Atlas of World Religions 9781451499681, 9781506439754


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Table of contents :
Front Cover
Also In This Series
Title Page
Copyright
Photograph Acknowledgements
Epigraph
Contents
List of Maps
Foreword
A Chronology of World Religions
Part 1: The Ancient World
Megaliths
Babylonia and Sumeria
Religion in Ancient Egypt
The Early City Religions
The Religions of Ancient Greece
Roman Religion
Zoroastrianism
Part 2: Hinduism
The Origins of Hinduism
Hindu Temple Worship
Hinduism and the Sacred
Hinduism in the Modern World
Jainism
Part 3: Buddhism
The Origins of Buddhism
What is Buddhism?
Buddhism Spreads beyond India
Buddhism in the Modern World
Confucianism and Taoism
Part 4: Judaism
Origin of the Jewish People
The Kingdom of Israel
Jewish Dispersions
The Jewish Diaspora
Judaism and the Rise of Islam
Anti-Semitism and Messianism
Jewish Emancipation
Judaism in the USA
The Holocaust
Part 5: Christianity
Palestine under the Herods
Judaism and the Early Church
The Early Growth of Christianity
Christianity Becomes Official
Christendom in 1050 CE
The European Reformations
Christianity in the Americas c. 1750
An Age of Missions
The Mormons
Christianity Today
Part 6: Islam
Muhammad
The Early Growth of Islam
Islam in the Subcontinent
Islam in South-east Asia
Islam and Africa
Islam in Modern Asia
Islam in the Modern World
Sikhism
Part 7: World Religions Today
Japanese Religions
Religion in China Today
What are Indigenous Religions?
New Religious Movements
Modern Pilgrimage
Jerusalem: The Holy City
What is the Hajj?
Further Reading
Gazetteer
Index
Back Cover
Recommend Papers

Atlas of World Religions
 9781451499681, 9781506439754

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KHAZAKHSTAN

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iss Portland TIM DOWLEY is a historian and ais prolific MinneapolisAlbany St Paul author and editor of Bible resources for adults S ah ara D e s e Boston r t and children including the Atlas of the European Detroit 1852 Chicago 1837 Newport 1680 Reformations and the Atlas of Christian History. He Cleveland New York 1839 Pittsburgh Newark 1654 1852 lives with his wife and Denver three children in Dulwich, Cincinnati 1824 Philadelphia 1747 Baltimore 1842 South London. SOUTH DAKOTA

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APHRODITE from Cyprus

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Bologna ube State with more than 10% Jews in 1990 R. B L AC K S E A I TA LY Serdica Jewish Massilia community, with date established Rome THRACE Constantinople SPA IN Cities(Marseilles) Monte Nola 394 with over 40,000 Jewish population in 2015 Chalcedon 400 415

WASHINGTON

Atlas of

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ARTEMIS

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SOUTH CHINA SEA

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SAMOS

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B AY

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INDIAN OCEAN

Sacred mountain 0 200 400 600 800 Kilometers Cult site Site of games/arts competition Deity worshipped widely in area Oracle

I N DI AN O C E AN

S O U TH

Sparta Amaravati

PaganASCLEPIOS Prome PYU Pegu Sukhothai Rangoon

ARTEMIS

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APHRODITE

World Religions

More than 19 million More than 500,000 200,000–500,000 20,000–50,000 10,000–12,000 Less than 5,000

Mt Parthenius

Anuradhapura Polonnaruwa Kandy SRI LANKA

Miles 0 200

JA PA N

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Sikh population

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A R A BI A N SEA

AXUM

N O RTH A TL AN TI C O CEAN P ACIFIC O CEAN

Ellora Elephanta

ALWA

Atlas of

SIKHISM WORLDWIDE TODAY

A R C A D I A Argos

Sardes

Mt Sipylus

DIONYSOS

CHIOS Kyoto Nara Yamato

ATTICA

I N D I A

A R A B I A

Mainly Hindu 500 BCE–600 CE Significantly Hindu 500 BCE–600 CE Jewish centre 500 BCE Jewish settlement by 600 CE Mainly Christian by 300 CE Mainly Christian by 600 CE Mainly Zoroastrian 500 BCE–600 CE Sassanians introduced Zoroastrianism after 226 CE Mahayana Buddhist formative area 0–300 CE Mainly Buddhist by 300 BCE Mainly Buddhist by 600 CE Confucian and Daoist from 300 BCE Shinto area Early Christian monastery + date Christian Patriarchal see in 600 CE Hindu holy site in 600 CE Mithraic site 0–300 CE Zoroastrian fire temple Buddhist sacred site 300 BCE–600 CE Mountain linked with Daoism

2000

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Kunlun

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SOUTH AFRICA URU

Written specifically for students of all levels, this volume is perfect for individual or course-based study.

ARGENTINA

Nil

ATLANTIC OCEAN

PARAGUAY CHILE

ARTEMIS

Kyongju Wangwu OF Lao OROPOS Chang’an AMPHIAREION Hua Gongxian Y E L LOW Tibetan Cithaeron Mts Song Taxila POSEIDON, Zhongnan SEA P l a tAPHRODITE eau Longmen MtTang Helicon Corinth Wu Shan Isthmian TIB ET Games Eleusis Athens Huo Mao L Pingdu for Poseidon ANDROS Putuo Shan A R. Lhasa Cyllene Mts Lu Y DEMETER Tiantai Shan tze CHINA O-mei Shan PALLAS ATHENE, h m a g r a B p u t A r a R. Nemean Games Ya n Ga Lumbini S ARTEMIS, DIONYSOS, Nemea Xi Kuocang Heng Mohenjo-Daro Kusinara for Zeus POSEIDON, HERMES Pataliputra Mycenae Olympia Sarnath DeogharPALLAS ATHENE Sunium Lingjiu DIONYSOS Bodh Gaya Sanchi POSEIDON Luofou

Delphi

M I N O R

Magnesia

Yungang

LUN MOUNTAINS KUN

Bethlehem 386

Wadi Natrun 320 Scetis 330

MOZAMBIQUE ZIMBABWE

LEBADAEA

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LY D I A

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ZAMBIA

Mt Parnassus

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Yellow R .

Jiuquan

ASCLEPIOS

A

ANGOLA

Marakanda Merv

Tun-huang

A S I A

Pergamum

M

D.R. CONGO

TANZANIA

BRAZIL

PERU

Gobi Desert

EN TI

I

GABON

Mt OetaS H A N

SKYROS

Ind

SOMALIA

ECUADOR

MEDITERRANEAN SEA

H

COLOMBIA

GUY AN SUR A INA FREN M CH

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VENEZUELA

MA

TA

IA GER

COS

TIBET

OMAN

LESBOS

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ASCLEPIOS

an JAPAN CAU Bologna ube CA C H I N A R. SU B L AC K S E A S I TALY Serdica M Massilia Rome T (Marseilles) THRACE Constantinople ARMENIA Monte Nola 394 Chalcedon 400 415 BURMA Casino 529 LAOS Nicaea Caesarea 360 THAILAND M E D I PHILIPPINE Gushnasp P ACIFIC Athens T IS.E VIETNAM R R Carthage OCEAN Ephesus A N M E S Nisibis 325 Antioch E A OPO Rhagae N TA M Thagaste M A L A Y S I A388 S E A Salamis 335 IA DuraHamadan Sidon Cyrene Europos Ctesiphon PAPUA I N D Leptis O N E Magna S I A NEW Alexandria GUINEA PE RS Jerusalem S. KOREA

AFGHANISTAN

IRAN

SAUDI ARABIA

Mt Pelion

S EA

TE M G UA

EGYPT

S

S

P ACIFIC OCEAN

IRAQ

PAKISTAN

LIBYA

ORACLE OF ZEUS Vo lg

PIAN

CUBA

MT

er R .

C AS

ALGERIA

MEXICO

MONGOLIA

ie p

N. KOREA

N

SYRIA

IAN

Balkh Kabul Ghazni Indus R .

GERM A

ITALY SPAIN

C A R PAT H

.

A TL ANTIC O CEAN

FRANCE PORTUGAL

Dn

Augusta Treverorum (Trier)

UKRAINE

Indu s R.

R

BELARUS

AN

HAWAII (U.S.A.)

NY POLAND

aR

ATLANTIC OCEAN

.

IRELAND

I nd us R

FINLAND

UNITED KINGDOM

N ORTH

MYSIA

Mt Ida

.

A

PALLAS ATHENE

.

D

GHANA

The concise, helpful text guides the readers’ experience and helps interpretation of the visuals. This atlas surveys the origins, historical development, and current strength, distribution, and nature of the major world religions and their offshoots, and explores some of the religions of the ancient world.

A

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

Hindu Jewish Chinese religions Theravada Buddhism Mahayana Buddhism Mainly Roman Catholic Christian Orthodox Christian Mainly Protestant Christian Sunni Muslim Shi-ite Muslim Shinto Tribal, Muslim, Christian Tribal, Christian Traditional, tribal or undifferentiated religion Jain Minority Sikh minority Jewish minority Muslim minority Zoroastrian minority

SWEDEN

NOR W AY

N

Troy

T H E S S A LY

Dodona

Indus R

ICELAND

A

Vercovicium (Housesteads) York Deva (Chester) B R I TAI N U S 596 S I A Canterbury Colonia Agrippina (Cologne)

Clonard 520

HERMES Mt Mosychlus

LEMNOS

Mt Ossa

Indus R

Iona 563 Whithorn 360

GREENLAND

ALASKA

C

Dowley

Featuring more than fifty-seven brand new maps, photographs, diagrams and charts, the Atlas of World Religions is an essential companion to any study of the key religions of the world.

Mt Olympus

ZEUS, Olympian gods, muses

ATLAS OF WORLD RELIGIONS

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Also in this series Atlas of Christian History: Tim Dowley, 2016 Atlas of the European Reformations: Tim Dowley, 2015

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Atlas of World Religions by Tim Dowley Cartographer Nick Rowland FRGS

Fortress Press Minneapolis

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ATLAS OF WORLD RELIGIONS Copyright © 2018 Fortress Press / ZipAddress Limited. All rights reserved. Except for brief quotations in critical articles or reviews, no part of this book may be reproduced in any manner without prior written permission from the publisher. Email copyright@1517media or write to Permissions, Fortress Press, PO Box 1209, Minneapolis, MN 55440-1209 The right of Tim Dowley to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted by him. Cover design: Alisha Lofgren Print ISBN: 978-1-4514-9968-1 eBook ISBN: 978-1-5064-3975-4 The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences — Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI Z329.48-1984. Manufactured in the USA 18 19 20 21 22

987654321

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Photograph acknowledgements Dreamstime.com: pp. 14–15 and cover © Onefivenine p. 26 and cover © Alexandre Fagundes De Fagundes pp. 32–33 and cover, p. 125 © Pniesen p. 38 © Kshishtofp p. 42 and cover © Kalcutta pp. 44–45 and cover © Sudhir0602 p. 54 © Yamitato p. 56 and cover © Sean Pavone pp. 58–59 © Lamzin Vladimir Lamzin Vladimir p. 72 © Alan Kolnik pp. 80–81 and cover © Kobby Dagan p. 82 © Yoav Sinai p. 96 © Checco p. 107 © Ken Wolter pp. 108–109 © Ahmad Faizal Yahya p. 114 and cover © Konstantin Kaltygin p. 124 © Marta Beckett pp. 132–33 © Chalermphon Kumchai p. 141 © Hoang Bao Nguye p. 148 © Joserpizarro

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Religion indeed enlightens, terrifies, subdues; it gives faith, it inflicts remorse, it inspires resolutions, it draws tears, it inflames devotion… JOHN HENRY NEWMAN (1801–90)

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Contents

List of Maps

8

Foreword 11 A Chronology of World Religions

Part 1: The Ancient World

12

14

Megaliths 16 Babylonia and Sumeria

18

Religion in Ancient Egypt

20

The Early City Religions

22

The Religions of Ancient Greece

25

Roman Religion

28

Zoroastrianism 30

Part 2: Hinduism

32

The Origins of Hinduism

34

Hindu Temple Worship

36

Hinduism and the Sacred

38

Hinduism in the Modern World

40

Jainism 42

Part 3: Buddhism

44

The Origins of Buddhism

46

What is Buddhism?

48

Buddhism Spreads beyond India

50

Buddhism in the Modern World

52

Confucianism and Taoism

54

Part 4: Judaism

6

58

Origin of the Jewish People

60

The Kingdom of Israel

62

Jewish Dispersions

64

The Jewish Diaspora

67

Judaism and the Rise of Islam

68

Anti-Semitism and Messianism

70

Jewish Emancipation

72

Judaism in the USA

74

The Holocaust

76

AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

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Part 5: Christianity

80

Palestine under the Herods

82

Judaism and the Early Church

84

The Early Growth of Christianity

86

Christianity Becomes Official

88

Christendom in 1050 ce

92

The European Reformations

94

Christianity in the Americas c. 1750

96

An Age of Missions

98

The Mormons

102

Christianity Today

104

Part 6: Islam

108

Muhammad 110 The Early Growth of Islam

112

Islam in the Subcontinent

114

Islam in South-east Asia

116

Islam and Africa

120

Islam in Modern Asia

123

Islam in the Modern World

126

Sikhism 128

Part 7: World Religions Today

132

Japanese Religions

134

Religion in China Today

136

What are Indigenous Religions?

140

New Religious Movements

144

Modern Pilgrimage

148

Jerusalem: The Holy City

152

What is the Hajj? 154 Further reading

156

Gazetteer 157 Index 174

CO N T E N T S

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List of Maps 8

1

The Megaliths of Western Europe 16

2

Religious sites of Ancient Mesopotamia 19

3

Ancient Egypt

21

4

Ancient Empires of the Middle East

22

5

Cult Centres of Ancient Greece

24

6

Sources of the Roman Cults

28

7

Zoroastrianism: Origins and Spread

31

8

Hindu Origins

35

9

Temple Hinduism

37

10

Hindu Sacred Places

39

11

Hinduism Today

40

12

Jainism in India

43

13

The Buddhist Heartland

47

14

Buddhism Expands in India

49

15

The Early Spread of Buddhism

51

16

Buddhism Today

53

17 Taoism

55

18

The Exodus

61

19

The Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon

63

20

The Jewish Exiles

64

21

The Jewish Diaspora c. 400 ce

66

22

The Jews and Islam c. 750 ce

68

23

Judaism in 16th and 17th Century Europe

70

24

Jewish Emancipation 1789–1918

73

25

The Origins of Judaism in the USA

74

26

Judaism and the Third Reich

76

27

The Modern State of Israel

79

28

Palestine in the time of Christ

83

29

Jews and Christians in the 1st century Roman Empire

84

30

The Spread of Christianity by 325 ce

86

31

Christianity in the 4th and 5th Centuries

88

32

World Religions 600 bce–600 ce: An Overview

90

33

The Church in 1050

92

34

Reformation Europe c. 1570

94

35

Christianity in the Americas c. 1750

97

AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

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36

Worldwide Christian Missions in the early 20th Century

100

37

The Mormon Trail

102

38

Christianity Worldwide

104

39

The Journeys of Muhammad

111

40

The Spread of Islam by 750 ce

112

41

Islamic Expansion in India

115

42

The Spread of Islam in South-east Asia

116

43

World Religions: 1500

118

44

The Spread of Islam in Africa

121

45

Muslim Peoples of Modern Asia 122

46

Islam Worldwide Today 126

47

Sikh Origins 129

48

Sikhism in India today 130

49

Sikhism Worldwide Today 131

50

Japan: Places of Religious Importance 135

51

Major Religions of Modern China 136

52

World Religions in the 21st Century 138

53

Indigenous Religions Worldwide 142

54

New Religious Movements Worldwide 144

55

Some Modern Pilgrimage Sites 150

56

Jerusalem: Some Holy Sites 153

57

The Route of the Hajj 154

LIST OF MAPS

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9

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Foreword

This atlas aims to survey the origins, historical development, and current strength, distribution, and nature of the major world religions and their offshoots, and to look at some of the religions of the ancient world. To do this within a relatively short book, it has been necessary to be selective in the choice of topics and periods covered. For instance, there is no treatment of Judaism in the medieval period, as this is fully covered in the companion volume, Atlas of Christian History. Important aspects of history of the church – such as the development of monasticism, the power and size of the church and the papacy in the High Middle Ages, detailed treatment of the Protestant and Catholic Reformations, and the religious wars that followed – are also treated comprehensively in Atlas of Christian History, and it was felt otiose to duplicate coverage in this book. The text accompanying the maps is not intended to provide exhaustive coverage of the history and development of world religions, but offers an accessible commentary to aid understanding and interpretation of the respective maps. The various sections of the book are arranged broadly in chronological order of the founding or origins of the religions. A timeline is also provided to give useful chronological comparisons of their history and development. Tim Dowley Dulwich, January 2017

FOREWORD

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A Chronology of World Religions Mesopotamia

372

Buddhism enters Korea from China

2800–2350 bce

Sumerian city states

c. 552 ce

Buddhism enters Japan

2360–2180

Akkadian Empire, Mesopotamia

c. 630 ce

Buddhism enters Tibet

1450 bce

Rise of Assyria

c. 745 ce

Buddhists persecuted in China

745–727

Tiglath-Pileser III

805 ce

Saicho founds Tendai school

806 ce

Kukai founds Shingon school

845 ce

Buddhists persecuted in China

c. 1000

Theravada Buddhism revives in Sri Lanka and S. E. Asia

1175

Honen founds Pure Land sect

1253

Nichiren founds Nichiren sect

c. 1200

Zen starts to grow in China, spreads to Japan

c. 1617

Dalai Lamas become rulers of Tibet

1952

World Fellowship of Buddhists starts

1959

China takes over Tibet: suppresses Buddhism

1989

Dalai Lama awarded Nobel Peace Prize

705–681 bce Sennacherib Egypt 2700–2200 bce

Egypt: Old Kingdom – Pyramid Age

r. 1545–1525 bce

Amen-hotep I

r. 1515–1495 bce

Thutmose I

1290–24 bce

Ramses II

Hinduism c. 2700 bce

Harappa Culture in Indus Valley

c. 800 bce Oral Vedas collected c. 600 bce

Upanishads collected

c. 200 bce–200 ce

Bhagavad Gita collected

c. 200 bce

First contacts with South-east Asia

c . 50 ce

Tantric tradition begins

1000–1150

Angkor Wat built in Cambodia

1948 ce

Mohandas [Mahatma] Gandhi assassinated

1998

Hindu nationalist party BJP wins Indian election

Zoroastrianism 628–551 bce Zoroaster 205–276 ce Mani 651 ce

End of Persian Empire

Buddhism c. 563–483 bce

Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha (traditional dates)

c. 395 bce

First Buddhist Council, Vaisali

c. 272–232 bce

r. Ashoka, Indian king who spread Buddhism

c. 100 bce

Indian Mahayana Buddhism emerges

c. 50 ce

Buddhism enters China

220 ce

First Buddhist mission to Vietnam

12

Jainism c. 527, 510 or 425 bce Death of Mahaviri (by tradition) 466 or 453 bce

Council at Valabhi: Shvetamabara fixed

c. 350 bce

Split between Digambara and Shvetambara

C17

Shvetambara Sthanakvasi sect begins

C18

Shvetambara Terapanth sect begins

1949

Jain World Mission founded

Sikhism 1469–1539 ce

Nanak, founder of Sikhism

1603–4 ce

Adi Granth compiled

1666–1708

Gobind Singh

1695

Khalsa formed

1799

Punjab united under Ramjit Singh

1984 Indian government expels militants from Golden Temple, Amritsar, killing many Sikhs

AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

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Taoism & Confucianism

431

Council of Ephesus condemns Nestorianism

c. 600–500 bce

451

Council of Chalcedon

c. 551–479 bce Confucius

476

Fall of Roman Empire in West

c. 630 ce

All Chinese provinces to honour Confucius

529

Benedict establishes his first monastery

1445 ce

Taoist canon published

862

Cyril and Methodius’ mission to Moravia

1949

Communists take over mainland China

1054

Great Schism

1095

First Crusade called

1123

First Lateran Council

1176

Carthusian monastic order established

1517

Beginning of Protestant Reformation

1549

Francis Xavier reaches Japan

1563

Council of Trent ends

1611

King James Version of Bible

1738

John Wesley’s conversion experience

1795

London Missionary Society founded

1799

Church Missionary Society founded

1804

British & Foreign Bible Society founded

1830

Book of Mormon

1895

World Student Christian Federation founded

1948

First assembly of World Council of Churches

1962–65

Second Vatican Council

Legendary Lao Tsu

Shinto c. 660 bce

Legendary Emperor Jimmu

1868 ce

Rule of Emperor Meiji begins

1882

State Shinto begins

1945

State Shinto ends

1946

Emperor Hirohito rejects divine title

Judaism c. 1800 bce

Traditional date of patriarch Abraham

c. 1250 bce

Traditional date of Exodus from Egypt

1200–1020 bce

‘Judges’ rule Israel

c. 1160 bce

Philistines settle Palestine coast

c. 1000–961 bce

King David

c. 950 bce

Solomon’s Temple built

922 bce Israel divides into Northern and Southern Kingdoms (Israel and Judah) 722 bce

Assyria conquers Northern Kingdom

Islam

586–539 bce

Solomon’s Temple destroyed; Exile to Babylonia

570–632 ce

Prophet Muhammad

Second Temple built

622 ce

Hijra: Muhammad’s flight from Mecca to Medina

166–160 bce

Maccabean Rebellion

630

Conquest of Mecca

r. 40–4 bce

Herod the Great

634–35

Conquest of Jordan, Palestine, Syria, Lebanon, Persia

Herod’s Temple destroyed

641–43

Conquest of Egypt, Libya, Carthage, Nubia

c. 400 ce

Palestinian Talmud completed

732

Battle of Poitiers stops Muslim expansion to France

c. 600 ce

Babylonian Talmud completed

705–715

Conquest of Central Asia, Sind, Spain

Jews expelled from Spain

1058–1111

Sufi scholar al-Ghazali

c. 1698–1759

Baal Shem Tov in Poland

1291

Muslims expel Crusaders from Palestine

c. 1800 ce

Reform movement spreads in Western Europe

1492

Muslims expelled from Spain

First Zionist Congress

1529

Otttoman Turks reach Vienna

1938–1945

Jewish Holocaust

1526–1857

Mughal Empire, India

1948

State of Israel founded

1947

Islamic state of Pakistan formed

1979

Islamic Revolution, Iran

2001

Islamist terrorists attacks in USA

520–515 bce

70 ce

1492 ce

1897

Christianity 4 bce–30 ce

Jesus of Nazareth

c. 65 ce

Apostle Paul dies

312 ce

Emperor Constantine recognizes Christianity

325

First Council of Nicaea

335

Constantine builds Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem

A C H R O N O LO G Y O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

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The Ancient World

Part 1

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However, as well as these megalithic tombs, there were menhirs – huge alignments of stones – such as those at Carnac, Brittany. Their purpose is unknown; possibly they marked ritual procession routes. Some large constructions, such as the Hal Tarxien stone buildings in Malta, were apparently temples: chalk sculptures found in them display realistic human features, and may represent gods and goddesses and their priests. Other megalithic structures possibly had astronomical functions, perhaps to help farmers determine the calendar and agricultural seasons. For instance, Stonehenge, on Salisbury Plain, England, has a circle of sarsen stones, some of which line up with the sunrise at midsummer. Whatever its calendar purpose, Stonehenge was also a place of worship; archaeologists have suggested that fertility-gods and goddesses were worshipped there.

THE MEGALITHS OF WESTERN EUROPE

Ring of Brodgar Callanish Loanhead of Daviot

N ORTH SEA

Balfarg Cairnpapple

Ballochroy

Long Meg & daughters

Ballynoe

B R I T I S H New Grange

Castle Rigg

I S L E S

Moel Ty Uchaf Rhos-y-beddau Parc y Meirw Saeth Maen Rollright Stones Mynydd-bach Avebury Cerrig Duon Stonehenge Merrivale

Lios

Merry Maidens

La Madeleine Carnac

SoumontSaint-Quentin St Just . ir Lo

eR

ATLANTIC OCEAN Rhône R.

Megaliths

Towards the end of the Neolithic era megaliths – structures composed of large stones – were erected in Europe. Most were dolmens – burial structures consisting of a large, flat stone supported on uprights, and passage graves – located on islands and shores of the Mediterranean and western Europe.

Puy de Pauliac

PYR

EN

Perarine

EE

S

Eb ro R.

I B E R I A gus R.

Ta

M

AT L A S M T S

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A F R I C

AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

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map 1

SCANDINAVIA

Celtic influence at its greatest extent Area of Megalithic tombs Stone circle Megalithic tomb Stone alignment

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MEGALITHS

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Babylonia and Sumeria 18

Mesopotamia is the Greek name for the lands of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, currently occupied by Iraq and Syria. This region had no easily defensible frontiers, and throughout historical times fierce hill-people raided from the east, while herdsmen from the steppe overran the fertile lands from the west and south, as they saw the potential of cultivating its rich soil and fishing its rivers. The northern part of Mesopotamia has enough annual rainfall for farmers to grow grain and find pasture, and people have lived in its hills and near its rivers since Neolithic times, about 12,000 years ago. In ancient Babylonia to the south, agriculture depended on artificial irrigation, drawing water from the rivers and carefully controlling it. This skill was apparently introduced there around 5000 bce, after which settled life developed until the fourth millennium bce, when great cities flourished by the rivers and canals. From these cities, traders and colonists spread north up the Euphrates river into Syria, east into Persia, and south down the Persian Gulf, carrying inventions and ideas from their culture – foremost among them writing. The need to organize and administer the large settlements and their irrigation systems stimulated the development of writing in Babylonia.

The Sumerians The dominant people of the south, the Sumerians, produced Babylonian cuneiform writing – the most significant writing system of the ancient Middle East – on clay tablets. Their religious beliefs are the earliest we can know about in Mesopotamia, although it is impossible to be sure that any particular aspect is solely Sumerian because the land was always inhabited by a mixture of races. There is little that can be called distinctively ‘Sumerian’ apart from their language. In Uruk (Erech), a city dating to c. 3000 bce and best known from archaeological excavations and from the earliest texts, there were two main temples. One was for Anu, the supreme god, the king of heaven; the other for Inanna, the

great mother, goddess of fertility, love, and war. The goddess Inanna was the principle of life, depicted in paintings, carved into stone, and modelled in clay in almost every prehistoric dwelling. The temples of Uruk employed large numbers of people and owned extensive estates. Craftsmen made fine artefacts for use in temple services, weavers made clothes for the sacred statues and for the priests, and scribes recorded temple affairs. The priests also played an important part in city life; the high priest was sometimes also king of the city. Such seems to have been the regular structure of temple life in Babylonian cities for centuries. Each major city in the south was the centre for worship of a particular deity. During the third millennium bce, besides Anu and Inanna at Uruk, there were: Enlil, lord of the atmosphere, who was worshipped at Nippur, and, next to Anu, chief of the gods; Enki, ruler of the fresh water from beneath the earth, who had his shrine at Eridu; the sun-god, Utu, whose home was at Larsa; and the moon-god, Nanna, who lived at Ur. Each principal god had a family and servants, who were also honoured with temples and chapels. For example, Enlil’s son, Ninurta, was lord of Lagash. Lesser deities had shrines inside the larger temples, but were also revered in small shrines among the houses of the citizens. The temples dominated the cities. When a temple grew old or was regarded as too small, a new one was built, often on the ruins of

AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

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RELIGIOUS SITES OF ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA

map 2

GUT Tell Brak

Z A

IAN

G

R

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Dur Sharrukin

T

Ashur

A

Eu

DIT

Capital during dynasty of Sargon 2241–2186 BCE

R.

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Mari

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Agade

Tutub Sippar Sacred to sun god

ME

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Erech (Uruk)

Miles 0 50 0 50 100 Kilometers

Temple

to Enlil Kish Babylon Nippur Borsippa ELA Dilbat Adab Shuruppak S U M E R Lagash

5 dynasties ruled here before 2000 BCE Earliest known writing dates pre 3000 BCE

Ziggurat site Fertile areas

ES

Kar-Tukulti-Ninurta s R. Tigri

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Calah

Tell Irmah

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L. Urmia

Eridu

M

Susa Capital of Elam

Larsa Ur

Ur-nammu reigned Tell el-‘Ubaid 2044–2027 BCE Temple founded by Home of biblical Abraham A-anni-paddo of 1st Ur dynasty 2438–2399 BCE

100

150

200

PERSIAN GULF

the previous one. Over the years, the temples came to be erected on platforms covering the earlier buildings, towering above the surrounding houses. Most important in these temples was the holy room, where the statue of the particular god stood. In Solomon’s Temple, the Jewish sanctuary in Jerusalem, the holy room had no statue: solely the Ark of the Covenant.

B A B Y LO N I A A N D S U M E R I A

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Religion in Ancient Egypt 20

‘Ancient Egypt’ is the civilization in the lower reaches of the Nile Valley from about 3100 bce to 30 bce. This includes periods of strength such as the Old Kingdom (c. 2700–2200 bce), when a line of powerful rulers left their pyramids as monuments; the Middle Kingdom (c. 2000–1800 bce), another time of strong central government, with influence on Egypt’s neighbours; and the New Kingdom (c. 1550–1225 bce), when Egypt was among the dominant countries of the Near East. It also includes periods when Egypt was divided internally and occupied by foreign powers. These changes in political power and economic prosperity over 3,000 years occasioned changes in philosophical and religious attitudes; yet there are enough consistent features to allow us to talk about ‘Egyptian religion’.

Egyptian gods The gods of ancient Egypt – represented in the temples and tombs – are a bewildering mix of strange forms, half-animal and half-human. We know little about actual Egyptian religious beliefs, since we have no records about Egyptian theology by ancient Egyptians. Many of the Egyptian gods represented powerful natural forces. Egypt’s prosperity depended on the daily reappearance of the sun and the annual flooding of the Nile: these forces were regarded as gods needing to be coaxed and encouraged through sacrifice and worship. The gods were often originally linked with particular cities. As communities came together in larger political units, local deities gradually became important in the nation as a whole. For example, the god Amun, from the city of Thebes, was a kind of national god, protecting and leading the whole nation for a time during the New Kingdom, when Thebes was home to the ruling family. There

are also references to ‘God’ or ‘The God’, who seems to have been an unnamed universal divine power, controlling the universe and upholding good against evil. For a short time, from about 1375 to 1350 bce, there was an attempt to impose a form of monotheism. The pharaoh Amenophis IV gradually developed worship of the Aten, or the sun’s disk, until he was the only god whose worship was tolerated. The worship of Amun was attacked, while the Aten was seen as the source of all life. This gift of life was passed to the king, who changed his name to Akhenaten – ‘the one who is beneficial to the Aten’ – and to his family, and thence to the people. As well as the ‘mainstream’ gods, the Egyptians also adopted other deities. The king or pharaoh was also seen as a god, although this was a limited idea of divinity, because he was clearly mortal. Few rulers had a statue placed in the temple shrine as an object of worship. Animals also feature in Egyptian religion. In some instances, all the animals of one species were regarded as sacred, and were mummified and buried in huge numbers. The Egyptians seem always to have believed in an afterlife. The earliest tombs contain items of food and equipment, and later the decoration of tombs shows how the Egyptians thought such a life would be: similar to this world – but better.

AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

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ANCIENT EGYPT

map 3

MEDITERRANEAN SEA

Capital of Hyksos kings c. 1720–1570 BCE

AN

NA

Sometimes capital after New Empire c. 730–400 BCE

Tanis/Avaris/Ramses

LI BYA

CA

Sais

Capital of Old Kingdom Temples to Ptah Regional centre

Giza Memphis

Onu/Heliopolis Centre of Re/Ra worship – major influence in Old Kingdom Saqqara

EG UPPER

Hermopolis

EDOM

Pelusium

LO W E R E G Y P T

DEAD SEA

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Ni l

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First Dynasty tombs

Necropolis of Thebes

Thebes/Nuwe

‘Valley of the Kings’

Hierakonpolis

Capital of Egypt during Middle Kingdom and New Empire Centre of worship of Amon

Elephantine/Yeb

‘Door of South’ during Old Kingdom Market for Nubian ivory

1st Cataract

RED SEA

S. border of Old Kingdom to c. 2100 BCE

LO W E R N U B I A Abu Simbel 2nd Cataract

S. border of Middle Kingdom to c. 1800 BCE

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Old Kingdom pyramid: mainly 4th Dynasty c. 2600–2500 BCE Middle Kingdom pyramid: c. 2100–1800 BCE New Empire pyramid: c. 1550–1100 BCE

4th Cataract

Napata

5th Cataract S. border of New Empire c. 1550–1100 BCE

Capital of Cushite Dynasty ruling Upper Egypt c. 730–650 BCE

Meroë

RELIGION IN ANCIENT EGYPT

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The invention of the plough and introduction of irrigation greatly improved agricultural productivity, while the development of sea travel, rise of metallurgy, and invention of writing opened up for city-dwellers occupations other than farming. Increasing land and maritime contact with other societies facilitated the sharing of concepts, knowledge, and trade. Specialists uninvolved in agriculture – such as the Sumerian temple communities – now began to appear. The rise of cities led to specialization: men began to adopt different trades and professions. Religion reflected this, with the arrival of distinct priesthoods, temples, festivals, theologies and, later, scriptures. Although the Neolithic inter-relationship between human beings, nature, and the gods continued, more personal religious questions – about suffering, meaning, and life after death – became more immediate. Religion was evolving into a separate, personal concern as well as a group affair. Forms of urban religious life differed between Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus Valley and China. Religion in ancient Egypt was characterized by the worship of, and sacrifice to, local and state gods, in some instances in elaborate temples. In Mesopotamia there was a succession of peoples and religions, including the Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians, Hurrians, Hittites, and West Semitic groups. State religions, with their temples, kings, and annual festivals, were characterized by their mythologies: epic creation accounts, stories of ritual victories by god-kings such as Marduk,

ANCIENT EMPIRES OF THE MIDDLE EAST

Hattus Troy

Hal ys R.

Knossos

M EDITERRANEAN S EA

Miles 0 0 100 Kilometers

100 200

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Nile R.

The Early City Religions 22

The rise of city civilizations brought about important religious developments. Cities developed around 3500 bce in Mesopotamia, and slightly later in Egypt. Urban civilization spread into the Indus Valley and rose independently in China.

and tales of myth-ritual state ceremonies. Out of this Egyptian and Middle Eastern setting, Jewish concerns for the land and ethical monotheism were later to emerge.

AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

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map 4

Major trade routes Settlements in existence before 3500 BCE City-based civilizations

Hattushash

Hal ys R.

