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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ МУРМАНСКИЙ АРКТИЧЕСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
ALL ABOUT SPORT
МУРМАНСК 2018 0
МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ МУРМАНСКИЙ АРКТИЧЕСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
ALL ABOUT SPORT Учебное пособие
Рекомендовано учебно-методическим советом университета в качестве учебного пособия по направлению подготовки бакалавриата 45.03.02 «Лингвистика», профиль «Перевод и переводоведение»
МУРМАНСК 2018 1
УДК 811.111(075.8) ББК 81.2Англ-923 П90 Печатается по решению Совета по научно-исследовательской работе и редакционно-издательской деятельности Мурманского арктического государственного университета Рекомендовано учебно-методическим советом Мурманского арктического государственного университета к использованию в учебном процессе (протокол № 3 от 25 апреля 2017 г.) Рецензенты: Е. Н. Квасюк, кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков Мурманского арктического государственного университета; В. В. Левченко, кандидат педагогических наук, зам. декана Подготовительного факультета, доцент Департамента языковой подготовки Финансового университета при Правительстве Российской Федерации (г. Москва), протокол № 4 от 21 декабря 2016 г.
Путистина О. В. All about sport : учебное пособие / О. В. Путистина. – Мурманск : МАГУ, 2018. – 99 с. Данное учебное пособие предназначено для использования на практических и лабораторных занятиях по практическому курсу английского языка при изучении темы «Спорт». Пособие составлено в русле компетентностного подхода к изучению иностранного языка и наряду с развитием лексико-грамматических навыков способствует стимулированию речемыслительной активности студентов и формированию профессиональной иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции, а также навыков перевода. Учебное пособие содержит ряд творческих заданий и материал для самостоятельной работы студентов. Печатается в авторской редакции.
Путистина О. В., 2018 ФГБОУ ВО «Мурманский арктический государственный университет», 2018
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ Учебное пособие “ALL ABOUT SPORT” ориентировано на студентов, обучающихся по программе бакалавриата 45.03.02 «Лингвистика. Перевод и переводоведение». Данное пособие предназначено для использования на практических или лабораторных занятиях по дисциплине «Практический курс английского языка: устная практика». Основная цель учебного пособия – развитие профессиональной иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции студентов в процессе изучения темы «Спорт» на английском языке. Учебное пособие выполнено в русле компетентностного подхода к изучению иностранного языка. Представленная в пособии система упражнений и заданий позволяет решить следующие задачи: развитие у студентов коммуникативных умений иноязычной речи; совершенствование языковых навыков студентов; развитие навыков перевода с английского на русский и с русского на английский языки; формирования у студентов критического мышления; овладение студентами иноязычной речью как фактором социального взаимодействия на межкультурном уровне, развитие умений и навыков кросс-культурного сотрудничества; развитие учебной автономии студентов в ходе выполнения заданий для самостоятельной работы студентов. Система упражнений и заданий учебного пособия “ALL ABOUT SPORT” ориентирована на формирование следующих общепрофессиональных компетенций студентов, обучающихся по программе бакалавриата 45.03.02 «Лингвистика. Перевод и переводоведение»: владение основными дискурсивными способами реализации коммуникативных целей высказывания применительно к особенностям текущего коммуникативного контекста (время, место, цели и условия взаимодействия); владение основными способами выражения семантической, коммуникативной и структурной преемственности между частями высказывания – композиционными элементами текста (введение, основная часть, заключение), сверхфразовыми единствами, предложениями; способность свободно выражать свои мысли, адекватно используя разнообразные языковые средства с целью выделения релевантной информации; способность использовать этикетные формулы в устной и письменной коммуникации. Структура учебного пособия характеризуется следующими особенностями. Весь материал пособия представлен 6 модулями (главами): 3
Module 1. Sports and Games. Module 2. Sport Facilities and Equipment. Module 3. Sports Personalities. Module 4. Sporting Events. Module 5. Sport in the UK, USA and Russia. Module 6. Sport and Health. Структура каждого модуля состоит из нескольких разделов: вводная часть (Lead-in); раздел тренировочных (языковых) и условно-речевых упражнений нацеленных на развитие лексических навыков и навыков перевода по теме «Спорт» (Focus on Vocabulary); раздел заданий и упражнений, направленных на развитие умений чтения и говорения, включающий в себя аутентичные и учебные тексты (Focus on Reading and Speaking); блок вопросов и заданий для самопроверки и заданий для самостоятельной работы, направленных на развитие учебной автономии студентов (On Your Own). В учебном пособии также имеется Приложение (Appendix), в котором даны ссылки на задания для аудирования, представленные в различных аутентичных учебно-методических комплексах. Данное учебное пособие снабжено разделом “Answer Key” (Ключи), в котором даны ключи к упражнениям и заданиям для осуществления студентами самопроверки. Ключи к заданиям и упражнениям могут также оказаться полезными преподавателям при подготовке занятий и работе с данным учебным пособием на занятиях. Несмотря на однородность структуры модулей пособия, разделы отличаются количеством и характером упражнений и заданий, содержащихся в отдельных блоках. Это обусловлено лингвистической, содержательной и информативной значимостью изучаемого материала. В данное учебное пособие вошла часть учебных материалов из пособия «Sport. Пособие по развитию навыков устной речи», за что автор данного пособия выражает особую признательность авторам-составителям Л.В. Беловой и А.В. Копылову, к.ф.н., доценту кафедры иностранных языков МАГУ. В пособие вошли также аутентичные текстовые материалы Интернет-ресурсов, посвященных вопросам спорта, и учебные материалы некоторых аутентичных УМК. Данное учебное пособие может оказаться интересным и полезным не только студентам-бакалаврам, обучающимся по программе бакалавриата 45.03.02 «Лингвистика. Перевод и переводоведение», но и студентам направления 44.03.05 «Педагогическое образование», профили «Английский язык. Немецкий язык» и «Физическая культура», а также всем лицам, углубленно изучающим английский язык. 4
Module 1 SPORTS AND GAMES I. Lead-in Discuss the following questions in small groups: a) What sports and games do you know? b) What is the difference between a “sport” and a “game”? What is the most popular sport in your country? What games take the first place in public interest in your country? c) What kind of sport do you go in for? d) Do you prefer team sports to individual sports? Why/why not? II. Focus on Vocabulary. 1. Look up in the dictionary the translation and pronunciation of the sports and games below. Then read all the words in English: archery bobsleighing легкая атлетика метание копья badminton judo хоккей с мячом прыжки в длину baseball basketball бокс boxing прыжки в высоту canoeing karate крокет motorcycling racing curling альпинизм велоспорт parachuting darts прыжки с шестом метание диска rugby biathlon гребля конный спорт snowboarding billiards толкание ядра фехтование bowling freestyle скоростной спуск на лыжах планеризм diving golf лыжный спорт дельтапланеризм slalom cricket конькобежный спорт скачки с препятствиями (field) hockey ice hockey бег с препятствиями тяжелая атлетика luge (tobogganing) windsurfing настольный теннис водное поло volleyball gymnastics парусный спорт Which of the sports above are you keen on/have gone in for/like watching? Which of the sports above have you never heard of? 5
2. “Snowball”. Work in a group. Every student names one kind of sport, the others repeat the previous one and add one more item. Continue working until the students can remember the succession of words. 3. Work in small groups of 5–6. Taking turns, name as many sports and games as you can in English or in Russian from the categories below. If one student names a sport in English-the next student should first translate it into Russian and then name one more kind of sport or game. You get 1 point for each sport you named and 1 point for each word you translated. If you fail to translate the word, you lose 1 point. If you fail to name any other sport you lose 1 point. Count your score! Who has dropped out of the game first? Who has scored the most number of points? Indoor sports Outdoor sports Team games Individual games Sports you use skis for Sports in which animals are used Combat sports Games played with a ball. 4. What do we call the sport in which: a) two men wearing large padded gloves fight according to special rules by punching each other; b) two competitors fight each other using very thin swords; c) runners jump over special fences; d) people shoot at a target with a bow and arrow; e) jump over a bar; f) people run about 42 km along roads; g) people float on air currents hanging from a special kite; h) people climb mountains? 5. What do we call the game a) played by two teams, in which you hit the ball with the palm of your hand; b) played in a swimming pool in which two teams of swimmers try to score goals with a ball; c) in which the players use rackets to hit a small feathered object called shuttlecock over a high net; d) in which two teams try to score points by carrying an oval ball across a line at the end of a grass pitch or by kicking the ball over a bar fixed between two goalposts?
6. Work in small groups of 3. One student should name the group of words, the next person should repeat them, the third person should translate them: Two games where you can kick the ball Three games where you can catch the ball Four games where you can pass the ball Five games where you can hit the ball 7. Which of the sports are these people probably talking about? 1. “Ooh! He’s crashed into the bar! He’s landing. The bar’s fallen. Is he hurt?” 2. “Its’ incredibly noisy, fast and dangerous, but it’s really exciting to watch.” 3. “You need a good eye and a lot of concentration.” 4. “Shoot – shoot – It’s a Goal!” 5. “Well, the most important event today is certainly women’s 200 metres freestyle”. 6. “It’s all a matter of balance really.” 8. Use the words from the box to fill in the gaps in the text below. Football draw team
track suits toss a coin
I play football for my local (a) ___ against other sides in the area. Of course the (b) ___ aren’t paid, we’re just (c) ___ . But anyway we (d) ___ very hard in the evenings and we’re lucky because we can use the (e) ___ of a local school. On the day of the (f) ___ we arrive early, change and put on (g) ___ to keep warm. Then the (h) ___ , dressed in black, calls the two (i) ___ to the centre to (j) ___ to decide who will play in which direction. Not many people come to watch the game. We usually have a (k) ___ of only one or two hundred. But we enjoy it, whether we win, lose or (l) ___. 9. Talking about football. Complete the sentences with the words from the box. Translate the sentences. Work in pairs. One of you should look at the sentences, pick any four at random and translate them at sight. The other student should not look into the textbook, listen to the partner and translate the sentences by ear. Then swap roles. keeper, studs, touchline, laces, bar, net, penalty area, post 1. It was a nasty foul. He went into the tackle with his ………. up. 2. We should’ve won, but their ………. made a couple of incredible saves. 3. My ………. were undone and I tripped over them just as I was about to shoot! 4. It’s a free kick, because the keeper handled the ball outside the ………. . 5. I thought it was going in, but the keeper tipped it over the ………. . 7
6. They had penalty, but they put it wide of the ………. . 7. It was a great chance. He should really have stuck it in the back of the ………. . 8. Their manager was on the ………. , screaming the whole time! 10. Cover the right-hand column of the text. Read the sentences in the left-hand column and translate them at sight. Uncover the sentence in the left-hand column and compare your translation with the original. Which is better? Мое хобби – плавание. Даже не могу себе представить, что может быть лучше плавания. Я очень люблю плавать, поэтому три раза в неделю я хожу в бассейн. Плавание поднимает мне настроение, повышает иммунитет и укрепляет здоровье. Ни для кого не секрет, что именно плавание задействует практически все мышцы нашего тела. Оно делает человека гибким и спортивным. Помимо всего прочего, пловцы обычно не набирают лишний вес. Уму не постижимо – за полчаса плавания наш организм сжигает столько же калорий, сколько содержится в одном пирожном среднего размера.
My hobby is swimming. I can’t even imagine something being better than swimming. I love swimming, so I go to the swimming pool three times a week. Swimming boosts my spirits, strengthens my immune system and makes me healthier. It’s no secret that we use practically all the muscles of our body when swimming. It makes a person flexible and athletic. In addition, swimmers don’t tend to gain weight. It’s beyond all understanding – half an hour of swimming and our body burns as many calories as are found in an average piece of cake.
(Abridged from: http://www.memorysecrets.ru/teksty-na-angliiskomiazyke/plavanie-moe-khobbi-my-hobby-is-swimming.html)
III. Focus on Reading and Speaking I. 1. What Is A Sport? Look at the list of the definitions found in the Internet and say which one you think best justifies what makes a sport. If you don’t like any of them, give your own definition. Discuss it with your group mates. “An activity involving physical exertion and skill in which an individual or team competes against another or others.” (Google Search) “A human activity capable of achieving a result requiring physical exertion and/or physical skill, which, by its nature and organization, is competitive and is generally accepted as being a sport.” (Australian Sports Commission, ASC) “A human activity involving physical exertion and skill as the primary focus of the activity, with elements of competition where rules and patterns of behaviour governing the activity exist formally through organisations and is 8
generally recognised as a sport.” The NSARPF also defines ‘physical recreation’ as: “Active recreation activities are those engaged in for the purpose of relaxation, health and wellbeing or enjoyment with the primary activity requiring physical exertion, and the primary focus on human activity.” (National Sport and Active Recreation Policy Framework (NSARPF) accepted by all Australian governments (2011). “An activity involving physical exertion and skill that is governed by a set of rules or customs and often undertaken competitively.” (Free Dictionary online) “Sport means all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim at expressing or improving physical fitness and mental well-being, forming social relationships or obtaining results in competition at all levels.” (Council of Europe, European Sports Charter, article 2.i) The Australian Bureau of Statistics ABS provides several definitions of overlapping concepts that are relevant to its data collection needs: 1. Sport is an activity involving physical exertion, skill and/or hand-eye coordination as the primary focus of the activity, with elements of competition where rules and patterns of behaviour governing the activity exist formally through organisations. 2. Physical recreation is an activity or experience that involves varying levels of physical exertion, prowess and/or skill, which may not be the main focus of the activity, and is voluntarily engaged in by an individual in leisure time for the purpose of mental and/or physical satisfaction. 3. Organised sport or physical recreation are organised by a club or association or other organisation, such as a sporting club, social club, church group, workplace, or gymnasium. An organised activity may vary from an organised one-off fun run or bush walk, through to an organised ongoing sporting competition. 4. Physical Activity is any bodily movements performed by skeletal muscles that result in an increase in energy expenditure. 2. Based on the above definitions, identify the basic criteria that a sport must have. So, what separates a sport from other recreation or leisure activities? Justify your answers. Discuss your ideas with the group mates. Give reasons. Read the extract below and compare your ideas with those in the text. The etymology of the word ‘sport’ comes from the Old French ‘desport’, meaning “leisure”. The oldest definition in the English language dates from around 1 300 and means ‘anything humans find amusing or entertaining’. The first English language use of the word ‘sport’ to mean a game involving physical exercise appeared in the mid-1500’s. Any definition of ‘sport’ will be contentious, since there are descriptors of sport that could be considered exclusive within a definition, and many descriptors that could be interpreted in different ways. There are also many closely 9
related terms, such as social sport, recreational sport, physical activity, physical education, physical literacy, exercise, etc. that, depending upon the context in which they are applied, may look like ‘sport’. An activity we perceive as sport in one context may not be in another context, sport takes on many forms and our notion of “what is sport” is continually changing. There are a number of factors influencing our willingness to engage in sport, these factors also shape our perception of what is (or is not) sport. What we perceive as ‘sport’ in one instance may not be in another; sport takes on many forms and is constantly changing based upon societal norms, trends, and new directions. ‘Sport’ seems to have three qualifying elements competition, rules and organisations that set it apart from similar looking physical activities that are ‘not sport’. The degree of organisational structure that surrounds and influences an activity usually helps to distinguish whether an activity is classified as ‘sport’ or ‘active recreation’ or ‘physical activity’ or ‘exercise’ or any number of other terms. For example, a group of people who meet in a common place (e.g. park, sports field, or backyard) and enter into a game of football would be engaged in ‘social sport’. ‘Social’ because the element of organisational supervision is minimal, but ‘sport’ because the elements of competition (albeit the friendly nature of such competition) and rules are present. If the same group of individuals were registered in a football club and trained/played in an organised and structured competition under the supervision of a referee; they would be engaged in ‘organised sport’. In each case the individuals may perform the same skills, produce the same physical exertion, and may realise the same personal benefits (e.g. health, fitness, personal satisfaction, etc.). The precise definition of what separates a sport from other leisure activities varies between sources. The closest to an international agreement on a definition is provided by Sport Accord, which is the association for all the largest international sports federations, and is therefore the de facto representative of international sport. SportAccord uses the following criteria, determining that a sport should: have an element of competition; be in no way harmful to any living creature; not rely on equipment provided by a single supplier; not rely on any “luck” element specifically designed into the sport Besides, a sport is ...; a human activity involving physical skill and exertion; governed by a set of rules or customs; undertaken competitively and capable of achieving a result. There are many activities that are commonly debated whether they are sports, such as fishing, dancing, cheerleading, golf, equestrian, motorsports, plus many more. Based on the above criteria, are these sports? 10
The examples of golf and cheerleading easily fit the definition of sports when in the competitive form. Fishing and dancing for most people is a pastime and not a sport, but there are structured competitions with these activities which make it a sport in that form. In the case of equestrian and motorsports, there is physical exertion by the riders, but the horse and car are primarily doing the work. On the other hand, there is plenty of skill involved and it ticks all the other boxes. There will always be activities that are borderline and debateable whether they are sports or not. In that case, maybe the final defining point should be as per the definition by the Australian Sports Commission – it is a sport if it is ... “generally accepted as being a sport”. Generally, sport can be divided into: traditional club sport, social sport, recreational sport. (Abridged and edited from: http://www.topendsports.com/sport/what-is-a-sport.htm; https://www.reference.com/sports-active-lifestyle/sport-recreation-89a5e16b8afd67b6#; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sport; https://www.clearinghouseforsport.gov.au/knowledge_ base/sport_participation/Sport_a_new_fit/what_is_sport)
Do you understand all the ideas and definitions of the text? Do you agree with all of them? Which did you particularly like? II. 1. You are going to read an article exploring various reasons for liking and disliking sport. Match these verbs from the text with the words they go with. 1. heal a. drama and tension 2. prevent b. rifts 3. boost c. civic pride 4. offer d. people together 5. bring e. serious matters from being discussed 6. fuel f. tensions 7. spark g. a competitive edge 8. pick yourself up h. a mind-numbing effect 9. use i. sport as a conversational crutch 10. dominate j. after a defeat 11. have k. violence 12. foster l. the media Which of the 12 expressions explain why people like sport and which explain why people dislike it? Compare your ideas with the partner. How many other reasons for liking and disliking sport can you think of? 2. As you read this article, think about these questions. a. Are any of the reasons for liking and disliking sport you thought of mentioned? b. Are any other reasons mentioned? c. Which reasons do you agree/disagree with? Why? 11
Keeping the sports-haters onside Perhaps unsurprisingly, when a country wins its bid to host any significant sporting event like the Olympic Games or World Cup the news is not always met with universal delight. Whilst the officials hail the victory as a great moment and one which would boost civic pride, increase tourism and employment opportunities, and result in better housing, sporting and transport facilities, a significant proportion of the population greets the news with a mixture of cynicism and dismay. Fears of massive hike in council tax are rife and pessimists point to the mountains of debts that the countries are saddled with after they host such events as the Olympics for example. However, the voices of dissent also have other issues apart from the drain on public resources, and many of them revolve around a general dislike of sport. It is undoubtedly true that sport has come to dominate the media in an absolutely unprecedented manner and, should you desire to do so, it would be quite possible to spend almost all of your waking hours channel-surfing from one sporting event to the next. Whilst football rules the roost on terrestrial TV, cable and satellite bring everything from trampolining to archery to the “world’s strongest man competition” into living rooms across the land. Some point to the mindnumbing effect this has on viewers: non-stop sport tends to mean other issues fail to grab the public’s attention and this can prevent far more serious matters from being discussed, or even thought about. Others, however, lament the ruthless, competitive edge that the generally male-dominated world of sport helps foster in the young. Some women see sport not only as a pathetic conversational crutch which their male counterparts use to get them through day-to-day social exchanges, but also as a more malign influence. The combination of cut-throat big business muscling in on sport, athletes being portrayed as heroes and a win-at-any costs mentality is seen as deeply unsavoury. Indeed, today’s generation of young footballing superstars have been blamed for everything from foul language in schools to binge-drinking and even to an over-emphasis on consumerism. Despite all this, sport’s ever-increasing popularity is obviously not for nothing. Whether as a viewer or as an active participant, sport offers drama, tension, escapism and release for countless millions around the world and can provide salutary lessons in life: how to pick yourself up again after defeat, how to focus on a long-term goal. On top of this, whilst sport can obviously fuel tensions and spark violence, it can also serve to bring disparate groups of people together and heal long-standing rifts. Furthermore, as anyone who’s ever been abroad equipped with almost none of the local language, but with a basic knowledge of the game can tell you, perhaps even more than English, it is football that is truly the global language now. Taxi rides and train journeys from Moscow to Mozambique have been en12
livened by little more than shared smiles and the words “Pele”, “Maradona” or “Zidane”! However, there is a further, far less obvious reason for keeping at least one eye on the world of sport and that is the vast impact sport has had on the English language. A whole area of metaphorical and idiomatic language has moved from a sporting context into much broader usage. For instance, “in the run-up to” an election, the opinion polls may show two parties “running neck and neck” – both polling very similar high percentages. Another idiom taken from the field of horse-racing is “horses for courses” – meaning you need to choose the right people for particular activities because everyone has different skills. Boxing fans are more likely to understand that when you “throw in the towel”, you admit defeat and that if you manage to escape from an unpleasant situation at just the right moment, you’re “saved by the bell”. Similarly, keen swimmers are far more likely to grasp that being “out of your depth” means things are too difficult for you, whilst “swimming against the tide” involves refusing to do what everyone else is doing and trying to come up with your own way of doing things instead. Surely for these reasons, if for no others, sport is worthy of our attention. (Abridged from: “Innovations Advanced. Coursebook”. P. 112–113)
3. Explain what is meant by the phrases in bold in the text. 4. Did you know any of the sports idioms mentioned in the article? Check each other by picking up the idioms from the last paragraph of the text and asking each other to explain the meaning of them and translate them. 5. Together in the group pick out and agree on the key sentences of the text that convey the main ideas. The number of sentences should equal the number of students in your group. Each sentence should be given to one student in the group. A student should write down this sentence on top of the sheet of paper. Write your translation of the sentence a bit below. Fold the paper so that the next person won’t see it. Pass the paper to a partner clock wise. He should write down his/her variant of translation, fold the paper again and pass it over to the next partner. Do this until you get “your” sentence. Unfold the paper. Read all the variants of translation. Choose the best translation or make up a new one using the ideas from the list. Together read all the translations. Share your opinions on them. (Alternative task. If you have a large group, split into small groups of 5–6.) 6. Can you think of any recent sport news that’s been greeted with … cynicism? widespread joy? universal outrage? astonishment? 13
III. 1. Read a composition by Mike Burke, a university student from Oxford, about his favourite sport. While reading it find answers to the questions: a. In what ways are squash and tennis similar and different? b. What are the advantages of squash compared to other sports? c. Why do some people consider it dangerous? Squash You don’t have to be a yuppie to play squash: if you play at a public sport centre, rather than a private club, you soon discover that it’s a game that everybody plays. Taking part in a league, you can meet people from all walks of life, and it’s quite normal for men and women to play each other. However, unlike tennis, you can’t play doubles, so it’s not such a sociable game. The reason why squash is such fun is that it’s so easy to play. Beginners can have an enjoyable game right away and can get involved in the tactics and strategy of the game. With tennis, where it’s a major achievement for a beginner even to hit the ball back over the net, you have to be quite professional before you can do this. With squash, returning the ball is easy and you don’t have to waste time retrieving all the balls that have been hit out – you only need one ball to play with and you can play at any time of the day or night and in all weathers. You don’t even need to be strong to play: a soft, cunning service can be just as effective as a powerful, fast one. It does help to be fit and agile, though, because even though a game only lasts half an hour or so, during that time you’re constantly using your energy and you don’t have time for a rest while your opponent is off the court hunting for lost balls. Perhaps it’s because squash is such an energetic game that it’s thought to be dangerous, and admittedly there is a risk of minor injuries like strains and sprains, or getting hit by your opponents racket, because both players have to cover the whole court and sometimes get into each other’s way. But if you’re careful, and don’t overdo it, it’s no more dangerous than any other sport. (From: “Sport. Пособие по развитию навыков устной речи”. C. 17–18)
2. Describe the game of squash after reading Mike’s composition using the questions: 1. Where is it played? 2. What is it played with? 3. What do players wear? 4. Who can you play it with? 5. What are the basic rules? 6. Would you like to ask Mike more questions about this game to get a better idea of it? 3. Read an interview of Alexander Colhoun, a photographer from Maryland, the USA, whose favourite sport is mountaineering, and answer the questions: 14
1. What qualities should one possess to practise mountaineering? 2. What are the advantages of this sport? 3. Alexander Colhoun says that mountaineering is not expensive. Do you share his opinion? Do you need a lot of equipment and special clothes for mountaineering? 4. What are the disadvantages of this sport? Mountain Madness How did you decide to travel to Nepal and how much money did it cost? I like to go out and to challenge myself by doing new and different things. The trip cost about $ 2000 for the mountaineering, including the equipment. It’s not expensive if that’s what you love doing. I was also lucky to get some sponsorship. I made an arrangement with a Japanese company called Goldwin Inc. In exchange for my photographs of the trip, they provided me with some excellent equipment. I got clothes, boots, tents, sleeping bags and ropes, etc. What’s the most difficult thing about climbing? The most important thing for a climber is to have total trust in their climbing partner. When you are tied together on a mountain, your life depends on his step. You are tied together on a rope. You must trust your partner to help you. What happens if someone makes a mistake? The other people have to react very quickly. Near the top of the mountain there’s a narrow ridge leading up to the summit. There’s a small path, about half a metre wide, where you can walk. On both sides there’s nothing, only rocks and snow for thousands of metres down. Imagine that my partner made a mistake and fell off one side. Immediately my reaction would be to jump off the other side of the mountain to balance out his fall. My first reaction in that situation would be to try to hold the rope and stop him from falling! No, you couldn’t hold his weight! You have to actually jump off the mountain, if you don’t jump, you are really dead. That’s a strange thought. What was the most dangerous moment on the climb? Coming down from the summit, some snow melted and the ice wall that I was climbing collapsed. I was swinging around on the rope wondering if it would hold, luckily it did. I’m here today. How did you feel when you reached the top? It was like nothing I’d ever experienced, clear skies and beautiful sun, sparkling in the distance, like nothing I’d ever seen before. (From: “Sport. Пособие по развитию навыков устной речи”. C. 19–20) 4. Compare the information given by Mike and Alexander on their favourite sports. What points do they stress, what details do they give, etc.? Use the following words and expressions for comparison: 15
Like ... On the one hand... Unlike ...
