Asoka, the Buddhist Emperor of India (Classic Reprint) 1330579984, 9781330579985

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PR E F A C E

Maurya by Pr ofessor Rhys David s was intended to be the fir st of the Rulers of I ndi a ser i es but u nfortunately ci rcum stances pre v ented the fulfilment of th at intention an d the seri es was closed leaving vacant the niche destined for the great Buddhist emper or With the approval of Pr o fessor Rhys Davids I have undertaken the pr eparation of a supplementary v olume giving in a popular for m the substance of what is known concer ning the Maurya empir e Th e sources of ou r knowledge of anci ent I ndian history ar e so meagre that i t is im possible to tr eat the subject of this v olume in a manner similar to that in which the biogr aphies of A kbar A lbuquer que an d other I ndian worthies hav e been treated All minute biogr aphi cal details ar e lacking an d a distinct pictur e of the man A soka cannot be painted Nevertheless enough is kn own to r ender the subject interesting an d i f my book inter est r eaders the fault will li e should fail to rather with the author than with the subject Th e chapter entitled Th e H istor y of A soka will be found to di ffer widely from all other publications i e s wh ch t e t such as C unnin gham s Bhilsa Ta r a f o p that topic I hav e tried to follow the example of the best modern historian s an d to keep the legends A

V OL UM E

on

A soka

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PREFA CE

eparate fr om what seems to me to be authentic histor y Among the legends I have placed the stor ies of the conve r sion of Ceylon an d of the deli ber ations o f the so called Thir d Council A ll the for ms of those with stori es whi ch h ave r e ached us ar e cr owded absur di ti es an d contr adiction s fr om whi ch legi ti mate criticism cannot extr act tr ustwor thy histor y I r eject absolutely the Ceylonese chr onology p r ior Th e to the r eign of Du tth agami n i in about B 0 1 60 undeser v ed credit given to the statements of the mo nks o f Ceylon h as been a gr eat hindr ance to the right d er stan din g of ancient I ndian histor y Th e tr anslations of the inscr iptions in thi s v ol ume ar e based on those of Bii hler checked by compar ison with the v er sions of other schol ars especially those of MM Ker n an d S enart an d with the texts A lthough I d o n ot pr etend to possess a criti cal knowledge o f the Pfili an d Pr akr i t languages an d hav e ther efor e rar ely v entured on an i ndependent i nter pretation I hope that the r evised versions in th is volu me may be found to be both accurate an d r eadable A difficul ty experi enced by all translators of th e Asoka inscriptions is that of fin ding an adequate its com compendious translation of d a an d p ounds Religion righteousness tr uth the law the sacr ed law an d I dar e say other phr ases have been tr ied : all these ar e unsatisfactor y To my mind the render in g piety or law of piety seems the best Th e fundamental pr inciple of Asoka s ethics is filial piety the Latin pi etas the Chinese H ci ao which s

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PREFA CE

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presented as the model an d basis of all other virtues Th e first maxim of the Chinese S acr ed Edi ct the document most nearly resembling A soka s Edi cts is this : Pay just regard to filial an d fr aternal duties in o rder to giv e due impo rtance to the rel ations of li fe Asok a s system may be said to be based on the same maxim Such a system may well be described as the law of piety I n dealing with the v exed question of transli teration I hav e shunned the pedanti c atr ociti es of inter national sy stems whi ch d o n ot shrink from presenting Krishna in the guise of Kr sna Champa as K ampa an d so on The con sonants in the I ndian words an d n ames in this book ar e to be pronounced as in English an d the vowels usually as in I talian Th e short a h as Long an indistinct so und as in the word wom an vowel s ar e marked when necessar y ; other diacriti cal marks have n ot been used in the text is

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C O NT E NT S a

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PA G

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Tm: H x sr o nv

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Ca no x

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AS OK A

M A U RYA Pax

t on

mn r A ND An n mx sr m n on o r m a En p mn III Tm; M ox mamr r s IV Tm: Ro cx I n se amn ou s I n scmm ox s V TH E CA V E A ND FI L M V I Tm: CE Y L ONES E L E G END o r Asolu Tm; IND IA N m n o s or Ason V II A pp nn mx II

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I n n nx

I LL USTRA TI ONS 1

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Ta n PI L L A B A T

LA U RI Y A

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NA NDA NG A RH

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F r on tiapiece

C H A P TE R TH E H I STORY

or

I A SOKA

WH EN A lexan der in vi nci ble befor e all enemies sav e death passed away at B abylon in the summer of the year B 0 32 3 an d hi s gener als assembled in council to di vide h is empire they wer e compelled perfor ce to decide that the di stant I ndi an pr ovinces shoul d r emain in th e h ands o f the officer s to whom they h ad been entrusted by the ki ng But the decision of the fate of I ndia n o longer r ested wi th Gr eek generals in council at Babylon for the natives of the coun try took the dec isi on into their own hands I n the cold season followin g th e death of A lexander th e nati v es rose kill ed the officer s wh o repr esented Macedonian author ity an d while thinki ng to achi ev e independence mer ely effected a chan ge of master s Th eir leader was a man of humble or igin by name C handr agupta Maurya wh o assembled an d or ganized fr om the predatory tr ibes of the north western frontier of I ndi a a powerfu l for ce wi th whi ch he expelled the for eigners H aving conquer ed the Panj ab an d neighbouring countr ies Chandr agupta tu rned h is ar m s against Dh ana Nanda King of M agad h a whom ,

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A S OK A

he dethroned an d slew Th e usurper seated himself upon the vacant throne of Patali pu tr a an d ruled the realm with an iron hand M agadh a was at that time the premier ki ngdom of I ndia an d the irresistible combin ation of its for ces with those pr eviously r ecruited in the upper provin ces enabled Chandr agupta to extend h is rule over the gr eater part of I ndia from sea to sea S eleucus su mamed Nikator or the Conquer or by reason of h is many victor ies h ad established him self as S atr ap of Babylon after the second d i vi sion of A lexander s emp ir e mad e at Par ad eisos in B c 32 I S ix year s later he was dr i ven ou t by hi s r i val A ntigonus an d compelled to flee to Egypt A fter three year s exile he r ecovered Babylon an d devoted himself to the consolidation an d ex tension of hi s power H e attacked an d subj ugated the Bactr ians an d di rected h is victor ious ar my against I n di a i n the hope of regaining the provin ces whi ch h ad been for a br i ef space held by hi s late master But the v ast hosts of teem ing I nd ia led by Chand r agupta wer e mor e than a match for the powe r of the Macedonian wh o was compelled to r enounce h is ambiti on of surpassing A lex ander by e ffecting the conquest of I ndia an d to withdr aw fr om the countr y Ter m s of peace wer e ar r anged which compr ised a matr imonial alliance between the two royal h ouses an d the cession to Ch andr agupta of all the I ndian provinces of A lexander s empir e includin g the r egions n ow kn own as A fghanistan as far as the Par ap a .

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H I S H I S TOR

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13

nisus or H indoo Koosh mountain s On hi s part Chandr agupta gav e five hundr ed elephants to S eleucus I n the year B 0 306 S eleucus assumed the r egal title as also d id the other gener als of A lexande r i n thei r respective provi nces H enceforth S eleucus is known to hi sto r y as King of Syria A bo ut this time or a l ittle later the Syr ian monar ch dispatched M egasth en es as hi s ambassador to the court of Chandr agupta at Patalipu tr a on the Gan ges the modern Patna an d Banki por e Mega sthenes resi ded there for a consider able time an d fortunately for poster ity took the trouble to r ecor d what he saw A lar ge part of h is book h as survi ved in fr agments which ar e almost the sole author ity for what is known of I ndia in the days of Chand r agupta Th e am bassador found the go ver nment of the I ndian king strong an d well or ganized established in a magn ificent fortified city worthy to be the capital of a great ki ngdom Th e royal camp at the capital was estimated to contai n soul s an d an effici ent infantr y standing army numbering elephants an d a mul titude of char iots cav alry On active was maintained at the king s expense serv ice the ar my is sai d to hav e attained the huge 1 to tal of men Th e auth ori ti e fo th e h i to y of Ch a d agupta ( Sa dr a .

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kottos, San d r akoptos, An d r okottos) ar e Ar r ian , A n abasis, Bk v ch 6 ; I n d i ka, var i ous assages ; Q Cu r ti us, Bk vii i ch 9 ; P utar ch , L ife of A lex an der , ch 62 ; Justi n, Bk x v ch 4; A i an , Syr iake, ch 5 5 ; Str ab o, ii 1 9 , an d x v 1 36 ; ib i i 5 3 an d i 5 7 ; Ath enai os, D eipnowph ists, ch 1 8 d ; P in , .

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A S OKA

With this ov erwhelming an d well equipped force C handragupta crushed all ri val s an d became the first Emper or of I ndia A fte r twenty four years of o vernment i stron g he d i ed nd tr n m t ed the a a s t g empire which he h ad won to hi s son Bin d usfir a 1 A mitr aghfita wh o r eigned for twenty five year s Th e only recorded ev ent of his reign is the dispatch to h is court of an ambassador nam ed Deimach os by the Ki ng of S yr ia I n the year B 0 2 80 S eleucus Nikator wh o was in the seven ty eighth year of his a e was murder ed an d was succeeded on the S yrian g -

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H ist Nat .

an d

vi. 2 1 .

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ly titl ed

an d

M

f

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ssages

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li d

auth or i t

as

Th e

b dged

a ri

ve

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b een

of

p

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v

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u

the G r eat

d escr ibed by M ega assage in Justin i s

th e

wor k

Au gustus

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y

lle ted al ab le

co

M Cr i n d le i n h is

I n d i a by A lex

in th e time of all th ese wr i ter s i s

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A n cien t I nd i a

n r r fi b T e , ( Justi n or tan t

h ave

c

A r r ian

most imp Pompei us wh o

th e

y

The I n vasi on

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an d

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tr an s at e

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pa

All th ese

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l d by

accu r ate

b ooks en b n C o s t a le ( att

— 8 2

Tr ogus

of

Th e

u

ltimate

M egasth en es, wh om ‘ ’ r ove of a ch ar acter

ch i efl

pp

d

Ar r ian ( I nd ika, x vii ) escr i b es as a man ’ St r abo, wh o was i sguste b th e tr ave er s tal es wi th whi ch th e amb assad or emb e ish e hi s wor k, for me a ess favour ab e sti gmatize as a O i n ion of M egasth en es, wh om h e u n ust i ar For all matter s wh i ch came u n er h i s er son a ob ser vati on M egasth en es seems er fe ct tr ustwor th 1 Bi nd u sar a ( Vish nu Par ana, M ahd varhsa, Dip avmizsa, Par i

d

l

d y ll d

p

ll

d l j ly d p l y

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p

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ly

l

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d

n a a B h a d r a s a r a P a r a N a n a ; (d t ) VAr isar a (BM gavata Par ana) ar a (Bmh md nda Par ana) r 0 r m i s s i co s t h e e on of St r ab o (qu ote , A ncien t I n d ia, 7 )

th e Jai ns)

sish apar van of

S

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d

p

d

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Déimmh os t o Amitr och ad es, th e son of Chan r agu ta Ami t r och ad es ( Skr Ami tr agh ata) must th er efor e be a tit e of .

Bin d usAr a

.

See

M iss

ns t a b C o (

le

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ly

by

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l

In i an kin gs ar e fr equ en t kn own two n ames ’ Duff s ex ce en t wor k, The Chr onology of I n d i a

ll

.

H I S H I S TOR

Y

1

5

throne by h is son A ntiochus Soter Eight years after the death of S eleucus Asoka a son of Bin d u sfir a an d the thi r d sov er eign of the Maurya dynasty ascended the throne of Pfitalipu tr a an d un dertook the govern ment of the I ndian empir e A ccor di ng to the silly fictions of mendaciou s monks A soka waded to the throne thr ough a sea of blood securing hi s posi tion by the m assacr e of ni nety nine brother s on e brother only the youngest being sav ed These fictions an extr act of which will be al i v e found in a later chapter d o n ot merit ser ious cr iti Th e inscr ipti ons p r ov e that the br othe r s an d cism sisters of the ki ng we r e still li vin g in the mi ddle of the reign an d that they an d all the members of the r oyal fam ily were the objects of the so v er e ign s anxi ous 1 soli ci tude Th e empir e won an d consolidated by the genius of Chandr agupta h ad passed to h is son Bin d usar a an d when after the lapse of twenty five years the sceptr e again passed from the hands of Bin d usar a to those of his son As oka ther e is n o r eason to suppose th at bloodshed was necessary t o secur e the succession Of the events of the fir st eight years of A soka s r eign n o recor d h as sur vived I n his ninth ye ar he unde r took the conquest of th e kingdom of Kalinga on the coast of the Bay of Bengal H is arms wer e successful an d the extensiv e terr itor ies of Kalinga wer e in corpor ated with the empire But the ho rror s which must accompany .

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Rock E icts IV, V, VI ; Pi

lla Edi r

ct

VII ; Qu een



s

d

E i ct

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16

A S OK A

war

even successful war made a deep impression on the heart of the victor ious monar ch wh o h as r ecor ded on the rocks in imper ish able wor ds the suffer ings of the van quished an d the remor se of the v ictor Th e record is instinct with personal feeling an d still car ries acr oss the ages the moan of a human soul Th e king wh o adopts in hi s edicts the title of Pr iy ad ar sin (or Piy ad asi) meaning the H umane an d om its h is personal name of Asoka speaks thus ,

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j sty K i g P iyad ar sin in th e nin th y a of h is d th e K al i gas r eign co q d ed a d fifty th o an d p on s we th e ce car r i d O eh h an d o d r ed th o sa d we th er e sl ai away cap tiv ma y times th at mb pe ish ed Eve si ce th e a e atjo of t h e K ali gas H is M aj sty h as eal o sl y p otecte d th e L aw of Piety h as b e n d vote d to th at L aw a d h as p oclaimed its p cept s mor se o acco n t of th e co q t of H is M aj sty f ls th e K ali ga b eca se d i g th e s bj gation of a p vi ousl y h t a e a t h d t y l d c o d ki n a t a a w a g g q y ecessa i ly occ wh r eat H is M aj esty cap tiv of th e peopl feels p r ofo d sor r ow a d g et Th er i s h owever a oth er r easo fo H is M aj est y fe l i g i asm ch a i n s ch a co t y d w ll egr et sti ll mor a d asceti cs m n of d iff r e t sects a d h o s B ah ma t h old e wh o all p actise obedi ce to ld s ob d i t atm t a d moth ce to t a h ob d i s p op fath of f i en ds acq ai t a s com ad es r l at iv s sl av s a d ser va ts wi th fi d l ity of d vot io To s ch peopl dwelli g in th at co tr y h app en violen ce a d sep ar atio fr om th o th ey lov sl a gh te Even th ose per sons wh o ar e th emselves pr otected et ai H is M a n

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111 5

H I S TOR Y

7

1

dimin ish ed r in falls on th eir f ien ds an d in this way acq ain t a el at ive an d es com ad e v i le ce is d o e to th e feel i gs of th ose wh o ar e per so all y ) ( t heir afiections '

u

o

nc

r

l

n

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.

A ll th is d ifiused M aj est

,

s,

r

s,

n

t

r

u

:

,

n

u n h ur

un

y

miser y

For th er e is

.

matter

is

n o coun tr

yi

mmu n i ties of Br ahmans an d

H is

to

r egr et

wh ich

n

cou n t ess co

ar e n ot

fou n

d

is th er e

ascet ics, n or

p ople h a faith in o sect o ly Th e loss of ven th e h un d edth o th e th o sa dth p ar t car r i ed away capti ve of th e per so s wh o w r e th n sl ai or do e to death i K ali ga wo ld ow be a matter of deep gr et to H is M aj sty A lth gh a man sh o ld d o h im an i j y H is M aj e ty h ol d s th at it m st be p ati e t ly b or e s far as i t p ossi b ly an y coun tr

y wh

of

er e

th e

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e

n

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ou

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be

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can

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b or n e

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d mi i s H is M aj esty h as comp as sion th o gh ad vi d to d st oy th m in detail an d th o gh th p ow to h a y th m is in H is M aj sty s h an d s Th y ar e war ned t th is ff ct vi l doi g Sh th at y may escap d t ct io For H i s M aj esty d sir es for all an imate bei n gs sec ity con tr ol over th e p assio s e a c e f m i n d an d j oyo s ess o p An d th is is th ch iefest co q est i n H is M aj esty s opin io th e co q est by th e L aw of Pi ty Th e only authentic account of the r easons whi ch induced Asoka to adopt the Buddhi st d ha r ma or Law of Piety as the rule of his l ife an d the foundation of publi c mor ali ty is the edict abov e quoted Th e grotesque an d contr ad ictor y tales to ld by monkish romancer s as ex planations of the great king s change Ro k Edi t X I II M S a t i J R A S f 0 0 9 pp 335 34 p p t ai ti ba d a f agm t e e tly di o e ed at Gi ma Cp M i o Ro k Edi t I Even

u

pon th e fo

r est

b es i n

u

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u

tr i

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er

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oses cer

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18

A S OKA

hear t ar e in themselv es incr edible as well as in compatible with the simple an d credible ex planation giv en in the king s own words Doubtless some n ow for gotten pr eacher wh o possessed the gift of per suasi veness must have so expounded the doctr ine of the S it ky a sage as to awaken the r oyal consci ence an d to evoke the feeling of remor se for the horrors of war whi ch is so vi vi dly exp r essed in the edict Th e feeli ng however ar oused was genuine an d is the keynote for the in terpretation o f the whole se r ies o f the edicts Th e passage quoted was composed in the thirteenth year of the r eign Th e last of the dated edicts belongs to the twenty eighth year Nothi ng that was wr itten in the inte r val is inconsistent with the declar ation that the onl y true conquest is that effected by the Law of Piety an d n ot conquest by force of arms Th e conclusion i s ther efore justified that the su b jugation of Kalinga was the only gr eat mili tary ach ie v ement of the r eign an d that fr om h is ninth year A soka eschewed militar y glor y an d de voted h imself to the pr oblems of inter nal admini str ation with the special object of promulgatin g an d enfor c ing the Buddh ist Law of Piety as being the best means of secu r i ng the h app iness an d welfar e o f h is subjects Th e tenth Rock Edict published an d ne ighbours in the fourteenth year of the r eign h as for its special subject the contr ast between true glor y an d m il itary renown We have A soka s own authori ty for stating that in ,

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H I S H I S TOR

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19

the ninth year of his r eign for the reasons above explained he j oined the Buddhi st commun ity as a lay ,

,

tells us that for about two years an d a half he displayed little zeal as a conver t Towar ds the close of the elev enth year of his r e i n hi s i nterest in the g Buddh ist teachi ng was in some way stimulated ; an d he resolved to devote h is life an d all the resources of hi s imper ial powe r to the p r omu lgation an d pr o i t n of the doctr ine whi ch in his opini on opened a o a p g the gate of heaven an d secur ed the happiness an d welfar e Of man ki nd her e an d hereafter H e therefore took upon himself the vows of a h a Buddhi st monk or fr iar an d j oined the Order (sam g ) Th e spectacle of a r eigning monarch turned monk is so str ange to moder n European eyes th at the fact of Asok a s or dination h as been doubted an d attempts have been mad e to explain away the plain language in whi ch the king ( Minor Rock Edi ct I ) contr asts hi s posi tion as a careless lay disciple wi th that whi ch he h ad attained as a zealous monk But n o sufficient reason exists for hesitation in accepting Asoka s language in its natur al sense Buh ler h as been able to cite on e par allel case that of the Ch au lu ky a ki ng Ku mar apala a Jain wh o assumed the title of lor d Of the O r der an d at v ar ious per iods of h is r eign took vows of contin ence temper ance abstention from an i m al food an d r efr aini ng fr om confiscatio n of the property of the faith ful I t i s pr obable that Asoka ilar ly undertook vo ws of imperfect an d limited sim He

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A S OK A

20

bligation I t is also possible that he once or sever al times adopted the pr actices of a Buddhi st mendicant friar for a few days at a time dur ing whi ch per iods of r etr eat h is m inister s would hav e admi nistered the kin gdom Th e Buddhi st cer emony of ordi nation or d e n ot con v ey indeli ble o r der s m a dd o a a u s s ( p p ) i n volv e a li fe long vow Bo th in Bu rma an d Ceylon men commonly enter the Or der tempor ar ily an d after Asoka could hav e done the a time r esume civil li fe same an d a p r oceedi ng whi ch is easy for an or din ar y man is doubly easy for an emperor A for m al com an ce with the r u les r equir ing the monk to beg h is li p br ead could have been ar r anged for without difficulty withi n the p r ecincts of the palace Th e fact that A soka d id r eally become a Budd hi st m onk is vouched for by an in dependent testimony whi ch is the mor e valuable because i t is contained in an inci dental remar k A thousand year s after Asoka s time the Chin ese pilgr im I tsing notes that the statues of Asoka r epr esent h im as wear ing a monk s r obe of Th e empe r or could n ot have a p articu lar patte r n wor n such a r obe unless he h ad j oined the Or der as he says that he di d o

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Rock Edi ct I ( I nd A n t .

p

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p

t h at

Of

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,

Pr acti ces,

er son n

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15

ch . x

wh o h as

m

M

on ach is

i ) , wh en



er s an d

Th e statu s Of upd saka,

1

Kem s i n t er



di

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p

lay di sci

or

-

46

.

e,

th e Or

d

i s con tr ast e

(

sarh gh a

er

)

I tsin g (A Recor d

.

scu ssi n g

th e ,

,

pl

-

mon ks sh ou ld wear th ei r gar men ts an d adds ( p 7 3 ed Takakusu) .

r etati on of M

in or

M a n u al of I n d ian Bud d h i sm, ; 4

en t er ed .

p

ex

pl

ai ns a

f

p a t i la r

Th e image

cu

Of

.

See

Bu d d hist

o

mode i n wh ich

d with d

Bu d h ist

r

fash ion ,

kin g Asoka

.

H I S H I S TOR

A soka s

Y

21

e l for the propagation an d enfor cement o f the pr actical moral code of Buddhi sm or Law of Piety led h im n ot only to adopt wi thin h is own v ast domin ion s the me asures wh ich seemed be st adapted to the purpose but al so to engage in a well 1 consider ed scheme of m issionar y effor t I n the space of two ye ars between the emperor s entry in to the Or der in the eleventh year an d the publi cation of h is ear li est inscr i ptions in the th ir teenth year of the r eign missions char ged with the pr eachi ng of the doctrine of the Sakya sage h ad been dispatched to Ceylon an d the independent kingdoms in the south Of the Pen i nsul a to Mysor e an d the Bo mbay coast to th e Mahr atta country to the m ountaineers of the H im a l ayas an d Kashm ir an d to Pegu A lthough cr i ticism can not accept the wonderful tales told by monkish wr iter s of the sudden an d wholesale con v ersions effected by the mi ssionari es of A so k a ther e is n o doubt that the m issions laid the foundations of In th e Buddh ist church in all the countr i es named Ceylon their wor k abides to this d ay Th e dispatch of m issionar i es by A soka is indeed ’

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Cu n n in gh am (Bh i lsa Tapes, has its gar men t i n th is way 1 9 7 , PI x ) gu esse th at th e fin e statu e cr own in g th e n or th er n i ar at san ch i migh t be On e Of Asoka bu t th at figur e et ach e i s c othe i n a wai st c oth ( dhoti ) on , an d h as a n imb u s ’

.

p d

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l

th er efor e, be i n ten

d ply

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r esen t

th e

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mp er or

e

.

See Rock E ict V I : An d wh at i s t h e Ob ect of all my — t o acqu it my eb t to i vi n g b ei n gs th at S im er ti on ‘

may make some Of th em h appy ’ may attai n to h eaven I

.

d

h er e,

l

an d

y

th at h er eafter th e

A S OKA

22

the fac ts of primary impor tance in th e history of mankind For about two centur ies an d a h alf p r ior to A soka s con v er sion Buddhism h ad m aintained its posi tion in a por tion of the valley I ts founder of the G anges as a sect Of H induism Gautam a Sakyamuni was bor n liv ed an d di ed within the region compr ised between 82 an d 86 east longitude an d 24 to 2 8 nor th latitude or in d othe r wo r ds th e c ountry between G aya A llah aba an d the hi ll s S o far as we can see the tr ansfor mation of this l ocal sect into a wor ld r eligion is the wor k of A soka al one Th e rom ances wr itten by m onks naturally r ep r esent the king as a tool in the hand s Of hi s cler ical adviser s to whom all th e cr edi t of the m issionar y enter pr ise is given But the monuments A soka cl aim s all the cr ed it d o n ot support thi s vi ew I nasmuch as he must hav e been an for hi m self exceptionally able man to hav e succeeded in gover ning with distinction a v ast empir e throughout a long r eign i t is n ot probable that he was ev er the sl av e o f the p r i ests an d he is fair ly enti tled to the c r edi t o f the measur es taken in h is name Withi n h is own dominionsA soka prov ided for the comfort of man an d beast by the plantation of shade giving an d fr u it bear ing tr ees the digging of wells an d the er ect ion o f r est h ouses an d water ing pl aces at con v en ient inter vals along the hi gh r oads H e devoted sp ec ial attention to the culti vation an d di ssem in ation Of medic in al he r bs an d r oots both w ith in h is own on e

of

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H I S H IS TOR

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23 ,

dominions an d in the territor ies of friendly in d epen dent sov er eign s I n the thi r teenth ye ar of the r eign as a special mean s for the inculcation of the r oyal teaching all local gov er nors were or der ed to hold assemblies in which the Law of Piety should be pr eached expounded an d discussed Th e officials of subor dinate rank we r e bound to attend these assemblies to receive instruction from their superiors an d wer e war ned that this duty must n ot be allowed to inter fer e with the dischar ge I n most pl aces these o f or d in ary Offic ial busi ness assembli es were to be conv oked qui nquennially but the Vicer oys stationed at Taxila in the Panj fib an d at Ujj ain in Central I ndia wer e required to hold such assembl i es once ev ery thr ee year s Th e experi ence of another ye ar con v inced the ki ng that mor e elaborate official or ganization was n eces sary in order to give full effect to h is in struction s H e ther efor e ap pointed special Officers whose ti tle r ma mahd mdtr a) may be r endered as Censo rs of d h a ( the Law of Piety to super v ise the execution of his pr ecepts These Oflicer s wer e instructed to devote themselves to the establishment an d further ance Of piety n ot only among the king s faithful lieges but They am ong the sem i independent bor der tribes ,

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d

Rock E i ct II ; Pi ar E ict V II Th e wor ch ikisalca n r m r a i t a s a t e e e s ki i e b M Sen ar t G r n r s h i c c h a c , ( ) ’ Buh er ad Opts th e O er i n ter r et ati on an d tr an s ates h os ita s It i s ifficu t to eci e wh i ch is r igh t 1

l

d

l k Edi

Roc

ld d d

ct

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l d p

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p l

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d (Kali

II I ; Detach e

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n ga

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Rock E i cts

.

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2

4

A S OK A

wer e in gener al ter ms dir ected to use th eir best endeav our s to secur e the welfar e an d happiness of all cl asses of the populati on an d we r e spec ially orde r ed oor an d aged to to watch ov er the inter ests of the p pr event the infliction Of wrongful imprisonment or cor por al punishment an d to gran t r emissions Of sentence in case s wher e the c r im in al was ad vanced in year s burdened w ith a l ar ge fam ily or over whelmed by sudden cal amity Th e censor s wer e fur ther enj oined to superintend both at the capital an d i n the prov i ncial to wn s the female establishments of the k ing s br others an d sisters an d o f all other member s Of the r oyal family ; an d also to exer cise a gener al contr ol ov e r all person s de voted to p iou s wor ks an d almsgivi ng L ater i n the r eign a Royal A lmoner s depar tment adm inister ed by the censors an d othe r high Officials was or gan ized an d char ged wi th the distribution Of the gifts made by the sov e r eign an d hi s queens A shor t special edict known as the Q ueen s Edi ct , addr essed to official s Of the A lmoner s dep ar tment h as 1 been pr eser ved Th e edi cts fur nish se ver al summ ar i es Of the dhar ma or Law of Pi ety on the e stabl ishment an d propaga tion Of which the king h ad set h is hear t By combining these summaries the leading pr ovisions of that Law may be stated as foll ows A ll men ar e r egar ded by the so ver eign as his ch ildren owing h im filial Obedience an d entitled to Rock Edi cts V X II ; Pilla Edi ct V II ; Quee Ed i t ,

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H I S H I S TOR

Y

5

ceive from h im a par ent s car e Every man is bound to cultiv ate the virtues of self contr ol pur ity of m ind r atitude an d fidel ity r h and On the the o g he should abstain from the v ices Of rage cruelty an ge r pride an d jealousy H e should constantly practise self exam ination an d be str ictly truthful Gr eat str ess is laid on the imper ativ e duty of r e spectin g the sanctity of all anim al li fe an d of tr eat in g all l i vin g cr eatur es with k indness Obedi ence to father an d m other is declar ed to be essential ; the aged ar e to r ecei v e due r ev er ence from the young an d the teacher from h is pupil Relatives ascetics an d Br ahmans ar e to be tr eated with decor um ; ser v ants an d e v en slav e s w ith kindness Li ber ality must be shown to fr iends acqu aintances r el ativ es ascetics an d Brahman s All sects an d cr eeds ar e in fundamental agreement about e ssential s an d all al ike aim at the attainment of puri ty Of mind an d self control ther e fore h e wh o follows the path mar ked ou t by the Law Of Pi ety mu st abstain fro m speaking aught evil 1 con cer n ing hi s neighbour s faith S mma i e of th e Law of Pi ety a e gi e i Rock Edi t I II IV V II IX XI X I II ; M i o Rock Edi t NO 2 Of Siddap a Pill a Edict I II a d VI I C mpa e th e Ch i e e d oct i e of dati o of h ia o fil ial r e e e ce wh i h i t eated a th e fo Th e Sa ed Edi t e mo ofi i ally i all vi t e ed by th e of th e p e e t dy asty i th e ea e t eco d a d th i d emp e o pa allel t th e A ka Edi ct Th e Sa ed Edi t wa well W illi am M il e t a lated by th e Re de t h e title of Th e Sa ed Edi ct co tai i g i tee ma i m of th e empe Ka g h e ampli fied by h i o th e emp e o Yoo g hi g ( Lo d on ’

re

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r

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s

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n

c

r

o

s

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n n

n

s s n,

sx

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n

s

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x

n

r

r n

un

n

un

s

,

r

n

s

s

c

r

s

r

n

ssu

cr

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c s

ur

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c

s n

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v

n

ns

r

n

s

s

so

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r

s r

rs

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r

o

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cr

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ns

cr

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v n

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n

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n

,

26

A S OKA

Supplementar y instr uctions

ddr essed to the royal Officers in their Offici al capaci ty point ou t th at the ideal Official should be fr ee fr o m envy harshn ess an d i mp atience Perseverance an d the fir m deter mination to r esist all temptations to indolence or discour age ment ar e the root of success in the per for mance of ofli cial duty Ofli cer s ar e war ned that they cannot hope for the favour either Of heaven or of their sov er eign i f they fai l to c omply fully with h is com mands an d the Officials in the conquer ed pr ovince of Kalinga ar e censur ed for a par tial failur e in th e execution of the duties laid upon them I n a passage of the True Conquest Edict alr eady quoted A soka declar es h is unwillingness to proc eed to extr em ities against the wild jungle folk wh o at many points dwelt on the bor ders Of h is settled pro vinces Such folk abou nded on the bor der s of Kal inga as they d o to this d ay an d a v er y in ter estin g edi ct dating fr om the four teenth year spec ially addr e ssed to the gov er nor an d m agistr ates o f that p r ovince gives an d publ ished in i t only particular instr uction s concer ni ng the pr inciples on which the wild tr ibes should be tr eated Th e king r eite r ates h is decl ar ation th at all men even wild jungle tr ibes ar e h is childr en an d insists that hi s v e effect to h is v i ews T Office r s mu st i hey ar e g instr ucted that it is H is M aj esty s will an d immutable r esol v e that e ver y effor t must be m ade to in spir e the bor der tr i bes wi th confidence an d to per suade them Deta h ed Ro k Edi t Pi lla Edi t I IV ’

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H I S H I S TOR Y

27

th at the king desir es them to r eceive at h is h ands happiness an d n ot so rro w I f they wi ll but trust in the royal sincerity they may r eliev e their m inds Th e Ofli cials Of all di squi etude an d abi de in pe ace ar e further enj oined to persuade the tr ibes th at th e best way to secur e the sov er eign s good wi ll an d to assure their own welfare both in thi s w or ld an d in the next is to faithfully practise the Law of Piety 1 which his or ders commend to them I f A soka h ad the h appiness to fin d m any frontier O fficer s wh o wer e c ompetent to fully act up to th e pr inciples thus enun ciated he was indeed a fortun ate unfortun ately whi le the admirable sov er eign ; but instr uctions h av e sur vi v ed little is known concer ning their pr actical oper ation S ev eral edicts r ecord the succe ssiv e steps taken by the king to giv e e ffect to the pr inciple of the sanctity of an im al li fe which was on e O f h is car d in al doctrines In the first eight years of h is r eign he was n ot tr oubled wi th an y scruples on the subject an d vast multitudes of anim als wer e each d ay slaughter ed for the supply of the royal kitchen s Fr om the ninth to the thi rteenth year of the r eign two peacocks an d on e deer wer e as a rule killed daily for the king s table but from the latter year when the edicts of the Law Of Pi ety we r e first issued an d the r eli gious assembl i es wer e instituted ev en this modest supply was stopped an d n o li ving cr eatu r e was c ompelled to surrender its l ife in or der to gr atify the r oyal appetite Detach ed Rock Edi ct o alled No I I .

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A S OK A

the eleventh year of h is r eign when Asoka to u se h i s own phr ase enter ed on the path of true know ledge he gave up the pleasur es Of the chase an d sub sti tuted for hunting par ti es p ious to ur s or pilgr images devoted to almsgiving pr eaching an d ethical discus I n the thir teenth year o f the r eign in addition sion to the sto ppage of slaughter for the supply of the r oyal table slaughter of animals for sacr ifice was prohibited Th e king d id n ot app ar ently attempt at the c api tal to p r ohibit anim al sacr i fices thr oughout h is dominions knowin g that such a prohibition could n ot be en forced At the capital holiday feasts whi ch or dinarily in vol v ed the de struction Of an im al l ife wer e also pr o h ibited I n the twenty se v enth ye ar of the r eign A soka felt him self stron g enough to fur ther protect the sanctity Of animal l ife by an elaborate code Of detailed regulation s bindi ng on all classes of the population without distinction of cr eed social customs or r eligious feeling A lon g list was published Of animals the slaughter Of which was ab solutely p r ohibi ted an d th is absolute pr ohibition was extended to all four footed animal s of which the carcasses ar e n ot eaten or otherwi se utilized by man Thi s r egulation lar gely inter fered wi th the an d i ts ter m s w ould seem to spo rtsman s liber ty denounce the killing Of a tiger or a lion as being unlawful Th e r emain ing rules wer e dir ected to the imposition of r estr i ctions on the sl aughter of ani mals per mitted to be killed an d to the prohibition or miti i n of differ ent ki nds of mutil ation a t o g In

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On fifty six specified days in the year fish m ight n ot be either caught or sold an d on the same days e ven in game preserv es animals m ight n ot be destr oyed On all festival days an d many other specified days aggregati ng about a quar ter Of the year t h e castration Of bulls an d other quadrupeds was prohibited Th e capon in g of cocks was absolutely pr ohi bi ted at all times Du rin g five par ti cular for tnights the br anding Of h orses an d cattle was declar ed unl awful Th e en forcement Of these mi nute r egulations must have given 1 plenty of employment to the censors an d magistr ates Mon kish legend mendacious in this par ticu lar as i n so many others asserts that Asoka abolished the pun ishment Of death H is legislation pr oves that the idea Of such abolition never enter ed h is thoughts H is language implies that he r egar ded the death penalty as an unavoidable necessity which might be made less horrible than it h ad been but could n ot be done away w ith A soka whil e rec ognizi ng the necessity for ar ming the magistr ates wi th power to inflict th e extr eme penalty Of the law exercised his royal p r erogati v e of pardon an d on each anni v er sar y of hi s so lemn cor onation l iber ated all con d emn ed prisoners I n the twenty se venth year of the reign a rule was introduced that e ver y prisoner condemned to death should invar iably be gr anted a respi te of thr ee days befor e execution i n w hi ch to prepar e himself for the next wor ld Ro k Edi ct I VI II ; Pi lla Edi t V V II Pi lla Ed i ct IV -

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A S OK A

0

3

Asoka

ttached the greatest importance to the utmost possible pr omptitude in the admini stration of justice an d to the r eadin ess Of the sovereign to hear complaints at all times an d at all places H is vi ews would still meet with gener al approval fr om the natives of I ndi a wh o prize v er y hi ghly r eadi ness of access to their rulers an d set n o value whate ver up o n r egul arity of p r oced ur e Asoka announced to h is people that he was ready at an y place an d at an y hour of the d ay or night to receive an d redr ess complaints No mor e popular announcement could be made by an I ndian so vereign although to the Wester n mi nd it seems unpr acti cal an d unbusiness like When Asoka adds to thi s an nouncement the emphatic declar ation I am n ever sati sfi ed with th e adequ acy of my e er ti s or t h e p r omp titu d e of my d ecisi on Of cases W o k I m st fo th e p b l i c ben efit a d th e Obj ect Of all my ex r tion i s simply to acqu it my deb t to li vi n g b ein gs so th at I may make some of th em h appy i n this wor l d an d th at h er eafter th ey may att ain h eave — h e i s entitled to be bel ie v ed 1 Th e immense tr ouble which he took to pr omulgate an d pr opagate h is teachin g pr oves both h is sinceri ty an d h is habits of industr y Th e vigor ous impulse whi ch hi s power ful patr onage undoubtedl y gave to Buddhism demon str ate s that hi s effor ts wer e n ot in vai n an d that h is missionary zeal although it must have encounter ed many obstacles an d su ffered many di sappointments Ro ck Edi ct VI a

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H I S H I S TOR

Y

1 3

was

justified by success in the propagand a so ener l e i r ked t c a l w o g y Asoka placed great reliance upon h is personal example as a power ful influence in th e conversion Of h i s people an d his neighbours tohis way Of thi nki ng H e h ad n o hesi tation in r ecor ding mor e than once the belief that he h ad done m any good deeds an d was per suaded that the good deeds of the sover eign wer e readily imi tated by loyal subjects Wh atsoever mer itor i ous deeds I h ave don e h e Obser ves th ose deed s th e p eopl e h ave cop ied an d imi tate d ; wh ence foll ows th e con sequ en ce th at g owt h is n ow taki n g pl ace an d wi ll fu r th er in cr ease i n t h e vir tues of Ob e d i en ce to fath er an d moth er obe die ce to teach er s r eve e ce t o t h e aged an d kin dly tr eatme t of B ah man s a d ascetics of th e p oor an d wr etch ed yea ev of sl aves a d s r va ts No doubt the person al example of the sover eign suppor te d by all the efforts o f a highl y or gan iz ed bur eaucracy an d a rich an d zeal ous cler gy must hav e been a poten t factor in securing popular adherence to the r oyal views Th e Bhabra Edi ct stands alone in its outspoken avowal of Asoka s de votion to Buddhism Th e other edicts ar e concer ned with pr actical mor al s only an d ar e so dr afted th at thei r teachi ng m ight be accepted by the members Of an y I ndi an sect Th e Bhabra document is addr essed to the Buddhi st cler gy ex elusi v ely an d was recor ded at a m onaster y situated I t was probably n ot on the top Of a remo te hill Pillar Edict I I V I I Rock Edi ct V .

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A S OK A

2 3

mmun icated to the general public an d th e existence Of this pecul iar composi tion must n ot be taken as e vidence that Asoka forced the distinctiv e doctr ines of Buddhi sm down the thr oats Of an unwill in g p eople H e seems rather to hav e confin ed his official pr opa ganda to th e inculcation of practical mor ali ty an d t o hav e car ed little whether or n ot h is pupils for mal ly 1 j oined the Buddhist church Asoka looked back with satisfaction on th e legis lation which pr escribed minute r egulation s for the conser vation Of ani mal life an d the mitigation of su ffer in g an d on m any other pious or dinances of whi ch he was the author but candi dl y admi ts that such ordi nances ar e in themsel v e s of small account an d that the growth Of li ving piety must ultimately depend n ot on external r egulations but on the inwar d conviction wrought in the minds of men by medita 2 tion on mor al truth I n the same spir it he tr eats with scor n the many corrupt an d wor thless cer emoni es commonly per for med by the womenkind an d extols co

,

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,

h pt M S a t i p h h t t a t t t h a s e gg M agadh a l gy p bab ly m a th B ddh i t l gy M a i h h a d a b d d a f a i d f B dd Fi a hi t h a m t e g g g pa ag it d i th di t a f m th B ddhi t t f th ipt ha h b id tifi d i th Nikay R y i d D a ( Di l g p iii ; J l f th Pd li T t f th B d d h S i ty 89 6 ; J B A S it f th 1 89 8 p A t th i pt i i C i gh am R p t ii 4 ip 8 a d C p I t o m I di m i 24 Th id i di t wa th at th add d t th C il f Patalip t a i f th at C il wa h ld S K M B dd h i m p 1 l f I di Pill a Edi t VII I

acce

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n c er

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H I S H I S TOR

Y



33

the on ly tr ue cer emon ial a life Of piety which even i f i t sh ou ld fail to secur e temporal advantages will certainly ensur e a har vest of in fin ite meri t to be 1 r eaped in the world to come Th e eighth Rock Ed i ct as h as been alr eady Ow er ved r ecord s th e in sti tu ti on in th e elev enth year of the r ei gn of r o al pro resses or to ur s dev oted to pious y g pur poses in lieu Of the hu nting par ti es whi ch h ad as

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,

,

nj oyed by Asoka in his unr egener ate days must have been con ducted in th e same way as those of his grand fath er whi ch ar e descri bed by M egasth en es as follows A n oth er pur pose for wh ich h e [th e kin g] leaves h is e ifi e O fi s i a a ce i s t o r a c c a t h i r r l f d o t h c h o e s t o t o a s e p g wh ich h e d epar t s in Bacch an alian fash i on Cr owds of women sur r oun d h im an d o tsi de of th i ci cl sp ear m n ar e r an ged Th e r oad is ma ke d OE wi th r opes a d it i s d eath for men an d women al ike t o p ass with i th e r op es Th e ki g M en with d r ums an d gon gs l ead th e p r ocessi on h un t s in th e en cl osu r es an d sh oots ar r ows fr om a pl at for m I f h e h n ts A t h is si de stan d t wo or th r ee ar med women i n th e op en gr ou n d s h e sh oots fr om th e b ack of a el ep h an t e

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Of th e women ,

me

ar e

so

in

me

on

so

r

n ts, an d

on e e

e

n

y

h or ses,

an d

pp d with w ap o i m i a a c p o a of eve y ki d as i f th y w g g g Th e employment of an A mazonian gu ar d composed m en is kn own to hav e been a r egul ar of foreign w institution Of the ki ngs Of an ci ent I ndi a For the pleasur es of the chase as described abov e R k Edi t IX St ab i M C i d l A i t I d i p 7 2 me even

so

l ph a

ch ar i ots,

.

th e ar e equ i n

er e

e

e

ns

n

on

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,

1

1

oc r

c

o,

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r n

e,

C

nc en

n

a,

.

.

34

A S OKA

those Of pious to ur s seem to be rather an inadequate They ar e de scr ibed in the eighth Ro ck substitute Edi ct as consisting Of v isits an d almsgivi ng to Br ahmans an d ascetics visits to elder s inspection of the country an d people pr eaching an d discussion I n these Of the Law Of Pi ety an d l ar gess o f gold l atter days the king r emar ks thi s is th e kind of pleasur e whi ch he enj oys S uch a pious tour was undertaken by A soka i n the twenty fir st year Of his r eign Following probably the route taken by the Buddha when on the wa i de th the k ng star ted from h is hi t o s a y capi tal PAtalipu tr a crossed the G anges an d enter ed the Vaisali ter r ito ry of the Lich ch h avi tr ibe n ow known as the M uzaflar pu r an d Ch ampar an districts H is line of march is m ar ked by the r uin s Of Vaisa li i B hi i a o i a r wh ch nclude the B k r l n p ll by a s fi i a r) ( the stupa of Kesariya an d the lion pillars of Laur iy fi H A r ar a ar h m d e ur y nd ng a then a n L a i N a a a j y either have kept to the east p assing Rempur wa wher e another lion pillar lies an d hav e then cr ossed the passes over the hills to K u sl n agar a the scene Of G autama Buddha s death or he may hav e tur ned westwar d cr ossed the Gandak r iver an d proceeded dir ect thr ough the Tar ai to the Lumbini G ar den the r eputed scene o f the bi r th of G autam a Buddh a At the sacr ed gar den he er ected a pillar sur m ounted by the figure of a hor se an d r ecor ded upon it in beautifully i ncised char acter s as pe r fect to d ay as they wer e when first engr aved the br ief recor d .

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-

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-

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H I S H I S TOR

Y

35

j sty

h is

r ei gn ,

h or se

e

y

.

was

h er e

y

w n e a r h i e t fi r s t o f K i n P i d a i n t e t a s , , g y Because h avi n g come in per son , di d r ever en ce

H is M a

-

b or n

made

b le

Bu

an d

ddh a

,

set u p a st on e

On e was

V en er a

made r even u e

-

th e Sii kya

b or n an d

fr ee,

,

th e

h as

vi

i p

lla

ll age

r

a ston e

Becau se h er e th e

.

of

p a tak r

h e h ad

sage,

en of

Lu mmin i h as ’

th e kin g s

been

boun ty



.

ki ng then passed on some mi les fur ther west an d di d re v erenc e to the stupa of K an ak amun i or Kon akAman a on e of the Buddh as wh o pr eceded Gautama H ere the king set up another pillar an d recorded his visit adding the inter esting r emar k that he h ad alr eady in the fift eenth year of his reign for the second time enlar ged the stupa There can be little doubt that the tour was continued into Nepal as far as L ali ta Patan an d Kathm a ndu an d again towar ds the west until the r oyal pilgr im reached S r fivasti where the ri v er Rapti emer ges from th e hills an d that h e ther e did rever ence to the sacr ed spots where G autama so l ong dwelt an d preached But the gr eat pillars each seventy feet hi gh whi ch h e er ected at Sr ai v asti though r umoured still to exist remain to be di scov ered an d at pr esent the course of the pilgr image can be v er ified at two points only Th e memory of this pilgri mage was pr ese r v ed by tradition an d the story of it is to ld in the Sanskr it rom ance called the A sokd vad d n a A lthough th e chronology of the roman ce which places Asoka only a centur y after the death of Buddha is m ani festly erroneous an d n o r eliance can be placed upon th e details related th e inscr iptions in the Tar ai pr ove Th e

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C 2

A S OK A

6 3

that the legend h ad a foun dation in fact A ccor ding to th e sto ry which will be found in a later chap ter the king under the guidance of a saint named U pagupta vi si ted in succession the Lumbini G ar den K apilav astu the Bodhi tr ee at Buddha G aya Rishi patana or Shmfith near Benares K usin agar a the Jetavan a monastery at Sr fivasti the std pa of V akkula an d the std pa of An anda giving great l ar gess at ever y place except the stupa of Vakkula where the king gav e only a sin gle copper coin because Saint V ak ku la h ad h ad few obstacles to surmount an d h ad 1 con sequently done little good to h is fell ow creatures Th e r eason giv en for r efusing lar gess at the sti lpu gh legendar y is in accor dance with of Vakku la althou A soka s character as rev ealed by h is wr itings No student o f the edicts can fail to be struck by the pur ely human an d se v er ely pr actical natur e of the teaching Th e object aimed at is the happi ness of li ving cr eatur es man an d beast Th e teacher assum es an d categor i cally asser ts that fili al pi ety an d the other vi r tues comm ended open the path to happiness her e an d her eafter but n o attempt is made to prov e an y p r o position by r easoni ng No foundation either .

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1

Th e si te of Kusi n agar a i s sti

th at it

wor k

li

es

ld

en ti t e

K ufan agar a (A see

.

.

For th e

e on

The Remai ns

ll

b d

ah a a

l

,

wn

un kn o

th e fir st n ear

r an

.

f e O g

K asia, th e

As t o th e

y

I

p

m con vin ced h ills See my a

.

r epu ted

ositi on

of

site of

Sr fivasti ,

Ju y , 1 89 8, an d Jan u ar , 1 9 00 ’ A sokd vad d n a, see Bur n ou f, I n tr od ucti on a l H istoi r e

J R A S .

plby d

i n Ne a

ll

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,

.

d u Bou d d h isme, an d Raj en d r alfila M it r a s S an skr i t Nepal ese L i ter atu r e ’

.

H I S H I S TOR

Y

37

theology or of metaphysics is laid an d the ethi cal pr ecepts inculcated ar e set forth for pur ely pr actical pur poses as being self evidently true Men ar e ex h or ted to wor k ou t their own salv ation of

,

.

.

W h atsoever

made

,

th at

ex er

ti on s H is M

made with a on e may b e fr eed

all ar e

ever

Difi cu lt ,

y

ver

i

ly

,

it is to

j y Ki

a est

w

vi e

ng

to th e

Pr iyad ar si n h as

lif

h er eafter ,

e

so

p i l wh ich p il i sin dom wh th a ma h f b y th tm t r ti sa p i ally d ifi c lt it i f r th

fr om

er

att ai n su c

s

er

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r ee

e

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n

dg mpl t self d i al b t a d ma of h igh d g ee ( T th R k Ed i t) Thi s passage suggests as d o se ver al other pas sages familiar Biblical texts but the spir it of the Bible is to tally di ffer ent fr om that of A soka s teachin g Th e Bi ble whether in the Old Testa ment or the New insists upon the r elation of man with God an d upon man s dependence on the gr ace A soka in accor dance with the teaching of of G od h is master ignores wi thout denying the existence of a sup r eme deity an d i nsists th at man should by his own exer tions fr ee himself fr om sin an d by his own vir tue win h app in ess her e an d her eafter Th e exact natur e of A soka s beli ef concer ni ng Fr equent a futur e l i fe is n ot easily ascer tained r efer ence is m ade to the l ife her eafter ; heav en held a n Obj ect of desir e an d in on e i u t a s o s w a r a g ) ( passage the appr oval of heav en is r efer r ed to When the passages of the Buddh ist scriptur es mentioned in the Bhabr a Edict as A soka s favou r ite texts shall hav e been published an d tr anslated it may be possible be

low

of

n

co

or

of

e e

h igh en

-

e u

es ec

u

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e r

n

ve

e r ee,

s

u

oc

en

ex e

os

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o

on

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8 3

A S OKA

deter mine with mor e accur acy the kin g s attitude towards the great pr oblems of existence A t pr esent only on e of these p assages that entitled Fear s of the Futur e is accessible in English This passage enume r ates the physical danger s to whi ch r ecluses ar e exposed such as disease attacks of wild beasts &c an d r ec ommends the use of r enewed an d timely efforts to aver t such per ils Ten mor al dangers ar e then enumer ated of which th e pr i ncipal ar e cor r up tions in doctr i ne an d di scipline an incli nation to appr e ciate the liter ar y beauty of the scr i ptur es r ather than their intr insic worth laziness luxur y an d a taste for p r omi scuous company A gai nst these per i ls th e recluse is war ned to be sedul ously on h is guar d an d 1 to see that they ar e ave r ted in good time Of cour se like all H indoos he must hav e believ ed in the doctr ine of r ebirth in some Of its for m s an d the heav en at which he aimed would have been to his mind but on e stage in the long cycle of existences Th e inten se feeling for the sanctity of l ife whi ch is char acter isti c both of Asoka s Buddhism an d of Jainism is closely connected with the doctr i ne Of r ebi rth which binds together in on e chain all l iving cr eatur es whether angels or demons men or ’

to

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One of the m ost noticeable featur es in the teaching of A soka i s the enlightened r eli gious tole r ation which i s so fr equently an d emphatically r ecommended While applauding an d admir i ng with justice the al f Pali T t S i ty 1 896 p 9 6 Jo .

1

ur n

o

ex

oc e

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.

.

H I S H I S TOR

Y

39

xtraordinary br eadth an d liberality of Asoka s senti ments we should remember that in h is days n o r eally diver se r eligions existed in I ndia Th e cr eeds of Jesus Muhamm ad an d Z or oaster wer e then unknown Th e only or ganized r eli gion was H indooism an d that complex phenomenon is mor e accur ately descr ibed as a soc ial sy stem than by the name eithe r of r eligion or creed Th e H in doos then as n ow enj oyed the pr i vilege of absolutely free thought an d wer e at liberty then as n ow to di scuss afi r m or deny the existence of God or of the soul an d an y other pr o position in metaphysics or p sychology which can suggest i tself to specul ativ e m inds H indooism h as n ev er produced an exclusiv e dominant orthodox sect with a formula of faith to be pr ofessed or r ejected under p ai n of damn ati on A H indoo h as at all times been fr ee to beli e v e what he pleases so l ong mar r ies the pr oper as he eats the correct food woman an d so for th Buddhism an d Jainism ar e — both in their or igin mer ely sects of H indooism or rather schools of philosophy founded by H indoo r e formers— which in course of time gather ed an accr etion of mythology round the or i ginal specul ativ e nucleus When A soka speaks of the toler ation of other men s cr eeds he is n ot thin king of exclusiv e aggressiv e mili tant r eligions like I slam an d Chr istianity but of H indoo sects all connected by m any bonds of common Th e Buddhi st Su ttas; an d the tr eatise o f sentiment I tsing on Religious Pr actices endeav our to expl ain the differ ences between var ious schools but these ar e ’

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A S OK A

ubtle an d often seemingly so tr ivial that a Wester n mind does n ot readily grasp them A so ka was therefor e in a position whi ch enabled hi m to r ealize the i dea that all I ndi an sects funda mentally agreed in essentials all of them alike aimin g at self control an d puri ty of li fe ; an d he felt fully justified in doing honour in var ious ways to Jain s an d B r ahmani cal H indoos as well as to Buddhists Whi le lav ishi ng h is tr easure chi efly on Buddhist shr i n es an d monaster i es he d id n ot hesi tate to spend lar ge sums in hewing out of har d gr ani te spacious cav e dwellin gs for the Brahmani cal Aj i vika ascetics an d there can be n o do ubt although p r oo fs in the shape of monuments ar e n ot at p r e sent known that the Jains too shared in hi s bounty H is censors were as we have seen equally concer ned with Bud dhists Jains an d Br ahman ists S imilar toler ation was pr actised by later p r i nces Kh ar avela of Or issa for instance av ows him self in language almost iden tical with that of A soka to be a per son wh o di d 1 r e v er ence to the cr eeds of all sects But n otwith standi ng o r per hap s in c onsequence o f h is toler ant disposition A soka resented the claims of the Br ahman s to be gods on ear th an d too k pr i de in the measures which he h ad adopted to humble the ar r ogance of the 2 Br ahmani cal teachers H e h as ther efor e been almost Fo th e Kh fi a ela i i pti o i gh am Co p ee C so

s

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1

i

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ci

r

27,

’ m‘ 1

r

Pl

.

x vi i, an d

Con yr és I n ter

ll

I fo

wM

o

Rock Edi ct

.

v

n scr

,

n, s

un n n

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r

u s,

Bh agvan Lal In d r aj i in Comptes Rend us d u -

n.



d Or i en ta listes, ’

.