CASPIAN SEA Carchemish Haran Nineveh Ugarit

Sialk

Ebla Ashur

Hamath

t hra Eup

Byblos

Anatu

is R. Tigr

Mari

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. Babylon

Jericho

Hittite Empire set up by Suppiluliuma I 1344–1322 BCE Mitanni after 1340 BCE Assyrian Empire 1353-1318 BCE Assyrian Empire at maximum extent C7 BCE Babylonian Empire under Burnaburiash II 1347–1321 BCE Elamite Empire under Tept-ahar 1353–1318 BCE Egyptian Empire under Amenophis IV & Tutankhamun 1352–1335 BCE

Susa

Nippur Lagash Erech Ur Eridu

T H E E A R LY C I T Y R E L I G I O N S

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CULT CENTRES OF ANCIENT GREECE

Mt Erymanthus

Mt Pangaeus

MACEDONIA

DIONYSUS

POSEIDON

THASOS

SAMOTHRACE CABEIRI

Mt Olympus

ZEUS, Olympian gods, muses

HERMES Mt Mosychlus

LEMNOS

Mt Ossa

Troy

PALLAS ATHENE

Mt Id

T H E S S A LY

Dodona

ORACLE OF ZEUS

Mt Pelion LESBOS

AEGEAN SEA

ASCLEPIOS

MEDITERRANEAN SEA

SKYROS

Mt Oeta Mt Parnassus Pythian Games for Apollo

Delphi

POSEIDON, ARTEMIS

BOETIA

POSEIDON, APHRODITE

Isthmian Games for Poseidon

Corinth

HERA

APOLLO OF AMYCLAE, ARTEMIS ORTHIA, ATHENA CHALKIOIKOS, DIOSCURI

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DIONYSOS

CHIOS

AMPHIAREION OF OROPOS

Cithaeron Mts Mt Helicon Eleusis Athens ANDROS Cyllene Mts DEMETER PALLAS ATHENE, Nemean Games DIONYSOS, Nemea for Zeus ATTICA ARTEMIS, POSEIDON, HERMES Mycenae Olympia PALLAS ATHENE Sunium A R C A D I A Argos DIONYSOSEpidaurus POSEIDON

ACHAEA

ARES ZACYNTHUS

EUBOEA

LEBADAEA

SAMOS ICARIA

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Sparta

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APOLLO

ASCLEPIOS

Mt Parthenius

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IONIAN SEA Sacred mountain Cult site Site of games/arts competition Deity worshipped widely in area Oracle

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Troy

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A S I A M I N O R

Pergamum ASCLEPIOS

LY D I A

Magnesia ARTEMIS

Mt Sipylus

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Mt Ida

Sardes

ARTEMIS

Mt Tmolus APOLLO

Ephesus

SAMOS HERA

ARTEMIS

Mt Mycale POSEIDON Mt Latmus Didyma

CARIA

ORACLE OF APOLLO

ASCLEPIOS

COS

TELOS HELIOS

RHODES

The Greeks and Romans created a world of gods and demi-gods, heroes, nymphs, and satyrs that linked heaven (‘Olympia’) and earth. Well-known gods of antiquity were introduced, or taken over from previous or related sanctuaries and tribes: Poseidon (Roman Neptune), symbolic of the sea; Aphrodite (Roman Venus), symbolic of love; Ares (Roman Mars), of war; Hephaistos (Roman Vulcan), of fire. Zeus (Roman Jupiter), the god of thunder, became the father-god. Thus the Greeks created a myth that lent order and meaning to the complexities of life. In early times, some of the gods were identified with, and worshipped in, particular places: Zeus in Crete; Hera in Argos; Apollo – the beardless youth, god variously of music, healing, sun, and light – in Asia Minor; and Dionysus (or Bacchus) – god of the grape harvest, wine, fertility, and ritual frenzy – in Mycenae. These gods gradually began to function more widely, and sometimes took on characteristics of other deities. For example the North African deities Baal and Tannit became respectively Saturn and the Heavenly Goddess (Roman Dea Caelestis); Apollo travelled from Didyma, Asia Minor to Delphi, Greece, and thence to Rome. Mount Olympus became the meeting place of quasi-aristocratic gods, governed by Zeus and his jealous wife, Hera. Kronos (time) became the father of Zeus; Uranus (sky, or heaven) the father of Kronos – symbolically linking power, time, and heaven. In The Odyssey and The Iliad, the ancient Greek poet Homer portrays the gods in human terms, although they are immortal. They prompt dread, fear, shame, and reverence in humans, who in response pray, praise, take oaths, sacrifice victims, and pour libations. The gods were consulted through

THE RELIGIONS OF ANCIENT GREECE

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The Religions of Ancient Greece

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The Tholos of Delphi, Greece, part of the Sanctuary of Athena Pronaia, built c. 370 bce.

birds (augury) or interpretation of dreams. Other omens included lightning, thunder, and falling stars. Greek religion dealt with some of the great metaphysical problems: fate (the Roman Parcae), death (Hades, a place where life continued, with neither reward nor punishment), and good and evil. Some of the great mythic tales and characters came into being – such as Medea, Antigone, Oedipus, and Theseus – and were the subjects of dramatic works by major authors. The ritual complex at Eleusis, West Attica, involved the goddess Demeter and her

26

AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

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daughter and was linked to grain. At festival time participants in ‘mystery’ initiation were promised happiness and perhaps a vision of the god. The temple at Eleusis provided for huge gatherings of up to 10,000 people. The Greek historian Herodotus (c. 484– 425 bce) claimed the most ancient oracle site in Greece was Dodona, with its great oak tree. Questions to this oracle reveal particular concerns about health. Other oracles were the Amphiareion of Oropos and Trophonius at Lebadaea. The temple-cult of Asclepios, the god of healing, was established in times of need,

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especially by city-states threatened by disease. It became the most widespread of the newer cults, with important centres at Pergamum, Corinth, Epidaurus, and Kos. The cult used as remedies exercise, cold baths, rest, herbal prescriptions, and diet, along with dreams induced by suggestion. Two syncretistic cults emerged from Egypt. The cult of Serapis fused the Greek mysteries with the native Egyptian cult of Osiris. In the cult of Isis – important in ancient myth as the king’s divine mother –

the king sat in Isis’ lap, creating a ‘madonnaand-child’ image. Isis and Serapis were believed to be able to deliver from war, prison, pain, wandering, shipwreck, and even death. Greek religion seems to have been more personal, individualistic, and pluralistic than the religion of the Romans, who emphasized the public, contractual aspects. Yet it is important not to impose a false dichotomy between the religion of these two civilizations.

THE RELIGIONS OF ANCIENT GREECE

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NORTH SEA

B R I TA N N I A Colonia Agrippina

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The Romans adopted many foreign gods – especially Greek – modifying them to fit their own needs. Three of the oldest deities – Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva (Greek Zeus, Hera, and Athena) – were worshipped in a temple on Rome’s Capitoline Hill. Other later deities included Aesculapius (Greek Asclepios) from 293–291 bce, and Cybele, the ‘Great Mother’, from 204 bce. The Pantheon of Agrippa and Hadrian in Rome, commissioned during the reign of Augustus (r. 27 bce–14 ce) and completed by Hadrian (r. 117–138 ce), was dedicated to the twelve planetary gods as an expression of cosmic order. There does not seem to have been a priest class in Greece comparable to the priests (pontifices) of Rome. Augustus appropriated the ancient office of pontifex maximus, incorporating in his person the religious tradition of the city. Beginning with the Emperor Caligula (37 ce), the imperial oath included the name ‘Augustus’ between ‘Zeus the Saviour’ and ‘the holy Virgin of our city’. This concept of emperor worship can be traced back to Hellenistic, Oriental, and preRoman Western models of deified kingship. Evidence from the excavated city of Pompeii, Italy, shows that family cults flourished. Almost every house and workshop had a private shrine with busts of ancestors and other traditional household gods, the Lares and Penates. The preserved ruins of Ostia include by the 3rd century ce fifteen shrines devoted to the god Mithras, whose mystery cult flourished from the 1st to the 4th century ce.

SOURCES OF THE ROMAN CULTS

R. ine Rh

Roman Religion

Roman religion was originally related to the agricultural economy. Rome’s only unique mythology related to her own creation, with the city personified as the chief deity.

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Roman Empire circa CE 117 Source of Roman cult/belief system

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Zoroastrianism 30

Zoroaster is the westernized version of ‘Zarathushtra’, the prophet of ancient Persia, who may have lived c. 1200 bce, when Persia was emerging from the Stone Age. From the age of 30, Zoroaster had a series of visions that inspired him to preach a new message, which became the recognized teaching of a small kingdom in north-east Persia. In time it spread throughout Persia, where it became the official religion for 1,000 years. Zoroastrians believe their prophet was chosen by God to receive his unique revelation, contained in 17 hymns, the Gathas, central to a major act of worship, yasna. Zarathushtra emphasized personal religion: all men and women have a personal responsibility to choose between good and evil, and will be judged hereafter. He taught that God – Ahura Mazda, the Wise Lord – was the wholly good creator of all things and is friend of all. Evil in the world comes from Angra Mainyu, the destructive spirit, who created demons, rules in hell, and from the beginning opposed God. The world is a battleground between the forces of good and evil: humankind was created to aid God in this conflict. God also created a number of heavenly beings, foremost among them Amesha Spentas, the ‘Bounteous Immortals’, or sons and daughters of God: Vohu Manah, good mind; Asha, righteousness; Armaiti, devotion; Kshathra, dominion; Haurvatat, wholeness; and Ameretat, immortality. These are both heavenly beings and ideals to which the righteous should aspire. Zarathushtra taught that the world was essentially good, but spoilt by the attacks of evil. He looked toward a day when the battle with evil would climax, the good triumph, and the world be restored to its perfect state. At the last, the dead will be raised and judged, the wicked will go to hell, and the righteous live with God in perfection for eternity. We have no written sources for Zoroastrianism’s first 700 years. By the time the Persians came to power in the 6th century bce, the religion was already

widespread. The Achaemenid dynasty that ruled Persia after Cyrus the Great (d. 530 bce) spread Zoroastrianism throughout the realm, largely through a priestly tribe of Medes called ‘Magi’. During the ensuing Parthian Empire (247 bce– 224 ce), steps were taken to collect the ancient traditions and sacred literature in the Zoroastrian holy book, the Avesta. From earliest times, fire has been the focus of Zoroastrian rites and devotions. Temples were introduced into the religion by the Achaemenid monarch, Artaxerxes II (404–359 bce). At the centre of their sacred buildings Zoroastrians placed the ‘icon’ of fire. When the Islamic empire rose to power, education, promotion, and equality before the law were denied to Zoroastrians, who were forced to retreat to desert villages. Oppressed and poor, they were frequently attacked by Muslims. For almost 1,400 years of Muslim rule, Zoroastrians endured persecution, oppression, poverty, injustice, and isolation. In the 10th century ce, a small group of Zoroastrians left Persia to seek religious freedom, settling in India, where they have since lived in peace and security. Today Parsis and Iranian Zoroastrians are reckoned to number between 124,000 and 190,000 worldwide, with the main base of their religion in India.

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ZOROASTRIANISM: ORIGINS AND SPREAD

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Hinduism

Part 2

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The Origins of Hinduism 34

The religion we know today as Hinduism may be almost as old as Indian civilization itself. Archaeological evidence suggests continuities between the religion of the Indus Valley society of 2500–1500 bce and modern Hinduism. Archaeological excavations have revealed evidence of what appears to be a highly developed urban culture – sometimes also known as the ‘Harappa Culture’ – with welldeveloped systems of farming, grain-storage, and pottery. However little is known about the religion of this civilization. The large number of terracotta figurines unearthed suggests continuity with later Hindu deities, such as Shiva and the mother goddess, but scholars are wary of making definitive connections. The Indus Valley civilization seems to have declined suddenly between 1800 and 1700 bce. What followed is the subject of academic controversy. Some scholars claim the Indus Valley civilization was replaced by the culture of the Aryans, Indo-European invaders, or migrants from the Caucasus region, who moved south and settled in the Indian subcontinent. However others believe this Aryan civilization developed from within the Indus Valley, or Harappa, culture. An Iron Age culture, known by the style of its pottery, as The Painted Grey Ware culture, flourished from 1000 to 500 bce, and was succeeded by the Northern Black Polished Ware culture from about 500 bce. Whatever its origins, the history of Hinduism is the story of the next 2,000 years of Aryan culture, often interacting with, and always dominating, non-Aryan cultures in the area. The language of the Aryans was Sanskrit, and our knowledge of the early Aryans derives mainly from ancient Sanskrit compositions – the Vedas – compiled over centuries, and originating in oral traditions from thousands of years earlier. The religion of this period is variously known as Vedism, ancient Hinduism, Brahmanism, and Vedic

Brahmanism. Many Hindus regard the Vedas as a timeless revelation, the repository of all knowledge, and a marker of Hindu identity: the Vedas form the foundation for most of the later developments in Hinduism. The earliest Vedas were mainly liturgical texts, used primarily in rituals of sacrifice addressed to such early gods as Agni, the fire god, and Soma, the plant god. In due course, Aryan culture became well established in northern India. Brahmanic (or Vedic) ideology, central to social and political life, was concerned with the ritual status and duties of the king, the maintenance of social order, and the regulation of individual behaviour in accordance with the all-embracing ideology of duty or righteousness (dharma). Dharma involved ritual and moral behaviour, and defined good conduct according to such factors as class (varna) and stage in life (ashrama). It operated simultaneously at several levels: the transcendental and eternal (sanatana dharma), the everyday (sadharana dharma), and the individual and personal (svadharma). Neglecting dharma was believed to lead to undesirable social and personal consequences.

The later Vedic Period In later Vedic texts – the Aranyakas and Upanishads – ritual practice began to be seen as secondary to the gaining of spiritual knowledge. Central to this was the karmasamsara-moksha doctrine: all beings are reincarnated into the world (samsara) over and over again; the results of action (karma) are reaped in future lives. This process of endless rebirth is characterized by suffering (dukkha); liberation (moksha) from

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HINDU ORIGINS

map 8

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High density of Painted Grey ware 1000–500 BCE Spread of Northern Black Polished ware 500–100 BCE Aryans arrive from Central Asia c. 1500 BCE

u

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this suffering can be obtained by gaining spiritual knowledge. Gaining spiritual knowledge thus came to assume central importance, and the self-discipline and ascetic methods necessary to gain it were developed in the Hindu traditions of yoga and renunciation

of the world. Ascetic groups known as strivers (sramanas) were formed during this period, seeking liberation through austerity. Buddhism and Jainism – both of which rejected the authority of the Vedas – originated in these groups.

THE ORIGINS OF HINDUISM

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Hindu Temple Worship 36

Sectarian worship of particular deities grew and flourished in India through much of the first millennium ce. Increasingly, Vedic sacrifice was marginalized, giving way to devotional worship, or puja – the ritual expression of love or devotion (bhakti) to a deity. Sanskrit narrative traditions also grew and flourished, most important of which were the Hindu epics – the Ramayana and the Mahabharata (the Puranas), devotional texts containing mythological stories about the gods and goddesses and treatises on ritual worship – and devotional poetry in Indian regional languages, particularly Tamil. One of the most important developments of this period was the composition of the Bhagavad Gita, the ‘Song of the Lord’, contained in the Mahabharata. This work, perhaps the most famous of the Hindu scriptures, expresses in narrative form the concerns of Hinduism: the importance of dharma and the maintenance of social order and stability, together with the importance of devotion to the transcendent as a personal god. Temple cities grew and flourished during this period, serving not only as commercial and administrative cores of kingdoms, but as ritual centres. The temple was normally located at the heart of the town, and thus of the kingdom. Kings sought to derive legitimacy through their patronage of these ritual sites, dedicated to one or the other of the major deities of the Purana.

Temple cults In early medieval India the worship of Vishnu or one of his incarnations – normally Krishna or Rama (Vaisnavism) – and worship of Shiva (Shaivism or Saivam) became widespread throughout the subcontinent, promoting temple-cults and displacing Buddhism. Sectarian devotional groups emerged, dedicated to the worship of Vishnu (Vaishnavas), Shiva (Shaivas), and the goddess Devi (Shaktas). From medieval times, many temples – known as ‘Sakta’ temples – were also devoted to goddesses. Such temples still dot the countryside, a distinctive feature of modern Hinduism. Within each temple stood a consecrated icon, regarded as a partial embodiment of the deity. Manuals known as Agamas, Tantras, and Sarnhitas described the rituals to be performed during temple worship. In the temple, a daily ritual known as puja involved waking, dressing, bathing, feeding, and entertaining the god, as though he were a king. Such static images of the deity were hidden in a holy place inside the temple, but often had movable equivalents that were processed through the village or city on festival days.

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TEMPLE HINDUISM

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Hinduism and the Sacred 38

By tradition there are seven sites of particular religious significance for Hindus. These are Varanasi, associated with Shiva; Kanchipuram, the site of a temple devoted to Shiva; Haridwar; Ujjain; Ayodhya; and Mathura and Dwarka, both linked to Krishna. The land of India itself is worshipped as ‘Divine Mother’ (Bharat Mata) and is sanctified by Shaktipithas, centres of goddess worship. Particularly important to Hinduism are sacred rivers, and the holy towns and cities situated along their banks, which are seen as crossing-places (tirtha) between the secular and the sacred, and between the world of the living and the dead. Hinduism lists seven sacred rivers: the Ganges, Saraswati (a legendary watercourse whose whereabouts is disputed), Yamuna, Indus, Narmada, Godavari, and Kaveri (Cauvery). Of these, the Ganges (Ganga), said to have come down from the stars, is the most important. Thousands take a daily dip in its waters, fulfilling the ritual purification that is vital in Hinduism. A single immersion in the river is believed to earn great spiritual merit for the worshipper. Known as the ‘Great Mother’, the Ganges has today become heavily polluted. In a single five-mile stretch of the 1,560 mile-long river, some 60,000 people ritually cleanse themselves every day. Yet parts of the river are so polluted by untreated sewage, industrial waste, and pesticides that they are not just filthy but diseasecarrying, toxic, and carcinogenic. Hundreds of millions of dollars have been spent in attempts to

cleanse the river, but with little success. Part of the problem is that the Ganges is regarded by Hindus as so sacred as to be beyond harm. Its waters are believed to be pure – even medicinal – and the responsibility of the gods, not of humans. In Hinduism, the sacred is everywhere, not merely in temples and sacred images, but also in nature – in stones, trees, mountains, and rivers. From time to time the sacred reveals itself in the form of an arcane rock, stream, or spring, and the site of such a manifestation becomes a place of worship. Pilgrims flock to these places during auspicious months in the Hindu calendar, and mythological stories spring up concerning the miraculous nature of the pilgrimage site.

Indian sadhu near the Ganges river at Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India.

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HINDU SACRED PLACES

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Sites linked with Shiva Sites linked with Vishnu Sites linked with Sakta (Shakti) Sacred bathing places Guru, Rishi or Holy Man

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Hinduism in the Modern World 40

Hinduism has been regarded as a ‘world religion’ since only the 19th century. Hindu reformers and Western orientalists then began to refer to the variety of beliefs and practices characterizing religious life in South Asia as ‘Hinduism’. Yet Hinduism possesses many features characteristic of ‘indigenous religions’. It has no single historical founder, no central revelation, no creed or unified system of belief, no single doctrine of salvation, and no centralized authority. In this way, it differs from the other world religions. Huge diversity and variety of religious movements, systems, beliefs, and practices characterize Hinduism. There is no clear division between the sacred and profane, the natural and supernatural: religion and social life are inseparable. Yet most scholars agree that unifying strands run through the diverse traditions constituting Hinduism. Hinduism has seen many changes during its long history: for instance the rise and fall in prominence of some ancient gods, such as Indra, king of the gods, and Varuna, god of the sea; the decline in importance of the fire sacrifice; and the rise in popularity of the bhakti devotional tradition in the 6th century ce. Influenced by Western values, 19th and early 20th century Hindu reformers such as Vivekananda (1863–1902), Ram Mohan Roy (1772–1833), Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi (1869–1948), and Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1888–1975) advocated an ethical form of Hinduism that campaigned against social practices such as sati – the self-immolation of widows on their husbands’ funeral pyres – and child marriage. Hinduism has since retreated somewhat from these reforms, though sati is rare and strictly proscribed in India. Some Hindus today uphold traditional Hindu practices, and consult astrologers and

HINDUISM TODAY

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Hinduism by percentage 5 – 9% 10 – 19% 20 – 39% 40 – 59% over 60% Hindu migrants C19 – early C20 Hindu migrants since 1947

gurus. Since Indian independence, Hinduism has also become more politicized, with the rise of Hindu nationalistic parties promoting India as a Hindu state. Hinduism has also transcended national boundaries. While it has long flourished beyond the Indian subcontinent, in such places as Java and Bali, in the 20th century the Hindu diaspora became widespread, establishing communities across the globe. Many Hindus migrated to the West, where their minority communities evolved

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a distinctive form of Hinduism. Westernized Hindu ideas were imported back to India, increasing awareness of mystical traditions, sacred sites, and esoteric forms of spirituality. Interest has grown in pilgrimage to sacred shrines, such as the Sabarimala temple in Kerala, and in festivals such as the Kumbh Mela. Modern Hinduism has also seen a strengthening of the caste system. At the turn of the 20th century, Hindu reformers sought to reform what they saw as the chauvinism

1000 1500 2000

and discrimination of the caste system. Revisionist thinking now emphasizes the positive side of castes. At the same time, some ‘untouchable’ and tribal groups have begun to abandon their traditional deities and practices to build temples and worship Hindu deities such as Vishnu and Shiva. Apart from Hindu fundamentalism, Hinduism seems at ease with the modern world. Yoga and the related spiritual disciplines have been widely adopted and Hindu spiritual teachers are active worldwide.

HINDUISM IN THE MODERN WORLD

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Jainism

Jainism – like Hinduism and Buddhism – emerged from the Vedic culture of northern India in about the 5th century bce and is based around the teachings of Mahavira, whom Jains venerate as the 24th jina (‘conquerer’) of the last cosmic cycle. Jain tradition dates Mahavira to 599–527 bce. Jains hold that all living beings have a soul, and that these souls – undergoing a continuous cycle of death and rebirth – can be liberated only if the individual adopts an extreme ascetic lifestyle in order to become omniscient, following the example of Mahavira himself. In the years after Mahavira’s death, Jains broke into two main sects, Digambara and Shvetambara, which are divided by their views on scripture. Shvetambara Jains believe that their canon descends directly from The Twelve-limbed Basket, the collection of Mahavira’s teachings, while Digambara Jains believe this has been lost. They also differ over whether there have been female jinas. Monasticism is important in Jainism because of the value placed on asceticism. The co-dependence of ascetics and the laity is central to the structure of traditional Jain society. Because they believe all living beings have souls, Jains are bound by a strict code of ethics centred on the principle of non-

violence, which forbids causing harm to any creature. Jains often have to compromise on some of their stricter ethical rules in order to live in the modern world. For instance although some ascetic Jains refuse to use electrical equipment, believing it may harm tiny creatures, most accept scientific and technological discoveries. In the centuries after Mahavira’s death, Jainism spread throughout India, which remains its primary home. Diaspora communities do exist, though these are small and restricted by the absence of ascetics, who are allowed to travel only on foot. There are more than three million Jains in the world, the majority in India. Digambara Jains live predominantly in the Deccan, Delhi, East Rajasthan, and neighbouring Madhya Pradesh; Shvetambara Jains live predominantly in Mumbai, Delhi, Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Madhya Pradesh. There are also Jain communities in East Africa, Europe, and North America.

Part of the ornately carved ceiling of the ancient Jain Sun Temple, Ranakpur, Rajasthan, India.

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JAINISM IN INDIA

map 12

Jains make up 2-7% of population Ancient Jain site (200 BCE–CE 100) Important Jain holy site (= 7 wonders of Jainism) Other Jain holy site

R. us nd

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Delhi Gang e

R T H A R T Yam E un D E S aR Ranakpur . Ranapur Sonagiri Bamanavadji Jirawal Mt Abu Khajuraho Dilwara Rakhabh Dev

Hyderabad

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Ghag hra R.

Rajgir

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Gomateshwara

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Kolkata

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ada R.

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Narm Palitana Girnar Satrunjaya Hill

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d a va ri R.

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JAINISM

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Buddhism

Part 3

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The Origins of Buddhism 46

‘Buddhism’ is an English name for a religion often called by its adherents the Dharma, meaning both ‘the teaching’ and ‘the way things are’. It is named after the Buddha, ‘the one who has awakened’. The traditional date for the birth of Buddha, who lived in north India for 80 years, is 563 bce. However most historians today place him about a century later and his death around 400 bce. The Buddha’s clan-name was Gautama, but later tradition called him Siddhartha. Buddhists tend to emphasize not Buddha but his teaching, which – they say – leads people to understand how things truly are, and then radically to reassess their lives. The Buddha awakened to this truth and taught it.

Who was the Buddha? Buddhism has always been more interested in how the Buddha’s life story illustrates Buddhist teachings than in its historical truth. The legendary account of his life – a prince who was protected from any knowledge of the unpleasant aspects of life – developed in the centuries after his death. According to alternative Pali language sources, the Buddha was a high-born Shakyan who was protected from awareness of suffering as he grew up, but the shock of encountering old age, sickness, and death led to his renouncing worldly pursuits. He was already married with a son, but now left his family and took up the life of a wandering seeker. He sought the truth that would lead to complete freedom from suffering – a life of meditation, study, and asceticism – and obtained food by asking for alms. Eventually, through deep meditation, Siddhartha came to ‘see it the way it really

is’ and this truth set him free. He was now the awakened one, the ‘Buddha’. He gathered around him a group of disciples and wandered northern India, teaching all who would listen. The Buddha died in old age, though for him death was nothing.

What did he teach? The Buddha taught that ‘seeing things the way they really are’ is the way to overcome every sort of unpleasantness, imperfection, and frustration – dukkha, literally ‘pain’ or ‘suffering’. He taught that, when we look deeply, we can see our lives are at root simply dukkha. In the Buddhist tradition a creatorGod does not exist. Suffering is the result of our ignorance – not understanding the way things really are. Central to this misunderstanding is failure to appreciate that everything is by nature impermanent. We need to learn to let go of attachments and a deep-rooted fixed sense of selfhood, since we have been confused and suffered for infinite lifetimes. At death the body ceases, but the everflowing continuum of consciousness and its mental accompaniments continues and ‘spins’ another body according to our good or bad deeds (karma). Such ‘rebirth’ means that we are yet again subject to suffering – old age, sickness, and death. This process ceases only with letting go at the deepest level, attained through meditation – a cessation Buddhists call ‘enlightenment’ (in Sanskrit, ‘nirvana’).

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THE BUDDHIST HEARTLAND

map 13

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Major event in life of Buddha Early Buddhist religious centre

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M A L L A Birthplace of Buddha c. 563 BCE Lumbini Shravasti Buddha’s ‘Great Renunciation’ c. 592 BCE Kapilavastu KOSALA

Buddha’s teaching centre

Buddha’s place of death c. 483 BCE

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What is Buddhism?

Central to the Buddha’s vision of the way ahead was an order of monks and nuns – known as the Sangha – living on alms and expressing their commitment to radical transformation by renunciation. In time monasteries were established, together with a monastic rule regulating the conduct of the Sangha. The Buddha did not appoint a successor, reportedly declaring that the teaching – the Dharma – should be his successor. However after his death disagreements occurred, initially over the monastic rules. Where such disputes could not be reconciled, monks in the minority had to leave, resulting in the formation of a number of different monastic traditions. The best known of these – the only early Indian Buddhist monastic tradition extant – is the ‘Way of the Elders’ (Theravada), found today in Sri Lanka, Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar (Burma). In time different doctrinal positions also evolved, sometimes followed by identifiable schools. For example, the school known as Pudgalavada urged that, although the Buddha taught ‘not-self ’, there still exists the pudgala, something ‘in’ us. Other debates concerned who or what the Buddha was. Some claimed a Buddha is more extraordinary than people realize: he doesn’t need to sleep, defecate, or even eat, but does so merely to meet human expectations.

Mahayana Buddhism The most significant development within Buddhism, the growth of the Mahayana – the ‘Great Vehicle’ – appeared in texts from around the 1st century ce. Mahayana Buddhism is not a doctrinal school or monastic tradition, and it makes no sense to speak of two ‘schools’ of Buddhism, Theravada and Mahayana. Mahayana is essentially a vision of what Buddhism is really all about. Mahayana appears first in the Mahayana sutras, which claim – controversially – to be the words of the Buddha himself. These

48

writings distinguish between being free from all suffering – ‘enlightened’ – and being a Buddha. A Buddha is more than just liberated from his own suffering; a Buddha is also perfectly compassionate. A Buddha also possesses miraculous abilities to help others. It takes many lifetimes of spiritual striving to become a Buddha. Those who aim for the highest goal seek not just their own freedom from suffering and rebirth, but also vow to follow the long path to Buddhahood over numerous rebirths. The Mahayana is the way of those who aspire to become perfect Buddhas. Those who vow to do so are known as bodhisattvas. Over time, the Mahayana elaborated how a Buddha is superior to someone who has simply put an end to their suffering. Even his death was put on in order to present a ‘skilful teaching’ of impermanence. For the Mahayana, the Buddha – indeed infinite Buddhas – are still around, living on higher planes – ‘Pure Lands’ – from which, through their compassion and with miraculous powers, they help those in need. With them are advanced bodhisattvas, also full of compassion and able to help others. Particularly significant in the history of Buddhism in India was the conversion of the great Emperor Ashoka (3rd century bce), which gave the religion important imperial patronage – although scholars now reject the view that he attempted to make Buddhism the state religion.

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BUDDHISM EXPANDS IN INDIA

map 14

Ashokan edict Buddhist centre before and during Mauryan period Haimavata Buddhist sub-school centres Mauryan Empire at greatest extent c. 3 BCE – c.1 BCE Region evangelized by Buddhist mission before and during reign of Ashoka Buddhist Heartland

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W H AT I S B U D D H I S M ?

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Buddhism Spreads beyond India 50

From the time of Ashoka, Buddhism began to travel further, according to tradition arriving in Sri Lanka. It later spread into South-East Asia, arriving in China via the Central Asian trade routes during the early centuries ce, spreading to Korea and other countries of East Asia, and reaching Japan in the 6th century ce. Buddhism came to Tibet by various routes, including India and China, probably from about the 7th century ce. In India itself, for various reasons not yet fully understood – but possibly partly due to the rise of devotional theistic forms of Hinduism and the impact of Islam – Buddhism declined, almost ceasing to exist from about the 14th century ce. It is common, but misleading, to speak of the Buddhism of China, Japan, and Tibet, as Mahayana, as opposed to the Theravada Buddhism of, for example, South-East Asia: but as stated earlier, they are not comparable phenomena. Nevertheless, many Mahayana scriptures were transmitted to, and usually given unquestioned authority in, China, Japan, and Tibet. Unlike in SouthEast Asia, Buddhists in these countries could be expected to express adherence to the Mahayana vision as embracing their highest aspirations.

Zen Particularly characteristic of East Asian Buddhism is the tradition known in Japan as ‘Zen’. Zen – the word is related to ‘meditation’ – stresses direct, non-verbal, intuitive insight, expressed through arts such as painting, but sometimes it also employs humour and shock to bring about awakening. Also important in Japanese Buddhism is the 13th-century tradition of Shinran. For Shinran, the awakening of a Buddha is beyond the capability of the unenlightened;

A RAL S EA

only by completely letting go of self-reliance and trusting in the Buddha’s power to save can the already-enlightened nature of the Buddha (a Buddha known here as Amida) shine forth. Humans must let go of the egoism that encourages them to think they can achieve anything spiritually worthwhile – including enlightenment – through their own efforts. Being a monk or nun – or even meditating – is ultimately an irrelevant distraction and possible source of egoistic attachment.

AF

A

Tantra and Vajrayana From the beginning Buddhists accepted magic – bringing about desired results through the manipulation of hidden forces, usually by ritual means such as sacred circles (mandalas), utterances of power (mantras), and visualization. In addition to teaching, Buddhist monks and nuns might be asked by the lay communities that supported them to perform magic rituals for crops, health, and children. From early times, Buddhist ritual texts were produced, usually called tantras, and sometimes controversially attributed to the Buddha himself. Gradually the more disputed aspects of Tantric Buddhism were diluted and absorbed into the wider Mahayana context of compassion and wisdom. Such forms of tantra are found in Tibetan Buddhism.

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THE EARLY SPREAD OF BUDDHISM

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Spread of Theravada Buddhism Spread of Mahayana Buddhism Spread of Vajrayana Buddhism Major Buddhist site Buddhist Heartland Area where Mahayana Buddhism started Buddhism present by 500 CE

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Buddhism in the Modern World 52

During the European colonial period, Western visitors to South-East Asia started to study Buddhism, leading to a more text-based interpretation of the religion in the West. Meanwhile Asian Buddhism underwent a revival, as it strove to resist Christian missionary activity. Sri Lanka, for instance, saw the development of ‘Protestant Buddhism’ – a form of Buddhism that protested against Christianity but also borrowed elements from it. Myanmar witnessed a similar revivalist development. At the beginning of the 20th century, Chinese Buddhism also underwent revival, though its impact was lessened by the growth of secular ideologies.

Secular ideologies and authoritarianism In the mid-20th century, Buddhism in Cambodia, China, Korea, Laos, Tibet, and Vietnam was repressed by Communist regimes. After the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, Chinese Communist leaders expected Buddhism would die away. When it did not, violent attacks on Buddhist leaders and religious buildings were instigated, particularly during the Cultural Revolution (1966–76). British withdrawal from India in 1947 gave Communist China the opportunity to invade Tibet, in 1950. In 1959 the Buddhist leader, the Dalai Lama, fled the country and China imposed direct rule. Systematic suppression of Tibet’s Buddhist heritage followed, including the looting of monasteries, destruction of libraries and religious images, and execution of monks. Thousands of Tibetans fled the country, mostly going to India, Nepal, and Bhutan, but some travelling as far as Europe and North America, spreading Tibetan forms of Buddhism. Cambodia gained independence from France in 1953. In 1975, the capital, Phnom Penh, fell to the Khmer Rouge –

the Communist Party of Kampuchea – after which Buddhism was systematically dismantled. Buddhist temples were razed, monks killed, and libraries destroyed. After 1979, the people of Cambodia attempted to reconstruct its Buddhist heritage, donating money and rebuilding wats (temples). Buddhism was recognized as the state religion in 1989. Today most schools of Buddhism are present in the West, and new Buddhist organizations have emerged to meet the needs of Westerners. In Britain, for example, Theravada Buddhism has a strong presence, with monasteries and educational centres catering both for Buddhists from Sri Lanka, Thailand, Myanmar, and for Western converts. Japanese Mahayana schools such as Zen, Pure Land, and Tendai are also represented – as are newer lay movements such as Soka Gakkai and Rissho Kosei-kai. Reacting to the suffering of the Vietnam War, the Zen Buddhist Thích Nhat Hanh (b. 1926) tried to apply Buddhist meditation practice and teaching to instances of political, economic, and environmental injustice and suffering in a movement known as ‘Engaged Buddhism’. Engaged Buddhists believe meditation and social engagement should go hand in hand, and set up meditation centres for laypeople in Asia and the West. In traditional Asian Buddhism, meditation practices were linked with monastic life: today in Sri Lanka, Thailand, the USA, and Europe meditation has become an important part of life for laypeople too.

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BUDDHISM TODAY

map 16

Novosibirsk

R U S S I A N

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to Hawaii, USA

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to Europe

to UK, Europe

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to USA, Europe

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Confucianism and Taoism 54

Confucianism Confucianism is best known for its moral philosophy, represented by the thinkers Confucius (551–479 bce), Mencius (371– c. 289 bce), and Hsün-tzu (fl. 298–238 bce). Although grounded in religion – the ancient religion of the Lordon-high, or Heaven – Confucianism gives primary emphasis to the ethical meaning of human relationships. Confucius himself is remembered as a great educator, whose teaching centred on the concept of humanity (jen). Yet he made it clear that Heaven protected him and gave him his message. Within a few hundred years of Confucius’ death, his principles had been accepted as the basis for social and political organization in China, and remained in place for more than two thousand years. What was an implicitly religious message in Confucius becomes explicit in Mencius, who attempted to show how the Way of Heaven, the divine power of the cosmos, could become human nature. If human nature is correctly cultivated and nurtured, even the ordinary person can become a sage. The third founding father of Confucianism, Hsün-tzu, is remembered for his doctrine of ritual action (li). He presents the practical side of Confucian religion, demonstrating the power of correct ritual action to transform the human heart – which is prone to err – into the mind of a sage.

Stone statue of Confucius from a Chinese temple.

