP, PxP 10 NxP, NQ4 is insufficient after 1 1 00 ! In this variation 10 . . . QN3 is answered by 1 1 NB7, QxNP 1 2 0D. 1 3 The sharp 1 1 PQN4 offers good chances. 1 4 Black has sufficient counterplay. 15 Black has the better prospects ( MarchandEuwe, Goteborg 1920 ) .
730 • CHESS OPENINGS
Queen's Indian Defense Game 1 1 BLACK: Taimanov
WHITE: Stahlberg Zurich 1 95 3 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
WHITE
BLACK
NKB3 PK3 PQN3 BR3 BK2
PQ4 PQB4 NKB3 PKN3 QR4 BN2 NQB3 NK5 ?
00
PB3 QK1 ! PQ4 PQN4! PxP PN5 NB3 QxN QN3 QRB1 RB3 QxB KRB1 NK5 RB7?
00
RK1 PxNP QQ1 NN1 ? NxN NQ2 PK3 BB1 BxB NB3 QN3 NQ2?
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42
NxN PQR3 PQ5 RQ1 BQ2 QRN1 QR4 QxRP QN8 PxP QB4 PxQ PN3 PxP PR3 QRB1 RxR BK1 KN2 RB8 BQ2 Resigns
BLACK
PxN PR4 ! R/1 B5 PxP QKB3 PR5 QB4 BB1 PN4 PxP QxQ PQ5 RB3 PB4 RQR3 RxR
RR7 RN7 RxP RN8 PK6
Queen's Indian Defense Game 1 2 BLACK: Kuppet·
WHITE: Pomar Munich 1 95 8 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
PQ4 PQB4 NKB3 PKN3 BN2 00
PQ5 ! ? NQ4 PxP BxB PK4 PK5 QB3 RQ1
WHITE
BLACK
NKB3 PK3 PQN3 BN2 BK2 00
PxP BB3 BxP NxB NKB3 NK1 PQB 3 QB2
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
BB4 NB5 PK6 PxQP QxP NB 3 QB3 NQ5 PQN4 NxKNP BK5 BN2 QN4t NxB
BLACK
BB4 KR1 QQ1 NxP N/1B3 QB l QR3 QN2 BxP KxN QB3 QRK1 KR1 Resigns
•
Sect i o n Th ree : OT H E R O P E N I N G S
731
732 • CHESS OPENINGS
chapter 38  Bird's Open i ng The opening move 1 PKB4 is in reality an old debut with a modern character. White starts by taking control of an important center square without actually occupying the center. Tartakover had a certain predilection for this opening, which now constitutes an important part of the Danish Grandmaster Larsen's opening repertoire. In general, however, for no obvious reason, 1 PKB4 has never become popular. Since the Dutch Defense is resorted to fairly often, Bird's Opening, which is really the Dutch with a move in hand, can hardly be bad. Perhaps the fact that Black can adopt the From Gambit has had some deterrent influence.
pa rt 1 DUTCH DEFENSE I N REVERSE PKB4, PQ4A 2 NKB 3B, NKB 3C 3 PK3 D
KEY PosiTION 1
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 1 A An important alternative is the From Gambit 1 PK4. See Part 2. For other moves, see supplementary variations. B White has plenty of choice. Playable is 2 PQN3 or 2 PKN3 or 2 PK3. There is little theory on these systems. c The most usual. As for a single alternative, there is the Dutch Stonewall in reverse : 2 . . . PKN3 3 PK3, BN2 4 PQ4, NKB3 5 BK2. D Interesting is 3 PKN3, aiming at a type of Leningrad system. There are few examples to the point. .
.
.
The character of the struggle is quickly determined. White aims at control of the central squares of Black color. He usually augments his strategy by means of a Queenside fianchetto. He may also proceed with PQ4, building a Stonewall formation, or PQ3, transposing into an Old Dutch in reverse. For the two latter systems, reference must be made to the Dutch Defense. The main line, White's anticipated fianchetto, can be met by Black in several ways; the most usual are 3 . . BKN5, tending to eliminate White's Knight, or 3 . . PKN3, preparing the neutralization of White's fian chetto. IDEA VARIATIONS 1 AND 2 : ( 1 ) 3 . . . BN5 4 PKR3 (the most enterprising re action, but 4 BK2 is certainly just as good; see Game 2 ) , BxN 5 QxB, QNQ2 (threatening to obtain an excellent game by 6 . . . PK4 ) 6 NB3 (but 6 PQ4, NK5 7 BQ3, PKB4 8 00, PK3 9 PB4, PQB3 is satisfac tory for Black [BrinckmannKmoch, Kecskemet 1927] ) , PB3 (the simplest; also playable is 6 . . PK3, followed .
.
.
BIRO'S OPENING • 733
by 7 . . . BN5 ) and Black has a good game, notwithstand ing White's pair of Bishops. Por 3 . . . BB4, 3 . . . PK3, or 3 . . . PB4 see Prac. Var. 1, 2, and 3. Game 1 illustrates 3 . . . PB4. ( 2 ) 3 . . . PKN3 4 PQN3 (as mentioned before, 4 PQ4 and 4 PQ3 lead to known positions of the Dutch Defense, but in reverse) , BN2 5 BN2, 00 6 BK2, PB4 7 00, NB3 8 NK5, BQ2 ( 8 . . . QB2 leads again in reverse into known positions of the Queen's In dian Defense) 9 PQ3, PQ5 ! 10 NxN, BxN and Black has a satisfactory game (TartakoverPirc, Cheltenham 1 95 1 ) . Bird's Opening Game 1 BLACK: Spielmann
WHITE: Tartakover Vienna 1 9 1 0 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
PKB4 PK3 NKB3 PQN3 BN2 BN5 00 PQ3 QK2 QNQ2 BxN PN3
BLACK
PQ4 NKB3 PB4 PK3 NB3 BQ2 BQ3 QB2 000 PQR3 BxB NK1
WHITE
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
PB4 PxP PK4 PQN4 PxBP PxP QRB1 NN3 NB5 RxB RB4 Rj1B1
WHITE
BLACK
PB3 PxP PQ5 PKN4 BxP/4 RN1 BR2 NN2 BxN NK3 PxP QN3
25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
NK5 NxB RxPt RxN QN4t RB 1 t QK6 BxPt QK7t QxR
BLACK
QN4 PxN KQ2 KxR KB3 KN2 KRB1 RxB KN3 Resigns
Bird' s Opening Game 2 WHITE: Larsen
BLACK: Petrosian Portoroz 1 958
WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
PKB4 NKB3 PK3 BK2 NK5 QxB 00 PQ4 NQ2 PB3 PKN4 N./ 2B3 BQ2 BK1
WHITE
BLACK
NKB3 PQ4 BN5 QNQ2 BxB PK3 BQ3 00 PB4 RB1 NK1 N/2B3 NK5 PB3
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
NQ3 PB5 NR4 BN3 BxB QRQ1 QPxP NB4 QN2 PN4 PxP NxQP QxN RxQ
WHITE
BLACK
BK2 QQ2 NB2 BQ3 QxB QRK1 NxP/4 P�QN4 RQ1 NK5 PN3 NxN NxBP NxQ
29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41
RR6 RxRP NN2 RB1 PKR4 R/1B7 RxP R/KRN7t PR5 RjNKB7 RR7t PR6 R/KRKB7
BLACK
RQ6 RKl PN4 RQ3 R/3xKP NQ3 RQB 1 KR1 NK1 NQ3 KN1 NK1 Resigns
734 • CHESS OPENINGS
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 13 : 1 PKB4, PQ4 2 NKB3, NKB3 3 PK3 1
2
3
BB4 PQN3 PK3 5 BN2 QNQ2 6 PN3 BQ3 7 BN2 QK2 4
1 8 00
3 
PK3 PQN3 BK2 BN2 QNQ2 BQ3 0()2
PB4 PQN35 NB3 6 BN5 BQ27 BN2 PK3
00
00
PQN3
BK28
9 10 11
PK4! PxP NxP NxN BxN PQ4 BN5 ! 1
2
NB3 BN2 NK2 NB4!3 NN3 NxB PxN PB44
3
PQ3 00
BxN' BxB NK51 0 ±

Notes to practical variations 13:
1 NimzowitschPetersen, 1928.
2 Other good moves are 6 . . . NK5 and 6 . . . NB4.
3 The famous game, LaskerBauer, Amsterdam 1 889, con
1 2 3 4
PKB4, PK4 PxPA, PQ3B PxP0, BxP NKB3 D
tinued 9 . . . PB4 10 NN3, QB2 1 1 NK5, NxN 12 BxN, QB3 13 QK2, PQR3 ? 14 NR5, NxN 1 5 BxPt, KxB 16 QxNt KN1 17 BxP ! !, with a winning attack. 4 Black's Bishops and less awkward Pawn structure counter balance White's attacking chances. 5 After 4 BN5't, Black's best is 4 . . . BQ2. Black is generally better off if he avoids the exchange of his Queen Knight for White's King Bishop. 6 After this move White can carry out his plan. Best for Black is most likely 4 . . . PKN3 . See Idea Var. 2 . 7 Also plausible i s 5 . . . QN3. 8 For 7 . . . BQ3, see Game 2 . 9 Otherwise Black can maintain h i s Knight. 1 0 White has good attacking chances, as the games of Nim zowitsch often demonstrate.
pa rt 2FROM GAM BIT OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 2
KEY
PosiTION
2
A Convenient for Black is 2 PQ3, PxP 3 BxP, PQ4. White may transpose into the King's Gambit with 2 PK4. B Better than 2 . . . PKB3 ? 3 PK4 ! c Here, too, White can transpose into the King's Gambit by 3 NKB3, PxP 4 PK4. But not 3 PQ4?, PxP 4 PxP, QxQt 5 KxQ, NQB3 and Black has the better of it. D The only good defense to the threat of 4 . . . QR5t. But 4 PKN3 is weak because Black then initiates a strong attack by 4 . . . PKR4 !
BIRO'S OPENING • 735
Black has some advance in development and good at tacking chances for the Pawn. He can proceed in two basically different ways, . . . NKR3N5 or . . . PKN4N5. Both lines of attack take advantage of the weakening of White's Kingside caused by_ the disappearance of his King Bishop Pawn. The attack leads to rather dif ficult positions with tactical chances for both sides. Alertness and exactitude in calculation are required by both sides.
IDEA VARIATIONS 3 AND 4 : ( 3 ) 4 . . . NKR3 5 PQ4, NN5 6 QQ3 ! PQB4! 7 QK4t, BK3 8 NN5 (8 PQ5 leads to nothing after 8 . . . NKB3 ! ; also good for Black is 8 BN5, QN3 ! ) , BxP! (a new point, which actually follows From's original idea) 9 NxB, QR5t 10 KQ2, PxN 1 1 RxB (creating great complications; for 1 1 QxPt, see Game 3 ) , QN4t 1 2 KB3, and the chances are hard to assess. The move 4 . . . NKR3 aims at . . . NN5, possibly followed by . . . NxRP. Fro� himself considered this continuation of the attack as Black's best. Yet this line has long been considered inferior because of Lipke's method of counterplay. Recently, however, improvements for Black have been found, and the assessment of the varia tion for the time being is an open question. From's line can also start with 4 . . . NKB3, in which case Black has the additional option of proceeding positively by anchoring his King Knight on K5. See Prac. Var. 4. Lipke's move, 6 QQ3 !, has long been considered the refutation of Black's system, but the strong rejoinder 6 . . PQB4 ! was turned up in a recent investigation by Czech analysts. Faulty is 6 . . . NxRP? because of 7 QK4tLipke's pointand White wins. The alterna tive, 6 . . NQB3 7 NB3, 00 8 PK4, RK1 9 BK2, also favors White. (4) 4 . . . PKN4 (Emanuel Lasker's continuation, which is most usual) 5 PQ4, PN5 6 NN5 ! ? PKB4 7 PK4, PKR3 8 PK5, BK2 (consistent; in any event, White gets an edge upon 8 . . . PxN 9 PxB) 9 NKR3, PxN 10 QR5t, KB 1 1 1 BQB4, QK1 12 QxP/3 (PiceAitken, Munich 1 954) . This is the game in which White's chances for attack proved excellent. 6 NN5 ! ? is aimed at an interesting sacrifice of a piece. This move was repeatedly and successfully adopted by Tartakover. But 6 NK5 is weak because of 6 . . . .
.
736 • CHESS OPENINGS
BxN 7 PxB, QxQt and Black has excellent counterplay. After 6 NN5 ! ?, White gets the better of it, according to Alekhine, if Black plays 6 . . . QK2 (7 QQ3, PKB4 8 PKR3! ) .
Bird's Opening Game
3
WHITE: Filip
BLACK: Picht/ Czechoslovakia
WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
PKB4 PxP PxP NKB3 PQ4 QQ3 QK4t NN5 NxB KQ2 QxPt KB3 QQ6t RxB BQ2
WHITE
BLACK
PK4 PQ3 BxP NKB3 NN5 PQB4! BK3 BxP QR5 t PxN KQ1 NKB3 QNQ2 QK8t NK 5 t
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
KQ3 NxN RR5 PxP PKN4 RQ5 NK4 BN2 NxQ NxPt NR5 PB6 PK4 PxN KQ4
1958 BLACK
WHITE
NxB QxR QxRP QB2 PKN3 RK1 QK2 QxQ RK2 KB2 R/1K1 NN3 NxR RK6t RK7
31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44
BB3 NN7 KB5 PN3 PxP NQ6 NB4 BR1 BB3 KN4 PQ6t NxR KB5 PB7 Resigns
BLACK
RxP RQ7t RK4 PKR4 PxP RB7t RB6 RB8 RB6 RxB KB 1 ! RB3 PR5 KN2 !
PRACTICAL VARIATION 4 : 1 PKB4, PK4 2 PxP, PQ3 3 PxP, BxP 4 NKB3
4 4 5 6

NKB3 PQ41 NK52 NB33 BKB44
4 7 NxN BxN 8 PK3 005 +
Notes to practical 11ariation 4 :
1 After 5 PKN3, Black's best is 5 . . . NN 5 . For 5 . . . PKR4, see Game 4. 2 For 5 . . . NN5, see Idea Var. 3 . Worth trying is 5 . . . NB3 6 BN5, PKR3 7 BxN, QxB 8 PK4, BN5, and Black has countetplay. 3 6 QQ3, PKB4 gives Black a good game. 6 PKN3 is playable for White. 4 Now 6 . . . PKB4 is unsatisfactory because of 7 NxN, PxN 8 BN5 ! 5 Black has some compensation for the Pawn.
BIRD'S OPENING •
Bird's Opening Game WHITE: Tartakover Zandvoort 1936 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
WHITE
BLACK
PKB4 PxP PxP NKB3 PKN3 PQ4 PxP QQ3 BR3 RN1 !
PK4 PQ3 BxP NKB3 PKR4 PR5 NK5 BKB4 BN3 QK2
4
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
RxB NB3 PxN QxP QQ3 NN5 BK6t NB7t BN3 ! NR8 !
BLACK: Prins BLACK
PxR NxN 00
RK1 NQ2 NB3 KR1 KN1 KB1 Resigns
SUPPLEMENTARY VARIATIONS 14 : 1
2
PKB41 PK4 PxP PQ3 PxP2 BxP NKB3 NKB3 PK3 NB33
3
4
1 2 3 4 5 6
+
7 8
PK34 NKB3 PKB4 PK4 PQ4 PxBP PxP PQ4 NKB35
PQB4 NKB3 PKN3 PK3 BN2 PQ4 PxP PxP PQ3 BQ3 QN3 PB3 NKR3
NKB3 PK3 PKN3 PQN3 BN2 BN2 PQ3 QB1
00
00
00
PK4 PxP NxP8
00
NKB3 BN5 BK2 NB 3
KR16 BB47
9