,

Sch ar t e in ter

p

vol

.

iii ,

r etati on of

pp

.

2, 1

49

.

th e Rfipn ath M in or

H I S H I S TOR

Y

ignored

4 1

by Br ahmani cal liter ature an d is mentioned in only on e inscr iption other than hi s Own v oluminous wr itings Buddhist wr iters alone profess to giv e an account of h is r eign in whi ch so much was done for the diffusion an d exaltation of the teachin g of Gau tama Un fortunately the Buddhist accounts of hi s reign ar e so ov er laid with superstitious imbecilities an d di storted by sectar ian an d ecclesiastic al bi as that they cannot be accepted as independent author ities although usefu l as commentari es on an d supplements to the authentic mater i als for hi s hi story Th e true full personal name of the gr eat emper or would appear to have been Asoka var d h an a as given in the Puranas Th e inscr iption of Ru d r ad fiman in Guj arat dated in A D I 5 0 simply giv es h im the name o f A sok a Maurya an d refe r s to Ch andragupta Maur y a as on e of hi s pr edecessor s I n the edicts h e uses hi s name in r eligion Pr iya darsin (Pd li Piy ad asi) which means the H umane 1 When an d nev er m ake s use o f h is personal na me the edicts wer e fir st discover ed an d good texts wer e n ot avail able some schol ars felt dou bts as to the identity o f A soka an d Pr iy ad ar sin but such doubts an d the id en tl ty is absolutely ar e n ow obsolete cer tain Th e Dipavamsa the m ost ancient of the Ceylonese I t eem to me cl ea f om th e t ti mo y of th e R d ad a I di a i cl di g iptio an d th e t adi tio of N th ma i N pal a d Kash mi of th e Ch i e e a d of C ylo th at th e pe o al name was A oka o in its f lle fo m emp e o ,

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n

n scr

e

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r

n

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r s

r

n,

rs n

Asoka var d h an a

.

,

es

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s

er n

or

n

n s

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n

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r

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n,

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4

A S OK A

2

chr onicles dating probably fr om the fourth centur y A D uses the n ames As ok a an d Piy ad asi as con v ertible 1 ter ms To enumer ate the other pr oofs of the identity of A so ka an d Pr iy ad ar sin in thi s pl ace is super flu ous an d woul d be we arisome but on e item of the over whelmin g evidence may be cited Th e pillar at the Lumbini Gar den (Rummin d ei) the tr aditional birthplace of the Buddh a the inscr iption on which h as been alr eady quoted was accor ding to the Chinese pilgr im H iu en Tsian g er ected by A soka Th e in sc r i ption is as in the case of the othe r monuments r ecor ded by Piy ad asi Raa wh o was ther efor e iden j tical with A soka Nothing definite is known as to the affini ties an d social position o f the Maur ya cl an or tr ibe to whi ch Chandr agupta belonged Justin s statement that th e founder of the Maur ya dynasty was of hu mble or igin is p r obably based on statements r ecor ded by con tempor ar ies an d may be accepted Th e tr ibe or clan must ther efor e hav e r anked low in the social scale S ome Buddhist wr iter s er r oneously r epr esen t t h e 2 M au r y as as a pr incely r ace Cer tain for ms of the legend descr ibe Chandr agupta an d Asoka as d escen dants of the ear lier Sisu n ziga an d Nanda dynasties an d it is possi ble that the fir st Maury a ki ng may Old b e g editio of th e D ip ama pp 1 4 6 9 3; cti o ,

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1

en

vi . 1 , 2 , 1 2

r

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av

n

s

1 5 , 1 8, 2 3, 2

4;

vi i

m h M d d by T m dha th dy a t y f M iy a 1

M

aha va

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sa, c

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v : .

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u

or

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8,

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416 —

,

,

18; x v

.

iyd n an K atti yanan ou r an d Wij esi h a, or

m

sover eign s, en

attr i utes, su

mamed

se

-

.

d

88 ;

x vi

.

5

ns

.

mseid ta n

va

a

d

escen

da

ai r

i

n t Of

wed with i ll ustr i ou s

o

Ch an d agutta

.



H I S H I S T OR

Y

43

hav e been an illegitimate son of the last Nanda whom he dethroned but it is perhaps more pr obable that the dynasties of the Nandas an d M aur y as wer e 1 n ot co nnected by blood Th e authentic hi sto ry of A sok a closes with the twenty eighth year of his r eign when he recor ded the se venth Pillar Edict r ecapitulating the measur es taken by him for th e propagation of the Law of Piety the wor k to which he h ad de voted the greater par t of h is long reign Th e small supplementar y Pill ar Edi cts it is true seem to be somewhat later in date but they ar e n ot of an y hi stor ical importance Aso ka always r eckons h is regnal years fr om the date of hi s coronation (abhisheka) an d he was in the habit of celebrating the anniver sary of hi s cor onation by an amnesty to criminals Th e Ceylonese tr adition whi ch places a con siderable inter val between th e accession an d the coronation of As oka is the r efor e probably corr ect an d in the absence of an y e vi dence to the contrary the tr adi tion may be accepted that the cor onation took place in the fourth year after A sok a s accession to supr eme p ower Th e inscr iptions pr ov e that the reign lasted at least twenty eight years ,

,

,

,

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-

,

,

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,

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,

,

,



.

-

1

st or

d

p

pp

1 Accor in g to th e r ose A sokavad d n a ( Bur n ou f, 39 ’ Bi n d u sAr a was th e son of Nan a Cp Hin en Tsian g s a s B a n a t P u t a r t a li i d i a a ou t th e five Stu e a , p p (

y b kh i ll

Roc

suggeste

d

p

.

.

l

I t is The L ife of th e Bud d ha, 1 86 Pr of Rh s Davi s (Bu d d h ism,

,

d by

.

y

Nan da ki n g may h ave

been

me of th e contr adiction s in

so

th is cau se

.

d al o k s

.

.

p

wn

no

th e Asoka

.

as

p

.

Asoka,

lege d n

.

s

ossi

b le

,

as

th at th e an d

t h at

may be d ue

to

4 4

A S OK A

fter the cor onation Th e Ceylonese tr adition that the total len gth of the r eign fr om the accession was for ty or for ty on e years does n ot seem to be open to objection a n d ma b e p r o vi sional ly accepted y Th e inscr iptions recor d the fact that As oka h ad brothers an d sister s bu t whether or n ot he was the eldest son of Bin d usfir a does n ot appear H e nev er makes the slightest allusion to h i s ancestry H e distinguishes two r anks among hi s sons the queens son s or pr i nces an d the ki ng s sons the latte r e vi dently being hi s sons by ladi es of infer ior r ank H is second queen (d evil) had the name or title of KAr fivak an d h er son was n amed Ti vara (Tivala) or per haps Pr inces of the r oyal family probably the Titivar a kin g s sons were stationed as V icer oys or Gover nors at Taxi la in the P anj Ab Ujj ain in C entral I ndi a Tosali in Kalinga an d S u var n agir i in the Peninsula Beyond these few facts ou r authentic information 1 concer nin g the family of As ok a does n ot go FA hi en the Chin ese pilgr im in A D 4 00 gi v es Dh ar mavivar dh an a as the name of the son of As oka wh o r ul ed over Gandhar a an d must hav e been the Vicer oy at Tax ila Th e r efer ence seems to be to the per son wh o is in other for ms of the legend gener ally called Kunala concerni ng the blinding of whom a pathetic r omance is told which will be found on Th e histo r i an of Kashmi r men a subsequent p age tion s a son of A soka named Jalanka as being gov er nor Edi ct Detach ed (Kali ga) Rock Pi ll a Edi t V II ; Q ee Edicts ; Si ddap r a M i o Rock Edict

a

.

-

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,

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,

,

,

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i

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,



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,

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-

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,

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,

,

,

.

,

,

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1

r

c

u

u

n

r



n s

n

.

H I S H I S TOR

Y

45

that pr ovince an d a zealous devotee of the Brah mani cal gods Th e Vishnu Pu r fin a names Su y asas ( d l S u per sva) as the son an d successor of Asoka an d Dasar ath a as the son an d successor of Suy asas Th e name of Dasar ath a is genuine bein g confirmed by the in r u n i cav es near G ay e whi ch z i scr i pt ions in the Na g j recor d the bestowal of the cav es upon th e Aj ivikas by Dasar ath a immediately aft er hi s accession Th e ch aracter s of these i nscr i ptions ar e the same as in those of A soka an d consider ing the fact that th e Buddhist tr aditi ons affirm that the son of K unfila immedi ately succeeded h is gran dfather the probabili ty is that Dasar ath a was the i mmedi ate successor of 1 Asoka whose ben efactionsto the Aj i vikas he continued Th e C eylonese chr onicles ascr i be the conv ersion of Ceylon to the mir aculous proceedings of Mahendra P i M ahi nda) an d h is sister San ghamitr a (Sangh a dl ( mitta) the illegitimate ch ildren of A soka by a lady of V ed i sagir i the r ui ned ci ty of Besn agar near Bhil sa in Central I ndi a Th e story of the mission of M ahendra an d hi s sister although suppor ted in the chr oni cles of Ceylon by an imposing ar ray o f dates is a tissue of absur di ties an d h as been rightly r ejected as unhistor i cal by Professor Oldenber g Most wr i ter s hav e been content al a l ge d ee B la F th e K a d Raj e d ala o f M it a acco t f th e A kd dd a d H i e T i a g ( Beal Th e Da a ath a i c i pti o i 1 39 we e edited by Bii h l

of

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,

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v

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1



or

un



r

un s o

s

n

so

s r

.

I n d (

e

.

x vi ii .

A nt

.

68

.

x x

.

,

s

va

ns r

For

n oti ce

u

ur n

n a,

s

n

n

n n

n

ns

of



s

r

n

,

er

r

Jalau ka,

see

Ind

.

A nt

.

6 4

A S OK A

the mir acles an d to accept the r esiduum of S uch a method of as authentic hi story inter pr eting a legend does n ot seem tobe consistent with sound principles of histor i cal criticism Th e name of A soka s daughter San gh amitr a whi ch means friend of the Buddhi st order is extr emely su sp i ciou s an d the only safe course is to treat the whole tale as a mon ki sh legend I t will be found in the sixth chapter of this volume A soka hi mself is silent concerning the alleged mission of hi s son an d daughter I n the thir teenth Rock Edict he enumerates the for eign countr i es to whi ch he h as di spatched hi s missionaries an d includes i n the list the Chola an d Pandya kingdoms in the extreme south of I ndi a an d Ceylon I n th e second Rock Edict he mentions Ceylon as on e of the for eign coun tr ies in which he h ad dissemi nated remedi es for man an d beast These ar e the only two passages in whi ch he r efers to Ceylon I f there were any truth in the sto ry told by the monks of the isl and Asok a woul d n ot hav e been sl ow to cl aim the mer i t of h avi ng d ev oted his son an d daughter to religi on an d of having converte d the king of Ceylon Pr o fessor Oldenber g h as much justification for hi s op inion that the sto r y of Mahi nda an d S an gh ami ttfi seem s to have been '

to lop ofl th e sto ry

,

.

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,



,

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,

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.

possessi g a h i to y of th e t i t with B d d h i st instit tio s i th i sl a d a d to co th most d i st i gu i h d pe s n ceiv ab l e th gr eat A soka Th e h i stor ical l ge d i s f d of p oetically e alti g o di a y I n ven te

d

for th e u

u

e

n

n

s e

e

n

p p ur

n

ose of e

n

o

con

r

on

n

,

s

n

r

nn ec



e

x

.

n

r

n

r

H I S H I S TOR i n to

occu r r en ces assu

me th at

in

,

d al a d l m appea

r a g

n

u

th e

r

l ity

r ea

ess st r

th in gs wer e

,

i kin g

47

br illian t

an d

r e a t g

Y

man n er

we may

act ion s ;

mp lish e d

in

acco

th an

l

su ch

egen

a

mor e

ds make



.

natur alization in Ceylon of the immense mass o f Budd hist li te r atur e must necessar i ly h av e been a w or k of time an d would seem to be the frui t of a per i od of l ong an d continued intercou r se between 1 Ceylon an d the adj acent parts of I ndia H iu en Tsiang mentions on e stdpa in the Chola country an d an other in th e Dra ndya kingdom as vi da or Pa ascr ibed to A soka I n asmuch as the edi cts r ecogni ze the ind ependence of the Chola an d Pandya ter r itories these std pas if r eally constructed by Asoka can hav e been er ected only by the fr i endly co oper ation of the local kings Their existence confir ms the statement of the edi cts that missionar y wor k was extended into the extr eme south of the Peninsula whi ch was in con 1 stant communi c ation with Ceylon S till mor e signi ficant is H iu en Tsian g s testimony concer ning the an cient buildi ngs in the kingdom of M alakfita the countr y south of the Kav eri (Cauv ery ) H e r el ates that in thi s kingdom Th e

,

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-

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.



.

,

llow th

Some fo

d oct in

y

e, oth er s ar e

e n h v t o e i r e s g i n v Th e d o n ot esteem ear n i n g mu ch , b u t ar e wh o t o e g commer ci a gain Th er e ar e th e r u in s of man old con ven ts,

y

but 1

l

on

ly th

lde b

O

n

e

e

tr ue

l

r

y

.

wall s ar e

er g,

p

d

lly

.

l

ar e

few r e igi ou s

I ntr od uction to th e Vi n ayapitakaih

M ( ahacagga),

ii p 4( ) 1 H iuen Tsiang ( Bea

l

,

r eser ve

11

.

2 2 7,

,

an d

th er e

8 4

A S OKA

ll w s Th m ltit de of h fo

o

er

.

er eti cs,

u

u

er e ar e

Not far to th e

man y h un d r ed Deva temples an d a mostly belon gi n g to th e Nir gr an th as ,

.

east

ma [mon aster y]

san ghd r d/

.

of

y

pital] is a old a d cour t v ti b l dati walls o ly h b t th yo o g

h t [ e

cit

wh i ch th e

d

ca

a of Asoka r a j

n

n

u e

es

with wi ld sh r u b s ; th e foun Th is was b u i lt b y M ah en dr a,

ar e cov er e su r vi v e

th i s

of

n

on

un

e

er

r

er

-

.

To th e ar e cu

east of

b ur ied

p la o

i n th e

main s

re

th is is

a stu a p ,

lofty walls of wh i h c w in g p ar t of th

th e

c

ly th Th is was b ilt b y Asoka ear th , an d on

r o

e

u

.

This interesting

n

r aj a

-

passage pro v es that

e

the days of A soka an d for a conside r able per iod afterwar ds the country aro und Tanj or e the scene of busy commercial acti vity was also a centr e of Buddh ist religiou s li fe Mahendr a it will be Obser ved is descr ibed as being the younger br other of Asoka n ot hi s son as the Ceylonese monks state FA hien tells br i efly an d with v er y l ittle super n atural decor ati on so me anecdotes of this yo unger brother of A soka wh o found h is delight 2 A much mor e dev eloped in sol itude an d qu i et 3 for m of the stor y is giv en by H in en Tsiang wh o adds that the p r i nce was the autho r of the con v ersion Th e kingdom of S imh ala writes the of Ceyl on pilgrim ,

in

,

,

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,

,

,

,

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-

.

,

,

,

.

,



.

,

ddi ted t i mmo al l igi wo h ip th fi t h d d y a s f llowi g B ddh a d ath b t aft th yo g b th of A ka ej a M ah d a b y am h i i w i v ldly d t d w i t h i a h f t f t o g g p g Hi T i a g ( B al I d A t iii 24 h ap t Fa h i T ia g ( B al Hi 1 9 For mer

ly

un

e

n

n en -

r

o

e r

re

so

er

-

re

r

s

n

s

e

,

11 .

er x x v n

.

n

e

,

11

.

ou s

n

o

,

n

.

s

n

.

x v

e

.

,

e

n

r

our

r

r s



u

en

es r es, sou

en , c

u en

c

un

or

1

1

ro

er

u

1

a

rs

e

er

u

was

r u

1

.

e,

H I S H I S TOR A r h atshi

p

dp

H e gain e an d th e ei gh t .

wer s th e p ower o p

p

of

49

th e

of

mean s of l i ber ati on ; locomotion h e came to

in stan t

l

si x

,

su per n atur a

h avi n g

an d

th i s

y wi d ly

cou n tr

.

l d of th e t law a d diff d th b q ath d doct i e F m h is tim th h as fall th e p opl a bel i i g h ar t a d t h y h ave o c st cte d 00 t p i sts v co t ai i g some Th y p i i p ally f llow th e t a h in g of B ddh a a co d i g to th e d ha ma f th Sth avi a sch ool of th e M ah aya a sect Compar ison of the two for ms of the legend of the mir aculous con ver sion of Ceylon j ustifies the infer ence that a pr incipal agent in the conv ersion of the island was Mahendra a near r elati v e of the emperor A soka Th e conver sio n was of cour se much m ore gr adual than it is r ep r esented in either for m of the legend to hav e been an d Mahendr a cannot have been mor e than a pioneer in the work Th e monuments in Ceylon con n ected by tr adition with the n ame o f Mahendra supp ort the theo ry that a person be aring that name was really an apostle of Buddhism in the isl and an d it is certai n that the teachi ng of Gautam a h ad made con si d er able progre ss in Ceylon soon after the time of Asoka Th e existe nce in the delta of the Kav er i of a ruined monastery ascr ibed to Mahendr a the younger bro ther of Asoka is some evidence of the r eal existence o f that personage an d o f his m ission ary efforts in the Th e for m of the legend which ascr ibes so uth of I ndia the conver sion of Ceylon to the younger brother rather than to the son an d daughter of A soka h as pr obably a basis of fact He

d

ossessi on

Y

th e kn ow e ge

s r ea

u se

en

on

ue

e

e

e

n

con

1

r u

e

e

e

nc

r

r

r

e

er e

n

,

e

r e

n n

e c

e

e

e

r o

.

n

o

o

n

ev n

en s,

n

r ue

u

,

c

r

.

n

n

r

.

,

,

,

,

.

,

.

,

,

.

,

,

.

1

H iu en Tsiang, D

1 1. 2

46

.

A S OK A

0 5

Th e edicts prove conclusively that numerous mission

ries h ad been dispatched an d h ad effected exten siv e conver sion s pr e vi ous to the thir teenth year of A soka s r eign I nasmuch as the emper or j oined th e Buddhists as a lay di sciple for the first time in h is ni nth ye ar an d did n ot di spl ay much zeal until two an d a half year s later the first con sider able dispatch of missionaries must have taken place when the emperor h ad been about ele v en ye ar s crowned Ceylon h ad ther efor e been visited by missionar i es in the twelfth year of the reign befor e the issue of the second an d thi rteenth Ro ck Edi cts in the thir teenth year an d the Ceylonese annal s ar e in er r or i n dating the missi on to the island eighteen years aft er the cor onation of Asoka Th e so called Thir d Council of the Buddhist Church alleged to hav e been held at PAtalipu tr a unde r the patr onage of A soka eighteen years after h is coronation an d t wo hundr ed an d thi r ty six year s aft e r the death of Buddh a is gener ally tr eated as an undoubted fact an d as on e o f the leadi ng e vents of the r eign of As oka But the str ict hi stor ical cr iticism whi ch r ejects the sto ry of M ahi nda an d S an h ami tta along wi th the g Ceylonese chronology anter ior to B O 1 60 justifies equal scepticism concer ning the alleged Thi r d Council Th e m onks of Ceylon r elate that the Buddhi st canon was first settled at a council held at RAj agr ih a then the capital of the kingdom of M agadh a by the leadi ng disciples of the Buddha immediately after h is decease Th e S econd Council is alleged to have been held at V aisfili about a centu r y after the death of the a



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H I S H I S TOR

Y

5

1

Buddha pr imar i ly to condemn the heretical opinions cur r ent at Vaisé li and secondar ily to examine an d confir m the canon of scr ipture Th e thir d Council i s sai d to hav e been held at Petalipu tr a two hundr ed an d thi rty six years after the death of the Buddha the coronation of A soka havi ng taken place eighteen year s ear lier This Council is alleged to hav e been summoned pr im ar ily for the suppr ession of a m ul titude of pestilent her etics wh o h ad caused an inter r uption o f r eligious services for se ven year s an d the oppo rtun ity was again taken Tish y a (Tissa) to r e vise an d confir m the sac r ed canon the son of M u dgaly a (M oggali ) the Pr esident of the Council is alleged to hav e published the treatise known as the K ath fivatth u at the same time Al though the tales of the Ceyl onese monks hav e too often been accepted as genuine histor y scepticism i ncredulity concer ning the about their value an d alleged Councils ar e nothin g new Many years ago M ax M ii ller wro te ,

,

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-

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,

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,

.

d Th ydi d L i vy o Jo a d s i s si fte d by of H od t mp omi in g s pti ism w m t t th mo t pect a mor e m al s if l t eatm t fo th a f B ddh i m i i i w i d p l h ll Sch ol a a c a c a t oo e e a s t o g g g id p a tic l a ly if th at vi d acq i s i ha bee d i o d by th i ow ff t a d comes b f th m with all th h a m of ov lty B t in th e b ad d ayl igh t of h i to i al r iti ism th p estige of h a wit dwi dl s as B d d h agh sh a oo a to ki gs a d c i ls igh t away a d h i s st atem t In

our

s

un co er c

wh en r

u

n

ev

u

s

rn

e

,

re e r

r

r

u

r

n

e

n

s

su c

r

n

en s

D 2

nn

o

u

e

ex

s

.

n

re

ence

e

n

s

e or e

.

u

s

no

or s,

en ce

e

us

es

s

n ess

n

e

,

ro

,

,

r

c

r

e r

e c

e

en

en ce,

sc ver e

n

ce

ev i

con te

,

s

n

mp or an eous

th e

es,

r

r s en

u e ce

ev en

uc

o u s,

er

e

t ime,

r c

o

n

c

,

n

n

ou n c

e

s

n

c

e

e

A S OKA

2 5

hun

d ed y

ear s

r

th an th e

befor e h is ti me

st or ies

ld

to

we

th e accoun ts

or

Rome

of

A r th u r

r ead

by

y

i n Liv

of

Geofir ey of

th e

mor e M on mouth

wor th

i n tr uth

ar e

ear

no

,

ly

h istor

y

of

1

wise scepticism

Th e

of

concer ni ng the equally applicable to the

M ax M ii ller

tales of Buddh agh osh a is chr onicles kn own as the M ah fivamsa an d Dipavamsa of which the last named i s the earli er in date h aving been composed in the fourth centur y A D All the thr ee Cc n cils ar e alike unable to bear the search light of cr iticism Professor Oldenber g for reason s which need n ot be here discussed fin ds that the story of the First Council is n ot histor y but pure invention an d moreover an in vention of n o v er y ancient date Out of the story of the S econd Council he selects on e par t for acceptance an d another for r ejection that is to say he accepts as hi stor ical the account of the condemnation of the ten her etical Opinions while he r eject s the account of the re vision 1 of the can on A lthough this findin g cann ot be regar ded as wholly satisfactor y the learned Pr ofessor s ar guments may be accepted i n so far as they p r ov e the unhi storical char acter of the tale concerni ng the r evision of the canon at the alleged Council of ,

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,

V aisfili

.

Th e Thi rd

Council which is Said to have been held at PAtalipu tr a under the p atronage of Asoka Mau r ya ,

,

1

1

to

Ch ipsfr om a G er man

ld b e g

O

x x ix

en

.

r

,

Wor kshop

,

p 1 99 ayap itaka m pp

zu d cd

I ntr od u ction to the Vi n

.

,

vol

.

i,

.

-

,

.

.

x x vu

H I S H I S T OR Y

53

ccepted by the same critic as an undoubted h is tor i cal fact But if su ch a Council were r eally held it is str an ge that n o allusion to it occurs in the Edicts an d that it is i nor ed by all or alm ost all I ndian an d g ( ) Chinese tr adition Th e histor y of the alleged Council of Petalipu tr a pr actically r ests on the authority of the Ceylonese chr onicles whi ch is untr ustworthy Th e Ceylonese authori ty r equi r es exte r nal supp or t an d such suppo rt is n ot forthcomi ng Tissa the son of M oggali wh o is supposed to hav e been the p r esi dent of th e C ouncil is wholly unknown to the tr aditions of Chi na Tibet an d Nepa il whi ch substi tute for h i m as the spiritu al gui de an d confessor of Asoka Upagu pta the son of Gupta the perfumer Th e legends whi ch wi ll be found in the sixth an d sev enth chapter s of this volume ar e in som e r espects common to U pagu pta an d to Tissa son of M oggali Th e legends ad d to the confusion by m ixi ng the stor i es of the S econd an d Thir d C ouncils ; the saint Yasas for instance being mentioned as a p r ominent per sonage of both Th e r esult is that although the in scribed r eli c caskets of S i nchi demonstr ate the exi st ence of an unnamed saint the son of M oggali wh o was app r ox imately con tempor ar y wi th A soka n o r eli ance can be placed on the account of the p r oceedings o f either the S econd or the Thi r d Council Th e ela bor ately falsified chr oni cles of Ceylon hav e cer tai nly dupli cated the r eal A soka Maur ya by the inv ention of Khlfi sok a an d it is p r obable th at they have effected is

a

.

,

,

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,

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A S OK A

milar duplication of on e r eal Council But whether that Council was really held in the r eign o f A sok a Maur ya at Petali u tr a or in the r eign of p a p r edecessor per haps Chandr agupta at Vaisali cannot at pr esent be deter mined Fu rther e vidence of the utter ly un histor ical char acter of the nar r ativ es of all the thr ee alleged C ouncils is to be foun d in the fact that the thr ee narrati ves ar e all cast in on e mould an d that the pr ocedure for the verification of the canon at all the th ree assembli es is said to have be en i dentical Th e Chi nese mor eo ve r tell of a council held by K an ish ka emper or of Nor ther n I ndia in the latter part of the fir st centur y A D which is unkn own to the Ceylonese Th e tr uth pr obably is that the Buddhist canon like the New Testament gr ew by a pr ocess of gr adual accr etion an d acceptance with little if an y help fr om for m al councils in its ear li er stages Th e statement that certain commen tar i es wer e author ized by a Council in the time of K ani sh k a may well be tr ue but the ear li er councils ar e n ot entitled to a pl ace am ong the e v ents of authentic histor y Th e stories abo ut the alleged p r evalence of her esy durin g the ear lier par t of A soka s r eign which caused a suspen sion of r eligious or din ances for se v en year s an d induced the r etir eme n t of Tissa the son of M oggali for that pe r i od bear a suspicious r esemblance to the tales undoubtedl y false whi ch ascr ibe the most hor r ible cr uelties to the emper or pr ior to h is con Th e Obj ect of the ecclesiastical v er sion to Buddhism a

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mancer s was appar ently to heighten the contrast between the period when the emperor was accor ding to their vi ew or thod ox an d the per iod when he held Th e Ceylonese v er sions of the A soka othe r op in i o n s legend seem to have r eceiv ed a special colouring with the object of enh ancing the r eputation of the school favour ed by the monks of the M ah fiv ih é r a monaster y wher e both the Dipavamsa an d the M ah i vamsa wer e composed Th e list of the m issionar i es dispatched by A sok a to v arious countr i es as giv en in the twelfth chapte r of the M ahi v amsa is mor e deser ving of cr edence than most of the particular s giv en in that wor k being to a consi de r able extent cor r obor ated by the e vidence of inscr i ptions extr acted by Cunn ingham an d Maisey fr om the stupas at an d near Si nchi Th e chr onicler wh o ascr i bes the cr edi t for the dispatch of the m ission aries to the m onk T issa the son of M oggali i nstead the emper or enumer ates the missions as of to follows M ajj h an tika se n t to Kashmir an d G and har a ; Mahd deva sent to M ah isaman d ala ( Mysor e) ; Rakkh ita sent to V an avfisi (North Kanar a) ; Y on a Dh ammar ak khita sent to A par an tak a ( the coast north of B ombay ) ; M ajj hima (accompanied by Kassap a M eli kAd eva Dh u n d h abh in n ossa an d Sah asad ev a) sent to H ima l aya) ; Sona an d U ttar a sent to v anta ( the H ima Sov an abh fimi ( Pegu ) ; M ah fidh ammar akkh i ta sent to Mahar atta (West Centr al I ndia) ; M ah fir akkhita sent to the Yon a (Yavan a) r egions on the n or th weste r n

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A S OKA

6 5

fr ontier ; MahaMahi nda (accompani ed by I ttiy a U ttiy a — l a all disciples of the son of S ambala an d Bh add asa M oggali ) sent to Ceylon Th e r elics of M ajj hi ma (M adh y ama) an d Kassapa K ne fi s y apa) we r e found enshr i ned together n i o ( casket in No 2 stupa at SAn ch i an d also in another K assapa being casket at No 2 stupa of S oni r i described in the br i ef inscr iptions on the lids as the S tupa No 2 at apostle (d chd r ya ) o f the H imavan ta san ch i also contai ned r elics of the son of M oggali Th e list of missionar ies given in the Maha hi m self vamsa would ther efor e seem to be authenti c subj ect to the p r obable cor r ection that Mahi n da ( Mahendr a) should be r egar ded as the br othe r n ot as the son of 1 A soka T h e tr aditional chronol ogy of the r eign is of n o Th e appear ance of p r ecision in independent v alue the dates given by the Ceylonese chr onicler s is nothing but a deceptiv e appear ance an d n o valid r eason exists for accepting either their statement that two hundr ed an d eighteen year s el apsed between th e accession o f A soka an d the death of the Buddha or the statement that the death of the Buddha occur r ed in the year f ath of Gautama Buddha d te the de BC 54 Th a o e 3 must be deter mined on other gr ounds if deter mined Th e Chinese p ilgr ims an d the S anskr it legend at all books give another set of contr adictor y chr onological data ; Tar an ath an d the Jains supply yet other an d i gh am Bh il a Tap pp 2 7 1 M ah d ama ch ; C ,

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x 11

un n n

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es,

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H I S H I S TOR

Y

57

equally contr adi ctory statements Nothi ng can be made of these so called authoriti es whi ch ar e of u se onl y as occasionally th r owi ng a sidelight on authentic 1 evidence Th e Ceylonese dates for the accession an d con v er sion of A soka ar e adm ittedly i nconsistent as they stand with the evidence of the Edi cts an d it is contr ary to all r ul es of sound criticism to select fr om a si n gle for authori ty on e date for acceptance an d another r ejection This un cri tical cour se h as been adopted by too many wri ters on the subject wh o p ick an d choose at wi ll am ong the dates an d figur es of the M ah a v amsa an d Dipav amsa In this wor k th e Ceylonese chrono logy prior to B c 1 60 is absolutely an d completely r ejected as being n ot me r ely of doubtful author i ty but positiv ely false in its p r incipal pr opositions Th e ear li e r A soka dubbed K alasoka by the C eylone se chronicler s to distinguish hi m fr om Dh ar masoka the gr eat Maur ya emper or appear s to be a fiction Th e extreme confusion of the legends about As oka an d the existence of sever al contr adictor y tr aditional chronologies give some colour to the theor y that a histor ical basis in the shape of two Asokas should be sought to explain the contr adictions But the supposed A sok a the Fi rst r em ai ns w r apped in a cloud Th a hth accoun t h a b ee t a l ated by M i E Lyall f om V a ili f wo k o B ddh i m i I d A t i 6 I 1 t 3 i h op el e ly co f ed P of J ac ob i h a edit d th e Jai Pan é h ta p a Fo th e Nep ale e ch o ology ee I d A nt al ead y Th e Ch i e e p ilg i m h a e bee iii 41 2 otice u t e d o q .

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ar c n .

is

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n s

ns

v

n

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r

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8 5

A S OK A

fr om which he r efuses to emer ge an d cann ot be 1 v erified as a fact H istor y knows only on e A soka the son of Bin d usar a an d gr andson of Chandragupta wh o r uled I ndia for some ear s in the third centur y B c Th e r eal e vidence of the date of the histo rical A sok a is fur n ished chi efly by two author ities Justin an d the Edicts This evi dence h as n ot been an d cannot be shaken by an y amount of mon kish fiction or c ontr adi ctor y legends A lthough A soka Pr iy ad ar sin is hi mself silent as to his li neage the concur r ent testimony of Buddhi sts Jains an d H indoos suppor ted to some extent by the Ru d r ad aman inscr iption r epr esents him as being the thir d sov er eign of the Maur y a dynasty an d the gr an dson of Chan dr agupta the founder of the dynasty T his ev idence may be accepted Chandr agupta was beyond all question the contempor ar y of S ele ucus ,

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Nikator

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Justin fix the possible dates of th e accession o f Chan d ragupta w ithin v e r y n ar r ow l im its I n this wor k the ye ar B C 32 1 h as been adopted as the date because it is plain fr om the wor ds of Justin that the r evolt against the Macedonian gover nor s Th e statements of

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,

1

ma

M

y ear s

ahd oa

.

H is

s

ch

,

son

.

He

Sisu n fig a

iv :

.

Kelfisoka

d

r eign e

twen t

y

-

d

r ei gn e

eigh t

ei gh teen

,

Th us,

e a r s y

.

y l

i n th e t en th y ear of t h e r eign of Kin g KaIASoka, a cen tu r ’ Tu r n ou r er r on eou s y h ad e a se fr om th e eath of Bu h a v s i e g

lp d tw ty en

d

e r s a y

as

W ij esim h a cor r ect s th e 1 89 1 ,

for fu

ll di er

th e

l

er r or

scu ssi on

.

dd

en gth

.

See

.

of

th e

my

pap

r eign

er s in

of

Kalasoka

.

J R A S for .

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H I S H I S TOR

Y

59

the Pan ] ab occur r ed at the ear liest possible moment that is to say in the cold season following the death of Alexander at Babylon in the summer Th e emp ir e of A lexander was held to of B c 32 3 gether solely by h is personality an d the moment that the personality of A lexander disappear ed th e empir e vanished Th e r evolt headed by Chandr a gupta must ther efor e have taken place in B c 323 2 2 Th e r ecov er y of the Panj fib an d the usurpation of th e throne of M agad h a may be assumed to hav e taken plac e befor e the close of B C 32 1 which year may be r eason ably taken as that of the accession o f Chan d ra upta g Th e dur ation of twenty four year s assigned to his reign is supported by the authority of the Puranas the Dipavamsa an d the M ah fi vamsa Thi s concur r ence of Br ahm ani cal an d B u ddhist li ter ar y tr adition may be regar ded as su fli cien t pr oof of the fact alleged Th e reign of twenty fiv e years assigned by th e Puran as to Bin d usar a fits into the chr onologi cal fr amewor k better th an th e per iod of twenty eight years assigned by the M ah zi vamsa an d h as ther efor e been adop ted Th e aggr egate per i od of for ty nine year s thus allotted to the two r eigns o f Chand r agupta an d his son agr ees well with the e v idence der i v ed fr om sy n ch r on isms by whi ch the chr onology of both A sok a an d Chandr agupta is satisfactor ily deter mined with a ver y nar r ow mar gin of possible er r or We hav e alr eady seen that the date of the accession of Chandr agupta may be fixed in the year B C 32 1 , of

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A S OK A

60

because h is accession cannot hav e been v er y lon g defer r ed after the death of A lexander the Gr eat in Thi s conclusion is suppor ted by th e state B c 32 3 ment of Justin th at Chandragupta was alr eady r eigning while S eleucus was laying the foundation s of h is futur e greatness Assuming B o 32 1 as the date of the accession of Chand ragupta his gr andso n A soka should hav e ascended the thr one forty nine year s later in .

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B c 2 72 .

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thi r teenth Rock Ed ict establishes the sy n ch r on ism of A soka w ith fiv e H elleni sti c kings A ntiochus (I I ) Theos of Syr ia ; Ptolemy (I I ) Phil a delphus of Egypt ; An tigonus (II ) Gon atas of Macedonia ; Alexan der king of Epir us ; an d Magas king of Cyr ene Th e latest date at which all these ki ngs wer e aliv e together is B o 2 5 8 Th e Rock Edicts belong to th e thir teenth an d four teenth year s of the r eign of Asoka r eckoned fr om h i s cor onation which ev ent ther efor e should h av e taken pl ace about B c 2 70 Th e year B O 2 69 is p r obably near ly cor r ect an d accepting the tr adi tion that the accession of Asoka preceded h is cor onation by thr ee complete year s h is accession may be placed in B C 2 7 2 the year obtained by the abso lutely independent calculation starting fr om the acce ssion o f Ch andr agupta Th e synchr onism of Chandr agupta wi th S eleucus Nikator an d his opponent A ntigonus I killed at I psus in 30 1 B O h ar monizes accurately with the synchr onism of A sok a the gr andson of Chandr agupta with A ntio Th e

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H I S H I S TOR

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61

chus Th eos the grandson of S eleucus Nikator an d with A ntigonus G on atas the gr andson of A ntigonus I Th e tr aditional per iod of for ty nine year s for the reigns of Ch and ragupta an d Bin d usfir a fits accur ately in between the two sets of synchr onisms Th e chr onology of A soka s r eign is consequently fir mly established on the foundations l aid long ago by Sir William Jones an d James Pr in sep an d is known with accuracy sufficient for all pr actical pur poses Th e mar gin for er r or cannot exceed two year s Th e foll owing chronological table h as been con str ucted in accor dance with the ar gument abo ve stated in bri ef ,

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E 2 3 7 25 -

d

A u th or i ty

ven t.

p p

d

In ian cam aigns of Al ex an er th e Gr eat Ch an r agu ta in hi s outh met A ex an er Ph ili mu r d er e Satr a mu tino us mer cenar ies, an d r ovi n ces t em th e In ian in ch ar ge of or ar il y ace u d emus an d K in g Tax iles m hi a O ) ( on , Death of Al ex an er at Ba in M ay or Jun e r ovin ce Revo t of I n ian of Ch an u n er ea ers hi msuptw A cce ssi o n of C h an d r ag u p t a as em er or of In ia Ba y on assign e to Se eu cu s l ator in secon ivisi on of ’ A ex an er s em ir e at Tr i a r ad eisos .

d y l d p p d by d p pl d p d byl l d p d l d p d

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y

Defeat of th e Roman s b th e Samn ites at th e Cau in e For ks Death of Eu men es, for mer secr etar to A ex an er Se eucus compe e

d

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1 1 6 3 5 -

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l d l ll d o t t t g f Baby ] Re e y le f S l e ida E tab li h m t e a ( 1 t O t be ) E te i by S l f hi w a twa d a d i to pdia wh h i h k d by Ch a d ag pta Sel m ti tl f Ki g a S l t Ch a d f th I dia p o ag pta i wi th a l a g p a t of .

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M ission of M egasth en es Coal iti on of Se eu cu s, Ptol an d L simach us against tigon u s Defeat an d eath of Anti gon us at th e att e of I su s A ccessi on o f Bi n d u sAr a A mi .

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In ia M issi on o f Deimach us sent Se eu cus Fin a su u gati on of th e Sam n ites th e Ro man s Accessi on of Pto em Phi n g of Eg t Seleu cu s N ki n g of Sy n a Accessi on of An ti och us Soter , h is son Accession ofAn tigon u sGon atas, ki n g of M ace onia, gr an son of An tigon us I .

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H I S H I S TOR

Y

63

E

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ven t.

Pyr r h u s ex th e

p ll d f m Ital y by R ma i f Al e a de ki g f e

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64

A S OKA

p l

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Asoka u b i sh e th e com ser ies of th e Fou r teen E icts, an d th e ’ Bor er er s E i ct (No

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47

6 4

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H (Th ), kmg 0f Syu a, an d gr an n of Se eu cu s Nikator Re vo t of Di od otu s ( Th eod ot os), an d se ar ati on Of Bactr i an ki n om fr om S r ia ( Oth er an t or i ti es give B O 2 5 0 as t h e d at e )

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Asoka com ose Pi ar Ed i ct VI Pub i cati on b Asoka of th e Seven Pi lar E icts

l

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l ll

Pil ar E VI Pi ar E VI I .

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H I S H I S TOR

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6s

m e ( so

i v e g

l

2 39

as

th e

C ose of Fir st Pun i c War Ri se of th e ki n g om of Per

d

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blish ed th e Sup

A wessi on

Dedi cation caves

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of

D asar ath a of th e Ni ger j un i

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C H A P TER II EXT ENT

A ND

A DM I NI S TRA TI ON

or

TRE

EM PI RE

TH E limits of

the v ast empir e governed successfully by A soka for so many years can be fixed with su fli cient accuracy by means of the statements of the Gr eek an d Latin author s the inter nal evidence of the edi cts an d the d istr ibution of the monuments sup 1 l m i e e r i n t e d b y t d t n a o p Th e I ndi an conque sts of A lexander extended to the ri ver H yph asis the moder n Bifis in the eastern Panj Ab These wer e all ceded by S eleucus Nikator to Chandragupta an d S tr abo infor ms us that the cession included a lar ge par t of A r isi n é Thi s state ment may r eas onably be inter pr eted as implying that the limits of the I ndian Empir e were deter mined by the natur al fr ontier of the moun tain range known by the names of Par opani sus Indi an Caucasus or H indoo Koosh an d included the provinces of A r ach osia M r n A fghani stan an d G ed r osia ek r an Th e W te es ( ) ( ) cities of K Abu l Ghazni Kandah ar an d H erdt n ow Th e t e timo y f th e G eek a d Lati a th o s i coll ected M C i d le e ell t b ook A i t I d i a te t ally i M ,

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r n

n

s

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,

x c

n

en

u

s,

r

s

nc en

n

a

s

d escr ibed by M egasthen es and A r r ian (Tr fibn er , 1 87 7 ) an d The I n vasion of I n d ia by A lex an d er the Gr eat, as d escr ibed by A r r i an , s i d r u r i D u t a h P l n r t us o o a i n d c J u s t n C o e C u s t a 1 , , , , Q ( .

bl

A DM I NI S TR A TI ON OF TH E EiI PI RE

67

under the rule of the A mi r of A fghanistan were ther efor e all comprised within the terri tories inh erited by Asoka fr om his gr andfather I n the time of A lexander the kin gdom of M agad h a th e mode r n Bi har the capital of whi ch was fir st a h r i a R n D fi i r i a i the G y a tr i ct n a d u s s b s e t g ( jg ) quently PAtali putr a ( Patna an d Bankipor e) was the premier kingdom of Indi a an d the last Nanda (vari ously called Nan d r us A r ammes an d X an d r ames g ) was sover eign bath of the Pr asu of Bihfir an d of the G an gar id ae of Bengal Chandr agupta aft er his successfu l camp aign in the Panj Ab an d hi s usu rp ation of the Nanda s throne made hi mself master of I ndia except the extr eme south Th e Ru d r ad fiman in scr ip tion indi cates that his rule incl uded the Kathiawar peninsula on the wester n coast Thi s enorm ous empir e passed appar ently in peaceful succession to Bin d u sAr a A mi tr aghAta an d from hi m Th e tr aditions of Kashmi r an d Nepfil to A soka relate that those countr ies were included in the Maurya empire Asoka is remembered as the founder of S r i nagar whi ch is still the capi tal of Kashmir an d whi ch replaced th e old capi tal on the si te of Pan d r eth an S ev eral ruined buildi ngs ar e also at tributed to the great emperor by the local h istorian wh o mentions a son of h is named Jalan ka as go v ernor 1 Th e fact of the inclusion of Kash of the prov i nce mir in the Maurya empire is confirmed by a wild Stei A i e t Geog aph y of Kas mi in J A s Soc Be gal ,

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A S OKA

legend r elated by H iu en Tsian g which concludes with the statement that A soka RAj a for the sake of the A rhats built five hundred mon aster i es an d gave this country [ Kashmi r ] as a gift to the pr iest 1 hood Th e inclusion of the Nepalese Tar Ai or lowlands in the empire is conclusi v ely proved by the in scr ip tions on the pillars at Nigli va an d Rummin d ei Genuine tradition n ot mer e li ter ar y legend whi ch is confir med by the existence of well preser v ed monu ments attests with almost equal cer tainty A soka s eflecti v e possession of the secluded Valley o f Nepi l Th e p ilgr image descr ibed in the last chapter was continued eith er th r ough the Ch fir ia Ghati or the Gor amasan Pass into the enclosed valley of Nepal o f whi ch the cap i tal was then known by the name of Manju Patan I t occupi ed the same site as the moder n city of Kathmandu Asoka r esolved to per r y o f hi s visi t an d to te sti fy to e u the mem t a t e o p hi s p iety an d mu ni ficen ce by the er ection of a n umbe r o f stately m onuments an d the foundation o f a new city Pfit an Bhatgaon an d Kirtipur which at var ious dates in later ages sev er ally became the capitals of mountain kingdoms wer e n ot then in existence A soka selected as the site of his new city some rising gr ound about two miles to the south east of the ancient capital an d ther e built the city n ow known as Lalita Patan Exactly in its centr e he built a temple which is still standi ng near the south Beal B dd h i t R o ds of th Wester n Wo ld i 1 5 0 ,

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de of the palace or Dar bar an d at each of the four sides Of the city fac ing the car din al po ints he er ected four gr eat hemispher ical std pas whi ch likewise r emain to this d ay Two small shr ines an d a tomb at Lali ta Patan ar e also ascr ibed to A soka Th e emperor was r u accomp an ied in hi s pi lgrim age by his daughte r Ch a mati the wife of a Kshatr iya named Devapala Sh e devoted herself to r eligion an d r emain ed in Nepal as a nun r esid ing at a conv ent whi ch sh e built at Pasu patin ath a mile or tw ndu o n orth of Kathma 1 an d which still exi sts an d bears h er name Th e Buddhist legends all seem to imply that the sea port Of Tamr alipti (the moder n Tamluk in the M id n a u r Distr i ct thir ty fiv e miles fr om Calcutta whe e r p ) tr aveller s from Ceylon landed was part of the Maur ya dominion s an d this infer en ce 1s suppo rted by the fact that Chandragupta took ov er from h is pr edecessor Nanda the sover eignty of the countr y of the G anga ridas or Bengal whi ch probably included Tamr alipti A soka ther efor e i nherited an empire whi ch ex tended from sea to sea But at h is accession the kingd om of Kalinga str etchi ng along the coast of the Bay of Bengal from the Mahanadi river on the north to the south as far per haps as Puli cat was I n the ni nth year of the r eign this sti ll i ndependent 2 region was conquer ed an d per manently annexed ’

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y f N pal ld ld Sk t h

In d r aj i an d Buhler , Hi stor Bh agwan l e A n t , Dec 1 884 x iii 1 2 s fi a n d O e , 4 qq ; 6 8 Nipal, ii 2 4 1 Ro ck E i ct X III 1

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A S OKA

0 7

uther n limits of the empire ar e fixed by the pur a inscr iptions in the Mysor e occurrence of the S idda an d by the enum er ation State (about N lat 1 4 in the edi cts of the nation s in the south of the p eni nsula whi ch r etained their independen ce Th e Chola kings in those days h ad thei r capital at Ur aiyur near Trichi nopoly an d ruled ov er the south Th e capital of the Pandya east of the penin sul a kingdom farther south was at Madura ; an d the Malabar coast between the Wester n Ghats an d the sea down t o Cape Com orin was kn own as the kin g 1 All these thr ee kingdoms ar e like d om of Ker ala C eylon recognized by A soka as independent po wers outside the lim its of hi s domini ons Th e southern boundary of the Mau rya empire may be defined with a near approach to accuracy as a line connecting Pondi che r r y on the east coast with Cannanor e on the west or approximately as the twelfth degree of north latitude North of thi s line as far as the H imalayas an d the H indoo Koosh all I nd ia acknowledged either the di r ect rule or the o v e r l or dshi p of A soka This definition of the extent of the Mau rya empir e which exceeded the ar ea of Br itish Indi a excluding Bur ma is supported by the distr ibution of the rock inscr iptions an d by H in en Tsian g s enumer ation o f the monuments ascribed to Asoka Th e rock in scr iptions cove r the area bounded by Sketch Of th e Dy asti es of So th er n I dia i Sewell Th e

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A DM I NI S TRA TI ON OF TH E EM PI RE

1 7

the lower H imalayas the Bay of Bengal Mysore an d th e A rabian sea H in en Tsian g enumer ates in detai l about on e hun d red an d thirty std pas ascribed to A so ka besides mentioning in general ter ms many other edifices referred by tradition to h is reign A few of the st ilpas sto od in independent ter r ito ry wher e their erection must hav e been dependent on the oodwill g an d perm ission of the local sov ereigns but the great maj or ity were situated in provinces which belonged Three ar e mention ed as existing in to the empir e the countr y n ow kn own as A fghanistan Th e Pilusar a stupa a hundred feet h igh was at K ap isa an d a won d er fu l stone stupa beautifully ador ned an d carv ed thr ee hundred feet in height was the glor y o f Naga labad A Small stupa al so the gift r a near Jal a r ah a stood to the south of thi s stupendous of A soka monument Other notable stupas existed in the S wat valley an d Taxila possessed thr ee Four stupas built by Asoka graced the capital of Kashmir an d legend ascr ibed to hi m the erection of five hundr ed monasteri es in that country On the east coast stupas built by A soka ar e recorded as existing at Tamr alipti (Tamluk) at the capi tal of Samatata (probably in the S un d er bun d s) in Orissa an d in Kalin ga On the west side of I ndia V alabhi in Gfij ar at an d the province of Sind with its dependencies wer e r ich in monuments ascr ibed to the great Maurya Th e Ru dr ad aman inscr iption recor ds the fact that h is ,

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2 7

Persian gov er nor

Kathi awar made the can al s in connexion with the G ir n ar lake which h ad been 1 for med in the time of Chan dragupta In the pr o v ince of A r ach osia Tsau kflta wh ch the c p t i l o f i a a ( ) is plausibly identified with Ghazni ten stupas wer e r egar ded as the w or k of A soka I n the south he erected a stupa at the capi tal of the Dr avida country the mod er n Conj eever am an d an other at the capi tal o f the An dhra ter r ito r y the mod ern Vengi forty three miles south west of Mad ras Th e edi cts refer to A ntiochus Theos kin g of Syria as a neighbouring potentate an d so agree with the other e vidence which indicates the H indoo Koosh as the north wester n fr ontier of the empire A soka s empire therefor e comprised all I ndia pr oper from the twelfth degree of latitude to the H imalayas l the valley of Kash an d included the v all ey of Nepa mir the S wat valley an d adj oining regions the Yusufzai country A fghanistan as far as the H indoo Koosh Sind an d Balfichistan Th e m achi nery for the gov ern ment an d admi nistra tion of this vast empire will n ow be examined Th e histor ian isjustified in assuming that the system of gov er nment de v eloped by the gen iu s of Chand ra gupta the first emperor of I ndia was pr eser v ed intact in its main features although supplemented by some nov el institutions an d modified by certain refor ms in the reign of h is grandson of

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ly)

63; an d ( inaccu r ate Sanskr it I n scr iptions of Kattywar ( Bh avnagar , 1

I nd

.

A nt

.

vn .

25 7

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n.

in Pr akr it

and

A DM I NI S TRA TI ON OF TH E EM PI RE

73

recor ded a tolerably full account of the insti tutions of Chandr agupta an d a combin ation of his account with the e v idence of the edi cts thr ows mu ch light u pon the or ganiz ation of A sok a s empire Th e kin g s po wer was of course absolute an d all insti tu tions depended on his will Th e royal will was communi cated to the li eges through the agency of a bureaucr acy at the head of whi ch stood the Vicer oys gener ally sons or other near relativ es of the sovereign One of these great officers h ad h is seat of gov e ment at the famous city Of Taxila n ow r epr esented by the ruins at Shah Dheri in the Rawalpindi Distr ict of the Panj ab A ll the ter r itor ies west of the S atlej as far as the H indoo Koosh may hav e been withi n h is jurisdiction A nother pr incely Viceroy r uled Western I ndia from the anci ent ci ty o f Ujj ain in Mahwa A ccordin g to tr adition A soka hi m self held this gov er nment when the news of h is father s mortal illness reached h im an d obliged him to hasten to the capital in order to secur e the succession A thi rd Viceroy stationed at Su v ar n agir i the site of which h as n ot yet been identified r epr e sented the emper or in Peni nsul ar I ndia Th e con quered province of Kalinga was controlled by a fourth prince stationed at Tosali of whi ch the site is n ot kn own 1 with cer tainty ; it may be represented by Jsugad a M egasth en es h as

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Th e

is t o be an d

II

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pig aph i al a th ity f th e f p i f d th e D ta h d Edi t f Dh a li aMi Ro k Edi t a d th e Si ddap e

ou n n

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n or

c

ly Vi e y I call d N

c ro s

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c

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,

so-

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os.