Neo-Confucianism Confucian mysticism, and particularly the later Neo-Confucianism, tend toward pantheism, as in the thought of Chang Tsai (1020–77), which is influenced by both Taoism and Buddhism. In his mystical vision, the entire world is related to him as his own family. Other Neo-Confucian thinkers include Chu Hsi (1130–1200) and Wang Yang-ming (1472–1529), whose schools were called respectively ‘the teaching of principle’ (li-hsüeh) and ‘the teaching of mind’ (hsinhsüeh). Both were concerned with achieving sagehood: the debate between them concerned how to do this. Chu Hsi believed we have to go through an arduous process of self-cultivation and ethical activity to reach jen. But for Wang, only an ‘enlightenment experience’, uniting our minds with the mind of the Tao, can achieve sagehood.

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TAOISM

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Mencius born c. 371 BCE

Chung Nan Sung Shan Shan Mao Shan Huo Shan Wu Tang Shanghai Shan E AS T K’uai Chi Shan Longhu C HINA Lu Shan Tiantai Shan R Shan K’uo Ts’ang Shan S E A tze Xi Shan Ya n g Wuyuan Heng Shan Zhu Xi born 1130 CE Wuyi Shan

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The Neo-Confucians gave Confucianism a fresh lease of life, offering a new explanation of the Confucian vision that could compete with Taoism and Buddhism. Both Hsi and Wang sought the moment when the human mind would be transformed into the Mind of Heaven, the state of perfected excellence.

Taoism The Tao – a metaphysical absolute – seems to have been a philosophical transformation of an earlier personal God. The way it teaches leads to a union with itself – a way of passive acceptance and mystical contemplation. Such is the teaching of the great Taoist thinkers, Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu, about whose lives little is known – if indeed they ever existed.

But Taoism is not mere passive contemplation. The texts of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu were utilized by a later generation of religious-minded thinkers, whose ambition was to ‘steal the secret of Heaven and Earth’, wrestle from it the mystery of life, and fulfil their desire for immortality. The goal of the Taoists was to become immortal (hsien). They revived belief in personal deities, practised a ritual of prayer, explored alchemy, and sought their goal through yoga and meditation. This development in Taoism has been called ‘Taoist religion’, distinguishing it from the classical philosophy of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu. This Taoist religion developed its own mystical tradition, with stories of amazing drugs and miracle-working

The Hall of Prayer in the Taoist Temple of Heaven, Beijing, China.

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immortals, levitations, and bodily ascents to heaven. Using early texts, the Taoist religionists created long-lasting institutions. Some of these groups still exist, tracing their roots back to Taoist movements of the late 2nd century ce. With their esoteric teachings, orthodox teachers, and social organizations, they resemble other great religious traditions, seeking unity with the Tao that cannot be named. A major goal of all forms of Taoism was the quest for freedom: freedom from political and social constraints; a profound search for immortality; and a search for oneness with the Tao – the principle of the universe, and a pattern for human behaviour, but never a conscious god. Throughout its history, the masters of Taoism have sought, in various ways, to become part of the ‘self-so-ness’ of reality. Taoist religion recognizes that life is a beautiful – and frightening – panorama of transformations. In their mountain retreats and lake pavilions, Taoists have been poets of nature.

Syncretism The great Chinese religions have always influenced each other’s development. Both Taoism and Confucianism borrowed a great deal from Buddhism, with the Taoists reforming their religious structures, founding monasteries, and writing a canon of sacred texts in imitation of Buddhist models. The heyday of religious cross-fertilization in China came during the Ming dynasty (1369–1644), when many religious thinkers, such as Lin Chao-en (1517–98), sought to harmonize the three great religions, declaring that they are one. Lin sought to combine the best features of Taoist and Buddhist meditation with a Confucian sense of shared concern for fellow creatures, in a uniquely Chinese religious synthesis, still present in China today. Most religious Chinese are a mixture of all three great religions: Chinese syncretism has been so successful at blending traditions that few in China today would think it odd to be simultaneously Buddhist, Taoist, and Confucian.

CO N F U C I A N I S M A N D TA O I S M

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Judaism

Part 4

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Origin of the Jewish People 60

According to the Old Testament account, Abraham’s grandson Jacob (or ‘Israel’) had twelve sons – the original ‘children of Israel’. These forefathers of Israel’s twelve tribes spent their last years and died not in Canaan – the Promised Land – but in Egypt, driven there by famine. Jacob’s son Joseph became a senior administrator in Egypt and died there. ‘A new king, who did not know about Joseph, came to power in Egypt’ (Exodus 1:8) and the Egyptians now used Israelites as slave labour. An Israelite named Moses – brought up in the Egyptian court – fled for his life to the Sinai Peninsula. Near Mount Sinai God spoke to him from a burning bush, telling him he must rescue the people of Israel and bring them to the promised land. Moses was to go to pharaoh and demand his people’s release. Pharaoh refused his demands; only after ten terrible plagues did he finally consent and let the Israelites go. The route taken is debated. The traditional route runs from Ra’amses to Succoth, then north across the Red Sea, or ‘Sea of Reeds’, before turning south-east to Mount Sinai. The location of some places visited by the Israelites are equally uncertain. The traditional site of Mount Sinai is Jebel Musa; however, some scholars place it at Jebel Helal, north Sinai. In this case, the Israelites would have taken the Way to Shur, via Beersheba. It took the Hebrews about three months to reach Mount Sinai, where they stayed

for almost a year. Here God gave Israel the moral law, the Ten Commandments. God also gave instructions for the construction of a ‘tabernacle,’ a sacred tent situated in a large courtyard, first erected on the anniversary of the Israelites’ escape from Egypt. Soon after, the tabernacle was dismantled and the Israelites left Sinai. Forty years elapsed between the exodus from Egypt and the entry into Canaan, many spent at the oasis of Kadesh-Barnea in the Wilderness of Zin. But the children of Israel also wandered south to Sinai again, then north and east through the rugged Edomite territory south of the Dead Sea. From here they could have followed the King’s Highway, but the Edomites would not allow them across their territory, so they had to travel around it. To the north the Amorites blocked the King’s Highway but were defeated in battle. Attempts by the King of Moab to overthrow Israel were also thwarted. Israel now camped on the plains of Moab, close to the River Jordan, and Moses addressed his people for the last time, before dying at Mount Nebo (or Pisgah).

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THE EXODUS

map 18

Traditional route of the Exodus Alternative route of the Israelites Enemy fortress Pyramid site Mountain Road

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a Wa y o f t h e S e

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Israelite conflict with Amalekites (Exodus 17-18)

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ORIGIN OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE

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The Kingdom of Israel

For a period after the Israelites occupied Canaan, they were governed by a series of military leaders known in the Old Testament as ‘judges’. The greatest of these was the prophet Samuel. However Samuel displayed little military prowess, and during his rule the neighbouring Philistines captured the Israelites’ holy Ark of the Covenant – the chest from the wilderness tabernacle that contained the sacred tablets of the Ten Commandments. When Samuel grew old and appointed his sons judges, they took bribes and perverted justice. Neighbouring states were already kingdoms, and it was thought that Israel’s military failures were due in part to her lack of leadership and unity. The elders of Israel demanded that Samuel appoint a king to govern them.

Saul Israel’s first king began his reign full of promise. Saul was rich, tall, young, and popular. He led Israel successfully against the Ammonites. In a series of assaults on Philistine garrisons, he achieved several victories over the old enemy. With the help of his son Jonathan, King Saul recorded a notable victory at Michmash. Successful campaigns in the south prepared the way for Saul’s successor, David, to enlarge his realm. However, Saul’s jealousy of David – to the point of trying to kill him – marked a turn in his fortune. He and Jonathan died when Israel was defeated by the Philistines at the Battle of Gilboa.

The Ark of the Covenant was now moved to this city. David’s capture of Jerusalem finally completed the Israelite conquest of Canaan. Having built a palace for himself in Jerusalem, David was anxious to build a house – or temple – for God. But a prophet forbade it, telling David that his son would be allowed to build this temple. David now consolidated his kingdom: uniting his people, breaking the power of the Philistines, and expanding his frontiers with the Edomites, Ammonites, Moabites, and Arameans. He extended his kingdom to include lands from Dan in the north to the Brook of Egypt in the south, and his empire stretched much further, to the Euphrates river in the north and to Ezion-geber on the Gulf of Aqaba in the south. Edom, Moab, Ammon, and Aram all became his vassal states, forced to pay tribute.

Solomon At his death, c. 970 bce, David handed over to his son Solomon an empire that 50 years earlier would have been unimaginable, and whose size would not be seen again under Israelite rule. Solomon built a temple in his capital city, Jerusalem, where a complex system of animal sacrifices was carried out.

David David had been declared heir to the throne during Saul’s lifetime, but spent the final years of Saul’s reign in flight from him. He began his own reign in the city of Hebron, but later moved his capital to Jebus (captured from the Jebusites), changing its name to Jerusalem.

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THE KINGDOMS OF SAUL, DAVID, AND SOLOMON

map 19 Eu

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THE KINGDOM OF ISRAEL

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Jewish Dispersions

The story of the early development of Judaism is much debated. The narrative based on the biblical books of Ezra and Nehemiah has been important for the development of Jewish selfunderstanding, but is not necessarily founded in historical reality.

THE JEWISH EXILES

In 586 bce Nebuchadnezzar II, king of the neo-Babylonian Empire, destroyed Jerusalem and took many its people as captives to Babylon, along with much of the population of Judea. In Babylon there was now a community of  people who considered themselves Judeans, or Jews. They believed there should be a single temple in Jerusalem where religious sacrifice could be carried out. In an attempt to maintain continuity with the past, houses of assembly, ‘synagogues’ in Greek, were set up in Babylon. Here prayer, singing or chanting, teaching, and reading and discussion of the Torah took place. During this period, scribes also first appeared. Based in the synagogue, their role was to understand the Torah and interpret its rules for the contemporary situation. This ‘guild of scholars’ seems to have evolved into the rabbis of later rabbinic Judaism. In 539 the army of Cyrus II ‘the Great’ of Persia captured Babylon. According to the book of Ezra, he permitted the Jews to return from exile and rebuild their temple in Jerusalem. When Jewish religious leaders returned to Jerusalem and rebuilt the Temple, the city was apparently established as a temple community led by the priests.

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map 20

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City where Jews settled after dispersion Probable area of settlement of Jewish exiles Exiles from Canaan to Assyrian captivity 701 BCE Exiles from Canaan to Babylonian captivity 586 BCE Return of exiles under Sheshbazar & Zerubbabel c. 538, 521 BCE Return of exiles under Ezra & Nehemiah c. 458 BCE Dispersal after revolt against Persia 359–328 BCE Jewish exiles after Assyrian and Babylonian conquests 701, 586 BCE

JEWISH DISPERSIONS

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PERSIAN GULF

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THE JEWISH DIASPORA c. 400 ce

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Noviomagus Colonia Agrippina (Cologne) Bonna (Bonn)

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Jewish dispersion (the ‘Diaspora’) started in the 6th century bce, when many Jews opted to remain in Babylon, where they had been taken as exiles. From this time on, Jewish communities ‘of the Diaspora’ grew all around the Mediterranean Sea, focussing their religious observance around the local synagogue.

SEA

During the Roman period, Jewish hopes rose for a messiah who would rescue his people from the Roman occupiers and restore the Judean state. In 66 ce the Jews rose in revolt against Rome. Rome retook Jerusalem and destroyed its temple in 70 ce in a crushing defeat. No longer would Jerusalem be the destination of Jewish pilgrims or the centre of Jewish cultural life. Galilee now became a centre of Jewish life. Johanan ben Zakai (30–90 ce) founded a school at Jamnia, or Yavneh, Galilee, where ‘rabbi’ (master) became the formal title for teachers. The school at Jamnia began to function as a Jewish council, discussing the meaning of the Jewish law. It is also held to have founded Rabbinic Judaism: the belief that, on Mount Sinai, Moses – the first rabbi – received from God the written law (the ‘Torah’, or Pentateuch) and an oral explanation (the ‘oral Torah’). The Jewish community in Egypt remained quite strong, but Greek culture – and Hellenistic Judaism – was on the wane. In Babylon, the ruler of the Jews of the Diaspora was known as the ‘exilarch’, or head of the exiles, a hereditary position recognized by the state. The conversion of the Roman Emperor Constantine to Christianity in 313 ce was inauspicious for Jews. Although Judaism was never actually proscribed, life for Jews became increasingly difficult.

THE JEWISH DIASPORA

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The Jewish Diaspora

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THE JEWS AND ISLAM c. 750 ce

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In the 7th and 8th centuries ce Islam arose and spread with extraordinary rapidity. Muslim Arabs conquered Syria and Palestine in 634, defeated Persia in 637, and took Egypt soon after. In 711 they invaded Spain and set up a Muslim state. Within a single century, many Jews had come under Muslim rule. For most Jews, living conditions improved. They also shared in the intellectual ferment of the Arab world. Arabs translated and studied the learning of Greece, Persia, China, and India. Drawing on these resources, Muslim and Jewish scholars made great advances in mathematics, astronomy, philosophy, chemistry, medicine, and philology. One of the greatest Jewish philosophers, Sa’adiah ben Yosef Gaon (882–942), grappled with the problem of faith and knowledge, discussing proofs of God’s existence.

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Babylon In Babylon the authority and importance of the Gaons – heads of the Babylonian Jewish academies – grew immensely after 600 ce. The Gaons ensured that the Babylonian Talmud – religious documents compiled in the Babylonian academies between the 3rd and 5th centuries ce – became more widely accepted. In the 9th century a gaonate was established in Palestine, and was recognized as authoritative by Jews in Spain, Egypt, and Italy. Under the Gaons collections of Talmudic laws were made, synagogue poetry written, prayer books drawn up, and the text of the Bible fixed and annotated. Most influential were the Responsa (Hebrew, She’elot ve-Teshuvot – questions and answers), questions on matters of religious practice sent to the Gaons, debated in the academies, and answered in their name.

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Islamic conquests by 750 CE Main areas of Jewish settlement City in Islamic area with large Jewish community Other city Khorasan road: main trade route between Baghdad and Samarkand, and overland route to China

Variants from rabbinic Judaism arose. In 8th century ce Babylon, Anan ben David (c. 715–c. 795) and the Karaite movement he possibly founded rejected the Talmud and all forms of oral law, such as the Mishnah, taking a stand on the Bible only. It seemed the

AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

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Karaites might divide the Jewish world, but the movement rapidly dwindled into a sect, which survives today in small numbers.

JUDAISM AND THE RISE OF ISLAM

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During the 16th and 17th centuries, the Muslim Ottoman Empire was in the ascendant, expanding into Europe until halted at Vienna in 1683. Most Jews now lived either in Christian Poland–Lithuania or under the Ottoman Empire, where conditions were generally less difficult, but where they were still subject to arbitrary acts by rulers. In Christian Italy, severe penalties were imposed on the Jews in this period. From the early 17th century, Jews began to move from Poland and the Ottoman Empire into the cities of the West, where there was growing recognition of the value of Jewish commercial activity. The Protestant Reformers on the whole favoured Jews, but Martin Luther moved from tolerance to anti-Jewish abuse. The rite of non-Sephardic Jews in Europe, especially Germany – known as ‘Ashkenazi’ – dates to the 16th century, and has its own GermanJewish dialect, Yiddish. Anti-Jewish riots continued, but the authorities now more often protected the Jews, regarded as useful for their money-lending and trading. In Ukraine and Poland many Jews were killed in massacres in 1648 and 1649. In the late 17th century a number of Jewish messianic movements arose. The most important centred on Shabbetai Zevi (1628– 1716). The Jewish community regarded his followers with suspicion and the episode resulted in disillusion with messianism. Jews had been expelled from England in 1290, but began to return in 1656 during Cromwell’s protectorate.



PORTUGAL

Anti-Semitism and Messianism 70

From the 10th century onwards, antiJewish sentiment and violence became increasingly frequent and bitter in Christian Europe. Lies about the Jews circulated, and the Jews were expelled from England in 1290, from France in 1306, and from Spain in 1492.

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JUDAISM IN 16th AND 17th CENTURY EUROPE

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ANTI-SEMITISM AND MESSIANISM

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Jewish Emancipation

The writings of Moses Mendelssohn (1729–86), a German Jewish philosopher, led to the development of a Jewish Enlightenment, the Haskalah, that attempted to introduce the Jewish community to contemporary European thought and culture. In 1781 the Holy Roman Emperor, Joseph II, issued an Edict of Toleration. In 1789 the revolutionary National Assembly of France declared that no religious opinion should be persecuted. In 1806 the Emperor Napoleon even summoned an Assembly of Jewish Notables. These progressive tendencies were largely suppressed after the Napoleonic wars, but the rights of Jews continued to be asserted. By 1871 all restrictions had been removed in Germany, and Jews were declared full citizens of the newly unified Reich. The Scandinavian countries had only small Jewish populations, but full emancipation was accomplished in 1848 in Denmark, 1851 in Norway, and 1865 in Sweden. The Netherlands was traditionally tolerant and Jewish rights had been established there early. Great Britain also had a longer history of tolerance; throughout the 19th century the Jewish community enjoyed commercial prosperity and civil respect. Yet full

equal rights were not granted until 1890. Emancipation was achieved in the AustroHungarian Empire in 1867. But in Eastern Europe Jewish life continued much as it had during previous centuries. In Russia it took the 1917 Revolution and World War I for the Jews to attain full citizenship. Emancipation also aided the assimilation of Jews – and sometimes their cultural disappearance, when they merged through marriage into the surrounding society. Counter-intuitively, with increased tolerance came anti-Semitism, based on pseudo-scientific ideas of racial stereotypes. From the 1880s, anti-Semitic movements were promoted in Germany and France by such as Wilhelm Marr (1819–1904), who insisted on the racial distinction of Germans and Jews, and invented the term ‘anti-Semitism’.

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Interior of the Old Portuguese Synagogue, Amsterdam, known as the Esnoga or Snoge, opened in 1675.

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AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

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JEWISH EMANCIPATION 1789–1918

map 24

NORWAY 1851 600

FRANCE State 1791 Date of emancipation 104,000 Jewish population late C19 Jewish enlightenment centre Jewish ghetto

SWEDEN 1865 3,900 Copenhagen

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FRANCE 1791 104,000 Bordeaux

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Odessa

ROMANIA 1918 266,700

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ITALY 1848-70 43,000

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Miles 0 100

Frankfurt

RUSSIA 1917 5,111,000

Warsaw

Breslau

Mainz

Paris

ATLANTIC OCEAN

Vist ula R .

GERMANY 1871 587,000

Rh

BELGIUM 1830 15,000

Vilna

PRUSSIA 1850

Amsterdam

London

Mos

Königsberg NETHERLANDS 1796 104,000

GREAT BRITAIN 1890 200,000

B A LT I C SEA

DENMARK 1848 3,500

N ORTH SEA

St Petersburg

Stockholm

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THE ORIGINS OF JUDAISM IN THE USA

Seattle

WASHINGTON

MONTANA

Portland Albany

Reform Judaism originated in Germany, where the 18th century Enlightenment stressed reason and progress. Abraham Geiger (1810–74) and others declared that modern Jews could no longer accept the Torah as revealed truth, and encouraged changes in ritual law and worship. Dietary laws were abandoned, prayers were translated from Hebrew into the vernacular, and synagogue worship was changed. Some Jews even began to worship on Sunday rather than Shabbat (Saturday, the traditional Jewish Sabbath). In the USA, the Reform movement was led by Isaac Wise (1819–1900), who in 1875 set up the Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati, Ohio, the main seminary for training Reform rabbis.

IDAHO

OREGON WYOMING

Denve UTAH

R.

NEVADA

San Francisco CALIFORNIA

More than 660,000 Jews in 2015

Los Angeles San Diego

ARIZONA

Phoenix

P ACIFIC OCEAN

Miles 0 100

200

0 100 200 300 Kilometers

74

AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

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COLORAD

Col ora do

Judaism in the USA

At the start of the 19th century many East European Jews in rural areas lived in a close-knit community known as a shtetl, a stockaded, traditional culture shut off from the secular world. However, as large numbers began to emigrate to the United States, initially attracted by business and social opportunities, Orthodox leaders such as Rabbi Samson Hirsch (1808–88) encouraged them to involve themselves in the culture of the Western world.

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NEW MEXICO

map 25

State with more than 10% Jews in 1990 Jewish community, with date established Cities with over 40,000 Jewish population in 2015 NORTH DAKOTA

L. Superior

A

MINNESOTA

Mi ssi s MinneapolisSt Paul

L. Huron

R.

L. Michigan

pi sip

SOUTH DAKOTA

MAINE

WISCONSIN

OMING

ouri R. Miss

NEBRASKA

IOWA

INDIANA

KANSAS

Dallas-Fort Worth

ARKANSAS

ALABAMA

RI (Jews from Surinam and Curacao)

Newport 1680 Cleveland Russian, Polish, New York Newark 1839 Pittsburgh Ukranian, Lithuanian 1654 1852 immigrants 1880-1924 OHIO Philadelphia 1747 NJ Cincinnati 1824 Romanian immigrants MD 1900-14 Hebrew Union College Baltimore 1842 set up 1875: centre of DE

Polish, Central European Hassidic immigrants 1933-45 German and Austro-Hungarian immigrants 1820-60

NORTH CAROLINA US emigrants to Israel

Atlanta

MISSISSIPPI

Boston 1852

MS CT

PENNSYLVANIA

TENNESSEE

Miss issip pi R .

Ark an sa OKLAHOMA s R .

NH NEW YORK

2015 more than 2 million Jews

L. Erie

Reform Judaism WEST Louisville VIRGINIA 1832 VIRGINIA KENTUCKY

MISSOURI

NEW MEXICO

Detroit

Chicago 1837 ILLINOIS

VT

L. Ontario

Hebrew Theological College (’Skokie Yeshiva’) founded 1922

Denver COLORADO

MICHIGAN

SOUTH CAROLINA

Charleston 1750

GEORGIA

(Spanish and Portuguese Jews)

Savannah 1733

TEXAS

ATLANTIC OCEAN

LOUISIANA

New Orleans 1802

Houston

FLORIDA

Fort Lauderdale

GULF

OF

M EXICO

South African, South American, Israeli immigrants 1960-80

Miami

JUDAISM IN THE USA

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Jewish academics and professionals lost their jobs, Jewish shops were boycotted, and Jews were prevented from participating in civic life. In 1935, the Nuremberg Laws deprived Jews of their citizenship and criminalized sexual relationships between Jews and nonJews. In 1938 Jewish communal bodies were put under the control of the Gestapo secret police. On 9 November 1938, ‘Kristallnacht’, the Nazis organized an onslaught against the Jewish population, killing, looting, and setting fire to homes, schools, shops, and 250 synagogues. When the Nazis invaded Poland in 1939, at the start of World War II, Germans forced Jews to hand over jewellery, clear rubble, carry heavy loads, and scrub floors and lavatories with their prayer shawls. After the German invasion of Russia in 1941, the Nazis began carrying out what they euphemistically termed ‘the final solution to the Jewish problem’: the extermination of European Jews. Following Hitler’s orders, mobile task forces called Einsatzgruppen – killing squads under the command of Reinhard Heydrich (1904–42) – began systematically to murder the Jews of Russia and Eastern Europe. Of 4,500,000 Jews who lived in Soviet territory, more than half fled before the invasion;

JUDAISM AND THE THIRD REICH

Germany in 1937 ‘Greater Germany’ in 1942 Territory occupied by Germany Axis power or occupied by Axis power Jewish Ghetto Concentration camp or slave-labour camp Extermination camp Site of mass murder European borders in 1937

NORTH SEA

IRELAND 5,000 4,500

NETHERLA 115,00 106,00 30,000

UNITED KINGDOM 340,000 350,000 London

BELGIUM 44,000 24,000 30,000

ATLANTIC OCEAN

FRANCE 270,000 83,000 180,000

Gurs

Noë

Eb ro R.

Miles 0 100 0 100 200 Kilometers

200

Madrid SPAIN 5,000 3,500

300

400

AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

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Herzoge

Mechele LUX. 3,000 Sei ne Drancy 700 R. 500 Paris

Alderney

PORTUGAL 3,000 4,000

W Amsterd

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The Holocaust 76

In 1933, Adolf Hitler (1889–1945), leader of the NSDAP – Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, the Nazi Party – was appointed German Chancellor amid the economic disaster of the Great Depression. Once in power, the Nazi Party suspended the constitution, eliminated other political parties, outlawed strikes, and staged bookburnings. In 1934 the role of Hitler’s elite security force, the SS, was expanded under Heinrich Himmler (1900–45), taking over many police functions as well as running the concentration camps.

Les

map 26

NORWAY 2,000 870 1,000

TH A

SWEDEN 10,000 22,000

Klooga

DENMARK 7,000 120 5,500 NETHERLANDS 115,000 106,000 30,000

GERMANY 365,000 125,000 85,000

FINLAND 2,000 1,800

ESTONIA 5,000 1,000 500

Country Jews pre-war Approx number of Jews killed Numbers of Jews post war

Vaivara

LATVIA 94,000 80,000 Riga 12,000 Kaiserwald LITHUANIA 160,000 135,000 Kaunas 20,000 Vilna

B A LT I C SEA

R U S S I A Moscow

Stutthof

Ponary Minsk POLAND 3,275,000 Ravensbrück Trostenets Bialystok 4,565,000 Bergen-Belsen Sachsenhausen (with Lithuania) Treblinka Berlin Westerbork 120,000 Warsaw Niederhagen Chelm BELGIUM Amsterdam Lodz Bernburg Mittelbau Gross Rosen Sobibor 44,000 Herzogenbusch Dora Lublin 24,000 Buchenwald Majdanek 30,000 Czestochawa GERMANY Krakow- Belzek Kiev Mechelen Brody 365,000 Theresienstadt Sosnoviec Plaszow 125,000 LUX. Prague Auschwitz Lvov Babi-Yar Strysnow 85,000 3,000 Flossenberg Drancy Brno 700 NatzweilerCZECHOSLOVAKIA . Mauthausen Nitra 360,000 – 277,000 Bar 500 Struthof aris 55,000 Balanowka Dachau an ub e AUSTRIA Bogdanovka Edineti R. Budapest 180,000 – 70,000 16,000 SWITZERLAND HUNGARY Odessa CE 20,000 440,000 – 300,000 ROMANIA 00 35,000 200,000 800,000 0 264,000 00 Jasenovac 300,000 Gospic ITALY Zemun 50,000 Sajmiste YUGOSLAVIA 7,500 AD 75,000 Les Milles 52,000 RI B LACK 60,000 AT Sofia BULGARIA oë 50,000 IC 10,500 SE 46,500 A Rome Neuengamme

Rh

ine

R.

R h ôn e R.

D

M

GREECE 75,000 65,000 10,500

E

D

I

T

E

R

R

A

N

E

A

N

SEA

TURKEY 75,000 80,000

S

E

A

T H E H O LO C AU S T

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those who remained were concentrated in restricted areas of large cities (‘ghetttos’). Einsatzgruppen rounded them up, took them to the woods, and machine-gunned them to death. In early 1942, senior Nazis met at Wannsee, on the outskirts of Berlin, to coordinate plans for the murder of up to 11 million Jews. Central to their strategy was the network of death camps at Chelmno, Auschwitz-Birkenau, Treblinka, Sobibor, Majdanek, and Belzec. At Auschwitz, the largest of these camps, the first gassing had taken place in September 1941. By September 1942, Germany had conquered most of Europe. But as the murder of Jews continued, resistance grew. In the Warsaw ghetto, the Jewish Fighting Organization retaliated. However 7,000 Jews lost their lives in the fighting, and 30,000 more were deported to Treblinka. The murders continued across Europe. In the summer of 1944 the last deportations took place, when more than 67,000 were sent from the Lodz ghetto to Birkenau. Most victims were sent to the gas chamber, but some were chosen for inhuman medical experiments. By the end of the war, more than 6 million Jews had lost their lives in the most terrible circumstances imaginable. In the years since, the Jewish community has struggled with the religious perplexity of the Holocaust: where was God at Jewry’s time of dire need? These terrible events are commemorated today on Holocaust Memorial Days and in Holocaust memorials and museums throughout the world, such as Yad va-Shem in Israel.

began to campaign to bring such a Jewish state into existence. Earlier in the 19th century, Jewish pioneers had already started to return to Palestine, living mostly in four holy cities: Hebron, Jerusalem, Safed, and Tiberias. Some such ‘Zionists’ ignored the problem that there was already an indigenous Palestinian Arab population; others believed Jews and Arabs could co-exist and develop the land together. The need for a state where Jews could escape persecution was drastically demonstrated by the Holocaust. As the enormity of Nazi crimes was revealed, the Zionist cause gained new momentum. Since 1920, Palestine had been governed by the British, under a League of Nations mandate. In May 1947, the United Nations decided that Palestine should now be partitioned into a Jewish state and an Arab state. On 14 May 1948, the independence of the Jewish State of Israel was declared by the United Nations. Palestinian refugees fled their homes in Israeli-held territory, many sheltering in refugee camps. The Israeli War of Independence continued throughout 1948, and conflict re-occurred in 1954, in 1967, and 1973. Following the Six Day War (1967), between neighbouring Arab states and Israel, Israel took possession of territories previously allotted to Arab countries by the United Nations. Since that time, these ‘occupied territories’ have roused Jewish-Arab tensions, with Israel seeing them as vital to their national security, and the Arabs striving to regain political dominance.

Zionism Theodore Herzl (1860–1904), an AustroHungarian Jewish journalist, came to believe the Jews needed a homeland of their own as a refuge from the growing anti-Semitism in 19th century Europe, and

78

AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

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THE MODERN STATE OF ISRAEL

map 27

Territory allocated to Israel by U.N. 1947 Territory gained by Israel in 1948 War and 1949 Armistice (Jerusalem divided) Territory occupied by Israel after Yom Kippur War (June 1967) Territory occupied by Israel after Yom Kippur War but returned to Egypt by April 1982 Territory occupied by Israel June 1982 to June 1985 Syrian territory occupied by Israel in 1987 Egyptian territory occupied by Israel [Gaza] in 1967 30

0 10 20 30 40 Kilometers

Tyre Kiryat Shmona GOLAN H E I G H TS

uk rm Ya

40

50 60

S E A

R.

Jenin

Netanya

Tel Aviv

S Y R I A

SEA OF GALILEE

Haifa

J ordan R.

20

Damascus

LEBANON

I S R A E L

Miles 0 10

Sidon

Nablus

WEST BANK

Jabbok R.

Amman

A

N

Ramallah

E

Jerusalem

R

A

Hebron

Gaza City AZ

A

R T E I D M E

N

G

D EAD S EA

A rno n R.

Beersheba El Arish Dimona

J O R D A N E G Y P T

SINAI

Mitzpeh Ramon

Eilat Aqaba

International border Disputed border 1949 armistice border - ‘Green Line’ U.N. designated International Zone, 1947 Security wall built by Israel to divide West Bank (showing built portions c. 2012)

GULF OF AQABA

T H E H O LO C AU S T

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Christianity

Part 5

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Palestine under the Herods 82

In 40 bce Herod the Great, who had been military prefect of Galilee and joint tetrarch of Judea, was made ‘king of the Jews’ by the Roman senate. Soon after, the Parthians invaded Syria and Palestine and installed their own king. However, Herod gradually reconquered his kingdom, and in 37 bce captured Jerusalem, executing Antigonus, the last of the Maccabean priest-rulers. Thereby he secured the throne for himself until his death in 4 bce, when the kingdom was divided among his three sons. Although a Jew by religion, Herod was very unpopular. He strongly supported Roman policy, even erecting shrines to pagan gods. As well as building several cities and fortresses outside Jerusalem, Herod made major additions to the city, such as the Temple Mount, the Antonia Fortress, and the Upper Palace. In 19 bce reconstruction of  the temple commenced, work that continued almost until 70 ce, when the temple was again and finally destroyed, this time by the Romans. Upon the death of Herod, Palestine became a province ruled by his sons as ‘tetrarchs’, provincial rulers subject to Rome. Archelaus, ‘Herod the Ethnarch’, ruled Judea from 4 bce to 6 ce, when he was exiled by the Romans for misgovernment. A Roman

governor or ‘procurator’ then ruled Judea until 41 ce. Herod Antipas ruled Galilee and part of Transjordan from 4 bce to 39 ce, while Herod Philip ruled the northern regions until 34 ce. The Decapolis was a confederation of ten cities formed after the Roman general Pompey’s campaign (65–62 bce). It gave protection to its Gentile citizens, who were mainly Greek-speaking Roman soldiers, against both militant Jews and Arabian tribes.

Remains of the aqueduct built under Herod the Great at Caesarea Maritima.

AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

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PALESTINE IN THE TIME OF CHRIST

map 28 Ab

I

Paneas (Caesarea Philippi)

30

40

P H

A TA

L

BA

GA

Salim

Sychar

L

Jabbok R.

A E R

Philadelphia

E

Archelais

Jericho ?Emmaus Jerusalem Bethphage Site of Jesus’ last week,

crucifixion and resurrection

Bethlehem

J U D E A

Julias Livias Qumran Bethany Centre of Essene sect

Herodium Hebron

Besor

I D U M E A

Masada

Machaerus

DEAD SEA

Arnon R.

Areopolis

Br

o

ok

O

Gerasa

Phasaelis Lydda

P

Aenon

Antipatris Mt Gerizim Joppa

A

Pella

B N A

A

T

E

A

PA L E S T I N E U N D E R T H E H E R O D S

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S

P

E D I T E R R A N E A N

AURAN ITI

S

SAM AR IA Home of Jewish

Gaza Gerar

Julias

D E C Scythopolis

Caesarea Maritima

sect: Samaritans

Azotus

TRACHONITIS

I

M

E EChorazin L I Capernaum

LA NI TI S

Bethsaida Genessaret SEA OF Magdala GALILEE Gergesa Sepphoris Tiberias Mt Carmel Nazareth k R. mu r a Mt Tabor Y Nain

Samaria Neapolis

Jamnia

Ashkelon Anthedon Agrippias

Ptolemais

U

Main area of Jesus’ ministry

J ordan R.

20

30

S E A

0 10 Kilometers

20

A

NE

N

Tyre

E 10

S Y R I A

I

C

Mt Hermon

Litani R.

G

Miles 0

Damascus

A

I T U R E A

O

Site linked with Jesus in New Testament Other settlements in Jesus’ time City/fortress/palace constructed by Herod the Great City/fortress/palace constructed by son of Herod the Great Road

aR .

an

Sidon

Herod the Great’s Kingdom (till 4 BCE) Tetrarchy of Herod Philip Tetrarchy of Herod Antipas Tetrarchy of Herod Archelaus 4 BCE–CE 6; then under direct Roman administration Free cities

E A S T E R N D E S E R T

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Judaism and the Early Church

In 62 ce the death of James, leader of the Jerusalem believers, led some to leave the city, weakening its Jewish Christian community. During the First Jewish-Roman War (66–73 ce), Rome destroyed Herod’s temple and sacked Jerusalem. The destruction of the temple ended the priesthood and sacrifice system, and proved a lasting disaster for Judaism. The Christian community probably left Jerusalem just before the siege, taking refuge at Pella, beyond the Jordan, though some believers later returned. Christian communities founded by the apostles near the Mediterranean coast survived, as did those at Capernaum and Rimmon in Galilee, and Cochaba in Gaulanitis. After the failure of the Jewish Bar Kokhba Revolt (132–35 ce), the Sanhedrin council moved to Jamnia in Galilee. Many Jews were killed, expelled, or sold into slavery after the rebellions against Rome. This, combined with the conversion of pagans, Samaritans, and Jews, gradually resulted in a Christian majority in Palestine. By degrees, Christianity separated from Judaism over several generations and Christian missionaries directed themselves increasingly to Gentiles in the Holy Land and abroad.



Po R.

DR

DA

A

84

The Christian faith began in Palestine, regarded by the Jews as their ‘promised land’. Jesus, the apostles, and the earliest converts to Christianity were all Jews. After his death, Jesus’ followers in Jerusalem formed a community of believers that soon spread, as their message was carried by itinerant preachers and missionaries. At first all believers were Jews, but they were soon joined by Gentiles and were called variously followers of ‘the Way’, ‘Christians’, and ‘Nazarenes’.