Notes to supplementary variations 1 4 : 1
Neither usual nor commendable.
2 Worthy of consideration is 3 . . PQ4. 3 White has good attacking chances. .
4 This move has little independent significance as have Sup. Var. 3 and 4. 5 Pure symmetry, with the first move of little importance. 6 Also deserving consideration is 9 NR3. 7 Black has no structural weakness and fair prospects. 8 NimzowitschEuwe, Karlsbad 1929.
737
738 • CHESS
OPENINGS
chapter 39  Engl ish Open i ng The English Opening comprises those lines which arise from 1 PQB4, NKB3. Transposition into the King's Indian or Nimzo.Indian is possible at many points. Also, Black may play PK4, transposing into the Sicilian in re verse, or Sicilian Attack. The latter is discussed in a separate chapter. The subsidiary vanat10ns of the English occur but rarely and consequently have not been profoundly investi gated.
part I SICILIAN VARIATION 1 PQB4, NKB3 2 NQB3A, PK3B 3 PK4C, PB4D
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION A Most usual. sideration.
1
2 PKN3 and 2 NKB3 also deserve con .
B For the important alternative 2 . . . PQ4 see Part 2 . Other possibilities for Black's second move are treated in Sup. Var. 24. c The characteristic move 3 PQ4 establishes the Nimzo Indian Defense. D Supposedly Black's best. For 3 . . . PQ4 see Sup. Var. 1.
KEY
POSITION
1
The struggle for the center is in full swmg. Both White and Black generally aim at PQ4. However, the immediate 4 PQ4 is poor because of 4 . . . PxP 5 QxP, NB3 and Black has the initiative. White therefore must proceed in a more subtle manner. Black may easily get the worst of it if he plays too passively; but by proceeding carefully and actively, he gets excellent chances for equality. IDEA VARIATIONS 1 AND 2 : ( 1 ) 4 PK5 (the sharpest ; White dislodges the Knight, but his advanced Pawn becomes vulnerable) , NN1 5 PQ4 (for 5 PB4, see Prac. Var. 2 ) , PxP 6 QxP, NQB3 7 QK4, PQ3 (speculative is 7 . . . PB4 8 QK2, KNK2 9 PB4 ; see Game 1 ) 8 NB3, QR4! (this move, suggested by Kan, leads comfortably to equality) 9 PxP, NB3 1 0 QB4, QN5 and Black recovers the Pawn safely.
ENGLISH OPENING • 739
( 2 ) 4 PKN3 (this move calls for an accurate defense; for 4 NB3 see Prac. Var. 1 ) , NB3 (better than 4 . . . PQ4 5 BPxP, PxP 6 PK5 and White has the edge) 5 BN2, PQ4! (this move involves the sacrifice of a Pawn; with other moves, however, Black has difficulty with his development) 6 KPxP, PxP 7 PxP (if 7 NxP, NxN 8 PxN, NN5, with consequences similar to the main line) , NQN5 and Black has sufficient compensation for the Pawn, more so in view of the vulnerability of White's Pawn on Q5.
English Opening Game 1 BLACK: Smyslov WHITE: Aronin USSR Championship 195 0 WHITE
1 PQB4 2 NQB3 3 PK4 4 PK5 5 PQ4 6 QxP 7 QK4 8 QK2 9 NB3 1 0 BQ2 1 1 000 1 2 RKl 1 3 PKR4 1 4 NxN 1 5 PB4 1 6 PR5 17 QQ3 1 8 RQl 1 9 QQ6 20 RR3 2 1 QQ3 2 2 QxQBP 2 3 NxN 24 QB2 2 5 KNl 26 RQB3 2 7 BBl 28 RxR 29 QR4
BLACK
PK3 NKB3 PB4 NNl PxP NQB3 PB4 KNK2 NN3 PQR3 QB2 BB4 NQ5 BxN PN4 NK2 BB7 BN2 QBl BB4 PxP NQ4 BxN QN2 QRBl KB2 BN5 RxR PR4
WHITE
30 BN5 31 BxP 3 2 BK3 3 3 QxQt 34 PR3 35 PxB 36 BBl 3 7 PR6 38 RRl 39 RR2 40 BQ2 41 BN4 42 KB2 43 RR3 44 KB3 45 KQ4 46 RQ3 47 KB3 48 RQ6 49 KQ2 50 RxP 5 1 KQ3 5 2 RK7 5 3 BQ6 54 PK6 5 5 KQ2 56 RKR7 Resigns
BLACK
RB4 KK2 QxB KxQ BxP RB6 RN6 PxP RN3 BxP PR5 BB6 PR4 RN7t RB7 BN5 KB3 KN4 RB6t RxBP RK5 PR5 PR3 PR6 BK7t BB5 RQ5 t
740 • CHESS OPENINGS
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 1 AND 2 : 1 PQB4, NKB3 2 NQB3, PK3 3 PK4, PB4
5 6 7 8
1
2
1 4
NB31 NB3 PQ4 PxP NxP BN5 NxN2 QPxN! QxQt KxQ
PK5 NN1 PB4 NQB35 NB3 PQ3 PxP BxP PQ4 NB3 ! 6
9 10
PB33 PK4 BQ2 PQR4
1 1 000
2
PxP BxQBP QxQt KxQ7 
KB24
Notes to practical variations 1 and 2 :
1 A solid continuation which has, however, little promise for White. 2 7 PB3 ?, PQ4 favors Black. Or 7 QQ3, PQ4 8 KPxP, PxP 9 BN5, QK2t is satisfactory for Black. 3 Or 9 PK5, NQ2 ! 10 BB4, BxNt 1 1 PxB, PQB4 and Black stands better. Or 9 BN5, BxNt 10 PxB, PKR3 1 1 BxNt, PxB 1 2 ooot, KK2 and Black has the edge. 4 Black enjoys reasonably easy development. 5 Also sufficient is 5 . . . P"Q3 6 PxP, BxP 7 PQ4 !, PxP 8 NN5, BN5t. 6 Stronger than 8 . . . PxP 9 NxP, NB3 10 N/4N5, BN1 11 QxQt, KxQ 1 2 BK3 with advantage for White. 7 Black has the easier game.
part
1 2 3 4
PQB4, NKB3 NQB3, PQ4A PxP, NxP PKN3B
2EXCHANGE VARIATION
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 2 A This method gained popularity after the BotvinnikSmyslov match in 1958. B Here 4 PK4 has a surprising drawback : 4 . . . NN5 5 BB4, BK3 6 BxB, PxB 7 KNK2, NQ6t. For 4 NB3 see Sup. Var. 3 .
Black must now decide whether or not to exchange his Knight. Recent experience has shown that he is bet ter off after the exchange, the game then assuming a char acter similar to the Exchange Variation in the Grunfeld Defense. This method, adopted in the BotvinnikSmyslov match, 1 95 8, in most cases led to satisfactory games for Black.
KEY
PosiTION
2
IDEA VARIATIONS 3 AND 4 : ( 3 ) 4 . . . PQB4 5 BN2, NB2 (here 5 . . . NxN is
ENGLISH OPENING • 741
possible, but after 6 NPxN, PKN3 is dubious because of 7 QR4t and Black _has some difficulties; however, in the above line Black may try 6 . . . PK3 ) 6 PQ3 (more to the point than 6 NB3, NB3 7 PN3, PK4 8 BN2, BK2 9 RQBl , PB 3 ! and Black stands well ) , PK4 ( less commendable is 6 . . . NB3 ? 7 BxNt !, PxB 8 QR4 and White has the better game) 7 PB4 (White has good chances [FilipRagosin, Prague 1956) ) . ( 4) 4 . . . NxN 5 NPxN, PKN3 6 BKN2, BN2 (this move had long been considered inferior, but the old 1ssessment has been revised in view of some of the games of the 1958 BotvinnikSmyslov match) 7 BQR3 (played by Botvinnik in the l Oth game of his match with Smyslov; in later games he showed preference for 7 RQNl and 7 QN3. See Prac. Var. 3 and 4. NQ2 8 NB3, PQB4 9 QR4 (to ward off 9 . QR4) , 00 1 0 RQNl , PQR3 1 1 PB4 with chances for both sides. .
.
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 3 AND 4 : 1 PQB4, NKB3 2 NQB3, PQ4 3 PxP, NxP PKN3 3
4
4
4 5 6 7 8
NxN NPxN PKN3 BKN2 BN2 RQNl NQ2 1 PQB42
00 9 NB3
RN13
QN3 NB 3 !4 NB3 00 00
NR45
Notes to practical variations 3 and 4 :
1 I n order to meet 8 BxP with 8 . . . BxB 9 RxB, NN3 !
2 In a later game Botvinnik played 8 NB3 and after 8 . . . oo 9 00, PK4 10 PQ4 ! obtained an edge. 3 With approximately equal chances, although White's posi tion is easier to manage. 4 A substantial improvement. The continuation 8 BxN·r, PxB is not unfavorable for Black. 5 Again equal. But Black's Knight does not obstruct the development of his other men.
742 • CHESS OPENINGS
SUPPLEMENTARY VARIATIONS 14 : 1 PQB4, NKB3 2 NQB3 1
2
3
PK3 PK4 PQ4
PB3 PK4 PQ45
4
PK5
PK5
PQ51 5 PxN PxN 6 NPxP QxP 7 PQ4 PQN32 8 NB3 BN2 9 BK2 QNQ23
PQ5 ! PxN PxN NPxP KPxP PQ4 B Q3 BQ3
4
3
2

006 
PB4 NB3 PQ4 PxP NxP PK47 NN58 BB4 NQ6t9 KK2 NB 5 t1 o KB1 NK 3 1 1 +
PK3 PKN3 PQN3 BN2 BN2 00
BK2 PQ4 PxP QxP NB 3 1 2 QB4 00
1 0 00 PKR34 11
RQ1 QN1 QxQ QRxQ BB4 QR B1