Both ... and ... On the other hand ... Compared to ...
... is similar to ... ... is quite different from/to ...
5. Look at the list of adjectives below and in pairs discuss which sports they describe best of all. Give reasons. • demanding • exhilarating • hazardous • rough • extreme • individual • indoor • adventurous • invigorating A: I believe that squash is one of the most demanding sports because you play one on one and you only have your own stamina and strength to rely on. В: True, but I think that wrestling and weightlifting are also very demanding because you need to be very strong. 6. Read these statements and decide how far you agree with each. Then discuss your ideas with a partner: 1. All children should participate in competitive sport. 2. There is no such thing as non-competitive sport. 3. Sporting competition creates divisions. 4. Sport helps to teach valuable lessons in life. 5. Sport distracts people from focusing on more important issues. 6. International sport breeds an unhealthy kind of nationalism. 7. It’s not the winning, it’s the taking part. 8. Violent sports like boxing have no place in civilized society. IV. On Your Own 1. Describe any game or sport. Let your partners guess which game/sport you are describing. You can use the plan below. Pre-teach any vocabulary if necessary (translate or explain the meaning of any new words and phrases)! 1. Number of players (per team). 2. Equipment necessary. 3. Place where it is played/practised. 4. How to play and win. 5. Length of game. 6. Some of the rules/requirements. 7. The qualities it requires from the sportsman (strength, endurance, quickness of reaction, courage etc.). 2. Find 5 idioms with a sporting context. Ask your group mates if they know the meaning of them. Help them if necessary. Find sentences with those idioms. Read them to your group mates, let them translate the sentences into Russian. Check the translation. 16
3. Complete the idioms with the words in the box. Have you found/used any of them while doing ex. 2 above? Translate the sentences into Russian. game
1. I’ll give it my best ………., and if it doesn’t work out, then I guess it wasn’t meant to be. 2. I’ve told you what I think. The ball’s now in your ………. . It’s up to you what to do about things. 3. When I found out they’d broken the contract behind our backs, I thought, “Two can play that ………. !” 4. I’ll say one thing for her. She’s very direct. I mean, she says exactly what she thinks. She doesn’t pull any ………. . 5. Chris is over from Boston next week. It’ll be good to touch ………. . It’s been quite a while since I saw him last. 4. Watch the video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A3N1TK2tXhg where famous sports people make statements about sport. Write down the statements and get ready to discuss the statements with your group mates. Do you agree with all of them?
Module 2 SPORT FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT I. Lead-in Discuss the following questions in the group: 1. Do you like watching sport events? What sports do you like watching? How does watching a sport compare with active participation? 2. Do you usually watch sport events on TV/your PC/tablet/smartphone etc. or at the stadiums/athletic arenas etc.? What does it depend on? 3. If you ever watched a sport event alive, what was the atmosphere like? Did you cheer for your favourite team? Do you support any football/hockey etc. team? 4. Is sport popular in your town/city? Are there a lot of sport facilities in it? What are they? Are they free for everyone? Are children involved a lot into sport activities in your town/city? How? II. Focus on Vocabulary 1. Arrange the words and word combinations according to the following headings and translate them into Russian: Sports
Competition sites and sport equipment
Steeplechase, athlete, official (umpire, referee, judge), badminton, rings, best (record, fastest) time, uneven (parallel) bars, boxing gloves, crew (used for sportsmеn rowing or sailing a boat), to win the points, table-tennis, sports hall, archery, to end the match in a draw (the teams drew), to set up (break) a record, to follow a tournament, artistic gymnastics (callisthenics), play-ground, spectator, cycling, opponent (rival), diving, fencing, the score of the game was… (6:4-six to four), to win with the score 4 to 0 in smb.’s favour, net, water polo, lose, sportsman (sportswoman), hang gliding, cricket, sports enthusiast, trampoline, defeat, runner-up, rowing and canoeing, record holder, draughts, racket, athletics (track-and-field), shout for, club, golf, discus (hammer, javelin) throwing, support, high (long, triple) jump, cup (final, semi-final) match, volley-ball, fan, hurdle races, beam, squash, to keep the score, to win by 2 (3) goals (points), cross-country skiing, football (soccer), down-hill skiing, contest, rugby (rugger), ski-jump, puck, slalom, (lawn) tennis, sky diving (parachuting), weight-lifting, chess, yachting, pole vault (vaulting), jumping (spring) board, basket-ball (netball), hockey, championship, international cup competition, national team, to score in the game, barbell, to score a goal. 18
Work in pairs. Select any 5 words from the list above, read them to your partner, let him/her repeat them first, them translate them. To your selection of words add one more word from the list and one more proper name. Let your partner repeat and translate the words again. Then switch the roles. 2. Read the following word-combinations as quickly as possible. Translate them, switching from Russian into English and from English into Russian. Archery – сыграть вничью – calisthenics – турнир – steeplechase – установить мировой рекорд – umpire – зритель – rival – игрок, занявший второе место – to defeat – шашки – javelin – легкая атлетика – beam – тяжелая атлетика – puck – яхтенный спорт – jumping (spring) board – чемпионат – barbell – спортсмен – boxing gloves – игровая площадка – fencing – велоспорт – shout for – проиграть – record holder – параллельные брусья – pole vault. 3. Read about the use of “to do, to go, to play” when speaking about sport. Speaking about sport we use to play sport or to do sport. You can do a lot of/ a bit of sport. To go is often used if the sport ends in -ing. E.g. He went skiing when he lived in Norway. Does he go jogging? The word used with games is usually play. E.g. He plays golf. To do is used with other sport activities. E.g. He does athletics. If you can take up a sport you begin to do it. The opposite is to give up. E.g. Why did you give up swimming? I’ve got no time for it. Use the verbs do, play or go with the words below and make the sentences. Read your sentences to your group mates, let them translate them. Baseball, aerobics, tennis, skating, handball, exercises, swimming, billiards, archery, rugby, gymnastics, squash, bandy, judo, surfboarding. 4. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. Я предпочитаю легкую атлетику боксу. 2. Я мечтаю поставить рекорд по плаванию. 3. Сегодня я не могу бежать, я не в форме. 4. Он уделяет много внимания физической подготовке. 5. Я болею за футбольную команду «Спартак». 6. Наша игра закончилась вничью. 7. Он охотно будет тренировать нас в фехтовании. 8. Вы занимаетесь легкой атлетикой? 9. Виндсерфинг и дельтапланеризм появились относительно недавно, и сейчас являются очень популярными видами спорта. 10. Мальчик мечтает стать хоккеистом и просит купить ему клюшку и шайбу. 19
11. Разве вы не хотели бы завоевать кубок в этом соревновании? 12. Кто первый забил гол? 13. Никто не ожидал, что они выиграют со счётом 2:0. 14. Женщины обычно не играют в футбол, но с удовольствием болеют за свои любимые команды. 15. Ему хорошо дается фигурное катание. 16. Я предпочитаю художественную гимнастику любому другому виду спорта. 17. Вы собираетесь участвовать в соревнованиях по гребле? – Обязательно. 18. У нас прекрасный зал и все возможности для хорошей физической подготовки. 5. Match the sports to the places they are normally played. Which are individual sports? Track
boxing badminton archery snooker rowing go-kart racing wrestling
synchronised swimming scuba diving kayaking triathlon rock climbing angling squash
marathon hockey golf weightlifting softball skydiving ice hockey ice skating
6. Choose one correct word to complete each sentence. Translate the sentences. Places in Sports 1. When the two teams ran onto the football ………. the crowd cheered. a) stadium b) pitch c) arena d) court 2. A dog ran across the race ………., causing the leading jockey to fall. a) trail b) path c) track d) lane 3. I’ve booked a ………. for the afternoon if you still want a game of squash. a) room b) pitch c) course d) court 20
4. Bring your skates, because we’re going to the ice ………. . a) ring b) rink c) pool d) floor 5. A boxer’s trainer can enter the ………. between rounds. a) circle b) square c) ring d) rink (Abridged from: “Upstream Proficiency. Student’s book”. P. 148)
7. Put each of the following words or phrases in the correct places in the passage below. Sport facilities and athletics officials pools courts stadium rink field events athletes rings pitches scoreboard spectators track events There’s a big new sports centre near my home. There are (a) ____, tennis and basketball (b) ____, swimming (c) ____, a sports hall with two boxing (d) ____ and even a skating (e) ____. There is also a separate athletics (f) ____, where 20 000 (g) ____ can watch the (h) ____on the track and the (i) ____, such as jumping and throwing, in the grass centre. The (j) ____ get ready in modern changing rooms and the (k) ____ time and measure the events with modern equipment. A huge electronic (l) ____ shows the results. 8. Match the equipment with the sports in which they are used. Then, say what each piece of equipment is used for. Some pieces of equipment are used in more than one sport. 1. wetsuit a) scuba diving 2. harness b) skiing 3. goggles c) paragliding 4. gloves d) climbing 5. thermal jacket e) boxing 6. flippers f) cricket 7. buggy g) golf 8. club 9. stopwatch 10. bat 11. altimeter 12. helmet 9. Say what sports the following equipment is necessary for? 1. poles 2. racket 3. bat skis shuttlecock ball goggles shin-pads 21
What equipment (and any special clothing) are necessary for the following sports? Don’t name the sport. Let your group mates guess. ice-hockey archery basketball pole-vault rowing 10. Bingo. Sports and facilities Look at the list of phrases related to sports/facilities and their translation. Write out in English any six phrases of this list into your notebook. Close the textbook. Your teacher (or your group mate) is going to read those phrases in Russian in a random order. If you have the English phrase for the Russian phrase that your teacher calls out, cross it out in your notebook. As soon as you cross out all the six phrases in your notebook, shout “Bingo!” Name the phrases. If you did everything right, you are the winner! equestrian sports конный спорт, horse-racing бега, скачки, modern pentathlon современное пятиборье , a ring боксерский ринг, archery стрельба из лука, track and field Am, легкая атлетика, cycling велосипедный спорт, fencing фехтование, field hockey хоккей на траве, handball гандбол, rowing гребля, bandy хоккей с мячом, weightlifting тяжелая атлетика, yachting парусный спорт, luge санный спорт, a stopwatch секундомер, sporting gear спортивное снаряжение, golf links поле для игры в гольф, sports facilities спортивные сооружения. The teacher should look for the list of words and phrases on page 33. II. Focus on Reading and Speaking I. 1. Do you know what the following abbreviations stand for in sport. Have you heard of any of these organisations before? NFL NCAA NASL MLS the UCLA Bruins 2. Read the article from the e-newspaper “Mirror” about the 20 biggest sports stadiums in the world and say which of them you have heard of. What countries are the 20 biggest sport stadiums situated in? Which country are most of these stadiums situated in?
The 20 biggest sports stadiums in the world: Wembley, Camp Nou and the arenas that dwarf them We take a look at some of the sporting world’s mega arenas, including some you probably haven’t heard of. Football fans tend to think football is a pretty big deal. Premier League teams are always seemingly on the brink of world domination, with shirt sales rocketing in every nook and cranny of the globe. Cristiano Ronaldo and Lionel Messi are modern-day matinée stars, lighting up billboards, TV screens and magazine covers as well as enchanting us with their sporting ability. It stands to reason, then, that the world’s most popular sport should have the world’s biggest stadiums, so the ecstatic masses can flood in to see their heroes. Right? Wrong. In fact, some of football’s biggest arenas – including Wembley and the Nou Camp – are dwarfed by stadiums dedicated to the other football they play across the pond. Not necessarily even NFL, either... the college game also has incredible grounds to match. To underline the point, we take a look at the 20 biggest sports stadiums in the world, in thrilling reverse order. How many can you tick off? 20. Ben Hill Griffin Stadium – 88,548 capacity Affectionately known as “The Swamp”, the Florida Gators’ home field was originally built in a shallow sinkhole, which, combined with the steep stands, enhances the effect of the humid Florida climate – so much so that it prompted a University of Florida researcher to invent Gatorade as a way to combat dehydration. 19. Wembley – 90,000 capacity You know this one. The new Wembley was finally finished in 2007 after a long and costly construction process as it replaced the old Twin Toweradorned stadium, which was demolished in 2002. The biggest stadium in the UK. 18. Memorial Stadium – 85,000 capacity No, not Bristol Rovers’ ground, but the home of the Nebraska Cornhuskers. Nicknamed the “Sea of Red” owing to the home fans’ match day attire, the stadium has been sold out every week since 1962, holding the NCAA record of 344 consecutive sellouts. 17. Cotton Bowl – 91,100 capacity Adhering to the I that they do everything big in Texas, the Cotton Bowl has hosted a number of sports teams throughout the years, with the NFL, NASL, MLS and even World Cup all passing through.