I

T

A

Rome

L

I

Paul possibly travelled to Spain

IA

TI

C

SE

AT

IA

A

A Puteoli

T YRRHENIAN SEA

M

E

Rhegium

SICILIA

D

Jewish diaspora C1 CE Christian concentration C1 CE Paul’s 3rd missionary journey Paul’s journey to Rome Borders of Roman Empire Christian church/house-church C1 CE

Syracuse

I

T

E

R

R

A F R I C A

AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

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A

JEWS AND CHRISTIANS IN THE 1st CENTURY ROMAN EMPIRE

map 29

be R. Danu

DA

LM

AT

B LACK S EA

IA

M

MOESIA

A N I O E D A C

T H R A C E

Philippi

Thessalonica

BIT

Apollonia Assos Mitylene

Troas

HYN

IA s Haly

MYSIA

R.

PONTUS

A

LA

TI A

Pergamum Thyatira Pisidian AEGEAN Smyrna Philadelphia Antioch C A P PA D O C I A SEA G Ephesus Hierapolis Iconium Athens Magnesia Colossae Derbe Lystra Aegina Miletus Tralles CILICIA P Attalia A M P H Y Tarsus LIA Cos Patara L Y C I A Perge Myra Antioch Seleucia

Corinth

ium

AC

e

R

A

A

CRETA N

E

A

N

Salmone

CYP RU S Paphos

Lasea

Salamis

Edessa Euphr ate s

Damascus

S

E

Sidon Tyre Ptolemais

A

Cyrene Caesarea Jaffa

L I B YA

S YR IA

Zabdizene

R.

R

I HA

Azotus

Alexandria

Pella Samaria Jerusalem

R I C A

Nile R

.

AEGYPTUS Miles 0 0 100 Kilometers

J U D A I S M A N D T H E E A R LY C H U R C H

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200

100 200

300

85

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N ORTH SEA York Lincoln

B R I TA N N I A

Rotomagnus (Rouen)

ATLANTIC OCEAN

Colonia GERMANIA Augusta

Rheims

G A L L I A

Lugdunum Medi (M Vienne Bordeaux Valence I A NS NI ONE TA Arelate B I R A U N A Q Narbonne Marseilles CO RS

H I S P A N I A

Barcelona Tarragona

Toledo

BA

ET

ICA

M Carthago Nova

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Carth

NUMIDIA

Hippo

N I A R E T A M A U

A F Miles 0 100

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0 100 300 Kilometers

300 500

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500

700

AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

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R.

BELGICA

Rhine

London

ANIA

In the eastern Mediterranean, three centres of the Christian church rapidly emerged. The church became a significant presence in its original heartlands, with Jerusalem emerging as a leading centre of thought and activity. Asia Minor, modern-day Turkey, was already an important area of Christian expansion and the destination of several of the apostle Paul’s letters. Expansion in this region continued, with the great imperial city of Constantinople, modern Istanbul, a particularly influential centre. Growth also took place to the south, with the city of Alexandria emerging as a stronghold of Christian faith. With this expansion, new debates opened up. While the New Testament deals with the relationship of Christianity and Judaism, the expansion of Christianity into Greekspeaking regions led to debates about how Christianity related to Greek philosophy. Christian growth and expansion was not without problems. The ‘imperial cult’, which regarded worship of the Roman emperor as demonstrating loyalty to the empire, was strong in the eastern Mediterranean, and many Christians were penalized for worshipping only Christ. The spread of Christianity regularly triggered local persecutions: for example the suppression under the Emperor Decius (249–51), which was particularly vicious in North Africa. Christianity was not officially recognized as a legitimate religion by the Roman state until 313 ce, when Constantine, a recent convert, was joint emperor.

THE SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY BY 325 ce

LUSIT

The Early Growth of Christianity 86

Christianity rapidly spread beyond Palestine into the entire Mediterranean area. Within 15 years of the resurrection, a Christian presence was established in Rome itself. Imperial trade routes made possible the rapid traffic of ideas as well as merchandise.

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map 30

Elb

Metropolitan See C2 CE Site of church by C2 CE Site of church by C4 CE Christian presence by 45 CE Christian presence by 100 CE Christian presence by 185 CE Christian presence by 325 CE Border of Roman Empire c. 300 CE

e R.

Colonia Agrippina GERMANIA Augusta Treverorum (Trier) Regensburg (Regina Castra) heims

Dn iep

Rhine

R.

Dn ies ter R.

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late

NARB

O

IS Pisa

NORICUM

Ravenna

NN

e R.

DACIA (LOST 270)

ON

Salone

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Singidunum Tomi

T

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A

I A

B LACK SEA

MOESIA

Sinope Adrianopolis MACEDONIA N I Y A Constantinople H T I T H B R A CIA Philippi Trebizond Naples Thessalonica PONT U S S A R D IN IA GALA ARMENIA TIA MYSIA A S I A Larisa Ancyra Carales Nicopolis NI A E D Smyrna Sardes CONTESTED Athens CAPPADOCIA I WITH Laodicea T Corinth Ephesus Iconium E SIC ILI A PARTHIA AC HA I A Carthage CILICIA R Sparta Edessa Perge Syracuse R LYCIA Hippo ADIABENE A Nisibis RHODES N Patara Antioch Hadrumetum Salamis E ME CRETA SO A CYPRUS PO Palmyra N West of line TA Dura-Europos MI Latin-speaking SYRIA A S E East of line A Greek-speaking SeleuciaBarca Ctesiphon Jerusalem LIB Alexandria YA Tanis CO RS I CA

elona a

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Florence L

nub

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Mediolanum (Milan) S NEN

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Rome

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A F R I C A

Memphis AEGYPTUS

N il eR

.

ARABIA RED SEA

T H E E A R LY G R O W T H O F C H R I S T I A N I T Y

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N ORTH SEA P I CTS

F RI S A NG SA X

H I B ER N I A B R I TA N N I A

TH

F R A NKS

ANNI ALEM

K I N G D O M

ATLANTIC OCEAN

in e Rh

Medio (M Arelate (Arles)

I C

B ASQ U ES

R hô ne R.

496: Clovis converts from Arianism to orthodoxy

B R ETO N S

SUEVIC KINGDOM

R.

Rheims

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O Toletum (Toledo)

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V A N D A L Hippo Regius Augustine d. 430

Miles 0 100

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88

JUT ES

G

The 4th and 5th centuries were marked by a series of controversies over the identity of Jesus Christ and the doctrine of God. A series of councils strove to resolve these differences and to ensure the unity of the Christian church throughout the Roman Empire. Most important of these councils was Chalcedon (451), which set out the definitive Christian interpretation of the identity of Jesus Christ as ‘true God and true man’. The fall of the Roman Empire, traditionally dated to 476, led to widespread insecurity in the Western church. In the East the church continued to flourish, as the Eastern Empire, based at Constantinople, was largely unaffected by the attacks from northern European invaders that eventually ended Roman power in the West. The disruptions within the Roman Empire during the 5th century led to a growing rift between the Western and Eastern churches. Increasing tension over political as much as theological issues led eventually to the ‘Great Schism’ between East and West in 1054. The removal of Rome as a stabilizing influence gave a significant new role to the church in the West, and particularly to its monasteries. The founding of Benedict of Nursia’s first monastery at Monte Cassino around 525 marked the beginning of the monastic movement which was to become so influential in medieval Europe. The pope’s role as an increasingly powerful political force also began to emerge during this period.



I

Christianity Becomes Official

Christianity had become the official religion of the Empire by the end of the 4th century. This new relationship between Christian church and Christian emperor led to turbulent church–state relations in the later Roman Empire and throughout the Middle Ages.

300 500

400

500

700

AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

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Car I N G

CHRISTIANITY IN THE 4th AND 5th CENTURIES

Border of Roman Empire in 481 Territory under Arian ruler Area with Monophysite churches Area of Catholic Christianity Nestorian church Patriarchal seat Church Council or synod City with church Tribal movements

J UTES FR ISIANS ANGLE S SAXO NS Elb eR .

TH

S L AVS

U R.

NS IA NG RI

ANNI ALEM in e

Lauriacum (Enns)

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s from doxy

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A L A NS

H U N S GE P IDS

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O S T R O G OT H I C

IA

451: 4th Ecumenical Council: against Monophysites

Constantinople

Chalcedon Sebaste

Nicaea

325: 1st Ecumenical Council: against Arians

A L egius

e d. 430

I

K

T

Ephesus

431: 3rd Ecumenical Council: against Nestorians

E

R R Carthage

D

O

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Tarsus

JACO B I T E C HUR C H Edessa Antioch

N

M

S

E

A

Euph r

Nisibis R. Tigris

G

A

Perge

A RM E N I A N Valarshapat C HUR C H 491: Monophysite synod Manzikert

R. es at

I N

SEA

381: 2nd Ecumenical Council

431: Alaric sacks city

D

N

Rome

B LACK S EA Sardica

K I N G D O M

SP

Arelate (Arles)

LOM B ARDS

Aquileia

Mediolanum (Milan)

E

map 31

P E R S I A N E M P I R E

Damascus Seleucia

C

Alexandria O P T IC CHU RC

Jerusalem

H

Oxyrhyncus N il e R.

A R A B S RED SEA

Ptolemais

Ethiopian Church moves towards Monophysites

C H R I S T I A N I T Y B E CO M E S O F F I C I A L

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WORLD RELIGIONS 600 bce–600 ce: AN OVERVIEW

Iona 563 Whithorn 360

Vercovicium (Housesteads) York Deva (Chester) Clonard 520 BR ITA IN Canterbury 596 Colonia Agrippina (Cologne)

Dn

Augusta Treverorum (Trier)

MT

er R .

Vo lg

S

.

R O M A N E M P I R E GAUL Vercelli 360 Modena D

Marmoutier 372

IAN

ie p

aR

A TL ANTIC O CEAN

C A R PAT H

Alba Iulia

C AS

an CAU Bologna ube CA R. SU B L AC K S E A S ITALY Serdica M Massilia Rome T Constantinople (Marseilles) THRACE ARMENIA Monte Nola 394 Chalcedon 400 415 Casino 529 Nicaea Caesarea 360 M E D I T Gushnasp Athens E Carthage R R Ephesus A N M E S Nisibis 325 Antioch E A OPO Rhagae N TA M Thagaste 388 S E A Salamis 335 IA DuraHamadan Sidon Cyrene Europos Ctesiphon Leptis Magna Alexandria P ER S Jerusalem

PIAN

S

SPAIN

S EA

Wadi Natrun 320 Scetis 330

I A

M

.

R ED

eR

EGYPT

Bact

Bethlehem 386

Nil

SEA

S a h a ra D e s e r t

Mara Merv

A R A B I A Mainly Hindu 500 BCE–600 CE Significantly Hindu 500 BCE–600 CE Jewish centre 500 BCE Jewish settlement by 600 CE Mainly Christian by 300 CE Mainly Christian by 600 CE Mainly Zoroastrian 500 BCE–600 CE Sassanians introduced Zoroastrianism after 226 CE Mahayana Buddhist formative area 0–300 CE Mainly Buddhist by 300 BCE Mainly Buddhist by 600 CE Confucian and Daoist from 300 BCE Shinto area Early Christian monastery + date Christian Patriarchal see in 600 CE Hindu holy site in 600 CE Mithraic site 0–300 CE Zoroastrian fire temple Buddhist sacred site 300 BCE–600 CE Mountain linked with Daoism

90

Eleph ALWA

A R A BI A N SEA

AXUM ETHIOPIA

Miles 0 200

400

600

0 200 400 600 800 Kilometers

AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

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map 32

EN TI

Gobi Desert

AN SH

Tun-huang

Marakanda

Merv

LUN MOUNTAINS KUN

H

M A

Indus R

.

I

Taxila

L

A

Tibetan Plateau TIBET

Lhasa A Brahmaputra R. S Mohenjo-Daro Kusinara Pataliputra Sarnath Deoghar Bodh Gaya Sanchi Ga Lumbini

Y

R. es ng

I N D I A Elephanta R A BI A N

SEA

Jiuquan

Kunlun

Aihole Amaravati

B AY OF

BENGAL Anuradhapura Polonnaruwa Kandy SRI LANKA

Lingjiu

JAPAN

Kyoto Nara Yamato

Luofou Nanhai

Prome PYU Pegu Sukhothai Rangoon

P ACIFIC OCEAN

Angkor CHAMPA FUNAN Funan

SOUTH CHINA SEA

BORNEO

SUM

INDIAN OCEAN

Kaesong

Kyongju Wangwu Chang’an Hua Gongxian LaoY E L LOW Song Zhongnan SEA Longmen Wu Tang Shan Huo Mao Pingdu Putuo Shan R. e Lu z Tiantai Shan t O-mei Shan g CHINA n Ya Xi Kuocang Heng

Pagan

Ellora Karli

Qian

Yungang

Wu-tai Shan

Khotan

Bactra

Yellow R .

AT R A

Srivijaya

J AVA S E A Borobudur

JAVA

C H R I S T I A N I T Y B E CO M E S O F F I C I A L

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Miles 0 100 0 200 Kilometers

200 400

N ORT H S EA

300

Iona

Lindisfarne Whithorn Armagh

York

Kells

Clonard

Bangor

Brem

Canterbury

Cologn

Glastonbury Corbie Rouen Paris

A T L A N T IC OCEAN

Rheims

Luxeuil

Fleury Tours Noirmoutier Bourges Lyons Bordeaux Vienne Moissac Lugo León

Eb

Basel

B

Arles

Auch Narbonne ro R

Lérins

.

Toledo Lisbon Seville

M

E

D

Carth

AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

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R. M Trier L

e

Christendom in 1050 ce

Roman Catholic Orthodox Greek Rite Orthodox Slavonic Rite Orthodox Georgian Rite Patriarchate of Antioch Nestorian Christianity Monophysite Christianity Muslim rule

in

Between 970 and 1048, 48 famine years reduced many in the West to subsistence. Trade declined, communications collapsed, and travel became perilous. The church was the only institution whose influence extended beyond local rulers, and its leaders and monastic communities strove to maintain a civilized way of life. Conflict increased between rulers and popes, particularly when a reforming pope such as Leo IX (r. 1049–54) attempted to reestablish respect for his office and defend the church’s conduct of its own affairs. Patriarch Michael Cerularius (r. 1043–58) was spiritual head of an Eastern kingdom riven by intrigue and squeezed between the empire of the Bulgars and the expanding Islamic empire of the Turks. After 1025, Orthodox Christianity suffered serious military setbacks in Asia Minor. In 1054 a dispute over authority brought differences between East and West to a head. The papacy claimed direct succession from Peter – and thus supreme church authority – claiming support from a document known as the ‘Donation of Constantine’ (later revealed as a fake). Pope Leo IX excommunicated Patriarch Michael Cerularius; in response, the patriarch anathematized the pope, leading to what is known as the ‘Great Schism’ between East and West. Around 866 the first Christian bishop was sent to Kiev from Constantinople by Patriarch Photius I. Soon a Christian community arose among the Kievan nobility. In 988 Prince Vladimir I of Kiev (980–1015) instigated the mass baptism of his people, marking the founding of the Russian Orthodox Church.

THE CHURCH IN 1050

Rh

92

After Charlemagne (c. 742–814), the first Holy Roman Emperor, who had controlled much of Western Europe, the Western Empire gradually disintegrated into warring principalities.

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map 33

Roman Catholic expansion Eastern Orthodox expansion Byzantine Empire Church of Antioch Church of Antioch expansion Patriarchal Seat Archbishopric (selected) Major monastery (selected)

B ALTI C S EA

E Bremen lbe R.

Cologne

Magdeburg Corvey

Gniezno

Rh

Fulda Mainz R. Trier Lorsch

Novgorod

in

Prague

e

Rheims

Luxeuil

Salzburg

ie s

ter R

Dn iep

.

Gran

er R .

Kalocsa

R.

Reichenau St Gall

Dn

ga

ons nne

nub e R.

l Vo

Basel

Da

Lérins

B LACK S EA

Preslav

Constantinople

Dyrrachium Monte Cassino Thessalonica Bari Naples Brindisi Amalfi Salerno Otranto Cagliari Sta. Severina Vivarium E D I T E Reggio R Carthage R A N E A N

Neocaesarea

Studion Sebastea Iconium Tarsus

Etchmiadzin (Valarshapat) Edessa Hierapolis

Salamis

h

ra

E

Damascus

A

Alexandria

Arbela

Antioch Eup

S

SEA

te s R.

Seleucia

Jerusalem N il e R .

M

Rome

Split Capua Benevento Acerenza

IAN

Ravenna

SP

Arles

CA

Bobbio

CHRISTENDOM IN 1050 CE

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N ORTH SEA

Not to same scale as main map

Miles 0

SCOTL AND 100

200

Edinburgh

0 100 200 300 Kilometers

York

IREL AND

ENGL AND

Dublin WAL E S

1555–6: Protestant bishops burnt

Oxford

London

Brussels Rouen

1572–88: St Bartholomew Massacre of Huguenots

Paris in

Nantes

ATLANTIC OCEAN

e R.

Tours Loire

FR C

Marmoutier

Ge Lyon R hône R.

F R A N C E

Ma

RR

E

Avig

Toulouse

B ÉAR N

NA

Oporto

Lisbon

S P A I N

VA

A R AGO N

Zaragoza

Barcelona

Tagus R.

C A S T I L E

M

Seville

AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

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Rheims

Bordeaux

PORTUGAL

The European Reformations

ICEL AND

R.

The 16th century gave rise to a major upheaval within Western Christianity – the Reformation – that had origins in the Renaissance, with its demand for a return to the original sources of Christianity in the New Testament. Alarmed at what they perceived to be the gap between apostolic and medieval visions of Christianity, individuals such as Martin Luther (1483–1546) and Huldrych Zwingli (1484–1531) pressed for reform. For Luther, how people enter into a right relationship with God – the ‘doctrine of justification’ – needed radical revision in the light of scripture. Although the need for reform was widely conceded within the church, such reforms proved hugely controversial. Luther and Zwingli found themselves creating reforming communities outside the mainline church instead of reforming it from within, as they had hoped. By the time of John Calvin (1509–64) and his reformation of Geneva, Protestantism had emerged as a distinct type of Christianity, posing a potent threat to the Catholic Church. In the late 1540s, the Catholic Church itself began a major process of reformation and renewal, referred to as the Catholic Reformation – previously the ‘CounterReformation’. Religious orders were reformed, and many of the beliefs and practices reformers had objected to were eliminated. Yet significant differences remained between Protestantism and Catholicism.

REFORMATION EUROPE c. 1570

Se

94

Between 1000 and 1500 in Western Europe there was a renewal of church life at every level. The pope’s authority to intervene in political disputes reached unprecedented levels. A form of theology known as ‘scholasticism’ developed, with 13th century writers such as Thomas Aquinas and Duns Scotus achieving great theological sophistication.

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E

D

map 34

Helsinki

Christiania Stockholm

NORWAY

H

L I VO N I A

SWEDEN CO U R L A N D

DENMARK

B A LT I C SEA

Copenhagen

Königsberg

Vilna

PRUSSIA Emden

. ine R Rh

Anabaptist uprising

Se

in

Rheims

Da

WÜ RT TEMBER G

Dresden

rR

.

nu b

R.

FRANCHECOMTÉ

e R.

Krakow

MILAN

AUSTRIA

R hône R.

Dni est er R.

Buda

celona

1528: Capuchin order founded

Rome

1540: Jesuit order approved

Danube R .

Mostar

Camerino

PAPAL STATES

WALLACHIA Bucharest

Belgrade

Ravenna

TUSCANY

Marseilles

O

T

NAPLES

T

O

Salonica

Naples

E

D

I

T

E

R

Athens

S IC ILY

A

N

E

A

M

A

N

E M

Palermo R

B LACK S EA

Sofia

Cagliari

M

N

S

E

A

P I R E

Holy Roman Empire boundary 1566: Iconoclastic rioting 1572: Rioting after St Bartholomew Massacre Catholic reform institution

T H E E U R O P E A N R E F O R M AT I O N S

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R.

Pécs

Venice

Genoa Florence

iep er

MOLDAVIA

TRANSYLVANIA

Brescia VENETIAN Trieste REPUBLIC

Milan

Avignon

Dn

Graz

GENOA

Lvov

MORAVIA

Vienna

SWISS CONFEDERATION

Geneva Lyon SAVOY Turin

P O L A N D

SILESIA

HUNGARY

Salzburg

Loire

oulouse

Warsaw de

Nuremberg

e R.

C E

O

Prague BOHEMIA

Frankfurt

PA L ATI N ATE

n

Paris

Leipzig SAXONY

Cologne

R U S S I A

L I T H UA N I A

e R.

Berlin Hanover Münster Wittenberg 1534:

Brussels

Minsk

Hamburg Elb

Pskov

Riga

Roman Catholic Orthodox Lutheran Calvinist/Reformed/Huguenot Anglican Muslim Anabaptist Hussite/Bohemian Brethren Waldensian Socinian

95

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Christianity in the Americas c. 1750 96

South America In this period Spain remained a major colonial power, whereas Portugal’s grip on its colonies was weak. A ‘patronage system’ continued, giving the monarchs of Spain and Portugal responsibility for Christianizing the indigenous population, establishing dioceses, and appointing clergy in their colonies. The major religious orders mobilized thousands of priests, leading to the almost total – but superficial – Christianization of Latin America. A minority opposed the political and economic oppression suffered by native populations. Between 1650 and 1720, in vast uncolonized areas of Paraguay, Jesuit priests gathered Indians into villages called reductions in an experiment to Christianize them.

North America Early 17th century immigrants from Britain were soon joined by Lutherans from Scandinavia, Anabaptists from Germany, Calvinists from Holland, and Catholics from Ireland and Italy.

By the mid-18th century, Virginia boasted around 100 Anglican churches. Georgia, not founded till 1733, quickly established the Anglican Church. At the time of the American Revolution, Anglicanism dominated the South, especially the areas of earliest settlement. In the colonies of Massachusetts and Connecticut the Congregational Church enjoyed legal favour. The Great Awakening of the 1740s intensified enthusiasm and led some to separate from the official church. Rhode Island and Providence Plantations allowed religious variety and diversity, as practised by the Baptists and Quakers, while Pennsylvania was a haven for persecuted Quakers and other religious dissenters. The Dutch Reformed religion thrived in New York and New Jersey, joining in the Great Awakening of the 1740s, like the Scottish and Irish Presbyterians of the Middle Colonies, who had begun to settle in this region early in the 18th century. The chapel of Nuestra Señora de la Evangelización, Lima Cathedral, Peru.

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CHRISTIANITY IN THE AMERICAS c. 1750

map 35 RUPERT’S LAND

NE

ory

Te

r

San Antonio

Charleston

Durango

St Augustine

IDA

New Orleans

N E W SPA IN

NOVA SCOTIA

Boston New York Philadelphia Baltimore

ATLANTIC OCEAN

F LO R

de

rit

NEWFOUNDLAND

E

ian

Santa Fe

R i o G ra n

San Diego

LOUISIA N A St Louis

W

NC

Ind

. oR ad lor

Mississipp i R.

Monterey

Co

Detroit

A FR

BAHAMAS

Havana

Mexico City

CUBA

HISPANIOLA

San Juan Santa PUERTO Domingo RICO

M E X I CO Guatemala

Caracas NNE

Bogotá

CAYE

SUR I

NAM

CARACAS

NE W G R ANADA

R. azon Am

Quito

P ACIFIC OCEAN

Lima

BRAZIL San Salvador

Cuzco La Paz

British possession French possession Spanish possession 13 British colonies Portuguese possession Dutch possession Indian territory

Paran áR .

Charcas PERU

Asunción RIO DE L A PL ATA

Rio de Janeiro Sao Paulo

Santiago

PATAG

Jesuit mission Franciscan mission Dominican mission Capuchin mission Protestant churches Roman Catholic Archbishopric

ONI

A

Buenos Aires

Miles 0

500

1000

0 500 1000 1500 Kilometers

CHRISTIANIT Y IN THE AMERICAS C. 1750

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An Age of Missions 98

Beginning in the 18th century, European and American Protestant churches started to send men, and later women, in increasing numbers, to take the Christian message to unreached peoples. Anglicanism spread outside the British Isles by emigration and missionary effort. The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (1701) and the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge (SPCK, 1698) were both set up to take Anglican Christianity to the British colonies. In North America, missionaries to the Native Americans included Jonathan Edwards (1703–58), the preacher of the Great Awakening. The pioneering Englishman William Carey (1761–1834) set up the Baptist Missionary Society in 1792. In the Danish trading centre of Serampore, near Calcutta, he printed parts of the Bible in several languages. By 1855, missionaries from the Anglican Church Missionary Society had reached Peshawar. Large numbers of Protestant missionaries from Europe and North America landed in south India, where they encountered – and sometimes clashed with – the Catholic Church founded by Francis Xavier (1506–52) and the Malabar Christian communities of Travancore, believed to date from around the 6th century. Other societies soon followed the example of Carey’s Baptist mission. In 1795 came the London Missionary Society, and in 1797 Dutch Christians formed the Netherlands Missionary Society. In 1799 the Church Missionary Society was founded by Evangelical Anglicans. In 1810 American Evangelicals started the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, which became a major missionary-sending institution. European Pietists established a missionary training school in Basel, Switzerland in 1815. Often the cross followed the flag: where European powers colonized, missionary societies preached.

Africa Islam predominated in North Africa, with the exception of Coptic Christians in Egypt and the Ethiopian Church. The first modern missionary activity to achieve success was in the 1830s and 1840s, especially in West Africa. The first missions to southern Africa were launched in this period from the Cape of Good Hope, where Europeans had long settled. Dr David Livingstone (1813–73), Scottish explorer and missionary, pioneered trails that others followed. Roman Catholic missions were also active in this period, especially the Holy Ghost Fathers (1848) and White Fathers (1868). Protestant–Catholic rivalry over mission areas intensified, mirroring the political rivalries of the European powers’ ‘scramble’ for African colonies after 1880.

Missions to China and South-East Asia The first missionary to China in this period was the American Robert Morrison (1782–1834), who arrived in Canton in 1807. However China was not officially open to foreigners until the Treaty of Nanking (1842). Five treaty ports were designated cities for foreign settlement, and British and American missionaries used these as springboards to evangelize China. Older Roman Catholic missions continued to operate in China, despite persecution. After official toleration was agreed between China and France in 1860, Catholicism was able to expand faster than Protestantism. After the Taiping Rebellion ended in China in 1864, the British Protestant missionary James Hudson Taylor (1832– 1905) set up his China Inland Mission. His mission was one of the few that had much

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success in persuading Chinese people to convert to Christianity. His example led to the formation of many other missions and to the setting up of the Student Volunteer Movement. Thousands of volunteer missionaries offered their service, and by 1882 Protestant missionaries were resident in all but three of the Chinese provinces. Following 16th century massacres of Roman Catholic Christians, Japan remained hostile to the West, while South Korea received its first missionary only in 1865.

Latin America During the 19th century, Protestant missionaries to Latin America came largely from the United States. Protestant values seemed attractive to the liberal middle classes who had won independence for the South American republics. After the ejection of earlier Roman Catholic missions, a shortage of priests had caused a decline in Christian practice. By the outbreak of World War I, Protestant missions were established in every Latin American republic. However there were only half a million Protestant converts in the entire region – very few compared with the Catholic population.

Oceania In the 17th century, Spanish Roman Catholics had crossed from the Christianized Philippines to western Micronesia and converted the Marianas Islands. The main Catholic missions in this region were French: in Melanesia, the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary – the ‘Pipcus Fathers’; and in Polynesia the Marist Fathers. French Catholics also established themselves in New Caledonia and southern New Guinea, Tahiti, the Marquesas Islands, Mangereva, and Easter Island. Protestant missionaries progressed generally from east to west, journeying first

to Tahiti, then moving on to the Melanesian Islands. London Missionary Society missionaries were the first to reach the Society Islands, before proceeding to Polynesia – Tonga, Western Samoa, and Fiji.

Australia and New Zealand When Britain decided to set up a penal colony in Australia, an Anglican chaplain, Richard Johnson, went with the first convict ship in 1788. Wesleyans, Presbyterians, and Roman Catholics soon followed. In the 1820s the Anglican church was established, though Irish Catholics and Scots Presbyterians were already numerous. The first European settlers went to New Zealand in 1805, and the first missionaries nine years later. Anglicans came to form the majority of the population, but with large minorities of Scottish Presbyterians, Roman Catholics, and Methodists.

Missions industry The 19th century was an age of heroic missionary enterprise, with pioneers such as the English Henry Martyn (1781–1812) in India and Persia; the Americans Adoniram and Ann Judson (1788–1850, 1789–1826) in Burma (Myanmar); the German Johann Krapf (1810–81) in India; the Belgian Father Damien (1840–89) in Hawaii helping those suffering from leprosy; and the Frenchman Father Charles de Foucauld (1858–1916) in North Africa. This was also an age of great mission organizers such as the Irishman H. Grattan Guinness (1835–1910); innovative missionary organizations such as the China Inland Mission and the Mission to Lepers; and great missionary conferences such as the World Missionary Conference in Edinburgh, Scotland (1910), presided over by the Student Volunteer Movement leader, the American John R. Mott (1865–1955).

AN AGE OF MISSIONS

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WORLDWIDE CHRISTIAN MISSIONS IN THE EARLY 20th CENTURY

Prince Albert Vancouver

Allegheny

Kingston

Port-au-Prince

Georgetown

Freetown

Ibadan Abidjan

Montevideo

Miles 0 0 1000 Kilometers

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bidjan

map 36

Roman Catholic mission active Protestant mission active

Istanbul

Sapporo

Peking Tehran

Rawalpindi

Jerusalem Karachi

Tokyo Shanghai

Delhi

Bombay

Amoy Calcutta

Hong Kong

Rangoon Madras Addis Ababa

Calabar

Seoul

Manila

Jaffna Malacca

Stanleyville

Dar es-Salaam

Djakarta

Blantyre

Durban Cape Town

Sydney Melbourne

AN AGE OF MISSIONS

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Y Fort Bridger Great Salt Lake

Mormons settle 1847 Becomes Mormon headquarters

Los Angeles

Pla

Denver

Wasatch Oasis

1500 settlers arrive by 1848 10,000 Mormon settlers in area by 1850 96 Mormon settlements by 1860

U Colo rad o R .

San Francisco

Fort Lar

AINS

Salt Lake City

Sacramento

SOUTH PASS

UNT

Brigham Young moves on

G R E AT BASIN

Independence Rock

MO

The Mormons

G REAT

CK

Latter-Day Saints describe their church as a ‘restoration’ movement: God has restored teachings, practices, and organization withdrawn from the earth shortly after the time of Christ as a result of human disobedience. In 1823, the teenage Joseph Smith Jr found previously hidden metallic records, often called ‘the golden plates’, that told the history of peoples who migrated to North America from the Holy Land at the time of the Old Testament prophets. Smith translated this text, using special objects found with the plates, and The Book of Mormon was published in 1830. Smith was an inspiring leader and many joined his community, but while in prison in 1844 he was killed by a mob opposed to his religious views, an event Latter-Day Saints viewed as martyrdom. After a brief competition for leadership, Brigham Young (1801–77) triumphed. In 1845 his rival Sidney Rigdon (believed by some to be the author of The Book of Mormon) formed his own ‘Church of Christ’ – also known as the ‘Rigdonites’ – which survived into the 21st century with a few members as The Church of Jesus Christ (Bickertonite). After local opposition, Young led the Latter-Day Saints west until they finally arrived in the Great Salt Lake Valley, Utah, in July 1847. Not all followed him, as some believed that leadership should

THE MORMON TRAIL

RO

102

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, or Mormonism as it is often known, was founded in 1830 by Joseph Smith Jr (1805-44) in New York State, USA, as the Church of Christ. In 1834 it became the Church of the Latter-Day Saints, and in 1838 the Church of Jesus Christ of LatterDay Saints. By 2015 it had some 15.5 million members, more than half of them outside the United States.

N

I Santa Fe

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200 400

400

M E X I C

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have passed to Smith’s son. This group formed the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints in 1860, with its headquarters and temple at Independence, Missouri. This branch is closer to mainstream Christian belief, and in 2001 was renamed the Community of Christ. In Utah, the original Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints prepared for Christ’s second coming. Like many Protestants, Latter-Day Saints were Adventist, believing in the return of Jesus, and millenarian, believing he would rule for

AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

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tte

map 37 L. Sup

Mis

souri R

G R E AT

PL AIN S

tte

R.

L. Michigan

Council Bluffs Mount Pisgah

Chicago Nauvoo 1839-44

Independence 1833-36 Kansas City Far West 1836-39

T

E

D

St Louis

o

Manchester

Palmyra Joseph Smith’s home Fayette

Kirtland 1831-38

New York

1st Mormon church,1830

R.

i

1850 60

Oh

Denver

Golden plates found at Hill Cumorah

e

Pla

Fort Kearney

Eri

Fort Laramie

Beaver Island

L.

.

James Jesse Strang sets up ‘City of James’ (1848)

Winter Quarters 1846-48

ndence ck

I

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S

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ATLANTIC OCEAN

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.

nta Fe

A

Zodiac

Lyman Wight sets up temple

E X I C O

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GULF

OF

M EXICO

1,000 years with his Saints. They thought Christ would appear in the USA. Smith developed some ideas not found in the Book of Mormon and altered church life in distinctive ways. Many early Saints were alienated by these new doctrines and rituals. Some left, though others regarded these developments as Mormonism’s progressive revelation. About a decade after the church was founded, Smith introduced polygamy, which was abandoned at the end of the 19th century.

Mormon Trail Mormon splinter group Proposed Mormon State of Deseret (1849)

Today many men and women serve as missionaries for two years before college or marriage. In 2015 the Latter-Day Saints (LDS) church had 74,000 missionaries working worldwide. Since its inception, it claims to have sent more than 1 million members on missions, including such notables as the US presidential candidate Mitt Romney (b. 1947).

THE MORMONS

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Christianity faced new intellectual challenges in the West. During the 1840s, the German philosopher Ludwig Feuerbach (1804–72) argued that the idea of God was merely a projection of the human mind. Karl Marx (1818–83) claimed religion was used by rulers as an instrument of social control. Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) argued it was simply an illusion or ‘wish-fulfilment’. By around 1920, many had concluded Christianity was intellectually untenable.

Russia By this time, other difficulties had arisen, perhaps most importantly the Russian Revolution (1917), which led to the establishment of the world’s first avowedly atheist state. The Soviet Union attempted to eliminate religion from public and private life, especially during the 1930s. The Allied defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II led to large areas of Eastern Europe coming under Soviet influence, and the state adoption of antireligious policies. The visit to Poland in 1979 of the Polish Pope John Paul II (r. 1978–2005), during which up to one third of the population

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CHRISTIANITY WORLDWIDE

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met him, together with the formation of the Solidarnosc (Solidarity) movement there, helped pave the way for a peaceful transition to democracy and religious freedom in Poland and elsewhere in Eastern Europe. With the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, a new openness to religion developed in Russia and the former Soviet spheres of influence, with Christianity – especially Orthodoxy – and Islam experiencing a major renaissance.

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PAR A

Christianity Today

During the 18th century a period of political uncertainty developed in the West, with major implications for the future of Christianity. In France, growing hostility towards the wealth and power of the church hierarchy was an important factor in the French Revolution (1789). Although this revolution did not achieve the permanent removal of Christianity from France, it created an unstable atmosphere. Revolutionary movements across Europe attempted to repeat the successes of their French counterparts, creating serious difficulties for the Catholic Church in many parts of the continent, especially Italy.

AY GU

map 38

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In Russia, the contemporary Orthodox Church often aligns itself with the state and follows a conservative line theologically and socially. Yet the epicentre of Christianity has moved away from the West.