12

13
NK513 +
Notes t o supplementary variations 1 4 : 1
Also sufficient i s 4 . . . KNQ2.
2 Worth consideration is 7 . . . PB4 8 NB3 , PKR3
9
BK2, PxP 10 PxP, BN5 t with only a tiny edge for White. 3 Or 9 . . PKR3 10 NK5, BQ3 1 1 QR4t, KK2 ! with equality. 4 White enjoys a minimal initiative. 5 Also playable is 3 . . . PK4 4 NB3, BN 5 . 6 Chances are equal. B u t the unbalanced Pawn structure leads to a struggle. 7 Introduced by Nimzowitsch. Alternatives are 5 PKN3 and 5 PK3, in both cases favoring White. 8 A dubious line for Black is 5 . . . NxN 6 NPxN, PKN3 7 QR4t. 9 Not good for Black is 6 . . BK3 7 BxB, PxB 8 Q0, QNB3 9 NN 5 . In the above line Black may vary with 7 . . NQ6t 8 KB 1, PxB 9 NN5 and White has a slight margin. 10 The safest. 7 . . . NxBt leads to complications. 11 White's advantage is in development which requires sharp play to exploit. 1 2 This win of a tempo could better be postponed in this manner: 8 . . . oo 9 RQl , QBl 10 BB4, RQl 11 QRB l , NB3 1 2 QQ3, PQ4 and Black has achieved equality. 13 White has a tiny edge. .
.
.
ENGLISH OPENING • 743
English Opening Game WHITE: Van der Hoek The Hague 1942 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
PQB4 PKN3 BN2 PN3? PxP NQB3 NB3 00
BN2
BLACK
NKB3 PB3 PQ4 PxP QQ5 QxP QNQ2 PK4 BQ3
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
WHITE
PQB4 NQB3 NB3 PxP PKN3 NPxN QR4t PR4 QRN1 BKN2 PB4 PQ3 QB2 BK3
BLACK
NKB3 PB4 PQ4 NxP NxN PKN3 NQ2 PKR3 BN2 00
PK4 NN3 BQ2 QK2
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
BLACK: Euwe
WHITE
BLACK
PQ3 PQ4 PK4 RN1 NxP QN3 NR4 QxN NB5
QK3 00
QK2 PxP NN3 BQB4 NxN RQ1 BxN
English Opening Game WHITE: Petrosian Zurich 195 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
2
WHITE
BLACK
PB4 QRB 1 RQB2 PB5 BQB3 RxB PxP NB 1 NQ3 QxR QB1 PKR4 RR3 QN5
PQB4 NKB3 NB3 PxP PK3 NPxN QR4t BR3 BK2 00
PQ4
BLACK
PQB4 NKB3 PQ4 NxP NxN PKN3 NQ2 QB2 BN2 00
PQR3
RQ7 QRQ1 BQ3 RxB QK4 QxPt BB5
WHITE
29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41
QKN2 PxN QxR QK2 QB1 BK3 QB2 KQ2 NB6t NxKP KQ3 KK2 NQ2
BLACK
NxBP RxP QxKPt QxRt QR7 QxPt QR6 PK5 KR1 QK3 QQ2t QK3 Resigns
4
BLACK: Fine USAUSSR, Moscow
WHITE
BLACK
BLACK: Szabo
WHITE: Keres
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
PxB QKB4 PN4 QN5 RxR KRN1 KB1 Resigns
3
NQ2 NN3 BxNP BN2 BQB1 BxB NQ2 PxP RN8 RxRt PK4 NB1 NK3 NQ5
English Opening Game
WHITE
19 20 21 22 23 24 25
WHITE
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
PB4 QRQ1 PxP PQ5 QN3 BB1 PxP BxP PQR4 PxB NN5
1944 WJiiTE
BLACK
PK4 KPxP PN3 BN2 QRN1 PQN4 PxP BQR3 BxB QN2 QxNP
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
QKR3 BB4 NxBP! QxQ NQ6 BK3 BxP BR3 NN7 NxR
BLACK
NB3 QRB1 QQ2 NxQ QRQ1 NN3 NR5 NB6 NxR Resigns
744 • CHESS
OPENINGS
chapter 40  l nd ia n I n Reverse The Indian in Reverse finds itself today at the peak of its popularity. This opening, offering White numerous chances for favorable transposition into other lines, has been adopted on important occasions by nearly every lead ing modern master. In this section only the independent variations arising from 1 NKB3, PQ4 are treated. Much of the further course of the game depends upon Black. Several good continuations are at his disposal; his choice is a matter of personal preference. Reti and Nimzowitsch both championed the Indian in Reverse. By adopting with White a setup originally de signed for Black, they hoped to make their extra tempo tell. Certainly not bad strategy, but, in spite of this, White's chances in this kind of opening must not be over estimated. If Black proceeds with caution, he faces few problems.
1 NKB3, PQ4 2 PB4A, PxP
part 1 WING GAM BIT ACCEPTED OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 1 A For the important alternative, 2 PKN3, see Part 5.
KEY
PosiTION
1
With his last move Black abandons the center. It is his idea to make his opponent lose some time in the re covery of the Pawn, while he, in the meantime, proceeds with his development. For Black to obtain equality in the center, he usually must play for . . . PQB4. The re lationship of this system to the Queen's Gambit Accepted is very clear. With proper play, Black obtains a level game.
INDIAN IN REVERSE •
IDEA VARIATIONS 1 AND 2 : ( 1 ) 3 PK3, PQB4 4 BxP, NKB3 5 00, PQR3 6 PQN3 (6 PQ4, PK3 leads to the Queen's Gambit Accepted) , PK3 (for 6 . . . PQN4, see Game 1 ) 7 BN2, NB3 8 PQR4, BK2 9 NK5, NQR4 ! with approximately even chances (KeresFine, Zandvoort 1936) . 3 PK3 is most usual. (The continuation 3 QR4t leads to the Mannheim Variation of the Queen's Gambit Accepted or to variations of the Catalan Accepted. ) W or thy of consideration is 3 . . . NQB3. After BxP, PK4 5 QN3, NR3 6 PQ4, PK5 , Black can hold his own. The continuation 3 . . . PQN4 4 PQR4, PQB3 5 PxP, PxP 6 PQN3, PQR4 leads to a game similar in spirit to the Noteboom Variation of the SemiSlav. ( 2 ) 3 NR3, PQB4 4 NxP, NQB3 5 PQN3, PK4! (the Pawn is immune : 6 Nj4xP, NxN 7 NxN, QQ5, and Black wins) 6 BN2, PB3 7 PN3, KNK2 8 BN2, NQ4 ( Alekhine recommended 8 . . . NB4) 9 00, BK2 1 0 NR4, 00, and Black has a satisfactory game. See Game 2 . 3 NR3 is White's best chance, according to Alekhine; his opinion notwithstanding, the line is seldom seen today: 3 . . . PQB4 is the correct reply. For alternatives, see Prac. Var. 1 and 2 .
Indian in Reverse Game
1
BLACK: Euwe
WHITE: Keres Twelfth Match Game WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
NKB3 PB4 PK3 BxP 00
PQN3 BK2 BN2 PQR4 PxP RxRt NR3
WHITE
BLACK
PQ4 PxP PQB4 NKB3 PQR3 PQN4? ! BN2 QNQ2 QN3? PxP BxR BB3
1940
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
PQ4! PxP! NQ4 ! QxB ! QN4! QQ6 RB1 NB4 QB4 NQ6t QxN
BLACK
PK3 BxP BxN QN2? NQ4 NK2 PN5 NKB4 BxP NxN Resigns
745
746 • CHESS OPENINGS
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 1 AND 2 : 1 NKB3, PQ4 2 PB4, PxP 2
1 3 4 5 6 7
NR3 NKB3 NxP PK3 PKN3 QNQ2 BN2 NN3 PN3!1
NR3 PK42 NxKP BxN QR4t 3 PQN44 QxB5 BN2 PK36 QQ3 QxQ PxQ NB3 NQB3 PQN3! PQ4 PxP NPxP7 PQ3 !8
+
8 9 10 11 12
+
Notes to practical variations 1 and 2 :
1 Alekhine's move, which leads t o a n advantage for White. Less clear is 7 0D, NxN 8 QR4t, BQ2 ! 9 QxN, BB 3 . 2 After 3 . . . PQR3 4 NxP, PQN4 5 NK3, BN2 6 PKN3, PK3 7 BN2, NKB3 8 0D, QNQ2 9 PQ3, BQ3 10 BQ2, 0D 1 1 PQR4 !, White has a slight edge. 3 But not 5 PxB, as 5 . . . QQ5 wins for Black. 4 The point of Black's strategy. 5 6 QxPt ?, PB3 costs White a piece. 6 7 PQ3 deserves consideration. 7 If 1 1 . . . QPxP, then 12 PQR4 ! is promising for White. 8 White has the edge. 12 . . . NN5 ? fails against 1 3 RQN1 !
Indian in Reverse Gam e WHITE: Botvinnik Nottingham 1936 WHITE
1 NKB3 2 PB4 3 NR3 4 NxP 5 PQN3 6 BN2 7 PN3
BLACK
PQ4 PxP PQB4 NQB3 PB3 PK4 KNK2
8 9 10 11 12 13 14
2
BLACK: Fine
WHITE
BLACK
BN2 00
NQ4 BK2
NR4 QN1 ! NB5 PB4 PxP
RB2 BK 3 ! PxP NN3
00
INDIAN IN REVERSE •
WHITE
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
BK4 PxB BQB3 ! NxN BxPt BN4 BxBt QxQP PxQ BK4 QRB1
BLACK
BxN NxP NQ5 ! PxN KB 1 ! PQ6! ! RxB QxQ NN3 RQ1 NQ4
26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35
WHITE
BLACK
PQR3 KN2 KB3 KK3 RQB3 RKB2 PB5 RN2 RKB2 RN2 Draw
Rj2Q2 PQN3 NB2 NR3 NB4 RQ5 RR5 R/5Q5 RR5 R/5Q5
pa rt 2WI NGORTHODOX DEFENSE OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 2 For 3 PQ4, see the Queen's Gambit. B The immediate 3 . . . PxP is best met by 4 BN2. Of less promise is 4 QR4t because of 4 . . . BQ2 5 QxBP, PB4 6 NK5, NQB3 . 3 . . . PQ5 is not commendable, for after 4 PQ3, NKB3 5 BN2, PB4 6 PK4 �. White has a fine game. .A
1 2 3 4
NKB3, PQ4 PQB4, PK3 PKN3A, NKB3B BN2
Black is confronted in this position with the same prob lem he faces in the Orthodox Defense to the Queen's Gambit : how to develop his Queen Bishop. As in the Queen's Gambit, several solutions present themselves. White does well to bear in mind the possibility of favorably transposing into the Catalan system if the oppor tunity presents itself. IDEA VARIATIONS 3 AND 4 : ( 3) 4 . . . PxP (except for 4 . . . BK2, Black's most important line; for alternatives, see Prac. Var. 3 and 4) 5 QR4t (no stronger, if as strong, is 5 00, which leads only to equality after 5 . . . QNQ2 6 NR3, NN3! 7 NxP, NxN 8 QR4t, BQ2 9 QxN, BB 3 ) , QNQ2 (after 5 . . . . BQ2 6 QxBP, BB3 7 00, White has a slight advantage, but Black may try Kevitz's line, 5 . . . BQ2 6 QxBP, NB3, and now, if 7 PQ4, then 7 . . . NQR4, intending 8 . . . RB1 or 8 . . . PB4 and a subsequent Queenside Pawn storm. For 5 . . . QQ2, see Game 3) 6 00, PQR3 (also good is 6 . . . PB4 7 QxBP, PQR3, after which White obtains but a minimal edge) 7 QxBP, PQN4 8 QB2, BN2 9 PQR4, and White has a slight advantage in space (SmyslovSzily, Budapest 1 9 5 2 ) .
KEY PosiTION 2
747
748
• CHESS OPENINGS
( 4) 4 . . . BK2 5 00, 00 6 PN3 (the plausible 6 QB2 rather favors Black after 6 . . PB4 ! 7 PQ3, NQB 3 ) , PB4 (most natural; for 6 . . PQ5, see Game 4) 7 PxP (at this point it is. wise to anticipate 7 . . . PQ5 ) , NxP ( 7 . . PxP 8 PQ4 transposes into the Tar rasch Defense) 8 BN2, NQB3 9 PQ4 (the artificial 9 NR3 leads to a good game for Black after 9 BB 3 1 0 BxB, NxB, while 9 NB3 offers about even chances) , PQN3 1 0 NB3, NxN 1 1 BxN, BN2 1 2 PxP, BxP. The chances are equal. .
.
.
.
.
.
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 3 AND 4 : 1 NKB3, PQ4 2 PB4, PK3 3 PKN3, NKB3 4 BN2 3 4 
4 
5
PQB4 PxP NxP1
6
00
PQ5 PQN4 ! PB46 BN2 QN37 QN3 NB3 PN5 NQR48 QB2 BQ3 PK39
QNB3 PQ4 NB32 8 NK5 !3 BQ24 9 NxN BxN 1 0 BxBt PxB 1 1 QR45 7
+
+
Notes to practical variations 3 and 4 : 1
5 . . . PxP, leading t o the Tarrasch Defense, i s preferable.
2 7 . . . BK2 8 PxP, BxP 9 QB2 also favors White. 3 8 BK3 is met with 8 . . NKN5 . .
4 8 . . . NxN 9 PxN gives White the advantage.
5 White has a substantial superiority insofar as Pawn formation constitutes a permanent weakness. 6 5 . . . BxP ? 6 QR4t, NB3 7 NK5 gives White ning advantage. 7 6 . . . NB3 is worth trying, but after 7 PN5, White still maintains a strong initiative. 8 After 8 . . NK2 9 PK3, NB4 10 BKR3 !, also has the edge. 9 KotovTaimanov, Zurich 1 9 5 3 . .
Black's a win NK2, White
INDIAN IN REVERSE • 749
Indian in Reverse Game 3 WHITE: Botvinnik BLACK: Gereben Budapest 1952 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
PQB4 NKB3 PKN3 BN2 QR4t QxBP PQN3 PxQ NB3 NQN5 BQR3 N/5Q4 NN3 PQ4
BLACK
PK3 NKB3 PQ4 PxP QQ2 QB3 QxQ QNQ2 BN5 BR4 PQR3 BN3 PB3 PQR4
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
WHITE
BLACK
00
PR5 BQ1 BK2 KxB NQ4 NB6 PB3 NN4 KQ1 PR6 KB2 PB4 NB3 RR3
NB1 NQ3 BxB PB 5 ! N/BK5 BB3 NQB4 PK3 KRB1 BN2 PB4 QRN1 NN6
WHITE
29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42
NN4 RN3 NQ3 NK5 PKR3 KB2 BB3 RKN1 PN4! PxP NxP/4 RxN/4 NB4 NK5
BLACK
RR4 BQ2 RQ1 BK1 PR4 RR3 RR4 PN3 RPxP PxP NxNt BB2 RR5 Resigns
Indian in Reverse Game 4 WHITE: Botvinnik BLACK: Stahlberg Amsterdam 195 4 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
PQB4 PKN3 BN2 NKB3 00
PQN3 PK 3 ! PxP BN2 QxN QK2 NB3 QRQl ! KxB NK4 ! NN5 NB3
BLACK
PK3 PQ4 NKB3 BK2 00
PQ5 NB3 NxP NxNt QRN1 PQN3 BN2 BxB PB3 RN2 NQ2 BB3
WHITE
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
PQ4 ! NQ2 NK4 BxB RxP NQ6 ! QB3 KxQ R/1Q1 KK3 RQ5 NN5 ! RQ7 RxR RQ6 RB6 RB8
BLACK
QB1 PB4 BxP PxB NB4 QB3t QxQt RQ2 PB3 PK4 NK3 RK2 R/1B2 RxR KB2 RQ2 NB4
WHITE
35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
PQN4 ! PB5 ! PB6 PB7 RB8t PB8/Qt QB7t QxNP KB3 QxRP PR4 PR5 PR6 QN7 KN2 PR7
BLACK
NQ6 NxNP RQ4 RxN KxR KK2 KK3 NQ4t RR4 RxP NK2 RQ7 PB4 PK5 t PK6 Resigns
750 • CHESS
OPENINGS
part 3SLAVWI NG SYSTEM 1 NKB3, PQ4 2 PB4, PQB3 3 PQN3A, NB3B 4 PN3
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 3 A A necessary preparation for the fianchetto of the King Bishop, as the Queen Bishop Pawn needs protection. For 3 PQ4, see the Slav Defense. B Preferable to 3 . . . PQ5, which gives White the edge after 4 PK3, PQB4 5 PQN4 ! Because his Queen Bishop has an open diagonal, Black's task here is easier than in the WingOrthodox Defense. He can obtain a satisfaaory game in several ways, the most usual being 4 . . BB4, the New York Variation. Ex cellent alternatives are 4 . . . PKN3 and 4 . . . PK3. .
KEY
POSITION
3
IDEA VARIATIONS 5 AND 6: (5) 4 . . . BB4 5 BKN2, PK3 (more accurate than 5 . . . QNQ2, which is strongly met by 6 PxP ! ) 6 BN2 (after 6 NR4, BK5 7 PB 3 ?, BxN 8 RxB, PKN4!, Black wins a piece) , QNQ2 7 00, PKR3 (not bad, according to recent findings, is 7 . . . BQ3, e.g., 8 PQ3, 00 9 NB3 [for 9 QNQ2, see Game 5 ) , QK2 1 0 RK1, KRQ1 ! 1 1 PKR3, BR6, and Black has almost even chances) 8 PQ3 (8 PQ4 is met most simpl.y by 8 . . BQ3) , BK2 (if 8 . . BB4, then 9 NB 3 ! is best) 9 QNQ2 (9 NB3, serving as a preparation for a later PK4, is not commendable in this position : e.g., 9 . . . 00 10 QB2, BR2 1 1 PK4, PxKP 1 2 PxP, NB4 1 3 QRQ1 , QN3 ! 14 NQ4, PQR4) , 00 1 0 RB 1 , PQR4 1 1 PQR3 (to meet 1 1 . . . PR5 with 1 2 PQN4) , RK1 1 2 RB2, BR2 1 3 QR1 ( Capablanca Lilienthal, Moscow 1 936) . The chances are equal. (6) 4 . . . BB4 (for other moves, see Prac. Var. 5 and 6) 5 BKN2, PK3 6 BN2, QNQ2 7 00, BK2 8 NB3, 00 9 NKR4 (a risky maneuver; steadier is 9 PQ3, which leads into the channels of Idea Var. 5 ) , BKN5 1 0 PKR3, BR4 1 1 PKN4, PQ5 ! 1 2 NN1 , BxP! Black gets two Pawns and fine attacking chances for the piece. See Game 6. .
.
Indian in Reverse Game
5
WHITE: Reti
BLACK: Lasker New York
WHITE
1 NKB3 2 PB4 3 PQN3
1924
BLACK
WHITE
BLACK
PQ4 PQB3 BB4
4 PN3 5 BKN2 6 BN2
NB3 QNQ2 PK3
INDIAN IN REVERSE • 751
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
WHITE
BLACK
00
BQ3
PQ3 QNQ2 PxP RB1 RB2 PQR4 QR1 KRB1 NB1 RxN! NxP NK3 PR3 RxR NB3 ? NQ4 KR2 QR1 NxP
00
PK4 PxP QK2 PQR4 PR3 KRK1 BR2 NB4 BxR QRB1 QK3 BQ3 ? RxR BK2 QQ2 PR4 PR5 PxPt
27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45
WHITE
BLACK
PxP BxN BxP BR6 QN7 PQN4 QN6 QxQt PK3 KN2 PxB BN7 KB3 BB6 BN5 KK3 KB4 BB1 BK3 Resigns
NxN BB3 RB4 BN3 QQ1 RB2 RQ2 RxQ PxP BxN BB4 BK3 BN6 RQ3 RB3t RK3"f RK7 RB7 BQ4
Indian in Reverse Game 6 WHITE: Smyslov BLACK: Bronstein Zurich 1 95 3 WHITE 1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
PQB4 PKN3 NKB3 PN3 BKN2 00
BN2 NB3 NKR4 PKR3 PKN4 NN1 PxB PK4 RxN RB3 RR3 NR3 NB2 RR2 NK3
WHITE
BLACK
NKB3 PB3 PQ4 BB4 PK3 QNQ2 BK2 00
BKN5 BR4 PQ5 BxP ! NxP NxP BxN NK4 BN4 NN3 NBS PQ6 NK7t
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41
KR1 PxP BB3 KN1 BxB QK1 NN4 KN2 QKN1 QQB 1 QB3 PB5 QB4t RR3 KR2 NB2 QQ4t QB4t QeQ4t RKN1
BLACK
PB4 PxP NN6t BB 3 ! QxB PB 5 ? QQ5 t QRK1 QN7 QQ5 QQ3 QN3 KR1 PKR4 QR2 PKN4 KN1 KR1 KN1 Draw
752
• CHESS OPENINGS
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 5 AND 6 : 1 NKB 3, PQ4 2 PB4, PQB3 3 PQN3, NKB3 4 PN3 5
6
4 
PK3 5 BKN2 QNQ2 1
6 00 BQ3
PKN3 BKN2 BN2 BN2
004
5
7 BN2 00 8 PQ4 !2 NK5 9 QNQ2 PKB43 
6
00 QNQ2 PQ35 RK1 QNQ2 PK46 +
Notes to practical variations 5 and 6 :
1 Bronstein's 5 . . . PQR4 merits closer investigation. 2 If 8 PQ3, then 8 . . . PK4 ! 3 Black has a satisfactory game. White's best now is 1 0
NK5 .
4 Equally sufficient is 6 . . . QN3, a s played in Smyslov Szabo, Zurich 1 9 5 3 . 5 Nor d o alternatives offer any advantage. 6 KostichSpielmann, Bled 1 9 3 1 .
pa rt 4WI NG B L U M E N FELD 1 NKB3, PQ4 2 PB4, PQ5 A
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 4 A This system, never popular, may also be called the Benoni in Reverse.
Experience has shown that, although Black cannot easily maintain his Pawn on Q5, the line is not necessarily disadvantageous for him if he plays accurately. He must strive particularly for . . . PK4, keeping White's poten tially dangerous center Pawn maj ority at bay.
KEY PosiTION 4
IDEA VARIATIONS 7 AND 8 : ( 7 ) 3 PK3 (much weaker i s 3 PQN4, which i s met by 3 . . . PKB3 ! ; see Prac. Var. 7 ) , NQB 3 ! (the alter native lines, 3 . . . PxP 4 BPxP and 3 . . . PQB4 4 PQN4 ! [Blumenfeld], both yield White a substantial advantage) 4 PxP (now 4 PQN4 is weak, e.g., 4 . . . PxP 5 BPxP, NxP 6 PQ4, PK4 ! 7 PQR3, NQB 3 ! 8 PQ5, PK5 ! ) , NxP 5 NxN, QxN 6 NB3, PK4 (an other possibility is 6 . . . NB 3 7 PQ3, PK4 ! 8 BK3, QQ1 9 BK2, and White stands but slightly better ; for 6 . . . BN5, see Game 7) 7 PQ3, BQB4 8 BK3, QQ3 9 NN5 (if 9 NK4, then 9 . . . BN5 t ) , QK2 10 BxB, QxB 1 1 PQ4, PxP 1 2 QxP, QxQ 1 3 NxQ, BN5 1 4 PB3 (after 14 NN5, 000 1 5 NxP t , KN1 1 6 NN5, NB3, Black has the edge ) , 000 1 5 000,
INDIAN IN REVERSE •
753
BQ2 (KatetovAlekhine, Prague 1 94 3 ) with equality. ( 8 ) 3 PK3, NQB3 4 PxP, NxP 5 NxN, QxN 6 NB 3, PK4 7 PQ3, PQB3 (most likely the simplest way to obtain equality) 8 BK3, QQ3 (Flohr's move ; Black aims for . . . NKR3 followed by . . . NKB4 ) 9 'PQ4 ( after 9 BK2, NR 3 ! Black stands well) , PxP 1 0 QxP (if 1 0 BxP, then 1 0 . . . BB4 followed by . . . 000) , QxQ 1 1 BxQ, BK3 with equality.
Indian in Reverse Game 7 WHITE:
Keres
BLACK:
Euwe
Norway 1938 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14
NKB3 PB4 PK3 PxP NxN NB3 QR4 t PQ3 BK3 PQ4 PB3 000 PKN4 ! PKR4 !
BLACK
PQ4 PQ5 NQB3 NxP QxN BN5 PB3 NB3 QQ2 PK3 BKB4 BQ3 BN3 PKR4
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
WHITE
B LACK
PN5 PB5 PQ5 ! PxBP QxQ RQ7 BR6 RB7 BN7 BxP BxR BQ7 PB6 PN3
NR2 BK2 00 QxP PxQ KRK1 PK4 NB 1 QRN1 NK3 NxR PR4 RN5 PB3
PRACTICAL VARIATION 7 : 1 NKB3, PQ4 2 PB4, PQ5
7 3 PQN4 PKB3 P 4 PK3 2 PK4 5 PxP PKW
7 6 QK2 QK2 7 NN1 NB 3 8 QK3 NxNP4
Notes to practical variation
7:
1 The only good reply.
For 3 . . . PKN3, see Game. 8 . Black also has the better chances after 4 BN2, PK4 5 PQR3, PQB4 6 PxP, BxP. 3 The point of the defense. 4 LokvencAddicks, Prague 1 9 3 1 . 2
29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41
WHITE
BLACK
KN2 PxP RQ1 RQ2 PB4 ! PxP PR3 KxB PK6 KQ4 BB2 KQ5 KB5
PxP BB2 RKR5 RR8 BN5 BN3 BxNt PKR5 RK8 KB1 NxPt NB2 t Resigns
754 • CHESS OPENINGS
Indian in Reverse Game 8 WHITE: Euwe BLACK: Alekhine Bth Match Game 1 936 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
NKB3 PB4 PQN4 PK3 ! PN5 PxP PQ3 PN3 QNQ2 NN3 NxN BKN2 00 PQR4 RK1 BQR3 PB5 NN5 NK4 QQ2 PN6
BLACK
PQ4 PQ5 PKN3 PQR4 PQB4 BN2 PxP NQ2 NB4 QN3? QxN NR3 00 RK1 BB4 QB2 QRQ1 BB3 BN2 NN5 QB 1
WHITE
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42
PB6! QxP QQ2 PR5 NB 5 ! BxN BxKP BB 1 ! RR3 PN7 PR6 PxB (Q) BN2 BB5 QxR PR7 QK4 RxP QxBP BB1 BxR
BLACK
PxP NK4 QR3 NxP NxN QN4 RQB 1 QN6 QQ4 RNl BQB 1 QRxQ QQ2 RxRt PR4 RR1 PQ6 QN2 QN8 t RxP Resigns
pa rt 5KI NG'S I N DIAN I N R EVERSE
1 NKB3, PQ4 2 PKN3A, NKB 3B 3 BN2
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 5 A Sometimes called the Barcza System. B Needless to say, in this position as in reply to White's
second move, Black has numerous satisfactory choices at his dis posal. One interesting possibility is 2 . . . PB4 which can be come a Grunfeld in reverse : 3 BN2, NQB3 4 PQ4, NKB3 5 oo, PK3 6 PB4, QPxP 7 QR4, NQ2 ! with equality.
This position frequently occurs in today's tournament play. Black's most important lines of defense are those with 3 . . . PKN3 and 3 . . . BB4. Acting with appro priate care, Black certainly has sufficient counterplay in both these variations. K EY
PosiTION
5
IDEA VARIATIONS 9 AND 1 0 : ( 9 ) 3 . . . BB4 (for the more passive 3 . . . PK3,
INDIAN I N REVERSE • 755
see Prac. Var. 8 ) 4 00, PK3 (too ambitious is 4 . . . QNQ2 ; SmyslovEuwe, Zurich 1 9 5 3 , continued 5 PQ3, PB3 6 QNQ2, PKR3 7 PK4, PxP 8 PxP, NxP 9 NQ4 with fine prospects for White ) 5 PQ3, PB3 (after 5 . . . PKR3 6 QNQ2 , BB4 7 QK1 , 00 8 PK4, White has a clear edge) 6 QNQ2, NR3 (an idea of Smyslov's : Black intends to answer 7 QK1 with 7 . . . NQN5 ) 7 PQR3, BK2 with equality. See Gal!le 9. ( 1 0 ) 3 . . . PKN3 4 00, BN2 5 PQ3, 00 6 QNQ2, PB4 (for 6 . . . NB3, see Prac. Var. 9 ) 7 PK4, PK3 8 RK 1 , NB 3 9 PxP (more enterprising is 9 PB 3, perhaps later followed by PK5 ) , NxP (9 . . . PxP is effectively met by 1 0 PQ4 and, if 1 0 . . . PxP, then 1 1 NN3 ) 1 0 NB4, QB2 1 1 PQR4, RQ1 1 2 QK2, NQ5 , and Black has good chances for equality. For the inferior 1 2 . . PN3, see Game 1 0 . .
Indian i n Reverse Game WHITE: Zvetkov Amsterdam WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
NKB3 PKN3 BN2 00 PQ3 QNQ2 PQR3 QK1 NQ4 N/4N3 PK4 NxN NN3 BK3 QK2 KRK1 PQR4 QxB NB5 NxN QB5 QN4 KRQ1 BB3
1 954
BLACK
NKB3 PQ4 PB3 BB4 PK3 NR3 BK2 NB4 BN3 N/3Q2 00 BxN BN3 RK1 PB 3 QB2 BxB BB2 PK4 QxN PQN3 QRB 1 QRQ1 BK3
9 BLACK: Smyslov
WHITE
25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48
BK2 QK1 PKB3 QB2 PN3 PxBP BB 1 QN2 RK1 QK2 BN2 QK3 QRQ1 RQ2 R/2K2 QQ2 QK3 QQ2 QB 1 QQ2 BR3 RKB 1 R/2B2 BN2
B LACK
PQB4 QB3 RQ3 R/1Q1 PB4 BxP RB3 R/1KB 1 QQ3 RK1 BN3 PKR3 KR2 R/3K3 BB4 R/3K2 PQ5 PKN4 KN2 BN3 QB3 BB2 BQ4 Draw
756 •
CHESS OPENINGS
Indian in Reverse Game 1 0 WHITE: Reshevsky BLACK: Sherwin New York 1 955 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
NKB3 PKN3 BN2 00 PQ3 QNQ2 PK4 RK1 PxP NB4 PQR4 QK2 PB3 N/3K5 NxN
BLACK
NKB 3 PKN3 BN2 00 PQ4 PB4 PK3 NB3 NxP QB2 RQ1 PN3 PKR3 NxN BN2
WHITE
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
BLACK
PR5 ! NxBP! QxPt BB4 ! BxB BQ6 QxR RR4 ! RJ4K4 R/1 K3 ! RB3 t QQ 7 RxN RxBt
NK2 ? KxN KB 1 QQ2 QxB RxB RK1 PKN4 PxP QN3 KN1 RKB 1 RxR Resigns
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 8 AND 9 : 1 NKB 3, PQ4 2 PKN3, NKB3 3 BN2
8 3 
9