16. Rose Bowl – 92,542 capacity A heavyweight stadium if ever there was one. Was the setting for Roberto Baggio’s penalty miss in the 1994 World Cup final, has hosted five Super Bowls and is currently the home of the UCLA Bruins and the annual Rose Bowl Game – historically the biggest college fixture of the lot. 15. Sanford Stadium – 92,746 capacity Home of the Georgia Bulldogs since 1929, the Athens stadium also played host to the 1996 Olympic Football tournament which saw a Nwankwo Kanu-inspired Nigeria team land the gold ahead. 14. Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum (93,607) The first stadium to host the summer Olympics twice (1932 and 1984), the LA Coliseum is perhaps best known for housing the LA Raiders in the 1980s and 90s, whose fans created the “Black Hole”, the NFL’s most intimidating section of fans. The Raiders left for Oakland in 1994 and since then the stadium has had no permanent tenant, as legal rows continue over who was responsible for the upkeep of the venue. 13. Soccer City – 94,713 capacity Originally opened in the 80s but renovated for 2010, this stadium is steeped in history. It was there, on the edge of Soweto, that Nelson Mandela gave his first speech after being released from prison in 1990. Designed to look like an African pot, Soccer City hosted Spain’s World Cup final win over the Netherlands... although there have been questions asked over its post-tournament legacy. 12. Estadio Azteca – 95,500 capacity This huge arena in Mexico City will be forever associated with the World Cup, having hosted not one but two finals since opening in 1966. Brazil spanked Italy there in 1970 before Argentina saw off West Germany 16 years later. Nicknamed the ‘Colossus of Saint Ursula’ (awesome), the stadium also has a special place in English hearts. It was there that Diego Maradona scored his ‘Hand of God’ goal. 11. Camp Nou – 99,786 capacity Perhaps the most iconic football stadium in the world (sorry, Ricoh Arena), the Camp Nou has been home to FC Barcelona since construction finished in 1957. The pitch is below ground level, meaning you don’t fully appreciate the scale of the thing until you are inside... at which point it is hard to deny its beauty. There has been talk of Barça building a new ground, but an expansion is now looking more likely. That is a good thing. 10. Melbourne Cricket Ground – 100,024 capacity The MCG is defined by that magisterial circular sweep, which ensures a thrilling view from every angle. It is the world’s biggest cricket ground and also plays host to Aussie Rules matches. 24
Originally opened in the 1850s, it has undergone two major redevelopments to bring it up to date... although it still retains the charm of the past and is protected due to its presence on the Australian National Heritage List. 9. Darrell K Royal-Texas Memorial Stadium – 100,119 capacity At just over 100,000 the Texas Longhorns’ intimidating arena is the largest in the Big 12 and second biggest in the state. 8. Bryant-Denny Stadium – 101,821 capacity Partially named after both Paul “Bear” Bryant and George H. Denny, the 101,821 capacity home of the University of Alabama football team is one of the most daunting and feared in all of college football. Backed by a vociferous home support and the coaching of Nick Saban, the Crimson Tide have become one of the most successful football programmes in history. 7. Tiger Stadium – 102,321 capacity Known most popularly as ‘Death Valley’ the LSU Tigers’ stadium in Baton Rouge, Louisiana is one of the biggest in the nation. So big is it in fact that when at full capacity it ranks as the fifth largest ‘city’ in the whole of the state. 6. Neyland Stadium – 102,455 capacity The Tennessee Vols’ Neyland Stadium was actually even bigger before undergoing slight reductions to its current 102,455 capacity. It’s named after legendary UT coach Robert Neyland. 5. Kyle Field – 102,512 capacity Built in the heart of Texas the original home of ‘The 12th Man’ has been the stadium of choice for the Texas A&M Aggies since all the way back in 1904. Such is its gargantuan scale Kyle Field actually boasts a bigger seating capacity than Texas’ most famous NFL team, the Dallas Cowboys’ Stadium. 4. Ohio Stadium – 104,944 capacity The Shoe as it’s known by the locals is home to the national champion Ohio State Buckeyes. Throughout the Big Ten season thousands congregate and belt out O-H-I-O during matches while the college’s marching band are known the world over for their wildly creative and colourful on-field mosaics. 3. Beaver Stadium – 107,572 capacity The Penn State Nittany Lions in Pennsylvania call Beaver their home, where legions of raucous fans pile in every week during the college football season. Known as one of the toughest venues in the nation the student section was 25 ecognized in 2008 as the best in the country. 2. Michigan Stadium – 107,601 capacity “The Big House” and the biggest college football stadium of all. Home to the University of Michigan Wolverines and their larger than life coach Jim Harbaugh it regularly sees astronomic attendances and can hold over 115,000 on occasion. 25
The largest-ever college football crowd was recorded there in 2013 – a clash between the Wolverines and their bitter rivals, the Notre Dame Fighting Irish, where an eye-watering 115,109 watched on. 1. Rungrado 1st of May Stadium – 150,000 capacity The undisputed and largest by a long chalk, North Korea’s national stadium seats a staggering 150,000 people. Named after the Rungrado Islet in the Taedong River where it is built, it hosts football matches and athletics events but is most readily used for the world famous Mass Games held to celebrate former leader Kim II-sung and the North Korean nation. So large is it you could fit Cardiff’s Millennium Stadium in it TWICE. (From: http://www.mirror.co.uk/sport/football/news/ 20-biggest-sports-stadiums-world-6667275)
3. Which stadium is bigger in its capacity? Specify your answer by giving the precise figures. “Ben Hill Griffin Stadium” or “Sanford Stadium” “Estadio Azteca” or “Wembley” “Cotton Bowl” or “Michigan Stadium” “Rungrado 1st of May Stadium” or “Rose Bowl” “Kyle Field” or “Camp Nou” 4. Look at the phrases in bold in the article and explain the meaning of them. Translate these phrases into Russian. 5. In the text find all the words that denote different groups of proper names: Names of persons
Miscellaneous proper names
Work in pairs. Read one proper name from your table, let your partner repeat it. Then read two proper names from your table, and again let your partner repeat them. Continue this way by expanding the chain of proper names. See how many names in a row your partner can memorise and repeat. Then switch roles. Who has memorized the longest list of proper names in the class? 6. In each paragraph about a stadium single out the “key” information. Choose one stadium, read about it again and get ready to say a few words about this stadium taking your eyes off the text. Be distinct, break sentences in chunks and make pauses, because your partner is going to interpret your speech. II. 1. How many stadiums/sport arenas/centres are there in your city? How big are they? What is their capacity? Are they outdoor or indoor arenas? What facilities do they provide? How often do you attend the sport events held at them? 26
2. Jigsaw reading and translating. Divide into Students A and B. Each of you will read and translate into English a different text about one of the sport arenas in Murmansk. Once you’ve translated your text into English, get together with the other students, who have translated the same text and discuss any possible difficulties in translation. Choose the best variants. Get ready to share the information of your text with a partner. Get into pairs with a student, who has translated a different text. Share the information and then together answer the questions below. Student A Мурманский легкоатлетический манеж Мурманский легкоатлетический манеж был введен в эксплуатацию 1 сентября 2015 г. Первые соревнования – проведены 10 сентября 2015 г., а 12 сентября 2015 г. – торжественная церемония официального открытия. Спортивное сооружение является многофункциональным и может быть использовано для проведения тренировок и соревнований по 49 видам спорта. Для зрителей манежа предусмотрено 296 посадочных мест. Одновременно в манеже могут заниматься спортом 72 человека. Для спортсменов и любителей спорта доступны: 4 беговых дорожки по 200 метров; тренажерный зал; площадки для баскетбола, мини-футбола, волейбола; восстановительный центр (сауны, массажные кабинеты); гардероб для верхней одежды; раздевалки со шкафчиками, душевые; конференц-зал; кафе «Харчевня». Виды спорта, для занятий которыми сертифицирован легкоатлетический манеж: Перетягивание каната. Спортивная аэробика. Дартс. Прыжки на батуте. Рукопашный бой . Танцевальный спорт. Бадминтон. Дзюдо. Каратэ. Смешанное боевое единоборство. Тяжелая атлетика. Спорт глухих. 27
Спорт лиц с интеллектуальными нарушениями. Спорт слепых. Легкая атлетика. Настольный теннис. Художественная гимнастика и другие. (From: http://csp51.ru/manej/about/)
Student B Центральный стадион профсоюзов «Центральный стадион профсоюзов» – крупнейшее спортивное сооружение в городе Мурманской области и один из немногих стадионов в мире, находящихся за Полярным кругом. Строительство стадиона началось по заказу областного совета профсоюзов. Раньше на месте стадиона был овраг, на дне которого протекал ручей. Стадион сдан в эксплуатацию в июле 1960 г. и изначально назывался «Труд», менял своё название и преобразовывался не раз, с 1983 г. «Спартак», и только с июля 1999 г. и по настоящее время – ООО «Центральный стадион профсоюзов». Первые соревнования на новых беговых дорожках, футбольном поле, волейбольной и баскетбольной площадках состоялись 17 июля 1960 г. в день открытия. На стадионе также проводились показательные выступления «АвтоРодео» (1979, 1980), функционировала освещенная лыжная трасса (1972–1990), были организован конкурс «Заполярные коньки» (1973–1988), проводились массовые катания на коньках с традиционной установкой новогодней елки, костюмированного карнавала и организацией веселых стартов (1961–1988). За время существования стадиона здесь побывало очень много известных гостей – Фидель Кастро, Юрий Гагарин, Никита Хрущев и выдающихся спортсменов – Алина Кабаева, боксеры братья Кличко и многие другие. На стадионе выросла выдающаяся легкоатлетка, мурманчанка, серебряный призер Игр Олимпиады в Афинах – Лариса Круглова. В дни чествования рыбаков и моряков на стадионе выступают «звезды» эстрады и кино, театра и культуры. На стадионе ежегодно проводится до 60 спортивных и физкультурно-оздоровительных мероприятий различного ранга, проходят обучение в учебно-тренировочных группах, участвуют в соревнованиях свыше 36 тысяч детей и подростков и свыше 10 тысяч взрослых. Центральный стадион профсоюзов предлагает аренду: спортивного и тренажерного залов; футбольного поля; легкоатлетических дорожек. 28
Также любители спорта могут посетить пневматический тир, физкультурно-оздоровительные группы, настольный теннис, солярий вертикальный и горизонтальный. Проводятся соревнования по различным видам спорта. Вместимость стадиона – более 13 000 зрителей. Работает каток для всех желающих и любителей коньков. (From: http://centralstadion.ru/informaciya/o-nashem-sayte)
Answer the following questions and compare the sport arenas you have both read about: 1. Which sport arena has a longer history? 2. Which place is also known for different entertaining and cultural events? 3. Which place also functions as a skating rink? 4. Which sport arena is bigger in its capacity? 5. Which arena has a larger variety of facilities for doing different sports? 6. Which of the two arenas have you been to/do you attend more often? III. A Leaflet 1. What is a leaflet? What is it usually written for? 2. Scan the leaflet below. What is it for? What other places can have leaflets like this? 3. Match the headings below to the correct section of the leaflet. Why are the headings questions? Think of questions for the other four sections. Who are the trainers? What if I don’t have much free time? How long do I have to join for? What other facilities are there? Fit As A Fiddle HEALTH CENTRE A DIFFERENT WAY TO GET FIT FOR LIFE a) ………………………………………………………………………………… Unlike other centres, Fit as a Fiddle allocates a personal trainer to every member. Your trainer will help you to set goals and build up an individualized exercise programme. You don’t even have to go to the gym – your trainer can provide you with an exercise video to use at home, if that suits you better. b) ………………………………………………………………………………… All our trainers are qualified instructors who have a minimum of five years’ experience in personal training. Their aim is to motivate and give help and advice, in a friendly ‘family’ atmosphere. c) ………………………………………………………………………………… 29
No problem! You are exactly the kind of person our centres are designed for. We can give you a short programme to ease you gently back into exercise and help you to make it a regular part of your life. d) ………………………………………………………………………………… Even if you can only spare half an hour twice a week, we will find the most beneficial way for you to use it. Most of our centres have ‘early bird’ openings three or four times a week when they open at 7 a.m., so you could easily fit in half an hour in the gym before work. e) ………………………………………………………………………………… Yes, we can. Every centre has a nutrition expert who can design a diet for you, based on your needs and lifestyle, or simply give you advice about healthy eating and help you to change bad dietary habits forever. f)………………………………………………………………………………… Other facilities include: a daily timetable of fitness classes such as aerobics, kick boxing and yoga, treatments such as massage and physiotherapy, a sauna and steam room, a range of healthy refreshments. g)………………………………………………………………………………… You can join for as little as four weeks to start with. We have a range of membership deals from one month to a year. h)………………………………………………………………………………… To find out where your nearest centre is, give us a call on 08002312000, or visit our website at fitasafiddle.com (From: “Cutting Edge. Advanced. Student’s Book”. P. 44–45)
4. Read the sports club information leaflet. Based on the information in the leaflet, complete the letter which follows. Use no more than two words for each group. The words you need do not appear in the brief. There is an example (0). Phoenix Sports Club Gymnasium Information Opening hours: Monday, Wednesday, Friday 6.30 am – 10.30 pm. Tuesday, Thursday 8.00 am – 10.30 pm. Saturday, Sunday, Bank Holidays 9.00 am – 5.30 pm. – The gym and the swimming pool close 30 minutes before the Club closes. – Occasionally it may be necessary to close the pool for other activities. Notice of such closure will be displayed in advance on the Club notice boards. – We require at least two hours’ notice for cancellation of a class or court: for cancellation within two hours, a £ 5 ‘no-show’ fee will be charged. 30
Dear Harry, Looking forward so much to your visit. Think I’ve found what you’re looking for. Anyway, it’s the nearest club to where we are. It’s open 0) every day of the week, and it opens really 1) …….… on Mon, Wed and Fri – 6.30 am! It closes at 10.30 pm, but if you want an evening dip or 2) …….… bear in mind the pool and the gym close a 3) …….… before that. The pool is 4) …….… closed for one reason or another, but they 5) …….… know in advance. If you’ve 6) …….… a court and then you can’t 7) …….…, you have to 8) …….… them at least two hours before – if you don’t you will be 9) …….… £ 5. You have to use
You are free to use the gym whenever it is open once you have completed your fitness assessment. When you have completed about 15–20 sessions, book in for a re-assessment, when an instructor will monitor the improvements in your fitness level and adjust your programme accordingly. Our instructors are highly qualified and experienced and we ask you to follow their advice to get the maximum benefit from your exercise programme. Should you feel your programme needs amending at any time, do not hesitate to consult an instructor, as he or she will be happy to devise a new programme to meet your needs.
the gym whenever you 10) …….…, and they advise you to take 11) …….… test after 15–20 sessions. That’s so the instructor can 12) …….… track of your progress – but I don’t suppose you’ll be here that long. Tell me if it sounds OK. Ted
(From: “ Upstream Advanced. Workbook”. P. 67)
5. Which of the sports clubs/centres above would you like to go to? What do you like about it? Do you think the leaflets of these centres are affective? What do you think could be done to make them more attractive for potential members? Translate one of the leaflets into Russian. Show it to other students. Would this text attract the potential members? Together edit the leaflet in Russian to make it more appealing for the potential members. III. On Your Own Project Work 1. You are going to write a leaflet for a sport centre. First complete this advice for writing leaflets using words and phrases from the box. Use this advice then when making your own leaflet. too complex layout bullet points stand out sentences long blocks of prose general to the specific 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
The ………. should be visually attractive. It is a good idea to use ………., illustrations, colours, etc. The language should not be ………. . ………. should be avoided. Headings should ………. . ………. should be quite short. The information given should move from the ………. . 31
2. Work in small groups. Together make a leaflet for a new sport centre in your city. Think of the following: kind of facilities available; opening times; free events; membership regulations and instructions; directions etc. Think of how to make your leaflet visually attractive and effective. Alternative task. Make your leaflet in Russian. Let your partner translate it. Check his/her translation. Do you like it? Would this English text attract the foreign members to your club? 3. Use the Internet resources to find the answers to the questions of the quiz. Say if any of the answers surprised you. Quiz 1. Which of these is a real stadium? a) McDonalds Happy Meal Stadium b) Burger King Castle c) KFC Yum! Center d) Wimpy Way 2. Which actually exists? a) High Five Field b) Okey Dokey Avenue c) Stadium A-OK d) Hunky Dorys Park 3. Which of these stadiums with a money theme in their titles actually exists? a) Mastercard Stadium b) Cashpoint Arena c) Stadion ATM d) Direct Debit Oval 4. Which of these was around until 2005? a) Arnold Schwarzeneggar Stadium b) Dolph Lungren Valla c) Van Damme Arena d) Sly Stallone Stadium 5. Which of these used to be an actual stadium name? a) Snickers Stadium b) Penguin Palace c) KitKat Crescent d) Viscount Valley 32
4. Whatever your taste, Britain is home to some of the greatest sporting venues in the world. Watch the video and go behind the scenes at Silverstone Circuit, home of F1, and Wembley Stadium, temple of football at: https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/britain-great/sport-great-part-1. Complete the tasks on the site. Are you satisfied with your results? Bingo (from page 22) 1. horse-racing бега, скачки 2. equestrian sports конный спорт 3. weightlifting тяжелая атлетика 4. sporting gear спортивное снаряжение 5. golf links поле для игры в гольф 6. archery стрельба из лука 7. track and field Am, легкая атлетика 8. sports facilities спортивные сооружения 9. modern pentathlon современное пятиборье 10. a ring боксерский ринг 11. cycling велосипедный спорт 12. fencing фехтование 13. field hockey хоккей на траве, 14. luge санный спорт 15. a stopwatch секундомер 16. handball гандбол 17. rowing гребля 18. yachting парусный спорт 19. bandy хоккей с мячом
Module 3 SPORTS PERSONALITIES I. Lead-in 1. Discuss the following questions in the group: a) What physical and mental preparation do athletes and sportspeople do? What do you understand by the expression “mind over matter”? Can you give any examples from your own experience of how mental preparation has helped your physical performance, or vice versa? b) What do you know about the life-style of professional athletes? Does it differ from that of amateurs? Do you think professional sportsmen have to sacrifice anything to achieve top results? Work in groups and discuss what kinds of sacrifices they have to make. Then compare the results of your discussion with those of the other groups. c) What kind of qualities do you think athletes need to have. Choose ten of the adjectives which you think are most suitable to describe a successful athlete. Add some adjectives on your own. Aggressive, brave, compassionate, competitive, confident, consistent, dedicated, determined, dignified, disciplined, easygoing, emotional, fearless, humourous, intelligent, knowledgeable, methodical, modest, obstinate, persistent, resourceful, ruthless, single-minded, sociable, temperamental. 2. What qualities do you think a person should have to practise: 1) figure skating 2) shooting 3) volley-ball 4) slalom 5) boxing artistic gymnastics archery football ski-jumping wrestling II. Focus on Vocabulary 1. Read the rule below and complete the task that follows. People who do particular sports For many sports -er is used to form the name of the participants. E.g. swimming – swimmer; football – footballer; high jump – high – jumper, windsurfing – windsurfer, cricket – cricketer, golf – golfer. Sometimes the word player is added. E.g. tennis-player, billiards-player, snooker-player, darts-player. We can also say football-player, cricket-player. Some names must be learnt. E.g. archer, canoeist, mountaineer, jockey, gymnast and some others. What do we call people who…? 1) throw javelin/discus; 5) play golf; 2) play hockey; 6) play basketball; 3) do cycling; 7) do windsurfing; 4) drive cars in racing; 34
8) do gymnastics; 9) ride horses in races; 10) do weightlifting.
2. Read about the use of words related to doing sports and the examples. Translate the examples. Words Examples To beat is followed by a direct object: to Roma beat Juventus. They all seem beat somebody in a sport, game; to beat a to be trying to beat the record. team; to beat a record; smb’s time . The word to defeat has the same mean- E.g. The team have never been deing as to beat, but it’s a formal word. feated. To win can be followed by a direct object E.g. Manchester United won. Who (to win smth, but not to win smb.) or can won the match? They won it by be used without an object. 3 points. To lose is the opposite of to win. E.g. Manchester United lost. Have But to lose can be used by an indirect ob- they lost the game? ject with to. Juventus lost to Roma. To draw can be used without an object. Spartak Moscow drew. When followed by an object, the proposi- Spartak Moscow drew with/against tions with or against are used. Dynamo. A draw is a result of a game or competi- The match was a draw. tion in which two or more people draw. To coach and to train are both used with He trains them for the London maraan indirect object. thon. Who coached her for the To train can be used without an object. championship? I must train hard to win the race. A coach or a trainer is someone who a boxing trainer, a famous football trains a person or a team in a particular coach sport. A training/training session is physical He didn’t turn up for training today. exercise you do regularly in order to keep fit or prepare your body for a sport match or race. The synonym is a work-out also spelt workout. The person who controls a football match He is weary of the idea that referees and so on is a referee. are the only people who make mistakes in football. Umpire is used if the person who con- Some of the players complained trols the sport does not move. about the standards of umpiring. Both referee and umpire can be used as verbs. 3. Say who controls the following sports and games: Tennis, basketball, volleyball, figure-skating, wrestling, rugby, water polo, boxing, diving. 35
4. Think of the words to fill in the gaps in the following sentences. Complete the gaps. 1. He ___ his own previous best time of three minutes fifty four seconds. 2. The match ended in a goalless ___ . 3. Bob ___Tom in the semi-final and will now play David in the final. 4. “Did you win?” – “No, we ___ again. We’re bottom of the division now.” 5. To keep fit Liz ___ running twice a week. 6. Mr Peters is a brilliant golf ___ . 7. The ___ blew his whistle and the football match started. 8. Well done! I didn’t think you would ___ the record but you did. 9. Alice’s good at basketball but she gets tired very quickly. She should ___ more. 10. She lost interest in judo and decided to ___ it ___ . 11. When you are playing you mustn’t shout at the ___ .She’s there to control the game. 12. The fans were furious. In their opinion Mat Stuart ___ the match badly and helped the Rovers score the last goal and win. 13. Congratulations! How many points did you win ___ ? 14. He felt tired because of the strenuous ___ he had just had. 15. When he was at school he ___ cycling and very soon made great progress in it. 16. Our coach has fallen ill and there’ll be no ___ today. 17. If I had more spare time, I’d ___ tennis. 18. Who ___ that tennis game? 19. He’s a well-known football ___ .Thanks to him the team is now in the upper league. 20. Were many records ___ at the Olympics? 21. We’ve been ___ so many times we deserve to be bottom of the league! 22. You should ___ jogging. That would help you lose weight. 23. Who ___ the world record for the 1000 metres? Is it a Russian? 24. I only ever once ___ a goal, and that was sheer luck. 25. Since he started to ___John and Dick they’ve improved a lot. Work in pairs. One of you should look at the sentences above and translate them at sight into Russian. The other student should translate by ear back into English. Check the translation. 5. Talk about what these people do as in the example. Use the prompts to help you. Jobs in Football Players Officials Managerial Staff Other
Goalkeeper, defender, midfielder, striker, substitute Referee, linesman Manager, physiotherapist, scout, groundsman Sponsor, commentator 36
– ensure / play / fair Example: The referee’s job is to ensure fair play. a) search / talented / player b) pick / team, arrange / transfers, supervise / training c) responsible / player / fitness, help / injured players / rehabilitate d) pass / ball / players / scoring position e) help / referee / decide / ball / cross / line f) monitor / condition/ ground g) describe / progress / match h) replace / injured / out-of-form player i) finish off / attacking move j) try / stop / opposition / scoring k) support / club / financially / exchange / advertising (From: “Upstream Proficiency. Student’s book”. P. 148)
6. Read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space. A Famous Sportsman You have probably never heard of Charles Burgess Fry but in the (1) ___ years of the last century, he was the most famous man in England. He became famous while (2) ___ at university, mainly on (3) ___ of his achievements in sport. He was at the same time, captain of the university football, cricket and athletics teams and (4) ___ the world record for the long jump. He was also a (5) ___ sports journalist. He was so famous that letters addressed to “Mr Fry, Oxford” were (6) ___ to him without any difficulty. His college, (7) ___ it had quite a different name, was (8) ___ as “Fry’s College”. Some people have (9) ___ Fry’s sporting achievements. They (10) ___ out that he lived at a time when standards were quite (11) ___ and it was much easier to (12) ___ well in several sports. It is certainly true that athletes of that time did not have the totally dedicated (13) ___ of modern athletes. However, it is only (14) ___ to judge him (15) ___ the standards of his own time. There is no doubt that he had extraordinary skill (16) ___ with an ability to write about sport with style and intelligence. 1. A primary 2. A still 3. A case 4. A held 5. A common 6. A posted 7. A despite 8. A referred 9. A complained 10. A point
B early B yet B account B did B usual B diverted B although B named B contradicted B give 37
C beginning C then C view C made C normal C delivered C however C called C criticised C put
D initial D already D regard D reached D popular D carried D otherwise D known D contrasted D speak
11. A bad 12. A make 13. A approach 14. A balanced 15. A for 16. A attached
B small B be B style B rational B by B combined
C low C go C method C fair C as C connected
D weak D do D skill D precise D with D related
III. Focus on Reading and Speaking 1. What does a referee’s job involve? What difficulties might he encounter? 2. You will read an article about Pierluigi Collina, a famous referee. Before you read, look at the title of the article. What attitude do you expect him to have towards his job? 3. The following comments are made by Collina in the article. What do you think he means? Discuss with a partner, then read the article quickly to see if you were right. • ‘I’m quite a normal man, really.’ • ‘At each step I was considered one of the best...’ • ‘Nobody is perfect.’ • ‘I don’t want to start the match without trusting the players.’ 4. Read the article. For questions 1–7, choose the best answer (А, В, C or D). 1. Collina’s health disorder: A. Has at times affected his refereeing. В. Makes players view him with respect. C. Made him more popular with the public. D. Affected his appearance dramatically. 2. When the writer sees Collina for the first time, he is: A. Disappointed by his appearance. В. Impressed by his command of english. C. Surprised at how ordinary he is. D. Shocked by his manner. 3. Collina’s university studies in bologna: A. Enabled him to succeed in refereeing. В. Made him want to become the best. C. Took place alongside his refereeing career. D. Suffered from his involvement in football. 4. Collina quotes the fiorentina coach in order to show that: A. Mistakes in football must be forgiven. В. Footballers should not make mistakes. C. Refereeing mistakes can be quite serious. D. Attitudes towards goalkeepers are unfair. 38
5. According to Collina, why do people say referees make more mistakes today than in the past? A. Football techniques have changed. В. TV coverage is more effective. C. TV cameras cause confusion D. Refereeing decisions are more difficult. 6. What does Collina refer to as ‘simulation’? A. А form of cheating. В. А style of refereeing. C. А form of strategy. D. А kind of injury. 7. What does Collina imply about the 1999 Barcelona match? A. Manchester United didn’t really deserve to win. В. Refereeing stopped him from enjoying the game. C. He would have liked his presence to have been noticed. D. He found the end of the match very exciting. Whistle While You Work You can argue about the best team in the world-but not about the best referee. Pierluigi Collina tells Jon Henderson that he’s much less fierce off the pitch and explains why diving is a crime against football. About 18 years ago, Pierluigi Collina lost all his hair in the space of 15 days due to an attack of the little- understood disease alopecia. ‘I don’t know what happened,’ he says. ‘I don’t remember anything in particular that could have triggered the attack. All I can tell you is that I was 24. It is Collina’s great achievement that the disorder which gave him such a distinctive look, and would have been the most memorable thing about almost any other referee, is not the reason why we all know him so well. Earlier this year he was voted best referee in the world for the fourth time in a row. As his wife, Gianna, opens the front door of the family home in Viareggio, Collina skips down the stairs. He extends a hand and greets me in English. He is clearly as diligent a foreign language student as he is a referee. The first impression is that Collina looks much younger in the flesh than he does on television. He says that a combination of his looks and the concentration involved in refereeing may make him seem older – and, occasionally, angrier – than he is. ‘But I’m quite a normal man, really.’ Collina, born and brought up in Bologna, played football until he was 17 when a school friend suggested they attend referees’ course together. ‘At each step I was considered one of the best, sometimes the best,’ he says of the 14 years it took him to work his way through the ranks to become a Serie A referee. He also went to the University of Bologna, graduating with a degree in Economics. In 1991 he moved to Viareggio to work for a bank, which he still 39
does as a financial consultant (Italian referees are not yet full-time professionals). Does he think of himself as a referee or a financial consultant? ‘It’s not easy to say what my real job is, but being a financial adviser is something I will be doing long after I’ve stopped refereeing.’ All the same there is no doubting his commitment to football and the sense of kinship he feels with his fellow referees, and this is reflected in a sensitivity to questions about the standard of refereeing. He is weary of the idea that referees are the only people who make mistakes in football. ‘Nobody is perfect. In football, everyone tries to do their best, but sometimes they can’t. I remember a short speech by Giovanni Trapattoni, given while he was the coach of Fiorentina, three or four years ago. His goalkeeper had made a terrible mistake, which cost his team dearly. Trapattoni said afterwards, “If a player cannot commit an error on the field, then we might as well stop playing this game and go home now.” And I think it has to be the same for the referee, too.’ He regards television as ‘an unequal instrument’ when it comes to recording refereeing mistakes. ‘It’s too easy to find an angle of vision different from my angle of vision that could show clearly that something happened in a different way from the way I judged. That’s why it seems as though nowadays there are many more refereeing mistakes than there were 15 years ago. Back then there were only three cameras in the middle of the field covering the whole playing area. Now there are 16. Maybe at the next World Cup there will be 20. Later, though, he does waver over whether television may help in eliminating what he calls ‘simulation’ – what we know as ‘diving’ – a player falling deliberately to fool the referee into awarding a foul or – quite often – a penalty. Collina sees diving as a crime against fellow workers. ‘At the end of the day, all footballers are colleagues. I think gaining an unfair advantage by diving can create a lot of problems for an opponent. The result of a relegation match, for instance, could end a player’s career. So I think a player should think carefully, very carefully, before diving.’ Trust in players is a recurring theme with Collina and, even if you suspect there must be some notable exceptions, it is equally possible to believe that the secret of his success is his inclination to think the best of the 22 others he shares a pitch with. ‘I don’t want to start a match without trusting the players because I couldn’t have a good working relationship with a man I didn’t trust. It’s impossible.’ And the match he most enjoyed being part of? Refereeing usually gets in the way of enjoying the football on display, ‘but there are matches with high emotion, and I think no one will ever forget the Champions League 1999 final in Barcelona (Bayern Munich 1, Manchester United 2). The way United clinched the title in the last three minutes is, to my mind, one of the greatest moments in world football.