Worldwide expansion The 16th century saw the start of a process that has decisively impacted the shaping of Christianity. In addition to the burgeoning

NEW ZEALAND

missionary movement, an important factor in spreading Christianity globally has been the large-scale emigration from Europe to North America, beginning in the late 16th century. Today Christianity is primarily a faith of the developing, rather than the developed, world. Although European and American missionaries played a significant role in planting Christianity in regions such as Asia and Africa, these are now largely selfsufficient. The churches of Europe and North

C H R I S T I A N I T Y TO D AY

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America face the challenges of secularization, while the faith grows rapidly in diverse cultural settings in the non-Western world. In the mid-20th century, as colonial empires were receding, indigenous forms of Christianity displayed considerable growth, demonstrating that the faith had put down roots in local cultures and languages. The phenomenal growth of Christianity across the southern continents in modern times is unprecedented. Embraced by millions of non-Western believers, the faith is being reshaped through its encounter with the cultures of Latin America, Africa, and Asia. While Western missions played a crucial initial role in communicating the gospel across cultural and linguistic barriers, the key players in the spread of the faith have been local Christians, expressing their new religion in surprising and dynamic ways. Examples include the evangelization of West Africa by repatriated slaves; ordinary Christians adept at sharing their faith and planting new churches; and the ministry of prophetic preachers and evangelists who apply the faith to local situations, resulting in mass conversions. The centre of gravity of Christianity has shifted and its roots are now firmly planted in non-Western cultures. This shift has revealed contrasts of culture and theology between the different traditions and cultures. For instance, Conservative Anglicans have opposed the ordination of women. Even more divisive between Anglicans in Western and nonWestern cultures are attitudes towards gay marriage, and the ministry of gay men and women, both of which are anathema to many in non-Western cultures. Such issues threaten the unity of the Anglican Communion in the early 21st century. But this shift is also marked by huge church growth in non-Western areas. In South America, the Roman Catholic

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Church remains strong numerically, and acquired new influence internationally with the papacy of the Argentinian Pope Francis (b. 1936). But Latin America has also seen the extraordinarily rapid growth of indigenous forms of Pentecostal Christianity, with the conversion of more than 40 million people.

Africa During the 20th century, Africa offered remarkable evidence of Christian growth, and is displacing Europe and North America as the chief Christian heartland. Both the Roman Catholic Church and major Protestant groups are being transformed by these changes, as the number of adherents in Africa dwarfs the parent churches in Europe and North America. Africa has also seen numerous Independent churches flourish – in the 1980s and 1990s especially – as well as many other charismatic and Pentecostal churches.

Asia The picture is different in Asia. In many countries Christians remain a small minority, in societies shaped by ancient non-Christian religious traditions. Exceptions include South Korea – where growing churches display missionary enthusiasm – Singapore, and the Philippines. The America-generated ‘Prosperity Gospel’, offering believers worldly success, has proved attractive in South Korea, where another US model – the ‘mega church’ – has also blossomed. The small Christian community in Japan has had some gifted theologians and writers. The church in India has initiated attempts to express the gospel in the context of the Hindu-moulded culture. In China, following the expulsion of Western missions after the Communist revolution, Christianity discarded its image as

AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

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a foreign import and is now clearly identified as an indigenous religion. Estimates of the number of Christians vary between 30 and 105 million, but there is clear evidence of tenfold growth in the Chinese churches since 1949. This reflects partly the impact of the Home Church Movement, the number of whose congregations increased from around 50,000 in 1970 to 400,000 in 1995.

World Christianity Until recently it was assumed that the churches of Europe and North America could be transplanted to other continents, complete with their theology and practice. This assumption rested on the belief that Western Christianity was a culture-free expression of the faith and possessed absolute status. With the emergence of nonWestern churches, such assumptions have had to be abandoned. Theology can take unexpected directions in cultures relatively unaffected by Western modernity. The non-Western churches are mainly churches of the poor, in a world moulded by economic globalization. Old one-way Christian missionary approaches – from the West to the rest – have been supplanted

Higher Vision Church, Valencia, California, U.S.A.

by more complex patterns, where mission is from everywhere to everywhere. Recent massive migrations from southern continents into Europe and North America are resulting in the appearance of ‘Southern’ forms of Christianity, such as prophetic and charismatic shop front churches, in the great urban centres of the Western world, where they often form the largest and most dynamic Christian communities.

C H R I S T I A N I T Y TO D AY

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Islam

Part 6

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Muhammad

Islam began, not among nomads, but among city-dwellers engaged in commercial enterprises. Towards the end of the 6th century ce, the merchants of Mecca gained a monopoly of the trade between the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean that passed along the west coast of Arabia by camel caravan. Mecca had a sanctuary, the Ka‘ba, which was an ancient pilgrimage centre, and the area around it was regarded as sacred. However the wealth that came to Mecca led to social tensions, especially among the younger males. Muhammad was born in Mecca around the year 570 ce. In about 610 he came to believe he was receiving messages from God which he was to pass on to his fellow citizens. Revealed over 23 years, these messages were later collected and form the Qur’an. They claimed that God was One (Allah), and that he was merciful and all-powerful. Allah expected people to use their wealth generously. On the Last Day, he would judge people according to their acts and assign them to heaven or hell. In these revelations, Muhammad himself was spoken of, sometimes simply as a warner, telling of God’s punishment for sinners, and sometimes as a prophet, or messenger of God. Muhammad believed these revelations were the words of God, conveyed to him by an angel. Muhammad gained a number of followers, who met frequently and joined him in worshipping God. But Meccan merchants were annoyed by criticism of their practices. The merchants spoke of old pagan gods; Muhammad’s messages insisted there is only one God.

Emigration to Medina Muhammad’s followers began to be persecuted by opponents – often their own relatives – and eventually it became

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impossible for Muhammad to continue in Mecca. In 622 ce Muhammad and about 70 men emigrated with their families to nearby Medina, a fertile oasis. This migration, the Hijrah, marks the beginning of the Islamic era. The inhabitants of Medina divided into two opposing groups, with the majority accepting Muhammad as prophet and agreeing to form a federation with the emigrants from Mecca. In Medina the religion of Islam took shape. The main ritual forms – modelled on Muhammad’s example – were: worship (or prayer), almsgiving, fasting for the month of Ramadan, and pilgrimage to Mecca, including ceremonies at sites nearby. At first, Muhammad had no special political powers at Medina beyond being leader of the emigrants from Mecca. However after a year or two his followers – now called ‘Muslims’ – became involved in hostilities with the pagan Meccans. By 630, Muhammad had become strong enough to capture Mecca. He treated his enemies generously, and won most of them over to become Muslims. Many other tribes across Arabia now also joined his federation and became Muslims. Muhammad’s authority as head of state was unquestioned because of his success.

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THE JOURNEYS OF MUHAMMAD B

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map 39

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Masad’in Salih Khaybar 629: Muslims defeat and expel Jewish tribes Uhud 625: Muslims defeat Meccan force

Jabal Uhud

Yathrib (Medina)

Badr 624: 1st Muslim victory over Meccan forces

Yanbu

Nil eR .

Juhfa Amaj

Bi’r Ma’unah

Qudayd Hudaybiyah 628: Muhammad allowed into Medina for Hajj ‘Usfan Mecca 630: Muslims capture pilgrimage centre and Ka’aba Ta’if

Muhammad makes Al Raji 624 legendary night journey on white donkey: Jedda ascends to heaven Hunayn from Temple Mount 630

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Christian in 600 CE Significant Jewish community Route of Hijrah Route of Muhammad’s army Major trade route Battle (with date) Battle between Muhammad’s followers and Meccan forces

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The Early Growth of Islam

There was a temporary power vacuum in the region because the two great powers – the Byzantine and Persian Empires – had been almost constantly at war for 50 years and were exhausted. In a few decisive battles the Muslims overcame any opposition that these empires presented. Instead of returning to Medina, they then ventured further afield. Within 12 years of Muhammad’s death, Muslim armies had occupied Egypt, Syria, and Iraq, and were advancing westwards into Libya and eastwards into what is now Iran. The Byzantine and Persian provincial governors fled and the Muslims made treaties with local inhabitants, calling them ‘protected minorities’. These groups organized their own internal affairs, but paid tribute or tax to the Muslim governor. The status of protected minority was open only to ‘people of the book’, who believed in one God and possessed a written scripture, such as Jews and Christians.

The expansion of Islam Apart from some periods of internal strife, Muslim expansion continued for a century. To the west, Muslims occupied North Africa as far as the Atlantic Ocean, crossed into Spain, briefly holding the region around Narbonne, southern France. In 732, at the Battle of Tours in central France, a Muslim raid was defeated by a French army. The Muslims also raided as far as Constantinople (modern Istanbul), but failed to occupy any of Asia Minor (Turkey). After occupying Persia and Afghanistan, they penetrated

THE SPREAD OF ISLAM BY 750 ce FR ANCE

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ro R. Due Tagus R.

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Extent of Islam at death of Muhammad (632) Extent of Islam at death of Abu Bakr (634) Extent of Islam at death of Umar (644) Extent of Islam at death of Uthman (656) Extent of Islam in 750 Battle (date)

central Asia and crossed the Indus river. Until 750, this entire area remained a single state, ruled by caliphs of the Ummayad dynasty. Most of the inhabitants of these regions were not immediately converted to Islam, but became protected minorities. The military expeditions, though described as ‘holy wars’ (jihads), were raids for booty, not to make converts.

AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

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Y

.

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Muhammad died in 632, leaving a religion and a state. His first successor was Abu Bakr (c. 573–634), the ‘caliph’ (khalifa) – ‘successor’ or ‘deputy’ of Muhammad. Muhammad and the first caliphs organized successful raiding expeditions towards Syria and Iraq to obtain booty.

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Protected minorities were on the whole well treated. However members of these minorities felt themselves to be second-class citizens, and over the centuries there was a steady flow of converts to Islam. In this way Islam became the dominant religion in lands that were previously the home of Christianity. By the 7th century, Zoroastrianism, the official religion of the Persian Empire, was in

Miles 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 100 300 Kilometers

decline, and conversion to Islam there was rapid and extensive. In 750 the Ummayad dynasty of caliphs, based in Damascus, ended, and for the next 500 years, the ‘Abbasid dynasty ruled from Baghdad. While the Ummayad period was one of growth, the first centuries of ‘Abbasid rule were marked by consolidation.

T H E E A R LY G R O W T H O F I S L A M

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Islam in the Subcontinent 114

Islam entered India via two main routes: from the south, where Arab traders had set up colonies along the south-west coast of India in pre-Islamic times, and from the north, where Islam arrived via Central Asia through military conquest. Sind in the north was crucial for the diffusion of Islam, which spread from there to Punjab and Gujarat.

M

From the 11th century onwards, Muslim penetration was more sustained. A new Turkish ‘Ghaznavid’ dynasty under Sultan Mahmud (971–1030) started to expand from Ghazni. Hindu rulers from Delhi, Kalinjar, Ajmer, and other cities formed a confederacy to oppose him, but were defeated at the battle of Waihind (1008). Mahmud carried out several campaigns, culminating in the capture of Somnath, but annexed only Punjab. After the Ghaznavids, other dynasties took Islam into new areas. By 1212, the Ghurid dynasty controlled most of the former Ghaznavid territories and had expanded as far east as Bengal. Later the Afghan Khaljis defended this territory against repeated Mongol raids and, under the great sultan Alauddin Khilji (r. 1296–1316), reached as far south as Madurai. The Turco-Indian Tughluqids expanded to the south and east, but the vast empire began to disintegrate with the rise of independent Muslim principalities. The subcontinent was reunified during the 17th century under the Mughal emperors. However, by the 1770s the Mughal Empire (1526–1858) had shrunk to a small province around Delhi. Its legacy re-emerged in 1947

H

Masjid Sabz, or Green Mosque, Balkh, Afghanistan.

when, as the British withdrew from India, the newly-created Muslim state of Pakistan re-affirmed its links with Persia and the Middle East. Muslim rulers of India generally practised religious tolerance, since mass conversion of the huge population of Hindus was impossible. Widespread conversions took place only in the Punjab and Bengal. Hindus and Muslims lived together, sometimes harmoniously, sometimes not. Although Islam was often strongly supported by the state, the rapid spread of Islam was mainly due to the missionary activity of Sufi orders.

AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

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ISLAMIC EXPANSION IN INDIA

map 41

Bukhara

Umayyad Empire by 750 Abbasid Empire to 871 Conquered by Mahmud by 1022 Ghurid territory to 1215 Khalji and Tughluqid territory to 1335 Pre-1200 mosque 1201–1500 mosque

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Islam in South-east Asia



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From the 14th century, local rulers in South-East Asia converted to Islam. Within two centuries almost the entire region had been Islamized. By the mid-15th century Malacca had become the chief tradingcentre for South-east Asia and main centre for the spread of Islam, which came to be identified with the state and its main language, Malay. The embracing of Islam by the rulers of Malacca encouraged the emergence of similar sultanates elsewhere on the Malay Peninsula and farther afield in Jolo, Ternate, and Tidore. However there is also evidence of conversions to Islam in Sumatra and elsewhere earlier than 1400 ce. A fragment of inscription from the east coast of the Malay Peninsula – the ‘Trengganu Stone’ – appears to show a ruler pronouncing the primacy of Islamic law, and has been dated to between 1302 and 1387. Mass conversion in this area was the result of the missionary activities by Sufi orders; political opportunism and obedience to the Muslim sultans; old and repeated contact with Muslim traders; and, after the arrival of Christian missionaries with the Portuguese, a revival of Islamic proselytism. Today, Islam is the most widely practised religion in this region. It is the official religion of Malaysia and Brunei, and its adherents form a majority of the population in both those countries as well as of Indonesia.

Pegu

M SU

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In South-east Asia, the introduction of Islam is linked to trade, which was controlled by the Arabs from the 12th to 15th centuries. After this, the Portuguese commenced global trading.

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WORLD RELIGIONS: 1500

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Christian centre Hindu centre Buddhist centre Muslim centre Zoroastrian centre Confucian centre Lamaist monastery Gothic Christian cathedral Sufi shrine Sikh centre Nestorian Christian centre Dagon Pilgrimage centre

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map 43

Buddhist in 750 Pagans converted to Buddhism 750–1450 Buddhists reverting to Hinduism Jewish concentration Christian 750 Pagans converted to Christianity 750–1450 Hindu in 750 Islamic in 750 Pagans converted to Islam 750–1450 Followers of other world religions converted to Islam Lands of other world religions conquered by Islam but not converted China 750–1450: Buddhism, Confucian and Taoism Korea 750–1450: Buddhism, Confucianism Manichaeism Pagan

Khiva Bukhara Samarkand

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Islam and Africa 120

The Muslim penetration of Africa involved conquest, trade, migration, and missionary activities. During the 7th and 8th centuries ce, Arab military conquests of Egypt and much of North Africa were gradually followed by the conversion of much of the Berber population to Islam. From the 11th to the 14th century, Islam spread across the Sahara into West Africa and up the Nile river into the Sudan, travelling along the trade routes connecting West Africa with North Africa. From an area between Morocco and Senegal, new Berber converts – later known as the ‘Almoravids’ – conquered Morocco, crossed to Spain, and fought the Christian rulers, ruling Iberia for almost a century (1086–1147). In East Africa, Islam was carried down the coast by sea-going Arabs, some of whom settled and built up coastal cities such as Sofala and Kilwa, major ports in the gold trade. Between the 16th and 18th centuries, Muslim scholars, Sufis, and Muslim traders helped form states ruled by Muslim princes, such as the Sultanate of Funj and Kingdom of Kanem-Bornu, which became a great trading and military power in the late 16th century. The greatest state of Saharan Africa was the Songhai Empire, Muslim since 1493, which controlled the trans-Saharan gold trade until the early 17th century. During this period too, Muslim Malays and Javanese emigrated from the Dutch East Indies to South Africa, especially the Cape Town region, becoming the first Muslims to settle in South Africa.

From the 18th century some Sufi orders, especially the Qadiriyah and the Tijaniyah, led by militants who declared a jihad, seized local political control, aiming to set up ‘pure’ Islamic governments. Examples include the Sokoto state in Hausaland, founded in 1804 by Uthman Dan Fodio, and the Mahdist state of Eastern Sudan (1882–96), the result of an Islamic renewal movement fighting against colonists. In recent times there has been a revival of Islam in Africa, partly in response to secularism. Islamic missionary activities, often using local missionaries, flourish. The close relation of Islam with some African beliefs, for example the belief in good and bad spirits, associated with the Muslim belief in jinns, is another reason for Islam’s successful expansion. Recent waves of immigration from South and South-east Asia to East Africa and, as a result of Ugandan ruler Idi Amin’s (1971–9) persecution of Asians, from East Africa to Southern Africa, have added to the variety of Islam in the continent. Among them are Sunnis of the Shafi’i legal school, Shi’ites, and Pakistani Ahmadis.

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THE SPREAD OF ISLAM IN AFRICA

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Caucasus, and later spread peacefully through commerce. By the 12th century Islam stretched

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imam Shamil (r. 1834–59) and Uzun Haji (d. 1920), rebelled against the Russians in the northern Caucasus. The Russian Revolution of 1917 resulted in an anti-religious policy, and overt Muslim religious rituals and practices were restricted, mosques destroyed, and Muslim schools and colleges proscribed. Anti-religious campaigns intensified in the 1950s and 1960s. During the late 1980s, the Russian leader Mikhail Gorbachev’s (b. 1931) policy of glasnost (openness) aimed at permitting some freedom of thought and belief, and marked the beginning of Muslim political revival. By 1991, the Muslim states of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Azerbaijan had emerged as independent republics. Most Muslims in southern Russia, Central Asia, and the Caucasus are Sunnis, following the Hanafi school of law. Most Daghestanis, Chechno-Ingush and some Kurds follow the Shafi’i school. There are Shi’a Muslims among the Tajiks, the Uzbeks, the Baluchis, the Azeris, and Tats. There are also Isma’ilis, especially in the Pamirs in Central Asia, and some Baha’is in southern Russia, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan. Sufi orders are particularly important in Central Asia and the northern Caucasus.

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from the Urals to modern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Xinjiang. By the 16th century it extended as far as the Russian steppes, north of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea. As the Russian Empire expanded, from the 14th to the 19th century, it incorporated Muslim territories. Apart from Catherine the Great (r. 1762–96), Russian rulers denied Muslims religious rights. Sufi-inspired jihad movements, such as those led by Naqshbandi

Islam in China The exact number of Chinese Muslims is unknown, partly because of the Communist government’s repressive policy toward Islam. The two most significant groups are the Hui, who speak languages such as Tibetan and Mongolian, and the Uighur who speak a Turkic language. The first Muslim settlers in China were merchants who arrived from the 7th century onward. Those coming by sea settled in the south-eastern coastal region, around modern-day Guangzhou (Canton).

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Islam in Modern Asia

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Decorated mihrab of the Kalon mosque, Bukhara, Uzbekistan.

Those arriving via the Silk Road reached Xinjiang; some headed to modern-day Xi’an (Chang’an), often stopping at Lanzhou. These early settlers included Arabs, Persians, and Mongols. There were further migrations to China during the Mongol Yuan dynasty (1279– 1368), when Muslims traded with Central Asia. The first Muslim community in Yunnan province can be dated to this period. The Ming dynasty (1368–1644) was generally tolerant towards Muslims and encouraged

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assimilation. Sufism entered China as a major force late in the 17th century, arriving from Central Asia along the main trade routes. When the Qing dynasty (1644–1911) expanded into Central Asia, Muslims started to rebel, asserting their identity and rejecting any compromises with local religions. The Qing quashed major 19th-century Muslim rebellions in Yunnan and northwest China. Muslims of the north-west were granted autonomy only after the fall of the Qing dynasty.

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The policy of the Chinese People’s Republic towards Muslims has oscillated between tolerance and radicalism. During the Cultural Revolution (1966–76), Muslims in Yunnan were persecuted under both antiethnic and anti-religious policies. Recent Islamic militancy, especially in the north-west, has prompted an increased

Chinese military presence. This region has become commercially and strategically important for China because of its mineral resources and its trade links with Central Asia, the Middle East, and the West.

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Uighur men outside the Id Kah Mosque at the end of Ramadan. Kashgar, Xinjiang province, western China.

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Two major Sunni modernist reformers, the Indian Sayyid Ahmad Khan (1817–98) and the Egyptian Muhammad ‘Abduh (1845– 1905), held that every Muslim could search scripture’s meaning for himself or herself. More radical reformers aimed to Islamicize modernity, rather than modernize Islam. Two key radicals helped shape movements that are sometimes called ‘fundamentalist’ or ‘Islamist’: the Indian/ Pakistani Abu al-Ala Maududi (1903–79) and the Egyptian Sayyid Qutb (1906–66). Both men believed Muslims should conduct their entire lives according to God’s law, and provided an incisive critique of secular Western societies. A similar impulse moved Ayatollah Khomeini’s revolution in Iran (1979). In the USA, some of the Black Power movements drew on Islamic themes. The Nation of Islam (NOI) was originally a black supremacist organization, established in the 1930s and later led by Elijah Muhammad (Elijah Poole, 1897–1975). White people’s interest in Islam tends to focus on Sufism, originally introduced to the

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By the end of World War I, the Muslim empires had been dismembered, and European colonial powers occupied or directly influenced the Muslim world. ‘Modernity’ was regarded as a transformation originating in Europe and North America. Muslims experienced Europe’s power not as secular, but as Christian. While Muslims welcomed the material benefits of science and technology, they remained ambivalent to modern values, such as democracy, and hostile to missionary propaganda that contradicted the core of their faith. In countries such as India, Algeria, and Palestine, the retreat from colonial rule left much suffering and bitterness.

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SOUTH AMERICA Percentage of Muslim population 90–100% 75–89% 50–74% 30–49% 11–29% 1–10% Less than 1% Islamic migration since 1900

USA in 1910 by Inayat Khan (1882–1927), and made popular by the writings of Idries Shah (1924–96). In the West, small numbers of white converts, particularly in areas of high Muslim immigration, have converted to Islam, having found other various aspects of the religion appealing. The majority of Muslims in Western society live peacefully, often with workplace adaptations to meet their religious

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requirements at times such as the Ramadan fast. However for some in the West, the destruction of the twin towers in New York on 11 September 2001 confirmed warnings of a ‘resurgent Islam’ and a ‘clash of civilizations’. Muslim leaders have long been concerned about the rise of religious extremism within their community. Radicals express in religious terms socio-political problems that affect their own and other Muslim societies,

such as the corruption and repression of Western-supported regimes, some of whose policies are widely regarded as perpetrating injustices upon Muslim peoples in areas such as Palestine, Chechnya, Afghanistan, Algeria, Iraq, and Bosnia. In June 2014 the jihadist so-called ‘Islamic State’ (IS) group declared the establishment of a ‘caliphate’ and seized extensive territory in Syria and Iraq.

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Sikhism 128

Sikhism is one of the youngest of the world’s major religions. Around 1500 ce, Nanak, the religion’s founder, is said to have been transformed by God while bathing. He emerged with the words, ‘There is no Hindu, there is no Muslim’ – a simple creed that became the basis of Sikhism. The history of Sikhism has always been closely linked to the Punjab, the land of its origins. Sikhism first emerged in a society that was religiously divided. It is not a mere combination of Hindu and Muslim elements: from the outset it has defined itself as a new and independent third way. Yet it is the product of the relationship, in the Punjab and beyond, of a vigorous minority community with the two larger traditions of Hinduism and Islam. Guru Nanak (1469–1539) was a capable organizer of his followers as well as an insightful and powerful teacher. He laid the foundations for some of the defining practices of Sikhism, particularly the daily offices of prayer (nitnem) and congregational assembly to hear the hymns of the Guru. Guru Nanak went outside his family to select his successor Angad (r. 1539–52) as second Guru of the Sikh community, or Panth (path, way). After Nanak’s death, the Sikhs were led by a line of living Gurus until the death of the 10th Guru in 1708. Although the third Guru, Amar Das (r. 1552–74), symbolically rejected the Hindu caste hierarchy by instituting the langar, the temple kitchen offering food to all regardless of caste, all the Gurus were from the same Khatri caste as Nanak. From the fifth Guru onwards the succession became hereditary within a single family. Initially the centre of the community shifted with each Guru, until Guru Arjan (r. 1581–1606) founded the great temple at Amritsar – the Golden Temple (Harimandir) – which since its inauguration in 1604 has been the focal point of Sikhism. Guru Arjan also codified the Sikh scriptures, the Adi Granth (‘original book’). This huge

hymnal fills 1,430 pages in the modern edition, and is central to the ritual of Sikh temples (gurdwara – ‘gate of the Guru’).

Guru Gobind Singh and the Khalsa The Panth grew in numbers during the time of the early Gurus, which overlapped with the reign of the great Mughal emperor Akbar (1542–1605). However the strategic location of the Punjab embroiled the Gurus in imperial politics, and Guru Arjan became the first Sikh martyr, when Akbar’s less tolerant successor Jehangir executed him for allegedly supporting a rebellion. During the 17th century, continuing conflict with the Mughals resulted in the execution of the 9th Guru, Tegh Bahadur (r. 1664–75), in Delhi. This led to a radical new formation of the community, under the martyred leader’s son, Guru Gobind Singh (r. 1675–1708), the 10th and last Guru. Guru Gobind adopted the role of ruler as well as Guru in his court at Anandpur, in the Punjab. He re-established the Guru’s authority over the Panth by founding a new order called the Khalsa, the Guru’s elite. Since the time of the last Guru, baptized members of the Khalsa have led the Panth. Gobind Singh’s sons were killed during his struggles with the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb (1618–1707), and he was himself killed by a Muslim assassin. With his death, the line of living Gurus came to an end; their authority was henceforth vested in the scripture, revered as the Guru Granth Sahib. During the 18th century, the Punjab was fought over between the declining Mughal Empire and new Muslim invaders from Afghanistan. This was the heroic age of the Sikh Panth, who mounted a spirited resistance

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SIKH ORIGINS

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Mughal Empire in 1526 Mughal Empire in 1540 Mughal Empire in 1605 Mughal Empire under Aurangzeb (1658–1707) Site important to Sikhism Modern political border

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to both Muslim armies. Led by the Jat Sikhs, who had become the dominant group in the community, the Khalsa forces achieved success with the capture of Lahore, the provincial capital, which became the centre of a powerful Sikh kingdom under Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1799–1839). However his weaker successors were unable to resist the British, who, after two hard-fought wars, incorporated the Punjab into their Indian Empire in 1849.

Modern Sikhism In the late 19th century, leaders of Indian society, including Sikhs, confronted British

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political dominance, with its Christian emphasis. After the British conquered Ranjit Singh’s kingdom, Sikh religious identity seemed to be threatened by the dismantling of Sikh political institutions, and by a resurgent Hinduism. Sikh reformist associations (Singh Sabhas) formed in the main cities of the Punjab, formulating a redefined Sikhism with a distinctive Sikh identity that has remained the orthodoxy till today. Meanwhile cultural transformation was achieved in the community through reformers such as Bhai Vir Singh (1872–1957).

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SIKHISM IN INDIA TODAY

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Sikh population c. 2005 16 million approximately 1.25–1.5 million 600,000–999,000 150,000–250,000 50,000–100,000 1,000–49,999 under 1,000

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SIKHISM WORLDWIDE TODAY

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Sikh population More than 19 million More than 500,000 200,000–500,000 20,000–50,000 10,000–12,000 Less than 5,000

By the end of World War I, reformists had given Sikhs confidence to engage with nationalist politics. The Akali movement transferred control of the major gurdwaras from hereditary guardians to an elected committee of male Sikhs, the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee (SGPC), which became the most important voice in Sikhism. With no real chance of achieving their own country, the Sikhs cast their lot with the Hindus in 1947, when partition of the Punjab between India and Pakistan was effected. This uprooted half the community from the Pakistan side to the Indian Punjab, but for the first time consolidated the Sikh population territorially. From this base, the Akali Dal launched the Punjabi State campaign, aiming to establish a linguistically-defined state with a Sikh majority. By the early 1980s, the Punjab had become a battleground, with

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Sikh activists fighting Indian security forces, culminating with the Indian prime minister, Indira Gandhi (1917–84) ordering the army to storm the Golden Temple in 1984. Her assassination by Sikh bodyguards provoked anti-Sikh pogroms in many parts of India, and separatism eventually lost the support of most Sikhs in India.

The Sikh diaspora Increasingly confident and well-established diaspora communities have been settled for more than a generation in Britain, Canada, and the USA, and totals around 1 million. The Sikh diaspora remains closely linked to the Punjab through family ties, the rituals of the gurdwara, the great Sikh festivals (gurpurbs), and regular pilgrimages to the great shrines. But they are also directly exposed to Western environments and relatively free of the constraints experienced in an increasingly Hindu-dominated India.

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World Religions Today

Part 7

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Japanese Religions

Religion in Japan is a rich tapestry of diverse traditions. Many people display allegiance to more than one religion: Shinto, Buddhist, and various new religions. Japan has received much from Korea and China: the main imported religions are Buddhism, mainly in its Mahayana form, and Confucianism. The influence of Taoism has been largely indirect, partly through Zen Buddhism. Japan’s native Shinto faith first emerged in reaction to Buddhism and Confucianism, with their scholarly prestige and political influence. Japan consists of four main islands. The most famous Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples are in the main island, Honshu. Important Shinto shrines are at Ise, where the sun-goddess Amaterasu is revered, and at Izumo, where all the gods, or kami, are said to return once a year. The former capitals, Nara and Kyoto, have Shinto shrines, such as the Kasuga Shrine at Nara, and many fine Buddhist temples and images. The island of Shikoku has a famous pilgrim route taking in 88 Buddhist temples. Kyushu, the southernmost island, has some of the oldest sites because of its proximity to Korea. It was the main base for Roman Catholic missions in the 16th century, and for the Shintoinspired reassertion of imperial power in the mid-19th century. Japan’s mountainous terrain has also influenced the forms of Japanese religious life. Many mountains – most famously Mount Fuji – have shrines that attract pilgrim groups. Mount Koya became one of the centres of Shingon Buddhism.

Shinto Shinto is the name for a collection of religious practices with roots in prehistoric Japan which were broadly animist, believing a supernatural force resided in natural objects such as mountains, trees, and animals. From the Yamato period onwards, the imperial

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household was central to Shinto, tracing its roots back to Ninigi, believed to have been grandson of the sun-goddess Amaterasu. From 1868, when the monarchy was restored to a central position in Japan, until the end of the Pacific War in 1945, the Shinto religion was focused sharply on the emperor cult. After the war, the emperor’s semi-divine status was officially denied and Shinto disestablished. Nevertheless, the imperial family still enjoys high esteem, and Shinto shrines remain important symbols of Japanese nationhood. Today Shinto is based on individual shrines, each of which has a particular reason for its existence, whether it be a natural phenomenon, such as a mountain, a historical event, or an act of personal devotion or political patronage.

Japanese Buddhism Japanese Buddhism can be traced back to the early 6th century ce, when images and sutras, or Buddhist scriptures, were sent from Korea. Prince Shotoku, regent from 593 to 622 ce, established Buddhism as a national religion, linking it to Confucian ideals of morality and statecraft. A later Buddhist centre drew its inspiration from the Chinese T’ien T’ai school, which became known in Japan as Tendai Buddhism. This in turn was affected by an esoteric form of Buddhism – Shingon – established by the famous monk Kukai (744– 835), posthumously known as Kobo Daishi. The Lotus Sutra had already been important in Tendai Buddhism, but Nichiren (1222–82) gave it a new centrality. His writings provided the basis for a number of sects, including influential modern lay Buddhist movements.

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JAPAN: PLACES OF RELIGIOUS IMPORTANCE

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Ama-no-Iwato-Jinja Shrine to Amaterasu Omikami, sun goddess Aso-san Kirishima-yama

Where Imperial ancestors descended from heaven

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Religion in China Today 136

China has always had its own distinctive religious traditions, in part due to their having developed virtually in isolation from those elsewhere, with none of the idea-sharing common in Western religions. Chinese traditions have tended to focus more on ethics than on speculation about the existence of a deity.

MAJOR RELIGIONS OF MODERN CHINA

While the ethical teachings of Confucius himself were to some extent amplified by later prophets, especially Mencius and Hsün-tzu, the Taoist religion emerged almost in contrast to Confucianism’s emphasis on service to society, concerned with seeking a mystical unity with the Tao – a metaphysical absolute – by the contemplation of nature. Both traditions also changed through the influence of Buddhism. The crossover between these three traditions is such that today many people see no problem in being an adherent of all three. During the 20th century, all three traditions struggled to survive Maoist Communism and the Cultural Revolution, while the re-emergence and rise of Christianity was one result of the relaxation of state proscription. In the early 20th century, the Chinese regarded Christianity as an imported ‘foreign’ religion. Today, out of a total population of 1,330 billion in 2010, it has been estimated that approximately 85 million are Protestants, and another 21 million Catholics. If these figures are accurate, China would contain the third largest Christian population in the world, after the USA and Brazil. Chinese Christianity has undergone a process of ‘sinicization’, or indigenization, becoming embedded in the Chinese culture. The core of state policy towards Christianity in China is the ‘Three Self Policy’ – self-support, self-government, self-propagation – adopted in the 1950s by all officially-sanctioned religious groups.

K A Z A K H S T A N

XINJIANG UIGHUR

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I N D I A Roman Catholic Protestant Buddhist Taoist Muslim No dominant religion/no data

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WORLD RELIGIONS IN THE 21st CENTURY

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Hindu Jewish Chinese religions Theravada Buddhism Mahayana Buddhism Mainly Roman Catholic Christian Orthodox Christian Mainly Protestant Christian Sunni Muslim Shi-ite Muslim Shinto Tribal, Muslim, Christian Tribal, Christian Traditional, tribal or undifferentiated religion Jain Minority Sikh minority Jewish minority Muslim minority Zoroastrian minority

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NAMIBIA

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What are Indigenous Religions? 140

Indigenous religions make up the majority of the world’s religions. They are as diverse as the languages spoken, the music made, and the means of subsistence employed by the many people who find them meaningful and satisfying. Not all indigenous religions are the same. There are hundreds of indigenous languages in, for example, North America and Papua New Guinea; there are also many different ways of being religious. Few indigenous languages have a word like ‘religion’, and some scholars have concluded that it is inappropriate to speak of ‘religion’ when referring to indigenous cultures. But if we think of religions as particular ways of living in and seeing the world, we can find religion in the ordinary, everyday lives of many people who do not use the word. As a result of the spread of global religions – for example Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam – some indigenous religions have been destroyed, rejected, and abandoned. Some indigenous people have accepted the arriving religion on their own terms, incorporating it into an indigenous understanding. Many indigenous religions have adapted to the presence of more powerful or dominant religions and continued with vitality and creativity. Some people are returning to their ‘traditional ways’, while others engage in both an indigenous and another newer religion. Indigenous religions are not the ‘fossilized’ remains of the earliest, or first, religions. They are rarely simple or simplistic, and should not – as was common among Western scholars in the past – be taken as the basic building blocks from which ‘more advanced’ religions were built or evolved. Chauvinistic terms such as ‘primitive religion’ or ‘primal religion’, commonly used previously, detract from a respectful understanding of the ways in which different people understand and engage with the

world. It is also unacceptable to speak of groups that may include millions of people as ‘tribes’, and of their religions as ‘tribal religions’. Indigenous religions are not stuck in the past, nor do they only make sense when practised in their original homelands. Although indigenous religions have been heavily affected by colonialism, they continue to provide resources for people in the new, globalized world. Some indigenous religions feature teaching about a God who created the world. Others hold that everything we see results from the creative activities of many other persons. Perhaps a single creator, or a creative process, started it all – but life then developed as each living being, or person, played their part. Trees separated sky and land, mountains arose to shape the land, coyote or jaguar or a robin tamed fire, corn taught planting cycles and ceremonies, humans built towns: thus the world became the way it is. Similar processes continue to change the world, making it important that people learn to act responsibly and respectfully. All this is common in a great variety of indigenous religions. Indigenous religions imply a great variety of creative persons. Some might be recognized as similar to the God whom monotheists acknowledge; others are more polytheistic deities, encountered in the kind of intimate, everyday matters for which some scholars use the word ‘immanent’ – the divine within the world and everyday experience. Many significant persons are humans: elders, priests, shamans, grandparents, rulers, and so on. Although ancestors are important, among indigenous people this word normally refers to those

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from whom a particular person or family is descended, rarely ‘all those who have died’. Some indigenous people believe it is possible to cause harm by performing particular rituals, such as witchcraft and sorcery. Solutions might be found by recourse to diviners or shamans. For the indigenous people, these specialists are adept at finding knowledge unavailable to others, and require

Masai men outside traditional huts, Masai Mara, Kenya.

careful, sometimes frightening, training for their role. Indigenous religions, like other religions, can be considered to be ways in which particular groups of people seek to improve health, happiness, and even wealth for themselves, their families, and communities.