PK3 4 00 BK2 5 PQ3 00 6 QNQ2 PQN3 P
PKN3 00 BN2 PQ3 00 QNQ2 NB 3
8 7 PK4 PxP 8 NN5 BN2 9 Nj2xP NxN J O NxN QB 1 2
9 PK43 PxP PxP PK4 RK1 QK24 +
+
Notes to practical variations 8 and 9 :
1 Stronger than 6 . . . PB4, as played i n Petrosian Barcza, Budapest 1 9 5 2 : 7 PK4, NB3 8 RK 1 , PQN3 9 PK5 , NQ2 10 NB 1 , BR3 1 1 PKR4, QK 1 12 BR3 ! 2 TaimanovEliskases, Saltsjobaden 1 9 5 2 . 3 I f 7 PB3 , then 7 . . PK4 ! and Black has t h e initiative ( PhillipsUnzicker, Hastings 1 9 54 ) . 4 BotvinnikQ'Kelly, Budapest 1 9 5 2 . .
I NDIAN I N REVERSE • 757
SUPPLEMENTARY VARIATIONS 14 : 1 NKB 3, PQ4
1
2 PQN34 NKB 35 BN2 PB46 PK3 PKN 37 PB48 PxP PxP' BN2 BK2 00 00 NB 3
2 PB4 NKB31 3 PxP QxP2 4 NB3 QQR4 5 PQ4 PB 3 6 BQ2 QB2 7 RB 1 PK33 8 PKN3 ! BK2 9 BN2
3
PK3 PK3 QNQ2 PB4 PB3 BK2 BQ3 1 o 
4 PQN4 1 1 NKB 312 BN2 PK313 PQR 3 PQR4 PN5 PB4 PxP e.p. PxP 
00 1 0 00 QNQ2 1 1 PK4 +
Notes to supplementary t'ariations 1 4 :
1 Both gratuitous and unsatisfactory. 2 3 . . . NxP leads to the Knight's Defense of the Queen's Gambit. 3 Or 7 . . BB4. • This is the Queen's Indian in reverse, a favorite of Nim zowitsch's. 5 2 . . . PKB3 is weak because of 3 PQ4 ! Bogolj ubov's 3 . . . BN5 is also good. If 4 . . . NB3, then 5 BN 5 ! • 5 BN 5 t is best met by 5 . . . BQ2 ! 9 To set up a center Pawn majority. 1 0 7 PQ4 leads to a kind of SemiMeran. 11 Known as "Santasiere's Folly." 1 2 Reasonable is 2 . . . BB4, or 2 . . . PK3 3 PQR3, BQ3 followed by . . . NQ2 and . . . PK4. The same program may serve also after 2 . . . BB4. White's PQN4 and PQR3 do little to further White's game. 1 3 3 . . . PKN3 is a worthwhile alternative. .
758 • CHESS OPENINGS
cha pter 41  Reti System In this section are treated all independent openings arising from 1 NKB3, NKB3 2 PB4. A very dose kinship, however, exists between these variations and those arising from 1 NKB3, PQ4 and, owing to the numerous possibilities for transposition from one to the other, it is quite difficult to separate the two.
pa rt ! SYM M ETRICAL VAR IATION
1 NKB3, NKB3
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION
2 PB4, PB4
A The best chance for maintaining the initiative. After 3 PKN3, PKN3 4 BN2, BN2 5 0o, 0o 6 NB3 , Black can almost equalize with 6 . . PQ4 ! B Also playable is 3 . . . PK3 which leads to the Benoni
3 PQ4A, PxPB 4 NxP
1
.
Defense after 4 PQ5.
Black must now aim to restore the balance in the center by means of . . P Q4 He may either prepare this ad vance with 4 . . . PK3 or play it directly at the crucial moment. Both methods offer Black chances for equality. .

IDEA VARIATIONS
KEY
POSITION
1
.
1
AND 2 :
( 1 ) 4 . . . PK3 ( an immediate 4 . . . PQ4 is pre mature, e.g., 5 PxP, NxP 6 PK4 + ) 5 NQB 3 (after 5 PKN3, PQ4 6 BN2, PK4 Black has nothing to fear) , BN5 6 NN5 ! (this move, Naj dorf's innovation, is White's best chance) P�Q4 (consistent, but probably in ferior to 6 . . . 00) 7 BB4, NR3 8 PK3, 00 9 PQR3 + . For 6 BQ2 instead of Naj dorf's 6 NN5 ! , see Prac. Var. 1 . 6 QN3, NR3 7 PK3, NK5 ! 8 BK2, QR4 favors Black. See Game 1 . ( 2 ) 4 . . . PKN3 (for 4 . . . NB 3, see Prac. Var. 2 ) 5 NQB 3 ( 4 PB3, PQ4 offers White little promise ) , PQ4 ! (this advance is always plausible when White has played NQB 3 ; compare the Grunfeld Defense ) 6 PxP, NxP 7 N/4N5, NxN 8 QxQt, KxQ 9 NxN, BN2 1 0 BQ2, BK3 and Black has almost achieved equality.
RETI S YSTEM • 759
Reti System Game 1 WHITE: Boleslavski Zurich 195 3 BLACK
WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
P Q4 PQB4 NKB 3 NB3 NxP QN3 PK3 BK2 00 QB2 PxB QxQ BB3 NN3 BR3 NR5 KRB1 QRN1 RxPt NxN BxR BB6
NKB3 PK3 PB4 PxP BN5 NR3 NK5 QR4 N/3B4 BxN QxBP NxQ KK2 N/6R5 PQ3 PK4 QRN1 BB4! NxR RxN ! RQN1 NB4
BLACK: Szabo
WHITE
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42
PB3 BxN BQ5 RB 3 RN3 RN7 BxP RN1 BQ5 RQ1 RxBt PR4 RxP RK6t RK7t RK6t RK8 RR8t KR2 RN8 t Resigns
BLACK
RN3 PxB RN7 RxP BQ2 KQ3 BB3 PQR4 BxB PR5 KB3 RQB7 PR6 KN2 KN3 KR4 PR7 KN5 KN6 KxP
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 1 AND 2 : 1 NKB3, NKB 3 ; 2 PB4, PB4 3 PQ4, PxP 4 NxP 2
1
4 PK3 5 NQB3 BN 5 6 BQ2
1
PK3 NB 3 8 BK2 1 P Q4 9 PxP PxP2 7

00
NB3 NQB3 PK33 PKN 3 BN 5

+
. Notes t{} practkal variations 1 and
1
2
NN3 BK2 BN 2
00
00 PQ 34 
i:
NB2 is probably a little stronger ( TaimanovPachman, Sockholm 1 9 5 2 ) . 2 Black has the initiative. 3 5 . . . PKN3 6 PK4 transposes into the Sicilian Defense. 5 . PQ4 6 PxP, NxP 7 N/4xN slightly favors White. 4 White's best now is 10 NQ2. .
8
.
760 • CHESS OPENINGS
pa rt 2
1 2 3 4
NKB3, NKB 3 PB4, PQN3 PKN3'\ BN2 BN2
KEY
POSITION
2
Q UEEN'S I N DIAN DEFENSIVE M ETHOD
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 2 A
For 3 PQ3 , see Game 2 .
As early as here Black faces an important decision. He can play 4 . . . PK4 because of the pin on White's King Knight, or the more routine 4 . . . PK3 which often leads to the Queen's Indian Defense. Both methods seem quite adequate, although extensive analysis has not yet been lavished on many of the resulting positions. IDEA VARIATIONS 3 AND 4 : ( 3 ) 4 . . . PK3 5 00, BK2 6 NB3, 00 ( 6 . . . PB4 is dubious ; see Prac. Var. 4 ) 7 PQ3, PQ4 (best; if instead 7 . . . PB4 then 8 PK4 ! + [RetiGrunfeld, Semmering 1926] ) 8 NK5, QNQ2 with a satisfactory game for Black. In the foregoing 7 PQ3 is passive as against the more dynamic 7 PQ4 ; see the Queen's Indian Knight Game. The text move gives the opening its independent signifi cance. (4) 4 . . . PK4 (also worthwhile is 4 . . . PB4; see Prac. Var. 3 ) 5 NB3, BN5 6 QN3 (to prevent a weak ening of the Pawn formation ; after 6 00, KBxN ! 7 NPxB, PQ3 8 PQ4, PK5 Black, according to Alek hine, has the edge) , PQR4 7 PQR3 and White's advan tage is minimal. PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 3 AND 4 : 1 NKB3, NKB 3 2 PB4, PQN3 3 PKN3, BN2 4 BN2 3 4 PB4
4

