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!I

1

A LA

2

THE AUXILIARY CAVALRY UNITS OF THE PREDIOCLETIANIC IMPERIAL ROMAN ARMY.

by JOHN E. H. SPAUL

A REVISION and UPDATING of the ARTICLE written by CONRAD CICHORIUS and originally published in part 1 of Band 1 of REALENCYCLOPADIE DER CLASSICHEN ALTERTUMSWISSENSCHAFT 1893

"A subject of some interest and importance to all students of the Roman Empire." G.Leonard Cheesman, 1914.

NECTORECA PRESS

I· t

CONTENTS

First published in Great Britain 1994 by

INTRODUCTION

NECTORECA PRESS

CONRAD CICHORIUS 'ALA'

57 Charlton Road, Andover, SPlO 3JY

General Remarks and assumptions Check List of units

©

7 8

10 12

J.E.H.Spaul

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

ISBN O9525062 0 3

Set in Palatino lOpt. and printed and bound by MIDAS xpress, 37 Invincible Road, Farnborough

EVIDENCE for UNITS Early Alae 1-86 Suspect and Problem alae

243

SUMMARY and ANALYSIS

257

INDICES Names of commanding officers, junior officers, troopers, and ex-troopers of the cavalry units. Other names and names of fathers. Origins and non-Roman tribes. Gods and Goddesses named on altars and votive stones. Find-spots of inscriptions of officers and men.

269 294 305 310 315

19 22

CONRAD CICHORIUS The first comprehensive account of the cavalry units of the Roman Imperial army and the initial point of reference for further study was published in part 1 of volume 1 of Realencyclopiidie der Classischen Altertumswissensc1iaft in 1893. Compiled by Conrad Cichorius, it was based on the inscriptions collected in Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, and the work of earlier scholars, notably Theodor Mommsen. Writing in Ri:imische Geschic11te und deutsche Gescltichtswissenschaft (Munich, 1982) Karl Christ described Conrad Cichorius (1863-1932) as 'one of the most cultivated, and doubtless the most modest also of Mommsen's pupils, prominent neither through participation in great scholarly enterprises nor through works aimed at the wider public. He worked quietly and remains known basically through his late collection Ri:imische Studien (Koln, 1922) which is probably more familiar to classicists than to ancient historians. 'Cichorius,

in his own foreword to his belief that "there are no barriers to the science of ancient history vis-a-vis the neighbouring science of classical philology - nor should there be; rather as Theodor Mommsen expected of us, his pupils, the ancient historian must be at home in both areas." Cichorius certainly proved this in his own case, for he mastered the technique of the Riimische Studie11, affirmed

philologist no less than that of the epigraphist and archaeologist. Thus he was able to enlarge on the famous Lucilius edition of his colleague and friend, Friedrich Marx, with his own primarily historical Untersuchungen zu Lucilius (1908), to present cameos of historical-philological interpretation in his subtle studies of Roman religion, of Varro, and of Crinagoras, to evaluate both Die Ri:imischen Denkmiiler in der Dobrudscha (1904) and Die Reliefs der Trajansaule (1896-1900), and also to illuminate the relationship between Rome and Mytilene and the social structure of the latter in his 1888 Habilitationschrift Rom 1md Mytilene. 'Horst Brauner! rightly pointed out that the application of prosopography and socio-historical research were, in Cichorius' case, always present and fruitful, even if they never found expression in a major, systematic work. Stimulating suggestions of a sociohistorical type have arisen from his work, as, for example, the realisation that there was a social stratum of honoratiores and literati from the eastern part of the empire whose members not infrequently rose to become 'amid Caesaris'. But Cichorius was far too much a historian, a philologist and an ,irchaeologist to be fitted into only one category. Methodologically, completely undogmatic and open, he always let the concrete task determine the method.' (translation by AR.Birley)

INTRODUCTION 'ALA' Because in the hu~dred ye~rs sinc Cic~orius' article on the 'ala', more inscriptions have been found, 7 th~ purpose o~ ~his study 1s t_obr,~g his ac~oun~ up to date. It will not be as comprehensive as it rmght be, but 1t 1s hoped tha! 11fulfils the twm cntena of openness and undogmatic method, and will reflect most of the work which has been published in the century since. 4. a provincial name usually for use outside the province to distinguish units with a common ethnic name or other title: Britannica,