W H AT A R E I N D I G E N O U S R E L I G I O N S ?

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INDIGENOUS RELIGIONS WORLDWIDE

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Kalaha Bushpeo

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EVENKI Yakut

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MEO Ilongot

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Jale

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Kalahari Bushpeople KALAHARI DESERT

MURNGIN

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AUSTRALIA

MAORI MAORI

W H AT A R E I N D I G E N O U S R E L I G I O N S ?

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New Religious Movements 144

The term ‘New Religious Movements’ (NRMs) covers a variety of religious organizations that have emerged and which are often dismissively referred to by mainline religions, particularly the Roman Catholic Church, as ‘cults’. Some scholars define a new religion as an organization that has arrived in the West since World War II, while others regard ‘new’ as covering the last 150 years. NRMs are a global phenomenon: it is estimated that there are some 10,000 NRMs in Africa, around 3,000 in the USA, and 500–600 in Britain. NRMs tend to fall outside mainstream religion, sometimes because of doctrinal disputes or controversial practices. 19th century NRMs in the West were predominantly Christian. William Miller (1782–1849) proclaimed that Christ’s second coming was imminent. He named 1843, subsequently 1844, as the year of Christ’s return; his followers’ disillusionment in 1844 became known as the ‘Great Disappointment’. Ellen G. White (1827–1915), who founded the Seventh-day Adventists in 1861, taught that Jesus had returned, but his presence was invisible. Charles Taze Russell (1852–1916), who co-founded Zion’s Watch Tower Tract Society in 1881, also taught Christ’s ‘invisible presence’, although the Jehovah’s Witnesses, as Russell’s successor Joseph Rutherford (1869–1942) renamed them in 1931, now date this event to 1914. Another significant movement was New Thought, or Higher Thought, which taught that Infinite Intelligence – or God – is everywhere, and emphasized health improvement through mental ‘affirmations’. These ideas influenced Mary Baker Eddy’s (1821–1910) Christian Science movement and the Hopkins Metaphysical Association, set up by Emma Curtis Hopkins (1849–1925)

NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS WORLDWIDE

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 1830 Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons) 1848 Spiritualism 1875 Theosophical Society 1879 Christian Science 1884 Jehovah’s Witnesses 1894 Vedanta Society 1950 Church of Scientology 1960s Human Potential Movement (HPM) 1960s Jesus People 1968 Children of God 1969 Healthy, Happy, Holy Org. 1971 Erhard Seminar Training (est)

CUBA Palo Abakuá HAITI Santeria Voodoo (Vodun)

JAMAICA 1936 Rastafarianism

P ACIFIC OCEAN

BRAZIL Umbanda Quimbanda Candomblé

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in 1887. Some of Hopkins’ students set up their own organizations, best known of which is the Unity School of Christianity, or Unity Church, founded in Kansas City, Missouri, in 1889. Modern spiritualism can be traced back to ‘rappings’ heard by the Fox sisters of Hydesville, New York, in 1848, though modern spiritualist churches emphasize healing as much as contact with the departed. Helena P. Blavatsky (1831–91), one of the founders of the Theosophical

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N ORT ATLAN OCEA

BA o akuá HAITI anteria Voodoo Vodun)

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UNITED KINGDOM 1783 Swedenborgianism 1955 Aetherius Society Neo-paganism 1965 Findhorn

N ORTH

AUSTRIA 1912 Anthroposophy

ATLANTIC OCEAN

JAPAN 1837 Tenrikyo 1859 Konkokyo 1925 Reiyu-Kai 1930 Seich No I.e. 1930 Mahikari 1935 Soka Gakkai, Nichiren Shoshu 1938 Rissho-Kosei-Kai

CHINA 1992 Falun Gong (Falun Dafa)

I RAN 1844 Baha’i

SOUTH KOREA 1860 Chongdogyo 1954 Unification Church (‘Moonies’) PAKISTAN 1889 Ahmadiyah 1937 Brahma Kumaris

NIGERIA 1918 Aladura church

PAPUA NEW GUINEA 1920 Cargo movements

INDIA 1940 Sathya Sai Baba 1955 Ananda 1958 Transcendental Meditation (tm) 1965 International Society for Krishna Consciousness

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO (ZAIRE) 1921 Zimbangu Church ZAMBIA 1953 Lumpa Church

SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN

INDONESIA 1933 Subud

P ACIFIC OCEAN

INDIAN OCEAN SOUTH AFRICA 1904 Zionist Church

Society, claimed contact with a number of ‘Ascended Masters’ – advanced spiritual beings who once lived on earth. Ascended Masters – sometimes called the ‘Great White Brotherhood’ – also feature in the Rosicrucians, the Church Universal and Triumphant, and the New Age ‘channelling’ movement.

NRMs in the 1960s and 1970s A new wave of NRMs occurred in the 1960s. Bible-based and charismatic, the

‘Jesus Movement’, or ‘Jesus People’, gained momentum within the youth counterculture, sometimes involving communal living and sharing of possessions. Converts had often previously been on drugs, and the Love Family, or Church of Jesus Christ at Armageddon, founded in 1968 by Paul Erdman (1940–2007), encouraged their use. Of the communal groups, the best known are The Family International (TFI), previously known as the Children of God, or COG, and The Holy Spirit Association

NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS

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for the Unification of World Christianity, or Unification Church (UC). Founded by David Brandt Berg (‘Moses David’, 1919–94), COG was ostensibly Protestant fundamentalist, but became controversial for its ‘flirty fishing’ – or ‘FFing’ – offering sex to seekers, mainly by female members. The founder-leader of the Unification Church, Sun Myung Moon (1920–2012), claimed Jesus was unable to accomplish his messianic mission, which was to marry and beget sinless children. He and his wife are regarded as the new messiahs.

Indian-derived NRMs The first Hindu swami (world-renouncer) to visit the West was Ramakrishna’s pupil Swami Vivekananda (1863–1902), who founded the Vedanta Society in New York in 1894. Other gurus followed, notably Paramahansa Yogananda (1893–1952), founder of the SelfRealization Fellowship in 1920; Meher Baba (1894–1969), who in 1954 declared he was the Avatar of the age; the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (1918–2008), who developed the Transcendental Meditation (Transcendental Meditation®) technique; Sri Chinmoy (1931– 2007), who promoted ‘inner peace’; Swami A. C. Bhaktivedanta Praphupada (1896–1977), founder of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), better known as the ‘Hare Krishna’ movement; and Prem Pal Singh Rawat (b. 1957, formerly known as Guru Maharaj Ji), leader of the Elan Vital movement and its predecessor, the Divine Light Mission (DLM). Sathya Sai Baba (1926–2011) never visited the West, but was well known as a miracle-worker. He claimed to be the reincarnation of Sai Baba of Shirdi (d. 1918), an avatar, spiritual saint, and miracle worker. Bhagavan Shri Rajneesh (1931–90), later known as Osho, taught an idiosyncratic form of Zen Buddhism and celebrated sexual freedom and materialism. In 1981 Rajneesh

146

moved to Oregon, USA, where he set up his ‘enlightened city’, Rajneeshpuram. Following conflict with locals, Osho was arrested in 1985, and the community disbanded.

Buddhist NRMs Arriving in the USA in 1897, D. T. Suzuki (1870–1966) wrote prolifically on Zen. The 1960s US youth counter-culture took the Zen notion of the ‘Buddha within’ to mean promiscuity, and their counter-cultural version of Zen is sometimes known as ‘Beat Zen’. Buddhist NRMs derive from various traditions. The Vipassana movement promotes a Theravada meditative practice. Innovative forms of Tibetan Buddhism include the New Kadampa Tradition (NKT), founded by Geshe Kelsang Gyatso (b. 1931), which became controversial because of a practice known as Dorje Shugden, opposed by the Dalai Lama. The Soka Gakkai International (SGI), founded in 1930, derives its teachings from the Japanese teacher Nichiren (1222–82) and the Lotus Sutra. The Friends of the Western Buddhist Order (FWBO) seek to develop a new form of Buddhism for Westerners. Founded by the Venerable Sangharakshita (Dennis Lingwood, b. 1925), it emphasizes ‘right livelihood’ instead of the monastic practice of seeking alms from lay supporters. Falun Gong, founded in 1992 in China by Li Hongzhi (b. 1951), offers a set of physical exercises similar to tai ch’i, with a path to becoming a Buddha.

The Bahá’í Sayyid ‘Ali Muhammad, born in Shiraz, Persia (modern Iran) in 1819, claimed to be a Messenger of God, and called himself the Báb, meaning ‘the gate’, but was executed in 1850. Mirza Husayn ‘Ali Nuri (1817–92) became a follower of the Báb, took the name

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Bahá’u’lláh, and founded the Bahá’í faith. He claimed to be the bearer of a new message from God, built on the previous religions of the world and destined to take humanity to its next stage of development: world unity. His shrine, near Akko, Israel, is the holiest site for Bahá’ís, and the world centre of the Bahá’í faith is in the same area. By the early 21st century more than 5 million Bahá’ís were living in more than 230 countries, with the largest community in India.

Other NRMs Starting in Jamaica, the Rastafarians were initially a Black Power movement supported by the descendants of slaves. They interpreted the Bible’s teachings as pointing to Ethiopia, where they believed Emperor Haile Selassie (1891–1975) was their messiah who would herald a return to Africa. Following his death, a variety of expectations arose. ‘UFO religions’ hold that the gods are extra-terrestrials who communicate with key humans. The earliest UFO religion in the West was the Aetherius Society, established by George King (1919–97) in 1955. The Raëlian

Movement, founded in 1974 by Claude Vorihon (b. 1946) promotes human cloning as the key to personal immortality. The science fiction writer L. Ron Hubbard (1911–86) came to prominence in 1950 with his best-selling self-improvement book Dianetics, the sourcebook of the Church of Scientology. Scientology is one of several groups forming the Human Potential Movement (HPM), organizations that claim to offer enhanced quality of life, such as Erhard Seminar Training (est – now Landmark Forum) founded by Werner Erhard (b. 1935), and the School of Economic Science (SES), which is influenced by Advaita Vedanta. The Human Potential Movement merges into the nebulous New Age Movement (NAM), which is characterized by eclecticism, optimism about human nature, and disenchantment with organized religion. ‘New Age’ flourished after 1970, evolving into a more mainstream series of spiritual self-improvement disciplines and quests. Its roots include pagan, Jewish, and Christian Hermetic movements and the occult.

NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS

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Modern Pilgrimage

Pilgrimage is normally a journey to a holy place, undertaken as a commemoration of a past event, as a celebration, or as an act of penance. The goal can be a natural feature such as a sacred river or mountain, the location of a miracle, revelation, or theophany, or the tomb of a hero or saint. Hinduism has always promoted pilgrimage to sacred sites. In recent times there has been a growing interest in pilgrimage to shrines such as the Sabarimala Temple in Kerala, and great festivals such as the Kumbh Mela. There has also been an increase in pilgrims visiting gurus in search of miracles. Similarly Buddhists today go on pilgrimage to holy sites such as Mount Shatrunjaya, in Gujarat, or Shravana Belagola, in Karnataka. Although the Japanese island of Shikoku lacks major religious monuments, it boasts a famous pilgrimage route which takes in 88 Buddhist temples that are frequently visited by tourists. There are other pilgrimage routes elsewhere in Japan, the most famous being 33 places in western Honshu where the Bodhisattva Kannon-sama is revered. Pilgrimage has for centuries been important in Christianity, nourished by the belief that a visit to a great shrine could bring physical and spiritual healing. In the Middle Ages pilgrimage to the Holy Land was hard and dangerous, restricted to the very devout and those obliged to do penance for serious sins. Alternative popular shrines included Rome, Canterbury – site of the murder of Thomas Becket in 1170 – and Santiago de Compostela, north-west Spain, by tradition the burial place of St James. Pilgrims tended to travel in groups, gossiping, singing, and stopping at minor shrines along the way.

numbers nearly 3 million pilgrims, and the Vatican City, Rome, and the healing shrine at Lourdes in France attract similar numbers. There are also many new pilgrimages. A modern phenomenon is the link between pilgrimage in the traditional religious sense and sightseeing tourism to religious sites, to appreciate their art, architecture, and culture. One popular modern Catholic pilgrimage site is the Marian shrine at Knock, Eire, which started with an apparition of the Virgin Mary, St Joseph, and St John in 1879. Knock has attracted increasing numbers of pilgrims,

Pilgrims on the Camino de Santiago, Spain.

Modern pilgrimage Many traditional pilgrimage destinations are still active today, and the ease of longdistance travel can enable mass movements of people. The annual Muslim hajj to Mecca now

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particularly since Pope John Paul II visited in 1979 for its centenary. A controversial site at Medjugorje, Herzegovina, attracts many Catholic pilgrims, after six children claimed to have seen a vision of the Virgin Mary there in 1981 – though the Roman Catholic Church has never officially recognized their claims. A modern Anglican Christian pilgrimage centre, also revered by Roman Catholics, is the restored medieval shrine of Our Lady of Walsingham, Norfolk, England. The shrine, established in 1061, fell into neglect after the Reformation, but was revived in 1897 by a procession of pilgrims from nearby King’s Lynn. Today, thousands of pilgrims, mostly from English parishes, journey to Walsingham each year. The Taizé community in Burgundy, France, has become one of the world’s most important sites of Christian pilgrimage. More than 100,000 young people from around the world make pilgrimages there every year to pray, sing, study the Bible, and do communal work. Through the community’s ecumenical outlook, they are encouraged to live in a spirit of kindness, simplicity, and reconciliation.

Muslim Pilgrimages Although the Muslim hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca is required once in every Muslim’s life, Muslims also visit shrines and cemeteries where walis (saints) repose. Such a visit is known in Arabic as ziyara. Shi’ite and Sunni Muslims make ziyaras to Medina, where the Prophet and many other early Muslim saints are buried. Shi’ites also visit Karbala’, in Iraq, where Husayn, the Prophet Muhammad’s grandson, was martyred; Najaf, where the fourth Imam Ali is buried; and shrines in Iran. Sunni Muslims also make ziyaras to shrines throughout the Islamic world.

Indonesians honour nine saints – known as Wali Songa – who, according to tradition, brought Islam to Java in the 15th century. Egyptian Muslims venerate many saints in village tombs as well as in major cities. The shrine-tomb of Sidi Ahmed al-Badawi, in the Nile delta city of Tanta, attracts millions of Egyptian pilgrims to the saint’s annual birthday celebration. In South, South-east, and East Asia, huge numbers of Hindus, Buddhists, Shintoists, Confucians, Taoists, and other religious followers continue to participate in pilgrimages. Among the most impressive are the Hindu gathering of Kumbh Mela, which attracts around 70 million at its major festival every 12 years, and the annual Chinese Spring Festival, when around 32 million people travel across the country each year to celebrate the New Year in their family homes.

New Pilgrimages Towards the end of summer thousands of people from around the world travel to the Black Rock Desert in Nevada, USA, to take part in the Burning Man Festival. This event has no specific religious meaning; it started in 1986 on a San Francisco beach, when a human effigy was burned on the summer solstice accompanied by spontaneous music-making, dancing, and community feeling. In 1990 the event moved to Black Rock, where it is now held annually. One of the attractions is the demanding travel required to reach the festival site, located in the hot desert. Burning Man is a new kind of secular, pilgrimage-passage rite, combining spirituality, tourism, risk, separation, artistic expression, entertainment, and renewal. In Europe, many annual music festivals, notably Glastonbury, display similar characteristics.

M O D E R N P I LG R I M A G E

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SOME MODERN PILGRIMAGE SITES

Dokkum Wittem Walsingham

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Black Rock Desert, Nevada Burning Man Festival

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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Knock Glastonbury Banneux Taizé Rocamadour Lourdes FRANCE Santiago de Compostela PORTUGAL

Fatima SPAIN Montserrat

Washington D.C.

Vietnam War Memorial

Chimayo

Guadalupe MEXICO

P ACIFIC OCEAN

Canindé

BRAZIL

Christian (mainly Roman Catholic) Muslim Hindu Jewish Chinese NRM Buddhist Shinto Sikh Indigenous Size denotes major pilgrim site Size denotes pilgrim site

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SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN Rio de Janeiro

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Loreto Medjugorje ITALY Chinese Spring Festival Kedarnath Rome GREECEMt Athos Mt Kailas Mashhad C H I N A Jerusalem Gangotri Mt Nanda Devi Karbala’ I R A N Bethlehem Yamnotri Tai Shan Hebron Qom Amritsar Lhasa Wen Shu Tanta Mt Sinai/ Rishikesh Najaf Jebel Musa Mt Kangchenjunga Haridwar SAUDI ARABIA EGYPT Kathmandu Badrinath Medina Luxor Sarnath IN D IA Bodh Gaya Mecca Ziyarat Varanasi A RABIAN (Benares) S EA Sabarimala Tirupati

JAPAN Mt Fuji Shikoku

P ACIFIC OCEAN

Kandy SRI LANKA

Sri Pada

INDIAN OCEAN

AUSTRALIA Ayers Rock

M O D E R N P I LG R I M A G E

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Jerusalem: The Holy City

The Old City of Jerusalem is an area of only 220 acres (one square kilometre), bounded by walls constructed by the Ottoman Turks in the 16th century, but contains numerous sacred sites — Christian, Jewish, and Islamic. Dominating the Old City is the vast Haram Al Sharif, or Noble Sanctuary, the site of the Islamic Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aqsa Mosque, but in biblical times the location of the Jewish Temple. Within the Old City are remains of fortifications dating from Old Testament times, Hasmonean relics, Herodian ruins, Roman arches and columns, Byzantine churches, sites revered for centuries by Christians as associated with Jesus, early Christian sanctuaries, Arab shrines, Crusader relics, and Mameluk fortifications. Jerusalem is situated on twin ridges roughly 2,700 feet (830 metres) above sea level, divided by the Tyropoeon Valley. To its east the Old City is bounded by the Kidron Valley, and to the west and south by the Hinnom Valley. On Mount Ophel, where the three valleys join, King David captured the Jebusite city, making it his capital city. The Temple area, first enclosed by David’s son Solomon, is visible today as the Temple Mount, or Haram al-Sharif, the great platform on which the Dome of the Rock stands. Solomon’s Temple was destroyed when Nebuchadnezzar took Jerusalem in 586 bce. After the Babylonian exile, many people of Judah returned to the city in 538 bce to rebuild the temple, and, under Nehemiah’s leadership, to strengthen the city’s defences. Some evidence of this period can still be seen.

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One of Herod the Great’s public works was to rebuild the temple more grandiosely. After the Roman general Vespasian subdued the Jewish Revolt of 66 ce, his son Titus took Jerusalem and burned down the temple. Following the defeat of the Bar Kokhba revolt (132–35 ce), the Emperor Hadrian razed Jerusalem to the ground and laid out a new city, Aelia Capitolina, from which all Jews were banished. The grid-pattern of his city is reflected in the layout of the present Old City. After Emperor Constantine declared Christianity a legal religion, Jerusalem began to become the centre of the Christian world. Churches were constructed over the major sites of Christian significance, such as Golgotha, the Holy Sepulchre, Gethsemane, and the Mount of Olives. In 638 Jerusalem was captured by the Muslim Arabs. Although the new ruler, Caliph Omar, did not to stop Christians praying in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, he set up a small mosque on the site of the present Al-Aqsa. In 691 ce Caliph Abd alMalik ibn Marwan completed the Dome of the Rock on the Temple Mount, and it has dominated the Jerusalem skyline ever since. In 1009 the Crusaders captured the city from the Arabs. They built several new churches, notably the Church of St Anne. After a long struggle, the Crusaders were expelled again in 1187, and the city was controlled by the Ayyubids and Mamluks. In 1517 the Ottoman Sultan Selim captured the city. His son, Suleiman I, ‘the Magnificent’ (r. 1520–66), rebuilt the gates and walls, leaving them much as they appear today.

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Jerusalem is the city of kings David and Solomon, the See of Greek Orthodox, Armenian, and Roman Catholic patriarchs and of an Anglican bishop, and a holy city for Muslims. It boasts innumerable holy places sacred to the three great monotheistic religions.

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Mount of Olives cemetery

Synagogues

Dormition Abbey

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Armenian cathedral of St. James

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What is the Hajj? 154

One of the five fundamental duties of Islamic worship – to be fulfilled once in a lifetime if possible – is the Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca and its vicinity, home of the holiest sites for Muslims. Mecca has associations with Muhammad, who began his life in the city, and also with his precursor, Abraham, who, according to the Qur’an, built the Ka‘ba, helped by his son, Ishmael. A visit to Mecca has religious significance for Muslims at any time of year. But in the 12th month of the Muslim calendar the season of the Hajj, or Great Pilgrimage, arrives. Pilgrims come to Mecca in their millions, wearing simple pilgrimage clothing of white cloth. They congregate in the Great Mosque and perform the first rite of pilgrimage – the tawaf, during which pilgrims circumambulate the Ka’ba anti-clockwise seven times. They next run seven times between two small hills, recalling the plight of Hagar and her son, Ishmael, who, in Islamic, Jewish, and Christian tradition, were saved from death by a spring of water that God revealed in the desert sands. This well is named in the Islamic tradition as zamzam. Next pilgrims walk a few miles outside Mecca to Mount Arafat, where the Hajj comes to its climax. Here pilgrims ‘stand’ in meditation before God from midday to sunset. Then they begin the return journey to Mecca, stopping overnight at Muizdalifah, where each pilgrim gathers pebbles. The next day, they throw these pebbles ritually against three stone pillars in the neighbouring village of Mina, recalling when Abraham resisted Satan’s temptations to disobey after God instructed him to prepare his son Ishmael for sacrifice, as a test of his obedience (islam).

THE ROUTE OF THE HAJJ

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Ka’ba 6

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Cut or shave hair, remove ihram, offer animal sacrifice and go to Mecca to perform tawaf-i-infadah, circling Ka’ba 7 times

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The Qur’an says the boy was ransomed ‘with a tremendous victim’. In recollection of this, pilgrims offer the sacrifice of sheep or camels. The final day, Eid al-Adha, the Festival of the Sacrifice, commemorates Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son.

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Return to Mina and stay 2 or 3 days performing rami (’Stoning of Satan’) on all three Jamrah (smallest to largest)

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Day two. Go to Arafat by noon. Pray

Muzdalifah 4 At Muzdalifah pray and rest for the night. Collect pebbles for rami

3

Mt Arafat (Mount of Mercy)

Leave for Muzdalifah at sundown.

W H AT I S T H E H A J J ?

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Further Reading Religious Studies

Judaism

Chryssides, George D., The Study of Religion, 2nd revised ed. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2013. Connolly, Peter (ed.), Approaches to the Study of Religion. London: Continuum, 2001. Fitzgerald, Timothy, The Ideology of Religious Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Pals, Daniel L. Eight Theories of Religion. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. Partridge, Christopher ed., rev. Tim Dowley, Introduction to World Religions, 4th ed. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2014.

Biale, David, ed., Cultures of the Jews: A New History. New York: Schocken Books, 2002. Schama, Simon, The Story of the Jews and the Fate of the World. London: Bodley Head, 2013.

The Ancient World Beard, Mary, J. North, and S. Price, Religions of Rome, 2 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Easterling, P. E. and J. V. Muir, Greek Religion and Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985. Hart, George: Egyptian Myths. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1997. Rose, Jenny, Zoroastrianism: An Introduction. London: I. B. Tauris, 2011.

Hinduism Lopez, Donald S. Jr., ed., Religions of India in Practice. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995. Mittal, S., G. Thursby, eds., The Hindu World. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Christianity Dowley, Tim, ed., Introduction to the History of Christianity. 2nd ed. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2014. Hastings, Adrian, ed., A World History of Christianity. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1999. MacCulloch, Diarmaid: A History of Christianity: The First Three Thousand Years. London: Penguin, 2009.

Islam Aslan, Reza, No God but God: The Origins, Evolution, and Future of Islam. New York: Random House, 2006. Esposito, John, ed., The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

World Religions Today Bowker, John, ed., Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997. Chryssides, George D., A Reader in New Religious Movements. London: Continuum, 2006.

Buddhism Lopez, Donald S. Jr., The Story of Buddhism: A Concise Guide to its History and Teachings. New York: HarperCollins, 2002. Williams, Paul, Buddhist Thought: A Complete Introduction to the Indian Tradition. New York: Routledge, 2000.

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Gazetteer Note: numbers are map numbers, not page numbers Abidjan worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36

Aila journeys of Muhammad 39

Amarnath Hindu sacred places 10

Antipatris Palestine in the time of Christ 28

Abu (mount) Jainism in India 12

Ajmer Islamic expansion in India 41 world religions 1500 43

Amazon River Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35

Anupshahr Hindu sacred places 10

Abu Simbel Ancient Egypt 3

Al Qudisiya spread of Islam by 750 ce 40

Amida spread of Islam by 750 ce 40

Abydos Ancient Egypt 3

Al Raji journeys of Muhammad 39

Anuradhapura Buddhism expands in India 14 early spread of Buddhism 15 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Abyssinia journeys of Muhammad 39

Al-’Ula journeys of Muhammad 39

Acco Exodus 18 Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19

Alampur Temple Hinduism 9

Aceh spread of Islam in South-east Asia 42

Albany origins of Judaism in the USA 25

Acerenza church in 1050 33 Achaia Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Addis Ababa worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36 Aden journeys of Muhammad 39 Adiabene spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Adrianopolis spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Aegean Sea Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Aegina Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Aegyptus Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Aenon Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Afghanistan Muslim peoples of modern Asia 45 Africa spread of Islam 44 Agade Mesopotamia 2 Ahichchhatra Buddhist heartland 13 Ahmadabad Islamic expansion in India 41 Ahwas Jews and Islam 22 Aihole Temple Hinduism 9 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Alba Iulia world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Alderney Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Aleppo Jewish exiles 20 Jews and Islam 22 Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 Alexandria Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 Jewish diaspora 21 Jewish exiles 20 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Roman religion 6 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Allegheny worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36 Almalik world religions 1500 43 Almaty Buddhism today 16 Alush Exodus 18 Alwa world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 world religions 1500 43 Ama-no-Iwato-Jinja Japan: places of religious importance 50 Amaj journeys of Muhammad 39 Amalfi church in 1050 33 Amaravati early spread of Buddhism 15 Hindu sacred places 10 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Amarkantak Hindu sacred places 10

Amiens world religions 1500 43

Aparanta Buddhism expands in India 14

Amisus Jewish diaspora 21

Apollonia Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29

Amman Jewish exiles 20 Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19

Aqaba modern state of Israel 27

Ammon Exodus 18 Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 Amoy worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36 Amravati Jainism in India 12

Aquileia Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 Jewish diaspora 21 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Aquitania Jewish diaspora 21 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Arabia Jewish diaspora 21 Jews and Islam 22 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 world religions 1500 43

Amritsar modern pilgrimage sites 55 Sikh origins 47 Sikhism in India today 48 Anandpur Sikh origins 47

Arabian desert journeys of Muhammad 39

Anatu ancient empire 4

Arad Exodus 18

Ancyra Jewish diaspora 21 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30

Arafat (mount) route of the Hajj 57

Andhapura Jainism in India 12

Aragon Reformation Europe 34

Angkor early spread of Buddhism 15 world religions 1500 43

Aram-Damascus Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19

Angkor Borai spread of Islam in South-east Asia 42

Arbela church in 1050 33 Jewish exiles 20 Zoroastrianism 7

Annavaram Hindu sacred places 10

Arbuda Hindu origins 8

Anthedon Agrippias Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Antioch Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 Jewish exiles 20 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Jews and Islam 22 Roman religion 6 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Zoroastrianism 7 Antioch in Pisidia Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29

Archelais Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Arelate Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 Jewish diaspora 21 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Areopolis Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Argos cult centre 5 Arles church in 1050 33 see also Arelate

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Armagh church in 1050 33

world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Armenia Muslim peoples of modern Asia 45 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Arnon River Exodus 18 Arpad Jewish exiles 20 Arvad Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19

Augustodunum Roman religion 6 Auranitis Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Auschwitz Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Austria Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Judaism and the Third Reich 26 New Religious Movements worldwide 54 Reformation Europe 34

Ashdod Exodus 18 Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19

Austria-Hungary Jewish emancipation 24

Ashkelon Palestine in the time of Christ 28

Avanti Buddhism expands in India 14

Ashur ancient empire 4 Jewish exiles 20 Mesopotamia 2

Avaris Ancient Egypt 3 Exodus 18

Asia spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Aslone spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Aspendos Jewish exiles 20 Assos Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Assyria ancient empire 4 Jewish exiles 20 Asunción Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 Aswan Jews and Islam 22 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 Athens cult centre 5 Jewish diaspora 21 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Roman religion 6 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Athos (mount) modern pilgrimage sites 55 world religions 1500 43 Atlanta origins of Judaism in the USA 25 Atranjikhera Hindu origins 8 Attalia Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Auch church in 1050 33

Avebury megaliths 1 Avignon Reformation Europe 34 Axum world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 world religions 1500 43 Ayodhya Buddhist heartland 13 Hindu sacred places 10 world religions 1500 43 Ayutthaya world religions 1500 43 Azerbaijan Muslim peoples of modern Asia 45 Azotus Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Babi-Yar Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Babylon ancient empire 4 Jewish diaspora 21 Jewish exiles 20 Mesopotamia 2 Babylonia Jewish exiles 20 Bactra world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Zoroastrianism 7 Badarika Temple Hinduism 9 Badr journeys of Muhammad 39 Badrinath modern pilgrimage sites 55

Augsburg Jews and Islam 223 Augusta Treverorum Jewish diaspora 21 Roman religion 6 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30

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Ava Jewish exiles 20

Baetica Jewish diaspora 21 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30

Baghdad Jews and Islam 22 world religions 1500 43 Bahamas Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 Baidyanath Hindu sacred places 10 Balanowka Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Balfarg megaliths 1 Bali world religions 1500 43 Balkh Jews and Islam 22 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 Ballochroy megaliths 1 Ballyhoe megaliths 1 Baltimore Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 origins of Judaism in the USA 25 Bandar Labuan Taoism 17 Bangalore Jainism in India 12 Bangkok Buddhism today 16 Taoism 17 Bangladesh Hindu sacred places 10 Muslim peoples of modern Asia 45 Bangor church in 1050 33 Banneux modern pilgrimage sites 55 Bantam spread of Islam in South-east Asia 42 Bar Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Barca Jews and Islam 22 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Barcelona Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Barda world religions 1500 43 Bargo world religions 1500 43 Bari church in 1050 33 Barium Jewish diaspora 21 Baruch Islamic expansion in India 41 Basarh Jainism in India 12 Basel church in 1050 33 Basra Jews and Islam 22

spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 world religions 1500 43 Basrah Buddhist heartland 13 Batanea Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Béarn Reformation Europe 34 Beaver Island Mormon trail 37 Beersheba Exodus 18 Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 modern state of Israel 27 Beijing Buddhism today 16 early spread of Buddhism 15 Muslim peoples of modern Asia 45 Taoism 17 world religions 1500 43 Belgica spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Belgium Jewish emancipation 24 Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Belgrade Reformation Europe 34 Belzek Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Benares Islamic expansion in India 41 modern pilgrimage sites 55 Benevento church in 1050 33 Berenice Jewish diaspora 21 Bergen-Belsen Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Berlin Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Reformation Europe 34 Bernburg Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Besor Brook Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Beth-Rehob Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 Beth-shan Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 Bethany Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Bethlehem Palestine in the time of Christ 28 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Bethphage Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Bethsaida Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Bhakra Sikh origins 47

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Bhatinda Islamic expansion in India 41 Sikh origins 47

Bordeaux church in 1050 33 Reformation Europe 34

Bucharest Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23

Bhilsa Buddhism expands in India 14

Borneo spread of Islam in South-east Asia 42 Taoism 17 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 world religions 1500 43

Buchenwald Judaism and the Third Reich 26

Bhojpur Hindu sacred places 10 Bhubanesar Temple Hinduism 9 Bhubaneswar Hindu sacred places 10 world religions 1500 43 Bialystok Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Bidar Islamic expansion in India 41 Bijapuri Islamic expansion in India 41 Bindhyachal Hindu sacred places 10 Bi’r Ma’unah journeys of Muhammad 39 Birzai Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Bishnupur Hindu sacred places 10 Bithynia Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Bitter Lakes Exodus 18 Black Rock Desert modern pilgrimage sites 55 Blantyre worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36 Bobbio church in 1050 33 Bodh Gaya Buddhism expands in India 14 Buddhist heartland 13 early spread of Buddhism 15 modern pilgrimage sites 55 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 world religions 1500 43 Boetia cult centre 5 Bogdanovka Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Bogotá Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 Bohemia Reformation Europe 34 Bologna world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Bombay worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36 see also Mumbai Bonn Jewish diaspora 21 Bonna Jewish diaspora 21

Borobudur early spread of Buddhism 15 world religions 1500 43 Borsippa Mesopotamia 2

Bourges church in 1050 33 world religions 1500 43

Bulgaria Jewish emancipation 24 Judaism and the Third Reich 26

Brahmapura Islamic expansion in India 41

Burdigala Roman religion 6

Brazil Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 New Religious Movements worldwide 54

Burhanpur Islamic expansion in India 41

Bremen church in 1050 33

Byblos Jewish exiles 20

Brest-Litovsk Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Brindaban Hindu sacred places 10 Brindisi church in 1050 33 Britain world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Britannia Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 British Isles megaliths 1 Brno Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Broach Hindu sacred places 10 Zoroastrianism 7 Brodgar (Ring of) megaliths 1 Brody Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Brunei spread of Islam in South-east Asia 42 Taoism 17 Brussels Reformation Europe 34 Bubastis Exodus 18

Callanish megaliths 1 Cambodia Buddhism today 16 Taoism 17

Budapest Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Judaism and the Third Reich 26

Boston Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 origins of Judaism in the USA 25

Breslau Jewish emancipation 24 Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23

California origins of Judaism in the USA 25

Buda Reformation Europe 34

Bukhara Islamic expansion in India 41 Jews and Islam 22 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 world religions 1500 43

Brescia Reformation Europe 34

Calicut Islamic expansion in India 41

Camerino Reformation Europe 34 Canaan Exodus 18 Canderi Islamic expansion in India 41 Canindé modern pilgrimage sites 55 Canterbury church in 1050 33 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 world religions 1500 43 Cape Town worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36

Busrah journeys of Muhammad 39

Capernaum Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Cappadocia Jewish diaspora 21 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30

Byzantine empire journeys of Muhammad 39 world religions 1500 43 Byzantium Jewish diaspora 21 Roman religion 6 Zoroastrianism 7

Capua, church in 1050 33 Caracas, Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 Carales Roman religion 6 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30

Cadiz Jewish diaspora 21 Jews and Islam 22 Caesarea Jewish diaspora 21 Jewish exiles 20 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Roman religion 6 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Caesarea (N. Africa) Jewish diaspora 21