5 00 PN3 6 NB3 BN2 7 PQ3 1 00 2
PK3 00 BK2 NB3 PB4 PQ4 !3 PxP4
8 9 10
3 
4 NxP BxB KxB PQ4 QR4t !5 +
1 Better is 7 PQ4 transposing into the Queen's Indian. 2
PircKiein, Hastings 1 9 3 8 . The continuations 7 PQ3, PQ4 ! anc 7 PN3 , PQ4 ! are comfortable for Black. 4 White threatened 8 PQ5 . 5 White's prospects are good.
3 The best chance.
RET/ S YSTEM • 76 1
Reti System Game 2 Reshevsky BLACK: Keres The Hague 1948 B LACK WHITE WHITE BLACK 22 BQ2 NKB3 NKB3 PB4 2 3 BN5 PQN3 RKl PB4 24 PR3 PN3 PxP? PQ3 25 NxP/4 PQ3 BxN PK4 26 QxB BKN2 NB 3 NB 3 27 QK3 N/lQ2 00 PQ4 28 QN3 RNl BN2 BK2 29 BK3 NB4 PK4 QB2 30 QB2 RRl PxP PxP 3 1 NN5 RK1 RK1 BK3 PK5 32 PR4 QNQ2 00 RQ 1 3 3 NR3 PB3 KRQ1 RQ3 34 NB4 QK2 PQN4 PKN4 3 5 PR5 ! NB 1 QRN1 NxN 36 NQ5 QB2 PQR4 PR3 37 PxN KRQ1 PN5 PxB 38 BxN RxR RxR BQ5 ? 39 QxKP NN5 PR5 KN2 4o QK8t RPxP RPxP Resigns 41 RN8 PB 3 BN5 BxP PxP
WHITE:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
pa rt 3KI NG'S I N DIAN DEFENSIVE
M ETHOD OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 3 With his last move, Black adopts the King's Indian setup, and unless White proceeds with PQ4, the first player abandons all hope for an opening advantage. As is demonstrated in this section, Black has no difficulties whatsoever against other lines of play. IDEA VARIATIONS 5 AND 6 : ( 5 ) 3 PQN3, BN2 4 BN2, 00 5 PN3, PQ3 (or 5 . . . PB 3 6 BN2, PQ4=; worth trying is 5 . . . PB4 ) 6 BN2, NB 3 7 00, PK4 8 PQ3 (now 8 PQ4 is questionable, e.g., 8 . . . PK5 ! 9 KNQ2, PK6 1 0 PxP, NKN5 r ) , BQ2 ! (better than 8 . . . NKR4 which leads only to equality after 9 NB3, PB4 1 0
1 NKB3, NKB3 2 PB4, PKN3
KEY POSITION 3
762 • CHESS
OPENINGS
PK3 ) 9 NB 3 (9 PKR3 ; is powerfully met by 9 . . . QB 1 , and if 1 0 KR2 then 1 0 . . . PK5 ! t ; or if 1 0 PKN4 then 1 0 . . . PKR4 ! + ) , QB1 1 0 RK1 , BR6 1 1 BR 1 , PKR3 and Black has a good game. (6) 3 PQN4 (Reti's innovation ) BN2 (Pachman recommends 3 . . . PQR4, but his analysis is not con vincing; White must proceed 4 PN5, BN2 5 BN2, PQ3 6 PKN3 ! ) 4 BN2, 00 5 PN3, PN3 (after 5 . . . PQ4 6 PxP White has a slight advantage in space ) 6 BN2, BN2 7 00, PQ3 8 PQ3, QNQ2 9 QN Q2, PK4 1 0 QB2, KRK1=. See Game 3 .
WHITE: Reti WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
NKB3 PB4 PQN4 BN2 PN3 BN2 00 PQ3 QNQ2 QB2 KRQ1 PQR3 NB1 PN5 PK3 PQ4
Reti System Game 3 BLACK: Capablanca New York 1 924 BLACK
NKB3 PKN 3 BN2 00 PN 3 BN2 PQ3 QNQ2 PK4 RK1 PQR4 PR3 PB4 ! NB 1 QB2 BK5
WHITE
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
QB 3 ? KPxP QQ2 ! BxP BxB QN2 t ! RxP R/1Q1 NK3 NQ4 ! KxB NB4 NB6 NK3 R/1Q5 !
PRACTICAL VARIATION 5 : 1 NKB 3, NKB3 2 PB4, PKN3 5
PKN3 BN2 4 BN2 PB3 1 5 PN3 2 NK 5 6 PQ4 QR4t 3 3
BLACK
KPxP N/ 3Q2 ? PxP QxP KxB KN1 QB4 RR2 QR4 BxB QK4? QQB4 RB2 NK4 Resigns
RETI S YS TEM • 763
Notes to practical variation 5 : 1
Most simple, but 4 . . . PQ3 is also good, e.g., 5 oo,
0o 6 NB 3, QNQ2 7 PQ3, PB4=.
2 Questionable. 3
Better is 5 PQ4. Black already holds the initiative.
SUPPLEMENTARY VARIATIONS 13 : 1 NKB3 1 1 NKB3 2 PB4 PQ3 3 PKN3 PK4 4 BN2 1 PB3 5 PQ3 BK2 6 QNQ2 00 7 00 QNQ2 8 PN3 QB2 9 BN2 RK1 1 0 QB2 2
2

BN53 BN2 PB3 PQ3 PK4 QNQ2 QNQ2 PN3 BK2 BN2 00 004
3
PKB4 PK45 PxP NN5 NKB 36 PQ3 PQ4 ! PxP PKR3 NKB3 PxP7 QxQt KxQ NK5 BK38 
+
+
Notes to supplementary variations 1 3 :
1 4 PN3 i s inferior. After 4 . . . PK5 5 NR4, PQ4 6 PxP, NxP Black has the edge.
2 RetiHromadka, Mahrischostrau 1 9 2 3 .
3 For 3 . BB4, see Game 4. 4 White has a minimal advantage. 5 Other moves lead to the Dutch Defense, or unusual forms .
.
of the Indian in reverse. 6 For 3 . . . PK4, see Game 5 . 7 I f 6 . . NxP?, then 7 NK5 ! ± . 8 White's compensation i s i n Black's broken Pawn structure and Black's inability to castle. .
764 • C H E S S OPENI N G S
Reti System Game 4
WHITE: Rett
BLACK: Gruber Vien na 1 92 3
WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
WHITE
B LACK
NKB3 PB4 PKN3 BN2 PN3 PKR3 BN2 NB 3 PQ3 QQ2 NQ1 NK3 00 NR2
NKB3 PQ3 BB4 PB 3 QB 1 PK4 NR3 PR3 BK2 NB2 00 BR2 NQ2 NK3
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
B LACK
PB4 PxP KR1 RKN1 ! BKB 3 NQ5 ! PxN PxN! QB 3 QQ2 RN2 R/1KN1 PQ4 PQ5
PxP PKB4 NB3 NR4 Nj4xP NxN BN4. QxP BB 3 KR1 RB2 BK4 BB3 Resigns
Reti System Game 5 WHITE:
Robatsch
BLACK: Larsen Moscow 1 95 6
WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
NKB3 PK4 NN5 PQ3 BxP QR5 t QB3 QN3 NQB 3 N/5K4
BLACK
PKB4 PxP PK4 PK6 ! NQB 3 PN3 QB 3 KNK2 PKR3 QB2
WHITE
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
NQN5 QB 3 NB6t NxPt NxR PxP QQ1 PxN KB2 Resigns
B LACK
NB4 PQ4 QxN KQ 1 PK5 QxP Nx B QB6t BQB4
RETI S YSTEM • 765
c h a pter 42 Sici l ia n Attack The Sicilian Attack or Sicilian in reverse, as it is some times called, arises when Black answers 1 PQB4 with 1 . . . PK4. This opening occurs rather frequently in modern tournament play, and in many variations offers White good chances for maintaining the initiative. The late German master, Carl Carls of Bremen, was a great expert in handling this debut. Hence the opening is also known as the Bremen System. Nimzowitsch and Reti, who were fond of 1 PQB4, also contributed greatly to the development of this open ing. And Botvinnik, its latterday exponent, handles the Sicilian Attack with particular skill and refinement. The most recent systems of the Sicilian Defense the Naj dorf and the Boleslavski  have yet to be investi gated in so far as their adaptability to an attacking system is concerned. In this area there is much room for experi ment.
pa rt
I FOU R KNIGHTS' GAM E
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 1 A
Some interesting transpositions are possible. 3 . . . PQ3 4 PQ4, QNQ2 5 PK4, PKN3 , for example, is a King's Indian.
1 PQB4, PK4 2 NQB 3, NKB 3 3 NB 3, NB 3A
White now has two main lines at his disposal. He can assume a temporizing attitude and proceed after . . . PQ4 in the steps of the ordinary Sicilian, or he can aim to seize the initiative by means of PQ4 himself. The latter method is the most usual, although it cannot be said with certainty that it deserves the preference  most likely it is a matter of taste. IDEA VARIATIONS 1 AND 2 : ( 1 ) 4 PQR3 (as in many variations of the Sicilian Defense, a very useful temporizing move) , PQ4 (nat urally, neither 4 . . . PQ3 nor 4 . . . BK2 is bad, but these continuations have little independent value ) 5 PxP, ( 5 PQ4 is a curiou s alternative best met by 5 . . . PxQP ) NxP 6 PQ3 (the Dragon setup 6 PKN 3 is inconsistent
KEY
PosiTION
1
766 • CHESS OPENINGS
with 4 PQR3, while 6 PK3, NxN 7 NPxN, PK5 8 NQ4, NK4 leads to an approximately even game; worth trying, though, is 6 PK4 leading to completely unexplored territory) , BK2 7 PK3 (White has achieved the Scheven. ingen Variation of the Sicilian Defense a tempo to the good; his chances for obtaining an advantage, however, are slim ) . ( 2 ) 4 PQ4, PxP 5 NxP, BN5 ( 5 . . . BB4 is probably not as bad as its reputation ; in fact after 6 NxN, NPxN 7 PKN3 , PKR4 ! Black ha s good counterchances ) 6 BN5 (after 6 PKN3, NK5 ! or 6 NB2, BxNt 7 PxB, PQ4 Black has no further difficulties) , PKR3 (6 . . . BxNt is also good, followed by 7 . . PKR3, and if then 7 . . . NK4 8 PB4 ! ; see Game 2 ) 7 BR4, BxNt (also playable is 7 . . . PQ3 8 PK3, QK2 9 BK2, PKN4 ) 8 PxB, PQ3 (8 . . . NK4 is dangerous because of 9 PB4 ! ) 9 PB 3, 00 10 PK4, NK4 1 1 BK2, NN3 12 BB2, NQ2 1 3 QQ2, NN3 14 NN3, BK3= (BotvinnikPirc, Moscow 1 9 3 5 ) . 4 . . . PK5, the socalled Bradley Beach Variation, never became popular. One possible continuation is 5 NQ2, NxP 6 N/2xP, NK3 7 PKN3, NxN 8 NxN, BN5 t ! 9 BQ2, BxB t 1 0 QxB, 00 1 1 NB3 with a slightly more comfortable game for White. For 5 . . . BN5 in this line, see Game 1 . .
Sicilian Attack Game 1 WHITE: Botvinnik
BLACK: Ragosin Match 1940
WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
PQB4 NQB3 NB 3 PQ4 NQ2 PK3 BK2 00 PxB PB 3 ! BxP ! NN3 ! BN5 QQ2 ! QRK1 BxN
WHITE
BLACK
PK4 NKB3 NB 3 PK5 BN5 00 RK1 BxN PQ3 PxP RxP RK1 NK2 PB3 BB4 PxB
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
PKR4 ! PxP BQ1 ! RxP QKB2 RxR! PR5 ! QN3t RB 1 t QB4 BB2 QR6 BxB RxPt RN5 RN7t
BLACK
PQ4 PxP BK5 NN3 RK3 PxR NB 1 KB2 BB4 NQ2 QQN1 QKN1 Px B KK2 QK3 Resigns
SICILIAN ATTACK • 767
WHITE:
BLACK
WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11
Sicilian Attack Game 2 Kottnauer Groningen 1 946
PK4 NKB3 NB3 PxP BN5 BxNt NK4 NN3 PKR3 QxB 00
PQB4 NQB3 NB 3 PQ4 NxP BN5 PxB PB4 ! PN3 BxN BN2
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
WHITE
BLACK
00 QRN1 QQ2 PK4 KRK1 NB5 BPxP PxP? RxR RK8 t QK1
PQ3 PB3 RK1 NB 1 NQ2? PQ4 PxP RxRt QxN NB 1 QB3
BLACK: Euwe WHITE
23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
QK3 BR3 RxR KB2 KK1 KQ2 QxP KK3 KQ4 Resigns
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 13 : 1 PQB4, PK4 2 NQB 3, NKB 3 3 NB 3, NB 3
4 5
6 7 B
9 10 11 12 13
1 PK3 PQ41 PxP NxP BN5 NxN NPxN BQ3!2 PQ4 BQ2 PK4 PxP PxP BN5 t BQ2 BxBt QxB 00 003
2 PK4 BN5 !4 PQ3 PQ3 PKN35 BQB4 PKR36 BK3 BN2 PKR3 PR3 PQR47 
3 PKN3 PKN38 BN2 BN2 PQ4 PxP NxP 00 00 RK1 PK3 NK4 PN39 +
+
Notes to practical variations 1 3 :
1 Well worth consideration is 4 . . . BN5, e.g., 5 NQ5, PK5 ! 6 NxB, NxN ! and Black stands well . 2 7 . . PK5 is a n alternative. 3 White has a slight superiority in the center. 4 4 . . . BB4 5 NxP ' is promising for White. .
continued
�
BLACK
QQ3 BxB QxP QxP t QN8 t BN5 QQ8 t QK7t KR2
768 • CHESS
OPENINGS 5 6 BK2 is simple, but White cannot then hope for more than equality. 6 7 BN2, NKN5 8 0o, PB4 rather favors Black ( NimzowitschMieses, Hanover 192 6 ) . 7 The game is even, but certainly not drawish. 4 . . . • 4 . . . PQ4 leads to variations treated in Part 2. BK2 5 PQ4 ! is good for White. 9 White's domination of his Q5 plus the sweep of his King Bishop are in his favor.
pa rt 2DRAGON SYSTEM
1 2 3 4 5
PQB4, PK4 NQB3, NKB3 PKN3, PQ4A PxP, NxP BN2, NN3B
KEY
POSITION
1
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 2 A Keres strongly favors 3 . . . PB3 . Then 4 NB3 !,
PK5 5 NQ4, PQ4 6 PxP, PxP 7 PQ3 leads to a difficult game with about equal chances. B Best. After both 5 . . . NxN 6 NPxN, PB3 7 NB3 and 5 . . . BK3 6 NB3, NQB3 7 00 White has the edge. For 5 . . . NK2, see Game 3 .
White enj oys a slight lead in development while Black holds some superiority in the center. There are two im portant lines emerging from this key position. The classi cal method continues with 6 NB3 , leading to a normal Dragon Variation with colors reversed. In recent years White has also experimented with the Simagin system in reverse, consisting of 6 PQ3 followed by 7 NR3 and 8 PB4. Neither system offers White any definite ad vantage by force, but there is much room for Black to go wrong. IDEA VARIATIONS 3 AND 4 : ( 3 ) 6 PQ3, BK2 7 NR3, BKB4 (best; for 7 . . . NB3, see Game 4 ) 8 PB4 (the point of White's maneu vering) , QQ2 9 NB2, NB 3 10 00. There is very little overtheboard experience with this position, but the chances appear about balanced. (4) 6 NB3, NB 3 7 00, BK2 8 PQ3, 00 9 BK3, PB4 1 0 QB 1 (as in analogous positions of the ordinary Dragon, White can also play 1 0 NQR4 or 1 0 PQN4 to advantage ) , BB3 1 1 BB 5 and White has a slight edge. In the Chess Olympics at Moscow 1 9 5 6, Botvinnik un veiled 8 PQR3 against Benkner. Black's best reply then is 8 . . . PQR4. Another possibility for White is 8 PQR4. See Prac. Var. 5 .
SICILIAN ATTACK • 769
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 46 : 1 PQB4, PK4 2 NQB 3, NKB 3 3 PKN3, PQ4 4 PxP, NxP 5 BN2, NN3 4 6 NR3 BKB4 ! 7 00 1 QQ2 B NKN5 BK2 9 PQ3 NB 3 2 10
5 NB 3 NB3 00 BK2 PQR4 PQR4 ! PQ3 00! BK3 PB43
6
PQ3 BK3 BK34 00 !5 NK4 PB4