74

A S OKA

home provinces wer e probably ad ministered by local gov er nors acting under the direct order s of the emperor Th e officials next in rank to the Viceroys so far as can be in ferred from the language of the edi cts were the Rajj ukas or Commissioners set over hundreds of thousan ds of souls Below them were th e Pr a d esi kas or District ofi cer s Magistr ates in general were designated by the term M akd/md tr a an d this gener ic ter m in combination with deter minativ e wor ds was also applied to special departmental officers as for instance the Censors of the Law of Piety wh o were known as Dhamma mahd/mdtr as These C ensors wh o were for the first time appointed by Asoka in the fourteenth year of the reign as r ecited in the fifth Ro ck Edict h ad instruo tions to concer n themselv es with all sects an d to pr o mote the advance of the principles of the Law of Piety among both the subjects of H is Majesty an d the ras semi independent border tr ibes of Yonas G an dha an d others They wer e di rected in general ter m s to care for the h appiness of the l ieges an d especially to r edr ess cases of wrongful confin ement o r unjust corp or al punishment an d were empowe r ed to gr ant remissions of sentence in cases where the cr iminal was entitled to consider ation by reason of advan ced years sudden calamity or the burden of a lar ge fam ily These Officials wer e further charged with th e deli cate duty of super intendin g the female establishments of the members of th e royal family both at the capital Th e

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S H U H ON 01

ADH M

"

oth er ofi cials

ar e also

men tion ed

n nd cd as r oy nl nh non e

mad e

Censor s of th e Law of Piety

m

sover eign an d

by th e

it is

nn d

,

75

m and

the Cm

distr ibuted the gi fts

TH E EN FI RE

m) t

ensy

to

un d e

his

mtan d

.

All th ese special a eer s wer e supplemen tar y t o th e r egular ma ist r ac en em in th e m v u T h e a e ex t r e g y g .

defini tion

of

th e d u ties

en t r usted

to th em

must

h ave

wher e ani mals h ad been killed or mu tilated contr ar y to r egulations or gr oss disr e spect h ad been sh own by a son to h is father or mother an d so forth They also took cognizan ce of i r r egularities in th e condu ct of the r oyal l adi es Th e general du ty of r epr efi n g unlawful indulgences of the fai r sex seems to hav e fallen to the Censor s of Women wh o n o doubt wer e also r espon sible for the due regulation of th e cou rtesans M egasth en es testifies th at the official reporter s d id n ot scor n to make use of inform ation suppl ied by the public women Asoka mentions that he h ad appoin ted man y classes A llu of ofli cials for v ar iou s departmental pu rposes sion is made to certain inspectors whose duties ar e n ot clear ly explained Th e wardens of the mar ches ar e mentioned as being a special class of ofi cials ,

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emperor attached the highest impo rtan ce to th e n ecessity of being acce ssible to the aggr i eved subjec t at an y pl ace an d at an y hour an d unde r took to dis pose at once of all complaints an d r eports without r e ard to his perso n al c on v eni ence the e o rder I n s s g V R A ck ct I k nly c n Edi fi r med an d emph asized o s o a o o ( ) the pr actice of h is gr andfather wh o used to r emain in cour t the wh ole d ay without allow ing the interr up tion of business ev en whi le h is attendants pr actised massage on hi m with ebony rollers H e contin ued 1 to hear cases while the four attendants r ubbed him Th e I ndian emperor like m ost O r iental sov er eign s r eli ed much up on the r eports of n ew s writers empl oyed by the Cr own for the purpose of watchi ng the execu tive officers of Gover nment an d r eporting e ver y thi ng of note whi ch came to their knowledge Th e empero r seems to h av e h ad r eason to be su sp icio us for it is reco rded that Chandr agupta coul d n ot v enture to sl eep in the dayt ime an d at ni ght was obliged to change hi s bedroom from ti me to time as a pr ec aution against 1 tr eacher y A soka pr obably continued the routine of cour t life laid down by his gr eat ancestor Th e standing army mai ntained at the king s cost was for midable in numbers compr ising accor ding to Pl in y infantr y cavalr y an d elephants besi des ch ariots ; an d was wi th r efer ence to the standard of anti quity v er y highly or ganiz ed Th e War Ofli ce was dir ected by a co mm ission of St ab o x v 1 5 3 6 i M C i d le A ci ent I d ia p 7 2 I bi d p 7 1 Th e

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“PIKE

A DH I NIS TRA TI ON OF TH E

in g five member s, wi th d epar tmen ts

Boar d

No

Boar d

NO

A d mir alty in

I :

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coo

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sever all

per ation with

mmissar iat

Tr an spor t

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,

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my

mechan ics an d gr ass cu tt er s ; Boar d No 3 In fan tr y ; Boar d NO 4: Cavalr y Board NO 5 : W ar c har iots ; Board No 6 : Elephants Th e ar ms when n ot in use wer e stor ed in ar senals an d ran ges of stables wer e rovi ded for th e hor ses an d p elephants Char i ots when on the mar ch wer e drawn by oxen in order to spar e the horses Each war char iot which h ad a team of either two or four horses harnessed abr east car r i ed two figh tin g men besides th e driver Th e char iot used as a state conveyance was drawn by fourhorses Each war elephant carr i ed thr ee figh tin g men in addi ti on to the dr iv er A r r i an gi v es some inter esting details concer ni ng theequi pment of the infantr y an d cavalr y whi ch may be quoted ver batim -

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p r oceed ow h ay to d sc i be th e mode in wh ich f wa p misin g th at it is th I d i a s q i p th m l f i Th o o u o e t o e n v e d d t h ly n ot to b e a a s g g m i a h t h e n h w t t a l l ca y a b ow mad e of soldi q g d an d p ssi g wh o b a s it Th is th ey est p th g l ft fo t th s disch a ge th e a ow again st i t wit h th i h avin g dr awn th e st in g fa b ackwa d ; f th e sh aft th ey I

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on

r oun

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or

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,

78

A S OKA

use

l le sh or t

is itt

wh ich

n oth in g

ld

sh ie

of

I n i an

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can r esist an

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bein g th r ee

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efen ce

su ch

left h a d th y car r y b ckl r s of dr essed x h i de wh ich ar e n ot so b r oad as th ose wh o ca y th em but ar e ab o t as lon g Some ar eq i pp ed with j avel in s i nstead of b ows b t all wea a swor d wh ich i s b oad in th e b l ad b t ot l o ger th an th r ee c h its ; a d th is wh en th ey e gage in cl ose fi gh t ( wh i ch t h y d o with el ct a ce) th ey wi ld wi th b oth h a d t o f tch d own a l st i b l ow Th e h o sem l a ces a eq i pp d with t wo l a ces l ik th call d sa ta a d with a h o t b ckler th a th at car r ied by th e f t soldi r s B t th y d ot p t saddl s o th eir h or ses o d o th y cur b th m wi th h its l ike th b its in u se amo g th e G eeks or th e K l ts b t th ey fit o d th e h or se s mo th a cir c l ar p iece of ti tch ed extr emity of th r aw ox h i d e t d d ed wi th p icks of i on o b ass p i ti g in war ds b t ot ve y sh a p ; if a ma is r i h h es p i cks made of i vo y W ith in th h or se s mo th is p t a ir on p o g l ik a skewer to wh i h th e r eins a attach ed Wh n th i der th e p ll th r ei s th e p o g co tr ols th e h or se an d th p icks wh i h a attach d to t h is p o g goad th e mo th so th at i t ca i s t b t Ob y th e th er e be

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civil administr ation of which some featur es mentioned in the edicts hav e been alr ead y n oticed was an or gani zation of considerable complexity an d Th e

,

,

,

d

1

In ika,



x vi,

p

in A n cien t I nd ia,

.

220.

For

p

sh a es of In

di an

ms at th e b egin ni n g of th e Ch r istian er a see Cu n n ing h am Bh i lsa Tapes p 2 1 7 an d PI x x x iii ; an d M aisey Sd nchi ar

,

,

,

.

.

,

d

dd

,

d

,

Cf woo cut of Ve ah r awi n g h is bow in ’ if e size figu r e r Tenn an t s Ceylon , 3r d cd , i 4 a n A e 99 so of an in fan tr i er ar me as escr ib e b M egasth enes is x x x ii i n n i v n n i n h e C u t P l 1 r m S t u B h a h u a a o , , g , g p f

Pl

.

x x x v, x x x vi

.

y ld

.

.

.

d

d

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ly l d y .

-

.

A DM IIVI S TRA TI ON OF TH E EM PI RE

79

ppar ently n ot in ferior to that elabor ated by Sher We read of an I rrigation Depart S hah an d Ak bar ment whi ch per for med fun ctions similar to those of the an al ogous depar tment in Egypt regulati ng th e rivers an d contr olli ng the sluices so as to distr ibu te the canal water fair ly among the farmers Th e lon g inscription of Ru d r ad aman executed in A D 1 5 0 r ecor d s h ow Tush as r si an gov er nor of San r a the Pe h s p tr a K athiawar ) on behal f of Asok a constructed canals an d br idges to utilize the water of the gr eat artificial lake at G ir n a r whi ch h ad been for med in 1 the r eign of Ch an dr agupta This instan ce shows the care th at was taken to promote agr icultur al improv ement an d to de velop the land r ev enue e v en in a r emote provi nce di stant more than a thousand miles fr om the capital Th e r e v enue ofli cer s wer e char ged with the collection of the land rev en ue or Crown rent then as n ow th e mainstay of I ndian fin ance All agr icultural lan d was r egar ded as Cr own property A ccording to on e acc ount the culti vators r etai ned on e fourth of the pr oduce ; accor din g to another ( whi ch is mor e pr o bable) they paid into the tr easu r y on e fourth of the produce in ad dition to a r ent of u nspecified amount Th e castes whose occupation conn ected them with the land such as woodcutters carpenters blacksmiths an d miners wer e subject to the supervision of the revenue officers Ro ads were maintain ed by the royal ofli cer s an d See ote p 7 2

a

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A S OKA

80

pillar s were erected on the pr incipal hi ghways to serv e as mile stones at inte r vals of about an English Ex amples of similar pillar s mile an d a quarter erect i n dr ed many centur i es later by the m k o s ( ) 1 Mughal emperors still exist A soka p r ided hi mself on h aving furthe r consu lted the comfort of trav ellers by planting shad y trees an d di gging wells at fr equent 1 intervals along the main roads Patal ipu tr a the capital city stood at the confluence of the S 611 an d Ganges on the souther n bank of the l atter r iver in the position n ow occupi ed by the large nativ e city of Patna an d the civil station of Ban kipore Th e riv er 8611 h as changed its course an d n ow j oins the Ganges near the cantonment of Dinapor e (Dhana pur) abov e Banki pore but its old course can be easily traced Th e ancient city like its moder n successor was a long an d narr ow par allelogr am about nine miles in len gth an d a mile an d a hal f in breadth Th e wooden walls seen by M egasth en es whi ch were -

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A DM I NI S TRA TI ON OF TH E EM PI RE

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pro tected by a wide an d deep moat wer e pier ced by si xty four gates an d crowned by five hundred an d se venty to wer s A soka built an outer masonr y wall an d beau tified the ci ty with innume r able stone build ings so r i chly decor ated that in after ages th ey were ascr i bed to the genn Th e gr eater p ar t of the ancient city still li es bur i ed in the silt of the r i v ers under Patna an d Banki por e at a depth of from ten to twenty feet I n sever al places th e remains of the wooden palisade mentioned by M egasth en es hav e been ex posed by casual excavations an d numerous tr aces have been found of massive br ick an d magni ficent stone bui l di ngs A few of the br ick edifices in a r ound an d it w ou ld r uined conditio n ar e still abo v e g pr obably be possible by a car eful survey conducted under competent super vision to identify with cer tainty the sites of the pr incipal Asoka bu ildi ngs mention ed by the Chinese pilgr ims Owing to the want of such a sur vey the iden tifications made by Maj or Waddell wh o is entitled to the cr edit talipu tr a still exists of di scove r ing the fact that Pa ar e n ot altogether c on vincing although many of them may be cor r ect Th e excavations as far as they h av e been car r i ed fully con fir m the accuracy of the accounts given by M egasth en es an d the Chinese p ilgr ims of the extent 1 an d m agnificence of the Mau r ya capi tal ,

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dministr ation of this gr eat an d splendid city was or ganized with much elabo ration Like the War Office the metropolis was administer ed by a commis sion o f thi rty mem bers di v i ded into si x Boar d s with fiv e members each Th e fir st Board was char ged wi th t h e super i ntendence o f the industr ial arts an d ar tisans Th e second was entr usted with the duty of super intending foreigners an d attendi n g to the ir wants Th is Board provided medi cal aid for for ei gner s in case of sickn ess with decent bur ial in case of death an d administer ed the estates of the d ec eased r em i ttin g the net proceeds to the persons entitled Th e same Boar d was also bound to pr ovide proper escort for for eigners leaving the countr y Th e thi rd Boar d was r espo nsible for the r e istr ation of bi rths an d death s g whi ch was enforced both for r evenue purposes an d for the infor m ation of the G ov er nment Th e fourth Boar d was the B oar d of Tr ade which tr ade an d exe r ci sed a gene r al su per i ntenden ce o v e r commer ce an d r egulated weights an d measur es I t is said that th e author ities took car e that commodi ti es wer e sold in the proper season by public notice whi ch probably mean s that pr ice lists wer e officially An y fixed accor di ng to the u su al I ndi an custom tr ader wh o desir ed to deal in mor e than on e class o f goods was obliged to pay double licence t ax Th e fifth Board was conce r ned wi th manufactur es Th e

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A DM I NI S TRA TI ON OF TH E E M PI RE

83

the sale of which was subjected to regulations similar to those gov er ning the sales of impor ted goods Th e sixth Board was char ged wi th the duty of levying a tithe on the pr ices of all articles sold 1 This Evasion of this tax was punishable by death sangu i nar y law is but one of sev eral indi cations th at the pen al cod e of Chandr agupta was on e of extr eme sev er i ty Th e same cod e seem s to hav e been ad min is ter ed by A soka with sl ight m itigations Th e gene r al sev er ity of the gov ernment of Chan d r a u ta is testified to by Justin wh o says that that g p prince wh o freed his countrymen from the M ace a fter d on ian yoke hi s victor y forfeited by his tyr anny all title to the name of liberator for he op pr essed with servitude the v er y people whom he h ad emancipated from for eign thraldom I n addition to the law about evasion of mu nicipal taxes j ust quoted other illustrations of the ex treme sev er ity When the king was of the pen al law ar e on record on a huntin g exped ition an y person man or wom an wh o went inside the ropes mar king off the path of the royal procession was capitally punished Th e same for m i dable pen alty was attached to the offence of causi ng the l oss of a hand or eye to an ar tisan the r eason apparently being that skilled wor kmen wer e r egarded as being specially devoted to the king s .

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A S OK A

e ce I n other cases wounding by mutilation was puni shable by the amputati on of the cor r esponding member of the offender in addition to the loss of hi s right hand Th e cr ime of giving false evid ence was punished by mutilation of the extr emities A ccor di ng to on e wr i ter some unspecified heinous offences wer e pun ished by the shaving of the offender s hai r whi ch penalty was r egar ded as specially infamous Th e m itigations of thi s sangui nar y code introduced by A soka the H umane wer e n ot v er y mater ial Late in hi s r eign he or d ained that ev er y cr imi nal condemned to dea th shou ld have thr ee days r espite befor e ex ecu tion to enable hi m to pr epar e for the other wor ld but the edi ct does n ot indicate an y diminution in the number of capital offences or of the convicts condemned to death Th e censor s of the Law of Pi ety we r e com man d ed to r edr ess cases of wr ongful imprisonment undeser v ed cor por al punishment an d wer e em or power ed to r emit sentence when the offender deserv ed mer cy by r eason of advanced age sudden calamity or the bur den of a lar ge fam ily dependent on hi m for suppor t Th e actions of the censor s in pur suance of these instr uctions cannot hav e h ad much pr actical efl ect On each anni v er sar y of h is solemn cor onation A soka was in the habit of p ar doning cr i minals aw ait i n g execution but conside r ing the fact that n o condemned pr isoner ever h ad mor e than thr ee days r e spi te between sen tence an d execution the numbe r Nicol as Dama c 4 4; Stobaeu S m 42 in M C i dle A i t I d ia p 7 3

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A DM I NI S TRA TI ON OF TH E E M PI RE

85

wh o

benefited by the r oyal clemency cannot have 1 been v er y gr eat So far as the e vidence goes i t indi cates that A soka m aintained in substance the ster n pen al legislati on an d summ ar y procedu r e of h is illustr ious gr andfather wh o h ad gov er ned by despotism the empir e won by bloodshed I t would howe ver be r ash to infer from these pr emises that the pr ofessed humanity of Asoka was hypocr itical Th e temper of the times an d the univer sal custo m of O r iental monar chies demanded an d dispatch in the se v e r ity in the puni shment adju di cation of crime as i ndi spen sable ch ar acteristi cs A soka deser v es cr ed it of an efficient gov er nment for inculcating on h is officer s pr inciples which if followed must have r esulted in impr ov ed ad min is tr ation of justice an d for measur es which in some degr ee mitigated the fer oc ity of established pr actice Th e so called Detached Edicts of Dhauli an d Jan gad a addr essed to the gover nor s an d magistr ates of the conquer ed pr ovince of Kalinga di splay the sov e mer ciful an d consider ate r eign s ear nest desir e for admini str ation Th e mer e extent of the empir e which was tr an s mitted fr om Chandr agupta to Bin d u sar a an d fr om Bin d u sar a to A sok a is good e vi dence that the or gan i zation of the gove r nment whi ch was strong en ough in mi li tar y for ce to defeat for eign attacks an d to su b .

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A S OKA

86

due an extensiv e k ingdom was also adequate for the per for mance of civil duties Patalipu tr a situated in an e aster n pro vi nce continued throughout the r e igns of the three i m per ial M aur y as to be the capital of an empire exc eeding B r i tish In dia in area an d extend in g fr om sea to sea Th e emper or though destitute of the power fu l aids of m ode r n ci vilizati on was able t o enforce hi s will at Kabul di stan t twel v e hun dr ed r distant a thousan d miles fr om h is an d at G ir n a capital H e was str ong enough to sh eath s h is swor d i n the ninth year of h is r eign to tr eat unruly bor de r tribes with for bear ance to cover h is dominions with splendi d bui ldings an d to de vote hi s ener gi es to the diffusion of mor ality an d piety H ow long the efforts of A sok a continued to be ar fr u it after the close of hi s protr acted an d br illiant r ei n we kn ow n ot E v ious time h as dr opped an n g impenetr able v eil ov er the deeds of his successor s an d n o man can tell the stor y of the decline an d fall o f the M au r y a emp ir e ,

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C H A P TER II I ENT s TH E M on um

extr avagant legend which ascr i bes to A soka the er ection of eighty four thousand stupas or sacr ed cupolas within the space of thr ee year s pr oves the depth of the impression made on the popular imagin a tion by the magnitude an d m agnificence of the gr eat Mau r y a s ar chitectur al achi evements SO imposing wer e h is wor ks that they w er e univer sally belie ved to hav e been w r ought by supe r natur al agency Th e r oy al p al ace an d h all s i n th e mi dst of th e city l i P a t a e t r a h h n w a f d ll m a d b y i i t o s o l w r a w c e s o e e p ( ) h sp i it s wh ich h e employed an d wh ich p i le d t e t s o s e p r e a e d t h e wall s an d gates an d ex ec t ed th e el ega t car i g an d i n l ai d sc lp tur e wo k i n a way wh ich n o h u man h a ds of th is wor ld co ld accompl ish Thus wr ote the simple minded Fahi en at the begin ning of the fifth centur y A little mor e than two hundred year s later when H iu en Tsiang tr avelled the anci ent city was deserted an d i n ruins the effect of the depar tur e of the court an d th e r av ages of the Whi te H uns Now Th e cl o d cap pe d t ower s th e go geo s p alace Th e solemn temp les Ch ap x vn Legge t anslati o TH E

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bur i ed d eep beneath the silt of the Ganges an d 8611 r i ver s an d ser v e as a found ation for the East I ndi an Railway the city of Patna an d the ci vil station of B anki por e No example of the secular ar chitecture of A soka s r ei n h as sur v i v ed in such a condition as to per m it of g its pl an an d style being studi ed Th e r em ains o f the Maur ya palace undoubtedly lie h id under the fields an d h ouses o f the vi llage of K u mr a h ar south of the r ail wa i i l ne c nnect ng B nk i p r e an d P a tn a but o a o y the slight excavations which hav e been undertaken d o n ot suffice to r ender the r em ains intelligible an d the expense of adequate explor ation would be pr obi lie

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t tely monaster ies which A soka er ected at many places in the empir e hav e shar ed the fate of h is pal aces an d n ot ev en on e sur viv es in a r ecognizable state Th e stupas or cupolas on which the emp er or lav ished so much tr easur e hav e been mor e fortunate an d a lar ge gr oup of m onuments of this cl ass at S anchi in Central I ndia h as been pr ese r v ed in a 1 to] sr ably complete state A stupa was usually destined ei the r to enshr i ne the r eli cs of a Buddha or saint or to m ar k t h e scene o f an d s a

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TH E M ONUM E N TS

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me event famous in the hi stor y of the Bud dhist chur ch Sometimes it was built mer ely in honour of I n A soka s age a stupa was a solid a Buddha hemispher ical mass of masonr y spr inging from a plinth which for med a per ambulating path for wor shippers an d was flattened at the top to car r y a squar e altar shaped str u ctur e sur m oun ted by a ser i e s of stone umbr ellas Th e base was usually sur r ounded by a sto ne r ailing of whi ch the p ill ar s bar s an d coping stones wer e commonly though n ot in var iably r ichly car v ed an d d ecor ated with el abor ate sculptur es in r elief Th e gr eat stupa at san chi was a solid dome of br i ck an d stone 1 06 feet in di ameter spr inging fr om a pl inth 1 4feet high an d wi th a p r ojection of 5 1 feet fr om the base of the dome Th e apex of the dome was fl attened into a ter r ace 34 feet in diameter surrounded by a sto ne r ailing with in w hi ch stood a squar e altar pedestal surrounded by another or r aili ng Th e to tal height of the building when complete must hav e exceeded 1 00 feet Many of Asoka s stupas wer e much loftier H iu en Tsiang mentions on e in A fghanistan which was 300 feet in height an d in Ceylon on e famous stupa when per fect tower ed to a height exceeding 400 feet Th e base of the gr eat sanchi stupa was surro unded by a massive sto ne r ailing near ly 1 0 feet high for ming a cloister or pas sage round the sacr ed monument Thi s rai ling which is v er y highly decorated is later than Asoka s time so

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the stupas at an d near Sanchi wer e opened an d found to contai n reli c caskets hi dden inside the mass of mason r y I n No 2 the r elic chamber was discovered 2 feet to the westwar d of the centr e an d 7 feet above the ter r ace I nside the chamber was a san dstone box 1 I inches long an d i i ur s a a nche h gh w ch c nt ned f m ll t t te i h i a s e s i o o 1 9 v ases in which fr agments of bone h ad been ensh r i ned Numerous I nscr iptions v ouched for t hese r eli cs as belonging to some of the most famous saints of the Buddhi st chur ch including two of the missionar ies named in the M ah avamsa as the apostles of the H imalay an r egion an d the son Of M oggali (M au dgaly a) pr esumably Tissa wh o accor ding to the Ceylonese chronicle presided over the thir d Council A v er y inter esting r eli c of the age of A soka was di scover ed by S ir A lexand er Cunningham in 1 87 3 at a v illage n am ed Bhar hut ( Bar ah u t) in Bagh elkh an d about ni nety five m iles south west fr om A ll ahabad H e found ther e the r emains of a br i ck stupor of mod er ate size near ly 68 feet in diameter surr ounded by an elabor atelycar ved stone r ai ling bear ing numer ous inscr iptions in characte r s similar to those of the Asoka edi cts Th e stupa h ad been cover ed with a coat of pl aster in which hundr eds of tr iangul ar shaped r ece sses h ad be en m ade for the reception of lights for the illumin ation of the monument On festival S e v er al

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TH E M ONUM ENTS

: 9

ccasions it was the practice of the Buddhists to decor ate stupas in ever y p ossible way with flower s gar l ands banner s and lights Th e r ai ling of the Bhar hut stupa was a little mor e than 7 feet high an d was divided into four quad r an ts by openings facing the car dinal points Each opening was appr oached by an or namental gateway of the kind called tar an Th e beams of each tor an wer e suppo r ted on comp osite pill ars each composed of fou r octagonal shafts j oin ed together Each of these sh afts is cr owned by a distinct bell c apital Th e four bell capitals ar e cover ed by a single abacus on whi ch r ests a m assi v e upper c ap i tal for med of two lions an d t wo bull s all couchant A lthough the r emains of th e o rnamental gateway s o r tor a ns at Bh ar hut ar e v er y imper fect en ough is left to pr ove that these elabor ate the better pr eser ved str uctu r es cl osely r esembled examples of later date at S anchi Th e complete cast o f on e of the sa nchi gates exhi bited in the I ndian Museum at South Kensingto n ser ves as an illustr ation o f the sim i lar gateways at Bhar hut S uch of the Bhar hut scu lptu r es as wer e sav ed from the r uthless hands of the villager s wer e con veyed to Calcutta wher e they n ow for m on e of th e chief tr easur es of the I mper ial Museum One of the gateways h as been parti ally r esto r ed an d por tions of two quadr ants of the r ailing hav e been set up beside it in or der to con vey to visito r s an idea of the n atur e of the str uctur e Th e r ailing was compose d of pillar s th r ee cross bar s

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l a heavy coping Each of the pillars is a m onol ith bear i ng a centr al medall ion on eac h face with a half medallion at the top an d another at the bottom Ever y mem ber of the r ailing is cov er ed with elabor ate sculptur e which is of exceptional inte r est for the hi stor y of Buddhism because it is to a lar ge extent inter p r eted by expl an ato r y c ontem r ar i r i ption s n c o s p y Th e r emains o f v er y sim il ar r ailings of A sok a s ba P C M u k h ar j i age exist at Budd ha G aya; an d B a found par ts of at least thr ee differ ent sto ne r ailings at Patn a some of which ma v en ear li er in date be e y 1 than Asoka Besn agar near sanchi the anci ent V ed isagir i the home accor ding to t h e l egend of Devi the mother of Mah en d r a an d San gh amitr a son an d daughter o f A soka h as yi elded specimen s of another sculptur ed 2 r aili ng of M aur y a a e be ar i ng ded icator y inscr iption s g I n ancient I ndia both the Bud dhists an d the Jains wer e in the habit O f defr aying the cost of expensive r el igious edifices by subscr iption e ach donor or gr oup of d on or s being gi v en the cr edit of having contr i buted a p ar ti cular p illar coping sto ne or other por tion of the edifice on which the name of th e donor was in scr ibed I t is inter esting to fin d that the same r ai s, an d

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practice

3

cr editing indivi dual donor s with the pre sen tation of single p ill ar s exi sted in H ellen isti c A sia A t the temple of Labr an d a in Car i a datin g fr om the reign of Ner o or a little later Sir Char les Fellows found twel v e fluted columns each of whi ch bor e a panel recor ding that it was the gift of such an d such a 1 person Th e subscr iptions of cour se must hav e been collected in cash an d the wor k must have been car r i ed ou t by the architect in accor d an ce wi th a gener al plan Th e recor d of indivi dual donor s was intended i r v anity an d the natur al desire n ot o nly to gr ati f the y for the per petu ation of their n ames but to secure for them an d their families an accumulation of spir itual mer it Th e I ndian inscr iptions frequently expr ess thi s latter pur pose I n addition to the statues of animals on the summi t o f monoli thi c pillars whi ch wi ll be desc r ibed p r esently a few specimens of sculptu r e in the ro und belongin g to the Maur ya per iod h av e been pr eser v ed in a to lerably complete state Of these rar e specimens on e of the most remar kable is the colossal statue of a man sev en feet in height found at Par kham a village between M ath u r a an d This wor k is executed in gr ey sandstone A gr a Th e ar ms ar e unfortunately br oken hi ghly poli shed Th e dress whi ch is v er y an d the face is mutil ated peculiar consists of a loose r obe confin ed by two bands 2 on e below the br east an d the other round the loins Fellows A i a M i no pp 2 6 1 331 an d p late ( Lo do of

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r

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Cun nin gh am, Repor ts,

.

xx

.

l P 4 0,

n

,

,

.

vi

.

n,

A S OK A

94

colossal female stat ue of the same per iod found 6 feet 7 in ches in height i s of special at Besn agar interest as being the only specimen o f a fem ale statue in the r oun d that h as yet been disco ver ed of so early 1 a per iod A stand ing statue of a saint with a halo which cr owned the norther n detached pillar near the gr eat nchi is considered by Cunningh am to be stupa at sa 1 on e of the finest specimens of I ndian sculptu r e A soka h ad a special fondness for the erection of monolithi c pillars on a gigantic scale an d er ected them in gr eat number s i nscr ibed an d w ithout inscr i ptions Two on e at the souther n an d the other at the nor ther n entr ance gr aced the approaches to the gr eat stupa of sanchi Th e norther n pillar whi ch supported the i i feet n he ght statue o f the sain t was about 4 ; 5 th e souther n pill ar which was cr owned by four l ions standing back to back was some 5 feet lower Both pillars like the other monuments of the same class ar e composed of highly polished fin e sandstone Th e mono li thi c shaft o f the sou ther n pillar was 32 feet in height Th e S anchi pillar s o f whi ch the so uther n on e bear s a mutilated in sc r iption cor r espond ing wi th par t of the K ausambi Edi ct on the A llahabad p illar hav e been thr own down an d suffer ed much injur y Two only of A soka s m onolithi c pillars still stan d i n a condition pr actically per fect ; on e at Bakhir a near Basar in the A

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1

1

Cu n n in gh am, Repor ts, x Bh i lsa Tapes, 1 97 , P]

p

.

.

.

x

44 .

.

TH E M ONUM ENTS

the other at Lauriya Nan d an gar h ( Navan d gar h ) in the C h ampar an Distr ict A detailed descr iption of these two monuments will suffice to give the reader an adequate idea of the whole class Th e Bakhi r a pi ll ar is a m onoli th of fin e sandstone hi ghly polished for its whole length of 32 feet abov e the water level A squar e pedestal with three steps is said to exist un der water Th e shaft tape r s unifor mly from a di ameter of 49 8 inches at the water level to 8 a t i Th r i f i the p nc p l mem b er the c p t l t o e a o a a 3 7 p is bell shaped in the Per sepoli tan style 2 feet 1 0 i nches in height an d is sur mounted by an o blong abacus 1 2 inches h igh whi ch ser v e s as a pedestal for a li on se n i fe e t i h ght e ated on its h au nches 4 5 Two or th r ee m ou ldin gs ar e inser ted between the shaft an d the bell capital an d on e inte r v ene s between the latter an d the abacus Th e total height abov e the water lev el is 44 feet 2 inches I ncluding the submer ged position the length of the monument must be about 5 0 feet an d the gr oss weight is e stim ated to be about 5 0 1 tons I n gener al design the Laur i ya Nandan gar h pillar resembles that at Bakhir a but is far less massi ve T h e pol ished shaft which i s 32 feet 9 1 inches in height diminishes fr om a base diameter of 35 5 inches Th e abacus is to a diameter at the top of 2 2 1 inches cir cular an d is decor ated on the edge with a bas r elief '

M uzaflar pu r

District,

95

an d

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1

Cu n n i ngh am, Rep or ts, i 5 6 ; .

x vi

.

1 2.

A S OKA

6 9

repr esenting a r ow of geese pecking their food Th e height of the capital including the li on is 6 feet Th e whole monument therefor e is near ly I 0 inches 1 i r i n F feet he ght 0 a n t i s i e c e 4 p ( ) Th e mutilated pillar at Rampur wa in the same distr ict is a duplicate of that at Laur iya Nandangar h Th e capital of this pillar was attac hed to the shaft by a bar r el shaped bolt o f pur e c oppe r measur i ng 2 feet an d half an inch in length w ith a di ameter of 4 3, Thi s inches in the centr e an d 3; inches at each end bolt was accur ately fitted into the two masses of stone 1 without cement Th e circular abacus of the A llah abad p illar is de cor ated in stead of the geese wi th a gr aceful scroll of alter nate lotus an d honeysuckle r esting on a beaded astragalus moulding per haps of Greek ori gin Asoka s monoliths fr equently ar e placed in situations hundr eds of miles distant from q u ar r i es capable of supplying the fin e sandsto ne o f whi ch they ar e com posed Th e massiveness an d exquisite fin ish of these huge monuments bear eloquent testimony to the skill an d r e sour ce of the ar chi tects an d sto necutters of the Mau r ya age Th e t wo Aso ka pillar s which n ow stand at Delhi .

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3



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.

I Cun n i n gh am, Repor ts, i 7 3, Pl x x iv ; x vi 1 04 P , i i f r n i i I i m h c o n n f s e o t c a m o r t at th e cor r ect e e e ) ( of th e gr eat mou n is Nan an gar h , n ot Navan d gagh 1 Ibi , x vi 1 1 0, PI viii ; x x ii 5 1 , Pl vi, vu 1 Ibi , i 29 8 1

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p d

d d

p d

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x x vu

me

na

TH E M ONUM ENTS

97

wer e removed in A D 1 35 6 by Fi roz Shah Tughlak the on e from Topr a in the A mbala ( Umballa) District o f the Panj a b an d the other fr om M i r ath (Meer ut) in the North Wester n Provinces Th e pr ocess of r emoval of the Topr a m on ument is descr i bed by a contempo r ar y author an d h is graphic acco unt is w orth tr anscr i bing as sh owing the nature of the di fficulti es whi ch we r e successfully an d frequently surmounted by A soka s architects ,

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-

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d

K h i zr ab a

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th e h i stor i an ,

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kos fr om

lls Wh n th S lta i t h e vi ll age of v i it d th at d i t ict a d saw th c l m t it T p a h lv d to r em v it to Delh i a d th A fte th i k i g ove as a m m i al t f t r ge at i s th b t m a l m d sw i s d f l w i g th dw lli g i of all th e p eopl c mma di g th e atte d a De h i , i n th e e

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bour h ood with in an d with ou t th e Doab an d all Th ey wer e or d er ed t o br i n g soldi er s b oth h or se an d foot Dir ec all implemen ts an d mater i als su i t ab le for th e wor k t i ons wer e issu ed for b r in gi n g p ar cels of th e cotto n of th e

n eigh

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th e

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th e

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wh en

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was r emove it fell gen t ly over on th e bed The cotton was th en r emoved b y degr ees ,

d ay

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me

after

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Wh en

th e

wer e ex amin ed , a lar ge squ ar e wh ich also was t aken ou t

was fou n d as a b ase, Th e p i ll ar was th en en cased fr om top to b ott om i n r eed s an d r aw skin s, so t h at n o d amage mi gh t accr ue to i t A car r i age wit h for ty two wh eel s was constr u cted an d r opes wer e attach ed to each wh eel Th ou san ds of men h au led at

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8 9

A S OK A

was r aise d to

on

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an d

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each

A

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t wo h u n dr

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p wa fa t p ll d at ach

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of

mu lt an eou s e x er tion s of so man y e n t h e car r i age was move d an d was b r ou gh t t o t h ou san H er e th e Su l t an came t o meet i t t h e b an ks of th e J u mn a A n u mber of l ar ge b oat s h ad b ee n collecte d some of wh ich mau n d s of gr ai n , an d t h e co u ld car r y an d least of th em mau n ds Th e col u mn was ver y in gen

t h ese

p dm

car r iage

'

By t h e

es

ro

.

si

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.

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,

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i ou sly t r ansfer r e

b d

t o Fir oza a

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d

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i n t o t h e K u sh k

b oats

t o th ese

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with in fin ite

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’ .

histor ian then pr oceeds to nar r ate h ow a special building was p r epar ed for the receptio n of the m onument which was r aised to the summi t wher e it still stands w i th p r ecautio ns sim ilar to those at tending 1 its r emoval fr om its or iginal site Th e p illar thus r emov ed w ith so much ski ll i s the most inte r esting of all the A soka columns being the only on e on wh ich the in v aluable Pillar Edict V II i s Fahi en the fir st Chinese p ilgri m whose incised tr av els lasted for fifteen year s fr om A D 39 9 mentions only thr ee A soka p ill ar s namely two at Pa talipu tr a an d on e at S ankasya Th e later p ilgr im H iu en Tsiang wh o tr av elled in the se v enth centur y n otices specifically sixteen pillar s ascr ibed to Asoka Of these only two have been i dentified wi th absolute cer tainty the un inscr ibed c olumn at Bakh ir a an d the inscr ibed on e at Ru mmin d ei A thir d the Nigli va pillar whi ch does n ot occupy its Sh am i Si aj q oted i St ph e A h ology of Ca D lh i p 1 31 Th e

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r c ae

TH E M ONUM E NTS

position is pr obably that seen by H iu en T siang near the std pa of K an akamu n i Th e two gr eat pillar s sev enty feet high one sur mounted by the figu r e o f an o x an d the other by a wheel which stood at the entr ance of the famous Jetavan a m onaster y near S r av asti ar e believ ed to still exist bur i ed in a Nepa lese for est but their actual discov er y r emains to r ewar d Fr agme nts of sev er al pillars some fo r tunate expl or er o f the A sok a pe r iod h ave been d iscl osed by excav ations at an d near Patna wh ich probably include the two mentioned by the Chinese pilgr ims as existing ther e Nine pillar s bear ing inscr iptions of A soka ar e known to exist none of which ar e mentioned by the pilgr ims except the monument at Ru mmin d ei an d probably that at Nigli va I t is a v er y cur ious fact that the Chi nese tr av eller s nowher e make the slight est allusion t o the A so ka edicts whethe r incised on r ocks or p ill ar s Th e i nscr iptions on pillar s whi ch they noted wer e brief dedicato r y or commemor ativ e r ecor ds Th e following list o f the known inscr ibed pill ars will be found useful for r e fer ence or

iginal

99

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I NS CRI B ED

Nm a

PILLA RS OF Posi ti on

e.

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.

l

On summi t of Koth i a in th e r u i n e city Pi r oza bad n ear De h i r emoved i n A D 1 35 6 Topr a i n Am a a Distr i ct , Pi r oz Sh a h Tu gh lak

d

l

.

b l

A S OKA

.

by

.

d by

Ci te

Cu n n i n g ‘ h am as De h i Si ’ va i k, an d by Sen ar t ’ ‘ as ld t o f Fi r oz , or ‘ 1 ’ D Pi ar E i cts I — VII n ear com l i m t C a t a o e e p

l

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d

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er n .

l

ll d ly p l

-

1 00

D lh i M i e

-

M r e e t u ( )

d

l l

i ge at De hi, wh er e it was t e En g ish e r ecte Gover n men t i n 1 867 ;

On

r

d by

d y l l d

Sen ar t as Cite b ’ 1 De hi 2 or D Pil ar E i cts 1 VI much muti ated Br oken in to five ieces, n ow oin e C a ita to eth er g .

l

p

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bad

Al ah a

ll l d at Allah ab ad b t p bably d d em Ka éambi p l d pt abac At th La riy a h am Cited by Se a t a l t a mil f mtem Rad h iah R P ill E l a d i I V h f M I a a d A t p a ti ally p f t j 0 mil N W a a papital ll t f K a iya td a

Ed icts I VI Pi ’ a so Queen s E i ct Kan sambi E i ct , all im er fect mo er n , Ca ita ar

u

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th e 1 0 to Bettia, i n th e Ch am ar an Di str ict of or t h Bih ar .

d by Se a t a M ath iah M o Pilla Edict I V I ti ally pe fe t papital mpl t Impe fectly e a a t d I ipti fa a e a at ed i i i d d t th g am a N 4 a d 5 Capital m f t lip ll k a d b b t th ap ital mai I i ti m h m tilate b i ga io f th Ka sambi Edi t th Allah abadp illa Cite

n r





mi les NNW

.

Betti a, i n th e Ch ampar an Distr ict At Rampur wa h am of

.

r ac

c

r

san chi

n

con

e

A t sou th er n

e n tr an ce

to gr eat stupa of an ch i i n Bh o State, Cen tr al In a °

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on ,

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os

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1

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en

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Distr ict

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on , so

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on r

.

TH E M ONUM E NTS

Posi ti on

Nigli va

Remar ks

.

.

On west b an k of Ni i I i a r l i v N a s a ( ) g g n ear Nig i va vil age i n Ne a ese Tar ai , n or th of th e Basti Dist r i ct

pl

b

l

ly

.

.

.

p

p

.

p

.

At Rummin d ei in th e Ne al ese Tar ai , a out 6 mi es n or th fr om Du lh a in th e Basti Di st r i ct , an d SE 1 3 mil es n ear fr om NO 8

p

two i eces, and n ot in or i al osi t ion ; capl tal miss in g I m er fect i n scr i tion , r ecor i n g vi sit of A soka to k stu a f o n a o K a p

11

l

p

1 01

d

mana

.

d y l pl y l p ll p p l l ly p p

Cite b Bah ler as Pad er i a, fr om n ame of vil ag e t o south i gh tn i n g S it b an d i m er fect ; th e b e or tion of th e r emai n s ca i ta Abso u te er fect i n scr i tion , r ecor i n g vi sit of Asoka to th e Lumbi ni gar en .

.

d

d

.

ck inscr iptions of A soka ar e the most peculiar an d char acte ristic monuments of his r eign Th e longer inscr iptions all consist of di fler en t r ecensions of th e fo urteen Rock Ed icts published in the thi r te enth an d fourteenth year s o f the r e ign an d we r e r ecorded at l ocalities situate d i n the m or e r em ote p r o vinces o f the empire Th e village of S hahbazgar hi i s situate d on the site o f an anci ent ci ty the Po lu sh a of H iu en Tsiang in the Yasu fzai countr y forty miles nor th east of Peshawar an d mor e than a thousand miles in a dir ect line distant fr om Patalipu tr a ( Patna) the capital of the Maur ya empir e Th e principal inscr iption is r eco rded on both the easter n an d we ster n face s o f a mass o f tr ap rock 2 4 feet long an d 1 0 feet high Th e

ro

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'

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,

,

A S OK A

1 02

which lies on the sl ope of the hill south east of the v illage Th e Toler ation Edict No X II di scov er ed by C olonel Deane a few years ago is incised on a separ ate rock about fifty yar ds d istant from the m ain r ecor d 1 Th e text of all the fourteen edicts is near ly per fect A nothe r copy of the fourteen edi cts (om ittin g th e fourteenth ) h as been r ecently discov er ed at M an ser a in the H azar a Distr ict of the Panj ab inscr ibed on Th e text is less complete th an that at t wo r ock s Both these r ecension s agr ee in being S hahbazgar hi inscr ibed in the for m of A r amai c char acter w r i tten fr om r ight to left an d n ow gener ally known by th e name of Khar oshthi They also agr ee in givin g special p r omi nenc e to th e Toler atio n Ed ict whi ch h as at M anse r a on e si de o f the r ock to i tself an d at 1 S hahbazgar hi is in scribed on a sep ar ate r oc k Th e thir d v er sion of the edicts found on the nor ther n fr ontier of the emp ir e is at Kalsi in t h e Lower H imal ayas on the r oad fr om S ahar anpur to the cantonment of Chakr ata an d about fifteen mile s westwar d fr om the hill station of Mu ssoor i e (M an Th e r ecor d is incised on a block of white quartz shr i ) about ten feet l ong an d ten feet h igh wh ich stands ne ar the foot of the upper of two ter r aces over lookin g the junction of th e Tons an d Ju mna r i ver s Th e text of -

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Cun n i n gh am, Repor ts, d i ca, ii 4 47 ; M Fou ch er in 1

.

.

Par is,

p

93 Kapu r d agi r i , 1

.

.

.

bo

u r i n g vi

Epigr aph i a I n d i ca, ii

.

447 ;

2 2,

ii i — v ; Ep igr aph i a I n

.

.

This r ecen sion i s a n eigh

Pl

9 1 1 th I n ter n Congr ess

v

-

d

often ci t e

llag

un

d

f

o

er

Oti en tali sts, '

th e

me

na

of

e

.

I n d ian A n ti qu ar y,

x ix

.

43 .

TH E M ONUM E N TS

1 03

the edicts is near ly complete an d agrees closely wi th 1 the M anser a r ecension Th e character used as in all the A soka in scri ptions except S h a hbazgar hi an d M anser a is an ancient for m of th e Brahmi ch ar ac te r th e par ent of the moder n De vanagari an d alli ed ,

.

,

,

,

,

Two

copies of the fourteen edicts wer e published on the wester n coast Th e fr agment at Sopar a i n the Thana Distr ict north of B ombay consists only of a few wor ds fr om the eighth edict but is enough to show that a copy of the edicts once existed at this place which under the name of S fir par aka was an impo r tant port in ancient times for m any centuries Th e Gir n ar r ecension the e ar lie st disco ver ed is incised on the face of a gr anite block on the G ir n ar h ill to the e ast of the town of Jfin agar h in th e pen insula o f K ath l awar M S en ar t s tr anslations ar e based pr incipally on this r ecension which h as suffer ed many injur ies T wo copi es of the edicts ar e found ne ar the coast of the Bay of Bengal within the limits of the kin gdom o f K alinga c onquer ed by A sok a in the ni nth year of .

,

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2

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,

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11

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,

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,

me is wr itten Kh al si by Cu n n in gh am an d Sen ar t b u t Kalsi seems t o be th e cor r ect for m ( Cun n in gh am Repor ts i r h i m m E a r i u i 1 2 r I I n c ns d a i 24 P I 1 C u s c x 1 o ; ; p p g 4 , p 1

Th e

na

,

,

.

.

.

I n d i ca, ii 1

Lal I n d r aj i , 1

(

p

re

.

.

I n d i an A n tiqu ar y , i

1 882

,

.

,

ar

r in t

Corp u s,

Epigr aph ia

)

p

ticle



.

p

So

va h n n v n d B a i 2 v 2 a 2 8 ; ; g ; 59 ’ ar a i n J ou r n al Bomb Br R A S for

2 1 3

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.

.

.

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.

i i n a s r t I r i t a d a n i n s e P d S s c o e , , y 4; p I n d i ca, ii 4 47 .

.

.

1

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.

n

.

2 66,

&c ; .

4

A S OKA

10

eign Th e norther n copy is incised on a rock named Aswastama near the summit of a low hi ll near Dhauli about four miles a little west of south fr o m Bh u van esvar i n the Katak Distri ct of Or issa A space measuring fifteen feet by ten on the face of the r ock 1 h as been pr ep ared to r e ce iv e the insc r iption Th e southern copy is engrav ed on the face of a rock situated at an elev ation of about 1 2 0 feet in a mass of gr aniti c gneiss r ising near the centr e o f an anci ent fortified town known as Jsugada in the Ganj am Distr ict of the Mad r as Pr esidency eighteen m iles west north west fr om the town of Ganj am in 1 9 1 3 1 5 ’ 1 north latitude an d 84 5 3 5 5 east longitude Th e Dhauli an d Jsugad a recensions ar e pr actically duplicates an d agree in omitting Edicts X I X I I an d XII I They also agree in exhibiting two special edicts the Borderers an d the Provincials Edicts which Th e texts of the ar e n ot found anywhere else 1 Kal inga recensions ar e v er y imper fect Th e ser i es of the fourteen Rock Edicts is ther efor e known to occur in a for m more or less complete at h is

r

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1 1

Cor pus, Cor p us,

p p

n m m i n e s t a t e t s e a c u r a c t e) ; (

15

.

so

17

.

,

; Repor ts,

x

iii

1 12 ;

Repor ts,

ll L i t f dated F b

Sewe

s s o

,

x

iii 9 5 .

.

A ntiqu i

Gr ah ame s Re por t , e 2 2 , 1 87 2 , i n I n d ian A n tiquar y , i 2 1 9 ’ 1 Se ar ate or Detach ed ) E i cts, see For th e Ka i n ga I n d i an A n t iqu ar y , x ix 20 ; A ll th e Corp us, 82 Asoka i n scr i tion s ex ce t t h e mor e r ecen t iscover i es, n ame , th e M au ser e ver sio n of th e four teen e icts, E ict X I I at Sh ah b azgar h i , t h e Tar h i Pi ar E i cts, t h e Rampur wa Pil ar , th e So ar a fr agmen t , an d th e Si a ur a in scr i ti on s, ar e ea t wi th ties, M ad r as,

i

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p

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Sen ar t s b ook, I nscr iptions d e Piyad asi , ’

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in M

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ly

l

d l p b li h ed i u

s

n 1 87 8.

TH E M ONUM E NTS



1 05

e en places namely S hahbazgar hi M an ser a Kalsi Sopara Gir n ar Dhauli an d J au gad a I t is possible that other v ersions may yet be discovered Th e Minor Rock Edicts present a single short edict in var iant for ms to whi ch a second sti ll shorte r edict a summary of the Buddhist mor al law is ad ded i n the Siddapur a group of copies only These Minor Edicts ar e scattered nearly as w id ely as the four teen Rock Edicts being found at Bair at in Ra jputana Rfipn ath in the Central Pr ovinces Sah ase in Bengal an d Sidda pura in Mysor e Thr ee copies exi st at an d near 1 Siddapur a Th e Bhabra Edict forms a cl ass by itself I t i s in scribed on a detach ed boulder of re d d ish gr ey gr an ite of mode r ate size which was discov ered in 1 8 7 o n 3 the top of a hill near the ancient city of Bair at in Ra jputana wher e a copy of the fir st Minor Rock Edict exists Th e boulder is n ow in the rooms of the Asiatic S oci ety of Bengal in Calcutta This edict i s 2 r gy i i n u a r i ec l be ng d e ed Buddh t cle r i a d h s s s t o t e p Th e S upplementary Pillar Edi cts ar e shor t docu ments of compar atively sm all impor tance inscr ibed 3 on the pill ars at A ll ahabad an d Sfim ch i Th e two inscr ibed pillar s in the Nepalese Tar ai F b 2 M i e 1 8 Ric M e A k o ep o t E d i t 9 ; y f Buh l e i Epigmph ia I d i a i ii 1 34 i d a I 2 o t d d k C us p a e a s B i e a i r a t o co ; Q 4 m s v

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A ntiqu ar y , ar e

l

x x ’

s

.

diti

er s e

so a

cs o

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Buh

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15 on s o f

i n I n d ian A n tiquar y ,



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n

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Q

th e x

ix



u een s



an d

1 23 .

.

p

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.

Kau éambi

He

fr agmen t in Epigr aph i a I n d ica, i i 87 , 366 i s escr i e i n Bh ilsa Tapes, 1 93

d

.

,

.

.

,

s r

n

di ted

e

d

E ict s th e Sfin ch i ‘

Th e San ch i

pilla

r

1 06

A S OKA

ecord the visits paid by A soka to two Buddhist holy pl aces of gr eat sanctity an d the br ief inscr iption s in the Bar abar cav es near Gays r ecor d the pr esentation to the Aj iv ik a ascetics o f r ock hewn cav e dwell ings These dwell ings ar e hewn ou t of soli d gr an ite an d the walls have been polished with infinite pain s Th e known A soka i nscr i ptions may be conv eni ently in ar r an ged app r o xi m ately in ch r onologi cal o r de r e ight classes I Th e Fourteen Rock Edicts in se ven r ecensions as al r eady enumer ated ; I I Th e two Kalin ga Edicts at Dhauli an d J au gad a ; I I I Th e Minor Rock Edicts in four r ece n sion s as abov e enumer ated of the first edi ct an d in thr ee cop ies o f the second edict ; IV Th e Bhabr a Edict ; V Th e thr ee Cav e I nscr iptions ; VI Th e two Tar al Pill ar I nscriptions at Nigli v a r

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,

Ru mmin d ei ;

an d

V I I Th e S ev en .

Pillar

Edi cts ; in

si x

r

ecensions

,

as

b e enumer ated an d VI I I Th e Supplementar y Pillar Edicts namely the a A K m E ueen di ct the d i ct n the ll h s E a n a u s a b i o d Q abad p ill ar an d a v ar iant of the K au sfimbi Ed ict on th e S anchi p illar Th e number of distinct documents may be r eckoned as thi r ty fo ur I 1 4 I I 2 ; II I 2 I V V V 1 2 I ( 3; V I I 7 ; VI I I p 30 ; R p t i 45 B h l h i gh am C p C ipti i I di A ti q 6 1 edit d th i 3 y a ov

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1

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un n n

e

,

e

,

n scr

or

on s

us, n

e or s,

.

n

an

n

u ar

.

,

x x

.

.

u

as

er

.