They say the ultimate success for a good referee is if you hardly notice his presence. You know, I’d clean forgotten Pierluigi Collina was in charge that night in Barcelona. (From “Upstream Advanced. Student’s Book”. P. 154–155)
5. Find the synonyms in the text to the following words/phrases: tendency, in person, hard-working, characteristic, secured, nevertheless. 6. Which of the following adjectives can be used to describe Collina’s personality as portrayed in the article? Justify your answers by referring to the article. Discuss in pairs: affable conscientious hard-working strict principled unapproachable respectable 7. What does the writer mean by the following? …that could have triggered the attack… …the disorder which gave him such a distinctive look… ... Collina skips down the stairs... ... work his way through the ranks ... …his commitment to football… …He is weary of the idea that… …he does waver over… …what we know as ‘diving’… … I’d clean forgotten Pierluigi Collina was in charge that night... 8. Discuss with your group mates the following: а. How important is the concept of “fair play” in sport? What usually makes sportsmen cheat? b. How important is winning, compared to merely participating, for the following groups of people, and why? – professional athletes; – amateur athletes; – children learning sports at school; – people who do sports mainly as a way of keeping fit. c. What sporting achievements inspire or impress you, and why? d. What motivates people to take part in activities such as marathon running, endurance sports or sumo wrestling even though their health may be permanently injured as a result? e. What lessons can people learn from the example of disabled people who take part in competitive sports? 41
IV. On Your Own 1. Making a report. Make a report with a presentation about a famous sportsman. Find out if your group mates have heard of this sportsman. Ask them to take notes and get ready to render your speech into Russian. (Alternative task. Prepare a few questions to your group mates. Present them before the report and ask them to note down the answers as they listen to you. Check their comprehension afterwards. Have they answered all your questions? If they haven’t reflect on why they might have missed the information or misunderstood it.) Speak about: – his/her biography; – his/her career path; – his/her most outstanding achievements/records in sport; – any other of his/her achievements. 2. Do you know any girls/women who play football (soccer)? Is this sport popular with women in your country? Watch the video at https://learnenglish. britishcouncil.org/en/word-street/womens-football, where Joe visits the Tottenham Hotspur Football Club to watch the Ladies Academy side compete and to learn more about women’s football in England. Then complete the tasks on the site? How did you score?
Module 4 SPORTING EVENTS I. Lead-in Discuss the following questions: a) Why are people fond of watching sports? b) What are the world famous sporting events that are held regularly? Do you usually watch them? Do you watch them on TV, in the Internet, at the stadiums or other sport arenas? c) Do you always watch the Olympic Games? What role do you think such events as the Olympic Games play in the world today? Give a detailed answer. d) Why do you think the countries are usually so fierce in the competition for holding such sport events as the Olympic Games, World Cups and others? II. Focus on Vocabulary 1. Correct the wrong statements: 1. There is no difference between “soccer” and “rugby”. 2. Badminton can be played only indoors. 3. The goal-keeper acts as a judge in football. 4. A tennis ball is struck with a club. 5. We use balls when playing badminton. 6. Golf is played on ice fields. 7. Hockey is one of the most popular summer games. 8. Table-tennis and lawn-tennis are one and the same game. 9. In hockey a hand-ball and rackets are used. 10. Boxers fight with bare hands. 11. Track and field events are never included in Olympic Games. 12. You may touch the ball with your hands when playing football. 2. Find the odd-one-out in each set, then briefly explain why it doesn’t belong to the group: 1) rugby-motor racing-stopwatch-triathlon; 2) referee-judge-umpire-fan; 3) jersey-shuttlecock-puck-ball; 4) commentator-stands-manager-sponsor; 5) grass-clay-executive box-tarmac; 6) helmet-sprain-shinguard-goggles. (From: “Upstream Advanced. Student’s book”. P. 148)
3. Bingo. Sporting events Look at the list of words related to sporting events and their translation. Write out in English any six phrases of this list into your notebook. Close the 43
textbook. Your teacher is going to read those phrases in Russian in a random order. If you have the English phrase for the Russian phrase that your teacher calls out, cross it out in your notebook. As soon as you cross out all the six phrases in your notebook, shout “Bingo!” Name the phrases. If you did everything right, you are the winner! a meet встреча, a cup кубковая встреча, a contest состязания, a championship первенство, a World Cup соревнования на кубок мира, a competition соревнования, students’ games студенческие игры, an exhibition meet показательная встреча, a tournament турнир, a qualification competition квалификационные соревнования, a round robin competition соревнования по круговой системе, participate hors concours выступать вне конкурса, an opening ceremony церемония открытия, a challenge cup переходящий приз, a junior team команда юниоров, a supporter болельщик, qualify for the final(s) попасть в финал, On your marks! На старт!, Get set! Внимание!, Go! Марш! (обычно выстрел). The teacher should look for the list of words and phrases on page 55. 4. Repeat the group of words after the teacher/partner. Translate them by ear. a) участник состязания, состязаться, Олимпийские игры, 1896, спортсмены, медаль, счёт; b) ice hockey, speedskating, figure skating, skiing, France, win, defeat; c) sporting contests, большой теннис, go in for sport, легкая атлетика, A. D. 392, проиграть, umpire. Make up similar groups of words. Work in pairs and repeat, then translate each other’s words. 5. Analogies. Analogies compare relationships between things that are alike in some ways. The analogy do: athletics=play: golf is expressed in English as follows: “ The verb “do” to athletics as the verb “play” to golf” In other words, “ People do athletics just as they play golf.” Complete the following analogies choosing the correct answers from the choices given. Express the analogy as above and explain your choice. 1. tennis: individual game = ? : team game a. boxing b. football c. badminton 2. fencing: sword = ? : bow a. archery b. high jump
3. ? : wrestling= rink: ice skating a. pitch b. course
4. pitch: hockey= squash: ? a. course b. rink
c. court 44
5. gloves: boxing = ?: golf a. club b. bat
6. bat: cricket= ?: scuba diving a. poles b. flippers
7. racket: tennis= ?: badminton a. ball b. puck
8. ?: weightlifting= play: basketball a. do b. run c. win 9. referee: football= ?: baseball a. umpire b. scout
10. midfielder: player= ?: official a. goalkeeper b. defender
6. Repeat (translate) the main information of the sentences after the teacher. a. The Olympic Games were originally an ancient Greek religious festival in honour of Zeus, held in Olympia near Mount Olympic, the mythical home of the gods. b. Factionalism and controversies over the status of competitors became so fierce and disruptive in later years that the Games were finally suppressed by the Roman Emperor Theodosius in A. D. 392 as a disturbance of the Pax Romana or Roman peace. c. With growth of interest in sport in the nineteenth century, and the organization of annual and traditional sporting contests, especially between schools and universities, the idea arose of reviving the Olympic Games in the modern world. d. A Frenchman, Baron Pierre de Coubertin, was the enthusiast whose personal drive and initiative brought about the inauguration of the modem Olympic Games in 1896 with the participation of 311 athletes from thirteen countries, competing in nine sports. e. Women first competed in the Games in 1910, playing golf, but real women’s participation only began in Paris in 1924 with the inclusion of women’s athletics in the programme. f. Winter sports were brought into the Olympic programme through the organization of special Winter Games, first held in France at Chamonix in 1924, with competitions in ice hockey, speedskating, figure skating, and skiing. g. The six colours on the Olympic flag, the white of the background and the blue, yellow, black, green, and red of the rings, represent the nations of the world, since every national flag contains at least one of these colours. h. Officially there are individual and team victors but no victor countries; from the very beginning of the Games, however, the Press has made an unofficial count of the medals won by the sportsmen of each participating country and has kept an unofficial points score. Translate the sentences by ear. 45
II. Focus on Reading and Speaking 1. Read the text in English about the history of the Olympic Games. Then translate into English the Russian text. Say which bits of information in the Russian text echo (repeat) the information from the English text. What different bits of information do these texts contain? The Olympic Games were originally an ancient Greek religious festival in honour of Zeus, held in Olympia near Mount Olympic, the mythical home of the gods. The initial date for the beginning of the Games was 776 B.C. They were held every four years, in the middle of the summer; the main condition of the festival was that there should be peace throughout Greece. The ceremonies included contests in oratory, poetry, music, and art, as well as in athletic skills like wrestling, throwing the javelin and running. The Olympic Games were an exclusively male festival, open to young men from all the Greek cities. Women were not allowed to compete in the Olympic Games, or even to attend and watch them, though there are legends of girls having done so in disguise. The victors were traditionally crowned with olive leaves rather than with gold medals. Their importance in Greek life was so great that the Olympiad, the four-year interval between Games, was a main unit of the Hellenic calendar. To be a victor in the classical Olympic Games was a great honour not only for the athlete but for his city. The classical Games continued for over a thousand years. Factionalism and controversies over the status of competitors became so fierce and disruptive in later years that the Games were finally suppressed by the Roman Emperor Theodosius in A. D. 392 as a disturbance of the Pax Romana or Roman peace. With growth of interest in sport in the nineteenth century, and the organization of annual and traditional sporting contests, especially between schools and universities, the idea arose of reviving the Olympic Games in the modern world. A Frenchman, Baron Pierre de Coubertin, was the enthusiast whose personal drive and initiative brought about the inauguration of the modern Olympic Games in 1896 with the participation of 311 athletes from thirteen countries, competing in nine sports. At first the modern Games were limited to men. Women first competed in the Games in 1910, playing golf, but real women’s participation only began in Paris in 1924 with the inclusion of women’s athletics in the programme. In recent Olympiads the women’s programme has been greatly extended and in 1980 yet another event-hockey, one of the most popular of girls’ team games was added to the programme of the Moscow Games. Winter sports were brought into the Olympic programme through the organization of special Winter Games, first held in France at Chamonix in 1924, with competitions in ice hockey, speedskating, figure skating, and skiing. These are still the basic events of the winter programme, with the addition of bobsleigh and toboggan races. 46
The most impressive moment in the opening ceremony of the Games is the taking of the Olympic oaths. First a representative athlete from the host country, holding a corner of the Olympic flag, takes the following oath on behalf of all the participants: “In the name of all competitors, I promise that we will take part in these Olympic Games, respecting and abiding by the rules which govern them, in the true spirit of sportsmanship, for the glory of sport and the honour of our teams.” After the representative athlete, a judge from the host country takes an oath on behalf of all those judging and officiating in the Games. The Olympic flag has a motif of five interlocking rings on a white background. The five rings represent the five inhabited continents of the world and symbolize universal brotherhood. The six colours, the white of the background and the blue, yellow, black, green, and red of the rings, represent the nations of the world, since every national flag contains at least one of these colours. The ceremonial embroidered flag, by the Olympic rules, must reside in the principal municipal building of the host city until the next Games. The motto of the Games “citius, altius, fortius” (Latin-faster, higher, braver) puts the emphasis on personal not team performance and achievement. Officially there are individual and team victors but no victor countries; from the very beginning of the Games, however, the Press has made an unofficial count of the medals won by the sportsmen of each participating country and has kept an unofficial points score. Until Olympics 1952 the team of the United States dominated the Summer Games because of their strength in athletics, swimming, and boxing. Since the Helsinki Games, when the USSR took part in them for the first time, competition in all events of the programme has become keener, and one country has ceased to dominate: the US hold on first place is being successfully challenged by Russia, China and some other countries. Each Olympiad the size of the Olympic Games has been growing in the scale of competition, number of competitors, and size of the audience watching them – live or by television. When the first modern Games were held in Athens, the spectators numbered only thousands; the flickering miracle of the moving pictures of the cinema brought scenes from them to small, enthusiastic and curious audiences weeks later. Today huge stadiums accommodate tens of thousands of spectators, while television brings the scene directly to the homes of the whole world. (From: “Sport. Пособие по развитию навыков устной речи”. P. 22–23)
История Олимпийских игр Олимпийские игры, Игры Олимпиады – крупнейшие международные комплексные спортивные соревнования современности, которые проводятся каждые четыре года. Олимпийские игры, известные также как Летние Олимпийские игры, проводились каждые четыре года, начиная с 1896 г., за исключением лет, пришедшихся на мировые войны. В 1924 г. 47
были учреждены Зимние Олимпийские игры, которые первоначально проводились в тот же год, что и летние. Однако, начиная с 1994 г. время проведения зимних Олимпийских игр сдвинуто на два года относительно времени проведения летних игр. Олимпийские игры Древней Греции представляли собой религиозный и спортивный праздник, проводившийся в Олимпии. Сведения о происхождении игр утеряны, но сохранилось несколько легенд, описывающих это событие. Первое документально подтверждённое празднование относится к 776 г. до н.э., хотя известно, что игры проводились и раньше. На время проведения игр объявлялось священное перемирие, в это время нельзя было вести войну, хотя это неоднократно нарушалось. Олимпийские игры существенно потеряли своё значение с приходом римлян. После того, как христианство стало официальной религией, игры стали рассматриваться как проявление язычества и в 394 г. н.э. они были запрещены императором Феодосием I. Олимпийская идея и после запрета античных состязаний не исчезла насовсем. Например, в Англии в течение XVII века неоднократно проводились «олимпийские» соревнования и состязания. Позже похожие соревнования организовывались во Франции и Греции. Первыми настоящими предшественниками современных Олимпийских игр являются «Олимпии», которые проводились регулярно в период 1859–1888 гг. Идея возрождения Олимпийских игр в Греции принадлежала поэту Панайотису Суцосу, воплотил её в жизнь общественный деятель Евангелис Заппас. Желание возродить олимпийское мышление и культуру распространилось довольно быстро по всей Европе. Французский барон Пьер де Кубертен (фр. Pierre de Coubertin) считал, что именно слабое физическое состояние французских солдат стало одной из причин поражения французов в Франко-прусской войне 1870–1871. Он стремился изменить положение с помощью улучшения физической культуры французов. Одновременно с этим, он хотел преодолеть национальный эгоизм и сделать вклад в борьбу за мир и международное взаимопонимание. Возрождение Олимпийских игр казалось в его глазах лучшим решением, чтобы достичь обеих целей. На конгрессе, проведённом 16–23 июня 1894 г. в Сорбонне (Парижский университет), он представил свои мысли и идеи международной публике. В последний день конгресса (23 июня) было принято решение о том, что первые Олимпийские Игры современности должны состояться в 1896 г. в Афинах, в стране-родоначальнице Игр – Греции. Чтобы организовать проведение Игр, был основан Международный олимпийский комитет (МОК). Первым президентом Комитета стал грек Деметриус Викелас, который был президентом до окончания I Олимпийских Игр 1896 г. Генеральным секретарём стал барон Пьер де Кубертен. Первые Игры современности прошли действительно с большим успехом. Несмотря на то, что участие в Играх приняли всего 241 атлет 48
(14 стран), Игры стали крупнейшим спортивным событием, прошедшим когда-либо со времён Древней Греции. После первого успеха, олимпийское движение испытало первый в своей истории кризис. Игры 1900 г. в Париже (Франция) и Игры 1904 г. в Сент-Луисе (штат Миссури, США) были совмещены со Всемирными выставками. Спортивные соревнования тянулись месяцами и почти не пользовались интересом у зрителей. В Играх в Сент-Луисе участвовали почти только американские спортсмены, так как из Европы добраться через океан в те годы было очень сложно по техническим причинам. На Олимпийских играх 1906 г. в Афинах (Греция) вновь вышли на первое место спортивные соревнования и результаты. Хотя МОК первоначально признавал и поддерживал проведение этих «промежуточных Игр» (всего через два года после предыдущих), сейчас эти Игры не признаются олимпийскими. Некоторые спортивные историки считают Игры 1906 г. спасением олимпийской идеи, так как они не дали играм стать «бессмысленными и ненужными». Принципы, правила и положения Олимпийских игр определены Олимпийской хартией, основы которой утверждены Международным спортивным конгрессом в Париже в 1894 г., принявшим по предложению французского педагога и общественного деятеля Пьера де Кубертена решение об организации Игр по образцу античных и о создании Международного олимпийского комитета (МОК). Игры проводятся в первый год олимпиады (4-летнего периода между играми). Счёт олимпиадам ведётся с 1896 г., когда состоялись первые Олимпийские игры (I Олимпиада – 1896–1899). Олимпиада получает свой номер и в тех случаях, когда игры не проводятся (например, VI – в 1916–1919, XII – 1940–1943, XIII – 1944–1947). Символ Олимпийских игр – пять скреплённых колец, символизирующих объединение пяти частей света в олимпийском движении, т. н. олимпийские кольца. Цвет колец в верхнем ряду – голубой для Европы, чёрный для Африки, красный для Америки, в нижнем ряду – жёлтый для Азии, зелёный для Австралии. Помимо олимпийских видов спорта, организационный комитет имеет право по своему выбору включить в программу показательные соревнования по 1–2 видам спорта, не признанным МОК. В том же году, что и Олимпиада, с 1924 г. проводятся зимние Олимпийские игры, которые имеют свою нумерацию. Начиная с 1994 г. сроки проведения зимних Олимпийских игр были сдвинуты на 2 года относительно летних. Место проведения Олимпиады выбирает МОК, право их организации предоставляется городу, а не стране. Продолжительность не больше 15 дней (зимних игр – не больше 10). Олимпийское движение имеет свои эмблему и флаг, утвержденные МОК по предложению Кубертена в 1913. Эмблема – олимпийские кольца. 49
Девиз – Citius, Altius, Fortius (быстрее, выше, сильнее). Флаг – белое полотнище с олимпийскими кольцами, с 1920 г. поднимается на всех Играх. Согласно хартии, Игры являются соревнованиями между отдельными спортсменами, а не между национальными командами. Однако с 1908 г.получил распространение неофициальный общекомандный зачёт. Звание олимпийского чемпиона является наиболее почётным и желанным в карьере спортсмена в тех видах спорта, по которым проводятся олимпийские турниры. Исключением является футбол, так как звание чемпиона мира в этом виде спорта гораздо престижнее. (Abridged and edited from: http://olimp-history.ru/ https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Олимпийские_игры)
2. Work in two groups. One group should make up 10 questions in English about the Olympic Games. The other group should make 10 questions in Russian about the Olympic Games. Get into pairs with a partner from the other group, ask each other the questions: if you ask your partner the questions in English, he/she should answer in Russian and vice versa. 3. Over the recent years the Olympic Games and the Olympic movement have been criticized a lot and associated with lots of problems and scandals. Can you name those recent most important problems and issues? What have you heard of them? Search the news and sports sites or other media. Complete the table by using the information from the text for the left-hand column and the information you have found or you know for the right-hand column. Burning Olympic Issues/Problems of the 20th century
Recent Olympic Issues/Problems
Olympic Issues Problems. Every individual, family, community and nation has them. Well… so does the Olympic movement. Three major issues in particular have caused trouble over the recent years. In this report, we explore their background and effects. Politics. Olympism is a symbol of peace, harmony and friendship. During the ancient Games there was always a truce in any Greek war. In the 20th century, politics though played an active and sometimes deadly role in the Olympic movement. Here are some examples: – The 1916 games were cancelled because of the World War One. – Adolf Hitler used Berlin’s 1936 Olympics to promote the Nazi party. – The 1940 and ‘44 Games were cancelled because of World War Two. – South Africa suffered a long ban from the Olympics, starting in 1964, because of its apartheid system. – In 1972 Arab terrorists murdered eleven Israeli athletes at the Munich Games. 50
– Fifty non-Communist nations boycotted the Moscow Games in 1980 in protest at the Soviet Union’s invasion of Afghanistan. – Four years later, there was a boycott of the Los Angeles Games by almost the entire Communist world. One reason for events like the ones above is Olympic sport’s popularity. It’s focus for the entire world. What bigger stage (or audience) could there be for acts of terrorism or protest? And yet the Olympic flame burns. Political problems come and go but the Games continue, because that’s what the vast majority of people want. As exIOC president Lord Killanin once said: “The Olympic Games must not be used for political purposes … the Olympic Games are for the benefit of our children.” Money. There are no financial prizes at the Olympics, but money is still a major Olympic issue. There are two reasons for this. One is the huge cost of each modern Games. In the past, some cities have lost millions. Recently that’s changed. Even so, Olympic cities always have to spend huge sums before they earn anything back. This fact limits the number of places that can afford to hold the Games. And then there’s the question of money and competitors. These days, many top athletes are professionals. Sport is their job and they’re well paid. But at the Olympics everyone is supposed to be an amateur. Because of this, there are complex rules about athletes’ earnings. It’s OK for them to be paid at nonOlympic events, but they can’t spend the money like a normal salary. Instead, they must put the money in a special fund and only use it for travel expenses and training costs. Some people think this is a clear, acceptable answer to the Olympic Games’ “amateurs only” rule, but to others it’s ridiculous. In their view it’s time for the IOC to recognise modern realities. Many sportsmen and women are professionals. Why should that stop them competing at the world’s number one sports festival? Drugs. The third major Olympic issue is drugs – but not the cocaine or heroin kind. These are different drugs which athletes use to make them stronger and faster. One of the biggest shocks of the ‘88 Games in Seoul came after the men’s 100m final. Tests showed that the winner – Canada’s ben Johnson – had traces of illegal drugs called “steroids” in his blood. As a result … he lost his gold medal, he was sent home in disgrace, he was banned from international athletics for two years. Since 1988, dozens of stars have taken part in anti-drugs campaigns. The results? 1. More tests. 2. Longer bans. 3. Higher fines. Even so, the drugs problem still exists – nobody pretends it doesn’t. (Abridged from: “Modern Issues”. P. 14–15)
4. Discussion. Comment on the ideas expressed in each of the above statements, explaining which, if any, you agree with and why. You may wish to consider the following points in reference to the statements: 1. The Olympic Games embody the ancient philosophy of a healthy mind in a healthy body. 2. The Olympics are a potent force for peace in the world. 3. The Olympic Games are a complete waste of money. drug scandals; the cost of building the infrastructure needed to host the Olympics (stadiums, hotels, transport systems, etc.); the money earned by medallists for advertising and endorsing products; the benefits of hosting the Olympics (increased revenue from tourism, improved sport facilities for later use by residents, etc.); the bribery scandals associated with corrupt Olympic officials. What do you think can/should be done to address all of the issues the Olympic movement is facing today? Brainstorm the ideas in groups and then share yours ideas with other students. 5. What sporting events are held in your city? Do you ever participate in them? Are they popular with the people in your city? Are they known worldwide? 6. Read aloud the text below and translate the Russian words and phrases in it. The Festival of the North Each spring, for some sixty-odd years now, the cream of Russian спортивная жизнь converge on cities and towns in the sub-Arctic regions of Russia to take part in a grand event arranged to “see off” the winter спортивный сезон. On the bill of fare, besides popular festivities and amateur art shows are лыжный спорт, слалом, биатлон (skiing and shooting), хоккей с шайбой, фигурное катание, group parachute jumping and last, but certainly not least, гонки на оленьих упряжках. Back in the 1920s, it was, of course, Leningrad that was the main mecca for Soviet sportsmen in Northern Russia, with the numerous sports clubs at the city’s largest enterprises bringing forth a plethora of top-notch спортсменов. As was only natural, they enthusiastically volunteered to instruct будущих спортсменов in Murmansk (up north in the Kola Peninsula), a major port which has close ties with the country’s Northern metropolis. However, at the time, in the mid-1920s, the various соревнования featured mostly skiing, skating, ice hockey, rowing, soccer, lapta, the Russian game of rounders, gorodki, another typically Russian game which but faintly resembles skittles, тяжелая атлетика, acrobatics and гимнастика, were all confined to Murmansk and its environs. In such sub-Arctic climes, skiing was, and is, the most popular 52