Notes to practical variations 46 :
1 7 PB4 is unsatisfactory now because of 7 . . . BxN 8 BxB, PxP=t=. 2 Owing to his lead in development, Black stands well. 3 Black' s position is slightly more comfortable than in Idea Var. 4. 4 Not 9 NK4, PB4 ! 10 N/4N5 , BN 1 ! + · QQ2 ? 1 0 PQ4 ! favors White. 5 9 .
.
.
Sicilian Attack Game 3 WHITE: Olafsson BLACK: Duckstei1z Wageningen 195 7 WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
PQB4 NQB3 PKN3 PxP BN2 NB3 00 PQN4 ! BN2 NK4 PQR3 QB2
B LACK
PK4 NKB3 PQ4 NxP NK2 QNB3 NB4 PQR3 BK3 PB3 QQ2 000?
WHITE
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
KRB 1 BxN QN2 PK3 QRN 1 NBS PxB NQ4 QN6 BR3 BxQ BxP
B LACK
Nj4Q5 PxB PQ6 KN1 NR2 BxN PB3 BB2 KR1 NB 1 NxQ Resigns
7 70 • CHESS OPENINGS
Sicilian Attack Game 4 WHITE: Uhlmann
BLACK: Hdnnir1en Wageningen 1 95 7
WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
BLACK
PQB4 NQB 3 PKN3 PxP BN2 PQ3 NR3 00 PB4
PK4 NKB3 PQ4 NxP NN3 BK2 NB 3 BK3 QQ2
WHITE
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
NB2 BxP QRB l BQ2 PK4 ! PxBP PxB RxP BxNt
pa rt
1 PQB4, PK4 2 NQB 3, NQB 3 3 PKN3A
WHITE
B LACK
PxP PB4 PN4 ! ? PKR4 PR5 PxP? PxNt QQ3 QxB
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
NK4 RxP RxB t BxP QB 3 QB7t RB 2 t QN3t NB5 t
BLACK
QxP QK4 QxR QK4 KQ2 KB 3 KN4 KR3 Resigns
3V I E N NA DEFENSE
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 3 A 3 NB3 is also possible of course. then 3 . . . NB 3, transposing into Part 1 .
Black's safest reply is
White's last move i s motivated by his desire t o domi. nate Q5, Black's control of which has been considerably decreased by 2 . . . NQB 3. The fact gives the ensuing struggle its salient character. White usually proceeds with KNK2, keeping the diagonal of his King Bishop open. If White then succeeds in achieving PQ4 with impunity, the scales become heavily tipped in his favor.
KEY
POSITION
3
IDEA VARIATIONS 5 AND 6 : ( 5 ) 3 . . . PKN3 (most usual ) 4 BN2, BN2 5 PK3 (for other ideas in treating this type of position, refer to the Closed Variation of the Sicilian Defense ) , PQ3 6 KNK2, KNK2 7 PQ4 ! (without this advance, White achieves little ; after 7 PQ3, 00 8 00, BB4 9 NQ5, RN1 the chances are approximately even ) , PxP 8 PxP, 00 9 00, BN5 (for 9 . . . NB4, see Game 5 ) , 1 0 PKR3, BxN 1 1 NxB and White has the edge. (6) 3 . . . PB4 (interesting, but not quite satisfactory) 4 BN2, NB 3 5 PK3, BK2 ( 5 . . . PKN3 is a worth while alternative) 6 KNK2 ! + (6 PQ4 is premature; after 6 . . . PK5 7 PB3, 00 8 PxP, PxP 9 NxP, NxN 1 0 BxN, BN5 t 1 1 BQ2, White's game is endangered by 1 1 . . . QK2 ! ) .
SICILIAN ATTACK • 771
Sicilian Attack Game 5 WHITE: Botvinnik
BLACK: ReJhevJky A VRO 1938
WHITE
1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8
PQB4 NQB3 PKN3 BN2 PK3 KNK2 PQ4 PxP
9 00
10 11 12 13
PQS PN3 BN2 PQR3
BLACK
PK4 NQB3 PKN3 BN2 PQ3 KNK2 PxP 00
NB4 NK4 PQR4 NQ2 NB4 !
14 1S 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 2S 26
WHITE
BLACK
PQN4 QN3 NxN QRQ1 KRK1 PxP PKR3 PBS ! NNS ! PB6 PxP NxQP! RxB !
NQ2 NQS BxN BN2 PxP NB3 PR4 BB4 BQ2 PxP BB l BK3 PxR
PRACTICAL VARIATIONS 7 AND 8 : 1 PQB4, PK4 2 NQB3, NQB3 3 PKN3 7
8
3 
BB41 4 BN2 PQ3 5 PK3 KNK22 6 PQR3 PQR4 7 KNK2 00 8 00 9
PQ3 BN2 NB34 PK3 BK2 KNK2 00 005 ±
BQ2 PR33 +
Notes to practkal variations 7 and 8 :
1 Not advisable.
The Bishop has too little scope o n QB4. 6 KNK2, 00 7 Q0, RK1 8 PQ4, BN3 9 PKR3, BKB4 1 0 PQ5, NK2 1 1 PKN4 !, when White has good attacking chances ( KorchnoiS. Szabo, Bucharest 1953 ) . 3 After the eventual PQ4, Black's position will be cramped. 4 For 4 . . . BQ2, see Game 6. 5 White's is somewhat freer.
2 Or 5 . . . NB3
WHITE
27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 3S 36 37
NBS NxB RQ7t BKS ! RxP BxR KR2 BKS PB7 QB2! PB8 (Q)
BLACK
QK1 KxN RB2 KN1 RxR RR8 t RR2 RKB2 NQ2 RB 1 Resigns
7 72 • CHESS OPENI NGS
Sicilian Attack Game 6 WHITE: Darga
BLACK: Keller Chaum ont 1 958
WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
PQB4 NQB 3 PKN3 BN2 NB3 00 PQ4 ! NxP NxN
pa rt
1 2 3 4
PQB4, PK4 NQB 3, PQ3 PKN3 A, PKB4B BN2 , NKB 3
B LACK
PK4 NQB 3 PQ3 BQ2 QB 1 PKN3 PxP BN2 PxN
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
WHITE
BLACK
PB5 ! PK4 QR4 PK5 NQ5 ! QxPt QxN QxP
PQ4 BN5 PQ5 NK2 NxN BQ2 00 Resigns
4DUTCH DEFENSIVE SYSTEM
OBSERVATIONS ON KEY POSITION 4 A White need not necessarily fianchetto his King Bishop ; the continuation 3 NB 3 is j ust as good, e.g., 3 PKB4 4 PQ4, PK5 5 NKN 5, BK2 6 NR3, NKB 3 7 P K3, NR3 8 BK2 , PB 3 9 00, NB2 10 PB 3, 00 1 1 BQ 2 and White main tains the initiative. For 5 NQ2 in this line, see Game 7 . B The characteristic Pawn advance o f this system. .
.
.