Carchemish Jewish exiles 20 Carmel (mount) Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Carnac megaliths 1 Carshemish ancient empire 4 Carthage Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 Roman religion 6 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Caesarea Maritima Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Caesarea Philippi Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Cagliari church in 1050 33

Carthago Nova Jewish diaspora 21 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30

Cairo Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 world religions 1500 43 Calabar worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36 Calah Jewish exiles 20 Mesopotamia 2 Calcutta worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36

Castile Reformation Europe 34 Castle Rigg megaliths 1 Castra Regina Jewish diaspora 21 Cayenne Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 Cebu spread of Islam in South-east Asia 42

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Celebes spread of Islam in South-east Asia 42 Cenabum Aureliani Jewish diaspora 21

spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Cincinnati origins of Judaism in the USA 25 Cirta Jewish diaspora 21 Roman religion 6

Cerrig Duon megaliths 1 Chalcedon Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Citrakuta Hindu origins 8

Champa world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Clonard church in 1050 33 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Chanderi Hindu sacred places 10

Cleveland origins of Judaism in the USA 25

Cochin Jainism in India 12

Chandigarh Sikh origins 47 Chang’an early spread of Buddhism 15 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 world religions 1500 43 Charcas Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 Charleston Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 origins of Judaism in the USA 25 Chartres world religions 1500 43 Chelm Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Chenab River Sikh origins 47

Cologne church in 1050 33 Jewish diaspora 21 Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Reformation Europe 34 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Colombo Buddhism today 16 Colonia Agrippina Jewish diaspora 21 Roman religion 6 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Colorado River Mormon trail 37 Colossae Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29

Chengdu Buddhism today 16 Chennai Buddhism today 16 Chester world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Chicago Mormon trail 37 origins of Judaism in the USA 25

Congo Democratic Republic of, New Religious Movements worldwide 54 Connecticut origins of Judaism in the USA 25

China Buddhism today 16 early spread of Buddhism 15 major religions of modern China 51 Muslim peoples of modern Asia 45 Taoism 17 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 world religions 1500 43

Constantinople Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 Jews and Islam 22 Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 world religions 1500 43

Chitrakut Hindu sacred places 10

Corbie church in 1050 33

Chorazin Palestine in the time of Christ 28

Cordoba Roman religion 6 world religions 1500 43

Christiana Reformation Europe 34

Cordova spread of Islam by 750 ce 40

Chung Nan Shan Taoism 17

Corduba Jewish diaspora 21

Chungking Buddhism today 16 Cidambaram Temple Hinduism 9 Cilicia Jewish diaspora 21 Jewish exiles 20 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29

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Corinth cult centre 5 Jewish diaspora 21 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Roman religion 6 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Corsica spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30

Corvey church in 1050 33 Cos cult centre 5 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Council Bluffs Mormon trail 37 Courland Reformation Europe 34 Cranganore world religions 1500 43 Cremona Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Creta Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Crete Roman religion 6 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Ctesiphon Jewish diaspora 21 journeys of Muhammad 39 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Cuba Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 New Religious Movements worldwide 54 Cutha Jewish exiles 20 Cuzco Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 Cyllene Mountains cult centre 5 Cyprus Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 journeys of Muhammad 39 Roman religion 6 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Cyrene Jewish diaspora 21 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Roman religion 6 Czechoslovakia Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Czestochawa Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Dachau Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Dacia spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Dagon world religions 1500 43 Dakshineshwar Hindu sacred places 10 Dallas-Fort Worth origins of Judaism in the USA 25 Dalmatia Jewish diaspora 21 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30

Damascus Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 church in 1050 33 Jewish diaspora 21 Jewish exiles 20 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Jews and Islam 22 journeys of Muhammad 39 Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Roman religion 6 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 world religions 1500 43 Zoroastrianism 7 Damietta Jews and Islam 22 Dan Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 Danube River Jewish diaspora 21 Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Danzig world religions 1500 43 Daphne Jewish exiles 20 Dar-es-Salaam worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36 Darge-gonshen world religions 1500 43 Datong world religions 1500 43 Daybul Jews and Islam 22 Dead Sea Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 Debra Libanos world religions 1500 43 Decapolis Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Delaware origins of Judaism in the USA 25 Delhi Buddhism today 16 Islamic expansion in India 41 Jainism in India 12 Sikh origins 47 Sikhism in India today 48 world religions 1500 43 worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36 Delphi cult centre 5 Roman religion 6 Demak spread of Islam in South-east Asia 42 Denmark Jewish emancipation 24 Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Reformation Europe 34

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Denver origins of Judaism in the USA 25

Dur Sharrukin Mesopotamia 2

Eilat modern state of Israel 27

Deoband Hindu sacred places 10

Dura Jewish diaspora 21

Deoghar world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Dura-Europos spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Elam ancient empire 4 Jewish exiles 20 Mesopotamia 2

Ezion-geber Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19

Elapura Temple Hinduism 9

Fadak journeys of Muhammad 39

Dera Baba Nanak Sikh origins 47 Derazne Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Derbe Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Deseret Mormon trail 37

Durango Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 Durban worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36 Durocortorum Jewish diaspora 21 Roman religion 6

Elephanta world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Dvaraka Temple Hinduism 9

Ellasar Jewish exiles 20

Deva world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Dvaravati Hindu origins 8

Devi Patan Hindu sacred places 10

Dwarka Hindu sacred places 10

Ellora early spread of Buddhism 15 Hindu sacred places 10 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Dewas Hindu sacred places 10

Dyrrachium church in 1050 33

Dhaka Buddhism today 16 Jainism in India 12

Ebla ancient empire 4

Dilbat Mesopotamia 2 Dilwara Jainism in India 12 Dimona modern state of Israel 27 Diu world religions 1500 43 Djakarta worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36 Dnieper River church in 1050 33 Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Dniester River church in 1050 33 Dodona cult centre 5 Dokkum modern pilgrimage sites 55 Drancy Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Dresden Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Duarbasini Hindu sacred places 10 Dublin Reformation Europe 34 Duero River spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 Dunhuang early spread of Buddhism 15

Ecbatana Jewish diaspora 21 Jewish exiles 20 Zoroastrianism 7 Edessa Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 church in 1050 33 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Roman religion 6 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 Edineti Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Edom Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 Egypt 3 ancient empire 4 Exodus 18 Jews and Islam 22 journeys of Muhammad 39 Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 modern state of Israel 27 Muslim peoples of modern Asia 45 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 world religions 1500 43 Zoroastrianism 7 Egypt, Brook of Exodus 18 Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 Eihei-ji Japan: places of religious importance 50

Fars spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 Fatima modern pilgrimage sites 55

Elim Exodus 18 Elimberris Jewish diaspora 21

Dibon Exodus 18

Far West Mormon trail 37

Elephantine Ancient Egypt 3 Jewish exiles 20

Dushanbe Buddhism today 16

Detroit Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 origins of Judaism in the USA 25

Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19

Fayette Mormon trail 37 Fez Jews and Islam 22 world religions 1500 43 Finland Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Firozpur Sikh origins 47

Emden Reformation Europe 34

Fleury church in 1050 33

Emerita Augusta Jewish diaspora 21

Florence Reformation Europe 34 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30

Emmaus Palestine in the time of Christ 28

Florida Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 origins of Judaism in the USA 25

England Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Reformation Europe 34

Flossenberg Judaism and the Third Reich 26

Enns Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31

Fort Kearney Mormon trail 37

Ephesus Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 Jewish diaspora 21 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Roman religion 6 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Erdeni-dzu world religions 1500 43 Erech Mesopotamia 2

Fort Laramie Mormon trail 37 Fort Lauderdale origins of Judaism in the USA 25 France Jewish emancipation 24 Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Judaism and the Third Reich 26 megaliths 1 Reformation Europe 34 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 Franche-Comte Reformation Europe 34

Eridu ancient empire 4 Mesopotamia 2

Frankfurt Jewish emancipation 24 Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23

Erymanthus (mount) cult centre 5 Estonia Judaism and the Third Reich 26

Freetown worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36

Etchmiadzin church in 1050 33

Freiburg world religions 1500 43

Ethiopia world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 world religions 1500 43

Fuji (mount) modern pilgrimage sites 55 world religions 1500 43

Euboea cult centre 5 Euphrates River Jewish exiles 20 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29

Fulda church in 1050 33 Funan world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

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Fushima-Imari Japan: places of religious importance 50 Fustate Jews and Islam 22 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 Galacia spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Galatia Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Galilee Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Gallia Jewish diaspora 21 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Gandhara Buddhism expands in India 14 early spread of Buddhism 15 Ganga Sangama Hindu origins 8 Gangadvara Islamic expansion in India 41 Ganges River Buddhism expands in India 14 Buddhist heartland 13 early spread of Buddhism 15 Hindu origins 8 Hindu sacred places 10 Islamic expansion in India 41 Sikh origins 47 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Gangotri Hindu sacred places 10 modern pilgrimage sites 55 world religions 1500 43

Goshen Exodus 18

Georgia Muslim peoples of modern Asia 45 world religions 1500 43

Goulou Shan Taoism 17

Gerar Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Gergesa Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Gerizim (mount) Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Germania Jewish diaspora 21 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Germany Jewish emancipation 24 Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Ghaghra River Buddhism expands in India 14 Ghana world religions 1500 43 Ghazni Islamic expansion in India 41 Jews and Islam 22 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 Zoroastrianism 7 Ghor Islamic expansion in India 41 Gibeah Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 Gimar Jainism in India 12 Giza Ancient Egypt 3

Gartok world religions 1500 43 Gath Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 Gaul world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Gaulanitis Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Gaur Islamic expansion in India 41 Gaza Exodus 18 Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 modern state of Israel 27 Palestine in the time of Christ 28 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 Gedes Jewish diaspora 21

Glasgow world religions 1500 43 Glastonbury church in 1050 33 modern pilgrimage sites 55 Gniezno church in 1050 33 Goa Islamic expansion in India 41 Gokul Hindu sacred places 10 Golan Heights modern state of Israel 27 Golconda Islamic expansion in India 41 Gomateshwara Jainism in India 12 Gompa world religions 1500 43

Gedrosia Zoroastrianism 7 Genessaret Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Geneva Reformation Europe 34

Gongxian world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Gorakhpur Hindu sacred places 10 Gordium Zoroastrianism 7

Genoa Jewish diaspora 21 Reformation Europe 34

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Georgetown Taoism 17 worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36

Gortyna Roman religion 6

Gospic Judaism and the Third Reich 26

Gozan Jewish exiles 20 Gran church in 1050 33 Graz Reformation Europe 34 Great Basin Mormon trail 37 Great Britain Jewish emancipation 24 Greece Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Grodno Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Gross Rosen Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Guadalupe modern pilgrimage sites 55 Guangzhou early spread of Buddhism 15 Muslim peoples of modern Asia 45 world religions 1500 43 Guatemala Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 Gujarat Zoroastrianism 7 Gurs Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Gushnasap world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Gyantse world religions 1500 43 Hadrumetum Jewish diaspora 21 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Haguro-san Japan: places of religious importance 50 Haifa modern state of Israel 27 Haiti New Religious Movements worldwide 54 Hajo Hindu sacred places 10 Halicz Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Halys River Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Hamadan Jews and Islam 22 Hamadhan spread of Islam by 750 ce 40

Hamath ancient empire 4 Jewish exiles 20 Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 Hamburg Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Reformation Europe 34 Hami world religions 1500 43 Hangzhou world religions 1500 43 Hanoi early spread of Buddhism 15 Taoism 17 Hanover Reformation Europe 34 Hara Jewish exiles 20 Haran ancient empire 4 Jews and Islam 22 Harappa Hindu origins 8 Harer world religions 1500 43 Haridwar Hindu sacred places 10 modern pilgrimage sites 55 world religions 1500 43 Harran Jewish exiles 20 Haryana Sikhism in India today 48 Hattushash ancient empire 4 Havana Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 Hazeroth Exodus 18 Hazor Jewish exiles 20 Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 Hebron Exodus 18 Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 modern state of Israel 27 Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Heian world religions 1500 43 Hejaz spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 Helal, Jebel Exodus 18 Helicon (mount) cult centre 5 Heliopolis Ancient Egypt 3 Exodus 18 Heng world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

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Heng Shan Taoism 17

Humaithira world religions 1500 43

Herat Jews and Islam 22 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 world religions 1500 43

Hunayn journeys of Muhammad 39

Hermon (mount) Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Hermopolis Ancient Egypt 3 Herodium Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Herzogenbusch Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Heshbon Exodus 18 Hiei-san Japan: places of religious importance 50 Hierakonpolis Ancient Egypt 3 Hierapolis church in 1050 33 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Roman religion 6 Hijr spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 Himalayas Buddhism today 16 Himavanta Buddhism expands in India 14

Hungary Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Reformation Europe 34 Huo world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Huo Shan Taoism 17

Horeb (mount) Exodus 18 Hormuz spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 Housesteads world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Houston origins of Judaism in the USA 25 Hua world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Hua Shan Taoism 17 Hudaybiyah journeys of Muhammad 39 Hulwan Jewish diaspora 21

Jakarta Buddhism today 16

Iona church in 1050 33 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Jammu Sikhism in India today 48

Iraq Muslim peoples of modern Asia 45

Hyrcania Jewish exiles 20

Ireland Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Reformation Europe 34

Ibadan worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36

Isafahan spread of Islam by 750 ce 40

Iberia megaliths 1 Iceland Reformation Europe 34 Iconium church in 1050 33 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30

Illinois origins of Judaism in the USA 25

Hong Kong Buddhism today 16 worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36

Jaipur Hindu sacred places 10

Hyderabad Jainism in India 12

Hiranyavati River Buddhist heartland 13

Hittites ancient empire 4

Jahnu Ashram Hindu sacred places 10

Iran Muslim peoples of modern Asia 45 New Religious Movements worldwide 54

Ida (mount) cult centre 5

Hispaniola Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35

Jaffna worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36

Hwang Ho River Taoism 17

Hippo (Hippo Regius) Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30

Hispania spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30

Indus River Buddhism expands in India 14 early spread of Buddhism 15 Hindu sacred places 10 Jews and Islam 22 Sikh origins 47 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 Temple Hinduism 9 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Idumea Palestine in the time of Christ 28

Inchuan Muslim peoples of modern Asia 45 Independence Rock Mormon trail 37 India Buddhism expands in India 14 Buddhism today 16 Buddhist heartland 13 early spread of Buddhism 15 Hindu origins 8 Hindu sacred places 10 Hinduism today 11 Islamic expansion in India 41 Jainism in India 12 Muslim peoples of modern Asia 45 New Religious Movements worldwide 54 Sikhism in India today 48 Temple Hinduism 9 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 world religions 1500 43 Zoroastrianism 7 Indonesia Buddhism today 16 New Religious Movements worldwide 54 Taoism 17 Indrapura world religions 1500 43

Ise Japan: places of religious importance 50 Isfahan world religions 1500 43

Jamnia Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Japan early spread of Buddhism 15 Japan: places of religious importance 50 New Religious Movements worldwide 54 Taoism 17 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 world religions 1500 43 Jasaenovac Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Jaunpur Islamic expansion in India 41 Java early spread of Buddhism 15 spread of Islam in South-east Asia 42 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 world religions 1500 43

Islamabad Buddhism today 16 Sikh origins 47 Israel Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 modern state of Israel 27

Jebel Helal Exodus 18

Istanbul worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36 Italia Jewish diaspora 21 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Italy Jewish emancipation 24 Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Judaism and the Third Reich 26 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Iwaki-san Japan: places of religious importance 50 Izmir Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Izumo-no-Oyashiro Japan: places of religious importance 50 Jabal Uhud journeys of Muhammad 39 Jabbok River Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 Jaffa Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29

Jebel Musa Exodus 18 modern pilgrimage sites 55 Jedda journeys of Muhammad 39 Jenin modern state of Israel 27 Jericho ancient empire 4 Exodus 18 Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Jerusalem Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 Jerusalem: holy sites 56 Jewish diaspora 21 Jewish exiles 20 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 journeys of Muhammad 39 Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 modern pilgrimage sites 55 modern state of Israel 27 Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Roman religion 6 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 world religions 1500 43 worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36 Zoroastrianism 7 Jhelum River Sikh origins 47

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Jirawal Jainism in India 12

Kalinjar Islamic expansion in India 41

Jiu hua Shan early spread of Buddhism 15

Kalocsa church in 1050 33

Jiuquan world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Kalyan world religions 1500 43

Johore spread of Islam in South-east Asia 42

Kamakhya Hindu sacred places 10

Joppa Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 Palestine in the time of Christ 28

Kanauj Islamic expansion in India 41

Jordan River Jewish exiles 20 Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 modern state of Israel 27 Judah Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 Judea Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Juhfa journeys of Muhammad 39 Julias Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Julias Livias Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Jullundur Sikh origins 47

Kabul Buddhism today 16 Islamic expansion in India 41 Sikh origins 47 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 Zoroastrianism 7 Kadarnath Hindu sacred places 10 Kaedsh-barnea Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 Kaesong world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Kaifeng world religions 1500 43

Kaiserwald Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Kalighat Hindu sacred places 10

Kalinga Buddhism expands in India 14

Kaunas Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Kausambi Buddhist heartland 13 Hindu origins 8

Kir-hareseth Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 Kirkuk world religions 1500 43 Kirman spread of Islam by 750 ce 40

Kiryat Shmona modern state of Israel 27

Kandy early spread of Buddhism 15 modern pilgrimage sites 55 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Kazvin Jews and Islam 22

Kis Jews and Islam 22

Kedara Temple Hinduism 9

Kish Mesopotamia 2

Kangchenjunga modern pilgrimage sites 55

Kedarnath modern pilgrimage sites 55

Klooga Judaism and the Third Reich 26

Kangra Hindu sacred places 10

Kedesh Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19

Knock modern pilgrimage sites 55

Kansas City Mormon trail 37 Kanya Kumari Temple Hinduism 9

Kapilavastu Buddhist heartland 13 Kapit Taoism 17 Kar-Tukulti-Ninurta Mesopotamia 2 Karachi worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36 Karbala’ modern pilgrimage sites 55 Karbala world religions 1500 43 Karkotas Temple Hinduism 9

Kashgar early spread of Buddhism 15 world religions 1500 43 Kashmir Sikhism in India today 48 Kasi Temple Hinduism 9

Kalika-sangama Hindu origins 8

Kathmandu Buddhism today 16 modern pilgrimage sites 55

Kazakhstan Muslim peoples of modern Asia 45

Kartarpur Sikh origins 47

Kairouan Jews and Islam 22

Kinnereth Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19

Kandahar Zoroastrianism 7

Karni Devi Hindu sacred places 10

Kailasa Hindu origins 8 Temple Hinduism 9

Katas Hindu sacred places 10

Kirtland Mormon trail 37

Karli early spread of Buddhism 15 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Kailas (mount) modern pilgrimage sites 55 world religions 1500 43

Kingston worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36

Kaveri River Hindu sacred places 10

Kanchpuram Hindu sacred places 10

Kanyakubja Buddhist heartland 13

Juruft spread of Islam by 750 ce 40

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Kanchipuram early spread of Buddhism 15 Temple Hinduism 9

Kasuga Japan: places of religious importance 50

Kaskar world religions 1500 43 Kasmira Buddhism expands in India 14

Kells church in 1050 33 Kerbela spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 Kerman Jews and Islam 22 Khaibar Jews and Islam 22 Khajuraho Jainism in India 12 Temple Hinduism 9 world religions 1500 43 Khambhat Islamic expansion in India 41 Khandagiri Jainism in India 12 Khatu Hindu sacred places 10 Khaybar journeys of Muhammad 39 Khetrur Hindu sacred places 10 Khiva Jews and Islam 22 world religions 1500 43 Khotan world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Khyber Pass Sikh origins 47

Kolhapur Hindu sacred places 10 Kolkata Jainism in India 12 Konark Temple Hinduism 9 world religions 1500 43 Königsberg Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Konya, world religions 1500 43 Korea early spread of Buddhism 15 world religions 1500 43 Kosambi Buddhist heartland 13 Kotipalli Hindu sacred places 10 Koya-san Japan: places of religious importance 50 Krakov Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Krakow Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Reformation Europe 34 Krishna River Hindu sacred places 10 Jainism in India 12

Kibroth-hattaavah Exodus 18

K’uai Chi Shan Taoism 17

Kiev Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Judaism and the Third Reich 26 world religions 1500 43

Kuala Lumpur Buddhism today 16 Taoism 17 Kuching Taoism 17

King’s Highway Exodus 18

Kufa Jews and Islam 22 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40

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Kumano world religions 1500 43

Latvia Judaism and the Third Reich 26

Longhu Shan Taoism 17

Lyon Reformation Europe 34

Kumano-jinja Japan: places of religious importance 50

Lauriacum Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31

Longmen world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Lyons church in 1050 33 Jewish diaspora 21

Kumbum world religions 1500 43

Lebanon modern state of Israel 27

Kundalpur Hindu sacred places 10

Leipzig Reformation Europe 34

Kunlun world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Leon church in 1050 33

Los Angeles Mormon trail 37 origins of Judaism in the USA 25

K’uo Ts’ang Shan Taoism 17

León world religions 1500 43

Louisiana Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35

Kuocang world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Leptis Magna world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Louisville origins of Judaism in the USA 25

Kuon-ji Japan: places of religious importance 50

Lérins church in 1050 33

Lourdes modern pilgrimage sites 55

Lhasa Buddhism today 16 early spread of Buddhism 15 modern pilgrimage sites 55 Taoism 17 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 world religions 1500 43

Lu world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Kuruksetra Hindu origins 8 Kusinara Buddhist heartland 13 early spread of Buddhism 15 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Kyangui early spread of Buddhism 15 Kyongju world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 world religions 1500 43 Kyoto early spread of Buddhism 15 Japan: places of religious importance 50 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Kyrgyzstan Muslim peoples of modern Asia 45 Lagash Mesopotamia 2 Lahore Islamic expansion in India 41 Sikh origins 47 Lal Mandir Jainism in India 12 Lalibela world religions 1500 43 La Madeleine megaliths 1 Lanka Hindu origins 8 Lao world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Liaoyang world religions 1500 43 Libya Jewish diaspora 21 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 Lima Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 Lincoln spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 world religions 1500 43 Lindisfarne church in 1050 33 Lingjiu world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Lios megaliths 1 Litani River Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 Lithuania Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Reformation Europe 34 world religions 1500 43 Livonia Reformation Europe 34

Laodicea spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30

Livorno Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23

Laos Buddhism today 16

Lodz Judaism and the Third Reich 26

La Paz Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35

Lombok spread of Islam in South-east Asia 42

Larisa Jewish diaspora 21 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30

London Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30

Larsa Mesopotamia 2

Long Meg & daughters megaliths 1

Loreto modern pilgrimage sites 55

Lystra Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29

Lorsch church in 1050 33

Machaerus Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Madedonia Jewish diaspora 21

Lublin Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Judaism and the Third Reich 26

Madras Buddhism today 16 worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36

Luck Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23

Madura spread of Islam in South-east Asia 42 Madurai Hindu sacred places 10 Islamic expansion in India 41 world religions 1500 43

Ludhiana Sikh origins 47 Ludmir Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Lugdunum Jewish diaspora 21 Roman religion 6 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Lugo church in 1050 33

Magdala Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Magdeburg church in 1050 33 Maghreb Jews and Islam 22 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 Magnesia cult centre 5 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29

Lumbini Buddhist heartland 13 early spread of Buddhism 15 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Mahagama Buddhism expands in India 14

Luofou world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Mahakuteswar Temple Hinduism 9

Luoyang early spread of Buddhism 15 world religions 1500 43 Lusitania spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Lutetia Jewish diaspora 21

Mahamadi River Buddhism expands in India 14 Maharashtra Buddhism expands in India 14 Mahendragiri Hindu sacred places 10

Luxembourg Judaism and the Third Reich 26

Maheshwar Hindu sacred places 10

Lvov Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Judaism and the Third Reich 26

Mahisa Mandala Buddhism expands in India 14

Lycia Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29

Lydia cult centre 5

Macassar spread of Islam in South-east Asia 42 Macedonia Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30

Lu Shan Taoism 17

Lydda Palestine in the time of Christ 28

Maacah Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19

Mahismati Buddhism expands in India 14 Mahoba Hindu sacred places 10 Mahoza Jewish exiles 20 Maimana Jews and Islam 22

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Mainz church in 1050 33 Jewish emancipation 24 Majdanek Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Majholi Hindu sacred places 10 Makran spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 Malacca Taoism 17 world religions 1500 43 worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36 Malaysia Buddhism today 16

Masad’in Salih journeys of Muhammad 39

Merrivale megaliths 1

Modena world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Mashhad modern pilgrimage sites 55

Merry Maidens megaliths 1

Moel Ty Uchaf megaliths 1

Massachusetts origins of Judaism in the USA 25

Merv Jews and Islam 22 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40

Moesia Jewish diaspora 21 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29

Massilia Jewish diaspora 21 Roman religion 6 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Mathura Buddhism expands in India 14 Buddhist heartland 13 Hindu origins 8 Hindu sacred places 10 Temple Hinduism 9 Mauretania Jewish diaspora 21 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30

Mali world religions 1500 43 Mamallapuram world religions 1500 43

Mauthausen Judaism and the Third Reich 26

Manchester Mormon trail 37 Mandhata Hindu sacred places 10 Mandu Islamic expansion in India 41 Mangalagiri Hindu sacred places 10

Mecca Jews and Islam 22 journeys of Muhammad 39 modern pilgrimage sites 55 route of the Hajj 57 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 world religions 1500 43 Mechelen Judaism and the Third Reich 26

Mangalore Hindu sacred places 10 Mangrol Hindu sacred places 10 Islamic expansion in India 41 Manila Buddhism today 16 worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36 Mantua Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Manzikert Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 Mao world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Mao Shan Taoism 17 Marah Exodus 18 Marakandra world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Mari ancient empire 4 Mesopotamia 2 Marmoutier world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Media Jewish exiles 20 Medina Jews and Islam 22 modern pilgrimage sites 55 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 world religions 1500 43 Mediolanum Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 Jewish diaspora 21 Roman religion 6 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Medjugorje modern pilgrimage sites 55 Megiddo Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 Meiji-jingu Japan: places of religious importance 50 Melaka spread of Islam in South-east Asia 42 Melbourne worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36

Marseilles Jewish diaspora 21 Reformation Europe 34 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Memphis Ancient Egypt 3 ancient empire 4 Exodus 18 Jewish diaspora 21 Roman religion 6 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Zoroastrianism 7

Maryland origins of Judaism in the USA 25

Meroë Ancient Egypt 3

Reformation Europe 34

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Mesopotamia 2 Jewish exiles 20 journeys of Muhammad 39 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Messene Jews and Islam 22 Metz Jews and Islam 22 Mexico Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 Miami origins of Judaism in the USA 25 Milan Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 Jewish diaspora 21 Reformation Europe 34 Roman religion 6 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 world religions 1500 43 Miletus Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Mina route of the Hajj 57 Mindanao spread of Islam in South-east Asia 42 Minneapolis-St Paul origins of Judaism in the USA 25 Minsk Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Mississippi River Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 origins of Judaism in the USA 25 Mitanni ancient empire 4 Mithila Hindu origins 8 Mittelbau Dora Judaism and the Third Reich 26

Mohenjo-Daro Hindu origins 8 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Moissac church in 1050 33 Moldavia Reformation Europe 34 Moluccas spread of Islam in South-east Asia 42 Mongolia Buddhism today 16 early spread of Buddhism 15 Monte Cassino church in 1050 33 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Monterey Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 Montevideo worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36 Montserrat modern pilgrimage sites 55 Moravia Reformation Europe 34 Mosali Jainism in India 12 Moschylus (mount) cult centre 5 Moscow world religions 1500 43 Mostar Reformation Europe 34 Mosul Jews and Islam 22 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 Mount Pisgah Mormon trail 37 Muktsar Sikh origins 47 Multan early spread of Buddhism 15

Mitylene Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29

Mumbai Buddhism today 16 Jainism in India 12 Zoroastrianism 7

Miwa (mount) Japan: places of religious importance 50

Munich Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23

Moab Exodus 18 Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19

Münster Reformation Europe 34

Moanhead of Daviot megaliths 1

Musa, Jebel Exodus 18

Mocha Jews and Islam 22

Mursa spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30

Muscat Jews and Islam 22

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Mu’ta journeys of Muhammad 39 Muzdalifah route of the Hajj 57 Myanmar Buddhism today 16 early spread of Buddhism 15 Mycale (mount) cult centre 5 Mycenae cult centre 5 Mynydd-bach megaliths 1 Myra Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Mysia Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Nabadwip Hindu sacred places 10 Nabatea Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Nablus modern state of Israel 27 Nadia Islamic expansion in India 41 Nain Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Nairanjara River Buddhist heartland 13 Najran journeys of Muhammad 39 Nalanda world religions 1500 43 Nanda Devi (mount) modern pilgrimage sites 55 Nanded Sikhism in India today 48 Nanhai world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Nanjing world religions 1500 43 Nankana Sahib Sikh origins 47 world religions 1500 43 Nantes Reformation Europe 34 Napata Ancient Egypt 3 Naples Jewish diaspora 21 Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Reformation Europe 34 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Nara early spread of Buddhism 15 world religions 1500 43 Narbonensis spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Narbonne church in 1050 33

spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Narmada River Buddhism expands in India 14 Nasik Hindu sacred places 10 Nathdwara Hindu sacred places 10 Nauvoo Mormon trail 37 Navarre Reformation Europe 34 Nazareth Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Nazweiler-Struthof Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Neapolis Jewish diaspora 21 Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Nebo (mount) Exodus 18 Nehavend Jewish exiles 20 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 Neocaesarea church in 1050 33 Nepalearly spread of Buddhism 15 Netherlands Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Neuengamme Judaism and the Third Reich 26 New France Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 New Granada Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 New Grange megaliths 1 New Jersey origins of Judaism in the USA 25 New Orleans Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 Mormon trail 37 origins of Judaism in the USA 25

Nicopolis spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Nidaras world religions 1500 43

Nigeria New Religious Movements worldwide 54 Nihawend Jews and Islam 22 Nile River Ancient Egypt 3 Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 Exodus 18 Jewish diaspora 21 Jewish exiles 20 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 journeys of Muhammad 39 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Nineveh ancient empire 4 Jewish exiles 20 Zoroastrianism 7

Noirmoutier church in 1050 33

North Korea Buddhism today 16 Taoism 17

Newport origins of Judaism in the USA 25 Nicaea Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Nickelsburg Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Nicomedia Jewish diaspora 21

Oea Jewish diaspora 21 Oescus Jewish diaspora 21 Oeta (mount) cult centre 5 Olbia Jewish diaspora 21 Olives (mount of) Jerusalem: holy sites 56

Omkara Hindu origins 8

Noë Judaism and the Third Reich 26

Newark origins of Judaism in the USA 25

Odessa Judaism and the Third Reich 26

Omime-yama Japan: places of religious importance 50

Nisibis Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 Jewish diaspora 21 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 world religions 1500 43

New York Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 Mormon trail 37 origins of Judaism in the USA 25

O-mei Shan early spread of Buddhism 15 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Oman Muslim peoples of modern Asia 45

Nishapur Jews and Islam 22 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 world religions 1500 43

Noph Exodus 18

Nuwe Ancient Egypt 3

Olympus (mount) cult centre 5

Nippur ancient empire 4 Jewish exiles 20 Mesopotamia 2

Nola world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Newfoundland Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35

Nuremberg Reformation Europe 34

Niederhagen Judaism and the Third Reich 26

New Spain Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35

Numidia Jewish diaspora 21 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30

On Exodus 18 Ontake-san Japan: places of religious importance 50 Onu Ancient Egypt 3 Orontes River Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 Osaka Taoism 17 Osore-yama Japan: places of religious importance 50 Ossa (mount) cult centre 5

Noricum Jewish diaspora 21

Ostrog Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Ostrogothic kingdom Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31

Norway Jewish emancipation 24 Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Reformation Europe 34 Nova Scotia Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35

Otranto church in 1050 33

Novgorod world religions 1500 43

Ottoman empire Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Reformation Europe 34

Noviomagus Jewish diaspora 21

Oxford Reformation Europe 34

Novosibirsk Buddhism today 16

Oxus River Jews and Islam 22

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Oxyrhyncus Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 Padua Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Pagan early spread of Buddhism 15 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 world religions 1500 43 Pakistan Muslim peoples of modern Asia 45 New Religious Movements worldwide 54 Pakpattan Islamic expansion in India 41 Palembang spread of Islam in South-east Asia 42 Palitana Jainism in India 12 Palmyra Jewish diaspora 21 Mormon trail 37 Roman religion 6 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Zoroastrianism 7 Pamphylia Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Pancavati Hindu origins 8

Parnassus (mount) cult centre 5 Pasai world religions 1500 43 Pasargadae Zoroastrianism 7 Pase spread of Islam in South-east Asia 42 Pasupatinath Temple Hinduism 9 Patagonia Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 Pataliputra Buddhism expands in India 14 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Patan Jainism in India 12 Patara Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Patna Buddhism expands in India 14 Sikhism in India today 48

Pandua Islamic expansion in India 41 Paneas Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Pangaeus (mount) cult centre 5 Pannonia spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Panorums Jewish diaspora 21 Papal states Reformation Europe 34 Paphos Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Papua New Guinea New Religious Movements worldwide 54 Paradocol Temple Hinduism 9

Paris church in 1050 33 Jews and Islam 22 Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23

Persia Jewish exiles 20 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 world religions 1500 43 Zoroastrianism 7 Persian empire Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 Peshawar Sikh origins 47 Sikhism in India today 48 Pethor Jewish exiles 20 Petra journeys of Muhammad 39

Philadelphia Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 origins of Judaism in the USA 25 Palestine in the time of Christ 28

Pawapuri Jainism in India 12 Pécs Reformation Europe 34 Pegu early spread of Buddhism 15 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 world religions 1500 43 Pehowa Hindu sacred places 10 Peking worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36 Pella Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Pelusiuim Jewish diaspora 21

Perarine megaliths 1

Parc y Meirw megaliths 1

Persepolis Zoroastrianism 7

Pattaparthy Hindu sacred places 10

Pennsylvania origins of Judaism in the USA 25

Parasnath Peak Jainism in India 12

Perge Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30

Phasaelis Palestine in the time of Christ 28

Pelusium Ancient Egypt 3 Exodus 18

Paran, Wilderness of Exodus 18

Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Roman religion 6

Pattanai spread of Islam in South-east Asia 42

Pavia Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 232

Pandharpur Hindu sacred places 10

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Reformation Europe 34 world religions 1500 43

Perea Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Pergamum cult centre 5 Jewish diaspora 21

Philippi Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Roman religion 6 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Philippines spread of Islam in South-east Asia 42 Phnom Penh Buddhism today 16 Taoism 17 Phoenix origins of Judaism in the USA 25 Phrygia Roman religion 6 Pibeseth Exodus 18 Pingdu world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Pinsk Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Pisa spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Pisidian Antioch Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Pithom Exodus 18 Pittsburgh origins of Judaism in the USA 25

Plaszow Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Platte River Mormon trail 37 Poland Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Polonnaruva world religions 1500 43 Ponary Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Pondicherry Hindu sacred places 10 Pontianak Taoism 17 Pontus Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Ponuts Jewish diaspora 21 Port-au-Prince worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36 Portland origins of Judaism in the USA 25 Portugal Jewish emancipation 24 Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Reformation Europe 34 Poseidon cult centre 5 Poznan Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Prabhasa Hindu origins 8 Prague church in 1050 33 Jewish emancipation 24 Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Reformation Europe 34 world religions 1500 43 Pravaga Temple Hinduism 9 Prayaga world religions 1500 43 Preslav church in 1050 33 Prince Albert worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36 Prome early spread of Buddhism 15 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Prossnitz Jewish emancipation 24 Prthadaka Hindu origins 8 Prussia Jewish emancipation 24 Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Reformation Europe 34