sport, whose traditions were promoted by such stars as Georgi Abramov, Alexei Lopintsev, the Sintsov brothers, Alexander and Pavel, Semyon Kuleshov and Leonid Frolov, to mention but several. In fact, it was these men who got the Festival of the North, otherwise known today as the Polar Olympics, going, with 86 лыжников competing in Murmansk on March 30, 1934, the day that is now officially recognized as that of the very first such event. A mere four years later, in addition to skiers from Leningrad, Moscow, Petrozavodsk in Karelia, Vologda in Northern Russia and the Volga city of Gorky, Murmansk hosted the first foreign entrant. In fact, the skiing соревнования, which were partly militarized, proved highly valuable for training those future army battalions which harassed Nazi troops and were dubbed in fright the “Russian whippets”. Incidentally, during the past the Festival of the North was one of the few спортивных соревнований held in the Soviet Union, with participants skiing in from the front lines and returning the moment the events ended. Nowadays the Festival of the North takes off from Comfort Valley (Dolina Uyuta), a beauty spot in the environs of Murmansk, where special up-to-date оборудование have been built for skiers as well as firing ranges for competitions in the biathlon which, incidentally, was incorporated in the programme, when the Festival of the North was included in the international calendar of спортивных событий in 1970. Participants currently include skiers from such countries among others as Finland, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland, Sweden and the United States. While such typically national events as гонки на оленьих упряжках and reindeer skier-towing attract fascinated interest, the highlight is the marathon along the ski runs of Comfort Valley. In short, today the Festival of the North is a truly grand event that leads off with a spectacular церемония открытия, and features besides the actual contests, amateur art shows and recitals, youth carnivals, dancing, get-togethers with Festival veterans and звёзды спорта and numerous other entertainments that are brought to TV and radio audiences all over Russia. Alla Veviorskaya (From: “Sport. Пособие по развитию навыков устной речи”. C. 73–74)
7. Read the Russian text below about the Festival of the North, translate it and answer the questions in English. Have you learnt anything new about the Festival? 1. When is the Festival of the North traditionally held? 2. What is another name for the Festival of the North? 3. Who usually takes part in the Festival of the North? 4. When was the first festival held? What winter sports did the programme include? 5. What kinds of sport are traditionally included into the programme of the Festival of the North? 53
6. Where are most of the sporting events within the programme of the Festival held? 7. Does the programme of the Festival include any of the extreme/new kinds of sport? What are they? 8. What traditions are connected with the celebration of the Festival? 9. What is the Barents Ski Race (or “Ski track of Friendship” as it is called in Russian)? Праздник Севера (неофициальное название – )– спортивные соревнования по зимним видам спорта, проводящиеся ежегодно в начале весны (март-апрель) в Мурманской области. Соревнования проводятся среди участников из разных стран, как любителей, так и профессионалов. Начало традиции было положено 30 марта 1934 г., соревнования проводились только среди лыжников. На первом Празднике Севера состязались 86 лыжников из пяти городов России – Мурманска, Ленинграда, Москвы, Петрозаводска и Вологды, – участвовавших как в классических лыжных гонках, так и в массовых кроссах и специальных соревнованиях по военизированной программе, объединявшей лыжные гонки со стрельбой, своеобразное подобие биатлона. В 1937 г. в список проводимых на празднике соревнований были включены гонки на оленьих упряжках, проводящиеся и в наше время, и горнолыжный слалом. С 1939 г. начали проводиться соревнования по хоккею с мячом среди мужчин, а в 1962 г. к проводимым видам спорта добавился хоккей с шайбой. С 1971 г. ареной состязаний стало и небо – парашютисты совершили одиночные и групповые прыжки на точность приземления. В 1970 г. Праздник Севера был присоединён к календарю международных спортивных мероприятий, что сильно повлияло на его популярность. На Полярную Олимпиаду приезжали участники из Болгарии, Венгрии, ГДР, Польши, Чехословакии, Италии, Норвегии, ФРГ, Швеции, Финляндии, США, Южной Кореи и многих других стран мира. С 1984 г. Праздник Севера перенял у Олимпийских игр традицию олимпийского огня, зажигаемого с тех пор на Центральном стадионе Мурманска. В этот год на Центральном стадионе Мурманска впервые в истории Полярной Олимпиады вспыхнул огонь. Церемонии торжественного открытия и закрытия Праздника Севера проводятся на площади Пяти Углов – центральной площади Мурманска. В Мурманске открыт Музей истории Полярных Олимпиад. С 1960 г. проводится Праздник Севера учащихся. В последние годы всё популярней становятся соревнования по экстремальным видам спорта: скалолазание, зимний кайтинг, зимний винд54
сёрфинг и т.п. Из других нетрадиционных видов спорта можно отметить футбол на снегу, зимнее плавание и соревнования по лову рыбы зимними удочками. На 70-й олимпиаде в 2004 г. были проведены также соревнования по зимнему спортивному ориентированию, ледовых гонках на автомобилях, натурбану, авиамодельному спорту и мотокроссу. Изначально Праздники проходили в пределах Мурманска. С повышением интереса и количества участников место проведения Олимпиады было перенесено в Долину Уюта – спортивный комплекс и лесной массив в Первомайском округе Мурманска. Часть соревнований проводятся за пределами города или в других городах области (Апатиты, Кировск, Полярные Зори, Раякоски и другие). Ещё одной примечательной составляющей Праздника Севера является так называемая Лыжня дружбы (Раякоски) – лыжные гонки, проходящие по территории трёх государств – России, Норвегии и Финляндии и стартующие в Раякоски – небольшом посёлке на самой границе России и Норвегии. Лыжня дружбы проводится ежегодно с 1994 г., участие в ней может принять как профессиональный лыжник, так и любитель. Причём каких-либо виз и загранпаспортов для участия в забеге не нужно. Мероприятие привлекает каждый год много участников. Лыжный марафон Праздника Севера является одним из самых массовых в России и входит в ассоциации Russialoppet, Союз марафонов «Лыжная Россия» и европейскую Euroloppet (c 1998 по 2009 г. и с 2015). (По материалам: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Праздник_Севера, http://lexicon.dobrohot.org/index.php/ПРАЗДНИК_СЕВЕРА)
8. What kind of information in the Russian text echoes the information in the English text? What kind of information is given only in the Russian/English text? III. On Your Own Make a report about any of the grand sporting events/ventures. Make a plan for the report. Present your report in the class. Ask your group mates to sum up the key information in Russian. Bingo (from page 44) 1. a tournament турнир 2. Go! Марш! (обычно выстрел) 3. a meet встреча 4. qualify for the final(s) попасть в финал. 5. a round robin competition соревнования по круговой системе 6. a cup кубковая встреча 7. a contest состязания 8. a challenge cup переходящий приз 9. a junior team команда юниоров 55
10. a championship первенство 11. an exhibition meet показательная встреча 12. On your marks! На старт! 13. participate hors concours выступать вне конкурса 14. a World Cup соревнования на кубок мира 15. a competition соревнования 16. a qualification competition квалификационные соревнования 17. an opening ceremony церемония открытия 18. a supporter болельщик 19. Go! Марш! (обычно выстрел) 20. students’ games студенческие игры
Module 5 SPORT IN THE UK, USA AND RUSSIA I. Lead-in. Discuss the following questions in the group: 1. Who is more often described as a sporting nation: the British, the Americans or the Russians? What do you judge by? Give reasons. 2. Which sport/sports are usually associated with the UK, USA and Russia? Why? 3. Can you name any world famous Russian, English and American sportsmen? II. Focus on Vocabulary. 1. Translate the successions of the words in reference to Sport after the teacher. 1. Parallel bars, club, javelin, puck, hurdle, scoreboard , goggles. 2. Болельщики, хоккей с шайбой, выступать вне конкурса, прыжки с шестом, бег с препятствиями, гребля. Make similar successions of words on Sport. Work in pairs. Read them to each other and ask your partner to translate them after you. 2. Cover the right hand column and translate at sight the extracts in the left hand column. Uncover the right hand column and compare your translation with the one given. Which is better? Is there anything in it that you would like to correct? Спорт в России всегда был и остается популярным. Наверное, более половины русских в детстве пробовали себя в каком-либо виде спорта. Так какие же виды спорта наиболее развиты в России? Здесь можно заметить следующую закономерность. Россия, как правило, обладает хорошими результатами в классических видах спорта. Это в какой-то степени связано с периодом Советского Союза, когда физическому воспитанию молодежи уделялось большое внимание. В современных же видах русские немного отстают от своих соперников. Сюда можно отнести керлинг, прыжки с трамплина и так далее. Большую популярность в стране приобрел теннис. Сегодня российские теннисисты известны всему миру. Шарапова, Курникова, Кафельников, Мыскина – вот 57
Sport in Russia has always been popular. Perhaps more than a half of Russians have tried some kind of sport in their childhood. So which sports are better developed in Russia? Here can be seen the following pattern. Russia, as a rule, has good results in classical kinds of sport. This is in some ways connected with the period of Soviet Union when big attention was paid to physical education of the youth. In modern kinds of sport Russians lag behind their contenders a little. We can refer here curling, springboard jumping etc. Tennis has a large popularity Today Russian tennis players are famous all over the world. Sharapova, Kurnikova, Kafelnikov, Miskina are only the best
лишь самые знаменитые русские теннисисты. Они прекрасно выступают на Уимблдоне и других соревнованиях. Хоккей – еще один успешный вид спорта в стране. Российская команда занимает достойные позиции на соревнованиях. Здесь также сохранились традиции советской школы. Хотя, к сожалению, она уже далеко не так сильна как раньше. В СССР был период, когда сборная по хоккею выиграла сразу 9 мировых чемпионатов подряд. Кроме того, есть только два хоккеиста, которые становились победителями чемпионата мира 10 раз. Это русские спортсмены Александр Рагулин и, конечно же, Владислав Третьяк. В настоящее время в российском хоккее также есть хорошие игроки. Многие из них сегодня тренируются в НХЛ. Другой спортивной игрой, распространенной в стране, является футбол. К сожалению, Россия давно не получала наград в этом виде спорта. Интересной особенностью российского футбола является его многонациональный состав. Спартак, ЦСКА, Зенит, Локомотив – названия наиболее известных футбольных клубов. Ну и конечно любимым видом спорта многих женщин является фигурное катание. Это очень красивое зрелище. И здесь Россия пока является лидером. Хотя в последние годы у нее появились очень достойные конкуренты. Например, китайские спортсмены имеют большие перспективы. Но российские фигуристы сегодня являются фаворитами любых соревнований. Кроме того, в стране открываются новые катки, родители отдают детей в спортивные школы. Вообще в России популярны многие виды спорта. Причем как на профессиональном, так и на любительском уровнях. Примером таких видов спорта являются лыжный спорт и волейбол.
known Russian tennis players. They play wonderfully at Wimbledon and other competitions. Ice-hockey is another one successful sport in the country. The Russian team takes worthy places in competitions. The traditions of Soviet school are kept here too. Though unfortunately it isn’t as strong as in the past. In USSR there was a period when hockey team won 9 world championships in a row. Furthermore, there are only 2 hockey players which became championship winners 10 times. These are Russian sportsmen Alexander Rogulin and of course Vladislav Tretyak. Nowadays there are also good players in Russian hockey. Many of them train in NHL. Another sport which is widespread in the country is football. Unfortunately, Russia hasn’t got any prizes in this kind of sport for a long time. An interesting peculiarity of Russian football is its multinational compound. Spartak, TsSKA, Zenit, Locomotive are names of best known football clubs. And of course the favorite sport of many women is figure skating. This is a very beautiful show. And here Russia is still the leader. Though it has had very worthy rivals in the last years. For example Chinese sportsmen have good perspective. But Russian figure skaters today are favorites at any competition. Besides new ice rinks are opened in the country, parents take their children to sport schools. Actually many kinds of sport are popular in Russia. Both on a professional level and on an amateur one. Ski sport and volleyball are good examples here.
(Abridged and edited from: http://www.russianlessons.net/articles/russiansport.php)
3. “Snowball”. Repeat each line after the teacher. Then translate every sentence. The Boat Race The Boat Race, which is considered a national festival in England, is the race between eight-oared crews from Oxford and Cambridge Universities. The race first took place in 1820 and except for the years of war, has been rowed on the Thames every year since 1836. The course is from Putney to Mortlane, a distance of four and a half miles. Boat Race Day provides annually one of the best sights of London on the river. Before the race all traffic on the river is stopped; crowds throng the banks, and thousands are wearing the colours, light or dark blue, of rival eights. No prize in the shape of a cup of any kind awaits the winners. For weeks there has been strenuous competition on the Isis and the Cam to decide who shall form the crew. The day arrives, sixteen young men do their best to win the rowing race, and in twenty minutes one of the crews has won and all is over for another year. (Abridged from: “Sport. Пособие по развитию навыков устной речи”. C. 29–31)
4. Read the text and fill in the gaps with articles if necessary. Derby Races ___greatest horse race is considered ___ Derby Race. It got its name from ___ Lord Derby, whose house stood on ___ high ground above ___ town of Epsom. ___ race was first run on ___ Epsom course in 1780. Ever since ___ Derby Race has been run at Epsom annually save for ___ interruptions of ___ European wars. Derby week is ___ national festival. ___ vast crowd gathers on ___ hill opposite ___ Grand Stand. ___ jockeys’ silk jackets flash in ___ June sunshine, ___ spectators hush to silence before ___ start for ___ race, shout as ___ horses are off, roar as they rush forward, as ___ leader drops back, as ___ winner shoots out. ___ fashions in dress have changed, ___ cars have taken ___ place of ___ coaches and ___ carriages, but ___ men and women remain ___ same as they were more than two centuries ago. ___ crowds of ___ people move out on ___ turf of ___ course as ___ great race once more is finished and over for ___ year. (From: “Sport. Пособие по развитию навыков устной речи”. C. 29–31)
III. Focus on Reading and Speaking. I. 1. Before reading the text about sport in Britain, work in pairs and see, if you can paraphrase by ear some of the sentences that come from the text. Student A: Cover the right-hand column. Read the information to Student B. Look up as much as possible when you speak. 59
Student B: Cover the left-hand column. Listen to Student A. Rephrase the information in your own words, using the cues listed and the introductory expressions below. The first one has been done for you. Then switch roles after statement 7. * In other words, ... * So, ... * What you’re saying, then, is ... * I didn’t quite catch that. Did you mean ... 0. Cycling is a popular pastime in Britain, but leisure time few people take it up as a serious sport. do Example: In other words, cycling is a popular leisure time in Britain, but few people do it as a serious sport. 1. The British are great lovers of competitive fans sports. 2. Organized amateur cricket is played between non-professional club teams, mainly on Saturday afternoons. 3. Cricket, a popular summer sport, is known to reformulated have been played as early as the 1550s, the laws of the game being reframed by the Marylebone Cricket Club. 4. Government assistance to sport is channelled conducted through independent sports councils which give award grants to governing bodies and administer a number of national sports centres. 5. Many of the graffiti on public walls are ag- fanatics gressive statements of support for football ill-famed teams, and the hooliganism of some British supporters has become notorious outside as well as inside Britain. 6. Each Rugby Union team has 15 players, who mucky spend a lot of time lying in the mud or on top gear of each other and become very dirty, but do not need to wear such heavily protective clothing as players of American football. Switch roles 7. Association football, one of the most popular systematized sports, was first codified and developed in England during the nineteenth century. 8. The British Open Golf Championship is one competitions of the world’s leading tournaments. 9. For the greatest mass of the British public soccer the eight months of the football season are more important than the four months of cricket. 60
10. The annual Cup Final match, between the two teams which have defeated their opponents in each round of a knock-out contest, provides the main entertainment through the season and the basis for the vast system of betting on the football pools. 11. Modern lawn tennis originated in England in 1872 and the annual Wimbledon Championships, widely regarded as the most important of world tennis events, were first held in 1877. 12. Boxing in its modern form dates from 1865 when the Marquess of Queensberry drew up a set of rules rewarding skill and eliminating much of the brutality that had characterised prize-fighting.
was born took place
starts its history doing away with
2. Read the text and answer the questions after the text. The British are great lovers of competitive sports; and when they are neither playing nor watching games they like to talk about them, or when they cannot do that, to think about them. The British invented and developed many of the sports and games played throughout the world, interest and participation having increased as a result of improved facilities, more leisure time and widespread television coverage. Independent governing bodies draw up rules for individual sports, arrange events, select national teams and promote international links. Government assistance to sport is channelled through independent sports councils which award grants to governing bodies and administer a number of national sports centres. Many sports receive financial sponsorship from commercial organisations. The game particularly associated with England is cricket. Many other games which are English in origin have been adopted with enthusiasm all over the world, but cricket has been seriously and extensively adopted only in the former British Empire. Cricket, a popular summer sport, is known to have been played as early as the 1550s, the laws of the game being reframed by the Marylebone Cricket Club, which was founded in the eighteenth century. Professional cricket is played between 17 county teams, and international matches take place between England, Australia, India, New Zealand, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and the West Indies. Organized amateur cricket is played between club teams, mainly on Saturday afternoons. Nearly every village, except in the far north, has its cricket club, and there must be few places in which the popular image of England, as sentimentalists like to think of it, is so clearly seen as on a village cricket field. A first-class match between English counties lasts for up to three days, with six hours’ play on each day. The game is slow, and a spectator, sitting in the afternoon sun after a lunch of sandwiches and beer, may be excused for having a little sleep for half an hour. 61
Association football, one of the most popular sports, was first codified and developed in England during the nineteenth century. The four national teams take part in international tournaments. For the greatest mass of the British public the eight months of the football (soccer) season are more important than the four months of cricket. The annual Cup Final match, between the two teams which have defeated their opponents in each round of a knock-out contest, dominates the scene; the regular “league” games, organized in four divisions, provide the main entertainment through the season and the basis for the vast system of betting on the football pools. Many of the graffiti on public walls are aggressive statements of support for football teams, and the hooliganism of some British supporters has become notorious outside as well as inside Britain. There are two types of Rugby football – the 15-a-side Rugby Union played by amateurs and the 13-a-side Rugby League played mainly in the north of England by professionals and amateurs. Rugby football (or “rugger”) is played with an egg-shaped ball, which may be carried and thrown (but not forward). If a player is carrying the ball he may be “tackled” and made to fall down. Each Rugby Union team has 15 players, who spend a lot of time lying in the mud or on top of each other and become very dirty, but do not need to wear such heavily protective clothing as players of American football. Golf probably originated in Scotland and the headquarters of the game, the Royal and Ancient Club, is at St Andrews on the east coast. The British Open Golf Championship is one of the world’s leading tournaments. Modern lawn tennis originated in England in 1872 and the annual Wimbledon Championships, widely regarded as the most important of world tennis events, were first held in 1877. Golf courses (together with the bars in their club houses) are popular meeting places of the business community; it is, for example, very desirable for bank managers to play golf. There are plenty of tennis clubs, but most towns provide tennis courts in public parks, and anyone may play tennis cheaply on a municipal court. There are cheap municipal golf courses in Scotland but few in England. The modern form of hockey was started in the nineteenth century by the Hockey Association of England. Boxing in its modern form dates from 1865 when the Marquess of Queensberry drew up a set of rules rewarding skill and eliminating much of the brutality that had characterised prize-fighting. The biggest new development in sport has been with long distance running. “Jogging”, for healthy outdoor exercise, needing no skill or equipment, became popular in the 1970s, and soon more and more people took it seriously. Now the annual London Marathon is like a carnival, with a million people watching as the world’s star runners are followed by 25,000 ordinary people trying to complete the course. 62
Rowing has a great history in Britain, beginning in some schools and universities. The rowing calendar includes the Oxford and Cambridge University Boat Race, the Head of the River Race and the Henley Regatta, all held on the River Thames. Some regattas on the Thames have been spectacular social events for well over a hundred years, and today’s best rowers have had international successes. Britain has a large number of sailing events, one of the world’s principal regattas being held each year at Cowes in the Isle of Wight. Other important water sports include swimming and windsurfung. Cycling is a popular pastime, but few people take it up as a serious sport. Sailing and horse-riding are popular with those who can afford them, and some yacht races attract wider interest. Horse racing is a big business, along with the betting which sustains it. Administered by the Jockey Club, horse-racing takes two forms – flat racing (from late March to early November) and steeplechasing and hurdle racing (from late August to early June). The best-known flat races include the five classics – the Derby, the Oaks, the Two Thousand Guineas, the One Thousand Guineas and the St Leger. The Grand National, dating from 1837, is the bestknown steeple-chase. Greyhound racing had a remarkable revival in the 1980s, and by 1988 it accounted for about a quarter of all gambling. The most popular of all outdoor sports is fishing from the banks of lakes or rivers or in the sea, from jetties, rocks or beaches. Some British lakes and rivers are famous for their trout or salmon, and attract enthusiasm from all over the world. The British do not shoot small animals or birds for sport, though some farmers who shoot rabbits or pigeons may enjoy doing so. But “game birds”, mainly pheasant, grouse and partridge, have traditionally provided sport for the landowning gentry. Another sport, also associated through centuries with ownership of land, is the hunting of foxes. The hounds chase the fox, followed by the people riding horses, wearing red or black coats and conforming with various rules and customs. There have been attempts to persuade Parliament to pass laws to forbid hunting, but none has so far been successful. Britain pioneered facilities for sports for disabled people; the world’s first sports stadium for the disabled, opened in Stoke Mandeville Hospital in 1969, is used for international sports events. (From: “Sport. Пособие по развитию навыков устной речи”. C. 29–31)
Answer the following questions: 1. Why have interest and participation in sport increased recently? 2. In what ways is sport financed in Britain? 3. What game is particularly associated with England? 4. Where has cricket been seriously adopted? 5. How long does a first class cricket match between English counties last? 63
6. Where and when was association football first codified and developed? 7. What are the highlights of the football season? 8. Why are British football fans often accused of bringing their country into disrepute? 9. What is the difference between soccer and rugby? 10. What are the two types of Rugby football? 11. Where did golf probably originate? 12. Where did modern lawn tennis originate? 13. Can golf be described as an upper-class sport? Why? (Why not?) 14. When and how did boxing in its modern form appear? 15. What is the annual London Marathon like? 16. Where did the history of rowing in Britain begin? 17. What important events does the rowing calendar include? 18. Which of the following sports could be described as the most democratic one – cycling, sailing or horse-riding? Why? 19. What activities are associated with horse racing and greyhound racing? 20. What is the most popular outdoor sport? 21. What is the British attitude to hunting? 3. Work in small groups of 3 or 5, take turns to retell the text, using the questions in Exercise II as a plan and switching the language from English into Russian, then back to English. II. 1. You are going to read the article about bandy. Have you heard of this game? Have you played it? What do you know about it? Read the article and find all the words and phrases (including opinion adjectives) that the author uses to speak of bandy. Then discuss the questions after the text with your group mates. The Wonderful World of Russian Bandy By Mark Adomanis It’s hockey, it’s ice, but it’s not ice hockey. Welcome to one of Russia’s oldest yet least known sports.