TH E M ONUM E N TS

Th e inscriptions ar e

1 07

wr itten in forms of Pr akr i t that is to say ver nacular dialects near ly allied to li ter ar y Sanskr it But the dialects of the inscr iptions ar e to a c onsider able extent pecul iar an d ar e n ot i dentical either wi th Pali or an y of the li ter ar y Pr akr its Most of the inscr i ptions ar e wr i tten in the di alect known as Magadhi then cur r ent at the capital of the empir e wher e the text was evi dently pr epared T h e v ersions published at the distant stati on s of G i r n a r an d S h a hbazgar hi wer e pr epar ed in the vicer egal offices an d exhibit m any local peculiar i ties Th e texts in the Centr al Provinces an d Mysor e ar e i nter medi ate in char acte r between those of Gir n a r an d those of the east Th e mi nute study of the A soka in scr iptions by man y scholar s among whom M Emile S en ar t an d the late Dr B uhler occupy the place of honour h as greatly contr ibuted to the elucidation of numerous pr oblems in the histor y of I ndian civi lization but a full discussio n of the r esults obtained w ould be too tech nical for these pages Th e ar ts in the age of A sok a h ad un doubtedly attained to a h igh stand ar d of excellence Th e royal ar chitects wer e c ap able of de signing an d e r ecting spacious an d lofty edifices in br ick wood an d stone of h andling wi th success enor mous m onol iths o f con str uctin g m assi ve emb ankments w i th conv eni ent sluice gates an d o f excav atin g c ommod ious chamber s in the most r efr actor y rock S culpture was the hand maid of archi tecture an d all notable buildings wer e all

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A S OKA

1 08

freely an d r ichly ador ned with decor ativ e patterns an infin i te v ar i ety of has r eli efs an d numer ous statues o f men an d an imals Th e ar t of painting was n o doubt pr actised as we know it was practised with success in a l ate r age but n o specimen that can be r efer r ed to the Maurya period h as escaped the tooth of time Th e skill of the stone cutter may be sai d to hav e attai ned perfection Gigantic shafts of har d sandstone thir ty or forty feet i n length an d enor mous sur faces of gr ani te were p olished li ke jewels an d the j oint s o f masonr y wer e fitted with the utmost ni cety White ants an d o the r destructi ve agencies hav e p r ev ented the pr eser vation of an y specimens of woodwor k save a few p osts an d beams bur i ed i n the silt o f the ri v er s at Patna but the char acte r of the car penter s ar t o f the per iod is known from the ar chitectural decor ation wh ich as Fer gusson so persistently poin ted ou t is der iv ed fr om wooden prototypes Th e beads an d other jeweller y an d the seals of the Maur ya per iod an d ear lier ages whi ch hav e been fr equently found p r ov e that the I ndian lap idar ies an d gold smiths of the ear li est histori cal period were n ot inferior to those of an y other countr y Th e r ecor d ed descr iptions an d scul ptur ed r ep r esentations ofch ariots har ness ar m s ac cou tr emen ts dr ess te xti le fabrics an d other articles of necessity an d luxur y indicate th at the I nd ian empir e h ad then attained a stage of m aterial c iv ili zation pr o bably equal to that attained under the famous Mughal emper or s in the sixteenth an d se venteenth centur i es Th e G r eek writers speak wi th the utmost respect of ,

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TH E M ONUM ENTS

power

th e

Pr asii

1 09

resources of the kingdoms of the G an gar id ae that is to say M agadh a or

an d

an d

,

,

Wri tin g was in common use Th e Brahmi alphabet the parent of the modern Devanagari an d most of the other alphabe ts n ow used in I ndia a descendant from remote Phoenician an cestr y exhibits in the in scr ip tions so man y v arieties that it must hav e been already in use for sev eral centuri es Th e Sanchi relic caskets pr o ve that the use of in k for writing was familiar Th e care taken to publish the em peror s sermons by inscribing them on roc ks boul ders an d pillar s along the mai n lines of communication impli es the existence 1 of a con side r able publ ic able to read the documents Asok a s selection of sev en passages fr om the Buddhi st scriptures as h is specially cher ished texts impli es the existence at the time of a lar ge body o f collected doctr ine which must h av e been pr ese r ved in Th e v as t m ass of prose books in a written fo r m cluded in the Buddhist canon could n ot hav e been preserved for centuries by memory only Th e histor y of the origi n an d dev elopment of all thi s advanced civilization is v ery imper fectly known With v er y small exceptions consisting of a few coin legends the shor t dedicator y inscription on the r elic ir ab le di er tati o s i h i I d is h e Palaeo See Buh l e ad m i h e G d i h i i n s s d h i a p p a a o f s o t o t h e e e g p ( g B ah mi an d Kh ar o h th i alph ab et epr in ted f om Ban d cx x i i .

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1

r s

r

r un

r

n

,

n

s

s

r

of

ss

r

'

.

H oer n le,

Bir ch

-

bar k

’ ,

in

p

p

l

.

An E igr a h ica Note J A S B , Par t i , x ix .

.

.

.

l

s

c

n

r

n

r

s, r

th e S itzu n gsbemch te d er kais Aloud d er

an d

n

.

on

x

Wiss

.

l l

Pa m

-

in eaf,

1 30

.

Wien ,

pe

Pa

r

1 89 5 ,

an d

A S OKA

1 10

casket in the Pipr avastd pa an d possibly two or thr ee o the r v e r y brief r ec ords the A soka inscr i ptions ar e the ear liest known I ndian documents Th e historical links connecting the alphabet of these documents with its S emitic pr ototype ar e ther efor e wanting But B uh ler was probably right in der i ving the Br ahmi alph abets o f A sok a fr om Mesopotam ia an d i n dating the intr oduction of the ear li est for m of those alpha bets into I ndia in about B c 800 Dr H oer n le br ings the date a century or two lower down Th e Kh ar oshthi alphabet w r itte n fr om r ight to left in which the S hahbazgar hi an d Mau se r sr ecensions o f the edicts ar e r ecor ded is undoubtedly a for m of the Ar am ai c or Syr ian character intr oduced into the r egions on the north weste r n frontier of I nd ia afte r the con quest of the Panj ab by Dar ius the son of H y staspes about B o 5 00 Th e Persian so vereignty in those r egions p r obably lasted up to the in vasion of A lex ander Th e imposing fabr i c of the A ch aemeni an empir e of Per sia ev idently impressed the I ndian mind an d se v er al c ir cum stances indicate a Per sian i nfluence o n I ndian civilization Th e fr onti er r ecen sio ns of the edicts ar e n ot only wr itten in the char acter used by the Per sian cler ks they also use a pur e Per sian wor d t o exp r ess writing an d each edi ct opens w ith a for mula Thus saith King Pr iy ad ar sin which r ecalls the state ly langu age of the Achaemenian monar chs Th e p illar s both the detached m onumental mon o li ths an d the structur al columns of Asoka s ar ch itec ,

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M ONUM E NTS

TH E

1 1 1

tur e ar e obviously Per sian Th e char acter istic features the stepped base the bell capital an d the combined ani mals of the upper capital ar e distinctly A ch aeme nian Th e has r eliefs gi ve i nnumerable ex amples of such p illar s i n addition to the c onside r able number of existing str uctur al specimens Th e winged lions an d se v e r al othe r details o f ar ch i tectur al dec or ation ar e i nfluence Th e acanthu s exp r e ssions o f As syr ian leaves astr agalus an d bead mou lding an d honeysuckle decor ation of some of Asoka s capitals ar e probably to be explained as bor r owed fr om Gr eek or H ellenistic 1 or igin als I n the Buddh ist Jfitaka stor ies whi ch depict the li fe o f I ndi a in the fifth an d sixth centur i e s B c ar ch i tectur e is all wooden I n Asoka s age the mater ial of ar ch itectur e is gener ally ei the r br ick or stone imi tating wooden prototypes This change is probably in the m ain to be ascr ibed to Asoka H iu en Tsiang r ecor ds the tr adition that he built a masonr y wall round the capital r eplacing the old wooden palisade which con 3 tented the founder o f the Maur ya empir e A l though this is the only r ecor ded instance of the substitution of br i c k or stone for timber it is p r obably a symbol of a gen er al tr an sfor mation for n o cer tain example of an y masonr y bui ldi ng older than A soka s time except a few v er y plain stapes is known to exist Th e stupa ,

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See C u n n i n gh am, Repor ts, i 24 3, iii 9 7 , 1 00 ; v 1 89 ; V A Smith , G r acco Roman I n flu en ce on th e Civi i zat ion o f ’ An ci en t I n i a, i n J ou r nal A s Sac Ben gal, Par t i an d 1

.

d

Per r ot 2

.

l

-

.

.

.

an d

l

Bea

,

.

p

.

Ch i iez, H istory of A r t i n Per si a,

ii 85 .

.

.

pp

.

86 t o

1 20

.

A S OKA

1 12

ed cupola itself is of cou rse an exception to the statement th at Mau r ya archi tecture followed wooden for ms the stdpa being obviously a dev elopment of the ear then tumulus Th e or namental r ailings which surrounded the p r incipal std pas an d the tor a n gate ways of those r aili ngs ar e in ev er y feature an d ever y detail copies of woodwor k Th e im itation of woodwor k in these structures is so obvious an d the fo rms ar e clear ly so much more sui table fo r wood than stone that e v en the finest examples excite along with admiration a feeling of disapproval based on the incongr u ity between the design an d the mater ial Th e faoad es of buildings repr esented in the has reliefs suggest timber models with equal distinctness an d wood of course must hav e been actually u sed to a large extent for balconi es an d other features of the front ele vatio ns of buil di ngs as i t is to thi s d ay Th e art istic mer i t of the sculpture s although n ot compar able wi th the m aster p ieces of Greek gen i us Th e few sur vivi ng i s far fr om being contemptible spec imens of statues of the hum an figur e in the round ar e either so mutilated or the descr iptions an d pl ate s rep r esenting them ar e so i mperfect th at i t is di fli cult an d hazardous to pronounce an op ini on Th e lion s o f the on the ir mer i ts as wor ks o f ar t B akhira an d Laur iya Nandangar h pillars though some what stifl an d for mal ar e credi table perfor mau ces an d the p aws ar e executed wi th r egard to the facts Th e elephan ts as usual in I ndian sculp o f n atur e or sacr

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M ONUM ENTS

TH E

ture the best of the animals Th e fore half of an elephant is car v ed in the round from the rock ov er the Dhauli copy of the edi cts an d seems to be well executed I t occupies that position as an emblem of G autam a Buddha an d is r epl aced at Ka lsi by a dr awing of an elephant incised on the stone Th e sculptur es in bas r eli ef if they cannot often be descr ibed as beauti ful ar e full of life an d vi gour an d fr ankly r ealistic No attempt is made to idealize the objects dep icted although the artists h av e allowed their fancy consider able play in the r epresentations of tr i ton s an d othe r fabul ous cr e atur es Th e pi ctorial scenes ev en wi thout the help of per spectiv e tell the ir sto ri es wi th v ivi dne ss an d many of the figures ar e designed with much spiri t A s in almost all I ndi an sc u lptur e the treatment of the muscles is conv enti onal an d in adequate I m ages of the Buddha we r e n ot kn own in the age of A soka an d ar e consequently absent fr om his Th e Teacher is r epr esented by symbols sculptur es the empty seat the pair of foot prints the only wheel Th e decorati v e or naments of the A sok a sculptures much r esemble those found on many Buddhist an d Jain str u ctures for sev er al centuries subsequent They exhibi t gr eat v ari ety of design an d some of the frui t an d flower patter ns ar e extremely elegant ar e

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C H A P T ER I V TH E ROCK I nscmr

1

'

r l ox s

T h e F o ur te en R ock E d i cts

.

t i n h r t Th e e (

F our teenth Year s)

an d

EDI CT I T H E sk cann x nss or

1

E

e

Tms pious edict h as been wr itten by comm and of 2 H is S acred Majesty Kin Pr iy ad ar sin 3 n o an i mal may be slaugh H er e [2 in the capital

d

d

Th e h ea i n gs to th e e i cts, of Th e h ave been evise or igi n a 1

l d

.

th e

un

er stan

n g of

d

th e

d

d

ocu

do

an d

d

l l a ly

ou t c e r

of

r epetiti on

th e

o scu r e

i st in th e

to faci itate

br in g

to

d by

b

n ot ex

inser te

an d

men ts,

whi ch i s li abl e t o be

t h e fact,

ph

y di

cour se,

pp p iat d t a p ial bj t n piy ) i li t ally Th titl d d d m p iy ( Pali d d t a lat d b l d B t h a lite al d f th g d f t a l ati i mi l adi g Th titl wa t h fli ial ty l ki g i th th i d e t y B c a d wa d by Da ath a k A T d f d i h T K i yl ll a a a C w a f ) g y ( g ka H i Sa a by A Th p h a d M aj ty m b i fly H i M aj ty m t b a ad q at i h a l I t t q i Sh ah b a gar h i Kal i a d M a e f R k Edi t V I II t h t itl i th pl al Th i M aj ti i d a th q i al t f a a ki h i t i p G e t t S 1 4 t j g that

r ases,

3

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e

r

ns

r

ns

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see

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ver s on s o

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suc

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each edi ct

no e 1 .

,

b

Th e Sh ah azgar h i an d M an ser a r ecen si on s u se t h e San skr i t in ; th e o th er r ecen si on s u se th e Pa i for m for m Pr iy ad ar s

Piyad asi

.

I n t h is wor k th e San skr it for ms

lly b d h

h ave gen er a Th e wor or

,

p

ossi

bly

,

e en

er e

to th e

p f d p bably f pala e ly r e er r e ro

p p r o

er

mes

na

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r e er s

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of

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p l

Patalipu t r a, Sh ah b azgar h i,

t o t h e ca i ta

So, i n th e

,

TH E R OCK I NS CRI PTI ONS

15

crifice n or may holiday feasts be held for H is Majesty Kin Pr iy ad ar sin sees m ani fold e vil i n ev er t h eless holiday feasts cer tai n holiday feasts ar e me r i tor ious in the sight of H is M ajesty King d for

ter e

sa

-

,

,

-

-

,

.

Pr i y ad ar sin

1 .

For mer ly

the kitchen of H is Maj esty King Pr iy ad ar sin each d ay m an y thousan ds of li ving crea tur es wer e slain to make cur r i es A t the p r esent m oment wh en this pious ed ict i s being wr itten only these thr ee livin cr eatur es namely two peacocks an d on e deer ar e lled daily an d th e de er n ot inv ar i ably Ev en these thr ee cr eatures shall n ot be sl aughte r ed in futur e in

,

,

.

,

,

,

'

,

,

.

.

EDI CT I I

mr oar s

PROV I S I ON or

co

FOR M EN A ND A NI M A L S

'

Ev er ywher e in the dominions of H is Majesty King 2 Pr iy ad ar sin , an d li kewise in neighbo ur i ng r ealm s, ndya S atiy apu tr a an d such as those of the Chola Pa K er alapu tr a in Ceylon , in the dominion s of the Gr eek King A ntiochus an d in those of the other kings sub 3 o rdi nate to that A ntiochus ev er ywher e , on behalf of ,

,

,

,

,

K alsi ,

h er e

M an ser a

an d an d

all

in



lipu tr a, & c

of

.

M Sen ar t



.

s r en

th e

i

-

d

er in g

e s

Su ch feasts wer e

lif

e

If

.

su ch

lt

r ovi n ci a

th e Gir n er

l day f a t

Ho

1

p



-

ms to

see

lly

migh t be con s len t (sr estamati

er

er e

be th e e

p

.

best

1 2 0, n ote r en

d id d

wi th

d om .

d

o

er

to

r ase

Peta

at

pa

ssage

4 .

er i n g

for

maj a an imal

sa

estr ucti on of

avo

s

s

e

,

a

u

v

even

ho i

rn

,

.

r

,

e s s

-

or

o u es,

s,

ex ce



.

.



.

p l at p ly M ad a wa th apit l f th K ala i th M alaba Th p iti o a t

Tr ich i n o

s

r esen t

e

Sh ah azgar h i omits th e wor d ki n g Th e Ch o a ki n g om h ad its ca ita

b

ph

l day f a t h a dd G t d i l m ( ) Rh y Da i d Dial g p 7

or i ou s

See

,

dd

wer e

on

In

See

.

atten

d t ti id d m it es r u c

cor r es on

r ecen si on .

i s i ci bas

u sua

wn s

o



d p d th p

Rock E i ct V, th e

r ecen si on s of

l

d

ur

.

s

e

s

e c

r co s

H 2

.

a

e

o

os

Ur aiy ur , n ear e Pandy a ki n g n of th e Satiy a

A S OKA

1 16

Majesty Kin g Pr iy ad ar sin have two kinds of — i i i a s remedies [1 hosp t l ] been d ssem nated r emedies 1 H ealing her bs for men an d r emed I es for beasts medicinal for man an d medicinal for beast wher ever they wer e lacking have ev er y wher e been impor ted an d planted I n like manner r oots an d fr uits wher ev er they wer e l ackin g have been imported an d planted On the roads tr ees have been planted an d wells 2 hav e been dug for the use of man an d beast H is

,

.

,

,

,

,

.

,

,

.

,

,

,

EDI C T II I T H E Q U I NQ U EN NI A L

A SS EM BL Y

Thus sai th H is Majesty Kin g Pr iy ad ar sin 3 I n the thir t eenth year of my r eign I issued

this

command Ev er ywher e in my dominions the lieges an d the 4 Commissioner s an d the District O fficer s must ev er y p t a i ot k ow A tio h = A tioch u Th eo (B c 2 6 1 ot be i de tifie d Th e ki g s b o di ate to A ti h ca ,

,

u r

n

s n

n

M

1

.

s

med es

Buh

p l

h os ita Th e

for m i n

s



I

.

pa

l

fo

er

ll

oc us

n

ws th e

(

ld

er

m d isp osed to agr ee with

.

n

Sh r

ver sion s,

M

a

.

nn

ch iki chh a ,

o

o

s

s

n

n

r

u

c us

Sen ar t tr an slates ch ikisalcd

re

1

n

n.

.

.

)

ch i ki tsa

.

an d

Sen ar t

r en

d

as er s

.

b egi n i g at H eali g is given i n a b r iefer Th e tex t foll ows th e fu ll e th e Sh ah bazgar h i ver si on ssage

n



n

n

r

.

r ecen si on s. 1

ar e or

lly by m a i t d tw l e yea d f m th time f th k alway Liter a

,

s r ec on e

an oi n ti n g

cor on ati on

In an d

u q

i h m a b e w h c y ),

abhisheka

mn

l yea

r egn a

rs

con secr ati on

m enien tly

co

r en

d d er e

.

er i n g

yutd

n g r a uka

j

an d



)

(

)

t u a y

dj

as an a

l

Buh

er

ective

h as over

in t h e Gi r n ar tex t

adesike aha) , which

b

l

e so e

o

e

Th e

.



d ali fyi r en

wor ds ah a r p

(

ro

rs

e v

no n e

e



n ecessitat e

th e in ter

(

mean i n g

l

t h a u a a y

p

d th

ook e

r



e

l yal o

th r ee

dj uke

r etation of



cha

t u y a as a

su stan ti ve

Th e

.

r d u u k a s k e fi ( j )

ra

wer e h igh

r even u e an d ex ecutive oflicer s,

TH E R OCK I NS CRI PTI ONS



11

7

year s r epair to the Gener al A ssembly for the special pur pose in addition to other business of pr oclaiming the Law of Piety to wit Obedience to father an d m other is good ; liber ality to fr i end s acquaintan ces relati ve s B r ahm an s an d ascetic s i s good ; r espect for the sacr ed ness of life is good ; avoidance o f extr ava ance an d v iolence of lan guage g

five

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

is

,

,



ood

.

he cler gy will thus instr uct the lieges 1 both according to the letter an d the spirit

detail

in

,

.

EDI CT IV PRA CT I CE

TH E

PI ET Y

or

long time past even for man y hundred years the slaughter of living cr eatur es beings disr espect to r elativ es B r ahmans an d ascetics hav e gr own But n ow by reason of the pr actice of piety by H is Majesty Kin g Pr iy ad ar sin instead of the soun d of the war dr u m the sound of the dr u m of piety is hear d while heaven ly spectacles of procession al car s ele i a i s h r t o a n t s llum i n a t i n d the l i ke d pl yed o a e s a n p 2 th e people ikas I h a e tr a l ated th e two r an k to th e p dd s p e io i wo d by familia A gl o I dia te m P of Ker n tr a lat th e h yd a as tou r of i pecti on i st ead of a emb ly te ma le gy (sa ngha) acc d i g to M Sen a t wh om Pa i a f all a d a ceti I foll ow Buh le p ar aph a e th e teach e lcate wh at is befitti g at ch ool a d co ti ues will i divi e e i e I follow M S a t i t a slati g y te (y ta i ) i i i fi l t a d d a d h a n a s a s d e l a a a e a as t h e li ege e ( g n ( ) g n ) y Lite ally ( Sen ar t i Bu t n ow by r easo of th e p r actice f piety by H i M aj e ty th e sou nd of th e war d m d of the law of piety [i h ea d] b i gi g with o r ath e th e o f th e it th e di play f h eave ly p ecta le & c Th e p og e fa d m Buddh i t tea h i g i comp a ed to th e r e e b er ati o and i accompa i ed by mag ifi ce t r eligi ous p r ocessi o s an d For

a

,

,

,

,

,

.

,

,

,

-

,

,

,

,

,

,

.

r

r

u

r

n

r

s

r

n u sar

r

1

n

-

es

n

n

c

r

i

r

.

or

r

n

r s,

,

s,

s



n

n

s

,

,

o

r

s

s

s

cs o n

r

n

n

n

u

n

n

n

n

n

s

s

c

s,

s



n

n

r n

r

r

.

v r

r

n

.

,

,

o



-

s un

n

n

,

s

u

i

.

s

c

,

s



r

r

r

en

.

.

s

n

.

n cu

n



s r v c

n

r

.

s s



ss

n

,

es

ns

.



,

r

.

s

ns

n

r s

r

ns

v

.

r

ru

,

r u

,

n

ss o

n o

n

A S OK A

A s for m any hundr ed years pas t h as n ot hap ened , r iya at th is p r esent, by reason of H is Majesty Ki ng ’ d ar sin s r oclamation of the law of p iety, the cessation of li vin g c r e at ures, the p r ev ention o f of slau g ter cruelty to an imate beings, r espect to r elati v es, respect to B r ahm ans an d asceti cs, obedience to parents an d obedience to elder s, ar e gr ow in g Thus, an d in many other ways the ractice of piety r i ad ar sin will i s growing , an d H is Majesty King y cause that practice to gr ow still more

p

.

p

,

.

.

ly pe ta l taki g f a pla f mili ta y pagea t Fa h i d ipti th h i i B P e h a d dd p i a a l a l t t t h i t a e t g t p g lat i date i th b e t mm ta y th i pa age a d i f i f d ll th t u q y y a th e igh th m th th y l b at a p e i E wh e l d a a d it f i mag Th y mak a fo t a t f fi y by m a of b amb ti d tog th t t pp ted by a ki g p t with p l a d la la ti g Th i i f m i t a d i ath m th a tw ty b it high h a i g th h ap f a t 0p W hi t a d ilk lik l th f h ai Ca h m ) i w app d all d it whi h i th pai t d i a i l f d a wi th g ld il Th y m k fig e li a d lapi l a i d a i k d a dl b l d d l p a h a m a i t a h y g g g th m O th f id a t i h with a B ddh a eated i da a h a d a B dhi att a ta di g i at t hi m Th may b tw ty a all g a d a d imp i g b t a h diff t f m th th O th d ay m ti d th m k a d lai ty wi th i th b d all m t g th ; th y i g ki l f l m i ia a d ha ti ; t h y pay th i d mon ies whi ch

cer e

,

ce

e

r

o

er

s

,

er e or e

o

s r u c ur e

s s su

ro

e

s

er e

ur

n

er

sr

o

n

r oun

e

r

c r

s

n

,

s

o es

n

cu

s

en

s

e c o

-

c

,

on

n

,

r oc ss on

e

oos

,

n

e

e

ce e r

e e

-

os

-

or e

.

s

o

cen u r

ss

s

e ns

s

or

n

,

e

ve s or e

o

ou

on

e

on

e

e

.

r

on

escr

,

n

n

e r on

es

en

c es,

c

en s

-

u r

co

s

s



n s.

e

uo e

ver

h eaven

as

r ocess on

s

n

bd

escr i e

r

u

n

d

ar e

s

er ec e

e

n ces s

en

n

.

n

v n

,

o

er

e

r

s

n v r ous

n e

co o u r s

.

a e

e

en

n

r

e

over

ou

e c

n

e

o

n

,

e

er e

on

ve s n

er s

wi th flower s Bu

ddh a

s

two

to

n igh t s

.

x x vii ,

s

an d

en t er

in it

.

l l p

th e

n

n

c r s,

er s

u

us c

or

y

.

c no

n

n

co

so

e

o e

er

me an d

co

or

y

d

er

r actice ’

in

p

l

e

,

e

evo

on s

i n vite th e

mai n lamp s bu m an d r e

.

all

Legge s t r an s ati on

,

e c

u

,

e r

in

.

on e

Al l th r ough th e n i gh t th e kee music, an d r esen t offer in gs

p

un

en

e

Th ese d o

es

s

os n

e

ns

zu

n ce on

en

er s

s

u

Th e Br ah man s

.

cit

n

.

e

n

n

,

es

n

r

n

in cen se

s ver

er s

ren c

es

s

e o

n

i n g , h ave ski fu Th is is th e

C h (

en

n

s

v

,

en s r e

s

our s

s

ro

er en

on e

e

n

.

vn

n

,

o

ev s,

so

ur

.

)

th e

oth er

d

ki n g

ms

o

as

well

’ .

TH E R OCK I NS CRI PTI ONS

1 19

gr andson s an d gr eat gr andsons of H is Majesty Kin g Pr i adar sin will promote the gr owth of that pr actice un til th e end of the cycle an d abidin g in piety an d m or ality will proclaim the law of pi ety ; for the best of all deeds is the p r oclamation of the law of p iety an d the p r actice of pi ety is n ot for the imm or al man I n thi s m atter gr owth is good an d n ot to decr ease i s good For this v er y purp ose h as this wr iting been m ad e i n or der that men may in thi s m atter str i ve for gr owth an d n ot suffer decr ease This h as been wr itte n by comm and of H is Majesty King Pr iy ad ar sin in the thir teenth year of h is r eign Th e

son s,

-

,

7

,

,

,

,

1

,

.

,

.

,

.

EDI CT C E NS ORS

or

V

L AW

TH E

or

r

mr r '

Thus saith H is M a esty Kin Pr iy adar si n g A good deed is a cult thi n Th e author of a good deed oes a d ifli cu lt thi ng S hould ow by me many good deed s hav e been d one my son s gr andsons, an d my descendants after them un til the end of the cycle follow in thi s path, they will d o well ; but in thi s matter , shoul d a man neglect 2 the commandment , he will d o ill, inasmuch as sin is easily committed Now in all the Ion ages p ast , oflicer s known as Censor s of the Law of ety h ad never been appointed whe r eas in the four teenth year of my r eign Censor s of the L aw o f P ety we r e app ointed by me i 3 They ar e engaged amon g people of all sects in '

f

.

.

,

.

°

,

.

1

Si la

mor ali ty

,

or vi r tue ; asi la

immor al

mman dmen t

.



l

d

Buh er r en er s h e wh o wi give u p even a or tion of th ese vir tu ou s acts, wi ’ I h ave fo owe M Sen ar t 1 23 See commi t si n , n ot e 2 1 wer e all r e ate Con si er in g h ow c ose Savapdsandesu 1

Besai n

san d esarh ,

ll



co

ll

.

.

p

d

d

.

.

.

p

.

l ly l d



ll

.

A S OK A

1 20

moti

the establishment of piety the pr ogr ess of 1 pi ety an the welfar e an d happiness of the lieges r as RA sh as well as of the Yo nas K amboj as G andha 2 tr ikas Piten ik as an d other nations on my bor der s They ar e engaged in p r omoting the welfar e an d happiness of my hir ed ser vants soldier s] of Br ah 3 mans of rich an d poor an d of the aged an d in emoving hindr ances fr om the path of the faithful ro p

,

,

,

,

,

,

.

,

,

,

r

,

,

,

es

Ie

They .

engaged in the pr ev ention of wr ongful impr ison ment or chas ti sement in the wor k of r emov in g hindr ances an d of deli v erance consider in g case s wher e a man h as a lar ge fam ily h as been smitten by calamity or is advanced in year s 4 H er e at Pfitalipu tr a an d in all the pr ov inci al ar e

,

,

,

.

,

,

,

th e for ms r en

ligi

of

d by

re

r ath er

sects

er

D haah mayu tasa ,

1

d

Th e Rock E i cts M Sen ar t .

‘ ’

1

tr i

d

.

Yon as

th e Yusu fzai

ecti ve,

d

r esse

me

Y v a an as) , (

l

th e i eges, to th e o u

-

p p lati

y;

i k s a , r t

l

ss

s

o a

se

c s

su

n

-

K amboj as,

e en

re

on

.

l

e un

on



pa

d es

u vr es,

n h eu r

vr

1

n

n

e

,

n ess,

n

on es

vi ei lla r

on

re

e

ever

our



d



.

en t

for ei gn

p pl

er

vu e

en

r

es

mon g Br ah man s

)

,

br ah ma

n es et

de

eur

uti

lité

ns r

.

v n

s

d es r i ch es, et

de

l

eu r

fid eles d e la

.

u r

en

r etati on of

.

s

s

p

mon g th e aged th ey with th e r emoval o f

l ob tacl e de a

s, en

ou s

oss

s ev

.

a

l t p l t le i i S l i a t a ( ) ] g [ i l i f a at Pa t a d i th e Gi Th gl t p i d tly i e t d l al ly to make th e a d wa i telligible See p 1 1 4note 3

bo

,



nd a

d es gu er r ier s, d es

I ls s occupen t

d es

r o ec e

re

o

on

ser van ts,

re

e

c es

,

.

us

s

.

-

l d

s,

n

l al ly



n dh ar as, th e eo e of G a ; a so a n or th wester n t r i b e ;

u n cer

e

to

dd

l y l bje t mi i d p d



d ly Am g my h i d thi pa ag ya am g th p t t d a a d Vai s b y with th e w lfa a d h appi a u h b ta l am g my l yal B l ( 1

r efer

in gen er hi sts on

on

wester n fr on tier

co u n tr

p

th e faithfu

or

tain ; Pi ten ikas, u n cer tai n Sen ar t an d Buh er i ffer wi e in th eir in ter

sh

o



th e t er m t o th e Bu

of th e

so

I

,

.

Bfih ler t r an s ates

oes

bes on th e n or th

M

ll a dd g

e



cr eeds

r estr i cti n g

t h er e i s di fli culty i n as

th an

as a co

b ein

i n Asoka s

cur r en t

on

mp ir e



,

e



s

oc .

oun

n

r r na

t ex t

on

ly

wor d h er e

TH E R OCK I NS CRI PTI ONS

1 21

towns they ar e engaged in the super i ntendence of all 1 the female establish ments of my brother s an d sisters an d other r elati v es Ev er ywher e in my dominions these Censor s of the Law of Pi ety ar e en gaged with those amon g my li eges wh o ar e de voted to piety establi shed in piety or add icted to alms i vin g For thi s pu c h as fi ll s p ious ed ict been w r i tten that it may e s for lon g an d that my subj ects may 3 act accor di ngly ,

.

3

,

,

m

,

.

EDI C T V I PROM PT

TH E

DI SPA T C H

BUS I NESS

or

Thus sai th hi s Majesty King Pr iy ad ar sin For a long time past business h as n ot been disposed 4 of, n or h av e r epo rts been receiv ed at all h ours .

1

M

mb er s

of

at

at

e

v r n o r s o e g

Tosali ,

by

h ar em

th e

sec usi on of

d

I n ia 1 Th e .

ro a

u B ( h

l

r

er

)

r ov n c

s

.



o r

r

n

zen an a,

or

,

er e s

our

e s

Suvar n

an d

l

y l fami ly w tati ed a i y l a t f p i ial t w Ta i la Ujj ai I ab t ai f om t a lati g al d h agi i

th e

on

s v cer o

n s,

x

ns

s or

,

anesu

o

n

n,

b ecause th ose ter ms con

n ote

women , wh i ch was n ot th e cu stom of an ci en t ’ ’ M Sen ar t tr an slates th e wor d by l in tér i eu r .

ph

.

r ase

l

b lish ed in piety

dh r amad h i tane,

esta

p

’ ,

d

is omitte

fr om th e Ka si tex t For dhmnmayutasi , see age 1 2 0, n ote 1 in thi s assage it seems t o be an adjecti ve qualify i n g viiitasi ,

d

p

mi n i on s

o

1

.



.

l

d



an s cc bu t que cet edi t C est Sen ar t tr an s ates a été gr ave Pui sse t il u r er on gtem s, et ui ssen t les cr a ’ Paj d ( pr aj a) is b etter tr an s tur es sui vr e ain si mes ex em es ’ It stil h as th e mean in g of ate sub ects than cr eat ur es su b ects i n H i n i Th e i n stituti on of ofli cial r e or t er s (pati aed akas) ex iste i n

M

.

-

.

l d j

j

th e t ime

of

d

th e

r e or

s s cr

in s

c

pl

l

Ch an

.

d

r agu

p

é

.

l

.

d

p

p

pta

d

Th e

.

over seer s,

to

wh om is

as

d ty f watch i g all that go a d maki g th ki g S me a t d wi th th e et ly t e t wi th th at of th e a my Th e of th e city a d oth

sign e

p t pe ti

d

-

on

u

o

es on ,

n

e

o

,

n

n

.

o

er s

r e

n

n

e

n r us e

r

.

A S OKA

have accordin gly ar r anged that at all hour s an d in all places whethe r I am din ing or in the ladi es apartmen ts in my bedroom or i n my cl oset in my 1— car r iage or in the palace gardens the oflicial r e or t er s S hould keep me co nstantly infor med of the p people s business which business of th e people I am 2 r ead y to dispose of at an pl ce a y A n d if pe r chan ce I personally by word of m outh command that a ft be made or an order executed or 3 an yth in g u r gent I s entr usted to the ofli cials an d i n that business a dispute ar ises or fr aud occurs among 4 t h e cler gy I hav e comm anded that i mmediate r epor t I





,

,

,

,



,

.

,

,

°

,

,

,

mploy

for mer an d

latte

th e

th e

r

dj

th ei r

as

e

coa

utor s

th e

cou r

th e

cou r tezan s of

most tr ustwor th y men ar e app oin ted M h n t e x s a s u o t d b y S t r a b v e e e o ( g q ,

p

A n cien t I nd i a, 1

Th e

ex act

mp

ca

.

,

fill

to I

a

s

th ese

48 ;

.

bl e t

Th e

.

y

ci t

tezan s of th e

,

an d

offices

M Cr in d le,

in

°

.

me

mean in g

wor ds i s u n cer tai n ’ bedr oom followin g M Sen ar t

of so

l a y by P

G abhd gd r a, wh i ch I t r an s ate

of

th ese ,

.

.

,

l d a t lo et m f K V a h u h B t ma lat i a iag l Vi i t mh i ); ( I h a ad pted Buh l ligi t ait at o y ( S a t) t a l at i f Ch a d ag pta Th M ga th a t C mpa ki g l a h i pala ly i tim f wa b t al f ot mai i f j dgi g a H e th t f th p p t b i t t h wh l d ay wi th t all owi g th e b i h a i h h m t d t h h h w d t t e p g h i to b d t hi p b b d by that i wh att yli d H h ai g a wh il th f w d o ti f i ti whi h i p f m d by f da t i till p d att i s tr an s ate o

euse,

on

ns

1

e

o e

e

ru

en n

in g 1



en

r

,

see

er

ve

s

re



er s

o

o

c

er son ,

b

s

r r ves

ou r

en

s,

e

.

er or

c n

r

n u es

so

u

n cour

ns

o

e

us

e ru

s

c ses

e r n

en

e

,

en

e

ou r

e

u

u s n ess

n

e

r

en r e

ou

oo

n

e o

c uses.

n

u

o

n

n s,

or or

n er

n ee s

e e

r ocee

s s

.

.

p

l d

d a m gi t at id thi w d t b Cl gy p i a M S a t y ym f a hgha a d t lat l a mblé d cl gé committee [of a y a te o h le t a lat

this wor



,

o

s n on

r

a

s

er

Bu

e

i e x i I r i a v A n c n t n d t S a o 6 n 1 , , , ( 5 ’ I n some assages I have tr an s ate Ofli cials, mah amd tesu .

a

s

c

es

.

ccou n

on

ce n

s

on ,

c

en es

s

ou

o

er s



,

even

,

r

or

s

ose o

ur

e

c

e

e ves

n

or



c a,

r

.

c rr

a



er n

.

.

re

o



ro

n

.

e re

r



r ne

e n

r

r

s nc u r



r

ns

ar s s r

es

es

s r



.

.

en

.

,

n

r

er s

con s

r ans

es

n



c s

s

sse r

or

e

u

o

er

e ’ .

TH E R OCK I NS CRI PTI ONS

1 23

must be made to me at an y hour an d at an y place for I am nev er fully satisfied with my exer tions an d my dispatch of business — Wor k I must for the public ben efit an d the r oot of the matter is in exer t ion an d dispatch of b usiness than which nothin g is mor e efi cacious for the general welfar e A n d for what d o I toil ! For n o other end than this that I may di schar ge my debt to an imate beings an d that whi le I make some happy in this wor ld they may in the next wor ld gain heaven For thi s pur pose h av e I caused this p ious e di ct to be wr i tten that it may lon endure an d that my sons grandsons an d gr eat gr ang i sons may str iv e for the public weal ; though that is a di fli cult thi n g to attain 1 sav e by the utmost toil ,

.

,

.

,

,

.

,

,

,

,

-

,

,

.

EDI CT V I I F ULFI L M RNT

I M PERFEC T

or

L AW

TH E

Maj esty King Pr iy ad ar sin desires that in all places men of all sects may abide for they all desir e master y ov er the sen ses an d pur ity of mind M an howev er is unstable in h is wishes an d unstable in h is likin gs S ome of the sects will perfor m the whole others will per for m but a par t of the commandment Even for a per son to whom lavish l ibe r ality is impossible the virtues of master y over the senses pur ity of mind ‘ r atitude an d fidelity ar e always me r i to r ious g Th e te t of th e co l di g pa ag aph va ie ligh tly i th e di ffe e t e e si o Th e Kal i te t add th e w d my wi e M Se a t t an late p i e t il sub i t e lo gtemp ! et q e H is

,

.

,

,

,

.

,

.

,

,

,

1

,

1

r

.

r

n

r



,

p

u ss

s s

n

s s

or

s

-

-

r

r

x

s

s

s

r

s

v s



.

n

s

u

&c

.

ll

I h ave fo

ekad eéai n

r

n

n s.

c n

r

n

mes fils 1

nc u

x

I ( nd

.

i n ter r etation takes th e wor d

wed M

o

A nt

.

x ix

of n i chd

as

Sen ar t in h is amen

.

see

.

(

)

n ich e

n i cha , an d

p

.

n ote 2

1 1 9,

m

as

l

ded

n i tya

,

tr an s ates i n ‘

r en

;

d

er in g of

an d

i n h is

lway Buh l a l wly ma a

er

s

o

n.



12

4

A S OKA

EDI CT

VII I

PI OUS T OURS

I n times past Their M aj esties Ki ngs, Gi r n d r ] used 1 to go o ut on so called tour s of pleasur e dur in which hunting an d other Similar amusements use to be practised H is M aj esty Kin Pr iy ad ar sin , howe ver , in the g elev enth year of 1118 r eign went ou t on the road 1 1 to tr u e kn owledge , whence originated her e 1 tour s evoted to piety, dur in g which ar e pr actised the beholdin g of ascetics an d Br ah mans, with l iber ality to them the beholding of elder s, lar gess of gold the beholding of the countr y an d the people, proclamation o f the law of p i ety, an d discussion of the law of 5 piety ’

1

-

,

.

,

,

.

1

D evd n ai it pr iya an d d ead n arnpiya d evan a pr iya ( M ’ n t o K a i m i r M v a ll Th a e s f n i s t i s u i t n a ur a r m s e e e o e a e , , , ( q ) g .

l

pl

l

r

ki n a a n a s , j g ,

r

dj d n a



of Gi r n fir

vi h d r ayatd i it

tex t

Th e wor

.

nd

ma

1

A tikdtan gaah tar ant

s ar e

ar itta lant

A ti kar htant

misu

M

Sen ar t

.

f x n e 1 2 p r v i d d y p a s w i t h u l t t e s S o t e a w o t e e 1 4 ) ’ Th e wor d nd ma (nama) so call ed is omi tted in th e Gir n ar .

.

.

,

-

,

tex t 1

l

n ikh a

1 92

.

d

an d

iiaydsu

aih d layd tai it

d eod nar npiyd

i (



j

,

.

mmen t ar y (i



M

Sen ar t s

.

co

modi fication

r equir es

)

1 86

.

.

plai d by P f Rh y Da i d i D i l g h t h B dd p Th d w hi h p a h t m t e 9 f igh t f ld path l ad i g t th e tat th f a A h at t i igh t f ld p ath a i h i Th h i tep i th t w t ( ) g ) ( g h m i b a i f li g ( 3) i gh t w d ( 4 t h i h d f t ) g (5) g li lih d ( 6) igh t e ti ( 7 ) igh t m m y ( 8) igh t medi a d t a q i ll ity ( Rh y Da i d B d dhi m p tati may m a at Patalip t a ( e p 1 1 4 t 3 H i th mpi p 1 20 te d m h D s t i i p f a i t a d w e t l i t ( ) g h a a li i g ai t bj t de i g f e ati of a Th e wor d (da a ) i i comm th e i mage f a god e to Th e tr u e

o

e

ou

s

1

e

oo

r

er e

1.

e

asan e

ec

o

e



ro

on ,

u



n

r a an e

ser v n .

1

e

v ou r

s,



e ns

r e.

v e

n

2

s,

or

se

.

r

r

,

s

r

o e o

r

,

s

.

,

.

,

no e



e r es

v n er



er or

e o

r

u

u r

e e

o

re

a o u es

n

e e

s

e

v

s

c

r

s

e n

on

o

r

s,

v

s

.

n

o

-

x er

or



e

or

n

ro

ne

o



no

n o

1

r

,

n



ex

r

s,

,

.

-

s n

on

1

.

e e

n

ve

is

a,

u

e s

ee

sense

c

u

v s

on , su c

s

rs n

s

n

o

n

v n

v e

s

n

on us

n

or

TH E R OCK

th at time, t

sin ce

those

for

of

1 25

hese

pleas

th e

ar e

past

th e

.

EDI CT IX

1

TRUE C ERE M ONI AL

Thus

Maj esty K in g People per for m var ious cer emon ies on occasions of sickn ess 3 the weddings of sons the weddings of daughter s th e bir th of childr en an d depar tur e on j our neys On these an d other per for m many similar occasio ns people sai

th

— Pr iy ad ar si n

H is

1

,

,

,

.

,

momes

cer e

.

uch ti mes th e womankind per for m many th i d ay Th e dha a o law of pi ety equi e e e e ce to be h ow to B ah man asceti c a d elde ; a d A oka th e e fo e co i de th e e e e tial beh oldi g of h pe o to b e a act of me it I hi capacity of f hi a d fath e e eig people h e likewi e claim edi t fo beh oldi g i p e ti g th e co t y a d peopl e Th e Gi A te t alo e i e t th e wo d a d betwee th e ou t y a d th e pe pl e T a l ated f om th e Sh ah b a garh i te t i ge e al acc d i te p etatio a ce wi th Buh le of th i edi ct Th e e e io d i fle mo e widely th a al Ce emo ie M a ngala n mo ial ma hgalam o ce a do t o a t ato d e ig i fi ati emb r asse deu li e e et q il e t pa aisé d e e agé é l impo ta ce pa ti mett e flisamme t a eli f da u e t ad ctio co ise l idec d e fete d e éj o i a e ( p l age p ali) et l idec d o p atiq e eligie e q i doi e t po te b o h e a q i le k S t a a M e a ac ompli t i I J t a a s S a t t h e e ( i fo m me th e wo d i pe ially appli ed to th e wo h i p of th e H i d oo dei ti e But

at s

s

,

nn ,

.

s

r

1

n

r

ns

,

r

n

n

s cr

s

n

r

1

r

ns



n

r s

n

r

,

c

ns r

s

n

,

s



.

n

r

n

or

ns

c ns

r

n.

r

ns

n

o

x

o

r

or

x

z

r

r s ns

,

n

n r

c

r

,

n

n

r

n

s

su c

n

r n



n

n

r

.



rs

so v r

s

n

r

n

v r

s r

r

n

s,

v r

r

.

un r

,

s,

rs

n

r

s

'

r

n usu

r

1

r

n

x

x



r

s,



r

n

r

s

n

1

r

r

n

,



n

r

u

,

ns

c



n

r

n



ss

s

.

ur

s

n

u

nc ’

us

,

r

n

n

.

ou r



r

v n

n

n

i

i

.

on

c

n



r

,

e

u

r

,

r

cu

u ss n c

us s



c

u

r

,

u s

r

n



r

s

n

r

su

r

re

n ces

nu

.

,

s

u

ur

s

.

n

r

rs

c

s.

Aod ha, vivaha

Cf Latin d ucer e an d .

.

n u ber e.

Skr W oman kin d str ip/aka ; mah idd yo ( Gir n Ar ) mah ila; balika j an ika ( M an sor a) Sh r bd laka ; abakaj an iya l s i K a ( ) ’

1

,

,

,

.

.

.

A S OK A

1 26

manifold cor r upt an d worthl ess ceremonies Cer e monies cer tainly hav e to be per for med although that the cer emonial so r t i s fr u i tless This sor t howev er — o f pi ety bear s gr eat fr uit ; it includes kind treatment of slav es an d ser vants honou r to teach er s r espect for li fe liber ality to ascetics an d Br ahmans These things an d oth e r s of the same kind ar e called the cerem on ial .

,

,

,



.

,

,

,

.

,

,

,

of

iety

.

ught a father son br other master fr iend o r c omrade n ay ev en a ne ighbour to say : This is mer itor ious this is the cer emonial to be per for med until the attainment of the desir ed end By what sor t of ce r em o ni es is the desir ed end attain ed for th e cer emonial of thi s wor ld is of d oubtful efli cacy ; per chance it may accomplish the desir ed end per chance its effect may be mer ely of this wor ld Th e cer emonial of piety on the contr ar y is n ot tempor al ; i f it fails to attai n the desir ed end in this wor ld it cer tainly begets endless mer i t in the other wor ld I f it h ap us to attain the desir ed end then a gain of two kin is assur ed namely in this wor ld the desir ed end an d in the other wor ld the begetting o f endl ess me r i t thr ough the aforesaid cer emonial of piety er efor e o

,

,

,

,

,

'

,

,

,



.

,

.

,

,

,

.

,

,

,

,

1

EDI CT

X

T RUE G L ORY

Majesty King Pr iy ad ar sin does n ot believ e that lor y an d renown br in much profit unless the people th in the present andgthe futur e o bedi ently hear ken to the Law of Pi ety an d confor m to its pr ecepts E efl t de e q i di ti g e la p atiq e d e la eligio p atiq d it el i a t Piyad a i t q e la p emie e pr o d it i fai lli bleme t de f i t q i éte d e t a l a t e m de i d a eflet ta d i que le a t e p e e t t t a pl limité a temp p e e t et a la i co ta e pa tic li e e q i H is

.

,

'

1

n

e

u es

r

u

,

u r

c

u

u

su v n

,

n

r

u

n

s

n

s

ru



s

s

u

,



s

r

u

c es n

n

r

r

u



s

n

on

u r

,

'

n

s

on a

s

s

u



u r

s

été l occasi on

r

s

uv n

s n

r i S n a t e , (

ou

c r

.

u

ns

us

nc

vo r r

es

u

s

r

u

TH E R O CK I NS CRI PTI ONS

For that Pr iy ad ar sin

27

y does H is Majesty King esir e glor y an d ren own But whatsoev er exer tions H is Majesty King Pr iya dar sin h as mad e all ar e for the sake of the li fe her eafter so that ev er y on e may be fr eed from per il which peril is Sin Difli cu lt v e r i ly it is to attain such fr eedom whether 1 people be of low or of high degr ee sav e by the utmost exer tion an d complete renunciation ; but this is for those of hi gh degr ee extr ao rdi nari ly d ifli cult ur

onl

ose p

.

,

,

,

.

,

,

,

,

1

EDI CT X I T RUE C H A RI T Y

There is n o such char ity as the charitable gift of the Law of Pi ety , n o such fr i endship as the fr i endship i n pi ety n o such di str ibution as the distr ibution of piety, n o such kin ship as kinship in pi ety Th e Law of Pi ety c onsists in these things to wit , kind tr eatment of slaves an d ser v ants, obedience to father an d mother charity to ascetics an d Br ahmans r espect for the san ctity of li fe The r efor e a fathe r son br other , m aste r , fr i end , or comrade n ay ev en a neighbo ur, ought to say : This ’ is m eri tor ious, this ought to be done H e wh o acts thus both gain s this wor ld an d begets infinite mer i t in the n ext wor ld , by means of this 1 v er y char i ty of the L aw of Pi ety ,

.

,

,

,

.

,

,

,

.

.

pl

1

Peo

vagen a

qui te 1



j K a s i l ( ) e,

.

Cf M att h ew

d

i n to th e kin g th e

.

ser

r ai nsa, vi

l y

t a it

l

of

Var ga

c ass

x ix

It is h ar

.

mon 2 3:

2 3:

m of h eaven

( Sh d hb

p pl



an d

.

Th e

eo

e

for

a r i ch

.

M an ser a)

di

r ea

n

i s g

l

.

For th e

ex

man

h or tati on to

to

en ter

ex er

t ion ,

Nigr od h a fr om Dhammapada, v 2 1 , in D ipa Ear nestn ess (appamad a) i s th e way to immor .

i n di fler en ce i s th e

th e i n difler en t



d

of

'

,

.

o

'

1

vagr en a

cer tain . .

of

r A G i m ( );

an en a

ar e

way

li ke th e

to

d ad e

d

eath ;

th e

ear n est

do

n ot

d ie,



( Old en ber g s tr an slati on )

Th e tr an s at ion is fr om th e Sh ah azgarh i tex t

b

.

Th e

.

oth er

28

A S OK A

EDI CT X I I TOL ERATI ON

H is M ajesty King Pr iy ad ar sin does rev erence to men of all sects, whether ascetics or householders, by donations an d var ious m odes of r ev erence H is Majesty , howe v er , car es n ot so much for don a tions or external r everence as that ther e should be a gr owth of the essence of the m atter in all sects Th e owth of the essence of the m atter assumes v ar i ous or m s, but the roo t of it is r estraint of speech, to wit a man must n ot d o re ver ence to his own sect by disparaging that of another man for trivial reasons Depr eciation should be for adequate reason s only, because the sects of other people deserve r ev erence for on e r eason or an other By thus acting, a man exalts his own sect, an d at the same time does ser vice to the sects of other people By acting contrar iwise, a man hurts his own sect, an d does disservice to the sects of other eOple For he wh o does rev er ence to h is own sect, w lo disp ar aging all other sects fro m a feel ing of attachment to hi s own , on the supposition that he thus glor ifies his own sect in r eality by such Conduct inflicts sever e .

.



,

.

.

.

.

'

,

wn

ect 1 S elf con trol ther efor e is meritorious to wit h ear k en in g to the law of other s an d hear kening wi ll ingly t e t di ffe sligh tly i ph a eol ogy Th e n i th edi ct abo e may be ompa ed Th e ge e al se e i th at eve y ma i b ou d to eigh b o a d th at uch i cate th e Law of Piety to hi omm i catio i bette th a an y mate ial alm gi i g In comm th at Law men a e b o d by t o ge ti es th an th ose of atur al ki d ed Compa e th e e p e io d agad a sdsa a elati o of th e Faith i D ipa a i a ii 1 6 1 7 & c Buh le an d M S n a t I h a e i gh t ly u de tood th is edi ct whil e Pr of Ke A d n t ( 2 7 0) h a er ed Self co tr ol sayama Gir n Ar tex t h as amavdya con co d o

s

.

-

,

,

,

,

.

,

x

n

r

s

r

c

r

n

.

s

ns

r

s

n

r

r

.



,

v

un

n

v r c s

n

r

v.

s

1

n

-

r



.

r

rs

n

s r

x ,

r

v

,

n

s

s

n

v n

s

r

ne,

,

,

.

n

r

n

ss

.

,

r

n

r

r

n

ur

s n

un

n

r

s

un

c

v

n

.

n

r

.

.

e

.

rn

n

.

r

,

.

.



,

s

,

TH E R O CK I NS CRI PTI ONS

1 29

this is H is Majesty s desir e that adher ents of all sects S h o uld be fully instr ucted an d sound in d octr ine Th e adher ents of the sev e r al sects must be infor med that H is Majesty car es n ot so much for donations or exter nal r ever ence as that ther e should be a gr owth an d a l ar ge gr owth of the essence of the m atte r in all sects For this v er y pur pose ar e employed the Censor s o f the Law o f Pi ety the Censors of the Women the 1 1 A n d thi s I n spector s an d other ofli ci al bo dies is the fr uit ther eof th e growth of one s own sect an d the gl or ificat ion of the Law of Pi ety ’

For

,

.

,

,

.

,

,

.

,





,

.

EDI CT

XI II

T RUE C ONQ U ES T

3

H is Majesty Ki ng Pr iy ad ar sin in h is r eign conquer ed the Kal ingas Th e Cen sor s

1

j

Vach abh umilcd ,

t ain

mean in g

con ectu r al

ll d d t i Pilla Edi f de d I pe t i

ar e a

ly

r en

n

o

e

u

re

r

c or s,

ns



ct

of

VI I

.

un cer

s o

.

l b d ie

1

W omen

of

the ni nth year

Officia

s,

o

by M egasth e



n ih a a y

n i o k e y ) (

d d

Of th e Boar

.

s

.

escr i

bed

n es

Wh en

1

M

.

Sen ar t

.

book was p blish ed



s

u

th e i n ter

,

p

r etati on of

l b d di t p l aq ll p q t t e ts i fai d p d d hi fly a imp f t t a ipt f th Kal i t t f th Th f a p a ti al ly p bli ati mpl te fa imil Shah ba g r hi t t ha d d p ibl a t a lati i whi h y littl d bt mai Th Kali ga K ali nga i ; th t y t di g al g th m h h a t h t h l di a t f th Bay f B f M i t t a a a e g bey d th Kri hna i th th ; ft all d th e Th Kali ga wh i h a pp ed t b th ki gd m f Ama a ati Wa a gal a d Kali ga p p Raj amah d i A dh a I th i di t th am i d i b th t h i g l a a d th pl al Th Dh a li a d Ja gada k i ipti a it at d i thi d p i e c e q

t h is

ce e r ate

en

e

c

e

e

ver

e

e

s,

n

n

n

ur

n

r



.

s con

n

e cou n r

r e,

n .

ex

s

on

ns

.

e

e o

cs

r

e

e

r ver on

n

e n

e

u

os

n

,

c

uer

oss

ro

en

r e su

r

or

s e

i

s

c

e

e

er e

s

r

o

n scr

co

c

ou

c

n

n s.



o

e

on

or

c

s r en

s,

r

er ec

r

re

ou

n

co s o

n

o

ex

e

,

r es u e

e

ue

ou r

on

on

a

z

1

e

c

u

c

e



e

e

s u se

u

.

o

en c

n

o

r o er

n

n

r ov n

e

n

r oc

en

n

r v r on

n

e sou

o

ex

e

n scr

e

e n or

o



r ee

r

so

v

en

or

e sn

o

on

u

on s

r

n

re s

,

r

.

e

u

e

A S OK A

1 30

One hundr ed an d fifty thousand persons wer e thence car r i ed away captiv e on e hundr ed thousand wer e ther e sl ain an d m any times that num be r pe r ish ed E ver since the annexation of the Kali ngas H is Majesty h as zealously pr o tecte d the Law of Piety h as been devoted to that law an d h as pr oclaimed its p r ecepts H is M ajesty feels remor se on acco unt of the conquest of the Kal ingas because dur i ng the subjugation of a pr e viously unconquer ed countr y slaughter death an d tak ing away captiv e of the people necessar ily occur wher eat H is Majesty feels pr ofound sor r ow an d r egr et The r e is how ev er anoth er r eason for H is M aj esty feeling still mor e r egr et inasmuch as in such a countr y dwell Br ahmans an d ascetics men o f differ ent sects an d householder s wh o all pr ac tise obedience to elde r s obedi ence to fathe r an d mother obedience to teacher s pr oper tr eatm ent of fr i end s acquaintances com r ades r elativ es Slav es an d ser vants with fidelity o f de v otion To such people dwelli ng in that countr y happen violence Slaughter an d separ ation fr om those whom th ey lov e Ev en those pe r sons wh o ar e themsel v es p r otected — i m i r etain th e r affec tio n s undi in sh ed z r ui n fall s on their fr iends acquaintances comr ades an d r elatives an d in this way v iolence is done to those wh o ar e 1 per sonally unhur t Al l thi s diffused miser y is matter For ther e is n o countr y of r egr et to H is M ajesty wher e such communi ties ar e n ot found including others beside s B r ahm an s an d ascetics n or is ther e an y ,

.