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Pskov Reformation Europe 34 Ptolemais Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Puerto Rico Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 Pumbedita Jewish exiles 20 Jews and Islam 22 Punjab Sikh origins 47 Sikhism in India today 48 Punon Exodus 18 Puskara Hindu origins 8 Temple Hinduism 9 Puteoli Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Putuo Shan world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Puy de Pauliac megaliths 1 Pyongyang Buddhism today 16 Taoism 17 Pyu world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Qabis spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 Qala Bist Islamic expansion in India 41 Qatna Jewish exiles 20 Qian world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Qian Shan Taoism 17 Qir world religions 1500 43 Qom modern pilgrimage sites 55 Qudayd journeys of Muhammad 39 Qufu Taoism 17 Quilon Islamic expansion in India 41 Quito Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 Qum spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 Qumran Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Ra’amses Exodus 18

Rabbah Jewish exiles 20 Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 Raetia Jewish diaspora 21

Rayy Jews and Islam 22 world religions 1500 43

Roman empire world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Romania Jewish emancipation 24

Red Sea journeys of Muhammad 39

Raetia Noricum spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30

Regensburg spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 world religions 1500 43

Rages spread of Islam by 750 ce 40

Reggio church in 1050 33

Rajaghra Buddhism expands in India 14 Buddhist heartland 13

Regina Castra spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30

Rajasthan Sikhism in India today 48 Rajgir Buddhist heartland 13 Jainism in India 12 Rajim Hindu sacred places 10 Rajnesh Hindu sacred places 10 Rakhabh Dev Jainism in India 12 Ramallah modern state of Israel 27 Ramesvaram Temple Hinduism 9 Ramleh Jews and Islam 22 Ramnagar Buddhist heartland 13 Ramoth-gilead Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 Ramses Ancient Egypt 3 Ramtek Hindu sacred places 10 Ranakpur Jainism in India 12 Ranapur Jainism in India 12 Rangoon Buddhism today 16 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36 Raphia Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19

Reichenau church in 1050 33 Rephidim Exodus 18 Resen Jewish exiles 20 Rey spread of Islam by 750 ce 40

Roskilde world religions 1500 43

Rezeph Jewish exiles 20

Rotomagnus spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30

Rhagae world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Rhegium Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Rheims spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 church in 1050 33 Reformation Europe 34 world religions: 1500 43 Rhine River Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23

Rouen church in 1050 33 Reformation Europe 34 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Rupert’s Land Reformation Europe 34 Russia Jewish emancipation 24 Russian federation Muslim peoples of modern Asia 45 Sabarimala modern pilgrimage sites 55 Sachsenhausen Judaism and the Third Reich 26

Rhode Island origins of Judaism in the USA 25

Sacramento Mormon trail 37

Rhodes cult centre 5 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40

Sadhubela Hindu sacred places 10

Rhone River Jewish diaspora 21

Saeth Maen megaliths 1

Riblah Jewish exiles 20

Safed Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23

Riga Judaism and the Third Reich 26

Sahib world religions 1500 43

Ring of Brodgar megaliths 1

Rapti River Buddhist heartland 13

Rio de Janeiro Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 modern pilgrimage sites 55

Ratnagiri early spread of Buddhism 15

Rio de la Plata Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35

Ravenna Jewish diaspora 21 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30

Rishikesh Hindu sacred places 10 modern pilgrimage sites 55

Ravensbrück Judaism and the Third Reich 26

Rocamadour modern pilgrimage sites 55

Rawalpindi Sikh origins 47 Sikhism in India today 48 worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36

Rocky Mountains Mormon trail 37 Rollright Stones megaliths 1

Rome Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 church in 1050 33 Jewish diaspora 21 Jewish emancipation 24 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Jews and Islam 22 Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 modern pilgrimage sites 55 Reformation Europe 34 Roman religion 6 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 world religions 1500 43

Saigon early spread of Buddhism 15 St Augustine, Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 St Gall church in 1050 33 St Just megaliths 1 St Louis Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 Mormon trail 37 Ste Anne de Beaupré, modern pilgrimage sites 55 Sais Ancient Egypt 3

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Sajmiste Judaism and the Third Reich 26

Sandakan Taoism 17

Scetis world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Saketa Buddhist heartland 13

Sankassa Buddhist heartland 13

Scilia Jewish diaspora 21

Sakya world religions 1500 43

Sankasya Nagar Buddhist heartland 13

Scotland Reformation Europe 34

Salagrama Hindu origins 8 Temple Hinduism 9

San’a journeys of Muhammad 39

Scythopolis Palestine in the time of Christ 28

Sanshia Taoism 17

Seattle origins of Judaism in the USA 25

Santa Domingo Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35

Sebaste Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31

Salamis church in 1050 33 Roman religion 6 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Salerno church in 1050 33 Salernum Jewish diaspora 21 Salim Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Salisbury world religions 1500 43 Salmone Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Salonae Roman religion 6 Salonica Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Salt Lake City Mormon trail 37

Sta Severina church in 1050 33 Santiago Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 Santiago de Compostela modern pilgrimage sites 55 Sao Paolo Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 Sapporo worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36 Saqqara Ancient Egypt 3 Sarada Temple Hinduism 9

Samaria Jewish exiles 20 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Samarkand Jews and Islam 22 world religions 1500 43 Samothrace cult centre 5 Samarkand spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 Samudri Mata Hindu sacred places 10 San Antonio Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 San Diego Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 origins of Judaism in the USA 25 San Francisco Mormon trail 37 origins of Judaism in the USA 25 San Juan Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 San Salvador Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 Sanchi early spread of Buddhism 15 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Sandabur Islamic expansion in India 41

Sebastea church in 1050 33 Seleucia Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 church in 1050 33 Jewish exiles 20 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 world religions 1500 43 Seleucia-Ctesiphon spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Seoul Buddhism today 16 Taoism 17 worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36

Shur, Wilderness of Exodus 18 Shuruppak Mesopotamia 2 Sibu Taoism 17 Sicilia Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Sicily Jews and Islam 22 Reformation Europe 34 Sidhpur Hindu sacred places 10 Sidon Jewish exiles 20 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 modern state of Israel 27 Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Siffin spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 Silesia Reformation Europe 34

Sepharvaim Jewish exiles 20

Simhachalam Hindu sacred places 10

Sepphoris Palestine in the time of Christ 28

Simhala Buddhism expands in India 14

Serbia Jewish emancipation 24

Sinai Jewish exiles 20

Sardica Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31

Serdica Jewish diaspora 21 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Sinai (mount) Exodus 18 modern pilgrimage sites 55

Sardinia Jews and Islam 22 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30

Seville Reformation Europe 34 world religions 1500 43

Sinai Peninsula Exodus 18

Sardis Zoroastrianism 7

Shamlaji Hindu sacred places 10

Sarnath Buddhist heartland 13 early spread of Buddhism 15 modern pilgrimage sites 55 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Shanghai Buddhism today 16 Muslim peoples of modern Asia 45 Taoism 17 worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36

Sarda Hindu sacred places 10

Salzburg church in 1050 33

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Santa Fe Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 Mormon trail 37

Shugendo Japan: places of religious importance 50

Sardes cult centre 5 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30

Sassanian empire journeys of Muhammad 39 Satrunjaya Hill Jainism in India 12 Saudi Arabia Muslim peoples of modern Asia 45 Savannah origins of Judaism in the USA 25 Savoy Reformation Europe 34 Saxony Reformation Europe 34 Scandinavia megaliths 1 world religions 1500 43

Shechem Jewish exiles 20 Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19

Singapore Taoism 17 Sinope Jewish diaspora 21 Roman religion 6 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Sippar Mesopotamia 2 Sippara Jewish exiles 20 Sipylus (mount) cult centre 5

Shikoku Japan: places of religious importance 50 modern pilgrimage sites 55

Sirhind Sikh origins 47

Shiraz Jews and Islam 22 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 world religions 1500 43

Sluck Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23

Shravasti Buddhist heartland 13

Sitakund Hindu sacred places 10

Smyrna Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23

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Roman religion 6 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Sobibor Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Sofia Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Somnath Islamic expansion in India 41 world religions 1500 43

Stanleyville worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36

Sutlej River Hindu origins 8 Sikh origins 47

Tajikistan Muslim peoples of modern Asia 45

Sthanka world religions 1500 43

Sweden Jewish emancipation 24 Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Reformation Europe 34

Tale-yama Japan: places of religious importance 50

Stonehenge megaliths 1 Strasbourg world religions 1500 43

Sonagiri Jainism in India 12

Strasburg Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23

Song world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Strysnow Judaism and the Third Reich 26

Sonpur Hindu sacred places 10

Studion church in 1050 33

Soron Hindu sacred places 10

Stutthof Judaism and the Third Reich 26

Sosnoviec Judaism and the Third Reich 26

Succoth Exodus 18

Soumont-St Quentin megaliths 1

Sudan Muslim peoples of modern Asia 45

South Africa New Religious Movements worldwide 54

Sudji world religions 1500 43

South Korea Buddhism today 16 New Religious Movements worldwide 54 Taoism 17 Spain Jewish emancipation 24 Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Reformation Europe 34 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 world religions 1500 43 Sparta cult centre 5 Jewish diaspora 21 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30

Suevic kingdom Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 Suhar spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 Sukothai early spread of Buddhism 15 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Sultanpur Sikh origins 47 Sumatra early spread of Buddhism 15 spread of Islam in South-east Asia 42 Taoism 17 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 world religions 1500 43 Sumer Mesopotamia 2

Sydney worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36 Syene Jewish exiles 20 Syracuse Jewish diaspora 21 Roman religion 6 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Syria Jewish diaspora 21 Jewish exiles 20 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 journeys of Muhammad 39 Muslim peoples of modern Asia 45 Palestine in the time of Christ 28 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 spread of Islam by 750 CE 40 Taberah Exodus 18 Tabor Mount, Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Tabriz Jews and Islam 22 Tabuk journeys of Muhammad 39 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40

Sravana Belgola Jainism in India 12

Sunium cult centre 5

Tadmor Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19

Sri Lanka Buddhism expands in India 14 Buddhism today 16 early spread of Buddhism 15 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 world religions 1500 43

Sura Jewish exiles 20

Tai Shan modern pilgrimage sites 55

Surabaya Buddhism today 16

Taibai Shan Taoism 17

Suracuse Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29

Taichung Taoism 17

Srinagari Temple Hinduism 9 Sringeri Temple Hinduism 9 Sriperumbudur Temple Hinduism 9 Srirangam Hindu sacred places 10 Srivijaya world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Surinam Christianity in the Americas c.1750 35 Sus Zoroastrianism 7 Susa ancient empire 4 journeys of Muhammad 39 Mesopotamia 2

Tamralipti Buddhism expands in India 14

Sychar Palestine in the time of Christ 28

Sung Shan Taoism 17

Surat Zoroastrianism 7

Tamar Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19

Switzerland Jewish emancipation 24 Judaism and the Third Reich 26

Split church in 1050 33

Sri Pada modern pilgrimage sites 55

Talwandi Sikh origins 47

Swiss Confederation, Reformation Europe 34

Ta’if journeys of Muhammad 39 Taima Jews and Islam 22 Tainan Taoism 17 Taipei Buddhism today 16 Taiwan Buddhism today 16 Taoism 17 Taizé modern pilgrimage sites 55

Tamsui Taoism 17 Tanais Jewish diaspora 21 Tangier spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 Tangut world religions 1500 43 Tanis Ancient Egypt 3 Exodus 18 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Tanjavur Temple Hinduism 9 Tanjore Islamic expansion in India 41 Tanjungpura spread of Islam in South-east Asia 42 Tanta modern pilgrimage sites 55 world religions 1500 43 Tarentum Jewish diaspora 21 Tarn Taran Sikh origins 47 Tarnopol Jewish emancipation 24 Tarraco Jewish diaspora 21 Tarragona Jewish diaspora 21 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Tarsus Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 church in 1050 33 Jewish diaspora 21 Jewish exiles 20 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Tashi-gompa world religions 1500 43 Tashkent Buddhism today 16 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 Taxila Buddhism expands in India 14 early spread of Buddhism 15 Hindu origins 8 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Zoroastrianism 7

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Tehran worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36 Tekrur world religions 1500 43 Tel Aviv modern state of Israel 27

Trebizond spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30

Timolus (mount) cult centre 5

Treblinka Judaism and the Third Reich 26

Tingitanum Roman religion 6

Trier church in 1050 33 Jewish diaspora 21 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Tipasa Roman religion 6

Tell Brak Mesopotamia 2

Tiphsah Jewish exiles 20 Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19

Tell el-Ubaid Mesopotamia 2 Tell Irmah Mesopotamia 2 Ternate spread of Islam in South-east Asia 42 Thagaste world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Thailand Buddhism today 16 early spread of Buddhism 15

Tirupati modern pilgrimage sites 55 Tiruppunduratti Temple Hinduism 9 Tlemcen Jews and Islam 22 world religions 1500 43 Tokyo Buddhism today 16 Taoism 17 worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36

Thaneswar world religions 1500 43 Thasos cult centre 5 Thebase Jewish diaspora 21 Thebes Ancient Egypt 3 Roman religion 6 Theresienstadt Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Thessalonica church in 1050 33 Jewish diaspora 21 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Roman religion 6 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Thrace Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Thracia Jewish diaspora 21 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Thyatira Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Tiantai Shan early spread of Buddhism 15 Taoism 17 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Tiberias Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Tibet Buddhism today 16 early spread of Buddhism 15 Taoism 17 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 world religions 1500 43 Tiflis spread of Islam by 750 ce 40

Trieste Reformation Europe 34 Tripoli Jews and Islam 22 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 Trivandrum Hindu sacred places 10 Troas Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Roman religion 6 Trondheim world religions 1500 43 Trostenets Judaism and the Third Reich 26

Buddhism expands in India 14 Ulan Bator Buddhism today 16 Ulcini Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Ulm world religions 1500 43 United Kingdom Judaism and the Third Reich 26 New Religious Movements worldwide 54 United States Mormon trail 37 New Religious Movements worldwide 54 origins of Judaism in the USA 25 Uppsala world religions 1500 43 Ur Mesopotamia 2 Urgu early spread of Buddhism 15

Toledo Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 Jews and Islam 22 Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 world religions 1500 43

Tuljapur Hindu sacred places 10

Uruk Jewish exiles 20 Mesopotamia 2

Tun-huang world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Urumchi Buddhism today 16

Turfan early spread of Buddhism 15

’Usfan journeys of Muhammad 39

Turin Reformation Europe 34

Uttar Pradesh Sikhism in India today 48

Toletum Roman religion 6

Turkey Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Muslim peoples of modern Asia 45

Uzbekistan Muslim peoples of modern Asia 45

Turkmenistan Muslim peoples of modern Asia 45

Vadnagar Hindu sacred places 10

Tolosa Jewish diaspora 21 Tomi spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Tosali Jainism in India 12 Tosho-gu Japan: places of religious importance 50 Toulouse Jewish diaspora 21 Reformation Europe 34 Tours church in 1050 33 Reformation Europe 34 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40 Trachonitis Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Trakal Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Tralles Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Transylvania Reformation Europe 34 Trapezus Jewish diaspora 21

Tigris River Jewish diaspora 21 Jewish exiles 20 Jews and Islam 22

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Timbuktu world religions 1500 43

Tus Jews and Islam 22 Tutub Mesopotamia 2 Tyre Jewish exiles 20 Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Jews and Islam 22 Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 modern state of Israel 27 Palestine in the time of Christ 28 Tyrrhenian Sea Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29 Uch Islamic expansion in India 41 Ugarit ancient empire 4 Ughur Autonomous Region Muslim peoples of modern Asia 45 Uhud journeys of Muhammad 39 Ujjain Hindu sacred places 10 Jainism in India 12

Vaisali Buddhist heartland 13 Valabhi Buddhism expands in India 14 Valarshapat Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 church in 1050 33 Valence spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Valley of the Kings Ancient Egypt 3 Vanavasa Buddhism expands in India 14 Vancouver worldwide Christian missions in the early 20th century 36 Vandal kingdom Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31 Vanga Buddhism expands in India 14 Varanasi Buddhist heartland 13 Hindu sacred places 10 modern pilgrimage sites 55 Sikhism in India today 48 world religions 1500 43

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Vatapi Temple Hinduism 9

Wallachia Reformation Europe 34

Xi

Venetian republic Reformation Europe 34

Walsingham modern pilgrimage sites 55

Xi Jiang River Taoism 17

Venice Reformation Europe 34

Wan-fu-xiu early spread of Buddhism 15

Xi Shan Taoism 17

Vercelli world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Wangwu world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Xi’an world religions 1500 43

Vercovicium world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Warsaw Jewish emancipation 24 Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Reformation Europe 34

Vesontio Jewish diaspora 21 Vidisha Buddhism expands in India 14 Vienna Jewish emancipation 24 world religions 1500 43 Vienne church in 1050 33 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 Vietnam early spread of Buddhism 15 Taoism 17 Vijaya spread of Islam in South-east Asia 42 Vijaynagara world religions 1500 43 Vikramapura Islamic expansion in India 41 Vilna Jewish emancipation 24 Judaism in 16th and 17th century Europe 23 Judaism and the Third Reich 26

Wasatch Oasis Mormon trail 37 Washington D.C. modern pilgrimage sites 55 Way of the Sea Exodus 18 Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 Wen Shu modern pilgrimage sites 55 West Bank modern state of Israel 27 Westerbork Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Whithorn church in 1050 33 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

York church in 1050 33 spread of Christianity by 325 ce 30 world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 world religions 1500 43

world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Yugoslavia Judaism and the Third Reich 26 Zabdizene Jews and Christians in the 1st century 29

Yadavagiri Temple Hinduism 9

Zacynthus cult centre 5

Yamato world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Zaire New Religious Movements worldwide 54

Yamnotri modern pilgrimage sites 55 Yamuna River Buddhism expands in India 14 Hindu sacred places 10

Zambia New Religious Movements worldwide 54

Yanbu journeys of Muhammad 39

Zamboanga spread of Islam in South-east Asia 42

Yangon early spread of Buddhism 15

Zamost’ye Jewish emancipation 24

Yangoon Buddhism today 16

Zaragoza spread of Islam by 750 ce 40

Yangtze River Taoism 17

Zebid Jews and Islam 22

Yangzhou world religions 1500 43

Zemun Judaism and the Third Reich 26

Yara world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Zenko-ji Japan: places of religious importance 50

Wilderness of Paran Exodus 18

Yarkand early spread of Buddhism 15

Wilderness of Shur Exodus 18

Yarmuk spread of Islam by 750 ce 40

Wilderness of Zin Exodus 18

Yarmuk River Palestine in the time of Christ 28

Winter Quarters Mormon trail 37

Yarmuna River Sikh origins 47

Vivarium church in 1050 33

Wittem modern pilgrimage sites 55

Yasi world religions 1500 43

Vladivostock Buddhism today 16

Wittenberg Reformation Europe 34

Yathrib journeys of Muhammad 39

Volubilis Jewish diaspora 21

Wu Tang Shan Taoism 17

Yeb Ancient Egypt 3

Wu-tai early spread of Buddhism 15

Yellow River Taoism 17

Wu-tai Shan world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32

Yemen Muslim peoples of modern Asia 45 spread of Islam by 750 ce 40

Viraja Hindu origins 8 Visigothic kingdom Christianity in the 4th and 5th centuries 31

Wadi el-Arish Exodus 18 Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 Wadi Natrun world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Wales Reformation Europe 34

Wuhan Buddhism today 16 Wuyi Shan Taoism 17

Zhitomir Jewish emancipation 24 Zhongnan world religions 600 bce–600 ce 32 Zin, Wilderness of Exodus 18 Zion (mount) Jerusalem: holy sites 56 Ziyarat modern pilgrimage sites 55 Zoan Exodus 18 Zoar Kingdoms of Saul, David, and Solomon 19 Zodiac Mormon trail 37

Yoni Hindu origins 8

Wuyuan Taoism 17

GAZET TEER

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Index

Numbers are page numbers; numbers in italics are for pages with illustrations ‘Abbasid dynasty 113

Balkh 114

Dalai Lama 52

Ghazni 114

‘Abduh, Muhammad 126

Benedict of Nursia 88

Damascus 113

ghettos 78

Abraham 154

Bengal 114

Damien, Father 99

Geiger, Abraham 74

Adventists 102

Berg, David Brandt 146

David (king of Israel) 62

Gobind Singh (guru) 128

Aesculapius (god) 28

Bhagavad Gita 36

death 26

Godavari river 38

Aetherius Society 147

Bhaktivedanta Praphupada, A. C. (swami) 146

Delphi 25, 26

Golden Temple 128, 131 good and evil 30

Black Power movement 126

Demeter (goddess) 26 Devi (goddess) 36

Great Awakening 96, 98

dharma 34, 36, 48

Great Schism 92

Diaspora Judaism 67

Greece, ancient 25–7

Didyma 25

Guinness, H. Grattan 99

Dionysus 25

gurdwaras 128, 131

Divine Light Mission 146

gurus 128–9

Dodona 26

Gyatso, Geshe Kelsang 146

Afghanistan 114 Africa Christian growth in 106 Christian missions to 98 Islam in 120

Black Rock 41 Blavatasky, Helena P. 144–5 bodhisattvas 48

afterlife 20, 26

Brunei 116

Agni (fire god) 34

Buddhahood 48

agriculture 22 Akali movement 131

Buddhism 35, 46–53 Japanese 134 New Religious Movements 146

Akhenaten 20

Bukhara 124

Alexandria, as Christian centre 86

Burma, Christian missions to 99

Ahmadis 120

Allah 110

Donation of Constantine 92 dreams 26

Hades 26

Dwarka 38

Hadrian 28 Hagar 154

Eddy, Mary Baker 144

Hajj 148, 154

Edwards, Jonathan 98

Hal Tarxien 16

egoism 50

Harappa Culture 34 Hare Krishna 146

Capernaum 84

Egypt ancient 20 conquered by Muslims 68, 112 pilgrimage 149

anti-Semitism 70, 72, 76–8

Carey, William 98

Elan Vital movement 146

Anu (god) 18

Carnac 16

Eleusis 26

Aphrodite 25

caste system 41

emperor worship 28

Apollo 25

Catholic Reformation 94

Enki (god) 18

Arafat (mount) 154

Chalcedon 88

enlightenment 46, 50, 54

Ares 25

Chang Tsai 54

Enlil (god) 18

Argos 25

Children of God 145–6

Epidaurus 27

Aryans 34

Erdman, Paul 145

Ashoka 48, 50

China ancient 22 Buddhism in 50, 52 Christianity in 98–9, 106–7 Islam in 123–5 under Communism 52, 106–7, 136

Aten (sun god) 20

Chinmoy, Sri 146

Exodus 60

Athena (goddess) 28

Christian Science 144

augury 26

Christianity 82–107 in modern China 136 pilgrimage 148–9

Amaterasu (sun-goddess) 134

Caesarea Maritima 82

Amenophis IV (pharaoh) 20

Caligula 28

Amida 50

caliphs 112

Amritsar 128, 131

Calvin, John 94

Amun (god) 20

Cambodia 52

Anandpur 128

asceticism 34–5, 42 Asclepios (god) 26–7, 28 Ashkenazi Jews 70

Augustus 28 Australia 99

Chu Hsi 54

Avesta 30

Chuang-tzu 56

Ayodhya 38

city religions 22

Azerbaijan 123

compassion 50 Confucianism 54–7

Baal 25

Constantinople 86, 88

Babylon 64 Jewish academies 68

Corinth 27 Crete 25

Babylonia 18

Cybele (mother goddess) 28

Bacchus 25 Bahá’í 146–7

174

Erech 18 Erhard Seminar Training 147 Eridu 18 Euphrates river 18

Falun Gong 146 fate 26 festivals 41 Feuerbach, Ludwig 104 Foucauld, Charles de 99 France 104 Freud, Sigmund 104 Galilee 67 Gandhi, Mohandas 40 Ganges river 38 Gaon, Sa’adiah ben Yosef 68 Gaons 68

Haridwar 38 Haskalah 72 Hawaii 99 healing 26–7 Hebrew Union College 74 Hephaistos 25 Hera (god) 25, 28 Herod the Great 82 Herodotus 26 Herzl, Theodore 78 Heydrich, Reinhard 76 Hijrah 110 Himmler, Heinrich 76 Hinduism 34–41 New Religious Movements 146 pilgrimage 148 Hirsch, Samson 74 Hitler, Adolf 76 Holocaust 76–8 Homer 25 Honshu 134 Hopkins, Emma Curtis 144 Hsün-tzu 54 Hubbard, L. Ron 147 Human Potential Movement 147 immortality 56, 57 Inanna (god) 18 Independence (Missouri) 102

AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

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karma 34, 46

megaliths 16

Oceania, Christian missions to 99

Kashgar 125

Mencius 54

Olympia 25

Kaveri river 38

Mendelssohn, Moses 72

oracles 26

Kazakhstan 123

Mesopotamia 18

Osiris 27

Kerala 41

messiah 67

Ostia 28

Khan, Inayat 126

messianic movements 70

Ottoman empire 70

Khan, Sayyid Ahmad 126

Michael Cerularius 92

Khomeini (Ayatollah) 126

millenarianism 102–3

Pakistan 114

Kiev 92

Miller, William 144

Palestine 78

Iraq ancient 18 conquered by Muslims 112

King, George 147

mind 54–6

Paraguay, Jesuits in 96

Knock 148–9

Minerva (god) 28

Parsis 30

missionary societies 98

Pella 84

irrigation 18, 22

Kos 27 Krapf, Johann 99

missions Christian 96–9, 106–7 Portuguese 116 Sufi 116

Pentecostalism 106

India 40 Christian missions to 98, 99 Islam in 114 indigenous religions 139–40 Indonesia 116 Indra (god) 40 Indus river 38 inner peace 146 Iran 126 Muslim invasion of 112

Ishmael 154 Isis 27 Islam 110–31 and Judaism 68–9 pilgrimage 148, 149, 154 in Russia 123 scholarship 68

Kronos (god of time) 25 Kukai 134 Kumbh Mela 20, 41 Kyrgyzstan 123 Lagash 18

Islamism 126, 127

Lahore 129

Israel children of 60 kingdom of 62 modern state of 78

Lao-tzu 56

Izumo 134

Latin America, Christian missions to 99

Lares & Penates 28 Larsa 18 Latter-Day Saints 102–3

Jainism 35, 42

Leo IX (pope) 92

Jamnia 67, 84

Li Hongzhi 146

Japan 99, 134 Buddhism in 50 Christianity in 106

Libya, Muslim invasion of 112

Java 149 Jebel Helal 60 Jebel Musa 60 Jehovah’s Witnesses 144 Jerusalem 152 David’s capital 62 early Christian centre 86 temple community 64 under Herod the Great 82 Jesuits, reductions 96 Jesus Movement 145 Jews emancipation 72 persecution 70, 76–8, 84 see also Judaism

Lima 96 Lin Chao-en 57 Lingwood, Dennis 146 Love Family 145 Luther, Martin 70, 94 Magi 30 Mahabharata 36 Mahavira 42 Mahayana Buddhism 48 Mahesh Yohi (Maharishi) 146 Malabar 98 Malacca 116 Malaysia 116 Marianas Islands 99

Judaism 60–79 anti-Semitism 70 and the early Church 94 Reform 74 scholarship 68

Marr, Wilhelm 72

judges 62

Masai Mara 141

Judson, Adoniram and Ann 99

Mathura 38

Juno (god) 28

Maududi, Abu al-Ala 126

Jupiter (god) 25, 28

Mecca 110, 148, 154

Mars (god) 25 Martyn, Henry 99 Marx, Karl 104

Medes 30 Kanchipuram 38

Medina 110, 149

Karaites 68–9

meditation 46, 50, 52

Karbala’ 149

Medjugorje 149

Mithraism 28 Moab 60 monasticism 42, 48 monotheism 22 Monte Cassino 88 Moon, Sun Myung 146 Mormons 102–3 Morocco 120 Morrison, Robert 98 Moses 60 Mott, John R. 99 Mughal empire 114 Muhammad 110 Muhammad, Elijah 126 Myanmar, Christian missions to 99 Mycenae 25

Pergamum 27 persecution of Christians 28 of Jews 70, 76–8, 84 Persia 30 Christian missions to 99 conquered by Muslims 68 Photius I (patriarch) 92 pilgrimage 38, 41, 110, 148–9, 154 Japan 134 Poland 104 massacre of Jews 70 Pompeii 28 Poole, Elijah 126 popes 88, 92 Portugal as colonial power 96 global trading 116 Poseidon 25 priests 28, 30

mysticism 54, 56–7

Protestantism 94

Najaf 149

Punjab Islam in 114 Sikhism 128–31

Nanak (Guru) 128 Nanna (moon god) 18 Narbonne 112 Narmada river 38 Nation of Islam 126 nature 38, 40 Neo-Confucianism 54–6 Neptune 25 New Age Movement 147 New Kadampa Tradition 146 New Religious Movements 144–7 New Thought 144 New Zealand 99 Nhat Hahn, Thich 52 Nichiren 134, 146 Nile river 20 Ninurta (god) 18 Nippur 18 non-violence 42

Pudgalavada Buddhism 48

Quakers 96 Qutb, Sayyid 126 rabbis 67 Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli 40 Raëlian Movement 147 Rajneesh, Bhagavan Shri 146 Ramayana 36 Ranjit Singh (maharajah) 129 Rastafarianism 147 Rawat, Prem 146 Reformation 94 reincarnation 34, 42, 46 Rigdon, Sidney 102 Rimmon 84 rivers 38

North America, Christianity in 96

INDEX

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Rome ancient 27, 28 Capitoline Hill 28 as centre of Christianity 86, 88 imperial cult 86 Pantheon 28

Shiva (god) 36

Tanta 149

Varanasi 38

shop front churches 107

tantras 50

Varuna (sea god) 40

Sikhism 128–31

Taoism 56–7, 136

Vedanta Society 146

Sinai 60

Taylor, James Hudson 98–9

Vedas 34

Romney, Mitt 103

Sinai, Mount 60

Vikvekananda (Swami) 40

Smith, Joseph 102–3

temples 36, 41 ancient Sumeria 18 Beijing 56 Cambodia 52 Eleusis 26 Hinduism 36 Jerusalem 19, 62, 64, 152 Sikhism 128

Rosicrucians 145

Soka Gakkai 146

Roy, Ram Mohan 40

Solomon 62

Russell, Charles Taze 144

Soma (plant god) 34

Russia 104–5

South America 96

Russian empire 123 Russian Orthodox Church 92, 105 Rutherford, Joseph 144

Soviet Union 104–5 Spain as colonial power 96 conquered by Muslims 68, 112, 120

Sabarimala temple 41

Sri Lanka 52

sacrifice 34, 36

Stonehenge 16

Samuel 62

Student Volunteer Movement 99

Sangharakshita 146

suffering 34, 46

Sanskrit 34, 36

Sufism 116, 120, 123, 124, 126

Saraswati river 38

Sumatra 116

Sathya Sai Baba 146

Sumerians 18

Saturn (god) 25

sun gods 20

Saul 62

Suzuki, D. T. 146

scholasticism 94 School of Economic Science 147 Scientology 147 Self-Realization Fellowship 146 Serapis 27 Seventh-Day Adventists 144 Shah, Idries 126 Shi’ites 120

swamis 146 synagogues 64, 72 syncretism 57 Syria ancient 18 conquered by Muslims 68, 112 Taizé 149

Shikoku 134, 148

Tajikistan 123

Shinran 50

Talmud 68

Shinto 134

176

South Korea 99, 106

Tannit 25

Tendai Buddhism 134 Thebes 20 Theravada Buddhism 48 Tibet 50, 52 Tigris river 18 Tours 112 Transcendental Meditation® 146 Travancore 98 UFO religions 147 Ujjain 38 Ukraine, massacre of Jews 70 Ummayad dynasty 112, 113

Vipassana movement 146 Vishnu (god) 36 Vivekananda (swami) 146 Vorihon, Claude 147 Vulcan (god of war) 25 Waihind 114 Walsingham 149 Wang Yang-ming 54 White, Ellen G. 144 Wise, Isaac 74 writing 18 Xavier, Francis 98 Yamuna river 38 Yavneh 67 Yiddish 70

Unification Church 146

yoga 35

United States of America Islam 126–7 Judaism 74

Yogananda, Paramahansa 146 Young, Brigham 102–3

Unity Church 144

Zen 50, 146

Uranus (sky god) 25

Zeus 25, 28

urban civilizations 22

Zevi, Shabbetai 70

Uruk 18

Zionism 78

Utah, Mormons in 102–3

Zoroastrianism 30, 113

Utu (sun god) 18

Zwingli, Huldrych 94

Uzbekistan 123

AT L A S O F W O R L D R E L I G I O N S

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KHAZAKHSTAN

R O M A N E M P I R E Alba Iulia G AU L Vercelli 360 Modena D

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Atlas of

SIKHISM WORLDWIDE TODAY

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Written specifically for students of all levels, this volume is perfect for individual or course-based study.

ARGENTINA

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ATLANTIC OCEAN

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GUY AN SUR A INA FREN M CH

A RIC

VENEZUELA

MA

TA

IA GER

COS

TIBET

OMAN

LESBOS

AEGEAN SEA

ASCLEPIOS

an JAPAN CAU Bologna ube CA C H I N A R. SU B L AC K S E A S I TALY Serdica M Massilia Rome T (Marseilles) THRACE Constantinople ARMENIA Monte Nola 394 Chalcedon 400 415 BURMA Casino 529 LAOS Nicaea Caesarea 360 THAILAND M E D I PHILIPPINE Gushnasp P ACIFIC Athens T IS.E VIETNAM R R Carthage OCEAN Ephesus A N M E S Nisibis 325 Antioch E A OPO Rhagae N TA M Thagaste M A L A Y S I A388 S E A Salamis 335 IA DuraHamadan Sidon Cyrene Europos Ctesiphon PAPUA I N D Leptis O N E Magna S I A NEW Alexandria GUINEA PE RS Jerusalem S. KOREA

AFGHANISTAN

IRAN

SAUDI ARABIA

Mt Pelion

S EA

TE M G UA

EGYPT

S

S

P ACIFIC OCEAN

IRAQ

PAKISTAN

LIBYA

ORACLE OF ZEUS Vo lg

PIAN

CUBA

MT

er R .

C AS

ALGERIA

MEXICO

MONGOLIA

ie p

N. KOREA

N

SYRIA

IAN

Balkh Kabul Ghazni Indus R .

GERM A

ITALY SPAIN

C A R PAT H

.

A TL ANTIC O CEAN

FRANCE PORTUGAL

Dn

Augusta Treverorum (Trier)

UKRAINE

Indu s R.

R

BELARUS

AN

HAWAII (U.S.A.)

NY POLAND

aR

ATLANTIC OCEAN

.

IRELAND

I nd us R

FINLAND

UNITED KINGDOM

N ORTH

MYSIA

Mt Ida

.

A

PALLAS ATHENE

.

D

GHANA

The concise, helpful text guides the readers’ experience and helps interpretation of the visuals. This atlas surveys the origins, historical development, and current strength, distribution, and nature of the major world religions and their offshoots, and explores some of the religions of the ancient world.

A

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

Hindu Jewish Chinese religions Theravada Buddhism Mahayana Buddhism Mainly Roman Catholic Christian Orthodox Christian Mainly Protestant Christian Sunni Muslim Shi-ite Muslim Shinto Tribal, Muslim, Christian Tribal, Christian Traditional, tribal or undifferentiated religion Jain Minority Sikh minority Jewish minority Muslim minority Zoroastrian minority

SWEDEN

NOR W AY

N

Troy

T H E S S A LY

Dodona

Indus R

ICELAND

A

Vercovicium (Housesteads) York Deva (Chester) B R I TAI N U S 596 S I A Canterbury Colonia Agrippina (Cologne)

Clonard 520

HERMES Mt Mosychlus

LEMNOS

Mt Ossa

Indus R

Iona 563 Whithorn 360

GREENLAND

ALASKA

C

Dowley

Featuring more than fifty-seven brand new maps, photographs, diagrams and charts, the Atlas of World Religions is an essential companion to any study of the key religions of the world.

Mt Olympus

ZEUS, Olympian gods, muses