One of the most ancient and traditional Russian sports – bandy. The sport, which most closely resembles field hockey on ice, is said to have originated among the monks medieval Russia. As the rivers next to their monasteries froze, legend has it, the holy men took to the ice with sticks and a ball. Peter the Great was said to be an enthusiast, with the waterways of St. Petersburg offering a natural winter arena for the game, and the USSR was the driving force behind the establishment of a World Championship and an internationally agreed set of rules in the 1950s. Since then the USSR won 14 gold medals – including an unbroken winning streak from the first contest in 1957 through to Sweden’s success in Kha64
barovsk in 1981 – with post-Soviet Russia adding a further eight and going for a hat-trick of wins this time after winning last year’s final against the Swedes. Not surprisingly, then, fans refer to the game as ‘Russian Hockey’. To the uninitiated there can seem little difference between bandy and ice hockey. After all, both are team sports played on ice and both involve skating around with sticks trying to direct an object into a goal. But there are several crucial factors that place bandy closer to field hockey and soccer rather than its winter cousin. First, the playing area is much larger – closer to a football field than a hockey rink – and as a result there’s room to play 11-a-side on a field bounded by a low board that, unlike the boards on a hockey rinks, isn’t fixed. The goal lines represent the end of the playing area, so it’s impossible to go behind the net but it’s common to see attacks launched from set piece corners. It’s a limited-contact sport: there’s no checking allowed, and little scope for physical power to give players an advantage. By contrast, speed is the key physical attribute – the players wear long-bladed skates more like speed-skating gear than hockey books. Using a ball that rolls true at all times, rather than a puck that can bounce unpredictably depending on whether it lands flat or on its edge, also affects the dynamics of the game. All this has an impact on tactics. With little scope to bounce the ball off the edges of the playing area and no way of simply barrelling over opponents, passing needs to be accurate and there are greater opportunities for players to demonstrate skilful stickwork. Games between well-matched teams can combine the fast-paced, end-to-end action of ice hockey with the sophisticated passing game of a leading soccer team. The differences between bandy and ice hockey have also helped to inform the clash of styles between Russia and North America in the smallsides game. Ice hockey in the western sense only came to the USSR after the war: Dynamo Moscow set up the first team in 1946 as Soviet sports chiefs looked for a way to take on the west in a game that, unlike bandy, was part of the Olympic movement. But the spirit of bandy, with limited contact, an emphasis on accurate passing and individual flair and no option of ‘dump-and-chase’ play down the boards left a deep legacy on how the six-a-side game was played over here. The ‘tic-tac-toe’ passing game with which the Soviets bamboozled the hockey world, and the solo flair that characterizes the best Russian players in today’s NHL both have roots that can be traced back to the mass conversion of bandy stars to hockey players after World War II. An unfortunate side-effect of that conversion was the loss of interest in bandy across Russia. The starts of the World Championships are some65
times overshadowed by the on-going KHL play-offs. Attendances in the Russian Superleague, rarely reach the numbers seen at hockey games – partly because many teams still play outside in often painfully frosty conditions, but also because media attention is often elsewhere. Russia’s big games at the 10,000-seater Yerofey Arena in Khabarovsk may well get close to a sell-out crowd, especially when the old rivalry with Sweden is renewed, but it’s hard to imagine more than a few hundred fans arriving at many of the group stage games. A long-term lift might arrive if the Winter Olympics goes to Kazakhstan and the hosts make bandy a demonstration sport for the first time since 1952, but for now it remains a niche interest. And that, for many Russophiles, is perhaps part of its charm. A game that is highly watchable, defiantly obscure and tied up with a set of local rituals and traditions is a far cry from the slick sporting entertainments that dominate so much of the modern mainstream. (Abridged from: http://readrussia.com/2015/03/28/ the-wonderful-world-of-russian-bandy/)
2. Answer the following questions: 1. Why is bandy considered a traditional Russian sport? Why is it called “Russian Hockey”? What is the history of bandy in Russia? 2. How is this game played? How does it differ from ice hockey? 3. How does the author of the article explain the loss of interest in bandy
across Russia? 4. What could contribute to the revival of interest in bandy in Russia according to the author’s opinion? Do you agree? 5. Do you think the author is fond of watching bandy? What makes you think so? Find the proof in the text. 3. Read more about the rules of bandy. Translate the Russian words in English. What rules of bandy are similar to football? Like football, bandy is normally played in спортивныe таймы of 45 minutes each, there are eleven игроков on each team, and the bandy field is about the same size as a football поле. It is played on ice like ice hockey, but like field hockey, players use bowed клюшки and a small round ball. Two teams of 11 players each compete to get the ball into the other team’s ворота using клюшки, thereby забить гол. The game is designed to be played on a rectangle of ice the same size as a football field. Bandy also has other rules that are similar to football. Each team has 11 players, one of whom is a вратарь. The правило оффсайда is also employed. A goal cannot be забит from a stroke-in or goal throw, but unlike football, a goal cannot be scored directly from a stroke-off or угловой удар. All free strokes are “direct” and allow a goal to be scored without another player touching the ball. 66
The team that has scored more goals at the end of the game is the winner. If both teams have scored an equal number of goals, then, with some exceptions, the game is a ничья. The primary rule is that the players (other than the вратари) may not intentionally touch the ball with their heads, hands or arms during play. Although players usually use their клюшки to move the ball around, they may use any part of their bodies other than their heads, hands or arms and may use their коньки in a limited manner. Heading the ball results in a пятиминутное удаление. A variant of bandy, rink bandy, is played to the same rules but on a field the size of an хоккейное поле and with fewer people on each team. 4. Read the text below and say what other countries bandy has historical links with. Use the text to prove your answer. What other countries is bandy popular in? Russian monastery records dating back to the 10th to 11th centuries record games which may be ancestors of bandy. A game that could be recognized as essentially modern bandy was played in Russia by the early 18th century, although the rules used differed from those invented in England at a much later date. In modern times, Russia has held a top position in the bandy area, both as a founding nation of the International Federation in 1955 and fielding the most successful team in the World Championships. Russians see themselves as the creators of the sport, which is reflected by the unofficial title for bandy, “Russian hockey” (русский хоккей). The name “bandy” comes from Britain, which has played an important role in the sport’s development. Bando, a game played in Wales in ancient times, is similar to bandy. It was played throughout the country in varying forms and is still found in some areas. The earliest example of the Welshlanguage term bando occurs in a dictionary by John Walters published in 1770–94. The game became particularly popular in the Cynffig-Margam district of the Vale of Glamorgan where wide stretches of sandy beaches afforded ample room for play. As a winter sport, British bandy originated in the Fens of East Anglia where large expanses of ice formed on flooded meadows or shallow washes in cold winters, and skating was a tradition. Members of the Bury Fen Bandy Club published rules of the game in 1882, and introduced it into other countries. The first international match took place in 1891 between Bury Fen and the then Haarlemsche Hockey & Bandy Club from the Netherlands (a club which after a couple of club fusions now is named HC Bloemendaal). The same year, the National Bandy Association was started in England. Old names for bandy are hockey on the ice or hockey on ice. Since the mid-20th century the term bandy is usually preferred to prevent confusion with ice hockey. The sport is known as bandy in many languages though there are a few notable exceptions. In Russian bandy is called “Russian hockey” (рус67
ский хоккей) or more frequently “hockey with a ball” (xоккей с мячом) while ice hockey is called “hockey with a puck” (xоккей с шайбой) or more frequently just “hockey”. In Finnish the two sports are distinguished as “ice ball” (jääpallo) and “ice puck” (jääkiekko). In Estonian and Hungarian, bandy is also called “ice ball” (jääpall and jéglabda, respectively), although in Hungarian it is more often called “bandy”. The first national bandy league was started in Sweden in 1902. National federations exist in over 30 nations, including Afghanistan, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Belarus, Canada, Czech Republic, People’s Republic of China, Denmark, England, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Mongolia, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Serbia, Somalia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, and the United States. As a precursor to ice hockey bandy has influenced its development and history – mainly in European and former Soviet countries. While modern ice hockey was created in Canada, a game more similar to bandy was played initially, after British soldiers introduced the game in the 19th century. At the same time modern ice-hockey rules were formalized in British North America, bandy rules were formulated in Europe. A cross between English and Russian rules developed, with the football-inspired English rules dominant, together with the Russian low border along most of the two sidelines. With football and bandy being dominant sports in parts of Europe, it was common for sports clubs to have bandy and football sections, with athletes playing both sports at different times of the year. Some examples are English Nottingham Forest Football and Bandy Club (today known just as Nottingham Forest F.C.) and Norwegian Strømsgodset IF andMjøndalen IF, with the latter still having an active bandy section. Both bandy and ice hockey were played in Europe during the 20th century, especially in Sweden, Finland, and Norway. Ice hockey became more popular than bandy in most of Europe mostly because it had become an Olympic sport, while bandy had not. (Abridged and edited from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bandy)
5. What other traditional or regional Russian sports do you know? Which are popular in the country? Prepare a short report about any of these: lapta, gorodki, Russian Pyramid, sambo or any other traditional or regional Russian sports. Compare the sports with the help of the questions below. In your report cover the following points: – the origins of the game; – the rules, traditions; – the popularity of this sport (age, gender, geographical factors). Which of the sports you have spoken about is the most popular one? Attracts the greatest media attention/ has the most complicated rules/ the longest history in Russia? 68
III. Jigsaw Reading 1. Discuss the following questions with your group mates. 1. What do you know about baseball and cricket? 2. What countries are they popular in? Are these sports popular in Russia? Can you explain the reasons for their popularity/unpopularity? 3. Have you ever played them? Have you ever watched them? 4. Why do you think many people find cricket and baseball incomprehensible? 2. Together look at the words and phrases below that are related to baseball and cricket, use the dictionaries and translate them into Russian. Bat, batting, fielding, a mitt, a pitcher, a batter, an innings, foul territory/lines, a pitch, a wicket, a bowler, a fielder, a batsman, a kit, to score runs. 3. Now translate at sight the following chain of Russian-English words and phrases. “Подающий” игрок; foul lines; воротца (калитка); batting; полевой игрок; a pitch; экипировка; mitt; подача мяча; fielding; игрок, отбивающий мяч; batter; подающий/мечущий игрок, bat, зарабатывать очки («пробежки»). 4. Translate the sentences, using the words above. 1. Игра в крикет проходит на поле, на торцах которого находятся деревянные калитки. 2. В рамках каждой подачи мяча в крикете подающий игрок в поле команды бросает мяч игроку, отбивающему мяч в команде противника, через всю длину питча. 3. Крикет-один из национальных английских видов спорта, в котором используется бита и мяч. 4. Бэтсмен в крикете пытается отразить бросок таким образом, чтобы мяч достиг границ поля или улетел достаточно далеко от противников, что позволило бы бэтсмену перебежать в другой конец питча. 5. В случае успеха и при соблюдении некоторых других условий команда бэтсмена в крикете зарабатывает очки, «пробежки». 6. В каждой отдельной игре участвуют две команды, которые по очереди играют в нападении и защите. 7. В бейсболе игрок команды, играющей в нападении, называемый «бьющим», встаёт на поле, держа биту, обычно сделанную из дерева. 8. Бейсбольный матч не может закончиться с ничейным счётом, дополнительные подачи назначаются до определения победителя (хотя есть исключения, например, в Японии и Южной Корее). 9. Основой бейсбола является противоборство питчера и бьющего. Питчер должен подать мяч так, чтобы бьющему было сложно оценить его траекторию и, соответственно, отбить; однако при этом питчер не должен ошибиться и послать мяч вне пределов страйк-зоны. 69
10. Если бьющий попадает по мячу, но при этом мяч вылетает за границы поля то засчитывается фол-бол. 5. Work in pairs. Student A is going to read the text about baseball, Student B is going to read the text about Cricket. While reading take notes, get ready to retell the text to your partner and use the following points as a plan for retelling: the origins and the history of the game; the equipment and tools; the rules of the game; the popularity of the game; the place of this sport at international multi-sport events (ex. the Olympic Games). Listen to each other. Say if you’ve learned anything new about the sport, that your parent spoke about. Did you partner arouse your interest in that sport? Would you like to watch it/play it? Student A Baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of nine players each, who take turns batting and fielding. There are three basic tools of baseball: the ball, the bat, and the glove or mitt. The baseball is about the size of an adult’s fist. The bat is a hitting tool, traditionally made of a single, solid piece of wood. The glove or mitt is a fielding tool, made of padded leather with webbing between the fingers. As an aid in catching and holding onto the ball, it takes various shapes to meet the specific needs of different fielding positions. Protective helmets are also standard equipment for all batters. The batting team attempts to score runs by hitting a ball that is thrown by the pitcher with a bat swung by the batter, then running counter-clockwise around a series of four bases: first, second, third, and home plate. A run is scored when a player advances around the bases and returns to home plate. Players on the batting team take turns hitting against the pitcher of the fielding team, which tries to prevent runs by getting hitters out in any of several ways. A player on the batting team who reaches a base safely can later attempt to advance to subsequent bases during teammates’ turns batting, such as on a hit or by other means. The teams switch between batting and fielding whenever the fielding team records three outs. One turn batting for both teams, beginning with the visiting team, constitutes an innings. A game is composed of nine innings, and the team with the greater number of runs at the end of the game wins. Baseball has no game clock, although almost all games end in the ninth innings. Unlike those of most sports, baseball playing fields can vary significantly in size and shape. Similarly, there are no regulations at all concerning the dimensions of foul territory. 70
Baseball evolved from older bat-and-ball games already being played in England by the mid-18th century. The evolution of baseball from older bat-andball games is difficult to trace with precision. A French manuscript from 1344 contains an illustration of clerics playing a game, possibly la soule, with similarities to baseball. The earliest known reference to baseball is in a 1744 British publication, A Little Pretty Pocket-Book, by John Newbery. It contains a rhymed description of “base-ball” and a woodcut that shows a field set-up somewhat similar to the modern game – though in a triangular rather than diamond configuration, and with posts instead of ground-level bases. David Block discovered that the first recorded game of "Bass-Ball" took place in 1749 in Surrey, and featured the Prince of Wales as a player The first known American reference to baseball appears in a 1791 Pittsfield, Massachusetts, town by law prohibiting the playing of the game near the town’s new meeting house. This game was brought by immigrants to North America, where the modern version developed. By the late 19th century, baseball was widely recognized as the national sport of the United States. Baseball is now popular in North America and parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and East Asia. By the early 1830s, there were reports of a variety of uncodified bat-and-ball games recognizable as early forms of baseball being played around North America. These games were often referred to locally as “town ball”, though other names such as “round-ball” and “base-ball” were also used. In the mid-1850s, a baseball craze hit the New York metropolitan area. By 1856, local journals were referring to baseball as the “national pastime” or “national game”. A year later, sixteen area clubs formed the sport’s first governing body, the National Association of Base Ball Players. Virtually all of the modern baseball rules were in place by 1893; the last major change – counting foul balls as strikes – was instituted in 1901. As professional baseball became increasingly profitable, players frequently raised grievances against owners over issues of control and equitable income distribution. During the major leagues’ early decades, players on various teams occasionally attempted strikes, which routinely failed when their jobs were sufficiently threatened. In general, the strict rules of baseball contracts and the reserve clause, which bound players to their teams even when their contracts had ended, tended to keep the players in check. Attendance had been growing steadily since the mid-1970s and in 1994, before the stoppage, the majors were setting their all-time record for per-game attendance. Baseball, widely known as America’s pastime, is well established in several other countries as well. The history of baseball in Canada has remained closely linked with that of the sport in the United States. After World War II, professional leagues were founded in many Latin American nations, most prominently Venezuela (1946) and the Dominican Republic (1955). In Asia, South Korea (1982), Taiwan (1990), and China (2003) all have professional leagues. 71
Many European countries have professional leagues as well, the most successful, other than the Dutch league, being the Italian league founded in 1948. The Confédération Européene de Baseball (European Baseball Confederation), founded in 1953, organizes a number of competitions between clubs from different countries, as well as national squads. After being admitted to the Olympics as a medal sport beginning with the 1992 Games, baseball was dropped from the 2012 Summer Olympic Games at the 2005 International Olympic Committee meeting. It remained part of the 2008 Games. The elimination of baseball, along with softball, from the 2012 Olympic program enabled the IOC to consider adding two different sports, but none received the votes required for inclusion. While the sport’s lack of a following in much of the world was a factor, more important was Major League Baseball’s reluctance to have a break during the Games to allow its players to participate, as the National Hockey League now does during the Winter Olympic Games. (Abridged and edited from: https://global.britannica.com/sports/baseball; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baseball)
Student B Cricket Cricket is unquestionably the English summer game. Although cricket’s origins are uncertain, it is first recorded in south-east England in the 16th century. It spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the mid-19th century. By 1744 a written code governing the game was in existence. Since 1788 the acknowledged, though unofficial, fountain of all cricket legislation has been Marylebone Cricket Club, better known by the famous initials M.C.C. Lords, its ground at St John’s Wood in north-west London is the Mecca of all cricketers. Pioneers of the game were the men of Hampshire, particularly of the village of Hambledon and the counties of Surrey and Kent. The first recorded game was played in 1697. A number of words have been suggested as sources for the term “cricket”. In the earliest definite reference to the sport in 1598 it is called creckett. In Old French, the word criquet seems to have meant a kind of club or stick. Given the strong medieval trade connections between south-east England and the County of Flanders when the latter belonged to the Duchy of Burgundy, the name may have been derived from the Middle Dutch krick(-e), meaning a stick (crook). Another possible source is the Middle Dutch word krickstoel, meaning a long low stool used for kneeling in church and which resembled the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. According to Heiner Gillmeister, a European language expert of Bonn University, “cricket” derives from the Middle Dutch phrase for hockey, met de (krik ket)sen (i.e., “with the stick chase”). Dr Gillmeister believes that not only the name but the sport itself is of Flemish origin. 72
The bat is the principal emblem of the game. Its blade is made of white willow, the source of the symbolical King Willow before whom all players bend their backs. A match is played between two sides of eleven players each. Cricket is played on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yardlong pitch with a wicket (a set of three wooden stumps) sited at each end. The score is reckoned by runs. The wickets are pitched opposite one another at a distance of about 22 yards. One team, designated the batting team, attempts to score as many runs as possible, whilst their opponents field. Each phase of play is called an innings. After either ten batsmen have been dismissed or a set number of overs have been completed, the innings ends and the two teams then swap roles. The winning team is the one that scores the most runs, including any extras gained, during their one or two innings. The two sides take turns at batting. The side that goes in to bat is said to be having its innings. Two of its players go into the field and take their place in front of the wickets, whilst the rest sit and await their turn. These two are the batsmen, and their task is to hit the ball delivered by the bowler standing by the other wicket, and stay in as long as possible. The ball is bowled in overs of six balls from each wicket alternately by two bowlers of the opposite team. In the meantime the other players of the opposite team have arranged themselves around the field, with the wicket-keeper behind the wicket facing the bowler in action. They are called fielders or fieldsmen. If the batsman hits hard enough, and it takes the fielders some time to retrieve the ball, he and his fellow-batsman make as many runs as they can afford to risk. A run is scored as often as the batsmen after a hit, or at any time while the ball is in play, have crossed the ground from one wicket to another. The task of the players who are in the field is to get the batsmen out. Without going into technicalities, these are roughly some of the ways in which this can be done. If the batsman sends the ball high up into the air, he may be caught out. If the batsman misses the ball (when it is bowled), and it hits the wicket, so that the wicket is bowled down, the batsman is said to be bowled. When a player is out the next one comes in to bat, and so it goes on until the eleven have completed an innings, and the sides exchange places. As has been mentioned, the side that scores more runs wins the game. Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but sometimes they wear club or team colours. In addition to the basic kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball, which is a hard, solid object made of compressed leather enclosing a cork core. For a team sport, cricket places individual players under unusual scrutiny and pressure. Bowler, batsman, and fielder all act essentially independently of each other. While team managements can signal to a bowler or batsman to pursue certain tactics, the execution of the play itself is a series of solitary acts. Cricket is more similar to baseball than many other team sports in this regard: 73
while the individual focus in cricket is slightly mitigated by the importance of the batting partnership and the practicalities of running, it is enhanced by the fact that a batsman’s innings may continue for several hours. The laws of cricket are maintained by the International Cricket Council (ICC) and the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC). Cricket is a unique game where in addition to the laws, the players must abide by the “Spirit of the Game”. The standard of sportsmanship has historically been considered so high that the phrase “it’s just not cricket” was coined in the 19th century to describe unfair or underhanded behaviour in any walk of life. A cricket match may be a one-day match, or it may last two or three days, then it is called a two-day or a three-day match. Cricket is a sport played predominantly in the drier periods of the year. But, even so, the weather is a major factor in many cricket matches. Cricket cannot be played in wet weather. The peak events in cricket are the test matches, combats between the national sides of England, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Pakistan and the West Indies. They were started in 1877 at Melbourne, Australia. Cricket was played as part of the 1900 Summer Olympics, when England and France contested a two-day match. In 2010, the International Olympic Committee recognised cricket as a sport which could apply to be included in the Olympic Games, but in 2013 the ICC announced that it had no intentions to make such an application. Cricket can have a chance of getting in for the Summer Games, but there must be collective support shown by the ICC’s membership base in order for there to be a chance of inclusion. There are numerous variations of the sport played throughout the world that include indoor cricket, French cricket, beach cricket, Kwik cricket and all sorts of card games and board games that have been inspired by cricket. In these variants, the rules are often changed to make the game playable with limited resources or to render it more convenient and enjoyable for the participants. (Edited from: “Sport. Пособие по развитию навыков устной речи”. C. 29–31; https://global.britannica.com/sports/cricket-sport; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cricket)
6. Using the information from both texts together compare baseball and cricket. Specify their similarities and differences according to the points of the plan that you used in retelling. Together complete the table below: Baseball Origins/history Equipment/tools Rules Popularity Place at international sport-events
III. On Your Own 1. Search the news sites, like BBC for example, or the electronic newspapers, like The Guardian, and make a sports news coverage of the top sports news. Report it in the class. Listen to all the news reports and make a summary in Russian of the sports news that have been covered in most of the news reports prepared by students. 2. Pick any sport or a sporting event. Find a bit of sporting footage on video. In the classroom play the video with the sound off, imagine you are a commentator. Tell your group mates what is happening and make it sound exciting! Choose the best commentator in your group! Alternative task: choose a person in your group to do the interpretation of your commentary. 3. Did you know that messing about in boats is a British obsession? Watch the video at https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/britain-great/sport-greatpart-2 in which Richard visits Portland and Weymouth’s Olympic harbour and finds out if he’s got what it takes to win a medal on the water. Complete the tasks on the site. How many points did you score? Are you satisfied with your results?