,

1

,

,

,

.

,

,

,

,

,

, .

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

1

.

,

,

.

,

,

,

,

3

.

.

,

,

i t a a n n x e ed lad hesh u i i 1 That is to say wh o p r acti se th e dha r ma wh ich a summar y is given

Con qu er ed,

1





a

,

,

.

or

,

y

Law of Pi et

,

of

.

Th at is to

1 1

y

all

’ Diflu sed



on

men

’ .

say ,

miser y M

.

ya

th e ’ ,

re

l

equ i va en t

Senar t

d

en ies

bllagai it, an d tr an slates (i 309 ) .

l

h u r t i n th ei r fee in gs ’ ii h ler s

to B

th e

di t ib s r

.

all

u ti ve

l

toutes les vi o

ll

th i s fa

Se

en ces

s sever

n se of pr ati

de

cc

r n e e g

.



TH E R OCK I NS CRI PTI ONS

1 31

place in an y countr y wher e the people ar e n ot attached 1 to some on e sect or other Th e loss of e v en the hundr edth or the thousandth part car r i ed away of the per sons wh o w er e then S l ain captive or done to death in Kalinga would n ow be a matter of deep r egr et to H is Maj esty A lthough a man shoul d d o hi m an inj ur y H is Maj esty holds that it must be patiently bor ne so far as it can possibly be bor ne Even upon the for e st tr i bes in h is dominions H is Maj esty h as compassion an d he seeks their con v er sion inasmuch as the might e v en of H is M ajesty is bas ed on r epentance They ar e war ned to this eflect S hun e v il do ing that ye ma r uction a a e c pe de t be u s e s s c y H is M aj esty desir es for all ani mate bein 8 secur i ty contr ol ov er the passions peace of mini .

,

,

,

,

.

,

,

'

.

-

,

,

,

o u sn ess

1

.

A n d this is the ch iefest c onquest, in H is Majest y s op in ion— the c onquest by the Law of Piety ; th is al so is that effected by H is Majesty both in his own dominions an d in all th e neighbour ing r ealms as far 3— as six hundr ed leagues ev en to wher e the Gr eek k ing named A ntiochus dwell s, an d beyond that A n tiochus to wher e dwell the fou r k ings se v er ally 1 named Ptolemy, A ntigonus, Magas , an d A lexander an d i n the South th e k ings of th e Chol as, an d Pitn d y as, ’

,

1

Th is

l

l

K a si tex t ,

d

i s tr an s ate

sen ten ce

as cor r ect e

d by M

Sen ar t fr om th e

.

Gir n ar fr agmen t J R A f S or ( ’ 1 J oy ou sn ess, r abh asiye .

l

a K i s ( )

is i n

.

.

l

Th e tr an s ation

accor

d

an ce

.

.

of

.

1

y

S

r en e.

for m i n th e

wly di scover ed

ne

md d aaai h ( G ir n ar ) mad am ,

sen t en ce of

.

thi s

pa ag aph r

r

.

measu r e

,

mmon ly

co

l f Sy ia ; Pt l my Ph i l ad lph f M a d ia ; Al a d f Ep i

t aken

as

.

An t ioch u s Th eos,

C

er

.

with M Sen ar t s cor r ection s

A n tigon us C on atas, of

p

ll



Leagu e, yaj ana, a var y in g equ a t o even or eigh t mi es

l

1 900,

th e fir st



1

fr om th e fu

o

o

r

ce on

e

o e

ex

n

er , o

us, of Egy r u s;

pt

M agas,

A S OKA

1 32



Ceylon an d likewise her e in the King s dominions among the Yonas an d K amboj as in NAbh aka of the NAbh itis am ong the Bhoj as an d Pitin ikas am ong the A ndhr as an d Pu lin d as ev er y wher e men follow the Law of Piety as p r oclaimed by H is Majesty Ev en in those r egions wher e the env oys of H is 3 Majesty d o n ot p enetr ate men n ow pr actise an d wi ll continue to pr actise the Law of Piety as soon as they hear the pious pr oclamation of H is Majesty issued in acc or dance with the Law of Pi ety A n d the conquest whi ch h as ther eby been ev er y — wher e eflected the conquest e ver ywher e effected causes a feolin of delight Delight is ou n d in the conquests made by the Law Nev ertheless that delight is only a small matter H is Majesty thin ks nothing of much im port ance sav e what concer ns the next wor ld of

an d

1—

,

,

,

,

,

1

,

,

.

,

.



,

.

1

.

,

.

.

la apital wa

Th e Ch o

1

s at

c

ya apital wa at t emp a y ki g f C yl Pan d

c

or

e

on

n ot n ecessar

i n th e

i

ly G

mpir e ;

e

r eek

th e

Tish ya

ur a

.

p ly ;

Tr ich i n o

n ear

o

h s s a t e Ti s w a ) (

th e con

.

must mean

Th e Yon as ( Yavan as)

1

(

o

n

r

d

Ma

s

y

Ur ai ur

th e n or th

th e

for eign

r ace

wester n fr on tier in cl u ded

) Kamb oj as seem t o on

-

l

c an s of

,

been also a n or th

h ave

weste r n tr ibe I can n ot Ofler an y ex plan ation of Nabh aka of th e Nabh itis ( Buh l er ) Th e An dh r as i n h abited th e coun tr y n ear ‘



.

.

t h e Kri sh na Su sequ en t

ly

b

i ver ,

,

th e

y

th e

at

y

tr emit

l

th e Ka in gas ish e a ower fu kin g om Th e Pu ie th e cen tr a ar ts of th e Pen i n sul a south er n

bl

esta

d

ex

p

l lp

of

d

.

.

m t o h ave Occu p d Th e Pi ti n ikas may h ave b een th e i nh abitan t s of Paith an a on M th e God aver i S n e e a r t i n I n d t x x 2 n d R A S e A n a J S 8 ( 4 Th e n ames en u mer ated ar e t h ose of b or der for 1 9 00 p

li n

da

r

s see

.



.

.

,

tr i

1

of

1

th e

r

r ei gn

Buh

l

.

.

,

y f A ka pat h d i th l

suzer ai n t

o

M ission ar i es wer e di s

th e

.

.

.

.

.

bes u de n

.



so

c e

.

e e even th or

n

l

twe fth

y

ear

.

er s r en

de i

r ng

d

acci en tall

r t i r i i m b h a t h v t s d a a a a i p j ] [ y p

.

y

mits

o

th e

wor ds L ad h a

TH E R OCK I NS CRI P TI ONS

1 33

this pur pose h as this pious edict been wit that my sons an d gr andsons as many as they ma m a n i i h e t s upp e be the r duty o os t t o y y to eflect a new conquest ; an d that e v en when engaged in conquest by ar ms they may fin d pleasur e i n p atienc e an d gentl en ess an d may r egar d as the only tr ue conquest that whi ch is effected th r ough the Law of Piety which avails both for this wor ld an d the next Let all their pl easu r e be the pleas ur e i n exer tion whi ch av ail s both for this wor ld an d the next A n d for wr itten , to

,

,

,



,

1

.

,

,

.

EDI CT X I V E PI L OG U E

This set of edicts of the Law of Piety h as been w r itten by command of H is Maj esty King Pr iy ad ar sin in a for m sometime s conde n sed som etimes of m edium 3 length, an d sometimes expanded ; for ever yt hing is 1 n o t sui table in e v er y plac e , an d my domin ion s ar e extensiv e Much h as alr eady been wr itten , an d I Shall cause 1 much mor e to be wr itten Cer tain phr ases in the edicts hav e be en utter ed again an d again , by r easo n of the honey ed sweetness of such an d such a top ic , i n the hope th at the people ma a c t y up to them 1

,

.

.

.

I thi n k I h ave given th e mean in g an ce wi th th e i n ten tion of Buh er 1

d

1 1

p

D ha r itmalip i i s h er e

ll

a co

d

Th e M in or Rock E i cts

l l

l

cor r ect

.

d

a ver

y l

c ear

Rock E i cts ’ 1 Sui tab e, gh ati tam; Sen ar t tr an s ates ’ ‘ Ker n t r an s ates wor ke ou t t ogeth er 1

d

Th is

an d

in

accor

.

mple

ex a

di

Sever a i lust r ation s may be obser ve

r ac t i ce

,

.

ective n ou n

offer

ly

n

of

th i s

th e Four teen

.

l

p

E i cts, & c

.

mi se

ro

is

l f lfill d u

e

d

l

r éu

m,

or

b

r ough t

.

d

in th e M in or Rock E icts, Pill ar

A S OK A

4

13

I t may be that something h as been incompletely wr i tten ou t— ii so, it is due to l ack of sp ace , or to some speci al r eason , or to a blunder of the

engraver 2

)

1 .

(

ao call ed

T h e K ali n ga

D et ach ed )

S epar ate or

-

c

B o k E d i cts F e t h e r e n a r t o u y (

BORDERERS

TH E

( DUT I ES

TH E

so C A L L E D No -

O EEI C I A L S

or

later )

an d

.

EDI CT



11

)

T H E BORD ER TRI BE S

To

Thus saith H is Majesty A t S amapa the ofli cials ar e to be in structed in ’ 3 King s commands as follows I desir e my vi ews to be pr actically acted upon car r ied into effect by suitable means ; an d , in 0 in ion , the p r i nc ip al me ans for accomplish ing 0 j ect ar e my in str uction s to y ou

1

the an d

my this

.

Buh

1

i n t er Vl eW 1

p

le

r

,

wh om I h ave foll owed

r etati on

thi s

of

pa

ssage

M

;

ms

t o be

see

,

r i gh t

S en ar t takes

.

in h i s

di ffe

r en t

a

.

di

Th is

e

ct,

ll d N II by P i tly a co ti at i

ca

e

O

r

.

n sep

an d

all

b

su sequ en t

n nu wr iter s is man i fes on of th e main ser i es an d con t emp or ar y with th at ser ies i n th e four t een th year of th e r eign Th e so call ed No I ed i ct i s of later date It seems t o ,

,

-

.

.

.

me mor e i n con ven i en t t o r etain a mi sl ead in g n omen clat u r e t h an t o make a ch an ge I p r opose t o call th ese ed icts th e ’ Kali n ga Edi cts ; th e n ames Sep ar ate Rock or Detach ed Rock Ed icts b ein g awkwar d an d mean i n gless 1 Fr om th e J au gada tex t Th e d upli cate at Dh au l i wh ich i s .

,



.

,

.

n ot so

at

well

Tosali

.

p

r eser ved ,

dd

is a

dt

r esse

o

th e

pi

r n ce an d

,

magistr ates

TH E R O CK I NS CRI PTI ONS

1 35

A ll men ar e my childr en , an d , just as for my childr en I desir e that they should enj oy all happiness an d p r ospe r i ty both i n th is wor ld an d in the next, so for all men I d esir e the like happin ess an d p r osper ity ’ I f y ou ask what is the King s will concer ning the bor der tr ibes, I r eply that my will is this concer ning — the bor der er s that the should be con vinced that the King desir es them to be r ee fr om disquietude I desir e them to tr ust me an d to be assur ed that they wi ll r ecei v e fr o m me h a in ess, n ot sor r ow , an d to be convinced that the I l n g bears them good will an d I desir e th at (wh ether to win In good will or mer ely to leas e me) they should pr actI se the Law of Pi ety, an ain both thi s wor ld an d the next so A n d or this pur pose I giv e y ou instr uctions When in this m anne r I h av e once for all giv en y ou my instructions an d signified my orders, then my re solu tions an d my pr omises ar e immutable Under standing this, d o our duty, an d inspir e these folk with tr ust, so that t ey may be convinced that the King is unto them e ven as a father , an d that, as he car es for’ himself, so he car es for them, wh o ar e as the King s childr en H aving giv en y ou my instructions, and notified to — r i n o u m i r m i my de e lut n be g o r r d o s es s so o a n s y y immutable— I expect to be well ser v by y ou in this business, because y ou ar e in a position enabling y ou to in sp ir e these folk with trust an d to secur e their happi ness an d pr os er ity both in this wor ld an d in the next ; an d by so actm w ll g i n he v en an d dischar ge a o u i a g y 1

,

.

.

g

,

.

.

.

.

your debt to me I t is for this pu r pose that this edi ct h as been inscr ibed her e in or der that the officials may di splay per sever ing ener gy in inspir ing trust in these border ers an d gui ding them in the path of p iety This edict sh ould be r ecited e ver y four m onths at the Tish y a Naksh atr a festival an d at di scr etion as Pair! (p aj a) mean s subj ects as well as ch i ldr en .

.

,

,

1

r



.

A S OKA

1 36

ccasion offer s in the inter v als it should be recited to indi vi dual s Take c ar e by acting thus to dir ect people in the r ight way o

,

,

1

.

.

PROVI NCIA LS

TH E

(

S O CA L L E D No

.

EDI CT

D E T A CH E D OR S EPA RA TE EDI CT

I

-



T H E D H A UL I

T EX T

;

)

2

T H E DU TI ES OF OFFI C I A L S T O T H E PROV I NC I A L S

By command of H is Majesty A t Tosali the ofli cer s in char ge of the adm inistr ation 3 ar e to be instr ucted as follows : of the ci ty I desir e my v iews to be pr actically acte d upon an d car r i ed in to effect by sui table means ; an d in my accompli sh in g thi s Opin ion the p r incip al me an s for u hav e o object ar e my in str uctions to y ou ; fo r y been set over m any thousands of living beings to gain th e affection of good men All men ar e my chi ldr en an d just as for my childr en I desir e that they should enj oy all happiness an d pr osper i ty both in th is wor ld an d in the n ext so for all men I desir e the like happin ess an d pr osper I ty You howev er d o n ot gain the best possible r esults ,

,

.

,

,

'

.

1

.

,

,

yea wa di id d i t th f th e m th w Th day ea h h t k h i i w h h t llati t ) ( Ti h ya i a l ky tell ati Th Dh a l i t t i th b t t p i g J g d t t i add d t th 1

Th e

c

con s e s 1

e

'

n

t own 1

of

ex

u

a a

au

n

con s

uc

s

ex

s

e

Samapa, wh ich h as

.

.

e

er

r esse

s

mon th s

med accor din g t o th e e moon was su pp osed t o be

c

on

fou r

er e n a

on

na s a r a

on

r ee season s of

n o

s o

e

.

e

v

s

r

n ot

o

d

r eser ve

Th e

.

e ofli cer s

in

been iden t ified

p d

cor r es on

ch ar ge of

th e

.

M ah amd ta i s t h e ge n er i c te r m for ofli ci al s It su r vi ves in H in i mahd wat, with th e s ecia ize sen se of e e h an t .

th e

di

d

r ver

a

.

Th e

muni cipal 1

This

y wa

ci t

s

p l d p bably lik th apital

mmissi on

co

pas age s

con

r o

,

e

e c

lp

,

in

ch ar ge of

.

fir ms th e i dicatio n



n aflor d ed

by

th e

po i s

TH E R O CK I NS CRI PTI ONS

Ther e

indivi dual s wh o an d n ot the wh ole

heed

1 37

nly p ar t of my You must see to such teachin g per sons so that the mor al r u le may be obser ved Ther e ar e again indiv idual s wh o hav e been put in pr ison or to tor tur e You must be at hand to stop unwar r anted im r ison men t or tortu re A gain many ther e ar e wh o su er acts of violence I t should be your desir e to set such people in the r ight way Ther e ar e howev e r certain dispositions which r ende r success impossible namely envy lack of per sev er ance har shness impatience want of applica tion idleness indolence You ther efor e should desir e to be fr ee from such dispositions inasmuch as the r oot of all this teaching consists in persever ance an d patience in mor al guidance H e wh o is in dolent doe s n ot r ise to h is duty an d yet an ofli cer should besti r himself m ov e for w ar d o on g Th e same holds good for your duty of supe r v ision For this r eason I must r epe at to y ou Consider an d know that such an d such ar e H is Majesty s instr uo tions Fulfilment of these orders bear s gr eat fr uit n on fu lfilmen t br i ngs gr eat cal am ity By ofli cer s wh o fail to gi ve such id an ce neither the favour of heaven n or the favour o the Kin g is to be hoped for My spec ial in sistenc e on this duty is profitable i n two ways for by followin thi s line of conduct you will both win heaven an d isch ar ge your debt to me This edict must be r ecited at e ver y Tish y a Naksh atr a festival an d at inter v als between Tish y as as occasion offe r s i t S hould be r e ad to indivi duals A n d d o y ou take car e by acting thus to di r ect people in the r ight way For this pur pose h as this edict been i nscr ibe d her e in or der that the ofli cer s in char ge of the c ity may display persev er in g zeal to pr event unwar r anted impr isonment or unwar r anted to r tur e o f the citiz ens A n d for th is purpose in accord ance with the Law of ti o of th i ed i ct o th e ock th at i t i of l ater date th an t h e so called No I ar e

o

.

.

,

,

.

.

,

.

.

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

.

,

,

,

,

,

.

,

.

,

,

.

,





.

,

-

.

.

,

.

,

,

.

,

.

.

,

n

-

n

s

.

.

r

s

8 13

A S OK A

Piety every five years I shall cause to be summon ed to the A ssembly those men wh o ar e mild patient an d 1 wh o r espect li fe in or der that hear ing these thi n gs they may act accor di ng to my instructions An d the Pr ince of Ujj ain S h all for the same purpose summ on an A ssembly of the same k ind but he mu st per for m this duty e ver y thr ee year s without fail Th e same or de r applies to Taxi la Th e ofli cials attending the A ssembly whi le n ot neglecting their spec ial duties will also lear n this teaching an d must see that they act accor ding to the King s instr uctions 1

,

,

,

,

.

,

.

.

,

,

,



.

( )

MI NO R (

B ock

M i n or

Th e

3

E di ct s

RO CK EDI CT

NO I .

,

T H E BRA H M A G I R I T Ex T

)

3

TH E FRUI T OF EX ERTI ON

By or der of the Pr in ce an d magistr ates at S uvar nagir i the magistr ates at I sila after gr eetings ar e 1 to be addr essed as follows D h nm t ; M Sena t t an l ate ég li e eme t M Se a t t ake th i de c ipt i n a eq i ale t to B d dh i t a d belie e th at th e A emb ly ( nyd a) wa Th e e A emblies we e fi t i ti comp o ed Of B ddhi t o ly t ted i th e th i tee th yea ,

,

1

ai

a e

1

s s,

o

1



s

r

n

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s

u

n

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Si

ur a

di

th e fir st

e

,

s

in M

h as

y

th ese th r ee an d a

l



of

th at

u

n

r

an d

th e ,

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.

n ex

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rs

t

ns

ex ist on r ocks

ddap Th e la t

at

Si

ur a

s

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n

l am d

itse f, e

,

r ecen si on s

l

Sah asr am i n Ben ga , at Rup an d at Bair at i n Ra utan a Of at

at

it is given

Th e Pr in ce, gover n or



n

ss

been tr an slated

l

t r an s ati on

.

an u sai

mely Br ah magir i

at

ct al on e occu r

r ecen si on s

n

u v

s

sor e, n a

i n th e Cen t r a Pr ovin ces,

th na

r



.

th is edi ct

an d

,

being th e most per fect

u

o

.

r

meéar a

t

1

n

n

ddap

r

ss

s s

n J a i ga Ra

of

s

s

s r

s

r ecen si on s of

at an d n ear at

r

v s

n

Th r ee

r

.

,

jp

Rfipn ath i s th e

.

best pr eser ved

,

.

y of th e So

or vi cer o

d at

uth , stati on e

TH E R O CK I NS CRI PTI ONS

1 39

H is M aje sty commands For m or e than two years an d a half I was a lay disciple without exerting myself str enuously A p er iod of six ye ar s, or r ath er m or e than six year s h as el a sed p 1 since I j oined the O r der an d hav e str enuously ex er t ed my self, an d during this time the men wh o we r e, all ov e r I ndi a, r egar ded as true , h av e been , w ith the ir .

,

gods shown to be untr ue For this is the fr uit of exertion which is n ot to be obtain ed for h imself by the gr e at man only ; bec ause ev en the sm all man can if he choose by exer tion win for himself much heav enly bliss Fo r this pur pose h as been p r oclaimed this precept 1 namely L et small an d gr eat exert themsel v es to thi s en d My neighbours too should lear n this lesson ; an d may such exer tion long endu re ! A n d thi s pur p ose will gr ow y ea it will gr ow v astly at le ast half as gr e at again w ill be i ts gr owth A n d this p r ece t was procl aimed by the Dep ar ted 1 2 5 6 y ear s h av e e a sed since then 2 p [ ] S a agi i wh ich h as not bee i den t ifi ed M agi t ates o offi ial m hd md ta Aft e g eeti g l ite ally t h e wi h ed i h h h i i f i n t e s s d l h d f t d t s o r e t a a a e t Th e a i o e c e g g p ecime of official tyle i th e day of Asoka I g e wi th Bii hle a d P of Ker n th at thi is th e o ly l egi timat i te p etati All C ompa e th e Rfip ath e I dia J mb d ipa i e io Wh e fe e ce i to th e B ah ma ce Th e p i ma y th ei a th ity wa r ejected th ei g d we e al o d epo ed P lai m d thi p e ept a dp it Th e wo d ( e I t ) a e r epeat ed in th e pla ed i Rfip ath te t by a p li g fi al te c whi ch co eque tly efe o ly to th e b i ef ma im Let mall a d gr eat e e t th em el e Buh le by e mo i ot itable to a lac o ic i g of d a e d p ecept Th i pa age i th e mo t pu li g o e i th e wh ole e i e of edi ct a d cceeded i n devi i g a co vi ci g ob ody h as y et 1

.

,

,

,

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.

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1

4

A S OKA

0

TH E S A M E EDI CT

(

RUPNAT H

)

TE X T

Thus saith H is Majesty For mor e than t wo years an d a half I continued 1 to be a b ear er of the Law without exerting myself strenuously A per i od, howe ver, of mor e than S ix years h as elapsed since I j oined the O r der an d hav e .

trenuously exer ted myself Buh le to th e l ast i te p etati on s

.

m a i n ) ’ ‘ tain ed th at eyu then d (viau th en a) th e Dep ar ted mean t Sah y a mun i Buddh a an d th at th e n umer al s 2 5 6 ex pr ess th e per i od r

r

n

I t n d A n (

r

.

.

.

,

x xn

0 2 3

.

r

,

,

l p d Si e h i d ath If thi iew be co e t a d it m p h ap le p t bj tio th a th e i al i t p t ti t th e th date f th e B ddh a d ath w ld b fi d i ab y a B O 5 08 a dat wh i h m t be h i t i ally bj ti ab l p ided th at th C yl e h l gy i di ga d d Th al lat i t d t h e a se

nc

s,

er

ss O

e r

.

e

,

e c

e

e

on s an

cu

Co r on ation

Con qu est

of

of

ou

s

x e

e

c r on o o

on es

l

y

t h 9

In

ear

; Asoka

o er at e ex er tion ,

To th i s ad d

d Th e an d

ll

fo

256

M in or

t ota

r

sr e

s

on

ec

un o

e

.

b

u s a out

65 y

ear s o

f

e r s,

r

.

2

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c s

oc

2 5 6, an

l p

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e r esu

un

or



s

u

5 08

eath 1 9

my ster i ous passage i s given

Sah asr am tex ts

in

a fu

l

Th e tr ans ation

.

ll

er

for m I n th e Rfipn ath

of th e

Rfipn ath

r ecen si on

ws

o

M

ou

l abo t 9 y a f om B c 61 R k Edi t d th lt f Sakyam i B ddh a

str en u ou s ex er ti on ,

of

n or

on s,

becomes a lay

sc

date

re a

Asoka

di iple f md 2 } y ea to

n er

s,

us

Ka in ga

rs o

see

n

,

s or c

o

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rr

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u

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s v

.

o o

en

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e

s

.

.

Sen ar t th in ks th at th e

missi on ar i es

an d

,

t h i s i n ter

p

p

i s to th e d e ar tu r e of r etati on i s tem ti n g, i f n ot

r efer en ce

p

D 89 8) l A iatiq N y (J h h i m f m h i t dd d p t h t a t B h a a t t h gg b m t i t d d t e Thi o t all ded t gg i k l d a al e p o di g t H ea e of th e Law p y di iple i th e B ah magi i t t

n i v i n ci n g. u t e c o q su

es s

even

sc

r



,

s

u

.



r

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e

es on

s su

o

n



ur e

ex

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ro

s

n

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ec 1 .

o

s

see

o sn

sav ce, cor r r

ue,

s

ou r n a

er

.

e

u

1

M Bo

— ov .

o

o u

e

e

s

e soun s

e,

.



TH E R O CK I NS CRI PTI ONS o

ds

wh o

that time all ov er I ndia wer e r egar degas tr ue go ds h av e n ow become untr u e god s For this is the fr uit of exertion which is n ot to be obtained by the gr eat man only ; be cause e v en the sm all man can by exe r tion win for h imself much heavenly bliss A n d for this pur pose was given the pr ecept Let sm all an d gr eat exe r t themsel ves My neighbour s too should lear n this lesson ; an d may such exer tion long endur e ! For thi s pur p ose of m in e will gr ow its gr owth r ow v astly a i i a r ge again w ll le t h lf l e t a t a s a a s y g will be its growth A n d this purpo se h as been w r itten on the rocks both her e an d in distant places ; an d wher ever a stone p illar exists it must be written on the stone pillar An d as often as a man se asons h is cooked food wi th thi s condiment he will be satisfied ev en to satiety [or i n alter nati ve as often as a man applies deep thought to thi s wr iting he will r ej oice at being able to subdue 1 h is senses Thi s p r ecept h as been gi v en by the Dep ar te d 25 6 ear s have elapsed] fr om the departure of the ycacher Th e

at

,

,

.

,

.

,



.

,

,



,

.

,

,

.

,

,

,

.

TH E S ECO ND

(

BRA H M A O I RI

SU M M A RY or

Thus

ROCK EDI CT

TEX T

TH E L A

)

w or

PI ETY

1

H is Majesty an d m other must be obeyed ; simi lar ly , r e living creatur es must be enfor ced ; truth

sai

Father spect for ’

Buhl er

1

MI NOR

s

p

th

in ter

p

r etation .

y

Com ar e with th e su mmar ies of th e Law of Pi et given i n Rock Ed icts I II , I V, I X , X I, an d Pi l ar E i ct VII Th e n otab e difier en ce in st y e r oves that th e secon e i ct of th e Si a ur a 1



u r o g

p of te

x

l p

l

po ed i

ts was com

s

n

d

d d

.

dd p

l

y

th e office of th e South er n Vicer o

.

1

4

A S OK A

2

must be spoken These ar e the virtues of the Law of Piety whi ch must be pr actised Similar ly th e teacher must be r ever enced by the pupil an d pr oper courtesy must be Shown to r elations This is the ancient standar d of piety this leads to len of days an d accor d in g to th is men must act h g tr itten by Pada the scr ibe .

.

,

,

.

-

.

,

4)

T h e Bh ab r a E d i ct

r t b a bl e h e r P h t een a i o y g y (

TH E

B H A BRA

f

o

the

r eign

)

EDI CT

A DDRESS T o T H E C L ERG Y or

M AC A DH A

Kin Piy ad asi sends gr eeting to the Magadhan g cler gy an d wishes them p r osper i ty an d good health Ye know Re ver end S irs h ow gr eat is my r espec t for an d de v otion to the Buddh a the Law an d the A ssem 1 bly of the Cler gy Rev er end S ir s all that h as been sai d by the Vener able Buddha h as been well said an d y et Rev er end S ir s so far as I may giv e instr uctions ,

,

,

,

.

,

,

,

,

1

Th e

scr

i

be

ign atur e i s in th e Ar amai c ch ar acter , wr itten



fr om r igh t t o r osh th i

s s

l

w gen er ally kn own

by th e n ame

eft , n o

of

Kh a

.

d

1

M aga h an ,



magad hain

of

,

M agad h a,

Bih ar

or

As

.

p bably q i l t t f B ddh i m B ddhi t M agad h a h a i g b th b i th pl a m tim mad th at th i di t add dt Th a ti i l aid t h a b h ld at Patalip t a i t wa th e C id a t d by B ddh i t T iad t i at a Th L aw d h h Th fam th wh l b dy f B ddhi t d t i d m i ma h t ly th p i ipl f p a ti al pi ty wh i h a p d d i ed t th ge al p b li c th edi t add M

Sen ar t

.

u

s

e

sser

su ggests,

on so

as

on

e

,

s

ev

e

c s

ve

en ce

er e

r nc

r ess

ro

e u va en

r

ce o

s e

e

es

o

ous

e ns

ose

e

e

een

v n

,

n e 1

th e



ou n c

r

wor d h er e i s



een

c

Is

u r

e

u

o

s

.

o

r esse

s no

r

.

u

r

s

o e

e

es o o

r

e

c

,

o

c

n er

or

r r

o

n

u

s

e

u

e

.

c

.



av

,

oc r n e, an

r e ex

oun

no

e

n

TH E R OCK I NS CRI PTI ONS

1

4 3

my own account I ventur e to adduce the wor d of the 1 Buddha to wit Thus the Good Law will long endur e Re ver end S ir s these passages of the Law namely Th e Exaltation of Discipline (vi n aya samu

on

,

,

,

,

,

Th e S uper natur al

Powers of the A r yas (ali ya

Fears of what may happen (an oigata bhayd n i ) ; Th e S ong of th e H er mit (mu n i gci thci ) ; ’ Th e Dialogue on the H er mit s Li fe (momeya

Th e Q uestioning of U patish y a

an d



(

u

);

t i sa pasi n e a p

T r ess to Riah ul a, be i nn ing wi th t h e dd e A h 7] g d ovdd e mu sd vdd a m ad h l u l su j ect of F al sehood ( g h i gi chya)

those p assa es of the Law wer e utter ed by the Vener able u d d h a ; an d I desir e that m any monks an d nuns S hould fr equently l isten to these passages an d m edi tate upon them an d that the laity m ale an d femal e should d o the same For th is r eason Re v er end Sir s I hav e caused this to be wr itten so that people may know my wishes M Se a t adopt Th e G ood Law ad h mm ad d ha ma P of hi i I d A t 1 65 e de i g i e i ed e i o th i fo 1 901 pp 31 45 77 ) th at th e E H a dy h a poi ted o t ip t e f om th e ay i g ab t t h e G od Law i a q otati i i R D i l a d h a f h y d Pa ag O t e t p ) y y ( pa ag fi e h a e ow bee ide tified i th e Nih ay a p tio of ip t e a follo w th e 1

,‘

,

,

,

.

,

,

,

.

,

1





s

a

sr

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ss

v

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2

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th e Bu

d

s

,

x x

.

.

scr

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u

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r

.

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sev n n

Di gh a, Sangati Su tta

4 .

Sutta

5

.

It

.

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-

ii i

.

.

)

p

.

.

1 89 8,

-

1 08 ;

— 206 2 2 0 ;

A, i

.

M ajj h i ma, i .

1 05

.

Ni ata,

No 67

i n J R A S for

ddh a p ’

v

3

7

Davi

.

.

An guttar a, iii

.

s

n

.

s

r

s

s

.

y

n

on

s

n

n

No

h R (

n

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.

27 2 ;

41 442 0 -

.

p

.

639 ;

an d

l

Di a ogues



of

C H A P TER V TH E

C AV E

A ND

PI L L A R

I NSCRI PT IONS

i r Th t i t e en t h t w en e t o h t h e r a ( y g y

1

)

r eign

f

o

-

)

T h e C ave I nscr i pti ons

r i e n h Th t e t (

twen tieth year s

an d

I NS C RI PTI O NS I N T H E

f

o

CA V ES

r ei gn

)

B ARABA R

OF

H I LL BEST OWA L or

C A V E DW EL L I NGS ON T H E A J i V I X A S

I n sc r iption A ,

or

-

No I .

King Piy ad asi in the thi rteenth year of h is r eign besto wed thi s banyan tr ee cav e on the Aj ivikas ,

,



-

I nscription

B

,

or

.

No II .

Ki ng Piy adasi in the thir teenth year of h is r eign bestowed this cav e in the Kh alatika hi ll on the Aj i vi kas ,

.

I nscription

C

,

or

No III .

King Piy ad asi in the twentieth year be sto wed thi s c av e [ ,

A lthough

,

Of

h is

r

eign

,

chr onological order the connected inscriptions of A soka s grandson Dasar ath a may be most conveni ently noticed in this place They ar e three in number ( D E F ) an d recor d in identical terms the bestowal of th ree cav es sev erally name d ou t of

,



.

,

,

,

,

TH E CA VE A ND PI LL A R I NS CRI PTI ONS

V ahiy ak a, G opik a, hill , by Dasar ath a

A

.

VA H I YA K A

,

45

Nitgar j un i

the occasion of h is accession tr anslation of on e will su flice

on

upon the Aj i vikas

the

Vad ath ika in

an d

1

,

.

I NS C RI PTI O N

CA V E

r D o ( )

DA SA RATH A This V ah iy aka Cav e was bestowed by H is Maje sty Dasar ath a imm edi ately afte r hi s accession, on the v en er able Aj i vi kas, to be a dwe ll in pl ce f r them , as o a g 1 long as sun an d moon endur e ,

-

.

2

)

Th e I

nscr i pti ons of th e T ar di ( Tw

f



n t e y

r st

r eign

s

)

I A P A D R E ) (

TH E RU M M I NDEI C OM M EM O RA T I ON o r

r a o e y

Pi l lar

PI L LAR

V I SI T T o BI RT H PL A C E or -

S AK YA M UNI BUDDH A

H is Majesty Ki ng Piy ad asi, i n the twenty fir st year o f hi s r eign , having come in pe r son, did r ev er ence B ecause her e Buddha the S akya ascetic was bor n , he h ad a stone hor se made an d set up a sto ne pillar Because her e the V ener able One was bor n , the village of L u mmi n i h as been m ade r ev enue fr ee , an d h as ’ 2 par taken of the King s bounty -

.

.

,

-

.

1

i kas wer e

Th e Ai

Nar ay an a

,

i n th e is t oo

a

for m of Vish nu ,

an cien t

mu ch

e

i n th e Cor pus is si

miles an d 1

Ever

yl

wor d s h ave

di

scu ssion .

y f I dia d t admi t

h i st or

damag

man ical ascetics devoted to wh o occu py a ver y p r omin en t place

a sect of Br ah

o

ligi

n re

n

o

n ot

of

t r u stwor th

p

n ot

of

.

y

.

.

p

p

I n scr i ti on No I I I

on s

.

l

tr an s ati on

t r an scr i ts in I n d A nt etter

,

I h ave x x

.

th is in scr i ti on is

ms

see

K

d

u se

Biih ler



s

fac

.

p

h ave

little d bt

th at

ou

me of th e

so

an d

,

to be

r estor atio n

Th e

1 6 3 er fect, b u t

been met wi th elsewh er e

Th er e

.

.

d

occasi on e

aigad abh t

1

A S OK A

6 4

TH E NI G L lVA

V I SI T T o T H E S T UPA

COM M EM ORA TI ON or or

I NSC RI PT I ON

PI LLA R

K ONAK A M A NA BUDD H A

H is Majesty King Piy ad asi in the fifteenth year of his r e ign eh lar ged for the second time the std pa of Buddh a Kon ak aman a, an d [in the twenty fir st year ] of h is r e ign , having come i n person , he d id r e v e r ence , 1 an d set up a stone pillar ] [ -

.

( ) 3

T t w e n ( y

-

T h e S even Pi ll ar E d i ct s

ser en i h an d

twen ty eigh th year s

f

o

-

r eign

)

EDI C T I TH E PRI NC I PL E S OF G OVERNM ENT

Thu s saith H is Majesty King Piy ad asi I n the twenty sev enth year of my r eign I caused this pious edict to be wr itten I t is difficult to secur e both this wor ld an d the n ext sav e by the utmost de votion to the Law of Pi ety, the -

.

mean s

pi lla

r



i n the for m of a h or se



H iu en Tsi an g

.

h ad th e statu e

h or se

on

th e

su

mmit

.

d

Th e

s

th at th e

suggestion

made th at aigad abh i sh ould be t r an slated ass A th abh dgiye i s b est d er i ved fr om ar th a an d li ter ally r en d er ed ’ i r S e E I n d v J J a n as sh ar er i n wealth e ; 4 pg ( h as

r ecen t

ly b

of a

r ecor

.





een

.

,



.

1 89 8,

p

.

.

.

.

.

.

l

Pai K and gamana, San skr i t K anakamu n i Th e in scr i tion i s i m er fect , bu t may safe be r efer r e t o th e ear as th e Ru mmi n d ei i n scr i ti on , wh ich i t so c osel same r esemb es Th e istan ce b etween th e two i ar s is n ow abou t th ir teen mi es, but th e Nigliva i ar h as been move fr om its ’ B n or igi n a a u P k o b R r osi ti on S e C M h i o E u s e t x r e e ( j ’ i i T l t o n s n h N t o N r r a t e a e s r a i w i f o b a o e e e h P r t e t e , p Vin cen t A Smith , in Repor ts, A r chaeol S ur vey of I nd ia, Im er ia Ser ies, Ca cutta, 1

K an d kaman a

y l

p

p

.

l

lp

.

p

d

p ll

.

.

l

d

p ll

p y

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pl

.

ly

.

l

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y l

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TH E CA VE A ND PI LL A R I NS CRI PTI ONS

14 7

utmost watchfulness the utmost o bedience the utmost d r ead the utmost ener gy H o we ve r owing to my instr uctions thi s yearning for an d de votion to the Law of Piety hav e gr own fr om d ay to d ay an d will continue to gr ow My agents too whether of high low or middle rank themselv es confor m to my teaching an d lead the people in the r ight way being i n a position to r ecall to duty th e fickle minded as likewise ar e the war dens of t h e m ar ches For this is the r ul e— pr otection accor ding to th e Law o f Pi ety r egulation by th at law felic ity by that law 1 an d secu r i ty by that law ,

,

.

,

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,

,

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,

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-

,

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,

,

,

.

EDI CT I I T H E ROYA L EX A M PL E

Thus saith H is Maje sty King Piy ad asi T h e Law of Piety is excellent But what is the Law of Piety ! I t r e qu ir es innocuousness, m any good deeds, com p assion tr uthfulness, u r ity Th e gi ft of spi r itu a i nsight I hav e gi ven in mam 1 fold ways ; whilst on two footed an d four footed beings, on bir ds, an d on the deni zens of the waters — v ha e confer r ed many benefactions e ven unto the boon 1 o f li fe ; an d many othe r goo d deeds h av e I done .

.

,

-

-

.

1

ll

I h ave fo

d

i n g th i s e i ct

wed M Se n ar t (I n d A nt

o

.

as

.

bei ng p r imar i ly add

p

l

.

N E

r esse

dt

i i n n ter 4)

0 3

.

o

th e

da i all s

.

ld

u d es

h er e t o th e d ha rit masd van d n i

mon s on an d i n st r ucti on sp eaks mo r e fully b el ow ( Vii ser

,

.

d

k E X I R i c c t o ( E p I n d ii .

1

.

.

p

2 5 0.

Th i s h r ase

an d

th e

n ot e

l

occur s a so

i n , th e I

)

to th e

an d

d

sacr e

officia s

.

for

d

pi it al Piya

s

u sects.

r

u

d ha r nman usath i n i ,

law,



of

whi ch h e

mpar e also d h arnmad d ne

co

latt d

Bii h ler i n

er

in Rock E ict V K 2

r et

Th e metaph o



Th e gi ft of s i r i tu a i n sigh t , ch akh u d d ne r i cal u se of chalch u , in San skr i t ch aksh us, ey e, i n si gh t or kn ow e ge, is common with all H in 1

l

p

.

1

8 4

A S OK A

this u r pose I hav e caused this pious edict to be wr itten t at men may walk after its teaching an d that it may long endur e ; an d he wh o will follow its teaching will d o well For

,

,

.

EDI CT I II S EL F EX A M I NAT I ON -

Thus saith H is M aj esty K ing Piy ad aS I M an sees hi s ev er y good deed , an d says This good ’ deed hav e I done I n n o wise does he see h is e vil deed an d say , This ’ evil deed, this thi n in the natur e of sin , hav e I done 1 Difli cu lt v e r ily, I s the needful self exam ination Ne vertheless, a man should see to this that r age , cruelty, anger pr ide, an d jealousy ar e in the natur e of sin , an d S hould say , L et me n ot by r eason of these ’ things br ing about my fall Thi s is ch iefly to be seen to T h e on e cour se av ails me for the pr esent wor ld, th e oth er cour se avails me at an r ate for the w or ld to c ome y ,

.

.

-

.

,

,

,

.

EDI CT IV C OMM I SS I ONERS

T H E POW ERS A ND DUT I E S or

Thu s sai th H is Majesty King Piy ad asi I n the twenty sev enth y ear of my r eign I this p ious edi ct to be wri tten -

3

caused

.

Th e

1

1

df l

n ee

u

Th e tex t is

d by M

t e s e g

.

lit ally th i b l t ly tai a i d mi ibl a t a ’

,

esd

;

a so u e

Sen

r

re

er

s



.

na

nd

n,

cer

ss

e

.

th e

men d ati on s su g

e

ll

I h ave fo

wed Buh l er

o

p

,

v i n i i n w h n i o u r s e a t a s i o I n d Th o c o t e s s E e e , g y g ( p ’ ‘ th e ai d of se f th e oth er cou r se, r estr ai ni n g th e assi on s ‘

.

.



.

p

min ati on ’ 1 Commission er s laj aka (r aj idkd ) in r an k b etween th e gover n or s an d ex a

by

l

.

,

,

h igh th e

o flicer s in ter

di

str ict

medi ate

ofli cer s

(

r a p

TH E CA VE A ND PI L L A R I NS CRI PTI ONS

1

49

Commissioners hav e been appointed b me to rule o v er m any hundr ed th ousand persons 0 the p eople an d to them I have gr anted i ndependence in the awar d 1 in or der that they may in of hono ur s an d pen alti es securi ty an d without fear per for m the ir duti es an d besto w welfar e an d happiness on the people of the countr y an d confer benefits upon them Th e commissioners W ill asc er tai n the cause s of happiness an d unhappiness an d will in accordance with the Law of Piety exhor t the people of the countr y so that they may gain both this wor ld an d the next My commissioner s ar e eager to serv e me an d my agents knowing my will ar e likewise r eady to ser v e me an d will when necessar y gi v e exhortatio ns wher eby the commissioner s wi ll be zeal ous to win my favour For as a man feel s secur e after m ak ing ov er his child to a skilful nur se an d says to hi mself Th e skilful nur se is dev oted to the car e of my ch ild ev en so hav e I app ointed comm issione r s for the W elfar e an d happiness of the c ountr y ; an d in order th at they may with fearlessness secur ity an d confidence per for m their duties I have gr anted to the commissioners independence in the award of honour s an d penalti es For asmuch as it is desir able that unifor mity Should 3 exist in administr ation an d i n p enal procedur e my extends so far namely : To pr isoner s con or de r i te p etati o Bii h le Age t p li a i Sk p hd h lite ally me ; p obab ly i of M ega th e p ti d akd of Rock Edi ct V I a d th e ,

,

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,

1

,

,

,

,

,

,

.

,

,

,



,

,

,

,

,

.

,



1

r

r s n

1

n s,

a



u

n.

r

s n

r

,

u r us

.

ve

,

,

n

r



n



r

en a x o n o c '

'

sth en es

.

with th e or d er foll owin g ; samatd can ’ th en be gi ven its u su al mean i n g of u ni for mity an d th e With th i s con n ex i on of th e wh ol e passage b ecomes cl ear Th e un ifor mi ty en for ced i s mer ely ex cep ti on I foll ow Buh l er 1

I

con n ect

t h is

l

c au se

,

.

.

,

pit g a ted to dem d mity of p e al p o du e

i n th e un i for

r es

e

con

n

r

n

r

ce

r

ne

.

min als

cr i

,

n ot a

l

r n a e e g

A S OK A

1 50

entenced to death a r espi te of thr ee days Dur ing this inter val the r elati v es is gr anted by me of some at l east o f the cond emn ed men wi ll i n v i te them to de ep meditation h oping to sav e their li v es or i f that may n ot be they will pr esent v otiv e offer ings an d under go fasts to p r om ote the pious med itations 1 o f those about to d ie For my desir e is that the condemned ev en dur ing th eir impr isonment may gain the next wor ld an d that among the peo le pious pr actices of v ar ious kinds may gr ow a on g with self r estr aint an d gener ous liber ality

vict ed an d s



.

,

,

,

,

.

,

,

,

-

,

.

EDI C T

V

REG U L AT I ONS RES T RI CT I NG S L AUG H T ER A ND M UT I L AT I O N O F A NI M A L S

Thus saith H is Majesty King Piy ad aS I I n the twenty se v enth year o f my following animals wer e exempted fr om

gn the sl aughte r

r ei

-

,

namely Par r ots star lings (l) adjutants (am n a) Br ahman i ducks geese n an d i mu khas gelé ias (2) flying foxes t k e a a a s qu en nt r r i i i a s te a p n s m a ll t t e e s o r o s s (j ) ( ) r awn s i v e k p d v a a c i k te a a s n a a u a k a s s u ( ) y g g p p t tortoises por cupines r n squir r els n a s a s a a (p s i r i r ded c ted bull m a a a s ( ) kapi nda ) r hinoce r os gr ey do ves v illage I eon s an d all four footed animal s which ar e n o t pg eaten or other wise util ized by man Th e t a l atio h a b ee amplified a li ttl e i o de to b i g out th e mea i g l a ly Th e q ee a t i eat e as an aph od i iac Ded icat d b ll th e familia B ah ma ee b ll whi h h ave bee dedicated i p a ce f ow a d wa d ch e ked Th e l a gh te of o e of th e e a i mal gi e ove th e field a f f e t o e ce to Hin doo g ,

,

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1

-

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,

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,

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'

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

.

1

r

ns

n

n n

1

u

1

n

e

s,

s

.

n

n

n

r

ur su

s

u

s

.

s

r



n

r

n

r

r n

r

.

s

u

n

r

c e r

n

-

s

n

o

r

.

n

r

v

s,

n

u

n

n

s

s,



er u n n

c

c

s

v s

TH E CA VE A ND PI L L A R I NS CRI PTI ONS

15 1

S h e goats, e wes, an d sows, W hether with young or i n m ilk, must n ot be sl aughter ed , n or may their young up to Six months of age C apon in g cock s is for bidden 1 C h afl containing li ving things must n o t be bur ned For ests must n ot be bur ned, either for m ischief, or 1 to injur e li v ing cr eatur es 3 T h e l i ving must n o t be fed w ith the l ivi ng At each o f the th r ee season al full m oons an d at the full m oon of the month Tish y a (December —J anuar y), for thr e e days in each case , namely, the four teenth an d fifteenth days of the first fortnight, an d the fir st d ays o f the second for tnight, as well as on the fast d ay s thr oughout the year , fish may neither be kille d n or -

,

.

.

'

.

.

.

,

ld

so

.

the same days n o other animals livin in elephant pr eser ves or fish ponds may be d estr oy e On th e e ighth th e four teenth an d the fifteenth d ay o f each fortn ight as well as on the Tish a an d Pun ar y v asu d ays on the seasonal full m oon days a n d on the days of popular festi vals bulls h e goats r ams an d boar s may n ot be castr ated ; n or may an y other an im al which is commonly c astr ated be castr ated on those days On the Tish y a an d Pu n ar vasu days on the seasonal full moon days an d dur in the full moon for tnights th e br and ing of hor ses an oxen is for bidden Ch afl o a th e h i g floo i metime b o de to ed i de t y mi A f e t i ometi me fi ed wa to ly ometi me i o de to p mote th e g owth of g a a d ometime to d i e o t game A h awk with th e b lood of li i g p igeo a c uel p acti e og e sti ll i I a ie t I di a th e yea was di ided i to th ee easo th e h ot ai y a d old Th e th ee f ll moo efe ed t o a e p bably th o e of th e mo th Phdlg ( Feb M a h ) A h dd h On

,

-

-

,

,

,

-

,

,

-

,

,

,

,

.

,

-

-

,

,

1



1

r

n

ver

s ro

1

n

s

or

s

u

nc

n

,

r

s

r

r

n

n u J u e ly ) , J (

day

s

mean

r

r

n

n

r

n

ss,

,

s

s n

r

r

s

s

r v

n s,

u

.

r

r

c

.

n

,

v

r

n

c

s

-

n

ur n

s

v n

n

ro

s so

.

s

n v

1

r

-

ss

ro 1

s

n

r

.

n

K d r ttika

y

th e d a

s of

s

una

mon th

.

Ti sh y a

.

th e

-

on

s

n s,

rr

ns r

u

c t O (

r

n

rc

an d

,

r

a

s

Pu n ar vasu

wh i ch th e moon i s,

or

is

A S OKA

152

the per iod extending up to my twenty Sixth coronation d ay I have twenty five times liber ated the 1 pr isoner s In

-

-

.

EDI CT V I T H E NE C ESS I T Y I N A L L SE CTS FOR PERS ONA L DEV OT I ON

Thus saith H is Majesty King Piy ad asi I n the thirteenth year of my r eign I h ad piou s edicts wr itten to pr omote the welfar e an d happiness 1 the people , of the p eople , w i th the i ntent that 3 rejecting their old vices , might attain unto gr owth in p i ety Thus aiming at the welfar e an d h appin ess of the people , I devote my attention to those far an d near as much as to my own r elatives, if haply I may gui de some of them to h ap ) in ess I n the same way devote my attention to all com 1 mu n ities A ll sects have been r ev er enced by me w ith .

,

I

.

.

pp ed t I am d

su n

os

e

be r

n each

.

y

was for b

l

i

dd

Buh er i n Ep I n d Bu dd h ism, .

p ally

ear

.

wer e

th er e on

amoun t ed

en

con stel ation

aster i s

mon th

d ay s in th e

of

l

m or

be, i n th e

o

(

y

fou r fast d a -

wh ich th e ki lli n g

)

so

nu

m

n akshat r a

Th e

s

.

l

an d sa e of

ll

fish

by

u i S f d s i t o fifty six e s cu s on e ( 2 6 1 2 65 ; an d K er n , M an u al of I nd i an

1 1.

-

.

-

.

Liter

1

th at

on



made twen ty an n i ver sar

each

l pa d

r n e a e g

r

w

di

Pious

Nos I II .

1

accor

j

Re

da

e

an d

meth in g

so

cts,

IV

ect i n g

n ce ,

d li

of

cor o n ati on

h is



e

most

ver i es

of



.

Wh om

Th e ki n g mean s he

p b li h d u

must

s e

a

b een

h ave

.

th at i s to

ar e ex

th eir

p

y dat d i th th i te i ft a pa aph a i w M S a t d

r essl

th at is t o



sv e

say ,

d

e

.

mon g wh ich

th e Rock E icts,

say

Old v ces,

with Bii hl er



y

five j ail

I

on of all con vi cts,

a ai tin g ex ecu t i on 1

-



e

n

r

.

en

r

r

r

se o

r en

a

en th

y

ear

.

m apahata i n

a

,

way

er s car r y in g a

d p

fr om th e teach in g of th e Rock E i cts

.

mmun ities savan ikdyesu Th e r en der in gs cor or a ’ ‘ ’ ti on s ( Bii h ler ) an d th e wh ol e b ody of my ofli cer s ( Sen ar t) ar e b oth too d efin i te Compar e Rock Edict X I II For th er e i s 1

A ll



co

,

.

.

,

TH E CA VE A ND PI LL A R I NS CRI P TI ONS

153

us for ms of r ev er ence Nev er theless per sonal ad her ence to a man s p ar ticul ar c r eed seems to me th e 1 chief thin g I n th e twenty se v enth year of my r eign thi s p ious edict was wr itten by my command 1

v ar io

.

,





-

.

EDI CT V II

3



T H E K I NG S M EA S URES F OR TH E PROPA G A T I ON OF T H E L A W or

PI ET Y

1

Thus saith H is Majesty King Piy ad asi Th e kings wh o li v ed in p ast times desi r ed th at man might somehow develop the gr owth of the Law of Piety Mankind however d id n ot develop the gr owth o f the Law of Piety acco r ding to expec tation Ther efor e , thus saith H is M ajesty K ing Piy ad asi T h is thought occur r ed to me — Th e kin gs wh o l i ved in p ast tim es desir ed that mankind m ight som ehow dev elop the gr owth of the Law of Piety, but mankind .

,

,

.

n o coun t r

l di

in c 1

1

u

yi

whi ch

n

n g oth er s

pa

Com

t o th at

p

th at is t o

Buh say

l

er

,

th e

th e

V II

I n th e an d

ld

o

V II I

diti

er e

pp

a

l

’ ,

a

p a ti

man s

r oach

p

r

a

d la

cu

ms

mmen ded

as r eco

ly t

,

atu n d

f

b le

r e er a

on e s o

da

on e sect

d di t

wo e

st



,

is t o

in Rock E i ct X I I

r eate

on s er r on eou s

d p



wn fr ee wil l



whi ch

r oach

.

cr ee

r

r etati on see

th r ough

y pp



Rock E i ct X II



Th is i n ter

.

vo u n tar

make towar ds th e oth er 1

to

er en ce

man e ( Sen ar t )

of

mmu n iti es ( n ih aya) ,

su ch co

O en i n g sen ten ce of

l adh

h upaga a c p

d

n s an d asceti cs.

Per son a ’

fou n

b esides Br ah ma

th e

re

ar e n ot

c s,

.