This position has occurred but rarely in tournament play. Both sides must act vigorously. White, if given a free hand, may castle long and initiate a powerful King side assault. Black, for his part, must not hesitate at critical moments to part with a Pawn to keep his counter attack alive. KEY
POSITION
4
IDEA VARIATION 7 : ( 7 ) 5 PQ4 ! (practically the only move worth serious consideration ; for the passive 5 PQ3, see Prac. Var. 9 ) , BK2 (the continuation 5 . . . PxP 6 QxP, NB 3 7 QQ2 is greatly to White's advantage; he best proceeds by placing his King Knight on KB4 and following up with the fian chetto of his Queen Bishop ) 6 PK3, 00 7 KNK2, KR 1 8 QB2, QK1 9 PN3, NB3 10 BR3, PxP 1 1 PxP, PB5 ! (in order to answer 1 2 PQ5 with 1 2 . . . PB6 1 3 KBxP, NK4 ) 1 2 000 (better than 1 2 PxP, NKR4 1 3 BK4, NxBP 14 BxRP, NN7t 1 5 KQI , RxP which clearly favors Black ) , PB6! (consistent; in ferior is 1 2 . . . NKR4 ; see Game 8 ) 1 3 BxP, NKN5 1 4 BxN, BxB 1 5 PB4, BB 3 and Black has good chances for the Pawn.
S I C I LIAN ATTACK • 773
Sicilian Attack Game 7 WHITE: Boleslavski
BLACK: Bronstein Zurich 195 3
WHITE
1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
PQB4 NQB 3 NB3 PQ4 NQ2 PK3 BK2 00 PQN� PN5 NN3 QB2 BQ2 PxP NQ5 QRQ1 PB4
WHITE
BLACK
PK4 PQ3 PKB4 PK5 PB 3 NB3 PKN3 BR3 00 RK1 QNQ2 QB2 PB4 PxP QQ3 PN3 NxN
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
PxN BQB 3 QN2 QB 1 PKR3 QxB BB4 RQ2 NB 1 NK2 R/1Q1 QN3 NB3 R/2KB2 NK2 NB 3 PQR4
NB 3 BQN2 NN5 BN2 BxB NB3 QRQ1 PKR3 KR2 QB 1 RQ3 R/1Q1 QK2 BB l BK3 BB2 NK1
Sicilian Attack Game 8 WHITE: Stolz
BLACK: H. Steiner Saltsjobaden 1 952
WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
PQB4 NQB3 PKN3 BN2 PQ4 PK3 KNK2 QB2 PN3 BR3 PxP 000 BK4 NQ5 BQN2 N/2B4 BxNP ! QxP PKR4
WHITE
BLACK
PK4 PQ3 PKB4 NKB3 BK2 00 KR1 QK1 NB 3 PxP PB5 NKR4 ? PKN3 QQ1 PB6 BN4 PxB NN2 BxNt
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
WHITE
B LACK
B LACK
BB4 PxB BR2 QR6t NK3 ! RB3 RN3 QN5 PQ5 ! RxQ RPxR NK2 QQB l NN4 ! QxN PN6 RxBt KN1 KB 1 RxNt KK1 RB7t QxNP RK1 KQ1 R/1xNt QxB BB6? Forfeit RxQ Black overstepped the time limit.
35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49
PR5 RR2 RKB 1 RPxP RR7 RR8 QN2 PxP RQ1 QKB2 RQB8 QK1 RB6 RB1 BK2
BLACK
QB3 PN4 QN3 RPxP R/1Q2 NB3 PN5 QxP QR4 QN3 NN5 RR2 RR6 QB3 Draw
7 74 • CHESS OPENINGS
PRACTICAL VARIATION 9 : 1 PQB4, PK4 2 NQB3, PQ3 3 PKN3, PKB4 4 BN2, NKB3 9
9
8 BQ21
PQ3 PKN3 6 NR3 BN2
5
PB3 KR1 KR1 1 0 PB42 PK5 !3 9
7 00 00
+
Notes to practical variation 9 :
1 White promotes his own downfall with this passive move. Far better is 8 PB4 immediately, e.g., 8 . . . PKs 9 PxP, PxP 10 NKN5 . 2 Better no w i s 1 0 PB3 followed by 1 1 NB 2 . 3 GolombekBotvinnik, Budapest 1 9 5 2 . SUPPLEMENTARY VARIATIONS 13 : 1 PQB4, PK4 1 2 NKB Y
PK52 3 NQ4 NQB33 4 NxN QPxN 5 PQ44 PxP e.p.
2
2
1
3
6 QxP QxQ 7 PxQ5 NB2 NB3 NB3 BB4
8
PK3 NxN PxN PQ4
PK36 PQ37 PQ3 PxP BxP BK3
3
PQ 39 NB3 NB3 PxQP BxP BK2
008
9
PQ4
Notes to supplementary variations 1 3 :
1 This offers White little hope for the initiative.
2 Other moves are of no independent significance.
3 3 . . . PQB4 is best met by 4 NNs !
4 5 NB3, NB3 6 PK3, BKB4 ! is satisfactory for Black. 5 With Queens exchanged and Pawn structures sound, there is little to explore. 6 After 6 PQN3 , 00 7 PN3 Black frees his game with 7 . . PQ4 !, and if 8 PxP, then 8 . . . NKNs ! 7 6 . . . PQ4 ? PxP as well as 6 . . NK4 7 PQ4 favors White. 8 9 PK4 ? fails against 9 . . NKN5 ! 9 6 NB3 is most safely answered by 6 . . . PQB3 . .
.
.
S I C I L IAN ATTACK • 775
c h a pte r 43  l rregu lar and U n usual Open ings Once called a "joke opening" by Capablanca, 1 . . . PKN3 (the "Fianchetto del Rey" in an earlier termin ology and currently renamed the Robatsch Defense after the Austrian player who has done most to popularize it) is a sort of factotum which can be used against practically any White opening move including 1 PK4, 1 PQ4, 1 PQB4, 1 NKB3, etc. The old masters shrank in horror from a fianchetto on the first move, and even some hypermoderns might blanch a bit at the idea ; but so far no specific refutation of the Robatsch has been found, and all that can be said is that White, faced by no particular problems and free to choose almost any methodical development, should main tain a minimal initiative at worst. If he attempts, how ever, to overrun the Black position without further ado, he may run into disagreeable resistance. The advantage of the Robatsch over the Pirc, its close kin, is supposedly a degree of flexibility. For one point, the Black King Knight may go to K2 instead of KB 3, especially if a previous . . . PK4 has been bypassed with White's PQ5 . Then, with the Knight at K2, Black may enj oy the readymade break, . . . PKB4. To be sure, any value that Black may get out of this possibility is offset by the extreme latitude granted to White from the opening gun. An attack on White's King Pawn by . . . NKB3, for example, would compel an im mediate decision as to a defense. Black's failure to in troduce this kind of tension gives White ample time to set up whatever positional pattern he prefers. As a con temporary instance of the continuing hypermodern chal lenge to classicism, the Robatsch is primarily a weapon for those who have a flair for Nimzowitschian strategies re quiring patience, tenacity, and resourceful defense. Somewhat similar considerations apply to 1 PKN3, the Robatsch in reverse  a favorite of Benko's and there fore often called the Benko Opening. The difference is that White has the move in hand and may be able to transpose into some favorable line unless Black is exceed ingly cautious and alert. That the opening tends to de mand position play of a high order from both players is illustrated in Game 2 .
776 • CHESS OPENINGS
Game 1
WHITE: Botvinnik
BLACK: Lombardy Munich 1 95 8
WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
PQB4 PK4 PQ4 NQB 3 PxP QxQt BN5 t 000t BK3 PKN3 PB4 PKR3 NB3 RK1 RR.2 RKB2 PxP NR2 PK5 NB3 NQ4
WHITE
BLACK
PKN3 BN2 PQ3 PK4 PxP KxQ PB3 NQ2 PB3 KB2 NR3 NB2 BR3 RK1 NB 1 PxP NK3 PKB4 NN2 NR4 BK3
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
BLACK
BK2 BQ3 KB2 RKN1 BQ2 BK3 RB3 N/3K2 PxP PN6t NN5 t N/2B3 PR3 BQB1 KN1 BB 1 RB2 PKR4 RN3
NN6 NQ1 BB2 NR4 BB 1 BR3 BB1 PQN4 PB4 PxP KN2 NQB3 KRQ1 QRB1 NN2 NK3 N/KQ5 NR4 N/4N6
Draw
Game 2
WHITE: Benko
BLACK: Fischer Curacao 1 962
WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10 11 12 13
PKN3 BN2 PK4 PQ4 NK2 00 QNB 3 PQR4 PR5 NxP PR3 R.K1 BK3
WHITE
BLACK
NKB 3 PKN3 PQ3 BN2 00 PK4 PB 3 QNQ2 PxP NB4 RK1 KNQ2 QB2
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
PB4 QQ2 PxP e.p. PQN4 PN5 BxN QxB QQ2 QRQ1 PK5 KxB KB2 PxP
BLACK
RN1 PQN4 PxP NK3 NxN BxBt PQB4 BN2 RK3 BxB QN2 t RQ1 NB3
IRREG ULAR AND U N U S UAL OPENINGS • 777
27 28 29 30 31 32 33
WHITE
B LACK
RxR QK2 QB3 NK4 QxN QB6 KB3
PxR KB2 QN1 NxN RQ2 QQ1 KN2
WHITE
34 35 36 37 38 39 40
PN4 PxP KN2 RKB 1 RxR QN2 QK2
BLACK
PK4 RB2t QR5 RxR QxPt QK6 Resigns
Game 3
WHITE: Bronstein
BLACK: 0' Kelly Beverwyk 1963
WHITE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
PKN3 BN2 NKB3 00
PQ3 QNQ2 PK4 RK1 PK5 QK2 PKR4 NB1 N/1R2 PR5 PR6
1 6 BB4
BLACK
NKB3 PQ4 PK3 BK2 PB4 NB3 00
QB2 NQ2 PQN4 PQR4 BR3 PN5 KRB1 PN3 QQ1
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
WHITE
BLACK
NN4 QQ2 PxP BN5 PN3 QRB1 BxB NN5 BxP BxR QxRt RxN BB3 NxKP
PR5 PB5 BxP PR6 BR3 NR2 QxB NN4 RQ1 NxP QxQ NB6 PB4 QQ7 Resigns
'uoFFBEAT" OPEN I NGS What was said earlier about the Fianchetto del Rey (Robatsch in Reverse) and the Robatsch Defense (special examples of which are presented in Pcac. Var. 2 and 3 of this chapter) applies in some measure to all irregular and unusual openings : they are primarily a weapon for those with the patience, stubbornness and defensive resource fulness required by Nimzowitschian strategies. But there may be additional reasons for the occasional use of "offbeat" openings. Precisely because they are seldom ventured, they may enable a tournament player who has familiarized himself with their intricacies to gain some time on the clock while his more conventional op
7 78 • CHESS OPENI N G S
ponent consumes precious minutes trying to figure out how best to take advantage of what, by definition, are not standard, wei lestablished lines. Apart from this con sideration, the "natural" player may feel that he is able to improvise more effectively than a pure theoretician ; per haps a student of human nature, such as Dr. Emanuel Lasker, has particular psychological reasons for springing a surprise; or quite simply, a jaded player may nibble at an odd opening pretty much as he might sample an exotic food. Surely the mavericks of chess like Nimzowitsch, Tartakover and Reti must have grinned inwardly as they confounded the pillars of orthodoxy with rank heresies. One thing is certain : "book knowledge, " while indis pensable to the mastery of chess, will. not automatically de feat any and all departures from the norm. Even so absured a pattern as the "Hippopotamus, " which con sists largely in moving as many Pawns as possible to the third rank, cannot be guaranteed to fall of its own weight. The proper reaction to such outright violations of principle is not impetuosity or exorcism but the application of calm, watchful technique. An unsound opening, far from beat ing itself, must be beaten by unremitting thought and ef fort. And then, of course, one must be positive that it is really unsound and not just "offbeat" or novel. The remainder of this chapter consists in brief dis cussions of infrequently played openings, followed by prac tical variations and notes. Alapin's Opening ( 1 PK4, PK4 2 NK2 ) , Anderssen's Opening ( 1 PQR3 ) and the Queen's Fianchetto Defense ( 1 . . . PQN3) merit no allocation of space because, for the best of reasons, they are seen about as rarely as Halley's Comet.
DUNST OPEN I NG Extensively analyzed and often adopted by the New York master, T. A. Dunst, the move 1 NQB3, formerly called the Queen's Knight's Opening, can give rise to unique variations as well as transpositions into familiar territory (the Vienna, the Sicilian, the CaroKann, etc. ) . The following brief comments will be confined to the idiosyncratic possibilities of the opening. When Black replies with 1 . . . PQ4 and then essays the characteristic centerlocking advance i . . . PQ5 in answer to 2 PK4, the result is a positional kind of game in which White will usually aim for an auspicious PKB4.
IRREG ULAR AND U N U S UAL OPENINGS • 779
An entirely different setup stems from 1 NQB3, PQ4 2 PK4, PxP 3 NxP, while still another line is what the Italians have called the "Ruy Lopez of the Queenside" : 1 NQB3, NKB3 2 PQ4, PQ4 3 BN5. If 1 . . . PK4, White is under no necessity of transposing into the Vienna with 2 PK4 but instead may choose the distinctive 2 NB3. If, then, 2 . . . NQB3, the policy of avoiding a King's Pawn transposition can be pursued with 3 PQ4. See Prac. Var. 1 . Interestingly, Black can hardly attempt a Dutch formation with 1 . . . PKB4 because of the strong immediate response 2 PK4 ! The opening is sound and playable, but affords Black a wide array of defenses and makes no attempt to confront him with thorny problems requiring immediate solution.
PAR I S OPEN I NG The Paris Opening, 1 NKR 3, begins with a violation of principle. On the very first move, White's King Knight is brought to the rim of the board instead of the center. On R3 he not only has less mobility but after 1 . . . PQ4 offers himself as a target for the Black Queen Bishop. While Black's forthright threat of 2 . . . BxN, which would disrupt White's Kingside Pawn formation, can be met for the moment by 2 PKN3, Black may pro ceed methodically to line up on the Knight with 3 . . . BB4 and 4 . . . QQ2. Then White will be forced to move the Knight with consequent loss of time. In case Black fails to exploit the awkward Knight development, White may capitalize the more favorable as pect of the move. Since the Knight on R3 does not block White's King Bishop Pawn, that Pawn may effectively advance to KB4, attack the adverse center and open White's King Bishop file. See Prac. Var. 4. It may be noted in passing that 1 NQR3 (the Durkin Attack) can satisfy the penchant for oddity as well as 1 NKR3. R. T. Durkin has done surprisingly well with this in various postal and New Jersey tournaments and T. A. Dunst has brought off a few successful experiments. Af(er 1 . . . PQ4 White may play 2 PQB4 or 2 PQB3 (intending, in the latter case, 3 NB2 followed by PQ4 ) , while against 1 . . PK4, the bizarre 2 NB4 is in the spirit of the opening. Apart from its possible shock value, however, the Durkin Attack is hardly to be recommended as a reliable weapon. .
780 • CHESS OPENI NGS
POLISH OPEN I NG Called the Polish Opening or the OrangUtan, the esoteric 1 PQN4 was added to opening repertoire by the Viennese master Englisch about half a century ago. It was a favorite of Tartakover's and more recently has been investigated by Sokolsky and Pachman. The latter ad vocates the reply 1 . . . PQR4, giving the opening an al together weird appearance. A. E. Santasiere plays 1 NKB 3 as a prefatory move and refers to a later PQN4 (against 1 . . . PQ4, for example ) as " Santasiere's Folly." Among contemporary masters who will occa sionally resort to 1 PQN4 is Sidney B;cnstein of New York. The obvious defects of the Polish are that it initiates a wing demonstration when emphasis should be placed on center control and provides a readymade target which may easily become a source of permanent concern. On the other hand, the move readies a promising fianchetto, while the advanced Pawn will inhibit enemy expansion on the Queenside. Thus the Polish Opening appeals to those who like to fish in troubled waters, but serves no purpose where there is a preference for sounder and more con servative methods. Entirely valueless is the Polish Defense ( 1 . . . PQN4 in answer to 1 PQ4, 1 PK4, 1 NKB 3 etc. ) , introduced by A . Wagner at Stanislau in 1 9 1 3. Unless Black is in tent on committing suicide, he has no business indulging in such weakening, timewasting antics in the opening. See Prac. Var. 7 for an illustration of how quickly Black can find himself saddled with ·grave, selfcreated diffi culties.
SARAGOSSA OPEN I NG The Saragossa Opening, 1 PQB 3, attributed to Juncosa of Sacagossa, lends itself to numerous transpositions in addition to its inherent character as a CaroKann in re verse. 1 PQB3, PQ4 2 PQ4 is a Queen Pawn which be comes a Colle after 2 . . . NKB3 3 NB 3, PK3. 1 PQB 3, PK4 2 PQ4, PxP 3 PxP, PQ4 is the Exchange Variation of the Queen's Gambit, while 1 PQB3, PQB4 2 PQ4, PxP 3 PxP, PQ4 reverts to the Exchange Variation of the Slav Defense.
I RREG ULAR AND U N U S UAL OPENINGS • 781
Other transpositions are the Exchange Variation of the CaroKann Defense (1 PQB 3, PQB 3 2 PK4, PQ4 3 PxP, PxP 4 PQ4 ) and the Ponziani ( 1 PQB 3, PK4 2 PK4, NQB 3 3 NB3 ) . It is evident that Black enj oys great latitude and can face the opening phase of the game without qualms.
TH E . . SPI KE" 1 PKN4, the " Spike" or Kolibri Opening, is a de fiant, almost contemptuous beginning, as though to show that White can get away with anything .on his first move, including this selfinflicted wound on his strategic King side. White appears to be saying to his opponent, "See in what low esteem I hold you. I " can toy with you, I can play the most preposterous opening, and you are impotent to exact a penalty. " If this is indeed the message intended by 1 PKN4, the move belongs to the realm of psychology rather than logic. It is rarely encountered in master chess for the good and sufficient reason that there is a limit to the risks that can be taken even by the most daring per former on a flying trapeze.
VAN ' T KRUYS OPEN I NG Named after a Dutch player who lived about 1 860, the Van't Kruys Opening, 1 PK3, has little independent sig nificance. Once in a while it may evoke an original and downright wild position, but for the most part it is marked by the absence of clash and tension, and is often a prelude to transposition into some lackadaisical line of one of the regular openings. A simple transposition into a Queen's Pawn Game is effected with 1 PK3, PQ4 2 PQ4, and a tame variation of the French Defense is reached after 1 PK3, PK4 2 PQ4, PxP 3 PxP, PQ4. In this line 2 PQB4 metamor phizes into an English, in which Black should not unwarily permit White to obtain a Sicilian Four Knights in reverse : 2 . . . NKB 3 3 NQB 3, PQ4 4 PxP, NxP 5 NB 3 ! Other possibilities are Bird's Opening ( 1 PK3, PQ4 2 PKB4 ) and a line in the Reti ( 1 PK3, PQ.4 2 PQB4, PQB 3 3 NKB 3 ) . Black's choice of first moves is practically unlimited, since almost anything will do. 1 . . . PQB4, 1 PQ3, 1 . . PK3, 1 . . . PKB4 ; 1 . . . NKB 3 and 1 . . PKN3 are all playable replies. .
.
.
.
.
7182 • CHESS OPENINGS Fianthello del Rey
D11ns1
Robatsth
( Robatuh
Paris
Polish
Opening
in Reverse
Defense )
Opening
Opening I
2 PKN3 PKN 34 BN2 BN2 PQ4 PQ3 PK4 NKB3 NK2 00 00 . QNQ2 QNB3 PB3 PQR4 PQR4 PN3 RKl BQR 3 QB25
3 PK4 PKN 3 PQ4 BN2 NQB3 PQ3 PB4 NKB3 NB 3 00 BQ3 BN5 PKR3 BxN QxB NB3 QB26 NQ27 BK31
4 NKR3 PQ4 PKN3 PK4 PKB49 BxNlo BxB PxP 00 PxP PxP 11 BQ31 z PK4 ! QN41 3 QB 3 QxP t QxQ BxQ BBs, •
5 PQN4 PK4 BN2 PKB 3 15 PK4 1 6 BxP BB4 NK2 PB4 PQ4 PxQP BQ3 1 7 PxP PxP QR5 "t NN3 NKB3 1 1
1
1
1 1 NQB3 PK41 2 NB3 NQB3 3 PQ4 PxP 4 NxP NB32 5 BN5 PQ4 6 PK4 BK2 7 BN5 BQ2 B PxP NxP 9 NxN/5 BxB 1 0 QK2 t NK23 1
±
±
Noles lo pratlital variations 1 1 0 :
. . PQ4, i s an attempt t o transpose into 1 The alternative, 1 a Queen's Pawn Game in which White's Queen Knight is sup posedly misplaced because he blocks the Queen Bishop Pawn. Actually, White need not permit this transposition insofar as the immediate presence of the White Knight on QB3 supports the thrust PK4 and has the effect of turning the opening into a King's Pawn formation. An example of this is seen in a Vienna line that was in vogue during the reign of Steinitz : 1 NQB3 , PQ4 2 PK4, P Q 5 3 QNK2 , PK4 4 NN3, BK3 5 PQ3 , PQB4 6 PKB4, PxP 7 BxP, NQB3 8 NB 3, NB3 9 BK2, NKN5 1 0 QQ2, BQ3 = . 2 Plausible, but inferior to the development of the King Bishop to B4 or N5 . . . BK2 also fails after 1 1 0Q0, when White has 10 3 a plethora of threats. One possibility, for example, is 1 1 . . . NxN 1 2 BxB t , QxB 1 3 RxN, and White's superiority in de velopment is crushing. The moves in the column are taken from DunstGresser, Marshall Chess Club Championship, 1 9 5 0 5 1 . The game continued : 1 1 QK5 !, BxB 1 2 NxPt, KB 1 1 3 N/7K6t, Resigns. 4 Emulating White is no attempt at refutation. The game continued with 1 1 5 BenkoTal, Curacao 1962. .
.
IRREGULAR AND UNUS UAL OPENINGS • 783
Polish
Polish
Saragossa
Opening II
Defense
Opening
6
7
PQ4 BN2 NKB3 1 9 PK3 PK3 PN5 BK2 PKB4 00 BQ3 PQR320 PQR4 PxP PxP RxR BxR PB421 
PQ4 PQN4 PK422 BN2 PKB 323 PQR324 PQB4 PxP BxP PK3 NB325 +
8 PQB 3 PQ4 PQ4 PQB4 PK3 NQ2 PKB4 KNB3 NQ2 PKN3 KNB3 BN2 BQ3 00 00 QB2 NK5 NK126
Van't Kruys "Spike"
Opening
9 PKN4 P Q421 BN2 BxP PQB4 PQB321 PxP NKB 329 NQB 3 PK430 PxP e.p. BxP PQ4 QNQ2 PK4 BK2 KNK231
10 PK3 PQB4 PQB4 NQB3 NQB3 PKN3 PB432 BN2 NB3 PK433 PxP NxP BK2 !34 NxN t BxN35 QR5 t PN3 QxBP36
+