Module 6 SPORT AND HEALTH I. Lead-in 1. Discuss the following questions: 1. Should sports be part of the school/university curriculum? Why? Give as many reasons as possible? Should all children participate in competitive sports? 2. What is the best age to take up sport activities? Which ones? 3. What sport activities would you recommend for those who’d like to keep fit? 4. How can one tell that he is fit? 5. Do all sports contribute to a person’s good health? Give reasons. 2. Write as many sports as you can under these headings: Extreme sports
Read your table to your partner. Does he/she agree with your classification? Clarify anything if necessary. Discuss with your partner if you have ever tried any of these sports. Which are your favourite? Do you dislike any of them? Why? 3. Discuss the following questions in the group: 1. Do all extreme and blood sports help people to keep fit? Why do you think people do extreme and blood sports? Are the reasons the same? 2. When we speak about sport and games we usually stress health benefits they bring to people, but lately more and more articles are published which warn us about the health hazards caused by sport. Do you think that such sports and games as boxing, football, ice-hockey are dangerous? Why?/ Why not? 3. What sports do you believe to be really dangerous? 4. What martial arts are practised in Russia? Which are the most popular ones? Are they dangerous in your opinion? 5. What are the most common injuries in the sport (s) you have read about? II. Focus on Vocabulary 1. Use the words and phrases in brackets to translate the sentences into English. 1. Все считали, что немцы с легкостью одержат победу в этом матче, но ирландцы оказались достойными соперниками (win with ease, prove to be formidable opponents). 2. Последний участник состязаний так и не вышел на стартовую линию перед началом соревнований, так что в забеге приняли участие семь бегунов вместо восьми (contestant, appear at the line-up, race). 3. Обе команды сражались яростно за победу, поэтому все согласились, что это был очень равный матч (battle fiercely, even match). 76
4. Сейчас Фред полностью пришел в форму, и тренер установил для него режим интенсивных тренировок (fully fit, put smb. on an intensive training regime). 5. Наша университетская команда хорошо играет на своём поле, но проигрывает большинство выездных матчей (play in one’s own ground, away matches). 6. Наша команда чуть не проиграла матч в прошлую субботу (narrowly defeated). 7. Марта была одной из фавориток в рамках этого турнира, но, к сожалению, выбыла из гонки на отборочных соревнования (favourite, to be knocked out, the qualifying round). 8. Молодой теннисист сражался, не жалея сил, против своего титулованного соперника, но так и не смог одержать победу (fight tooth and nail against, title holder). 9. Личный тренер Питера посоветовал ему делать больше силовых упражнений (personal trainer, instruct, weight-training). 10. Последний раз столько зрителей собиралось на этой спортивной площадке в прошлом году при проведении полу-финала (capacity crowd, ground, semi-final). Work in pairs. One of you should look at the sentences, translate them at sight. The other student should not look into the textbook, listen to the partner and translate the sentences by ear. Then switch roles after sentence 5. 2. Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. Keeping Fit Bodies are made to move! They are not designed for sitting around in front (1) ___ the television or reading magazines. Keeping fit doesn’t (2) ___ you have to be a super-athlete, and even a (3) ___ exercise can give you a lot of fun. When you’re fit and healthy, you’ll find you look better and feel better. You’ll (4) ___ more energy and self-confidence. Every time you move you (5) ___ exercising. The human body is designed to bend, stretch, run, jump and climb. The (6) ___ it does, the stronger and fitter it will become. Best of (7) ___, exercise is fun. It’s (8) ___ your body likes doing most – keeping on the move. Physical exercise is not only good (9) ___ your body. People who take regular exercise are usually happier, more relaxed and more alert (10) ___ people ho sit around all day. Try an experiment – next time you’re (11) ___ a bad mood, go for a walk or play a ball game in the park. See how (12) ___ better you feel after an hour. A sense of achievement is yet (13) ___ benefit of exercise. People feel good (14) ___ themselves when they know they have improved (15) ___ fitness. 77
People who exercise regularly will (16) ___ you that they have more energy to enjoy life. So have a go – you’ll soon see and feel the benefits! 3. Fill the gaps with words formed from the words in capitals. Learn to Love Exercise Whatever exercise you decide to do, start slowly. It takes at least six months for a new habit to become part of your life, so don’t expect miracles overnight. Start 1) ……… And, as you start to feel 2) ………, increase the duration of your exercise session and the 3) ……… . Exercise should leave you feeling happy and refreshed. If you feel shattered, you’re probably overdoing it. A good rule of thumb is to exercise so you can chat. Make sure you always stretch before and after an exercise session. Stretching before exercise is a 4) ……… measure because muscles that are not warm can easily be injured. Stretching afterwards is a 5) ……… measure because it helps prevent muscle 6) ……… . Choose exercise that you enjoy. If you’re having fun, you’re more likely to keep at it. Many people find a lot of 7) ……… in exercising as part of a group. 1. GRADUAL 2. COMFORT 3. INTENSE 4. PROTECT 5. PREVENT 6. SORE 7. MOTIVATE 4. Fill in the gaps with an appropriate particle to form a phrasal verb, explain the meaning of the phrasal verbs and translate the sentences into Russian. 1. His dismal performance was put … … insufficient preparation. 2. The home team ran … … the game, and won a decisive victory. 3. To reach this level of performance it is necessary to put … years of training. 4. The club has run … problems with finance over the past season. 5. To help the club, the players offered to put … the money for the new equipment themselves. 6. The manager wants to run … a few of the strategy points with the players. 7. The Athletics Association’s expenses now run … millions of pounds. 8. If the team can put … a good performance, more people will start attending matches. 9. After six full games in two weeks, the team began to tire and ran … of steam. 10. The manager put the case … buying new players. Work in pairs. One of you should look at the sentences, translate them at sight into Russian. The other student should not look into the textbook, listen to the partner and translate the sentences by ear into English. Then switch roles after sentence 5. 78
II. Focus on Reading and Speaking 1. Discuss the following questions in pairs. a. When do you think a human’s body starts to age? b. Many people believe that exercise can retard and even reverse the effects of ageing. Do you share this view? c. Do you happen to know any elderly people who have benefited in this way? 2. Read the article by Dick Norman to find out whether your answers to questions a and b above were correct. Then answer the questions after the text. Did you realize that once you’ve passed the age of twenty you start to die? But you can slow the march of time to stay young longer and enjoy an active and healthy life for as many of those years as possible. Young people are naturally fit, but unless you get into the habit of taking regular exercise and conditioning yourself to do so, you will find it more and more difficult as you get older. The easiest way to reach and maintain fitness is through sport. It’s fun and it has social and psychological advantages. It is vital to progress slowly. First, jog as far as you can. Then do some simple form of exercise – sit ups or press ups will do – for as long as you can. Set no targets. Simply discover your starting point. If you repeat your exercise daily, you will automatically make progress. What is unbearable the first few session will gradually become within your scope. How can you tell when you are fit? When you can run three miles (slightly less for girls) without getting exhausted. Researches are finding that even moderate exercise can retard the effects of ageing – and actually reverse them. Among the benefits are improved heart and respiratory function, increased muscle strength, denser bones, quicker reaction times and reduced susceptibility to depression. Exercise by middle-aged and older people can turn the clock back by as much as 10 to 25 years. Furthermore, the findings show that no matter when in life a person starts to exercise, improvements can occur. Dr Roy Shephard, an expert on exercise and ageing at the University of Toronto, concluded: “You’d have to go a long way to find a fountain of youth as good as exercise. And you don’t have to run marathons to reap the benefits. Little more than rapid walking for 30 minutes at a time three or four times a week can provide ten years of rejuvenation.” Research over the last two decades has contradicted the widespread belief that the elderly cannot improve physiologically and at best can only slow decline. One of the early studies was by Herbert de Vries, a pioneer in the use of exercise physiology to explore gerontology [the study of old age and of ageing]. In his investigation, more than 200 men and women aged 56 to 87 participated in a fitness programme that included a walkjog routine, callisthenics and stretching. After just six weeks, their blood pressure dropped, body fat decreased, maximum oxygen transport increased, and neuro-muscular signs of nervous tension diminished. 79
“Men and women of 60 and 70 became as fit and energetic as those 20 to 30 years younger,” de Vries noted in his book Fitness After 50. “The ones who improved most were those who had been the least active and the most out of shape.” “Eventually we all decline,” concedes Everett Smith, director of the Biogerontology Laboratory at the University of Wisconsin. “But quality of life is so much higher for the elderly who are physically active than for people who sit waiting for the Grim Reaper.” The functional declines of advancing age are depressing. With each year after maturity, the heart’s ability to pump drops about one per cent. Blood flow from the arms to the legs is 30- to 40-per-cent slower at the age of 60 than in young adults. The amount of air a person can exhale after a deep breath lessens and the chest wall stiffens with age. The speed at which nerve messages travel drops 10 to 15 per cent by the age of 70. The recent studies have shown, however, that most of these ageassociated declines can be delayed by exercise. Exercise lowers the resting heart rate and increases the amount of blood pumped with each beat in old people. At any age, moreover, when stress is placed on bones through exercise, calcium content rises, with the result that resistance to fracture is improved. Of course, exercise by the elderly is not without risk. Dr Charles Godfrey, a Canadian specialist in rehabilitation medicine, advises against jumping and pounding exercises (such as vigorous jogging and skipping) for people over 50 because, he says, “they have produced an epidemic of self-inflicted injuries.” Nevertheless, he insists, “exercise is the answer, so long as it is done properly.” What kinds of exercise are good? Three major types are important in maintaining the highest possible quality of life. Endurance activities condition the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Strengthening exercises increase the power of muscles. This helps protect the joints against injury. Flexibility or stretching exercises keep ageing joints from stiffening. (Researchers have shown that the joint stiffness and aches and pains that accompany ageing are often the result of lack of use, not of arthritis.) The ideal endurance exercise for old people is brisk walking. Swimming can also be excellent. So is using an exercise bicycle or rowing machine. It is best to pursue one or more of these exercises continuously for 30 minutes, three to five times a week. Strengthening exercises need be done only three or four times a week to increase muscle strength by 40 to 75 per cent over several months. You can use lightweight hand and leg weights, building gradually from perhaps ten-ounce weights (such as a tin of soup). You can work out on weight machines too. Exercises such as single leg lifts, finger presses and bent-leg curl-ups also help. Flexibility exercises are best done daily, but benefits can be achieved with just three sessions a week.
The single most important rule in stretching the muscles, ligaments and tendons is to go into and come out of each stretch slowly, and to hold the stretched position for at least a count of ten. Then relax for a moment and repeat. How do you exercise safely? De Vries has six tips for older adults: * See your doctor. A medical check-up is extremely important before beginning or increasing the intensity of an exercise programme. * Take it slowly. Start at a low, comfortable level; increase exertion very gradually. * Know your limit. If you are excessively fatigued, have sleeping problems or persistent soreness, you are probably trying to do too much. * Exercise regularly. It takes many weeks, even months, to reach peak conditioning, but your fitness level can be lost in a week or two of inactivity. Try to maintain an exercise schedule of at least three workouts a week. But stop if you become ill, even if it is only a cold. * Warm up first. The older you are, the more important it is to prepare the body for exercise. A proper warm-up (stretching and slow walking) of about ten minutes protects the heart, muscles and joints from injury. * Cool down afterwards. Never stop vigorous exercise abruptly. Walk for at least two minutes after a walk-jog and, waiting at least five minutes after a vigorous work-out, have a warm rather than hot shower. Today millions of people are running, cycling, swimming and walking their way to a healthier, more fulfilling life. Why not join the fun? 3. Answer the following questions: 1. What are the benefits of exercise for elderly people? 2. Why is exercise so beneficial? 3. Can the elderly improve physiologically? 4. What did H. de Vries show in one of his studies? 5. What are the functional declines of advancing age? 6. Can exercise delay these age-associated declines? 7. What kinds of exercise may be risky for the elderly? 8. What kinds of exercise are particularly beneficial? Why? 9. What recommendations does H. de Vries give elderly people? (Abridged and edited from: “Sport. Пособие по развитию навыков устной речи”. C. 12, 14–16)
4. Translate the following sentences, using the words and phrases from the text. 1. Даже умеренная физическая нагрузка может замедлить старение. 2. В каком бы возрасте человек ни начал заниматься физкультурой, улучшения в состоянии его здоровья возможны. 3. Исследования, проведенные в течение последних 20 лет, показывают, что у пожилых людей возможно улучшение их физиологического состояния, а не только замедление старения. 4. Качество жизни пожилых людей, ведущих активный образ жизни, значительно лучше, чем у тех, кто просто сидит и ждет конца. 81
5. Начинать надо с небольших нагрузок, постепенно их увеличивая. 6. Занимайтесь регулярно. 7. Чем вы старше, тем важнее подготовить организм к занятиям. Сначала сделайте разминку. 8. Никогда не прерывайте резко активные упражнения. 9. Прежде чем увеличивать интенсивность программы упражнений, обратитесь к врачу. 10. В наши дни миллионы людей занимаются бегом, ходьбой, плаванием и велоспортом, чтобы укрепить здоровье. 5. Test yourself in the following true-false quiz. Compare your ideas with the partner. Then check the answer on page 88. Were you right? What Do You Know About Exercising Exercise everyone advises! But immediately, when you try, you run into trouble. There is so much contradictory, sometimes incorrect advice about exercising that you get confused. Test yourself in the following true-false quiz. 1. To maintain an adequate level of physical fitness it’s sufficient for you to exercise twice a week. 2. Walking is one of the best exercises. 3. You burn more calories jogging one mile than walking the same difference. 4. The best way to reduce the mid-section of the body is to do abdominal exercises. 5. To lose weight you should always “work up a good sweat” when exercising. 6. Vigorous stretching exercises keep muscles flexible. 7. If you breathing does not return to normal within 5 minutes after you finish the training session, you have exercised too much. 8. The minimum amount of time you should spend on exercising in a day is 20 minutes. II. 1. What determines extreme sports? What differs extreme sports from the traditional ones? Share your ideas in the class. Now read the text and compare your ideas with those in the text. Then discuss the questions after the text. Extreme Sport Most sports contain some element of risk – there may be potential for injury or competitive risk in determining the outcome of a contest. Extreme sports, in some cases called action sports, take the risk factors to a level outside the traditional scope of a sport’s governing body. These activities usually involve speed, height, extreme physical exertion, and may require highly specialised equipment. In many cases a sport is modified (to the extreme), so that new rules modify the sport action into something new; or in some cases no rules apply. Unlike modified sports which become more inclusive; extreme sports, because 82
of the risks involved, become more exclusive in their participation base. However, extreme sports have taken on greater popularity in terms of spectator appeal, media coverage, and corporate sponsorship. Extreme sports evolved from mainstream sports and gained popularity in the 1990s through the marketing of competitions such as ‘X Games’. There is no exact definition of what determines ‘extreme’, but there are certain common characteristics among the collection of extreme sports, they include: Although not restricted to youth, extreme sports tend to appeal to the under-25 years segment of the population; Extreme sports are rarely sanctioned by government entities (i.e. departments of sport and recreation and schools); Extreme sports tend to be more solitary, rather that team oriented; Athletes who take up extreme sports generally acquire their skills from past participation (although not always at an elite level) in a kindred (mainstream) sport. In most traditional sports the function of a governing organisation is to establish rules that standardise the conditions within which competition takes place. One of the appealing aspects of extreme sports is the inconsistency of conditions. For example, the downhill skiing event in the Winter Olympics takes place on a course that is marked and where the downhill gradient is within rule parameters, the event is only conducted if weather and snow conditions are within accepted standards. An extreme downhill skiing event would have no such limitations or restrictions on the slope, snow conditions or weather; adding to the element of risk for competitors. Extreme sports may apply the three criteria of a ‘sport’ – competition, rules, and organisational structure; but in different ways. Fewer or different rules are likely to apply; competition may be with one’s self (rather than an opponent) or against the environment; and organisations (where they exist) generally sit outside mainstream international sporting federations or associations. The public perception of ‘what is sport’ has changed over time because of the emergence and growth of extreme sports. Some sport activities that may have once been considered ‘extreme’ have been modified and structured into mainstream sport. Conversely, mainstream sports have been modified to become ‘extreme’. Two examples of different evolutionary paths involving extreme sports are: Sky diving was once considered an extreme activity, but over many years it has integrated itself into an accepted sporting code. Skydiving events for individuals and teams are now sanctioned by national and international federations. Competition events have rules, they are judged on athletic and artistic merit, scored according to judging criteria, and results are recorded. Downhill ski racing was once considered the pinnacle of technical skill, speed, and excitement in alpine skiing within the Winter Olympic program. 83
However, extreme downhill skiing, also known as ‘big mountain skiing’ has taken the risk to a new level. There are no ‘rules’ per se, no course, and no limit to the conditions which challenge extreme skiers to demonstrate what is humanly possible. (From: https://www.clearinghouseforsport.gov.au/knowledge_ base/sport_participation/Sport_a_new_fit/what_is_sport)
2. Answer the questions below, using the information from the text. 1. What else are extreme sports sometimes called? 2. What do extreme sports usually involve according to the text? What are the common characteristics of extreme sports? 3. What are modified sports? What differs extreme sports from modified sports? 4. When did extreme sports gain their popularity? What was it due to?\ 5. How do extreme sports differ from traditional ones in terms of rules and conditions within which competitions take place? 6. What three criteria of a ‘sport’ do extreme sports apply? How do they differ within extreme sports? 7. What examples of extreme sports having been modified and structured into the mainstream sports are given in the text? What is said about those sports in the text? 3. Read the article about the extreme sports that are popular in Britain. Have you heard of any of them? Have you tried yourself in any of them? Extreme Sports Summer’s just around the corner, encouraging some to dust off the tennis racket or rummage round the cupboard for the cricket bat. But for some in Britain traditional outdoor pursuits are just not enough. So how do extreme sports devotees get their kicks? Extreme sports are about exhilaration, skill and danger. They do not normally involve teams and there are very few rules. People who take part use their skills and experience to control the risks. That control is what makes them sports and not just dangerous behaviour. Here are just some of the extreme sports which are popular in Britain: Kitesurfing: a growing band of enthusiasts have been discovering the thrilling combination of kite, board and waves. These kites can be up to 17 metres long. Catch a gust and you’re motoring – up, down and across the surf. British Ladies kitesurfing champion Jo Wilson says: “It’s always an adrenalin rush. It’s unpredictable. You could jump 5ft or 35ft. You never know if you’re going to go up in the air, and your heart is just going boom, boom, boom all the time.” Coasteering: this is exploring the coastline without worrying about a coastal path or finding a rocky cliffy cove blocking your route. You climb, dive, 84
swim and clamber from A to B. There are about 15 operators in the UK offering coasteering. Sky diving: traditional parachuting just doesn’t sound risky enough, does it? So now skydiving is the name for jumping from a plane and listening to your heart pounding as youhurtle towards earth before you open your parachute at the last moment. Once you’ve got a few jumps under your parachute you can throw in some extra risks, for example try a ‘hook turn’. Dean Dunbar is a participant of extremedreams.com and his first sky dive was in 1998. Since then he’s been hooked on the buzz of the extreme, saying: “Every so often I have to go out and do something scary.” Mountain biking: it’s been around so long that bikers are no longer satisfied with just going up and down a mountain. Nowadays thrill seeking mountain bikers want a big slope to go down very, very fast. “It’s pure mad, downhill,” according to Dean Dunbar. “People go to old ski resorts, take the chair lift to the top then bomb down – amazingly not killing themselves.” (From: http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/ newsenglish/britain/extreme_sports.shtml)
4. Explain the meaning of the words and phrases in bold in the text. 5. Discuss the following questions in the class: a) Do extreme sports have anything to do with health and fitness? Shall we regard them as sports? Or are they just leisure activities? b) Are all extreme sports dangerous? Are all dangerous sports extreme? What is the difference? c) Do you approve of these sports? Explain your point of view. 6. What makes people do extreme sports? Think of any reasons. What kind of people do these sports attract (think of their traits of character, life styles, age, social and professional status etc.)? Read the article extract below and compare your ideas with what is written in it. How similar are they to yours. The World’s Most Dangerous Sports Clare Davidson “Some get their kicks from champagne…” while others like jumping off tall buildings. Since Icarus, humans have been compelled to test how close to a nasty death they can go. Defining the world’s most dangerous sport remains a tricky subject, mainly due to limited data: Unsurprisingly, organizers and participants are loath to publicize deaths. (Existing information produces curious results. In the U.K., for example, angling kills more people each year than any other sport, due to drowning, but it is by no means deemed extreme.) The key is not the death toll but what the worst-case scenario is if something goes wrong. 85
Broadly speaking, if an activity involves being exposed to the elements, using specialist equipment to control an inherently incontrollable and unpredictable environment, it is probably an extreme sport. Cave diving in dank, enclosed spaces qualifies, as does surfing 50-foot waves capable of destroying a small village. Such activities, loosely defined as extreme or dangerous sports, are not for everyone. They tend to attract men (though not exclusively) in their late 20s to early 40s, who live for the moment – which is a good thing since it could always be their last. Even without death, there’s a long list of injuries on offer: from concussion or brain damage (bull riding) to broken bones (luging, among others), frostbite (mountaineering) or the bends (scuba diving), to name a few. So why do it? As Harry Parker Harry Parker , a BASE jumper, says incredulously: “Why? Because you can!” But the bottom line is this: People will go to extraordinary lengths to get high. If this means splashing out over $600 per day to heli-ski by jumping from a helicopter into virgin snow, and risk starting an avalanche, all the better. But besides the adrenaline junkies are what the Speleological (the Latinate term for caving) Society dubs “equipment junkies.” They love the associated paraphernalia and experimenting. A notorious experimenter is David Kirke, the founder of England’s Dangerous Sports Club. Kirke adapted the trebuchet, a medieval device for throwing rocks, to catapult humans from zero to 55 feet in the air in 1.9 seconds. By taking things to extremes, he says, it puts the rest of life into perspective. As Einstein would say, it’s all relative. Human curiosity, it seems, is as alive today as in the 1970s when Californian kids hit the open road by lying down on their skateboards, arguably one of the earliest extreme sports. The difference today from when these sports first started is that organizations and sponsors such as Red Bull, the energy drink, have turned formerly counterculture pastimes into moneymaking industries with regular events, offering prize money and endorsements. But it you are game for one of these sports, remember: Insurance exists for a reason. (From: http://www.forbes.com/2002/08/07/0807sport.html)
7. Sum up the main ideas of the text above. Work in pairs. Read your summaries to each other, translate your partner’s summary into Russian. 8. Discuss the following questions in small group. Choose a person to report the results of your discussion. Compare your ideas with the other groups. “Should Dangerous Sports Be Banned?” 1. Do you think that dangerous sports should be outlawed? If so, which sports do you think are particularly perilous and should be banned immediately? Why? (Give a detailed answer.) 2. What are the arguments against banning perilous sports? (List as many arguments as you can.) 86
3. Can the problem be solved by banning some perilous sports while keeping others legal? If so, who and how should decide which sports to ban? 4. Should any sports be excluded from the Olympic games? If so, which ones? 9. Act out one of the following dialogues. First, select the vocabulary, that you will need. 1. You want to try an extreme sport but your parents are against the idea. Try to convince your parents. 2. You are the father and the mother of the girl. You think she’s putting on weight and spends too much time watching TV and playing computer games. You’d like her to take up a sport. 3. You are a doctor and need to advise an elderly patient on the kinds of exercise which are particularly beneficial for that age-group and the ways to exercise safely. IV. On Your Own 1. Make a short report about any extreme or dangerous sport, that you haven’t spoken about yet in the classroom. In your speech explain what makes this sport dangerous or extreme and provide the evidence by using the data (statistics), sportsmen quotes from their interviews, descriptions of accidents and so on. 2. Look at the list of “Most dangerous sports” published at http://www. thetoptens.com/most-dangerous-sports/. Do you understand why all these sports have been included into the list? If not-check the site and find out. Do you agree? Horseback Riding Lacrosse Bull Riding Mixed Martial Arts Cheerleading Parkour Gymnastics Soccer Football Skydiving Hockey Base Jumping Boxing Free Climbing Wrestling Mountaineering Rugby Surfing Motocross Are there any sports which are not dangerous? What are they? 3. Has anyone in your group reported about white-water rafting or parkour? Do the Preparation task at https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/wordstreet/extreme-sports, then watch the video, where Carmen talks to a whitewater rafting expert and a parkour enthusiast. Next go to Task and do the activity. If you need help, you can read the transcript at any time. 87
Answers to the quiz from page 82 1. False. Studies conducted by NASA, the National Aeronautic and Space Administration, show that unexercised muscles lose their strength very quickly. After 48 to 72 hours, you must use the muscles again to reestablish the good physical effects. NASA scientists concluded that while daily exercise is most beneficial, three alternating days each week will maintain an adequate level of physical fitness. 2. True. Walking helps circulation of blood throughout the body, and thus has a direct effect on your overall feeling of health. 3. False. You use the same amount of energy whether you walk or jog the mile, since in both cases you are moving the same weight the same distance. The speed doesn’t matter. 4. False. Many people believe that when specific muscles are exercised, the fatty tissues in the immediate area are “burned up”. The truth is that exercise burns fat from all over the body and not from one specific area, regardless of the type of exercise. Of course, if you reduce the fat throughout your body, you will certainly see results around you waistline too! 5. False. Sweating only lowers body temperature to prevent overheating; it doesn’t help lose weight. You may weigh less immediately after a workout, but this is due to water loss. Once you replace the liquid, you replace the weight. 6. False. Stretching exercises (e.g. twisting or bending at the waist, touching your toes) should be done slowly, allowing the muscles to relax and “let go”. Vigorous stretching makes the muscles become tighter. 7. True. Five minutes or so after exercising your breathing rate should be normal, your heart should not be pounding, and you should not be exhausted. Beneficial exercise is not overly difficult, unpleasant, and exhausting; it’s moderate, enjoyable, refreshing. 8. True. There are more than 400 muscles that attach to your skeleton. A good exercise routine should contract and stretch all these muscles, and this simply cannot be done with four or five exercises in five or ten minutes. Many doctors believe that about 20 minutes is the minimum amount of time needed for an adequate workout.