Nos

.

.

mmen tar y on th e wh ole of th e Piy ad asi i n scr i ption s comp r ises a p r eamb le th e r ecital of eigh t measu r es taken t o p r omote p i ety an d an Th e eigh t measu r es ar e ( I ) ser mon s ; ( 2 ) i n scr i b ed ep i logu e pillar s ; ( 3) ar r an gemen ts for comfor t of man an d b east ; (4) ’ in stitu tion of cen sor s ; 5 ) i n stitu tion of Royal Al mon er s d e i a i u s d l d p h k n e e o r r i n s a r a m e t p l t m n t t s o c 6 e e a e ; ( 7) ( ) p g r egul ati on s ; ( 8) en cour agemen t of medi tati on on p r i n cipl es 1

p

Th is im

di

or tan t e

ct,

wh ich is

a

key to

an d co

,

,

,

.



m

.

15

4

A S OKA

develop the growth of the Law of Piety By what means then can accor ding to expectation m ankind be induced to Obey ! by what me ans can mankind de velop the gr owth Of piety accor ding to expectation ! by what means can I r aise up at least some of them so as to de v el op the gr owth o f p iety ! Ther efor e thus saith H is Maj esty King Piy ad as i Th is th ought occur r ed to me I will c ause se r m on s On the Law O f Piety to be p r eached an d with in str u ct ion s in that law will I i nstr u ct S O that men hear kening th er eto may Obey r aise themselves up an d gr e atly de vel op the gr o wth Of pi ety For this my pur pose I hav e caused ser mons on the L aw o f Piety to be pr eached I h av e disseminated var ious in str u ction s on that law an d I h av e appo inted 1 agents among the multitude to expound an d d ev elop my teaching 2 Commissioner s have been appointed by me over many thousands Of souls with instr uctions to expound my teaching in such an d such a manner among the did

n ot

.

,



,

,

,

,

.

,

,

.

,

lie

es

Thu .

Majesty Piy ad asi Consider in g fu r ther the same pur pose I hav e set up illar s of the Law I hav e appointed censor s o f the 4 pw an d pr eached ser mons on the L aw of Piety Thus saith H is Maje sty King Piy ad asi On the r oads I hav e h ad banyan tr ees planted to give Shade to man an d beast ; I have h ad gro ves of m ango tr ees pl anted ; at e ve r y half kos I h av e h ad well s dug ; r e st houses h av e been er ected ; an d numer ous water ing places have been pr epar ed here an d th er e fo r the enj oyment o f man an d beast s sai

th

H is

3

,

,

.

,

-

-

-

-

5

.



Agen t s, pa lasa See n ote 2 , ’ Commi ssi on er s, laj zikd See ’

.

2

.

3

p

.

1

49

n ote

b

a ove

p 3 ,

.

.

Note Omi ssion of th e wor d K i n g ’ Cen sor s Of th e Law, d h arh mamahd md td

1

8 4

b

a ove

.



.

5

d

Refer s to Rock E i ct II

.

See

.

n otes 1 an d 2 ,

p

.

bove

80 a

.

TH E CA VE A ND PILL A R I NS CRI PTI ONS

"

'

°

That

so

-

called enj oyment howe v er ,

is

,

155

mall

a

s

matter With var ious blessings have for mer kings blessed the wor ld eve n as I hav e done but in my case it h as been done solely with the intent that men may yield Obedience to the Law O f Pi ety Thus saith H is Majesty Piy ad a81 My censor s Of the Law of Piety ar e occupied with v ar ious char itable i nstitutions wi th ascetics house holders an d all the sects ; I have also ar r an ged that they should be occup ied with th e affair s of the Buddhist cler gy as well as with the Br ahmans the J ains the Aj iv ikas an d in fact with all the ‘ v ar ious sects Th e se v er al or dinar y magistr ates shall se v er ally par ticu lar char ges wher eas the super intend their censor s of the Law Of Piety shall super intend all sects as well as such special char ge s Thus saith H is M ajesty Kin g Piy ad asi The se an d m any other h igh Officials ar e employed in the distr ibution of the r oyal al ms bo th my own 2 those Of the queens ; an d in all the r oyal an d households both at the capital an d in the pr ovinces these Officials indicate in diver s ways the m anifold 3 oppor tuni ti es for char ity Th e same Officials ar e also employed by me in the distr ibution of the alms of my wives sons an d of the Comp a e Ro k Ed i t X II Some Refe t o Ro k Edict V of th e e b iage i th e O igi al h as b ee Omitted i th e t a l ati o See th e Q ee Ed i t po t p 1 5 7 Ke D 1 vol I h e e f ll ow P fe B d dhi m p 386 wh o take t thd y t d m i e t h tydyata d i o ce i th e e e Of Oppo t itie fo ch a i ty of co t e t me t S ch opp o t itie a t b e p oi ted o t to all th i mat e I t a l at h a em ( B h le Ep I d ii Of t h e K i g h h a m b ca e th e l dh i ath e eh old th a io Of wome wa ot th e c tom of a cie t I d ia ecl .

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1 56

A S OK A

queens sons in or der to pr omote pious acts an d the practice of piety For p ious acts an d the pr ac tice of piety depend on the gr owth amon g men Of compassion liberality truth pur ity gentleness an d goodness Thus saith H is Majesty King Piy ad asi Whatsoe ver mer itor ious deeds I hav e done those deeds the people have copied an d will imitate whence follows the consequence that gr owth is n ow taking place an d will fur th er incr ease in the virtues of Obedi ence to father an d m oth e r Obe dience to teacher s r e v er ence to the aged an d k indl t r eatment O f B r ah y mans an d ascetics of th e poor an d wr etched y ea even of slav es an d ser v ants Thus saith H is M ajesty King Piy ad asi Th is gr owth of piety am on g men h as been e ffected by two means namely by pious r egulations an d by meditation Of these two m eans pious r egulation s ar e O f sm all account wher eas meditation is of gr eater value Nev ertheless I hav e ) assed p ious r egulations fo r bidding the Slaughter ofsuch an d such an imals an d o the r r egulation s Of th e so r t But the effect Of medi tation is seen in the gr e ater growth of pi ety among men an d the mor e complete abstention fr om inju r y to 3 anim ate c r eatur e s an d fr om slaughter O f l i v ing be ings Thi s pr ocl amation h as been made with the intent 4 that it may endur e as long as my descendants continue an d sun an d m oon exist an d th at men may pr actise Th e d i ti tio i te ded I th i k i b etwee th e o of ’

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See Rock Edi cts I V , IX, X I ; Pi ar E i ct I I 3 Re fer s to Rock E ict I ; Pi ar E ict V See E ict I X 5

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TH E CA VE A ND PI LLA R I NS CRI PTI ONS

15 7

my teaching By the pr actice O f this teach ing the gain is secur ed both of the p r esent wor ld an d of the wor ld to come I n the twenty eighth year Of my r eign I or der ed this pious edict to be wr itten Concer ning this thus saith H is Majesty : Wher e soe v er stone p ill ar s o r stone tablets exist the r e let this edict be inscr i bed SO that it may long endur e .

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EDI CT



TH E

E d i cts

T H E D ONA T I O NS OF T H E S EC O ND Q UEEN

By command Of H is Majesty the officials ever y wher e ar e to be instr ucted that Whatever donation h as been made by the second queen be it a mango gr ov e pleasur e gar den char i table hostel or aught else is to be accounted as the act These thi ngs ar e [2all to gain mer i t o f th at queen 1 for ] the second queen K ar fivaki the mothe r of Ti var a -

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TH E K AU S AM BI EDI CT D ONA T I ON T O BUDD H I ST M ONA ST ERY

docu ment which is found like the Q ueen s Edi ct on the A llahabad p illar is too imper fect to Th i edi t edi ted by Bii h le i I d A t i 1 2 5 i p e fe t fi e i ch a a t e cep t f po e I h av e p e i g th e p pplied a c j e t al i te p etati f Th e d oc me t i i te e t i al pect It p e th at A oka h ad at lea t tw t wh a ked a q ee f h d h a f t t t o d O e ( ) th e e l adie wa amed Ka fi aki ( Kalfi aki ) a d th at th ki g h ad a by h e amed T a a ( Ti ala) It i p ibl e t ead am a Ti ti ala th e Th e i ipti i i th e M agadh i di alect which place Sa k it medial by l ’

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158

A S OKA

dm it Of continuous tr an slation Part Of it is r e pr oduced in the equally defaced inscription on the S fin chi p illar which seems to r ecor d the donation 1 O f a r oad or p r ocession path to a m on astery a

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C H A P TER V I

C EYL ONES E

TH E

L EG END

A S OK A

or

legends r elated in this chapter an d in that followin g ar e r elated simply as legends without cr i ticism or discussion of their histor i cal value TH E

,

1

,

T H E CONV ERS I ON OF A S OK A

king of M agsd h a h ad ten sons wh o after h is de ath r uled the k ingdom r ighteously for twenty two year s They wer e succeeded by other nine br other s the Nandas wh o likewise in or der of seni or i ty r uled the kingdom for twenty two y ear s mpiled by Th e l eg d t ld i thi ch ap te h a e b e vath a comb i i g th e a ati e Of th e Di pa ama a d th e M ah a wh i ch may fai ly be c mbi ed b th b i g de i ed f om t h e p e e ed at th e M ah a ih a a m a te y W ij e i h a t ad iti o d edi ti o of T o t a lati o Of th e M ah a ama e i m R h fl C m a e l b d b d o e O 8 8 G t o c e 1 e ) ( 9 i Fo th e Hi ti a e mate ial of T o o e i Dipavama Old be g diti a d t a lati h a bee ed Th e i de e t o T M ah a a h a a d Old be g Di pa tat m t e ifi ati of p a t i c la ama make ea y th d i H a dy mma y of th e lege d will be f A th e K il lasoka,

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Th e Dipava sa Asoka t o be th e son

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A S OK A

1 60

Brahman n amed Ch an akya wh o h ad conceiv ed an i mplac able hatr ed again st Dhana Nanda the l as t survi vor o f the n ine br others put th at king to death an d placed upon the throne Chandr a Gupta a membe r Maur ya clan wh o assumed the Of the p r incely sove r eignty of all I ndia an d r eign ed gloriously for 1 H e was succeeded by hi s son t wenty four years Bin d u sar a wh o r uled the l and for twenty eigh t year s Th e sons Of Bin d usar a the offspr ing of sixteen mother s numbered on e hundred an d on e of whom the eldest was named S umana an d the youn gest A thir d son A soka uter ine bro ther Tish y a (Tissa) of Ti sh y a h ad been appointed V icer oy of Western On r eceiving news of Ki ng I ndia by hi s father Bin d u sfir a s m ortal illness Asok a qui tted Ujj ain the talipu tr a seat Of h is gov e r nment an d hastened to Pa hi P atna) the capi tal of the empi r e On s ar ri val at ( the capital he slew h is eldest br other S umana an d ninety eight other br other s saving aliv e but on e H aving thus secu r ed Tish y a the youngest Of all h is thr one A sok a became lor d of all I ndia but by reason of the m assac r e of h is brother s he was known as Asok a the Wicked Now it so happened that when Pr ince S um an a was S h e fled fr om the sl ain h is wi fe was wi th ch ild slaughte r an d was obl iged to seek shelter in a vi llage A

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Th e figu r e 34 i s a In ( Rh Tur n ou r , men tar y qu ote 1 e n o t an d M easur es of Ceylon , 4, ) .

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A n cien t Coi n s

TH E CE YL ONES E L E GE ND

161

utcastes beyond the easter n gate Th e headman Of the outcastes pityin g h er misery entr eated h er kindly an d doin g her r ev e r ence se r v ed her faithfully for se v en years On that ver y d ay on whi ch sh e was d r i ven for t h fr om the palace sh e gave bir th to a boy On whom the name Ni r od h a was bestowed h T e g child was bor n with the mar ks of sanctity an d when he attained the age Of sev en was alr ead y an or dained monk Th e holy child whose r oyal or igin was n ot known happened on e d ay to pass by the palace an d attr acted the attention Of the king wh o was struck by h is gr av e an d r e v er end depor tment King Asoka high ly de lighted sen t for the boy wh o dr ew near with decor um an d sel f possession Th e king said My chi ld take an y seat which thou thin kest befitting Nigr od h a seeing that n o pr iest o ther than him self was p r esent ad vanced towards the Wher eupon King r oyal throne as the befittin g seat A sok a understanding that thi s monk was destined to b ecome lor d of the palace gav e the boy hi s ar m an d se ating hi m upon the thr one r efr eshed h im with meat an d dr ink p r ep ar ed for h is own r oyal u se H aving thus shown hi s r espect the kin g questioned the boy monk concer ning the doctr ines of Buddha an d r ece i v ed fro m h im an exposi tion of the doctrine o f ear nestness to the effect that ear nestness is the way This to immortal ity indiffer ence is the way to death teaching so wr ought upon the hear t of th e king that h e at once accepted the r eligion Of Buddha an d gave of o

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A S OK A

62

gifts to the pr i esthood Th e n ext d ay Nigr odh a r etur ned to the palace wi th thirty t wo p r i ests an d by pr eaching the law established king an d people in the faith an d the pr actice of piety I n this mann er was King Asoka constr ained to abandon the B r ahman i cal faith Of his fathe r an d to accept as a lay di sci ple the sacred law of Budd ha These things happened in the fourth year afte r the accession of King A soka wh o in the same year celebrated his solemn coronation an d appointe d h is younger brother Tish y a to be hi s deputy or v i ce ger ent Th e si xty thousand B r ahm ans wh o for three year s h ad daily enj oyed the bounty of A soka as th ey h ad enj oyed that of hi s pr edecessors on the thr one were dismissed an d in their place Buddhist monks in equal numbers were constantly entertained at the palace an d tr eated with such lavish generosity that four lakhs of tr easure wer e each d ay expended One day th e ki ng havi ng feasted the monks at the palac e i nqui red the n umber of the sections of the law an d h aving lear n ed that the sections of the law were eighty four thousand in number he r eso l ved to d edicate a sacred edifice to each Wher efor e the k ing commanded the local r ulers to erect eighty four thousand sacr ed edifices in as many towns Of I n di a an d hi mself constr ucted the A sokfi ra ma at the capital A ll the edi fices wer e completed wi thin thr ee year s an d in a sin gle d ay the news of the i r completi on r eached the Cour t By means of the super natural .

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TH E CE L ONES E L EGEND

1 63

powers with which he was gifted King Asoka was enabled to behold at on e gl ance all the se wor k s thr oughout the empir e Fr om the time of his consecr ation as emper or of I ndia two hundred an d eighteen years after th e death o f the perfect Buddh a the m ir ac ulous faculti es of r oyal m ajesty entered into King A soka an d the gl ory which he obtained by his mer it extended a league abov e an d a league below the earth Th e den izens of he av en we r e h is servants an d daily br ought for h is u se water fr om the holy lake lu s ciou s fr agr ant fruits an d other i ond d th ng bey s oo g measur e an d without stint Th e king lamenting that he h ad been bor n too late to behold the Buddha in the flesh beso ught the aid of the Snake King wh o caused to appear a most enchant in g im age of Buddha in the ful l perfection of beauty sur r ounded by a halo Of glo ry an d surmounted by the lambent flame Of sanctity in honour of whi ch glor ious v ision a ma n ificent festi v al was held for the spac e of g se v en days ,

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TH E

S TO RY or

M A H ENDRA

A ND

TH E C ONV ERS I ON or

S A NG HA M I T RA,

A ND

C EYL ON

While A soka during his royal father s li fetime was stationed at Ujj ain as viceroy o f the A vanti co untr y he for med a con nexion with a lady of the Setthi caste named Devi wh o resided at Vedi sagir i (Besn agar 1 near Bhi lsa) S h e accompani ed the pri nce to Ujj ain ’

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Tu mour

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t

r ead s

L 2

Ch etiyagir i

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1 64

A S OK A

ther e bore to h im a son named Mahen dra two 1 hundred an d four year s after th e death of Buddha Two years l ater a daughter n amed S an gh amitr awas bor n Devi continued to reside at V edisagir i after Asok a seized the thr one ; bu t the children aecom n ied the ir father to the capital where S an h amitr a a p g was giv en in m arr iage to Agni Br ahma nephew o f th e king to whom S h e bor e a son n amed S umana I n the four th year after King A sok a s coron ation h is br o ther Tish y a the v iceger ent hi s nephew A gn i B r ahma an d h is gr andson S u mana wer e all or dained Th e king wh o h ad received the n ews of the comple tion of the eighty four thousand sacr ed edifices held a solemn assembly of mill ion s of m onks an d n u ns an d comin g in full state in person took up hi s station in the midst Of the pr i esthood Th e king s piety h ad by this time washed away the stain of fr atr icide an d he wh o h ad been known as A soka the Wicked was hencefor th celebr ated as Asoka the Pious A fter hi s br other Ti sh y a h ad de vo ted himself to r el igion A soka p r op osed to r eplace h im in the O ffice o f v i cege r ent by P r i nce Mahendr a but at the u r gent entr eaty Of h is spir itual dir ector Tish y a son Of M oggali ( M u d galy a) the ki ng was per suad ed to per mit Of the ordin ation bo th of Mahendr a an d his siste r San gh amitr a Th e you ng prince h ad then attained the canonical age of twenty an d was ther efor e at Th e pr i ncess assumed the yellow r o be o nce or dained but was obliged to defer h er adm ission to the Order sa vi 20 2 1 Th i date i given by th e Di pavam an d

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TH E CE L ONES E L E GE ND

hould attain full age Mahendr a was ordained in the sixth year Of the king s r e ign dating fr om h is cor onation I n the eighth year o f the reign two saints,named respecti v ely S umitr a an d Tish y a died Their d eath was attended with such por tents that the wor ld at lar ge became gr eatly devoted to the Buddh ist r eligion an d the l i ber ality of the people to the p r i ests was multiplied Th e pr ofits so Obtained attr acted to the O r der many unworthy member s wh o set up their own doctr ines as the doctr ines of Buddha an d per for med unlawful r ites an d cer emonies ev en sacr ifices afte r the m anner of the Br ahm an s as seemed good H ence was wrought con fusion both in u nto them the doctr ine an d ritual of the Chur ch Th e d iso rder s waxed S O gr eat that the her etics ou t number ed the tr ue bel ievers the regular r ites Of the chur ch wer e in abeyance for sev en years an d th e Tish y a son Of M oggali k ing s spir itual dir ector was obliged to commit h i s disciples to the car e Of Pr ince Mahendr a an d himself to r etir e into solitude am on g the m o untai ns at the source Of the G anges Tish y a the son of M oggali h aving been per suaded t o qui t h i s r etr eat expelled the her etics pro duced the K ath avatth u tr eatise an d held the Thi rd Council of the Chur ch at the A sokar ama in Patalipu tr a These ev ents happened in the year 2 36 after the death of Buddha an d seventeen an d a h alf years after th e cor onation O f King A soka I n the same year King Devfin am y a Tissa (Ti sh y a) for

year s until

1 65

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AS OKA

1 66

cended th e throne of Ceylon an d became th e fir m friend an d ally Of King Asoka although th e two Th e Kin g O f Ceylon in or d er so ver e igns n e ver met to show h is frien dshi p an d r espect d ispatch ed a mission to I ndia headed by hi s nephew M ahaAr itt h a In se ven days the envoys reached the por t of Tamali pti T lfi k i n Bengal a n d in sev en days more ar r iv ed a m ) ( They wer e r oyally en ter tain ed at the I mper ial Co ur t by King Asoka wh o was graciously pleased to accept the r ich an d rare pr esents sent by hi s ally in retur n Th e en voy s for which he sent gi fts Of equal value r em ained at the capital for five month s an d then r etur ned to the island by the way they h ad come bear ing to their sov ereign this message from Kin g A soka : I hav e taken re fuge in th e Buddha t h e Law an d the Or der ; I have avowed myself a lay disc iple of th e doctrine Of the son of the Si ky as I mbue your mind also with faith in thi s Tr iad i n the highest r eligion Of the Jin a ; take refu ge in th e Te acher A fter the close of the Thi rd Council whi ch r emained in session for nine months Tish y a the son of M oggali resolved that the law Of Buddha should be communi cated to for eign countr i es an d dispatched missionar i es to Kashm ir an d Gan dha r a ; to M ahisaman d ala M ( y sor e) ; to Van avfi si ( Nor th Kan ara ) ; to A par an taka o r t h of B a s o a a r a c t n o mb y t o M h htr the a s a t o ; ; ( ) Yav an a country (on the n or th wester n frontier ) ; to the mountain regions of the H imalaya ; to Suvar n a bhumi ( Pegu) ; an d to Ceylon as

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TH E CE YL ONE S E L E GEND

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Th e mission to an d

fiv e

Ceylon consisted of Pr ince Mahendr a colleagues of whom on e was S umana h is ,

,

t Mahendr a r esolved with the king s per m ission to v isit h is m other an d her r elations on his way to Ceylon an d devoted six months to this pur pose H e fou nd h is mother at her home in V ed isagir i an d having been r eceived with gr eat j oy was ac commod ated in the Splend id m onastery at that place 1 Th e preaching Of Mahend r a which sh e h ad er ected conv er ted Bhan du a gr andnephew Of h is mother A fter this e vent Mahendr a lingered for another m onth an d then w ith h is companion s to whom Bhandu attached h imself rose aloft i nto the air an d flying as fl i es the ki ng of swans arri v ed in Ceylon an d al ighted upon the Missa m oun tain Th e first discourse pron oun ced by the le ad er o f the mission conv erted the king with for ty thousan d Th e pr incess A nula wi th fiv e Of his foll owers hundr ed Of h er attendants desir ed to enter the Order but was told that the male missionar ies h ad n o power to ordain fem ales wh o howe v er m ight be ordain ed by the pr incess San gh amitr fl Th e k ing of Ceylon after due deli ber ation again dispatched his nephew to King Asoka with in str uc tions to br ing back San gh amitr a an d a bran ch Of the King Asoka although gr ieving sor ely sac r ed bo tree at the sep ar ation from h is beloved d aughter gav e h is Th e all i on seems to be to th e ple di d build i gs at San ch i ab out five miles south west f om Bes agar ’

sis er s son

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A S OKA

consen t to h er deputation to Ceylon an d proceed e d with much cer emony to sev er a branch of the holy tr ee Th e se ve r an ce was effected signalized by man y mir acles an d the en voys accompanied by S an gh amitr a wer e dispatched to the por t of Tfimalipti esco r ted by an ar my comm anded by King Asoka in per so n Th e v essel in which the bO tr ee was embar ke d briskly dashed through the water ; an d in the gr eat th e ocean th r o ugh the circumfer ence of a le ague wav es wer e stilled ; fl owers Of the five different colou r s blossomed ar ou nd i t an d v ar ious melodies Of musi c r ang in the air Th e holy br anch thus mir aculously wafted to the Shor e of the island was r eceived wi th due honour an d was planted in the M ah amegh a gar d en which the king h ad dedicated to the u se Of the Order Th e br anch thr ew Ofl eight v igor ous shoots which wer e di str ibu ted an d planted in as m any localities I n those days also the ki ng of Ceyl on bui lt for M ahendra the M ah avih ar a the first m onaster y of th e isl and an d the constr uction Of the Ch etiy agir i (Mihin talé) m onaster y followed Soon after Th e p r incess A nula i n company with five hundr ed vi r ins an d five hundred w omen Of the p alace was g duly or dained as a nun by S an gh amitr a an d str aight way attained the rank o f A r hat Th e king er ected a nunner y for S an gh ami tr a wh o the r e abode in peace until sh e died in the fifty ninth year after her or din ation that being the ninth year Of the r e ign O f the Ceylonese King Uttiya H er brother Mahendra ,

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TH E CE L ONES E L E GE ND

1 69

passed away in the pr evious year whi le Ob ser v ing the sixtieth retr eat since h is or dination While King A soka was engaged in the festivals connected with the dispatch of the br anch of the ba tr ee another mission head ed by hi s gr andson S umana ar r iv ed fro m Ceyl on to beg for r el ics to be enshri ned i n the great std pa by the island k ing Th e r equest of th is second mission also was gr anted by Ki ng A soka wh o be stowed upon hi s ally a dishful O f holy r eli cs to which S akra lor d of the De vas added th e r ight collar bone of Buddha extr acted from th e Chul amani st12pa Th e r elics wer e r eceived with extr eme honour an d enshr ined with due cer emony in the Th upar ama etapa the moment being mar ked by ke Witnessing thi s mir acle th e a te r r ific earthqua people wer e con verted in crowds an d the king s younger brother j oined the Or der which in those days r eceiv ed an accession of thirty thousand mon ks h ad

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T H E L EG E ND or

C OUNC I L

T H E T H I RD C H URCH

1

When as h as been r elated the her etics waxed gr eat in numbers an d wr ought confusion in the Chur ch so that for sev en year s the rite of confession an d other solemn ri t s r emai ned i n abeyance K ing e ,

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p

m

lly

Dipava sa, i 2 5 ; v 5 5 ; vn 37 , 4 1 , 5 6—5 9 Th e ates d o n ot seem all t o agr ee, but t h e in ten ti on evi en t i s to ace th e Th ir Cou n ci i n 2 36, an d th e Secon Cou n ci i n 1 1 8 A n n a Bu d d h ae, th e two in ter va s o f I 1 8 year s b ein g ex act y equa On e of th e Ch in ese ates for Asoka i s 1 1 8 A B ( I t sin g, 1

See

d pl l

ed .

es ecia

d

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Takakusu,

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A S OKA

1 70

Asoka d eter mined that th e di sor der sh ould

ent

to th e Amkar ama to

minister

cease, an d

mpel t h e mon ks to resume th e services Th e mini ster havin g n there a ssembled th e monks an d proclaim ed th e e o g Th e holy men r eplied that t h ey r oyal co mm ands could n ot perform th e servi ces whil e th e her e tics Ther eupon the minister exceedi ng h is r emained i n structions wi th h is own h and smote off the heads of se veral of the contumacious ecclesi asti cs as they Th e king s bro ther Tish y a inter sat in con vocation fet ed an d prevented further violence Th e king was pro foundly horrified an d greatly alarmed at th e r ash act Of h is mi nister an d sought ab I n accordan ce with the advice Of the clergy solution the aged Tish ya son of M oggali was su mmoned fr om h is distant r etreat an d conveyed by boat down th e Gan ges to the capital where he was received by the king wi th extraor dinary honour an d reverence A soka desiring to test the supernatur al powers of the saint begged that a mir acle might be per formed; an d specially requested that an earthquake con fined Th e saint to a l im ited space might be produced placed a chariot a horse a man an d a vessel filled with water on e on each side of a square space exactly on the bo und ary li nes an d produc ed an ear thquake whi ch caused the half Of each object within the boundary line to quake while the other half of each unshaken S atisfied by this display of r em ained power A soka inquired if the sacrilegious mur der of the priests by the minister must be accounted as th e

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TH E CE YL ONES E L E GEND

1

! 7

king s sin Th e saint ruled that where ther e is n o wilful intention ther e is n o sin an d accordingly absol v ed Asoka whom h e in structed fully in the truth Th e king commanded that all th e priests in I ndia without exception should be assembled an d taki ng his seat by the S ide of h is sp iri tual di rector examined each priest indi vidually as to hi s faith Th e saint decided that the doctr ine of the Vaibfid h y avad in a school was the true p rim itiv e teachin g of the master an d all dissenters wer e expelled to the num ber of 1 sixty tho usan d A thousan d orthodox priests Of holy char acter wer e then selected to form a convoca tion or Council To these assembled priests Tish y a vatt h u son of M oggali r ec ited the treatise called K atha 2 Th e in or der to di ssipate doubts on poin ts of faith Council following the procedur e of the Fir st Council l i i ed rec t a r ih a an d the S econd Council at Vaisa at Ra j g ’

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M ah avar h sa,

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l

sch oo s var

y

ch

much

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v

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I tsin g -

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l fi ati of th e B ddhi t ( pp x x iii 7 ) ay th at all C yl

Th e

c assi

c

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ons s

,

s

u

e

s

on

Am wsthavim n ih aya, whi ch h ad th r ee su bdi vi bel on ged to Tibetan au th or ities ( Rockh i ll pp 1 87 seqq ) make two sion s main divisions of Bu ddh ist s (i ) Sth avir a, (ii ) M ahdsanghika Th e Sawdstivdd in a sch ool was a sub di visi on of th e Sth avi r a an d th e Vai bdd hyavdd i n a was a sect of th e San dstivdd i n a Th e Vai bd d hyavdd in a sect again was su b divi ded i n t o fou r secti on s ‘ aka Dh ar m agnptaka, Tamr afatiya, an d d i h t a a s T M ah isd s y py ex pl ai n s h ow Fah i en was ab l e to Obtai n in Ceyl on a copy of th e th e

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ya a di g to th M hi d Th l g d h a e p bably b

Vin a

ccor

e

e

n

e en

s

bias

v

ro

a



l(

s saka sch oo

een

much

ch

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d by

in flu en ce

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Tu r nour



s

l

d by W j e i

tr an s ation is cor r ecte

i

s nh a

.

sectar ian

A S OKA

1 72

erified the whole body Of the scriptur es an d At after a session l asting n i ne m onths di spersed th e conclusion Of the Council the earth quaked as i f to say Well done beholding the r e establishment of religion Tish y a the son Of M oggali was then se v enty two years o f age an d

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T I S HYA , T H E vI C EG ERENT

TH E S TORY or

One d ay Tish y a the younger br other Of A soka an d Vicege r ent of the empir e h appened to be i n a for est an d watched a her d of elk at pl ay Th e thought occurr ed to him that when elks br owsing in the for est divert themsel ves ther e seems to be n o good r eason why monks well lod ged an d well fed in monaster ies should n ot amuse themsel ves Coming home the viceger ent told h is thoughts to the king wh o in or der to make him understand the reason why conferred upon hi m the sover eignty for the space Of Pr ince gover n the empir e for se v en days saying se v en d ays at the end pf whi ch I shall put thee to death A t the close of the seventh d ay the king Why ar t thou grown so wasted 2 asked the pr ince Th e H e r eplied By reason Of the hor r or of d eath king r ej oined Child thou hast ceased to amuse thyself because thou thinkest that in seven days thou wilt be put to death These m onks ar e meditating without ceasing on death ; h ow then can they engage in 1 fr i volous diver sions 2 ,

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pa e th e leg d of M ah d a i

Com

r

en

en

r

pte

n ch a

r vn ,

o s t p .

Y

TH E CE L ONE S E L E GEND

became a con vert Some time afterwards he was on a hunting expedition in the for est when he saw the saint M ah ad h ar mar a ksh ita a man of perfect piety an d fr eed fr om the bonds of sin S ittin g under a tr ee an d being fanned with a br anch by an elephant Th e pr ince beholding this sight longed for the time when he might become ev en as that saint an d dwell at peace in the for est Th e saint i n or der to incline the heart Of the p r ince u nto the fai th soar ed into the air an d alighted on th e surface of the w ate r of the A soké r a ma tank wher ein he bathed while h is r obes r emained poised in the air Th e pr ince was so delighted with thi s mir acle that he at once r esol v ed to become a m onk an d begged the king for per mission to rec eiv e or dination Th e king bein g unwilli ng to thwar t his pious desir e hi mself led the p r ince to the monaster y wher e d h ar ma or dination was confer r ed by the sain t M ah a r akshi ta A t the same time on e hun dr ed thousand other person s wer e ordained an d n o man can tell the number of those wh o became monks by r eason r i nce of the example set by the p Th e

pr ince un der stood

1 73

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T H E L A ST DA YS OF A SOKA

br anch of the holy bO tr ee br ought to Ceylon in the manner abov e r el ated was dispatched in the eighteenth year Of the r eign of Asoka the Pious an d planted in the M ah Amegh avan a gar d en in Ceylon I n th e twelft h year afte r that e vent A san d h imitr a Th e

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74

A S OKA

beloved queen Of A soka wh o had shar ed his d e I n the four th year afte r votion to Buddh ism di ed her decease the king pr ompted by sensual passion raised the princess Tish y ar akshi ta to th e di gni ty of queen consort Sh e was young an d vain an d v ery sensible Of h er personal charms Th e king s de votion to the bo tr ee seemed to her to be a S light to her attractions an d in the fourth year after her ele vation h er jealousy induced her to make an attempt to destr oy the holy tree by ar t magic Th e attempt failed I n the fourth year after that e vent Ki n g ASOka the Pious fulfilled the lot Of mortality havi ng r eigned thi rty se ven years

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r

th e

d

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leg d en

of

th e Dotage ‘

Acco r in g to th e Ti fifty four ear s ( Rockh i , post

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-

y

betan

ll p

.

2

of

d



Asoka i n

t r a itio n , Asoka

pte ig d

ch a re

r

ne

C H A P TER V I I TH E I ND I A N L EG ENDS

A SOK A

or

T H E L I NEA G E A ND FA M l L Y o r

A SOK A

r ih a i r e i ned at Ra H i K B mb r j g I N G i s a a a s ( ) g son was tasatru whose son was ( 3) Ud ayi 2 ) Aj a bhadr a whose son was (4) Munda whose son was v a r n i n K k G a h a i n wh o e n l n wh os e s s o a s 6 S a s o w 5) ) was ( 7 ) Tu laku chi whose son was ( 8) M ah fiman d ala whose son was ( 9 ) Pr asen aj It whose son was I o) Nanda whose son was ( 1 1 ) Bin dusar a King Bin d usar a reigned at Pat alipu tr a an d h ad a son n amed S usi ma A cer tain B r ahman OfChampsh ad a lovely daughter A p r ophecy declar ed that sh e was destined to be the mother of two sons Of whom on e would become un i v er sal monarch an d the other w oul d attain the goal of the li fe of a reclu se Th e Brahman seekin g the ful filmen t of the prophecy succeeded in intr oducing h is daughter i nto the palace but the jealousy of the queen s debar r ed h er fr om the royal embraces an d assigned to

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Th e gen ea og as gi ven i n th e tex t is fr om th e r ose A soka 1 oad d n a i n th e D i oyd vad d na ( Bu mou f, I n tr od ucti on , 39 1

Th e

d

will

r ea er

b

o ser ve

an d

th at Bin d u sar a, th e fath er

th e

son

of

Nan da

.

Th e

o f Aso

,

r

sr e

pp

j

b



.

e

s o

u

r esen e

A sokd vadd n a

M it r a, Nepalese Budd hi st L iter atu r e, 6 1 7) a a for A atasatr u, an d ex h i its oth er min or

p l

.

d ag pta i mitt d ka i t da b i g p

th at Ch an

metr ical

pp

su

s

,

e n

a a l R en d r a l a j (

bstit

ut e s

var iations

.

M ah i

1 76

A S OK A

the menial duties Of a barber After some time the gir l man aged to explain to the king th at sh e was but the daughter of a Brah man When n o bar be r the kin g understood that sh e belonged to a caste wi th a membe r of which he could h onour ably conso rt h e at once too k h er into fav our an d m ade her chi ef queen I n due course the Br ahman s daughter whose n ame was S ubh ad r fin gi bore to the king two sons the elder named Asoka an d the younger named Vigatzisoka i when c n sulted by Th e as cetic Pi ngala V atsa v a o j King Bin d usfir a concerni ng the destiny Of the two boys fear ed to tell h is sover eign the truth because Asoka was r ough looki ng an d displeasing in the sight S ubha Of h is father ; but he fr ankly told Q ueen d r angi that h er son A soka was destined for the thr one I t came to pass that King Bin d usfir a desired to besiege Taxila which was in rebellion Th e ki ng O r de r ed h is desp ised son A sok a to un dertake the si ege an d yet would not supply h im wi th char iots or th e needful munitions of war I ll suppli ed as he was th e prince obediently star ted to car r y out the king s or de r s wher eupon the ear th opened an d fr om her bosom supplied all hi s wants When Asoka with hi s ar my app r oached Taxil a the citizens came forth to meet h im protesting that their quarrel was only with oppr essi v e ministers n ot w ith the k ing or the ki ng s Taxila an d the k ingd om of the S vasas m ade son their submission to the pr ince wh o in d u e course r etur ned to th e cap ital .

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TH E I NDI A N L E GE ND S

1

77

came to pass that on e d ay Prince Susima the king s eldest son was coming into the palace from the gar den when he playfully th r ew h is glove at the head o f the p r ime m in ister Kh alla Th e minister was taka deeply Oflen d ed an d from that d ay engaged in a con S i r ac i fi v r r i v i w th hund ed p y c unc ll r exclude e o o t s o p y S usima an d to place A soka on the throne Th e people of Taxi la agai n r e volted an d Pr i nce S usi ma wh o was deputed to reduce them to Obedi ence failed in his task King Bin d u sfir a wh o was then Old an d ill desir ed to send A soka to Taxi la an d to r ecall S usima that he m ight take up the su c cession Th e min ister s howe v er continued to exclude the elder prince an d to secur e the thr one for Asoka on whose head the gods themsel ves placed the crown at the moment when hi s father expir ed S usima mar ched again st Patalipu tr a to assert hi s rights an d expel the usurper ; but A soka an d h is m inister Radh agupta Obtain ed the services Of naked giants wh o successfu lly guarded the gates an d by stratagem S usima was in veigled so that he fell in to a ditch full Of burning fuel an d there m iser ably per ished It

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T H E T YRA NNY A ND CONVERS I ON OF ASOK A

On e d ay , when five hundred of h is ministers tur ed to resist the royal wi ll A so ka, transpor ted ,

ge drew hi s sword an d with the head s of all the Offender s

ra

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M

hi s own

v en

with hand cut off

A S OKA

1 78

A nother d ay , th e women Of th e palace, whom Asok a s rough features failed to please, mocked hi m by br eak ’

the leaves of an woke tree in th e gar den Th e ki ng when he hear d of the inci dent caused fiv e hundr ed women to be bur nt ali ve Th e min isters horr ified at these acts of cruelty entreated the ki ng n ot to defile h is royal hands wi th blood but to appoint an executioner to carry out sente nces Th e ki ng accepted thi s ad vice an d a man named Ch an d agir i ka a wr etch of unexampled cruelty wh o loved to torture animals an d h ad slain h is father an d — mother was sought ou t an d appoin ted Chi ef Ex ecu For his use the ki ng caused to be bu ilt a t ion er pr ison which h ad a most attr active exterior SO th at men might be tempted to enter it an d thus suffer all the tortur es of hell whi ch awaite d them withi n ; for the king h ad commanded that n o man wh o enter ed th is pr ison should leav e it aliv e 1 One d ay a holy ascetic named Bfilapan di ta un wittingly ente red the gate an d was instantly seized by the j ailer Th e holy man though given se ven days r espite was at the end of the ter m of gr ace r uthlessly cas t into a seething cauldr on of fil th beneath which a gr eat fir e was kindled Th e cruel j ailer looking in beheld the saint seated on a lotus an d unscathed by fir e Th e mir acle having been r eporte d to the palace the k ing hi mself came to see i t an d be ing conv erte d by the sight an d the pr eachi n g Samud a i th e met i cal ver si o ing



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TH E I NDI A N L E GENDS

1

79

the holy man embr aced the true r eligion an d for sook the p aths of wi ckedness Th e pr ison was demolished an d the j ailer was bur nt aliv e Th e abov e legend fr o m the A sokd vad d n a which is given with further details by H iuen Tsiang (Be al 11 places the prison or hell at Patalipu tr a the capital A nother for m of the legend which is merely r e fer r ed to by H iu en Tsiang wi thout comment places the hell at Ujj ain in M filwa (Beal 11 Th e con ve r sion of the king accor ding to H i u en Tsiang was due to the gr eat saint U pagu pta whom he met after the destruction of the hell With the aid O f U pagu pta King A soka summ oned the gen i i an d commanded them to build stape s throughout the land for the r eception of the r elics of Buddha s body which h ad been taken ou t Of the eight stupas where they h ad or i ginally been enshr ined after the cmmation of the A t the moment of a solar ecli pse the S k a sage genii in Obedience to the commands Of the king an d the saint simultaneously deposited the r eli cs in all the stupas Th e A vad d n a story is that when King A soka desir ed to di str ibute the sacr ed relics of the body of Buddha among the eighty four thousan d stripe s er ected by hi mself he opened the Stupa of the U r n wher ein King Aj fitasatr u h ad enshri ned the cr emati on r el ics collected fr om se v en Of the eight or i gin al stupas Th e e ighth that at Ramagr Ama was defen ded by th e of

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A S OK A

r d ian Nfi as wh o wo uld n ot allo w it to be o pened u a g g T h e r elics thus withdr awn from the S tupa of the U r n were distr i buted among eighty four thousand std pas r esplendent as the autumn clouds whi ch were e r ected in a single d ay by the descendant of the M au r y as Th e wor ship ful the for tunate Maurya caused the er ection of all these std pas for the benefit o f cr eated beings ; for mer ly he was called on earth A soka the Wicked but this good wor k h as ear ned for hi m th e n ame of Asoka the Pious Th e metr ical A vad oi n a is still mor e extr avagant th an th e prose for m Of the tale an d alleges that millions of stupas wer e er ected at the r equest of the people Of Taxila an d that ten millions were er ected by the Yaksh as on the shores Of the sea .

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T H E PI L G RI M A G E OF ASOK A

H aving

erected the eighty four thousand std pas King A soka expr essed a desir e to visit the holy places of h is r eligion By the advice of h is counsellor s he sent for the saint U pagupta son of Gupta the per fumer U pagupta h ad been in accor dance wi th prophecy bor n a century after the death Of Buddha an d when summoned by the king was dwelling on Mount Urumun da in the Natabh atika forest near Mathur a Th e saint accepted the royal i nvi tation an d accom -

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pa age p A oka M a ya 1

s

Th is

ss

ur

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r oves

th at th e h er o

of

,

th e A sokdoadd n a is

TH E I NDI A N LE GENDS

1 81

eighteen thousand holy men tr avelled in state by boat down the J umna an d G anges to Pa tali putr a wher e he was r eceived with the utmost 1 r e v e r ence an d honou r Th e king said I desir e to v isit all the place s wher e the Vener able Buddha stayed to d o honour unto them an d to mar k each with an endur ing memor ial for the instr uction of the most r emote poster ity Th e saint approved of the pr oject an d undertook to act as guide Escor ted by a mighty ar my the mon ar ch vi sited all the holy plac es in or der Th e fir st place v isited was the Lumbin i Gar den H er e U pagu pta said : I n this spot gr eat king the 2 an d added : H er e is the Vener able One was bor n fir st m onument consecr ated in honour of the Buddha the sight Of whom is excellent H er e the moment after hi s birth the recluse too k se ven steps upo n the r ound g Th e ki ng bestowed a hundr ed thousand gold pi ece s on the people of the place an d built a std a H e p then passed on to K apilavastu Th e r oyal pilgr im next v isited the Bodhi tr ee at Buddha Gaya an d ther e also gav e a lar gess of a hundr ed thousand gold pieces an d built a chai tya Rishipatan a ( Sarn ath) near Benares wher e G autam a h ad tur ned the wheel of the law an d K usin agar a wher e the Teacher h ad passed away wer e also visi ted Comp a e th e to y of Ti h y a o of M ggali i th e M g d h ap te i p 1 7 0 ab o e ch Co ci l i of th e Th i d Ch C ompar e th e R mmi d ei p i lla i c ip ti on i ch ap te v

n ied a p

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ns r

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en

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1 82

A S OK A

with

milar Observances A t Sr fivasti th e pilgr i d id r e v erence to the J etavan a m onastery where Gautama h ad so long dwelt an d taught an d to the stupas of h is disc iples S Ar ipu tr a M au d gali y an a an d M ahfi K fi s y apa Bu t when the king visited the stri pe of V ak kula he gav e only on e copper coin inasmuch as V akk ul a h ad met with few O bstacles in the path Of holi ness an d h ad done l i ttle good to h is fellow creatur es At the std pa of Ananda the faithfu l attend ant Of G autam a the royal gift am ounte d to si x mill ion gold pieces si

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V IT AS OK A

TH E STORY or

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the king s br other was an adher ent Of the Tir th y as wh o r eproached the Buddhi st monks as be ing men wh o lov ed pleasu r e an d fear ed pain A soka s eflor ts to convert h is br other wer e met by the r etor t that the king was merely a tool in the hands of the monks Th e king ther efor e r esol ved to effect h is br other s c on ver sion by stratagem A t h is instigation the ministers tri cked V itésoka into the assumption of the insignia of royalty Th e king when infor med of what h ad happened feigned great anger an d threatened h is brother with instant death Ultimately he was persuaded to grant the Oflen d er sev en days r espi te an d to permi t hi m to exer cise sover eign power dur ing those seven days Dur ing this per iod the fear of death so wrought upon ’

V itfisok a,

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Vi tasoka

Vigatasoka

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TH E I NDI A N L E GE ND S

1 83

the mind of Vité so ka that b e embraced the doctr ine Of Buddha in whi ch he was i n structed by the holy S th avir a Yasas With difli cul ty the king was per 1 sue ded by the S th avi r a Yasas to grant to h is br o ther per mission to become a monk I n or der to ini tiate th e novice gr adually into the habits of the li fe of a mendicant fr iar A soka pr epared a hermi tage for h im within the palace grounds Fr om this her mitage Vi tfisoka withdrew fir st to the K u kku ta i r ai ma mon aster y an d afterwards to V id eh a (Tir h ut) wher e he at tained to the rank of a saint (ar hat) When Vi tasoka clad in rags r etur ned to the palace he was recei ved wi th great honour an d was induced to exhibit hi s super natural power s H e then again wi thdr ew to a distant r etr eat beyond the frontier wher e he fell ill A soka sent h im m edicine an d he recov ered I n those days it happened that a devoted adher ent of the Br ahman ascetics thr ew down an d br oke a statue of Buddha at Pundra Var dh an a in Bengal As a penalty for the sacrilege eighteen thousand inhabitants Of that city were massacred in on e d ay by or der of A sok a S ome time after another fanatic at PAtalipu tr a Th e pe r sons sim i lar ly ov erthr ew a statue of Buddh a concer ned with all their r elatives an d fr iends were ,

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yl

Th e Ce

on ese

M ah avt

l

sa

p

(

ch .

iv)

p

Yasas ( Yaso) as a ead in g er son age at th e Cou n ci in th e r ei gn of Kalasoka, or Asoka I

l

of

th e man

li a

re

y i di

n ce can

n

cation s

be

placed

l

ch u r ch cou n ci s

.

th e Sth avir a Secon or V aisali

r e r esents

d

.

Th is fact i s

th at KaIASOka is a fiction , on

th e

an d

accounts of any of

th at

on e no

th e th r ee

18

4

A S OK A

bur ned alive an d the king placed the pr ice of a d i n ci r a on the h ead of e ve r y B r ahm anical ascetic Now, when the pr oclamation was pu bli shed Vi ta soka cl ad in hi s beggar s gar b happ ened to be lodging for the night in the bu t of a cowherd Th e good wi fe see ing the unkempt an d dishe velled appear ance of h er guest was convinced that he must be on e of the pr oclaimed ascetics an d per suad ed h er husband to Th e cowher d S l ay hi m in or der to e ar n the r eward car r i ed h is victim s head to the king wh o was hor r ified at the sight an d was per suaded by hi s m in iste r s to r e voke the p r ocl am ation Not only di d he r evoke the cr uel proclamation but he gave the wor ld peace by ordain ing that hencefor th n o on e S hould be put to death I n FA hien s v e r sion of the legend the brother Of the Th e pilgr im tells us that the k ing is anonymous youn ger brother o f Ki ng Asoka lived the life of a r ecluse on the Vultur e s Peak hill near BAj agr ih a wher e he h ad attained to the r ank of a saint (a r hat) Th e king in vi ted the r ecluse to the palace but the Th e king then p r omised invi tation was declined that if hi s br other would accept the invi tation he woul d make a hill for h im inside the city Then the ki ng pr ov iding all sor ts of meat an d dr ink invi ted the genii an d addr essed the m thus : I beg ou to accept my in vi tation for to m or r ow ; but as y th ere ar e n o seats I must r equest y ou each to br ing The insc iptions p ove th at A oka d id ot ab li h capital ,

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TH E I ND I A N L E GE ND S

1 85

On the morrow the gr eat genn came each on e br inging wi th h im a gr eat stone four or fiv e paces A fte r the feast he deputed the genii to pile squar e up their seats an d make a great stone moun tain ; an d at the base of the m oun tain wi th fiv e gr eat squar e stones to m ak e a rock chamber in l ength about 35 feet an d in breadth 2 2 feet an d in height 7 1 feet h is own

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me stor y is told by H iu en Tsiang in or der to explain the or igin of the stone dwellin g which was still to be seen at Pa talipu tr a in the sev enth centur y 1 A D Th e name of Mahendra is gi v en to the her mit pr ince by H in en Tsiang wh o r elates Of hi m a legend which may be compar ed with that of Vitfisoka Th e t wo stor i es have some points in common Th e

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sa

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T H E S T ORY OF M A H END RA , A ND

TH E

C ONV E RSI ON OF

CE YL ON

King Asoka

ear ly in h is r eign h ad a half br other the son of h is mother wh o was younger than the king an d belonged to a n oble family Th e young man was extr avagant wasteful an d cr uel in di sposition I n hi s dr ess also he aped the r oyal costume Th e indignation of the people became so gr eat that the ministers v entur ed to r emonstr ate with the king -

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ii

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j

Ma

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or

W addell

with th e Bh ikh n a Pah ar i

d ad all d M ah

l n a e s a a t c p

war d, is

c

s,

e

n

states

en d r u.

at

i

d

Patn a,

th at th e

en ti fies

on

n eigh

M ah en

wh i ch

da r



s

Hi

bs

th e Nawa

bour i n g

muh alla

,

ll

-



or

1 86

A S OK A

Your majesty s brother in h is pride assumes a d ignity beyond h is due When the gover n ment is impar tial the subjects ar e contented ; when the su bjects ar e content the sover eign is at peace We desi r e that y ou should pr eser ve the pr inciples of gover nment handed down to us by ou r father s an d that y ou should deliver to justice the men wh o seek to change those p r inciples Then King Asoka weeping addressed hi s br other an d said : I hav e inher ited fr om my ancestor s the duty of pr otecting my people ; h ow is it that y ou my have for gotten my affection an d kind own brother ness ! I t is impossible for me at the v ery beginni ng If I pu nish y ou Of my r eign to disregar d the law s I dr ead the r esentment of my ancestor s ; i f I pass ov er your tr ansgr essions I dread the ill Opinion Of my people Th e p r ince bo wing h is h ead admitted h is error an d begged for noth i ng m or e th an a re spite of sev en 1 days Th e ki ng gr anted this r equest an d thr ew hi s br other i nto a dar k du ngeon though he provi ded hi m with exqu isite food an d all other luxuri es A t the end of the first d ay the guard cried ou t to the pr isoner : One d ay h as gone ; six days ar e left By the time the sixth d ay h ad expir ed the prisoner s repentance an d discipli ne wer e complete H e attained at once to the r ank of a saint (ar hat) an d feeli ng conscious of miraculous power s ascended into the air Compa e th e Ceylo e e Sto y of Tishya th e Vi cege e t i ch apt e vi p 1 7 2 ab e an d

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TH E I NDI A N L E GEND S

A soka

1 87

went in person to the dun geon an d told h is br other that having n ow contr ary to expectation attained the h ighest degree of holi ness he might r etur n to hi s pl ace Mahendra repli ed that he h ad lost all taste for the pleasur es of the wor ld an d desir ed to live in solitude A soka consented but pointed ou t that it was unnecessary for the pr ince to r etir e to the moun tain s as a hermitage could be constr ucted at the capital Th e king then caused the genii to build a stone house as already related Mahendra after hi s conv ersion j ourneyed to the south Of I ndia an d built a monastery i n the delta o f the Kav eri ( Cauver y) of which the ruins wer e still 1 v i sible a th ousand years l ate r H e is al so r elated to hav e made u se Of hi s super natur al powers to pass through the air to Ceylon i n whi ch island he spread the knowledge Of the true ’ law an d wi dely d ifl used the doct rine bequeathed From the time of to h is disciples by the Master Mahendr a the people of Ceylon wh o h ad been ad dicted to a corrupt for m Of r eligion forsook their Th e ancient errors an d heartily accepted the truth conv ersion of Ceylon according to H iu en Tsiang took 2 place on e hundred years after the death of Buddha ,

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Bea ,

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Beal, i i

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ma

Di pava

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.

Asoka M aur

yl

Ce

on ese

p

l

d

Com ar e th e egen s of th e M ah fivar hsa an d ace ike th e A sokdvad dn a, H inen Tsian g, h a, th e at e assign e b th e after Bu a a cen tur

2

6 4

.

y

l

y

lege d to Kala n

soka

.

dd

d

pl d d y

1 88

A S OK A K UNSL A

T H E S T ORY or

the se venth centur y A D pilgr ims wer e Shown a stupa at Taxila whi ch was said to hav e been built by A soka to mar k the Spot wher e the eyes of h is Th e stor y of belov ed son K u n fila were tor n ou t Kunala is to the following e ffect A fter the death of hi s faithful consor t A san dh i mitra K ing Asoka late in li fe mar r ied Tish y ar a k shita a di sso lute an d un pr incip led young woman S h e cast amor ous glances on he r ste pso n Ku nal a h er w or thy pr edecessor s son wh o was famous for the beauty of hi s ey es Th e v ir tuous pr ince r ejected with horror the ad vances made by hi s stepmother wh o then became filled w ith th e spite o f contemned beauty an d changed h er h ot love into bitter hate I n pursuance of a d eep laid scheme for the d estr u c tion Of hi m wh o by h is v irtue h ad put h er vice to the queen with honi ed wor ds persuaded sh ame the king to d ep u te Ku n ii la to the gover nment of distant Taxila Th e prince obediently accepted the honour able commission an d when departing was war ned by h is fathe r to v er i fy orders r eceived which if genuine would be sealed with an impr ession Of the king s 1 Th e queen bided h er time w ith e v er gr ow ing teeth In

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Spr etae i n ta r ia for mae ( Ver gil) 1 M r Bea h as cit e an ex act En g i sh ar a e i n th e ver ses escr i in g th e gift of an s t o th e Raw on fami u a s , q ote in 1

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.

d

l

d l d

b



Bu r ke s Peer age, s

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o.