QQ2, PK4 1 2 QRQ 1 , PxP 1 3 NxP, NB4 14 PB3, PN3 1 5 N/4K2, BB 1 16 BN2, QK2 17 NQ4, BQN2 1 8 KRK1 , BN2 1 9 PB4, QRQ1 20 BB3, QQ2 2 1 QN2 ! ± . 6 I f 9 BK3, PK4 1 0 QPxP, PxP 1 1 PB 5, NQ5 1 2 QB2 , PxP with adequate play for Black. 7 If 9 . . . NQN5 10 BB 1 ( 1 0 BB4, NxKP ! ) . 1 PenroseR obatsch, Hastings 196162. 9 The Paris Gambit. 3 BN2, BKB4, followed by 4 . QQ2, favors Black. 1 o After 3 . . . PK5 4 BN2, BKB4 5 PQ3, White has fair prospects. 11 The Compromised Paris Gambit is 6 PK4, PxPt 7 KR 1, etc. 12 6 . . . QN4 7 RB3 , BQ3 8 PQ3 ± . 1 3 I f 7 . . . BxP ? 8 QB3 ! I f 7 . . . PxKP 8 QN4. 14 Analysis by Tartakover. 15 To fortify the King Pawn. But the move has an artificial appearance, and, in fact, exposes Black's KN 1QR7 diagonal. 2 . . . BxP 3 BxP, NKB3, .followed by . . . NQB3, gives Black a free and easy development, even though this is in· line with White's plan to exchange a center Pawn for an outside one. Of course, 2 . . . NQB3 fails against 3 PN 5 . 16 The gambit. B u t 3 PQR3, PQ4 is good for Black.
continued
�
184
• CHESS OPENINGS
17 6 . . . PxP is risky : 7 QB3 , BQ3 8 NK2, NN3 9 PQ4, QK2 10 BB 1 , BKB4 1 1 BQ3 ± ( TartakoverColle, Mardiov 1926 ) . 1 8 TartakoverReti, Vienna 1 9 1 9 . 1 9 2 . . . BB4 3 PK3 , PK3 4 PKB4, NKB3 5 NKB3 , BxNP 6 NB 3, QNQ2 7 NK2, NN5 8 PB3, B K 2 9 PKR3, NB4 10 NN3 , BR5 1 1 NxB, QxN 12 QB3, NxP 13 QB2, NxB, Resigns ( CapablancaKevitz, Brooklyn 1924 ) . a Or 6 . . . PB4. 21 Tartakover'Maroczy, New York 1924. 22 To neutralize the effect of the coming fianchetto. 2 NKB3 is also good. 23 So that Black"s Queen Bishop will bite on granite. With a move in hand, this move is safer than the same move played by Black against the Polish Opening. White now can continue also with 3 BxP, BxP 4 NKB3 , followed by NQB3 . 24 Somewhat better is 3 . . . PN 5 . 25 6 . . . PQ4 ? 7 QN3, NQB3 8 PxP, NxP 9 QxB, RN 1 ? 10 QxRP, RR1 1 1 BN 5t, KK2 1 2 PQ6t, Resigns ( Euwe Abrahams, Bournemouth 1 9 39 ) . 26 The line employed by Black is the most efficient against the Colle System or Stonewall Attack. Black will swing his King Knight to Q3 and his Queen Knight to KB3 with ·a view to occupying his K5 at the proper moment. 27 1 . . . PK4 is equally good. 28 If 3 PK3, White recovers the Pawn : 4 QR4t, followed by PxP ± . 29 I f 4 . . . PxP 5 QN3 . 30 Better i s 5 PxP 6 QN3, PK3 7 QxNP, QNQ2 + . I f then 8 NN5, RB 1 ! 31 Correspondence game, KeresNieman, 1934. 32 Risky. Steadier is 4 PQ4. 33 More conservative is 5 NB3, e.g., 6 PQ4, PxP 7 PxP, PQ4. 34 Another sacrifice in truer gambit style is 7 PQ4, e.g., . . . NxNt 8 QxN, PxP 9 PxP, BxP 1 0 NN5. Simple and good is 7 NxN, BxN 8 QB3 . 35 Obviously n o t 8 PxN, QR5 t 9 KB1 , PQ3 , threatening .
.
•
.
•
.
mate in a few moves . 36 LevineBorochow, Cal ifornia 1 9 5 8 .
for the Pawn.
White has fine chances
In the game, 10 BQ5 was p l ayed.
I N D EX
I
A Alekhine's Defense, 2 3 0 5 1 Exchange Variation, 2 3638 FourPawn Attack, 2 3035 Modern Variation, 2 3941 Scandinavian Variation, 24 75 1 TwoPawn Attack, 24247
B Benko Opening, 7 7 5 , 782 Benoni Defense, 5 6686 Blockade System, 5 6670 Blumenfeld Variation, 5 8 286 Hromadka System, 5 7477 2 PQ3 System, 5 7073 Tal Variation, 57781 Bird's Opening, 73237 Dutch Defense in Reverse, 73234 From Gambit, 7 3437 Bishop's Opening, 25 Berlin Defense, 2 BlackmarDiemer Gambit, 5 303 1 Bremen System, see Sicilian Attack Budapest Defense, 58791 Fajarowicz Variation, 587 .
.
CaroKann Defense [continued] Knight Variation Deferred, 26770 Modern Variation, 27277 Panov Attack, 270, 273 3 PK5 Variation, 2798 1 Two Knights' Variation, 27779 Catalan Opening, 475 84 Catalan Accepted, 4 7 5 79 Catalan Declined, 4798 1 Catalan Gambit, 48284 Center Counter Game, 2 5 2  5 8 Anderssen Variation, 2 5 2  5 5 Marshall Gambit, 2 5 2, 2 5 6 5 8 Center Game, 69 Colle System, 5 30, 5 3 1
.
c Cambridge Springs Defense, see Queen's Gambit Declined, Cambridge Springs Defense Capablanca's "freeing maneuver" (Queen's Gambit Declined, Orthodox Defense), 5 09 CaroKann Defense, 2 5 984 Classical Variation, 2 5 963 Exchange Variation, 27072 Gambit Variation, 2 8 1 84 Knight Variation, 26 367
D Damiano's Defense, 224 Danish Gambit, 1 0 1 2, 1 99 Schlechter's Defense, 1 0 Dunst Opening, 77879, 782 Durkin Attack, 779 Dutch Attack, see Bird' s Opening Dutch Defense, 5926 1 6 AntiStonewall Variation, 60507 Closed Variation, 60709 Leningrad System, 60305 NonFianchetto Variation, 6 1 0 1 1 Old Dutch, 593, 599603 Old Stonewall Variation, 59299 Staunton Gambit, 592, 6 1 1  1 6
E English Opening, 7 3843 Exchange Variation, 7404 3 Sicilian Variation, 7 3840 See also Sicilian Attack Evans Gambit, 39, 40, 4 1 , 42
786 • I NDEX
F Falkbeer Counter Gambit, 65 68 Fianchetto del Rey, 775, 782 Four Knights' Game, 1 324, 2 1 1 Maroczy System, 1 8, 1 9 Metger Variation, 1 3 1 6 Pillsbury Variation, 1 6  1 8 Rubinstein Vari ation, 2024 Svenonius System, 1 8 French Defense, 28 5  3 5 1 AlbinAlekhineChatard Attack, 2 8 5 , 29295 Anderssen Attack, 286, 29 597 Burn Variation, 285, 30305 Classical Variation, 285, 2869 1 , 308 "Early" PK5 Variation, 341 48 Exchange Variation, 348, 349 Guimard Subvariation (Tarrasch Variation V), 3 3 741 Leningrad System, 3 3 6 MacCutcheon Variation, 2 8 5 , 298303 Marshall Variation, 348, 349 Nimzowitsch Variation I, 309 1 4 I I , 3 1 4 1 6 III, 3 1 62 1 Rubinstein Variation, 3 2 1 2 5 Svenonius Variation, 308 Tarrasch Variation I, 3 2629 II, 329 3 1 III, 3 3 1  3 3 IV, 3 3 3 3 7 v , 3 3 741
G Giuoco Pianissimo, 3 5 , 37 Giuco Piano, 2 5 38 Centerholding Variation, 3238 Greco Variation, 28 Moller Variation, 2 5 29 7 BQ2 Variation, 30 3 1 See also Half Giuoco Game Greco Counter Gambit, 2 24
GrunfeldIndian Defense, 61 7  3 7 Exchange Variation, 624 2 7 Grunfeld Gambit, 61 720 Grunfeld Gambit Declined, 620 2 3 PK3 Variation, 634 37 Three Knights' Variation, 6 3 2  34 Two Pawns Game, 62732 Boleslavski System, 62728, 629 Prins System, 627, 629 Smyslov System, 627, 629
H Half Giuoco Game, 39, 41 HennigSchara Gambit, 5 5 8, 565 Hungarian Defense, 39, 4 1
Indian i n Reverse, 744 5 7 Barcza System, 7 5 4  5 7 King's Indian in Reverse, 7 5 4 5 7 New York Variation, 7 5 0 SlavWing Defense, 7 5 0 5 2 WingBlumenfeld Variation, 7 5 2  5 4 Wing Gambit Accepted, 74447 WingOrthodox Defense, 74749
K King's Gambit, 4 368 Allgaier Gambit, 5 7 5 8 Becker's Defense, 4 8 , 5 8 Berlin Defense, 44 Bishop's Gambit, 43, 5 9 Breyer Gambit, 43, 5 9 Cunningham Reformed Gambit, 4 3 , 5 0 5 4 Falkbeer Counter Gambit, 6 5  68 Hanstein Gambit, 48 Kieseritzky Gambit, 4 347 Lesser Bishop's Gambit, 59 Mason Gambit, 59 Modern Defense, 43, 5461 Muzio Gambit, 58 Philidor Gambit, 48 Steinitz Gambit, 5 9
INDEX • 787
King's Gambit Declined, 6 1 65 King's Indian Defense, 63875 Classical Variation, 644 5 1 Counterthrust Variation, 667 7 1 Four Pawn Attack, 6 3 9 , 645 Modern Fianchetto, 65 1 63 Modern Treatment, 65 1  5 5 Old Fianchetto, 6 5 5  5 9 Old Indian Defense, 67 1  7 5 Panno Variation, 664, 665 Saemisch Variation, 63844 Yugoslav Variation, 66367 Kolibri Opening, 7 8 1 , 7 8 3
L Lasker Method (Queen' s Gambit Declined, Orthodox Defense), 5 1 4, 5 1 7 Lasker trap (Albin Counter Gambit), 488
p Panov Attack, 2 70, 2 7 3 Paris Opening, 779, 782 Petroff's Defense, 698 1 Classical Variation, 707 3 Steinitz Variation, 7381 See also Three Knights' Game Philidor's Defense, 224 Hanham Variation, 225, 226 Pillsbury Defense, see Queen's Gambit Declined, Cambridge Springs Defense Pirc Defense, 3 5 662 Polish Defense, 780, 7 8 3 Polish Opening, 7 8 0 , 782, 783 Ponziani's Opening, 2 24, 225
Q
M Max Lange Attack, 203, 209 ,
N NimzoIndian Defense, 676 7 1 1 BQ3 Variation, 698700 Bocvinnik Variation, 680, 7 1 0 Bronstein Variation, 69698 4 PQ4 Variation, 67982 Normal Variation, 68992 Pirc Variation, 68 284 Ragosin System, 702 Rubinstein Variation, 70002 Saemisch Variation, 68488 Seminormal Variation, 69295 Spasski Variation, 707 1 1 Spielmann Variation, 70507 Three Knights' Variation, 70205 Zurich Variation, 67679 Nimzowitsch Defense, 3 5 2  5 5 .
.
.
0 Old Indian Defense, 67 1 7 5 OrangUtan Opening, 780
Queen's Gambit Accepted, 44868 Accelerated Fianchetto, 4 5 1 60 Alekhine Variation, 46068 Mannheim Variation, 460, 466 Modern Variation, 4485 1 NeoSteinitz Variation, 4 5 7, 4 5 8 Smyslov Variation, 464 Queen's Gambit Declined Albin Counter Gambit, 485 Argentine Variation, 470, 471 Cambridge Springs Defense, 46974 Bogoljubov Variation, 46971 Exchange Variation, 469, 47274 Manhattan Variation, 49293 Marshall Defense, 485 Meran Defense, 494507 Accelerated Meran, 507 AntiMeran Gambit, 5 0207 Blumenfeld Variation, 49498 Reynold's Variation (Blumenfeld), 494 Romih Variation (SemiMeran), 499, 501 SemiMeran, 498  5 0 1
788 • INDEX
Queen 's Gambit Declined [ continued] Orthodox Defense, 469, 5 0829 Alekhine V.'lriation, 5 1 1  1 3 AntiNeoOrthodox Variation, 5 1 7 1 9 Canal 's Variation, 5 2 8 Classical Variation, 508 1 1 , 5 1 7 Exchange Variation, 5 2022 HalfClassical Variation, 5 2 2 29 Lasker's Defense (Classical Variation), 5 08 NeoOrthodox Variation, 5 1 4 1 7 Pillsbury Attack, 5 2 8 Ragosin System, 5 2 2 Tarrasch Defense (Closed Variation), 523 Slav Defense, 5 365 7 Marshall Variation, 5 5 2 5 7 Schlechter Variation, 548, 5 5 6 SemiSlav (Noteboom Variation), 549 5 1 Slav Accepted, 5 3639 Slav Accepted (Dutch Variation), 5 3945 Slav Declined, 5 45 49 Winawer CounterGambit, 5 5 6 Symmetrical Defense, 485 Tarrasch Defense, 5 5865 Closed Variation, 565 Prague V.'lriation, 5 5861 Swedish Variation, 5 6 1 65 Tchigorin Defense, 485 Queen's Indian Defense, 7 1 2  3 0 BogoIndian System, 72426 Classical Variation, 7 1 2  1 5 Closed Defensive System, 7 1 6 1 8 NonFianchetto Systems, 7 2 1 24 Queen' s Indian Knight's Game, 72630 System with 5 . . . BN 5 t , 7 1 8 2 1 Queen Pawn Counter Gambit, 2 24 Queen Pawn Game (without early PQB4), 5 3036 Bishop's Defense, 5 30, 5 3 1 BlackmarDiemer Gambit, 5 30 3 1 Classical Variation, 5 30, 5 3 1 Colle System, 5 30, 5 3 1 Queen's Bishop Game, 5 30, 5 3 1
R Reti System, .75 864 King's Indian Defensive Method, 761 64 Queen' s Indian Defensive Method, 7606 1 Symmetrical Variation, 7 5 8  5 9 Robatsch Defense, 7 7 5 , 7 8 2 Robatsch in Reverse, 7 7 5 , 7 8 2 Ruy Lopez, 8 2  1 9 3 Benelux System, 9293 Berlin Defense, 8 5 9 1 Bird's Defense, 9496 Breslau Variation, 1 39 Center Counterattack Variation (Closed Defense), 1 7 1 74 Classical Variation (Closed Defense), 1 5 87 1 Closed Defense, 8 2�84, 1 26, 1 3 1 , 1 34 Center Counterattack Variation, 1 7 1 74 Classical Variation, 1 5 8  7 1 English Variation, 1 2 7, 1 8493 English Variation of Marshall Gambit, 1 8 5 93 Marshall Gambit, 1 7983, 1 8 593 Pilnik Variation, 1 2 7, 1 7 579 Cordel Defense, 9293 Delayed Exchange Variation, 1 2 7 Dilworth V.'lriation, 1 5 0 Duras Variation, 1 2 2, 1 2 7 English Variation Closed Defense, 1 2 7, 1 8493 Marshall Gambit, 1 8 5 9 3 Exchange Variation, 1 08  1 0 Graz Variation, 1 1 2  1 5 Italian Variation (Open Defense), 1 48 5 2 Keres Variation (Open Defense) , 1 5 2  5 7 Marshall Gambit (Closed Defense) , 1 7983, 1 8 5  9 3 Moller Defense, 1 34 Motzko Variation, 1 49 NeoSteinitz Defense, 1 2 030 Open Defense, 1 26, 1 2 7, 1 3 1 I , 1 3536 II, 1 3644 III, 1 4448 Italian Variation, 1 4 8  5 2 Keres Variation, 1 5 2  5 7
INDEX •
Ruy Lopez [ continued] Pilnik Variation (Closed Defense) , 1 2 7, 1 7 5 79 Riga Variation, 1 5 6, 1 5 7 Rio de Janeiro Variation, 87 Russian Defense, 1 3 1  3 5 Schliemann Defense, 96 1 00 Schliemann Defense Deferred, 1 1 5  20 Steinitz Defense, 84, 1 0 1 07 Tarrasch trap, 84, 1 04 Wing Variation, 1 1 01 2 s Santasiere's Folly, 7 5 7, 780 Saragossa Opening, 7808 1 , 783 Scotch Opening, 1 94202 Blumenfeld's Variation, 1 98 Four Knights' Gambit, 2 0 1 02 Four Knights' Game, 1 9499 Goring Gambit, 1 94, 1 99201 Mieses Variation, 1 97 Scotch Gambit, 1 94, 1 99 Sicilian Attack, 765 74 Bradley Beach Variation, 766 Dragon System, 76870 Dutch Defensive System, 77274 Four Knights' Game, 765 68 Vienna Defense, 77072 See also English Opening Sicilian Defense, 363446 Accelerated Fianchetto, 38 389 Boleslavski System, 39840 1 Classical Dragon Variation, 36370 Closed System, 4404 3 Dragon Variation Classical, 36370 Modern, 39097 Fianchetto (Accelerated), 38 389 Four Knights' Variation, 4 1 9, 420 Maroczy Bind, 394, 396 Modern Dragon Variation, 39097 with 5 NQB3, 42730 with 5 PQB4, 42427
789
Sicilian Defense [ co11ti11ued] Morra Gambit, 443 Naj dorf System with 6 BK2, 402 04 with 6 BN5, 405 1 5 Nimzowitsch Variation, 43640 Nottingham Variation, 368 Paulsen Variation, 4 1 9, 420 Pin Variation, 4 1 9, 420 RichterRouzer Attack, 3 7080, 398 Rossolimo Variation, 4 3036 Scheveningen System, 4 1 624 Maroczy Variation, 420 Sozin Attack, 38083, 398 Wing Gambit, 44 5 Spanish Four Knights' Game, 1 3 "Spike, " 78 1 , 7 8 3 Stonewall System, 7 3 2 , 784
T Tarrasch trap (Ruy Lopez), 84, 1 04 Tartakover Method (Queen' s Gambit Declined, Orthodox Defense) , 5 1 4, 5 1 7 Three Knights' Game, 1 3, 69 Two Knights' Defense, 1 99, 20320 Fritz Variation, 203, 2 1 1 Jordansky Attack, 204 Max Lange Attack, 203, 209 Morphy Variation, 2 1 1 , 2 1 420 NN 5 Variation with 6 BN5, 2 1 1  1 4 Ulvestad Variation, 203, 2 1 1 WilkesBarre Variation, 203, 2 1 1 , 2 1 8
u Ufimzev Defense, see Pirc Defense
v Van't Kruys Opening, 78 1 , 7 8 3 Vienna Game, 2 2 1 2 3