APPENDIX References to Listening tasks on Sport Module 1 1. Fiona Scott-Barrett. New Proficiency. Listening & Speaking. Page 68, Listening 1. You will hear two extracts from an interview with a woman who has written a book about sumo wrestling. 2. Fiona Scott-Barrett. New Proficiency. Listening & Speaking. Page 72, Listening B, Listening 1, extract 2. You will hear a telephone call between a young woman and her mother. They are discussing a form of exercise called Thai Chi. Module 2 “Upstream Upper Intermediate. Student’s Book.” Page 180, task 2 (a–c). You will listen to part of an interview with the press officer of the National Fitness Association, in which he gives advice on how to join the right gym. Module 3 1. Fiona Scott-Barrett. New Proficiency. Listening & Speaking. Page 69, Listening 2. You will hear a radio programme about endurance sports. 2. “Upstream Advanced. Student’s Book.” Page 152, task 3 (a–b). You will hear five people talking about sport and how they can contribute to a sports club. Module 4 1. “Innovations Advanced. Coursebook.” Page 114, tasks 2–3. You will hear three people talking about a game. 2. Fiona Scott-Barrett. New Proficiency. Listening & Speaking. Page 69, Listening 3. You will hear a radio interview about the use of performance-enhancing drugs in Olympic sports. Module 6 1. “Upstream Advanced. Student’s Book.” Page 152, task 1 (a–c). You will hear a medical advisor talking about exercise and health. 2. “Upstream Advanced. Student’s Book.” Page 152, task 2 (a–c). You will hear a radio interview in which two people discuss the sport of heliskiing.
ANSWER KEY Module 1 Focus on Vocabulary P. 5, ex. 1 archery легкая атлетика athletics (track and field events) badminton хоккей с мячом bandy baseball бокс boxing canoeing крокет croquet curling велоспорт cycle racing darts метание диска discus throwing biathlon конный спорт equestrian sport billiards фехтование fencing freestyle планеризм gliding golf дельтапланеризм hang gliding cricket скачки с препятствиями hurdle racing ice hockey тяжелая атлетика weightlifting windsurfing водное поло water polo gymnastics P. 7, ex. 7 1. High jump 2. Motor cycle race 3. Archery
bobsleighing метание копья javelin throwing judo прыжки в длину long jump basketball прыжки в высоту high jump karate motorcycling racing альпинизм mountaineering parachuting прыжки с шестом pole -vault rugby гребля rowing snowboarding толкание ядра shotput bowling скоростной спуск на лыжах Alpine (downhill) skiing diving лыжный спорт Nordic skiing cross-country skiing slalom конькобежный спорт speed skating (field) hockey бег с препятствиями steeplechase luge (tobogganing) настольный теннис table tennis volleyball парусный спорт yachting/sailing
4. Soccer 5. Swimming 6. Windsurfing
P. 7, ex. 8 a) team; b) players; c) amateurs; d) train; e) gymnasium; f) match; g) track suits; h) referee; i) captains; j) toss a coin; k) crowd; l) draw. 90
P. 7, ex. 9 1) studs 2) keeper 3) laces 4) penalty area
5) bar 6) post 7) net 8) touchline
Focus on Reading and Speaking P. 11, ex. 1 1 – b; 2 – e; 3 – c; 4 – a; 5 – d; 6 – f; 7 – k; 8 – j; 9 – i; 10 – l; 11 – h; 12 – g. On Your Own P. 17, ex. 3 1) shot; 2) court; 3) game; 4) punches; 5) base. P. 17, ex. 4 1. Sport is the most powerful international language. 2. Sport has an international reach that is beyond compare. 3. Sport is deep in the DNA of every community. 4. Sport at its highest level is, of course, borderless. Module 2 Focus on Vocabulary P. 20, ex. 5 track pitch ring rink court other outdoors
go-kart racing, triathlon, marathon hockey boxing, wrestling ice hockey, ice skating badminton, squash, softball archery, snooker, rowing, synchronized swimming, scuba diving, kayaking, rock climbing, angling, golf, weightlifting, skydiving rowing, scuba diving, kayaking, rock climbing, angling, marathon, hockey, golf, skydiving
P. 20, ex. 6 1) b; 2) c; 3) d; 4) b; 5) c P. 21, ex. 7 a) pitches; b) courts; c) pools; d) rings; e) rink; f) stadium; g) spectators; h) track events; i) field events; j) athletes; k) officials; l) scoreboard P. 21, ex. 8 1 – a; 2 – a, d, c; 3 – c, b; 4 – b, e; 5 – b; 6 – a; 7 – g; 8 – g; 9 – a, b, e; 10 – f; 11 – d; 12 – d. 91
P. 21, ex. 9 1) slalom; 2) tennis; 3) cricket, baseball. Focus on Reading and Speaking P. 22, ex. 1 NFL –National Football League национальная футбольная лига NCAA-National Collegiate Athletic Association национальная университетская спортивная ассоциация NASL – North American Soccer League профессиональная североамериканская футбольная лига MLS – Major League Soccer профессиональная футбольная лига («высшая лига футбола») the UCLA Bruins – the athletic teams that represent the University of California, Los Angeles P. 30, ex. 4 1) early 2) workout 3) half hour 4) sometimes
5) let you 6) booked 7) attend 8) warn
9) fined 10) want/like 11) another 12) keep
On Your Own P. 32, ex. 3 Quiz 1) c; 2) d;
Module 3 Focus on Vocabulary P. 36, ex. 4 1) beat; 2) score/draw; 3) beat; 4) lost; 5) does; 6) player/golfer; 7) referee; 8) beat; 9) train; 10) give …up; 11) umpire/referee; 12) refereed; 13) by; 14) training; 15) took up, did; 16) training; 17) do; 18) umpired; 19) player; 20) broken; 21) defeated; 22) take up; 23) holds: 24) scored; 25) train. P. 36, ex. 5 a) a scout’s; b) a manager’s; c) a physiotherapist’s; d) a midfielder’s; e) a linesman’s; f) a groundsman’s; g) a commentator’s h) a substitute’s; i) a striker’s; j) a defender’s; k) a sponsor’s. P. 37, ex. 6 1) b early; 2) a still; 3) b account; 4) a held; 5) d popular; 6) c delivered; 7) b although; 8) d known; 9) c criticized; 10) a point; 11) c low; 12) d do; 13) a approach; 14) c fair; 15) b by; 16) b combined. 92
Focus on Reading and Speaking P. 38, ex. 4 1 – D; 2 – B; 3 – C; 4 – A; 5 – B; 6 – A; 7 – D P. 41, ex. 5 tendency – inclination in person – in the flesh hard – working – diligent
characteristic – distinctive secured – clinched nevertheless – all the same Module 4
Focus on Vocabulary P. 43, ex. 2 1. Stopwatch –all others are sports. 2. Fan – all others are part of the process and make decisions. 3. Jersey – all the others are played with. 4. Stands – all the others are people involved in sport. 5. Executive box – all the others are types of tennis surface. 6. Sprain – all the others are types of protective gear. P. 44, ex. 5 Analogies 1 – b, 2 – a, 3 – c, 4 – c, 5 – a, 6 – b, 7 – c, 8 – a, 9 – a, 10 – c. Module 5 Focus on Vocabulary P. 57, ex. 1 1. Parallel bars (параллельные брусья), club (клюшка), javelin (копьё), puck (шайба), hurdle (барьер), scoreboard (табло), goggles (защитные очки). 2. Болельщики (supporters), хоккей с шайбой (ice-hockey), выступать вне конкурса (participate hors concours), прыжки с шестом (pole-vault), бег с препятствиями (steeplechase), гребля (rowing). Focus on Reading and Speaking P. 66, ex. 3 (bandy) halves; players; pitch; sticks; goal; sticks; scoring a goal; goalkeeper; offside rule; scored; corner stroke; draw; goalkeepers; sticks; skates; five-minute penalty; ice-hockey rink P. 69, ex. 3 Pitcher, границы линии поля, wicket, подача, fielder, поле для игры в крикет, kit, рукавица в бейсболе, innings, перемещение игрока по полю с мячом, batsman, игрок в нападении («бьющий»), bowler, подача, to score runs. 93
Module 6 Focus on Vocabulary P. 76, ex. 1 3. Everyone thought the Germans would win that match with ease, but the Irish proved to be formidable opponents. 4. The last contestant failed to appear at the line-up, so the race started with seven runners instead of eight. 5. The two teams battled fiercely, and everyone agreed that it was a very even match. 6. Now that Fred is fully fit again, his coach has put him on an intensive training regime. 7. Our university team plays well in their own ground, but tends to lose most of their away matches. 8. Our team was narrowly defeated in the last Saturday’s match. 9. Martha was one of the favourites to win the tournament, but she was disappointingly knocked out in the qualifying round. 10. The young tennis player fought tooth and nail against the experienced title holder, but couldn’t manage to win. 11. Peter’s personal trainer has instructed him to do more weight-training. 12. The last time there was a capacity crowd in our ground was in last year’s semi-final. P. 77, ex. 2 1) of; 2) mean; 3) single; 4) get; 5) do; 6) more; 7) all; 8) what; 9) for; 10) than; 11) in; 12) much; 13) another; 14) about; 15) their; 16) tell. P. 78, ex. 3 1) gradually; 2) comfortable; 3) intensity; 4) protective; 5) preventive; 6) soaring; 7) motivation. P. 78, ex. 4 1. His dismal performance was put DOWN TO insufficient preparation. (attributed to) 2. The home team ran AWAY WITH the game, and won a decisive victory. (won easily) 3. To reach this level of performance it is necessary to put IN years of training. (spend time and effort) 4. The club has run INTO problems with finance over the past season. (met/encounted) 5. To help the club, the players offered to put UP the money for the new equipment themselves. (provide) 6. The manager wants to run OVER/THROUGH a few of the strategy points with the players. (repeat and check) 94
7. The Athletics Association’s expenses now run TO millions of pounds. (amount to) 8. If the team can put ON a good performance, more people will start attending matches. (produce, present) 9. After six full games in two weeks, the team began to tire and ran OUT of steam. (was exhausted) 10. The manager put the case FOR buying new players. (gave good arguments) Focus on Reading and Speaking P. 85, ex. 4 get their kicks – get a strong feeling of excitement or pleasure exhilaration – extreme excitement kite – a paper- or cloth-covered frame flown in the air at the end of a long string using the power of the wind motoring – moving surf – the foam formed by waves on the sea when they come in towards a shore an adrenalin rush – a strong feeling of excitement mixed with fear coastline – the shape of the land on the edge of the sea cove – a small sheltered opening in the coastline, a bay clamber – climb with difficulty, using both the feet and hands pounding – beating heavily hurtle – move very fast throw in – add ‘hook turn’ – a fast turn close to the ground used to land at high speed hooked on the buzz of the extreme – addicted to the excitement of doing extreme sports thrill seeking – looking for excitement bomb down – go down with great speed
ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ В ходе реализации компетентностного подходов к обучению иностранному языку представленное учебное пособие способствует развитию профессиональной иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции студентовбакалавров, будущих переводчиков, в процессе изучения темы «Спорт» на английском языке. При разработке системы упражнений и заданий данного учебного пособия авторы исходили из того, что необходимой предпосылкой для успешного овладения иноязычной речью как средством межкультурной коммуникации является одновременная специальная работа над всеми сторонами речевой деятельности, устной и письменной речью, а также аспектами языка. Задания и упражнения основаны на принципах интегрированного и дифференцированного обучения иностранному языку. В представленной системе заданий и упражнений была учтена специфика овладения иноязычной речью будущих переводчиков, необходимость постоянного переключения с одного языка на другой. Предложенная система упражнений и заданий данного учебного пособия учитывает также принципы последовательности использования языкового материала, речевой направленности и интерактивности. Автор надеется, что материал данного учебного пособия позволит обучающимся постепенно, поэтапно и эффективно овладеть иноязычными речевыми умениями и навыками, навыками перевода по теме «Спорт», что будет способствовать дальнейшему формированию профессиональной иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции студентов. Методические материалы данного учебного пособия могут быть также полезными будущим и практикующим учителям и преподавателям иностранного языка как с точки зрения развития профессионально значимых умений и навыков устной речи, так и с точки зрения их использования на уроках английского языка для развития иноязычных речевых умений и навыков обучающихся.
СПИСОК ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ И ИНТЕРНЕТ ИСТОЧНИКОВ 1. Sport. Пособие по развитию навыков устной речи / сост. Л.В. Белова, А.В. Копылов. Мурманск : МГПУ, 2004. 75 с. 2. Bob Obee, Virginia Evans. Upstream Upper Intermediate. Student’s Book. Express Publishing, 2010. – 264 p. 3. Fiona Scott-Barrett. New Proficiency Listening & Speaking. Longman, 2002. 96 p. 4. Hugh Dellar and Andrew Walkley. Innovations. Advanced. Coursebook. Thomas ELT, 2007. 180 p. 5. Michael McCarthy, Felicity O’Dell. English Vocabulary in Use. UpperIntermediate. Cambridge University Press, 2005. 309 p. 6. Sarah Cunningham, Peter Moor. Cutting Edge. Advanced. Student’s Book. Longman Pearson, 2005. 175 p. 7. Stephen Rabley. The Modern Issues SuperDossier. Phoenix ELT, 1997. 64 p. 8. Virgina Evans, Jenny Dooley. Upstream Proficiency. Student’s Book. Express Publishing, 2002. 276 p. 9. Virginia Evans-Lynda Edwards. Upstream Advanced C1. Student’s Book. Express Publishing, 2006. 264 p. 10. Virginia Evans-Lynda Edwards. Upstream Advanced. Workbook, 2006. 136 p. 11. BBC Leaning English [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/newsenglish/britain/extreme_sports.shtml (дата обращения: 11.10.2016). 12. British Council. LearnEnglish [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/britain-great/sport-great-part-1 (дата обращения: 01.10.2016). 13. British Council. LearnEnglish [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/britain-great/sport-great-part-2 (дата обращения: 22.09.2016). 14. British Council. LearnEnglish [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/word-street/extreme-sports (дата обращения: 05.11.2016). 15. Clearinghouse for Sport [Collaborate+Share+Learn+Innovvate] [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://www.clearinghouseforsport.gov.au/knowledge_base/sport_participation/Sport_a_new_fit/what_is_sport (дата обращения: 20.03.2016). 16. Clearinghouse for Sport [Collaborate+Share+Learn+Innovvate] [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://www.clearinghouseforsport.gov.au/knowledge_base/sport_participation/Sport_a_new_fit/what_is_sport (дата обращения: 28.09.2016). 17. Encyclopaedia Britannica [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://global.britannica.com/sports/baseball (дата обращения: 19.05.2016). 18. Encyclopaedia Britannica [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://global.britannica.com/sports/cricket-sport (дата обращения: 17.05.2016). 19. Forbes [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://www.forbes.com/2002/08/07/0807sport.html (дата обращения: 03.10.2016). 20. MemorySecrets.ru [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://www.memorysecrets.ru/ teksty-na-angliiskom-iazyke/plavanie-moe-khobbi-my-hobby-is-swimming.html (дата обращения: 13.01.2016). 21. Mirror [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://www.mirror.co.uk/sport/football/ news/20-biggest-sports-stadiums-world-6667275 (дата обращения: 20.09.2016).
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СОДЕРЖАНИЕ Предисловие ………………………………………………………………..……………………… 3 Module 1. Sports and Games………………………………………………………….………. 5 Module 2. Sport Facilities and Equipment……………………………………..………… 18 Module 3. Sports Personalities………………………………………………………….…….. 34 Module 4. Sporting Events…………………………………………………………..………… 43 Module 5. Sport in the UK, USA and Russia…..………………………………………... 57 Module 6. Sport and Health……………………………………………………….…………… 76 Appendix………………………………………………………………………….……………………. 89 Answer Key……………………………………………………………………………….…………… 90 Заключение ……………………………………………………………………………………………96 Список литературы и Интернет источников……………………..………………….. 97
Путистина Ольга Владимировна ALL ABOUT SPORT Учебное пособие
Подписано в печать 27.12.2017. Формат 60×90/16. Усл. печ. л. 6,25. Тираж 300 экз. Отпечатано в редакционно-издательском отделе (РИО) МАГУ. Мурманский арктический государственный университет. 183038, г. Мурманск, ул. Капитана Егорова, 15. 100