H astin gs

l

d

p

ll l ly

d

TH E I NDI A N LE GE ND S

9

18

hatr ed A fter the lapse Of some month s Sh e wrote a dispatch add r e ssed to the vi ceroy s m ini sters at Taxila directing them immedi ately on r eceipt Of the Prince o r der s to put ou t the eyes of the vi ceroy Kun zila to lead him an d his wifeinto the mou ntains an d to ther e leave them to perish S h e sealed the dispatch wi th royal r ed wax an d when the kin g was asleep furtively stamped the wax with the impr ession of his teeth an d sent Ofl the orders with all speed to Tax ila Th e ministers wh o received the orders knew n ot what to d o Th e pr ince noticing their confusion compelled them to explain Th e min ister s wished to comp r omise by detaining the pr ince in custody pending a refer ence to the capi tal But the p r ince would n ot per mit of an y delay an d said : My father i f he h as o rder ed my death must be obeyed ; an d the seal o f hi s teeth is a su r e Si gn O f the cor r ect ness of the orders NO mistake is possible H e then commanded an outcaste wr etch to pluck ou t h is eyes Th e order was obeyed an d the pr ince accompanied by hi s fai thful wi fe wander ed forth in sightless m isery to beg h is br e ed I n the cou rse Of their wear y wanderings they arriv ed what at Pa talipu tr a A las cr i ed the blind man .



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William

d p

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kin g, th e th i r

d

Give to Paulyn Raw

Ho

on ,

An d i n token th at th is th i n g

of

my

e an d

my

thir

d

son

H enr

y

H opetown e,

18 sooth ,

I bit th e wh yt wax wi th my tooth Befor e M eg, M awd , an d M ar ger ,

An d

r eign,

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y

’ .

n t ix n d A I ( .

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.

A S OK A

1 90

p ain I suffer from cold an d hun ger I was a pr ince ; I am a beggar Would that I could make myself known an d get r edress for the false accusations brought against me H e managed to penetrate i nto an inne r co ur t of the pal ace where he li fted up h is v oice an d wept an d to the sound Of a lute sang a song full Of sadness Th e king in an upper chamber heard the strai ns an d th inking th at he r ecogn ized the v oi ce an d touch Th e ki ng as those of h is son sent for the m instr e l when he beheld hi s sightless son was over whelmed with gr ief an d inqu ir ed by whose contr i vance all this miser y h ad come about Th e pr ince humbly r epl ied : I n truth for lack of filial piety I have thus been punished by H eaven On such an d such a d ay suddenly came a l o ving order an d I hav ing n o means O f excusing myself dar ed n ot shr i nk from the punish ment Th e king kn owing in h is hear t that Q ueen Ti sh y ar a k shi tawas guilty Of th e cr ime w ithout further inquir y caused h er to be bur nt alive an d visited with condign p u nishment ever y per son hi gh or low wh o h ad an y Th e Officials we r e so me dismissed S har e in the outrage Th e common people some bani sh ed so me executed wer e accor ding to on e account massacr ed an d ac cor ding to another tr anspor ted acr oss the H imalayas 1 to the deser ts of Khoten .

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betan

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egen

i n Rockh i

ll

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43 ,

11 .

d ab s

Bur n out,

31 0 ;

out

d

th e i n tr o

The Life

f

o

p

.

ucti on

d

0 m 6 C r h w il a o t e e 3 p of Bu h ismin to Kh ot en

th e Bud d ha,

.

pp

dd

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2 32

seqq

.

Th ese

TH E I NDI A N L E GE ND S

191

those days a gr eat saint named Gh osh a dwelt i n the monaster y by the holy tr ee Of M ah abod h i TO hi m the king bro ught Ku n al a an d p r ayed that h is son might r eceiv e h is S ight Th e saint commanded that on the mor r ow a gr eat congr egation should assemble to hear his preac hi ng of the Law an d th at each person S hould br ing a vessel to rece iv e hi s tears A vast multitude of men an d women assembled an d there was n ot on e of th ose wh o hear d the ser m on but was mov ed to tear s which fell into the vessels pr ovided Th e saint collected the tears in a gold en v ase an d sai d these words : Th e doctrine whi ch I have ex pounded is the most mysterious of Buddha s teaching ; i f that exposi tion is n ot true if ther e is e r ror in what I have said then let thi ngs r emain as they ar e ; but if what I hav e said is true an d fr ee from er r or let thi s man after washi ng hi s eyes with these tears receive hi s Sight Wher eupon K unfila washed in the tears an d r eceived hi s Sight In

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A ST ORY or

Tish y ar akshi ta, queen

T I S H YA RA H S H I T A

Ki ng A soka in pur suance of h er i ncestuous passion for h er stepso n Pr i nce Kun a la wh o r epulsed h er adv ances resol ved to avenge herself an d in or de r to acc ompli sh h er pur po se took ad van legend me tion the ai t Yess a th e mi i te of A oka th e Pi Th e t o y of K n a1a i folklo e Compa e th l ge d m a d hd 2 M of Ph ae d a a d H i pp lyt a d Jataka No 4 7 ( ) p i th e t a lati o by M Rou e wh o cite oth e I dian p a allel l v i p v o ( of

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s

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A S OKA

1 9a

tage of the ki ng s sufferings fr om a dan gerous an d apparently incur able d isease to ac uire complete con q trol over hi s mind an d for some days Sh e was granted unr estrained u se of the so vereign power Asoka believin g hi s m alad y to be incurable gav e the or der : S end for Ku nala ; I wish to place h im on the thr one What use is life to me 3 Tish y ar aksh itfi hear ing these words thought to herself : I f Kunala ascends the thro ne I am lost A ccordingly Sh e said to Ki ng A soka : I u nder take to restor e y ou to health but a necessar y condition is that y ou for bid all physi Th e king com cian s to h av e access to the palace plied with h er request an d sh e enj oined ever ybody to br ing to h er an y person man or woman wh o mi ght be su fler i n g fr om the same malad y as the ki ng Now it happened that a man of the Shepherd caste was su fler in g fr om the same malad y H is wi fe ex plained h is case to a physician wh o promised to pr escr ibe a suitable r emedy after examin ing the patient Th e man then consulted the physician wh o br ought h im to Q ueen Tish y ar aksh ita S h e h ad hi m conveyed to a secr et place wher e he was put to death When his body was opened sh e perceiv ed in h is stomach a huge wor m which h ad deranged the bo dily functions S h e appli ed pounded pepper an d ginger without effect but when the worm was touched with an onion he di ed i mmediately an d p assed ou t Of the i ntestines Th e queen then begged the king to eat an Th e k ing r epli ed Oni on an d so reco v e r h is health m r i a a h a n a n ueen I a a K s h t y o n i w a n I t o o c e ! ; Q ’

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,

TH E I NDI A N L E GE ND S

19 3

My lor d answer ed the queen y ou S hould swallow it mer ely as ph y sio in order to save your life Th e kin g then ate the onion an d the wor m died passing ou t Of the i ntestines ’



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,

,

1

.

T H E D OTA G E OF K I NG A S OK A

king resolved to giv e a thousand millions of gold p i eces to the Master s se r v ice an d when far adv anced in y ears h ad actually giv en n in e hundr ed I n the hop e that the v ow would an d S ixty mi llions be compl eted befor e he died he daily sent gr eat tr easur es O f sil v er an d gold to the K u k ku ta ma monaster y at ra the capital I n those days S ampad i the son of Kunala was heir appar ent To h im the mi nisters p ointed ou t that the ki ng was r uin ing hi mself by h is extr avagance an d w ould i f per m itted to continue it be unable to resist th e attacks of other monarchs or to pr otect the ki ngdom Th e pr in ce ther efor e for bade the tr easur er to com ply with the king s demands Asok a unable to Obtain Th e



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2

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,

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-

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,

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1

(

Fah i en -

n d ia

I

d id

ch . x vi

n ot

)



eat

b

th at th e in h a itan ts

n otes

a r g

li ly

on i on s,

or

c

wi th th e

p j d

Gan geti c ce ti on of

of

ex

p

Th e r e u i ce ex ists to t h i s d ay Ch andalas ( ou tcastes) on f semb an ce i r e i n u i n a f a c n n s h e v o h s i i r o h c a t e o e e e e e c T g Th is stor is fr om t h e Kun a a section of th e to flesh meat

p pl p

-

D ivyd vad d n a in Bu r n ou f,

Th e J ain

Jai n

l

ch u r ch

d C mpa h apt egen o

c

of

re

.

l

egen

d

Asoka s

yl p

th e Ce

e r vi , an te,

p

d

1 73 .

u ct i on ,

padi

Sam

au th en ti c



.

p

l

.

1 33

y

l

.

as a gr eat

i s kn own

y

l

b

pat

a ou t

i s gi ven b Bu r n ou f, of Th e Last Day s stor

otage

on ese

.

d

In tr o

s r e r esen t

Noth in g ’

.

y

.

1



r on of

hi m

pp

,

-

th e

Th e

e 8 s 1 3 qq of Asoka i n .

.

19

4

A S OKA

uppl ies from the tr easury began to give away th e plate which fu rnished the royal table first the gold next the silver an d fin ally the ir on When all the metalli c war e h ad been exhausted the mini sters fur n ish ed the king s table wi th earthenwar e Then A soka demanded of them Wh o is ki ng of thi s countr y ! Th e ministers d id obeisance an d respectfully r eplied Your majesty is king Asoka bu rst into tear s an d cri ed : Why d o y ou say fr om kindness what is n ot tr ue ! 1 I am fall en from my r oyal state S av e thi s half apple there is nought of w hi ch I can dispose as sov e r eign Th en the king sent the half apple to the K u kku tar fima monastery to be divided am ong the monks wh o shoul d be ad dr essed in this wise : Behold thi s is my last gi ft ; to thi s pass hav e come the riches Of the emper or of I ndia My royalty an d my power have dep arted ; de v ed of health of h sio an d of physi cians to me n o r i p p y suppor t is left sav e that of the Assembly of the saints Eat this fr uit which is Ofler ed w ith the intent that th e whole Assembly may partake o f it my l ast gi ft Once mor e Ki ng A soka asked h is minister Rfid h a gupta : Wh o is sover eign of thi s coun tr y ! Th e mi nister d id obeisance an d respectfully replied : Sir e your majesty is sovereign of thi s coun try Kin g A soka recovering h is composur e responded in verse an d said s

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,

,

,

Th is

ear th ,

en cin ctur ed

Th is

ear th ,

be

1

decked

by its

sapph ir e zon e,

with gleamin g

A malaka fr ui t, E mblica

j ewels

n l i s c i a i fi

o



.

r ar e,

TH E I NDI A N L E GEND S Th is

ear th ,

Th is

ear

hi

of

th ,

ll s th e

l

ever astin g

Th e

th r on e,

moth er fair t h e Assembly

of all cr eati on

I give to

b lessin g

wh i ch

1 95

,

.

ds s

u ch

atten

i b f t e g cou r ts I

mi n e ;

Not I n dr a s h alls n or Br ahmas cr ave, Nor yet th e splen d our s wh ich r ou n d mon ar ch s sh in e, ’ A n d p ass away , l ike r ush i n g Gan gas wave, ’



d

A b i in g

W ith

n ot

b le

faith

un ch an gea

a

momen t

wh ich

,

l

Th is gi ft of Ear th s i mmeasur ab ’ I to th e Sain ts Assemb fr ee ’

An d

l

se

ly

l

f

I

con tr o

-

A good wh ich

sh ake,

n ou gh t can

ph

e s

er e

ly mak

Of

cr ave,

.

e

;

most

b oons

ch an geth

d

ear

n ever

,

1 .

Ki ng Asoka h aving thus spoken sealed the deed of n d p r esently fulfi i a f ft led the m rt a l i ty l l w o o a g Th e for ty mill ions of gold p ieces whi ch yet remained to complete King Asoka s vowfor the gift of a thousand ,

,

,

.



d

p p

A ccor in g to Fah ien ( ch a ter x x vu ) , thi s gift of th e i lar t o th e em i r e was r ecor e i n an in scr i ti on on a st on e south of Pfitali putr a Th e site of th e i ar h as n ot b een 1

p

-

dd

p ll

.

i

d

en ti

ll

fo

fied with

y

cer tai n t

Th e

.

pl

p

s eech of

Asoka i n

p

is

r ose

as

ws

o

Th i s ear th , wh ich

ocean en

wr aps in

a

l g ad

or i ou s

men t of wi th mi n es r a g

pphi th i ea th wh eof th e fa i d f di r e j ew l thi eat a d uppo t all a th wh i h M unt M ad a a I gi t th A mbly t t dwell i th A th e wa d f thi g d d d I de i palace of I d a o yet i th at of B ah ma d I i a y wi e d i th e f li ity f ki g hip wh i h q i k e th a r i g wat pa away a d i g p f t faith wh by Th wa d whi h I a f th I mak th i gi ft i th at l f t l whi h th ain t h d e empt f m h a g a d whi h i a g sa

r e,

ve s

o

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s

re

r

n

es r e

e

n n



e re

o

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n

o

e

s

oo

o

n

r

cr

c

se

s

s

ee

oo

x

s r e no

o

n or

o

s

ve

-

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c

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n

u r es

n

er

n

ven

e

s

n

n

un

n

e s

e.

er e

ec

c

c

n

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e

con r o

N 2

u c er

,

on e

or

ro

cr

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r

s

or n e

r s

sse

n

r

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sses

s

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c

er ,

e

n

s e r

ve

r

ce

er

e s.

o



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s



s

on our

,

1 96

A S OKA

millions wer e expended by the mi nisters in the redemption O f the earth an d S ampadi was placed upon the vacant throne H e was succeeded by hi s Vr ih aspati wh o was succeeded in order by son ,

,

.

,

Vr ish asen a Pu sh y adh ar ma,

Push pami tr a

an d

,

.

A PPENDI X

dn

BY th e kin Su per in ten

d

ess of

en t of

t i on s i n th e

I

Th e

.

o

n

l

B och

.

d

an d of

j o A lcock I M S Cal c tta I am ab le

Ma

th e I n i an M u seu m,

ll wi I d ia

t o gi ve t h e fo

Dr

l ist

ng

r

,

u

.

.

,

,

th e A soka

of casts of

.

i n scr i p

M u seum

n

d

Rock E i ct s

Four teen

l

Kal in ga Ed icts

an d

l

Gi r n ar , Dh au i , J su gada, K a si , Sh ah b azgar h i , M an ser a

(

ex cept

II

p or ti co tai i g Edi t X III ) — Sah as am a d Si dd ap u Rock Ed icts

th e fou r th

M in or

.

pt v

ce

I II

n

r

ra

(

ex

-

.

b ar

Th e th r ee Bar a

.

Hi

ll

r ecor

ds of

Nagar j un i H i ll r ecor d s of Dasar ath a Pill ar s Ni gli va an d Ru mmi n d ei

Tar ai

Th e

P r ia a e ( d )

.

t h e th r ee

A

.

c

n n

NO III , fr om J atin ga Rameévar a)

— Cave I n scr ipti on s

sok a an d

IV

n

z

er si on

.

on ,

.

-

.

ll a Edicts a d S ppl m ta y Pill ar Edicts a d K a éa mbi Ed i ts) A ll ah ab ad ( i l d i g t h Q n L a r iya A a aj La r iya Na da gar h ( Nava d gar h ) Th or i gi al Bh ab aI ns ipt io i s p es v d i th ooms i t y f B gal of th e A i at i S f s m f th i nsc ipt ion s al so Ca t i t i th e P ovi V

Pi

.

n

r

nc u

u

-

e

r

,

s s o

c

o

u

oc e

cr

e o

en

o

e

r

M u seu m, L u ckn ow

.

s

r

n

u

n

c

n

n

n

-

r

n

s

cial

r



u ee

e

n

en

e

u

r

er

,

.

n

e

e r

.

ex

s

n

r

n

I ND E X A ch aemeni an empir e, 1 1 1 . A d mi r al t y boar d , 7 7 A fgh an i st an , stupas in , 7 1 A g i B r ah ma, neph ew o f A soka, .

.

n S4

1

A g r ammes, or Dh ana Nan ds, q v , 67 ‘ A i stai atm , king, 1 75 , 1 79 A fiv ik a» sect 1 6 1 0 6 . . 3 . 45 4 4. .

.

.

.

45

A n l a, pr in cess of Ce ylon , 1 67, 1 8 A p ar an tak a th e Bombay coast,

g

.

A pp i an , r efer r ed to, 1 3 A r ach o si a, pr ovin ce, 7 2 2 A r amai c scr i pt, 1 02 , 1 1 0, 1 4 A r chi t ectu r e, of M aur ya per iod , .

.

.

1 07 , 1 1 1

.

A lco ck , M aj or , 1 9 6 A l ex an d er t h e G r eat , death of, 1 1 , 61 In d ian con qu ests of, 66 A l ex an d er , king of Epir us, 60, 63, 1 31 A l lah ab ad , in scr ibed pillar at,

A r i an e, pr ovin ce , 66 A r my , ad min istr at ion an d str en gth 6 Of! 1 3 1 7 : 77 r efer r ed to, 1 3 Ar ya sthavir amikdy a a sch ool of Bud dhism, 1 7 1 A san d h i mi tr a, a queen of A soka,

A lmo n er s d epar tmen t, 24 Ama laka , fr uit , 1 9 4 A mar h at l, kin gdom, 1 29 A mazo n i an guar d, 33

h adh a, mon th , 1 5 1 A sok a, emper or , lack of biogr a f r l s o hi hi il s t o c a d e t a f o : y , p , 5 11 accession of, 1 5 : con qu er ed

I

,

155

.

.

.

.



.

.

.

t itle of Bin d usar a, 1 4 A n an d a, stdpa of, 36, 1 82 A n d h r a, kingd om, 7 2 , 1 2 9 , 1 32 A n d r o k o tt os, or Chan dr agupta, .

.

.

1 3.

q

A n i mals,

san cti ty of

A n t , qu een, 1 5 0 A n ti g o n u s I , kin g

life

of, 2

7

.

62

of

-

.

.

.

.

.

Asia, 60,

.

n at as, kin o f I I o G ( ) g

M aced onia, 60, 62 , 64 1 1 3 , T h e o s, kin g of Syr ia, .

6 6 3: 9: 5: 1 29 : took t itle of Pr iyad ar tin r t n e e t o P v i 6 1 d co a d a s i 1 ( y , ) , 4 Bud d hism, 1 7, 63: j oi n ed th e Bud dhi st Or d er , 1 9 , 63: stat ues is of, 2 0 : sen t o ut Bu d d hist m sions, 2 1 , 2 2 , 5 0, 5 5 , 1 32 , 1 66, 1 87 mad e Bud dh ism a wor ld r eligio n , 2 2 , 3 0 : pr ovi d ed for comfor t of m an an d beast , 2 2 , 80, 1 1 5 : establish ed r eligious assembli es an d censor s, 2 3 63 , A l a l R o d b 64 es t a li s h e : , y 74 ’ moner s depar tmen t, 24: poli cy a e il r m n i e of, 2 6 3 w n o t : g , 4 p g

K alin ga,

1

36:

,

-

I NDEX

1 98 eth ical

of,

teachin g

36 35 believed in a fu tur e li fe, 37 i i t r eligious l se d r a c t o t on e r a , p n a l hi s r s o n a m e w a s e 8 : 3 p 1 belon ged A soka var d h ana, 4 2 : solemn l to M aur ya clan , 4 y i r e n u b cr own ed , e d a o t : g 43 f m il : f for ty y ear s, 4 a o , 4 , 4 y 45 : pr o bably succeed ed y 6 r h e a D asar at h a, 4 : , 5 5 p ps con ven ed a Bud dhist C o un ci l, olo h r n o f r e f n 0 o i o 6 : c , g 5 gy 5 65 ex t en t of h is empir e , 66 s t s r i b e d t o 1 2 u a a s c 8 : : , , p 7 7 7 ad min i str ation o f, 7 2— 85 Splen d o ur of h is capit al , 80 mit i sev er i ty of cr imin al la w, t e a d g 84: er ecte d n u mer ou s mon o r ock i n li th ic pill ar s, 9 4 , 99 : scr iptions of, 1 01 , 1 1 4 : ar t s in th e age of, 1 07 : in flu en ced by Per sian empir e, 1 1 0 : Ceylon ese legen d of, 1 5 9 : tr ad iti on s of 1 95 : d eath of, 1 74 I n dian , l egen d s of, 1 75 A sok a tr ee , 1 78 A s o k d r d ma, monaster y, 1 62, 1 65 , :

g

.

.

73 A so k dv ad an a, 1 79 , 1 80, 1 87 I

.

man ce

ro

6 3

35 ,

,

.

A ssy r i an i n fl u en ce, 1 1 1 A st r ag al us mouldin g, 9 6 A swast ama, r ock , 1 04 A t h en ai o s, r efer r ed to, 1 3 .

1

4

2,

d r asu a, var ian t of Bin d u sflr a, q c , 1 4 B h agv an ( Bh agwan ) In d r ail , 1 03 Bh an d u , con ver t to Bud dh ism, .

.

.

.

16

7

.

B h ar h u t, stdpa , 90 9 2 h i k n a Pah flr l , moun d , 1 85 i d s, r iver , 66 ’ Bi b le, con tr asted with A soka s teach in g, 37 B i mb i sar a, king, 1 75 B i n d u sAr a A mi tr agh at a, em -

.

.

.

.

.

r or of e p

1 60. 1

I n di a,

75 .

1

6 7 .

1 l

4 ,

15 ,

43

62,

,

77

l o ch , D r , 1 9 B o tr ee , 1 67 1 69 , 1 7 3, 1 74 B o w, I n dian an d Ceylon ese, 7 7, 78 1 5 r ah ma, d eit 9 ’ Br ah mag i r i , or Rock inscr ip t ion , 1 38, 1 4 1 r ah man s, 1 6, 1 7, 3 1 1 , , 3 4 9 55 B r ah mi , scr ipt , 1 03, 1 09 , 1 1 0 B u d d h a, d ate of d eath of, 5 6, 14 0 : symbols of, 1 1 3: stat ues .

-

-

.

.

.

o

.

.

.

o f, 1 1

3, 1 83 Bu d d h a G ay a, 36, 1 81 .

m ated

by A soka,

B u d d h agh osh a, cr ed i bi li ty of, 5 1 B u d d h i sm, mad e a wor ld r eli ’ i n o A b k 2 2 s o k a 0 A s o as , , y g 3 d evotion to, 31 asser ted san cti ty of life, 38 a sect of H in d ooism, .

-

.

.

B ab y l on , d eath of A l ex an d er at , 1 1 Seleucu s satr ap of, 1 2 B ai r at , M in or Rock inscri pti on at , 1 05 , 1 38 ak h i r a, lion pillar at , 3 4, 9 4, .

.

-

B el ap an di t a, ascetic, 1 78 B an ki p o r e ( B an k i pu r ) , on si te of Patalipu tr a, 80, 88 B ar ab ar h i ll , in scr i bed caves at , 1 06, 1 4 4 B ar ah u t , or Bhar h u t , 9 0 B asar , t h e ancie nt V aisali , 34 B e n ar e s, ci ty, 36, 1 81 B eau ssar , th e an ci en t V edisa i 2 1 3 r i 6 1 6 . g 45 . 9 . 9 4. 7 . .

.

.

.

.

»

t

g

1

1 05 ,

2 3,

1 3,

.

.

.

edict ,

Bh i l r l ,

39 B iih ler 1 21,

4

13

B ur

»

Dr

,

.

,

1 07 , 1 09 , 1 1 6, 1 20,

1 2 2,

1 23 ,

I

1

39 :

4 1

1 25 , 1

:

n ou f, r efer r ed

C an on , gr owth 1 09

of

45

,

1 2 8,

1

0 3,

47

1

49

I

,

to, 36, 810

.

Bu ddhist , 5 4 ,

.

C ast s of A soka i nscr ipti ons, 1 9 6 C au casu s, I n d ian , 66 C av e inscr ipt i ons, 1 4 4 C e n sor s, of L aw of Pi ety , 2 3, 64 1 5 5 : of , 1 1 9 . 1 29 . 1 5 4 . 74 . .

.

.

women , 75 ,

1 29

.

I IKLLEUY C ey l o n , Buddh ist missions to, 2 1 , 6 6 1 n 1 6 8 : co 1 1 45 1 4 : 49 1 5 5 7 v er sion 1 of, 4 0 1 8 6 , 5 , 3 5 7 ch r on icles 1 1 of, , 4 53 59 Tish ya, kin g of, 1 32 , 1 65 U tt iya, kin g of, 1 68 Ch akh ud d n e, mean in g of, 1 4 7 C h fin ak y a, Br ah man , 1 60 C h an d agi r i k a, ex ecution er , 1 78 C h and dl a, outcaste , 1 9 3 C h an d r agu pt a M au r y a, h istor y of, 1 1 1 4 . 6 1 , 62 , 83 , 1 60, 1 7 5 C h ar i o t s, 7 7 C h d r u mat l , d augh ter ofA soka, 69 C h et i y agi r i , mon aster y , 1 68 v ar ian t for V ed isa ir i, 1 6 3 g Ch i kisakd , mean in g of, 1 1 6 ’ ‘ C h i n ese, Sacr ed Ed ict, 7 , 2 5 0 1 1 C h ola, ki ngd om 4 1 1 , , , 7 5 3 7 C h fil aman i , atap a, 1 69 C h ur i a G h fitl, pass, 68 C o n e ev er am, city, 7 2 C o pp er bolt , 9 6 C ou n cil s, Bud d h ist , of PAtali a i u t r R j a n d V s d l i a h a a a i , , p , gr -

.

.

.

.

.

-

.

.

.

I

SE!

Dh arizmah d md tr a , or C en sor of L aw of Piety , 2 3, 64 , 74 1 5 4 D h ani malip i, mean in g of, 1 33 D h fl map ad a, quoted , 1 2 7 Dh a rizmay u ta, mean ing of, 1 20, '

.

,

.

.

1 21

.

D h an a N an d a, kin g, 1 1 , 6 7 , 1 60 Dh a r ma, tr an slation of, 5 , 1 7 D h ar magu pt ak a, a sch o ol of Bud d h ism, 1 7 1 D h ar md so k a, a t itle of A soka, 5 7 D h ar mav i v ar d h a n a, a son of A soka, 4 4 D h au l i , r ock ed icts an d scu lp tur ed eleph an t at , 1 04 1 1 3, , .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

,

.

.

j

.

.

0 5

C o u r t e san s, r egulation of, 7 5 , 1 2 2 2 n i n g h am, r efer r ed to, 1 3 C , 3 , .

n u t c.

r e fer r ed

C ur t i u s, D ar i u s,

con qu est of

t o,

1

3

D i n ap o r e ( Dh anapur ) , can ton men t , 80 Bi n d r a , coin , 1 84 D i o d o t us, king, 64 D i pav ar h sa, C ey lon ese ch r o ni cle , .

.

.

D i v y d v ad sn a, r oman ce, 1 9 3 D o n o r s, i n d ivid ual , 9 2 D r av i d a, kingd om, 72 D u fl , M iss, on ch r on ology I n d ia, 1 4 .

.

.

of

.

Ekad esa riri , meani ng of, E l eph an ts, war , 7 7

. 1 23

.

.

PanjAb by,

8 8 , 4 9 ,

F a h i en, t r av els o f, -

1

1 7 ,

110

.

D asan e, D asar 1

6 9

mean in g of,

at h a,

king,

12

45

,

4

65 ,

1

44,

.

.

.

.

.

-

.

.

4 .

m

D ev an a p i y a T i ssa, C eylon , 1 65 D ev ap d l a, son in law

a

kin g

of

-

9

moth er

D 0 1, 1

27

.

of

-

meani ng of 1 2 2 G anan d yani mean i n g o f, 1 1 7 e : t r i b G an d h ar a pr ovin ce 4 4 Ga bh dg d r a,

.

,

.

,

,

,

,

G an g ar i d ae , n ation , 67, 1 09 G ar li c, pr ej udice agai nst , 1 9 3 G au t ama sak y amu n i B u d d h a, .

.

G ed r osi a, pr ovin ce, 66 G h azn i , city , 7 2 G h o sh a, sain t , 1 9 1 G ir n a r , h ill an d i n scr i ption , .

.

.

.

.

.

.

D av i d s, Pr of Rh y s, 1 1 5 , 1 4 1 0 6 , 3 D dy d d o sd san c, mean ing of, 1 2 8 D e an e , C olon el, 1 02 D e at h , pu n ish men t of, 2 9 D ei mach os, ambassad or , 1 4 , D elhi , inscr i bed pill ar s at , 9 6 9 8 D esmii , meani n g of, 1 1 9 , 1 2 3 D cvd n a rii p iy a, a r oyal t itle, 1 1 4 , 12

F i r o z S h Ah T u g h l ak, 9 7, 99 , 1 00 F i r o zab ad , in Old D elhi , 9 8, 9 9 F o lk l or e, 1 9 1

.

.

of

A soka,

M ahen dr a,

1 63,

.

1 07,

1 1

4 ,

11

6,

1 2 7, 1 2 8, 1 31 :

1 2 0,

1 2

4 ,

1 03,

1 25

lake , 7 2 , 79 7

.

,

I ND E X

2 00

G o r amasl n , pass, 68 G r aeco B o man in fluence, 1 1 1 G u p t a, fath er of U pagupta, 5 3, 1 80 .

-

.

.

mission

H i malay a, Bud d h ist

66 1 5 5 1 i n d o o fr ee t h o ugh t, 39 i n d o o K o osh , moun tains, 7 2 i p p ol y t u s, legen d of, 1 9 1 i u e n T si an g , Chi n ese pilgr i "

H H H H

H H

to,

-

.

A soka,

r e p

Jy 5

.

h aps foun d ed by

2 3.

mi ssion ar y

assapa

.

o sp i t al s,

o fA so ka,

K ash mi r , Bu d dh ist mi ssions to, ’ 2 1 , 5 5 , 1 66 : inclu d ed in A soka s empir e, 6 7

.

1 09

.

5 7-

1

oe r n l e,

K ar t ti ka, mon th , 1 5 1 K ur d v ak i , secon d qu een

5

,

i

ap y a, sch ool , 1 7 1

.

of,

K at h l v at th u , publicati on 1 65 , 1

5

1,

1 7

K ath i l wh , or Saur ashtr a, 79 K at h man d u, ci ty , 35 , 68 K au sAmb i . edict , 1 00, 1 05 , 1 5 7 K av er i , r i ver , 4 1 7, 87 K er ala, kin gd om, 70, 1 1 5 K er n , Pr ofessor , 6, 20, 1 2 2 , 1 2 8, .

B u n s, W h i t e , r avages H u n t i n g , mod e of, 33 H y ph asi s, r iver , 66

87

of,

.

.

.

.

.

.

I n d i an M u seum, 1 9 6 I n d r a, d eity, 1 9 5 I n scr i pt i o n s, classi fied , 1 06 I r r i g at i on d epar tmen t , 79 I si l a, to wn , 1 38 I t si n g , Ch in ese pilgr i m, 20, 39

.

.

.

33 1

31 1 5 5

.

K h ali At ak a,

m m

.

minist er

var ian t

,

.

-

13 1 1 9

5 K e sar i y a, stupa , 34 1

.

of

1

77

mm ,

.

,

9

.

1 03.

.

K h Ar av el a, i n scr iption of, 4 0 K h ar o sh th i , scr i pt, 1 02, 1 09 , 1 1 0 K h i ar ab ad , town , 9 7 K h ot en , co un tr y , 1 90 K o n ak Aman a ( K o nl caman a) , .

J ai n , sect, 1 5 5 : tr adition s, 5 6 1 8 : 5 93 6 J al suk a, a son o f A soka, 4 , 4 7 J amb u d i pa, I n d ia , 1 39 J ataka, stor ies, 1 1 1 , 1 9 1 ' J ati u ca- B Ame av ar a, in scr iption , 1 38 J an gad a, t own an d inscr i ption , °

.

.

.

.

J e t av an a, mon ast er y , 36, 9 9 , 1 82. J o n e s, Sir W illiam, 6 1 J an u ar h , town , 1 03 8 6 0 8 J u st i n , histor ian , 3 5 , , .

.

.

K eb u l , includ ed i n M aur ya em i r e 8 6 p , K Ak av ar n i n , ki n g, 1 75 K so k a, a ficti t i o u s ki n g, 5 3 , 1 I 8 1 , 3 87 5 7 2 5 91 K ali n g a, con quest o f, 1 5 1 8, .

m

.

:

-

69 ,

1 29 : 1 03 ,

edi cts, 1 06, 1

34 1 I3 .

K alsi , r ock inscr ipti on at, 1 02 K amb o a, tr ibe , 1 2 0, 1 32 f a o 6 an ak amu n i , stu , , 4, p 35 .

j

8 9 ,

1 01

.

1

6 4

.

.

.

.

K anakamuni , q K os, length of, 80 K r i sh na, r i ver , 1 29 or

35

.

,

1

46

.

.

K sh at r i y a cast e, 1 9 2 K u kk u tAr Ama, monaster y , .

1

1

83,

1 : 3 9 94 ~

K u mAr apM a, Ch aulukya kin g, 1 9 K umr fih d r , si te of M au r ya palace, .

i E w

4 4 town 34

n g legen d

ué i n ag ar a,

of,

1 88— 1 9 3

,

.

,

,

L ab r an d a, te mple, 9 3 8 Laj akd , c r ajj ukd , g c , 1 4 L ali t a Pat an , city , 68, 69 L au r i y l A r ar fij , inscr i bed pillar .

.

.

.

.

-

at ,

34 ,

1 00, 1

6 9

.

L au r i y a N an d an g ar h N a ( v an d g ar h ) , i n scr i bed pillar at, -

» 14

1 96

L i ch ch h av i , t r ibe , 34 .

'

I IKZZEHX L i on s, wi , 1 1 1 useum 1 96 L u ck n ow, L u mb i n i g ar d en , i n scr i bed pillar mar ki n g si te of, 34, 36, .

.

M

45

village 1 ,

M ad ar a, mou n tain , Ph dya ad man

m

1 95

M an u Pat an , city , 68 M auser s, r ock i n scr i ption ,

m

1 02,

L aur iya Nan d an

see

-

capital,

1 1

M ath u r a, city , 1 80 M au d g a y an a, sain t , 1 82 M au r y a, clan or family , 1 1 60 : d yn asty , 1 5 , em ir e , 6 — 2 , 8 86 :

32 ,

1 2,

,

°

.

gg

M ah fib od hi , tr ee, 1 9 1 M ah ad ev a, missi on ar y , 5 5 M ah ad h ammar akk h i t a, .

.

7 7

p

5, 1 07

4

1,

2

65

l a p ace ,

5

M M M

.

1.

i n d l e, wor ks of, 1 4 , 66 e er u t , ci ty , 9 7 , 1 00 eg ast h en e s, ambassad or , 1 3 , 14 , cC r

.

.

62 , 66, 75 , 80, 81

.

.

88 : per iod , 6 1 , M ax M iill er , on Buddhist legen d s,

.

.

M e sop o tami a, 1 1 0 M i h i n t al e, monast er y , 1 68 M i l est o n e s, 80 ’ M i ln e , tr anslated Sacr ed Ed ict , .

55 I

.

m

.

671 1 42 1 1 5 9 M agad , dialect , 1 07 , 1 5 7 M ag as, ki ng of C yr en e, 60, 63, 1 31 Ar i tt h a, en voy fr omCeylon , M a

ah ad h ar

j

1 25 .

,

,

.

M ag ad h a, kingd om,

M

mgala m meani ng of

a

M at h i ah ,

L u mmi n i ,

1

2 01

.

mar ak sh i ta

sain t,

,

» 7B

M ah a K ai y ap a, sain t , 1 82 M ah a l ah i n d a, or M ah en d r a,

.

.

9

°

1

g 5

1 ki n d g, 75 magis ah d md tr d , officials or 1 2 1 6 tr ates, 74 2 , 3 , ah amegh a, gar d en , 1 68, 1 73 ah an ad i , r i ver , 69 , 1 2 9 ah l p ad u ma n t ah a, cit ed , 1 9 1 ah ar akk h i t a, mission ar y , 5 5 the ah ar ash t r a, M ah r atta co u nt r y , 2 1 , 5 5 , 1 66 hfl asan gh i k a, Bud d hist sch ool, ab

M ah a M

M

an ala,

.

M M M M

i n o r B o ok E d i cts, 1 05 , 1 38 i r at h , see M eer u t, 9 7 i ssa, mou n tain , 1 67 issi on s, Buddhist, 2 1 , 2 2 , 5 5 ,

M

o g g ali ,

.

.

.

.

M M M M M

.

.

.

.

H

1

1 . 7

M ah av amsa, ch r on icle ,

8 6 5 5

M

No I ,

vi h

a gg

ar a,

M M M

u k h ar j i ,

4

2,

5

55,

2,

ah i n d a, or

,

5 5,

1 5 9,

ah i p al a,

8 45 4 ,

49 ,

,

ah en d r a,

kin g,

man d ala

1

75

.

45

q

.

.

.

.

,

.

king, 1 75 us e u ms, I n d i an an d L uckn ow Pr ovin cial , 1 96 M y sor e , Bud dhist missions to , 2 1 1 6 6 , 5 5 .

.

N ab h i t l , tr ibe, 1 32 N ag ar ah Ar a, stapa 7 1 N ag ar j u n i , in scr ibed cav es, 45 , 14 5 2. 4 N an d a: d ynasty . 4 3. 1 5 9 ki ng 75 N an d asAr a, var ian t of Bin d usar a, ,

.

9

.

0- 1 1

4 °

N an d r us, or Dh an a Nan d a, 67 N atab h at1 k a, for est, 1 80 al ki ngd om. 35 , 36. 4 N as 1 , 67 ; .

.

M y sor e, 5 5 1 66 ah i sasak a, Bud d h 1st sch oo l 1 7 1 ajj h an t ik a, missionar y , 5 5 ajj h i ma, missi on ar y , 5 5 , 5 6 al ak iit a, coun tr y , 4 7 ah i sa

.

.

war d of Patn a, 1 85

M

1

.

m

ah en d r a , a

Ti sh ya,

4 70 Bab o P C , 88 9 2 ,

u n d a,

,

M M M M M M M M

of sain t

.

monaster y

l l d h t y l ns. 49 M ah en d r a, legen d of,

16

.

.

fath er

,

.

.

.

.

.

.

N i co l as D amascen u s, ( O , 84 .

r efer r ed

I AKLLEHY ’

2x x 2

.

ll va, inscr ibed pillar

n

9 8, 99 ,

,

N i gr od h a, legen d of, 1 2 7 N i r gr an th a, or J ain sect ,

1 61 .

,

P il u sar a , std pa , 7 1 Pi n g ala V at sflj i v a, ascetic, Pi pr l v fi, stflp a, 1 1 0 Pi t e n i k a ( s ) , tr i be, u .

mm

48

.

1

76

.

.

1 20,

1 32

6 O l d en b er g , opin ion s of, 4 5 , 4, 2 , 47 5 ’ ‘ O l l fl e l d , Sketch es fr om Nipal,

é9

Pi y ad asi , ti tle of A soka , 1 6, 4 1 Pli n y , r efer r ed to, 1 3 P l u t ar ch , r efer r ed to , 1 3 P 0 l n sh a, or Sh ah bazgar hi , 1 01 ‘ P r adesi kd, distr ict ofi cer s, 74 , 1 1 6, 1 4 8 Pr ak r i t , d ial ect s, 1 07 P r asen aj i t , kin 1 75 Pr asi i , n ation , 7 , 1 09 Pr a tibh agarit, mean in g of, 1 30 Pr i n se p , J ames, 61 Pr i y ad ar si n . ti tle o f A soka, 1 6, .

.

.

-

.

1 9 2, 1

concer nin g,

su per stition

O n i on ,

93

0

-

.

.

O r d i n at i o n , Bu dd h ist,

20

.

.

.

P ad s, scr ibe , 1 4 2 Pad er i a, village, 1 01 , 1 4 5 P ai th an a, t o wn , 1 32 Paj d ( p r aj a) , meani ng of, 1 2 1 P an d r e t h an , an ci en t capi tal of K ash mir , 67 P 5 9 91 ” , ki ngd om, 4 1 1 5: 7: 1 31 P an ab , con quer ed by Ch andr a 1 u t 1 a : 59 g p , Pamsd , mean i n g of, 1 1 7, 1 2 2 P ar k h am, colossal st at ue at , 9 3 P ar o p an i su s, mo un tai n s, 66 Pd sapda , mean in g of, 1 1 9 P asu p at i n at h , con ven t , 69 P atali pu t r a, cit y , 1 2 , 1 3 1 5 , 4 3, .

.

.

.

.

j

.



.

.

.

.

.

,

1 60:

1 85 :

1 sl s

7 71 79 : 1 8 : cou ncil, 32 , 5 0 5 4 1 6 , 9 5, 1 66, 1 69 : pr oce ssion s at , 1 1 8 Pa ti ved akd , mean in g of, 1 2 1 , 1 4 9 P at n a, occu pies site of Patali I

75 1

1

1

-

.

.

3, 80, 88 Bu d dh ist mi ssi on t o ,

u r t 1 a , p

Pe gu ,

1 10

.

.

.

7,

1 1 9,

1 2

4 ,

4

2 3, 2

1 2 7,

,

1 29 ,

1 , 14 6, 33, 1 35 , 1 38, 1 4 I4 1 3 I4 1 7 93 5 Pi ll ar s, 11 st of inscr ibed , 9 9 str u ct ur e of, 1 1 0 t r a n s : , 94 lat on of inscr iption s on , 1 4 5 1

1 3

,

é

.

Pt o l e my Ph i l ad e lph u s, kin g of 1 Egy pt , 60, 62 , 64 , 1 3 Pu l i n d a, t r ibe, 1 32 P u li sd m, mean in g o f, 1 4 9 Pu n ar vasu , d ay , 1 5 1 Pu n d r a V ar d h an a, ci ty , 1 83 Pu n i c war , d ate of, 63, 65 1 Pur anas, ci ted , 1 4 , 4, 5 9 Pu sh pami tr a, ki n g, 1 96 Pu sh y ad h ar ma, ki ng , 1 9 6 Epir us, 62 , 63 .

.

'

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Q Q

u e en - an t , an aphr od isiac, 1 ’

u ee n s E

1

57

di ct ,

44,

0 5 .

1 00, 1 05 , 1 06,

.

B ad h ag u pt a, minister , 1 7 7 , 1 9 4 B ad h i an, see L aur iy aA r ar aj , .

R ah n l a, ad d r ess to, 1 4 3 R ai li n g s, of a per e, 9 0 9 2, 1 1 2 R a agr i h a ( B a gi r ) , ci ty, 6 7, 1 7 5 , 1 84: cou n cil of, 5 0, 1 9 R a amah en d r i , kin gd om, 1 2 9 B BJe n d r al al a M i tr a, r efer r ed to, 6 3 Raj j akas, or Commi ssi on er s, 7 4 ,

m j

j j

.

-

.

.

.

1

°

15

4 1

.

.

1 1

.

1 00

21

P er g amum, kin gd om o f, 65 P er si an on I n dia, in fluen ce

25 ,

.

-

.

P h ae d r a, legen d of, 1 9 1 Ph al gu n a, mon th , 1 5 1 P i et y , L aw of, 6, 1 7 , 2 1 ,

.

R ak k h i t a, mi ssionar y , 5 5 B amagr ama, stdp a , 1 79 B ampu r wa, i n scr ibed pillar .

.

1 6 00 9 B ash tr i k a, t r ibe, ,

.

1 20

.

at ,

I ND E X

2 03 1 20,

1 1 9,

d eath s, 82 Ri ce , M r on ed ict s of A soka in M y sor e, 1 05 Bi sh i p at an a, or Sfimfith , 36, 1 81 B ock E d i cts, 1 01 1 05 , 1 1 4 , 1 96 R ou se , M r t r an slator ofJ stakas,

1 25

.

-

.

.

1

9

1.

R u d r ad aman , in scr ipt ion of, 67 . 7 2 , 79 R u mmi n d ei , inscr 1 bed pillar

4 1

1 2 6,

,

1

38:

1

2 5 ,

4 —1 12 1 0 1 28 3 34 9 31 1 4 14 1 8 31 1 4 7 41 1 21

1 2 2,

,

1 23 12 ,

,

,

,

,

1

153 .

Rook Edicts at , 1 0 1 , 1 02 , 1 1 0, 1 9 6 S h ah D h er i , site of Tax ila, 73 S i d d apur a, M in or Rock Edicts at , 70, 1 05 , 1 38, 1 6 9 S i la , mean i n g of, 1 1 9 S h ah b azgar h i ,

.

.

.

.

at ,

S i mh al a, or C eylon , q 8 4 S i n d , pr ovin ce, 7 1 S lsu n ag a, d yn asty, 4 2, 1 5 9 S mi t h , V A , on G r acco Roman in fluence , 1 1 1 on Nigli va pi llar , 14 6 on site of K us in agar a, 36 : on tr ad i tions, 5 8 S oli n u s, r efer r ed to, 8 1 S b n , r i ver , 80 S o n a, missi on ar y , 5 5 S on ar i , atapa , 6 S and r a, Rock Ed icts at , 1 03 S o v an ab h fimi S u v r a a n ), ( .

.

.

d

nl

th , M inor Rock inscr ipti on

4

at , 1 05 , 1 38, 1

0

.

.

Eah a li n , kin g, 1 75 S ah asr am, M i n or Rock inscr ip t ion at , 1 05 , 1 38, 1 9 6 alr r a, god , 1 69 ak y amu n i , a ti tle of G autama 0 Bud d h a, 1 4 .

.

.

.

a S ama j ,

.

mean in g of 1 1 1 S amap a to wn , 1 34 3 , S amat ata, kin gd om, 7 1 S ampadi kin g 1 9 3 1 9 6 S amu d r a ascetic, 1 78 Ban oh i in scr ibed r elic caskets at 5 3, 5 6 9 0 : i n scr ibed pillar at 1 5 8 : stat ue at, 2 1 , 1 05 94

g

,

,

.

.

.

3

,

.

,

,

.

-

,

,

,

stflp as at ,

88,

1 67 .

S and csmiz, mean in g of,

Pegu , 5 5 ,

1 19

.

.

.

g n 3 .

S ar l pn tr a, sain t , 1 82 Bar at h , visited by A soka, 36, .

1

S ar 1

g 1

.

vasti v ad i n a,

71

Bud dhist sch ool,

.

S at i y ap u tr a, kin g, 1 1 6 S aur ash tr a, pr ovi n ce , 79 d am sand pi ts, meanin g of, 1 39 S ch o ols, of Bu d dh ism, 1 7 1 S cu l ptu r e, of M aur ya per iod , .

.

.

.

y

.

.

4,

10

1 07 ,

1 15

,

,

.

.

S tad i u m, len gth of, 80 S te i n , Dr , on ancien t geogr aph y, 67 S t h av ir a, school of Bud dh i sm, .

.

1 1 6,

49

1 1 7,

1

:

1 7 °

S to b ae us, r efer r ed to, 84 S tr ab o , r efer r ed t o, 1 3 S td pas, ascr ibed t o A soka, 7 1 con str u ct ion of, 8 : or igin o f, 9 1 1 1 Si n ch i gr o up of, 88, 1 67 S u b l ad r an gl , mot h er of A soka, .

.

.

1

g

i

S m l an a,

A soka, 1 60 1 63 k f A s o a o n d n r a s o , g S u mi t r a, sain t , 1 64 S u p ar sv a, a son of A soka, 4 5 r a, 1 03 S u r pa r ak a, or SOpa S u si ma, a son o f Bin d u sfir a, 1 75 ,

br oth er

of

.

.

.

.

1

S eleu cu s Ni k at or , histor of, 1 2, 6 1 , 6 2 , 66 S en ar t , M Emi l e, on th e A soka 0, i n scr iptions, 6, 1 7 , 2 3, 32 , 4 1 03 ,

é7

n ag ar

35 , 36, 9 9 , 1 82 ci ty foun d ed by A soka,

ci ty ,

S r av astl,

Sr

1 66.

.

S an d r olr op t o s ( S an d r o lr o tt o s) , o r C h and r agupt a, q 13 6 S a h ami tr a, legen d of, 4 5 , 4, 1

.

.

.

,

-

.

77

.

S

1 59 S u sa n n a, or i sun sga, q 1 S u v ar nagi r i , ci ty, 4 , 4, 73 38 S u y asas, a son of A soka, 4 5 S v asas, kingd om of, 1 76 S wat v alley , etapas in , 7 1 .

.

.

.

.

.

I NDEX

4

20

S y r i a, kingd om,

1 2, 1 3 ,

62

U r ai y flr

.

T a m r a li t i T l mali pti p ( ), Tamluk, 69 , T amr ai atl y a, sch ool ofBuddhism, 1

1 7 .

8 T an i or e, ci t , 4 ese , 68 T ar l i , Ne T e n Ath , histo r ian , 5 6, 5 7 T ax i la, ci ty , 73, 1 88, 1 89 T e et h , used as seal, 1 88 T h e 0d 0t 0s, or Di od otus, king, 64 T h u pdr fima, stfl a, 1 69 T i b et an legen d s, 1 74 , 1 90 T i r h ut, coun tr y , 1 83 T i r th y a, Oppon en ts of Bud d h ism, .

.

.

.

.

m

.

.

.

.

T i sh y a ( T i ssa) , 1 60,

br oth er o fA soka 0 1 1 64 , 7 , 1 7 2 , 1 73

1 62 ,

, °

con st ellati on,

day, 37 1 5 1 : king of Ceylo n , 1 32, 1 65 mon th , 1 5 1 : sain t No I , son of M oggali 5 1 , 5 4 . 5 5 . 1 64 , 1 70, 1 7 2 : sain t No I I , 1 64 T i sh y ar ak sh i ta, qu een of A soka, 1 35 ,

1

°

.

.

T i v ar

a

i T v a r a t i ), (

44 a I S7

.

a so n ofA soka,

°

T o l er at i on of A soka, 38 4 0, 1 2 8 T o r r a vill age. 9 7 . 9 9 T or an , gateways, 9 1 , 1 1 2 T ossli , ci ty , 4 1 1 , , 4, 7 3 34 36 1 2 T ou r s, pious, 34 , 64 , 4 T r ad e , r egu lation of, 82 T r an sli ter ati o n , me th od of, 7 T r ees, lan ted by A soka, 79 udd h ist , 1 4 2 T r i ad , T sau k fit a, or A r ach osia, 7 2 T ul ak u ch i , kin g, 1 75 ’ T u sh asp, A so ka s gover n or of Saur ash tr a, 79 -

.

.

.

.

1

p b

.

.

capital,

1 1 0 , 7 5,

.

U r umu n d a, moun tain , 1 80 U t t ar a, missionar y , 5 5 U t ti y a, ki ng of Ceylon, 1 68 .

.

.

Vaibhdd y avd d ina , sch ool of Bud dh ism, 1 7 1 V ai sl li, ci ty, 34: council 1 69 . 1 83: ter r ito r y . 3 4 V ak k a la, sain t, V al ab h i , ki n gd om, 7 1 V an av asi , Nor th K an ar a, 5 5 , 1 66 v ex 11 1 1 11, var ian t of Bin d ussr a, .

.

.

q 4 V e d i sag i , th 1

.

r

g

g

1

ir

45 1

2 I 1 9

mo

g g 7

er n

31 l

V e g i , th e A n dh r a capital, 7 2 V e r gi l quoted , 1 88 V i d eh a, coun tr y , 1 83 V ig ataso k a ( V i tflsok a) , br oth er .

.

.

Asoka 1 Vi n i tamh i m Vr acha, mean ing 0 of

,

,

of, 1 2 2.

1 22

.

V r i h asp ati , ki n g, 1 96 V r i sh ase n a, k1 n g 1 6 ’ Vu lt ur e s Peak , i l 1 84 .

h

W

9

.

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B O ILE RS O F I NDI A TH E GLA REND ON PRE S S ERI ES OF I NDI AN H I S TORI CA L RE TROSPEOTS Edited by 8111

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Thi s Ed it ion i n cor por ates th e su ggesti on s r eceived by t h e au th or fr om Dir ector s of Pu blic I n st r u ction an d o th er ed u cation al auth or i ti es i n I n d ia ; its statistics ar e br ough t d o wn t o th e C ensu s of 1 89 1 ; an d its n ar r ati ve t o 1 89 2 Th e wor k h as r eceiv ed t h e emphati c appr o val o f th e or gan o f t h e English Sch ool Boar d s, an d h as been tr an slated i n to five lan guages I t i s lar gely employ ed for ed ucational pur poses i n E u r o pe an d A mer ica an d as a tex t bo ok pr escr ibed by th e U niver si ty o f Calcu t ta for i ts En tr an ce Ex amin ation fr om 1 886 to 1 89 1 “A Br i ef H istor of th e I n di an Peo les ” b W W H un ter r e , , p p y y ’ se n ts a so r t o f bi r d ey e v iew both o f I n di a an d of i ts pe o ple fr o m t h e ear li est d awn of hi stor i cal r ecor d s A wor k of au th or i ty an d o f ’ o r igi n al val u e — T h e D a i ly Newe ( L on d on ) Dr H u n ter may be sai d to h ave pr esen ted a compact epitome of t h e r esu lts of h is r esear ch es i n to t h e ear ly histo r y o f I n d ia ; a su bj ect u pon wh ich h is kn owled ge i s at on ce ex ception ally wid e an d ex ceedi ngly ’ — u or T h c n t m o h e o th S s a g W it h in th e compass of some 2 5 0 pages we kn ow of n o h istor y of th e n d i a so con cise , so i n ter esti n g, an d so u se fu l fo r ed u cation al l o e o e f I p p ’ r poses as t hi s — Th s S ch oo l Boa r d Ch r on i cle ( L on d on ) u p For i ts size an d subj ect th er e is n ot a bett er wr i tten or mor e tr ust ’ — n h e J ou r n a l of E d uca ti on t h i x e T r h i s n e i s t ce r o t o w y y ’ The Ti mes So th or oughly r evised as to en ti tle it to separ ate n otice ’ Dr H u nter s h istor y , if br ief, is compr eh ensi ve I t is a stor eh o u se o f fact s mar shalled in a master ly style ; an d pr ese n t ed , as hi stor y sh o uld be , wi th o ut t h e sli gh test su spi cion of pr ej udi ce or su ggest ion of l hi s a r l i c i t w c h f i h r u r b s e v es s t e o e v e s i m r i H n t e r e s a n s a t D o , y p p y p ’ i s t h e secr et of an impr essi ve pr esen tation of d etails — The D ai ly Revi ew ( Ed in bur gh ) By far t h e best man ual of I n d ian H isto r y th at h as hith er to been h h f oo u u o f t e H i s r i or S c l s b li s h e d a n i t e u a l t o a n t o c a l r i es d S e e p q y q W e tr ust th at it wi ll soon be r ead in all th e edi ted by Dr Fr eeman sch ools in t h is Pr esid en cy — Th e Times of I n d ia E x tr act fr om a cr i ticism by Ed war d G iles, Esq , I n spect or of Sch ools, W h at we r eq uir e is a Nor th er n Divi sion , Bombay Pr esi d en cy b ook wh ich sh all be accur ate as t o facts, b ut n ot over load ed wi th t h em ; wr itten in a style whi ch sh all i n ter est , at tr act , an d gu i d e u n cu lt i vat ed r ead er s ; an d sh or t , because it must be sold at a r eason able Th ese cond i tion s h ave n ever , i n my opin i on , been r ealized i ce r p ’ r evio u s to t h e in t r od uction o f th is book p ’ Th e publicat ion o f th e H on W W H un ter s Sch ool H istor y of ’ I n d i a i s an even t in lit er ar y h istor y — Rei s d: H ogget ( C alcu tta) H e h as succeed ed i n wr iti n g a h istor y of I n dia, n ot on ly i n su ch a way th at i t wi ll be r ead , bu t also in a way whi ch we h 0pe will lead o un g En glish men an d youn g nativ es o f I n di a to th in k mor e kin d ly y ’ — h h o t er e a c of Th e H i nd oo Patr i ot ( Calcutta) .

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L A NE POO L E S B ABA R ’ Stanley L an e Poole s sch olar ly mon ogr aph mad e b oth in ter est

PR O F M

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o

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in g an d in st r u cti v e by t h e ad r oi t n ess shown i n ad j u sti n g t h e h istor i cal matter with t h e biogr aph y an d an ecd otes, i s well wor t h r eadi n g ’ M r S tanley L an e Poole d oes j ustice to Babar s str o ng an d b r igh t n at ur e, and his able an d br illian t mo n o r a h sh ou ld r e vi ve an i n t er est g’ p in th e stor y o f a li fe so full of ad ven t ur e — l A then ce um ’ T h e stor y of Babar s li fe is mor e won d er ful, mor e br i lli antly colo ur ed t h an t h e Ar a bian Ni h ts, an d i t lose s li tt le of i t s ex ci temen t g ’ ’ i n M r Stanl ey L ane Poole s mon ogr aph — Sp ectator I t n eed h ar dly be said th at M r L ane Poole h as d on e j usti ce to su ch a th eme Yet so st r on g i s th e cur r en t n ot ion t h at Or ien tal h ist or y must n eed s be d ull th at i t is wor th wh il e to say th at i n t hi s li ttle book th er e i s mor e of th e tr ue elemen t o f r oman ce t h an in t omes ” of h istor ical n ovels I t i s n ot often th at a book i s at on ce so ’— sch olar ly an d so r ead able S peaker ’ M r L an e Poole s Baba r is a mod el of all th at a b ook o f th e kin d sh o u ld be , an d is li kel r a k r o n a s o o f h b s o f a i e n e t s e s t h e t e t e y ’ — r epu tati on of wh ich i s d eser ved l i h s T i m h e y g ’ A wor k of sur passin g in ter est an d per man ent value — D ai ly News ’ A volu me at on ce d eligh t ful as l iter at ur e an d val u able as h istor y G lasgow H er a ld ’ Th e aut h or s wh ole sketch i s at once sch olar ly an d inten sely i n ter est in g H e h as h ad a fasci n atin g ch ar acter t o por t r ay, an d h e ’ h as d on e it wit h th e h an d of a master — M ad r as M ai l .

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S I R W I L L I A M H U NT E R S D A L H Founr n Emn on SEV ENTH Tn ousm ‘



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A n in t er est i n g an d ex ceedingly r ead able volume S ir W illiam H u n t er h as pr od uced a valuable wor k about an impor tan t epoch i n E n gli sh h istor y i n I n d ia, an d h e h as gi ven us a pleasi n g i n sigh t i n t o ” th e ch ar acter o f a r emar kable E n glish man Th e Rul er s o f I n d ia ser i es, wh ich h e h as in i tiated , th u s makes a successfu l b e in ni n n hi i s g g h an d s wi th on e wh o r an ks among t h e eat est of th e gr e at n ames wh i ch ’ will be associated with th e subj ect h e Ti mes A ski lfu l an d most attr act iv e pict ur e T h e au th or h as mad e good u se of u blic an d r i a e e d h e r i e v m j d oc u n t s n o v il e of d t e e a h n t a s p , p p y g ’ b ein g aid ed by th e d eceased statesman s family H is little wor k is, ’ con sequen t ly , a val u able con tr i b ut ion to mod er n h i stor y — A cad emy Th e b ook sh ou ld comman d a wid e cir cle of r ead er s, n ot on ly for i ts ’ au t h or s sake an d t h at o f it s su bj ect , b u t l east o n accou n t of t l a a r t y p t h e ver y at tr acti v e way i n wh ich i t h as b een pu blish ed at t h e mod er at e But it is, of cour se, by it s in tr insic mer i ts alon e pr ice o f h alf a cr own t h at a wor k of t h i s n at ur e sh ould be j ud ged A n d t h o se mer its ar e ev er ywh er e con spicu ous A wr i t er wh ose t h or o ugh mast er y of all I n di an subj ect s h as b een acquir ed by y ear s of pr actical ex per ience an d ’ t en t r esear ch T t eu m i A h en a h e a p Sir W illiam H un t er h as wr itten an ad mir able li ttle volu me on ” Th e M ar quess of Dalh ousi e for h is ser ies of t h e Ruler s of I n dia I t can be r ead at a si ttin g, y et i ts r efer en ces— ex pr essed or i mplied ’ Th e D aily Newe suggest th e stu d y an d obser vation o f h alf a life t ime .

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M inions of the Ems N ’ sm W I L L I A M H U NT E R S L O RD m ay o : S C N E T N T m T US N O



E O

W illiam W

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H un t er h as con tr i bu ted a br ief but ad mir able ” biogr aph y of th e Ear l o f M ay o to th e ser ies en titled Ruler s of I n d ia, edite d by h i mself ( Ox for d , at th e C lar en d on T he Times I n t ellin g th is stor y in t h e mon ogr aph befor e us, Sir W illiam H u n ter h as combi n ed h is well kn own liter ar y skill wi th an ear n est sympath y an d fu ln ess of kn owled ge wh ich ar e wor th n da m o f a ll o m e c y tion Th e wor ld is i n debted to t h e auth or for a fit an d attr acti ve ’ r ecor d of wh at was emi n en t l n oble life — The A cad em a y y ‘ Th e sketch of Th e M an i s full of in ter est, d r awn as i t i s wi t h com l n d m t e t h u r s n d i a a n g , an d a e s e t u ab le r t i o a l u m ec i a n B r e v t o p y, y p pp i s th e accoun t of hi s ad mi ni str ation No on e can sh ow so well an d clear ly as Sir W ill iam H un t er d oes wh at t h e poli c f n o o r d L o M a o c y ’ y t r i bu ted to t h e makin g of th e I n di an Empir e of t o d ay — Th e Scotsman Sir W illiam H un ter h as giv en u s a mon ogr aph in which t h er e i s a h appy combi n ation of th e essay an d th e biogr aph y W e ar e pr esen ted ’ with t h e main featur e s of L or d M ayo s ad mi nistr at ion u n en cumber ed with tedious d etai ls which would in ter est n one bu t th e most ofi cial of A n glo I n d ian s ; wh i le i n th e biogr aph y th e man is br o ugh t befor e u s, ’ n ot an al ytically , b u t in a life li ke por t r ai t — Van i ty F ai r Th e st or y of h is life S ir W W H un ter t ells in well ch osen langu age — clear , succi nct , an d man l W t h W r w i n i a i r e s t h S H u t s i n y y p y ’ h i s subj ect, an d d oes full j ustice t o M ay o s str on g, gen uin e nat ur e With ou t ex agger ati on an d in a d ir ect , un affected style, as befits h is ’ The t h eme, h e br in gs t h e man an d his wor k vi vidly befor e na Glasg ow H er ald A ll th e kn o wled ge acqu ir ed by per son al association , familiar i ty wi th ad mi n ist r at i ve d e tails of t h e I n dian G o ver n men t , an d a str on g gr asp of th e v ast pr oblems to be d ealt wi th , is u tili sed in th is pr esen tat ion of ’ Lor d M ayo s per sonality an d car eer Sir W H un ter , h o wever , n ever ’ o ver load s hi s pages, an d th e o utli n es of t h e sket ch ar e clear an d fir m — Th e M an chester E x r ess p Th i s is anoth er of t h e Ru ler s of I n dia ser ies, an d it will be h ar d ’ S ir W il liam H un ter s per cepti on an d ex pr essi on ar e h er e at to beat ’ th ei r ver y best — The Pa ll M a ll G aze tte Th e lat est ad di tion t o th e R uler s of I n di a ser ies yields t o n on e o f i t s pr ed ecessor s in attr acti ven ess, vigo ur , an d ar tist ic por tr ai tur e T h e fin al ch apt er must ei th er be copied ver bally an d liter ally— wh ich t h e space at ou r d i sposal wi ll n o t per mit— or be left to t h e sor r o wful h e man is n ot to be en vi ed wh o can r ead i t wi th T r u sal of th e r ead er e p ’ ’ — s e A llen s I n d i an M ai l d r y ey Th e little volume whi ch h as j u st been br ou gh t ou t is a stu d y of L or d ’ M ay o s car eer by on e wh o kn ew al l abo u t i t an d was in fu ll sy mpath y wit h it Some of t h ese ch apte r s ar e full of spir i t an d fir e Th e ’ closin g passages, t h e pict ur e o f t h e V ice r oy s assassin ati on , can n o t fai l W e kn ow what is goin g to to make an y r ead er h old h i s b r eat h h appen , b u t we ar e t hr i ll ed as i f we d id n ot kn ow i t, an d wer e st ill h eld in su spense T h e ev en t itself was so t er r i bly tr agic t h at an y or d in ar y d escr i pti on m i gh t seem feeble an d laggar d Bu t i n t his volume we ar e m ad e t o feel as we mu st h ave felt i f we had been on t h e spot an d seen t h e mur d er er fast en ed like a tiger on th e back of

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keeps u p to th e ” h igh st an dar d set by th e auth or of Th e M ar qu ess of Dalh o usi e Fo r ’ d ealin g wi t h th e salien t passages in Lo r d C or n wall is s I n d ian car eer n o on e co uld h ave been better u ali fied th an th e whil om for ei n secr et ar q y g ’ to L o r d Lawr en ce — The A th en a am ‘

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Ru ler s of I n dia which ar e h epe th at th e volumes on th e b ein g publish ed by th e Clar en d on Pr ess ar e car efully r ead by a lar ge secti on of th e pu blic Th er e is a d ense wall of ign or ance still stan di ng between th e aver age Englishman an d th e gr eatest d epen d en cy of th e C r o wn ; alth ough we can scar cely h ope to see it br oken d o wn altoge th e r , i r able biogr aph ies cann ot fai l t o lo wer i t a li tt le some o f th ese ad m M r Se ton K ar t h as succeed ed in th e t ask, an d h e h as n ot on ly pr e sen t ed a lar ge mass of i n for ma tion , b u t h e h as br ou h t i t togeth er i n an g W e str on gly r ecommen d th e book to all who wish at tr acti ve for m ’ to en lar ge th e ar ea of th eir kn owled ge wi th r e fer en ce to I n dia — New Yor b H er a ld .

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timelin ess o f th e se r ies o f I n d ian h istor ical r et r ospects n ow issu in g, un d er t h e ed itor I t i s some wh at shi p o f Sir W W H u n ter , fr om th e C lar en d on Pr ess ’ less th an fair to say of M r Seton K ar r s mon ogr aph u pon C or n wall is th at i t r each es th e h igh stan d ar d o f li ter ar y wor kmanshi p wh ich th at ’ — s h m i r i e n t a i n a Th e L i ter ar a se s ed Wor ld alr ead x e y

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TmnD TH O A ND EDr r r oN ‘ Th er e is n o per iod i n Easte r n h isto r y so fu ll o f sensation as th e r e ign of A ur an gzib M r L an e Poole tells th is stor y ad mi r ably ; ’ i n d eed , i t wer e d i fi cul t t o imagi n e i t be t ter t old — Na ti on a l Obser ver He M r L an e Poole wr i tes lear n ed ly , luci dly, an d vigor ously d r a ws an ex tr emely vi vi d pict ur e of A ur an gzi b, h is str an ge ascetic ch ar acter , h is i n tr epid co ur age , h i s r emor seless o ver t h r ow of hi s kinsmen , h is br illi an t cour t , an d h is d isastr o u s policy ; an d he d escr ibes th e gr ad ual d eclin e of t h e M ogu l po wer fr om A kbar to A ur an gzi b ’ Th e Ti mes wi th gen ui n e h istor ical i n sigh t A well kn i t an d capable sketch of on e of th e most r emar kabl e, ’ l m i f h o E er o r s a r e h o i o e M u S a t d a v i e w a n R r h s t e m s t n r t e t e es t , p g g y p p ’ A s a stu dy of th e man h imself, M r L an e Poole s wor k is mar k ed by a vigour an d or igin ality of th ough t wh ich give i t a ver y ex cept ional ’ val ue amon g wor ks on th e su bject — Glasgow H er ald Th e most popular and most pict ur esqu e accoun t that h as yet ’ appear ed a pict u r e of much clear n ess an d for ce — Globe ’ — l l n n n h o l a r a n d i t e r es t il b n o t a e s k e h o ce s c i l i s h M a E n A tc , at g g y N0 on e is bet ter qualified th an M r S tan ley L an e Poole t o take u p ul th e h istor y an d to d epict th e ch ar act er of t h e last of th e gr eat M ’ mon ar ch s A ur angzi b s car eer i s ever a fascin atin g st ud y

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r i of th e famou s ci ty of Sh a a a n , i ts h d t on J h i v e s a e s c i g p h r n i n e n t s o f w c h h e s a d i h t e w e h s c e n n a e a d t c r e m o a e t e e a l a c s e e , g p y p ’ M r L an e Poole s well wr i tt en mon ogr aph pr esen ts all th e most di s ’ ’ t i n ct ive feat ur es of A ur ann b s ch ar acter an d car eer — M or n i ng Post

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M A J O R R O S S O F B L A D E NS B U R G S ‘ ’ M A R Q U E S S O F H A S T I NG S ’

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M aj or Ross of Blad en sbu r g t r eats h i s su bj ect skilfully an d at tr ae tively , an d h is biogr aph y of L or d H asti ngs wor th i l sustains th e h igh ’ i mes r e pu tati on of th e Ser i es in wh ich i t appear s — Th e Th i s mon ogr aph i s en titled to r ank wi th th e best of th e Ser ies, th e ’ compiler h avi n g d ealt capably an d even br i llian tly wi th h is mater ials — E n li sh M ai l g ’ G lasgow E ven i ng News I n sti n ct wit h i nter est ’ ble as it i s i n str uct iv e — Globe A s r ead a G lasgow H er ald A tr uly ad mir able mon ogr aph } M aj or Ross h as d on e his wor k ad mir ably, an d bi ds fair to be on e o f t h e b est wr i ter s th e A r my of our d ay h as gi ven t o th e coun tr y most acceptable an d en tr ancin g li t tle vol ume — D ai ly Chr on i cle I t is a v ol ume th at mer i t s t h e h igh est pr aise M ajor Ross of Blad ensbur g h as r e pr esen ted L or d H astings an d hi s wor k in I n di a i n th e r igh t ligh t, faithful ly d escr ibed t h e coun tr y as i t was, an d i n a mast er ly man n er makes o n e r ealize h ow i mpor tan t ’ — h s v m b i o l u e M h es t e o ur v d t a n c r i e r C co er e y T his ex cellen t mon ogr aph ough t n ot to be over looked by an y on e ’ wh o would fully lear n th e h i st or y of Br itish r ule in I n d ia — M anchester Ex amin er .

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On e of th e best of Sir W H un ter s in ter estin g an d valuable se r ies C olon el M alleson wr i tes ou t of th e fu ln ess of familiar ity , movin g wi th ease o v er a field whi ch h e h ad lon g ago sur vey ed in e ver y n ook an d To d o a small boo k as well as t h is on D upleix h as been d on e , cor n er wi ll be r ecogn i sed by competen t j u d ges as n o small achi ev emen t W h en on e con sid er s t h e b ulk of th e mater ial o ut of wh ich th e li tt le volu me h as b e en di st illed , on e can st ill bet t er appr eci at e t h e la bo u r ’ an d d ex ter i ty i n volved in th e per for man ce — A cad em y ’

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A most c ompact an d effect i v e histor y o f th e Fr en c h i n I nd ia in ’ lit tle h an d book of 1 80 pages — Nonconf or mi st .

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C olon el M alleson s i n ter esting mon ogr aph on A kbar l l n on P r e s s s u m or i a r e d h d e h a n sfy t h e C o t s a t n er e a l of I n di a ) ( g Colon el M alleson t r aces th e or igin an d foun d ati on of th e r ead er M ugh al Em r e ; an d , as an in tr od u ct ion t o t h e hi stor y of M uh amma ’ ’ d an I n d ia, t h e book leaves n othin g t o be d esir ed — S t J ames s Ga zette ’

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Th is volume will, n o d ou bt , be welcomed , even by ex per ts i n I n d ian h istor y , in th e ligh t of a n ew, clear , an d t er se r en d er in g of an I t i s a wor th y and v aluable ad di t i o n old , bu t n ot wor n ou t th eme ’ ’ The A then cea m t o Sir W H un ter s pr omisin g ser ies -

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C olon el M alleson h as br oken gr oun d n ew t o th e gen er al r ead e r Th e st or y of A kbar is br i efly b u t clear ly told , with an accoun t of wh at h e was an d wh at h e d id , an d h o w h e fo u n d an d h ow h e left I n d ia Th e n ative ch r on icles of th e r eign ar e man y , an d fr om th em i t i s st ill si ble, as C olon el M alleso n h as sh own , t o constr u ct a li vi ng por tr ai t s o p ’ — h m i t n c t b d t e t a t e n o r a S o s O s er v er of t h i s g eat g y p .

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Th e br i llian t histor i an of th e I n dian M u ti n y h as b een assi gn ed i n th i s volume of th e ser i es an impor t an t epoch an d a str on g per so n ality A like i n for cr i ti cal st ud y, an d h e h as ad mi r ably fu lfilled h i s task ’ d r ess an d style , th i s volume is a fit compani on for i ts pr ed ecessor M an chester Gua r d i an ‘

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CAPTAI N TROTTER S ’

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WARREN HASTINGS F T T N





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n ousA D IF H FO R H EDI I ON Th e pu blicat i on , r ecen tly n otice d i n this place, of th e L etter s, Despatch es, an d oth er Stat e Paper s pr eser ved in th e For eign D epar t men t o f th e Gover n men t of I nd ia, 1 77 2 h as thr o wn en ti r ely n ew ligh t fr om t h e most au th en tic sour ces on t h e wh ole histor y of W ar r en ’ H astings an d his gov er nmen t of I n dia Captain L J Tr otte r s W A RREN H A I NG i s accor d in gly n eit h er in oppor t u n e n or d evoid of an ’ ad equ ate r ai so n d etr e C aptai n Tr ot ter is well kn o wn as a competen t an d at tr acti v e wr i ter on I n d i an h i stor y , an d thi s is n ot t h e fir st t ime ’ th at W ar r en H astin gs h as su ppl ied h im wi th a t h eme Th e Times ‘ H e h as pu t h is best wor k i n t o t h i s memoir H i s wor k i s of d i stin ct l it er ar y mer it , an d is wor th y o f a th eme th an wh ich Br i tish h istor y pr esen ts n on e n obler I t is a d ist in ct gain t o th e Bli t ish r ace to be en abled , as i t n ow may , to cou n t th e gr eat G over n or G en er al ’ amon g t h ose h er oes for wh om it n ee d n ot bl ush — S cotsman C aptain Tr ot ter h as d on e h is wor k well, an d h is v olu me d eser v es t o stan d wi th t h at on D alh ousie by S ir W illi am H un ter H igh er ’ — New Yor lc H er a ld r i i a s l i e t u h w v o d a r d t o b e e i t p g C apt ain Tr ot ter h as d on e full j u st ice t o th e fascin ati n g st or y Of th e ’ splen d i d achi e v emen t s of a r eat E n lish man u ar d ia n s G n c t er e a h M g g A br ief bu t ad mir able bi ogr aph y of th e fir st G over n or G en er al of ’ I n d ia — Newcastle Chr onicle ” ‘ “ A bo ok which all must per use wh o d esir e to be u p t o d at e on ’ th e su bj ect — T h e Globe

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SE OND EDI I ON TH I RD T n ousA ND M r K een e h as th e en or mous ad van tage, n ot en joyed by ever y r o u r d e o f h e c a oo k h n u b o f k n w i n i n i m l h e t o i e a s t a k o t a t e t c , p g p p y H e h as compr e sse d i n to t h ese 2 03pages an immense amou n t of in for ma ti on , d r awn fr om t h e best sour ces, an d pr esen ted with mu ch n eatn ess an d e ffect — Th e G lobe M r K een e t ells th e stor y wit h knowled ge an d i mpar tiality , an d also wi th suffici en t gr aph ic po wer t o make i t t h or oughly r ead able Th e ” r eco ni t i on o f S in d hia i n th e l r a n d a c e f u s r i j u t s l e e es i s R u r s , g g an d it can n ot fai l t o i ve satisfacti on t o th e ed u cated classes Of our g I n d ian fellow su bj ects — Nor th Br i ti sh D ai ly M ai l T h e volu me bear s i n con testable pr oofs of th e ex pen d i tu r e of con sid er able r esear ch by th e au th or , an d su stai n s t h e r epu tat ion b e h ad alr ead y acquir ed by h is S ketch Of t h e H istor y of H in d u st an ’ F r eeman s J our n a l A mon g t h e eigh t een r u ler s Of I n d ia i n clu d ed in th e sch eme of S ir W illiam H un t er on ly five ar e n atives of I n di a, an d of th ese th e gr eat M ad h oj i S i n d h ia i s, wit h th e ex cepti on o f A kbar , th e most illu str i ou s M r H G K een e, a well kn own an d skilfu l wr i ter on I n d ian questi on s, i s for t un at e i n h i s su bject, for th e car eer o f th e gr eatest bear er o f t h e h istor i c n ame of Sin dhia co ver e d th e ex citi n g per iod fr om th e capt ur e of D el hi , t h e I mper ial capi tal, by t he Per si an Nadi r S hah , to th e occu pati on of th e same ci ty b r d L ake K een e gives a lu ci d d escr i pti on L o M r y O f hi s sub seq ue n t pol icy, especially to war d s th e En glish wh en h e was ’ br ough t face to face wit h War r en H asti ngs T h e Dai ly Gr aph i c .

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In Clyd e an d S tr at h n ai r n , a con tr ibution to Sir W illi am H un t er s ” ex cell en t Ruler s of I n dia ser i es ( Ox for d , at t he Clar en d on Pr ess) , S ir O wen Bur n e !v es a lucid sketch Of th e mili tar y h istor y o f t h e I n d ian M utin y an its suppr essi on by th e two gr eat soldier s wh o give Th e space is limited for so lar ge a th eme, b u t t h ei r n ames to h i s book S ir Owen Bur n e skilfully ad j ust s his tr eatmen t to h is limi ts, an d r ar ely v i olates th e con diti ons of pr opor ti on i mposed upon h im S ir Owen Bu r n e d oes n ot confin e h imself ex cl usively t o t h e militar y n ar r at iv e H e gives a br i ef sketch of th e r i se an d pr ogr ess o f th e M u ti n y, an d d evot es a ch apter to t h e Reconstr u cti on wh ich followed i ts su ppr essi on — well wr it ten well r o or ti on ed , an d emin en tl wor th o f h t e , p p y ’ — T h n h l e e e se hi c i t b on T i m s w t o e s s g ’





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S ir O wen Bur n s wh o, b associ ation , e on e of th ese gen er als, is we l qu alified for t ’ l ed ge, per spicuity , an d fai r n ess — Sa tur d ay

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A s a br ief r ecor d of a momen t ou s epoch i n I n d ia th is li ttle book i s ’ a r emar kable pi ece Of clear , con ci se, an d in ter esti n w r i t T i n he g g C olon i es an d I n d i a .

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Sir Owen Bur n s h as wr itten thi s book car efully, br igh tly, an d with ex cellen t j u d gemen t , an d we i n I n d ia cann ot r ead such a book wit h ou t feeli n g th at h e h as power fully aid ed th e accomplish ed ed it or ’ r ioti c en ter pr ise o f t h e ser ies i n a tr ul a t B o b m ay G azette y p .

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Str ath n ai r n h as j ust appear ed , an d r eal ly val uable ad d i ti on to th e ser i es e a r v e t o b o s C onsid er i ng i t s p si ze an d t h e ex ten t o f gr ou n d i t co ver s it i s o ne o f th e best books abo u t ’ t h e I n dian M u t i n y of wh ich we kn ow — E ng lish ma n ‘

volu

“Cl d e y

-

on

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Sir Owen Bur n s, wh o h as wr i tten th e latest vo lu me for Sir W i lliam ’ H un ter s Ruler s o f I n di a ser i es is better quali fied th an any livin g f r om a mili tar y stan d oin t , t h e st or e r son t o n a r r a t e o f th e su , r e s p p y p p ’ si o n of th e I n d ian M u tin y — D ai ly Telegr aph ,

.

.

Sir Owen Bu r n e s book on Cly d e r an k with th e b est i n t h e ad mi r able M an ch ester E x ami n er ’



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Sir Owen Bur n e, fr om t h e par t h e played in t h e I n di an M u t iny , an d fr om h i s lon g conn ex ion wi th th e G over nmen t O f I n di a, an d fr om t h e fact th at h e was mili tar y secr et ar y o f L or d S tr ath nair n both i n I n dia ’ r i f n n d l h n i I e l a s e l u a lifi e d o e d w r t a task which h e h as u n d er taken , q Th e Athence um .

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M inions of the p r ess VI SCOUNT HARDINGE S LORD HARDINGE ’





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L o r d H ar din ge, a sch olar an d an ’ u s an accur ate r ecor d o f h i s fat h er s lon a d di i ngu i sh ed ser vi ces n s t g Th er e i s n o fili al ex agger at i on Th e au th or h as d ealt wi th some co n t r over sial matter s wi th skill, an d h as man aged t o combi n e tr u th wi t h ’ t act an d r egar d for t h e feelin gs Of oth er s — Th e S atur d ay Revi ew to

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Th i s i n ter esti n g li fe r ev eals th e fir st L or d H ar d i nge as a br av e , j u st , able man , t h e ver y sou l of h on o u r , ad mir ed an d tr ust ed equ ally by fri en d s an d pqlitical oppon en t s Th e bi ogr aph er h as pr od uced a most en gagi n g v olu me, wh ich is en r ich ed by man y pr ivat e an d Official ’ d ocu men ts th at h av e n o t befor e seen th e ligh t — Th e A n ti J a co bi n ‘

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-

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L or d H ar din ge h as accomplish ed a gr ate fu l , n o d ou b t , bu t , fr om t h e abu n d an ce o f mater ial an d d elicacy of cer t ain matt er s, a v er y d i fficul t task i n a wor kman like mann er , mar ked by r estr ai n t an d ’ l uci di ty — Th e P all M a ll G azette .

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H i s son an d biogr aph er h as d o n e h is wor k wi th a tr u e appr eciat ion of pr opor t ion , an d h as ad d ed sub stan ti ally to o u r kn owled ge of t h e S u tlej C ampsigu f Van i ty F air .

T h e pr esen t L or d H ar d in ge is in some r espects ex ception ally well ’ l ll r s of h i s fath er s u fi o h l f e n l a i t t e t e t a e o t h e v e t f u e a e d f our q y ’ G o ver n or G en er alship — Th e Ti mes ‘

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I t con tai n s a fu ll accou n t of e ver yth in g of i mpor tan ce i n L or d ’ H ar di n ge s mi li tar y an d poli ti cal car eer ; i t i s ar r an ged so as t o b r in g i n to special pr omin en ce h is gover n men t o f I n di a ; an d i t gi ves ’ a l i felike an d str i ki ng pictu r e o f t h e man — Acad em y .

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Th e style i s clear , th e t r eatmen t d ispassi o n at e, an d t h e t ot al r esu lt ’ a man u al whi ch d oes cr ed i t t o th e i n ter est in g ser i es i n wh i ch i t figu r es — The G lobe .

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Compi led fr om pu bli c d ocu men t s, family paper s, an d lett er s, t h is b r ief biogr aph y gives th e r ead er a clear i d ea of wh at H ar d in ge was, ’— Th e M an chester E x ami n er b o th as a sold i er an d as an ad min istr ator .

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Th e M emoir i s well an d con cisely wr i t ten , an d i s accompan ied by ex cellen t liken ess aft er t h e por t r ai t by Sir Fr an ci s G r an t — Th e

Q ueen

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M inions 0 the p r ess

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TRIED EDI I ON FO R H TH O AND ’ Sir H enr y C un n ingh am s r ar e li ter ar y skill an d h is kn owled ge o f I n d ian li fe an d affai r s ar e n ot n o w displa ed fo r th e fir st time , y an d h e h as e nj o l ex ce pt ion al ad vantages in d eali ng wi th h i s ’ n t subj ect ville, C an n i n l m oo r r r e s e d n s n a s c h a r G a co t e t o p p g y an d co lleagu e i n public li fe an d on e of hi s Old est fri en d s, fur n ish ed hi s bio gr aph er wi th n ot es of hi s r ecollect ion s of th e ear ly l ife o f h is fr i en d S ir H enr y C unn i n gham h as also been allo wed access to t h e D i ar y of ’ C an n in g s pr i vate secr etar y , t o th e J our nal of h is militar y secr et ar y , an d t o an i n te r esting cor r espon d e nce betwee n t h e G o ver n or G en er al ’ an d h is gr eat lieu t en an t, L o r d L awr en ce — Th e Ti mes ‘ S ir H S C un n in gh am h as succeed ed in wri tin g th e h i stor y o f a cr i t i cal per i od i n so fai r an d d i spassionat e a man n er as t o mak e it almo st a matter of asto ni sh me n t t h at t h e moti v es wh ich h e h as so cl e ar ly gr asped sh o u ld e ver h av e b een mi si n ter pr e ted , an d t h e r esu lt s wh ich h e i n d icate s so gr ossly misj udged Nor is th e ex cell en ce o f h is wor k less con spicuous fr om t h e liter ar y t h an fr om t h e poli tical an d ’ G lasgow H er ald h isto r i cal oi n t of vie w S ir H C unn ingh am h as tr eated his su bj ect ad equ ately I n viv i d l an guage h e pai n t s his wor d pict ur e s, an d wi th calm j u dicial an aly sis h e also pr o ves h imself an able cr itic Of th e act uali ties, causes, an d r esul ts o f t h e o u tb r eak, also a tempe r at e , j u st appr eciator of t h e ch ar acter an d ’ — Th e Cour t J o ur n a l li f l n E r c o a n n i o a C g p y .

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EDI I ON T HI RD T H O A ND ‘ M r H u tt on h as b r o ugh t t o h i s task an o pen min d , a t r ain ed h ist or i cal j u d gemen t , an d a d iligen t stu d y O f a gr eat bod y of or igi n al mater i al H en ce h e i s en ab led to pr esen t a tr u e, au th en t ic, an d o r igi n al por tr ai t Of on e O f t h e gr eatest o f A n glo I n d i an stat esmen , d oi n g fu ll j u sti ce to h i s mi li tar y po licy an d ach i ev emen t s, an d also t o h i s st atesman like effor t s for t h e or gan ization an d consolid at i on of th at ’ — d i m s i Th e T i mes o i c h h e d s o uc h u t n h i w t s a E mp r e T o t h e ad mi r able can d our an d d iscr i min at ion wh ich ch ar act er i ze ’ M r H u t ton s mon ogr aph as an h i stor ical st u d y mu st b e ad d ed t h e li t er ar y q uali t ies wh ich d ist in gu i sh i t an d make i t on e of t h e mo st r ead able vol u me s o f t h e seIi es Th e style i s vigor ou s an d pict ur esqu e , an d th e ar r an ge men t o f d etail s ar t istic i n i ts j u st r egar d fo r pr e por t io n I n sh or t , t h er e i s n o poi n t O f vi e w fr om wh ich t h e wor k an d per specti ve ’ d eser v e s an yt h i n g b u t pr ai se — G lasgow H er a ld T h e R ev W H H u tton h as d on e h i s wor k well , an d ach ieves wit h for ce an d l uci d i ty th e t ask h e se t s h imsel f t o sh ow h ow, un d er W ellesley, t h e I n d ian compan y d eveloped an d ultimately b ecame t h e T o o ur t h i n kin g his est imate o f th i s gr eat su pr e me power i n I n d ia ’ — o s us t Bla ck an d Whi te st at e sman i s m t j ' M r H u tt on h as t old th e stor y of Lor d W ellesley s li fe in an ad mi n ’— M an ch ester able man n er , an d h as pr o vi d ed a most r ead able book E x ami n er ’ M r H u tt on s r an ge of in for mati on i s wi d e, h is di vision of su bj ects OND

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M inions of the !pr ess GRI FFI N S RA N J I T T US N mE N F U

S I R L E PE L h

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th or o u gh ly pr aise Sir L epel G ri ffin s wor k as an accur at e an d appr eci at i ve accoun t of t h e begi n nin gs an d gr owt h O f th e Sikh r eligi on an d of th e t empor al po wer foun d ed upon it by a str on g an d ’ r emor seless C h i eft ain — Th e Ti m es ’

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Sir L epel G r ifi n tr eats h is topic with t h or ou gh master y , an d h i s r a j aan d h is times is, con sequen tly , on e of accoun t of th e famo u s M ah a t h e most valuable as wel l as in t er e stin g v olu mes of th e ser i es of wh ich ’ i t for ms a par t — The G lobe .

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T h e mon ogr aph co uld n ot h ave han ds th an th ose of Si r L epel G r ifi n , ’ Pun j au b — Th e S cotsman .

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i apoleon of t h e East , but a l um n ou s N h t e y n h l i i c t h er n k T eo cr a i u r t r f h c h e a o S h c b e o t a b e a e o s o u n t t c n i ; g p p y y ’ ex am le o f com act t h ou h t — Th e L i ver pool M er cu r y p g p

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Ruler s o f I n d i a ser i es h as r ecei ved a valu able ad dition i n Th e T h e su bj ect of t h i s t h e bi ogr aph y O f th e lat e L or d W illiam Be n tin ck i n t er esti n g memoir was a soldi er as well as a st at esman H e was main ly instr umen tal in b ri n ging abou t th e ad option o f th e over lan d r ou t e an d i n con vin cin g t h e peopl e o f I n d ia t h at a mai n factor i n En L or d W illiam s lish policy was a d isi n t er este d d esir e for t h ei r welfar e d espatch es an d mi n u tes, sever al of wh ich ar e t ex t ually r epr od u ced in ’ M r Boulger s pr ai sewor t h y li ttle book, di splay consi d er able l it er ar y ’ — i h n l r s o f s w i l l n e o r t D a e e a a T i r n S t a t e l a n d a e o e a d a ll l sk g p p y h a r g p ‘

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in d eali n g wi th Or ien t al h ist or y an d Or i en t al affair s, an d i n t h e car eer of L or d W illiam Ben tin ck h e h as fo u n d a th eme v er y mu ch to hi s taste, wh i ch h e tr eat s wit h ad equate ’ — l i k i l r n t e s The Ti mes ar y kn owled ge a d l M

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Boulger i s

n o n ov ice

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Boulger wr it es clear ly an d well, an d h i s volu me fin d s an ac cept ed place i n th e v e r y u se fu l an d i n for min g ser ies which Sir W illi am ’ W ilson H un ter is editi ng so ably — I nd epend en t M

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M inions of the p r ess M R J .

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C O T T ON S M O U N TST UA RT ’ E L PH I N ST O NE ‘



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SECOND EDI

W illiam H unt er

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th e ed i tor of th e ser ies t o wh ich th i s boo k belon gs, was h appily i n spir ed wh en h e en tr usted t he L i fe of Elphi n st on e , o n e o f th e most sch olar ly o f I n d i an r uler s, t o M r C ot ton , wh o , h i mself a sch olar of mer it an d r epute , is br ough t by th e n at ur e of h is We d aily avo cati on s in to close an d con st an t r elati on s wi t h sch olar s li ve in an age i n whi ch n on e bu t specialist s can affor d t o give mor e ti me t o th e memoi r s of e ven t h e most dist ingu ish ed A nglo I n dian s t han wi ll ’ be occupi ed by r ead in g M r Co tton s t wo h un dr ed pages H e h as per T h is i s j u st t h e kin d for med h i s task with gr eat skill an d good sen se of L ife o f h imself wh i ch th e wi se, ki n dly , h igh : sou led man , wh o i s t h e ’ subj ect o f i t , wou ld r ead wi th pleasu r e i n t h e Elysi an Fi eld s — Sir M E G r an t D u ff, i n The A cad emy T o so i n spir i n g a t h eme fe w wr it er s ar e better qu ali fied to do ample j ustice th an t h e auth or o f Th e Decenn i al Statemen t of t h e M or al an d ’ ” Sir T C olebr ooke s lar ger M ater i al Pr ogr ess an d C on d ition of I n d ia bi ogr aph y of E l h in ston e appeals mai nly to I nd ian specialists, b ut ’ M r C otton s alig ter sketch i s ad mir ably ad apt ed to sati sfy th e gr o win g d eman d for a kn owledge of I n d ian hist or y an d of th e per son ali ties of A n glo I n d i an stat esmen whi ch Sir W illi am H un ter h as d on e so mu ch ’ — r t Th e Ti mes e c e a to

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m o r m i r f t h os e oo ki n e i n t r e s t i e o l n , g g ’ for war d to or en gaged in t h e wor k of I n di an administr at ion — S cotsma n I t i s a car eful an d sympath etic sur vey of a li fe wh ich sh ou ld always ’ ser v e as an ex am le to t h e I n d i an so ldi er an d ci vilian P o i Y r k s r e ost h p ’ A tr u e an d vi vi d r eco r d o f M unr o s life wor k i n almost auto ’ biogr aph i cal for m G la sg ow O f t h e wor k befor e u s we h ave n oth in g bu t pr aise Th e stor y of ’ M un r o s car eer in I n dia is i n i tsel f of ex cept ion al i n te r est an d i m ’ ’ — F r eem t a or n an s J ou r na l ce p Th e wor k could n ot h ave been better d on e ; it is a mon umen t of ’ — i n a s i n i t a k r s h i n t e e c a r e u t i v e r c a n d n c e d i s cr i m i n Pe0p le s e a a o x h a , p , g ‘ Th is ex cell en t an d Spir ited l it tle mon ogr aph catch es t h e salien t ’ i n ts of M u n r o s car eer o u m v n d l m e os t a l u b u o a s s a e o i es l p , p p q ’ fr om h is wr i tings an d paper s — M an chester Gu ar d i a n I t would be i mpossible to i magin e a mor e at tr active an d at th e ’ same ti me in st r uct ive book abo u t I n dia — L i ver ool Co ur ier p ’ I t is on e of th e best volu mes of th is ex cell en t se xi es — I mper ia l and A si a ti c Q uar ter ly Revi ew Th e book t h r o ugh out is ar r anged in an ad mir ably clear man n er an d th er e i s e vid en t on ever y page a d esir e for tr u th , an d n o th ing bu t th e A

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W e may commen d Steph ens able an d in str ucti v e mon ogr aph ’ M r M or se Ste ph ens v olume, both as an ad equate summar y Of an i mpor tan t per i od in th e h istor y of th e r elat ion s bet ween A si a an d Eu r o e, an d as a suggesti ve tr eatmen t of t h e pr oblem of why Por t u gal ’ faile an d En glan d succeed ed in fou n d i ng an I n dian Empir e — Th s Ti mes M

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M r H M or se S teph ens h as mad e a ver y r e ad able b ook o ut o f th e A ccor di n g t o t h e fo u n d at i on of t h e Por t u gu ese po wer in I n d ia r acti ce of t h e ser i es to wh ich i t b elo n gs i t i s call ed a li fe of A fion so ( 10 p A lb uquer que , bu t t h e G o ver n or is onl y t h e cen tr al an d most impor tan t figur e in a br i ef hi stor y of t h e Por t uguese i n t h e E ast d o wn to t h e ti me A plea wh en th e D utch an d En glish in tr ud ed on th eir pr eser ves ’ san tly wr i t ten an d tr ust wor th y bOOk on an i n ter estin g man an d time — Th e S atur d a R evi ew y .

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M r M or se Step lbu qu er qu e is a solid pi ece of wor k, well pu t ’ — u i n ll f t er s t T h e A th en amm n f o e r t h a d t oge e , ’ h en s A

.

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.



M or se S teph en s st u dies i n I n d ian an d Por t ugu ese h i stor y h av e H e h as th or o ugh ly well qualified h im for appr oach i ng t h e subj ect ’ en ted th e facts of A lb uquer qu e s car eer , an d sket ch ed th e even ts r es p mar king th e r ule of h is pr ed ecessor A lmeid a, an d of hi s i mmed i ate successor s in t h e G ov er n or sh ip an d V icer oyalty o f I n d i a i n a compact , ’ — e S cotsm T n l i t e r i n f or m a n t h ee es n d luci d , a d g py

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SIR CHARLES AI TCHI SONS LORDLAWRENCE ’ ‘



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NO man kn ows th e policy, pr i n ci ples, an d ch ar act er of J oh n L awr en ce better th an Sir C h ar les A i tchison Th e salien t feat ur es an d vi tal pr in ci ples of h is wor k as a r u ler , fir st i n th e Pu n j ab an d ' after war d s as V icer oy, ar e set for th wi th r emar kable clear n ess .

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M

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Sir Ch ar les A i tch ison s n ar r ati ve is u n ifor mly mar ked by d ir ectn ess, or d er , clear n ess, an d gr asp ; i t t h r o ws ad di ti on al ligh t in to cer tain n ooks of I n d ian affai r s ; an d i t leav es u pon t h e min d a ver y vi v id ’ an d co mplete impr essi on of Lor d L awr en ce s vi gor ous, r esour cefu l , ’ di scer ni ng, an d valian t per sonality — Newcastle D ai ly C h r on i cle ’

.

.

Sir Char les kn ows th e Pun ab th or oughly , an d h as mad e th i s lit tle book all th e mor e in te r estin g y h is accou n t of t h e Pun j ab un d er J oh n ’ Yor kshir e Post h m nce an d his subor dinates ’

.

.

t o i e r i n on f s h P ess M LEW I N

B E NT H A M BOW RI N G S ’

H A I D A R A L I A N D T I PU S U L T AN SsCOND EDITI ON

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T H I RD TH OUsAND ’ M r Bowr i n g s por tr ai ts ar e j u st , an d h i s nar r at ive of th e con ti n uo u s ’ militar y oper ati ons of th e per i od full an d accur ate — Tlsc Ti mes Th e stor y h as been o ften wr i tt en , b ut n ever better or mor e co n ci sely th an h er e , wh er e t h e fat h er an d son ar e d epicted vi vi dly an d ” i n t h eir habit as th ey li ved Th er e i s n ot a vol u me of t r uth fu lly t h e wh ole ser ies wh i ch i s bet t er d o n e t h an th is, or on e whi ch sh o ws ’ r eat er i nsi h t — D aily C h r on i cle g g M r Bowr ing h as b een well ch osen t o wr i te t h i s memor able h isto r y , because h e h as h ad t h e best mean s o f collecti n it , h avin g h imself h e accou n t of t h e for mer ly been C h i ef C ommi ssi on er of M ysor e M y sor e war i s well d o n e, an d M r Bowr i n g dr aws a stir r i n g pi ct ur e o f ’ — r r r d e t e m i n e d a d v e s a A r m a a z e t r n d N t e v a G ou y y y ‘ M any vol umes A n ex cellen t ex ample of compr essi on an d pr ecision migh t be wr it ten abou t th e lon g war in M ysor e, an d we cann ot bu t a d mir e t h e skill wi th wh i ch M r Bo wr in g h as con d en sed th e h ist or y o f ’ H is book is as t er se an d con cise as a book can be t h e str uggle N or th Br i ti sh D ai ly M ai l ’ M r Bowr i n g s book i s on e of t h e fr esh est an d b est of a ser i es most v alu able t o all i n ter este d i n th e con cer ns of t h e Br i ti sh E mpi r e i n t h e ’ East — E nglish M ai l ‘ T h e stor y Of t h e fin al capt ur e O f S er ingapat am i s told with ski l l an d gr aphic power by M r Bowr i n g, wh o t h r ough ou t th e wh ole wo r k ’ sh o ws h imself a most accur at e an d i n t er esti n g histor ian — Per th sh i r e A d ver ti ser .

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C O L O NE L M A L L E S O N S ’

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SE OND EDI I ON T H I RD TH O A ND ‘ T his book gi ves a spi r it ed an d accur at e sketch of a ver y ex tr a ’ — i e er l S a k r n a e r s on a t or d i p y y p ’ C olon el M alleso n wr it es a most i n te r esti n g accoun t of Cli ve s gr eat wor k i n I n d ia— so i n ter estin g t hat, h avin g begun to r ead i t , on e is age h as been r each ed u n wi lli n g to lay i t asid e u n til t h e last Th e especially as a cool, i n tr epid , ch ar acter o f C li ve as a lead er o f men , an an d r esour ceful gen er al , i s ably d escr ibed ; an d at t h e same ti me t h e au th or never fail s t o i n d icat e th e far r eaching politi cal sch emes wh i ch in spir ed t h e valour of Oli v e an d laid th e foun d ation o f our I n dian ’ Nor th Br i tish D ai ly M ai l Empir e T h i s mon ogr aph i s ad mir ably wr i tten by on e th or ou ghl y acqu ain ted ’— G lasgow H er ald an d i n love wi th h i s su bj ect ‘ N0 on e i s bett er su it ed th an Colo n el M alleson to wr i t e on Cli ve , an d h e h as per for me d h i s task wi th d i stin ct success Th e w h ol e n ar r a t i ve i s, like eve r yt hi n g C olon el M alleson wr i tes, clear an d full o f ’ vigo ur Yor ksh i r e Post C olon el M alleson is r eliable an d fair , an d t h e especial mer i t o f his b ook is t h at i t alway s pr esen ts a clear vie w of th e whole o f t h e vast t h eat r e i n wh ich C li ve gr ad ually pr od u ces such an ex tr aor di n ar y ch an ge ’— o f scen e Newcastls D ai ly Chr oni cle .

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flDninions of the lpr C A PT T ROTTE R S ’

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azette

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To wr i te such a mon ogr aph was a th ankless t ask , b ut it h as b een accompli sh ed with en tir e su ccess by C aptain L J Tr ot ter H e h as ’ d ealt calmly an d clear ly wi th L or d A u cklan d s policy , d omestic an d mi litar y, with its finan ci al r esu lts, an d wit h th e gen er al ten d ency of ’ ’ Yor kshi r e P ost L or d A ucklan d s r ule To t h i s d i str essi n g st or y ( of t h e Fi r st A fgh an W ar ) C aptain Tr ott er d evotes t h e maj or por ti on Of h i s pages H e t e lls it well an d for cibly ; b u t is d r awn , per h aps u nav oi d ably, in t o th e d i scussi o n of man y t opics O f con tr o ver sy wh ich , to some r ead er s, may seem to be h ar dly as y et fin all~ d eci d ed I t i s onl y fair t o ad d t h at t wo ch apter s ar e d evoted ’ o r d A u cklan d s D omestic Poli cy , to an d to hi s r elati on s wi th ” Th e Nativ e St at es Of I n d ia Th e Ti mes ’ C aptain Tr otter s Ear l of A uck land i s a most i n ter est ing book , an d i t s ex cellen ce as a con d en se d , ye t lu min o u s, hi stor y o f th e fir st A fgh an ’ W ar d eser v es war m r ecognition — S cotsman I t po in ts a mor al wh ich ou r I n d i an Ru ler s cann ot affor d to for et g so lon g as t h ey st ill h ave Ru ssia an d A fgh an i stan to coun t wi th Glasgow H er a ld ‘

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S upplemen tar y Vo lume

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J A M E S T H O M A S O N . BY S I R R I C H A RD ’



T E M PL E

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Si r R T emple s book possesses a h igh val ue as a d u ti fu l an d i n t er estin g memor ial Of a man of lofty id eals, wh ose e x ploits wer e n on e th e less memor ab le b ecause ach ieved ex clu si vel i n t h e fie ld y ’ of peaceful ad min i str ation — T h e Tim es I t i s t h e peculiar d i stin ct ion of t h is wor k th at i t i n ter est s a r ead er ’ less i n th e ofi cial t h an i n t h e man h i mself — S cotsman Th is is a most i n ter estin g book : to th ose wh o kn ow I n d ia, an d kn ew th e man , it is O f u n par alleled in ter est , b ut n o on e wh o h as t h e I mper ial i nst inct wh ich h as taugh t t h e En gli sh to r ul e su bj ect “ i r aces for t h ei r o wn welfar e can fail t o b e str uck b h e m t s l e y p ’ a n ess of th i s ch ar acter t P r e l a l l ze tt e G a l M a g M r Th omason was a gr eat I n d ian stat esman H e sy stematize d t h e r even u e syste m of th e Nor th W est Pr ovi n ces, an d impr oved e ver y br an ch o f th e ad mi n istr ation H e was r emar kable , like man y gr eat I n d i an s, for th e ear n estness of h is r eligi ous fai th , an d Sir Rich ar d ’ T emple br ings th is out i n an ad mi r able mann er — Br i ti sh Week ly ” ‘ “ T h e book is O f on e a por tr ai t d r awn by t h e h an d Of affection , ” wh ose life was a patter n of h ow a C h r istian man ough t to li ve ’ S pecial pr omin en ce is gi ven to th e r eligi ou s aspects of M r Th omason s ’ an d th e r esult is a ver y r ead able biogr aphi cal sketch r i sti an ’

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M inions of the lat est S I R A U C K L A ND C O L V I N S J OH N ’ R U S S E L L C OL V I N ’ Th e con clu d in g volume of Sir W illiam H u n t er s ad mir able Ruler s ‘



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I n d ia ser ies i s d ev o ted t o a bi ogr aph y O f J oh n Ru ssell C o l vin M r C olvi n , as pr i vate secr etar y to L or d A u cklan d , th e G over n or G en er al d ur in g th e fir st A fgh an War , an d as L ieu tena n t G over n or of t h e Nor th W est Pr ovin ces d ur in g t h e M utin y, bor e a pr omi n en t par t in th e gover n men t of Br iti sh I n d ia at two gr eat cr ises of i ts h istor y H is bi ogr aph er is his son , Sir A ucklan d Colvi n , wh o d oes full j u sti ce to ’ h is fat h er s car eer an d d efen d s h im stou tly agai n st cer t ain allegat ion s wh ich h ave passed in to h istor y I t is a valuable an d effecti ve con t r i b u tion t o an ad mir able ser i es I n style an d t r eatmen t o f its ’ Th e T i mes su bj ect i t i s wel l wor th y of i ts compan ions ’ Th e sto r y of J oh n C ol vi n s car eer in di cates t h e lin es on wh ich th e tr u e h i stor y Of t h e fir st A fgh an W ar an d of th e I n di an M u tin y sh o uld Not on ly h as th e au th or been en abled to make u se be wr i tten O f n ew an d v al uable mater i al , bu t h e h as also constr u cted t h er e fr om n e w an d n ot e wor t h y ex plan ations of th e posi tion of affai r s at two t ur n i n g ’ — i h s t or i cad em I di a n A i n t s n n o y y p H igh as i s th e stan dar d Of ex cellen ce attain ed by t h e vol umes Of ’ t h is ser ies, Sir A ucklan d Colvin s ear n est wor k has r each ed th e h igh ’ wat er mar k — A r my an d Navy Gazette S ir A ucklan d C olv in gives us an ad mi r able st u dy of h is subj ect , both I n d oin g t h i s, h is as a man o f affair s an d as a stu d en t i n pr i vate li fe ur esqu e t h e me allo ws h im, wi th ou t ou tste pi n g t h e bi ogr aph ical i c t p p limits assign e d , t o pr esen t gr aphi c pict ur es of old Calcut ta an d I n di an ’ life i n gen er al — M anch ester C ou r i er Th is little vol ume con tai n s pict ur es of I n d ia, past an d pr esen t , wh ich i t would be h ar d to match for ar tistic tou ch an d fin e fe elin g W e wish ’ ’ t h er e wer e mor e of th e same ki n d to follow — S i J ames s G azette Of

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S I R H E N RY L A W R E NC E , BY C G E NE RA L M L E O D I NN E S ’

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mir able accou n t of th e wor k d on e by on e of th e gr eatest an d N0 most n oble o f th e men wh o h ave ad or n ed ou r I n d ian Empi r e man is b et ter u alified to wr ite about th e d efen ce Of th e Resid en cy th an q G en er al I n n es — Th e A th en aeum W e can cor dially r ecommen d th is accoun t of th e mod e r n Ch r ist ian An

ad

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A sympath etic sketch G en er al I n n es tells h is stor y with soldi er ly ’ Th e Ti mes br evi ty an d a st ur d y belief in h is h er o ’ Th e lesson s taugh t by Sir H en r y L awr ence s wor k i n I n di a ar e, fl i d f e r i u r e ec t o n a s a t i r v m t h m n t es e i n o s o s a n t i e a a t s o e a s s e r h m g p p , y W e welcome th is ex cellen t lit tle b iogr aph y o f th e sin ce h is d eat h n ui sh ed ofi ce r of ex ce tion al k n o wled e i d i s di a t l e c i ili a n b r o e a t r v s g y p g g ’ — w e s n e x n e l N i r i e D a a d e c p y T hi s boo k i s a ver y good memoir , as n ear l as possible wh at a book ’ —S cotsman of th e kin d sh ould be .

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