The ala was according to Cichorius a regular, independent, tactical formation of the Imperial army in use from the Augustan times until the Notitia Dignitatum. In contrast to the equites legiones, alae were made up of auxiliaries, in recruitment, length of service, discharge and equipment. The nomenclature of the ala was extraordinary and various and for that reason the identification of a single unit was often very difficult. On the one hand, units with the same name served in different provinces; on the other hand some units bore several names and were identifiable now by one and now by another. Where several units were raised from the same tribe, they were numbered consecutively, though there are five alae l Thracum, one ala ll Thracum and one ala Ill

Gallica, Macedonica, Moesica, Numidica, Mauretana; Auriana, Provincialis, Sebastena, Veterana, Xoitana are topographic names which

are also used by some units. 5. a name indicating seniority such as veterana, tironum may be found to mark the difference between two similarly named units; 6. names for armament or equipment distinguish some units such as catafractaria, contariorum, dromedariorum, miniata, sagittariorum; tactical names are often added: miliaria (quingenaria is rarely used), gemina for amalgamated, nova for reorganised, firma for armoured units; praetoria for a unit formed from or acting as Imperial guards; singularium for units from provincial guards; exploratorum for scouts; miscellanea for a unit which

Thracum.

The names used by the units can be divided into eight groups; 1. Imperial names: Augusta, Claudia, Sulpicia,

absorbed troopers from disbanded units; 7. honorary titles awarded for bravery or loyalty include armillata, civium Rornanorum,

Flavia, Vespasiana, Domitiana, Nerviana, Ulpia, Septimia, usually precede tribal names and

felix, invicta, ob virtutem, pia fidelis, torquata, victrix, vindex;

were awarded for various reasons, in much the same way as the legions were given names; 2. names of tribal or ethnic groups from whom the unit was raised, usually the dominant name: Afrorum, Araborum, Arvacorum, Asturum,

8. loyalty affirmations to Third Century Emperors usually follow the basic names: Anloniniana, Severiana, Alexandriana, Pupiena, Balbina, Gordiana, Phillipiana, Deciana, Volusiana, Galliena, Claudiana, Postumiana. Valeriana Tetriciana, Aureliana, Probiana are not ye;

Batavorum, Bosporanorum, Brittonum, Campagonum, Cannanefatium, Commagenorum, Dacorum, Dardanorum, Gaetulorum, Ga/lorum, Ham_iorum,Hispanorum, Illyricorum, lturaeorum, Noricorum, Palmyrenorum, Pannoniorum, Parthorum, Phrygum, Sarmatarum, Scubulorum, Syrorum, Thracum, Tungrorum, Vettonum, Vocontiorum, and for citizen formations, civium Romanorum, colonorum; 3. a personal name in an adjectival form and

recorded on inscriptions of the cavalry units. Conrad Cichorius' article was the forerunner of many others. G. Leonard Cheesman produced a general account of The Auxilia of the Roman Imperial Anny (Oxford, 1914) which dealt with both cavalry and infantry. Paul Holder commented on First Century inscriptions for

often with an ethnic name is found in some unit_s: . Agrippiana, Apriana; Atectorigiana,

Studies in the Auxilia from Augustus to Trajan, BA.R.S-70, (Oxford,1980) and Denis

Capilon,ana, Classiana, Flaviana, Frontoniana Gemelliana, Germaniciana, Herculiana Indiana' Longiniana, Petriana, Picentiana, P;oculeiana' Sabiniana, Sebosiana, Siliana, Tampiana, Tauriana'.

Saddington

Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, (Harare, 1982).

are names probably derived from one of the early ~ommanders; sometimes the personal name m the genitive case, as Patrui, Paullini, Pomponiani, Rusonis, Scaeva points to an officer with that name being in command at that time;

Parts of this vast topic, some of which were indicated by Cichorius, have been studied separately. The command structure of the ala the officers and their ranks, was briefly set ou; by IJavid Breeze in "The Organisation ot the

8

used the literary texts in The

Cavalry Saddle" in Britannia XXII (1991). Details of the Newstead curb and snaffle can be found in Ann Hyland's book, noted above. A new Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies (Volume 1, 1990; 2,1991) contains studies of individual pieces of equipment. John W.Eadie discussed "The Development of the Roman mailed cavalry"', in the Journal of Roman Studies 57, (London 1967) 161-73 while Colin Wells asked "Where did they put the horses? Cavalry stables in the Early Empire", in Akten des XI Internationalen Limeskongresses, (1976), 609ff. Other accounts of the Limeskongresse contain useful information about the Roman army and its auxiliaries.

career structure of the Immunes and the Principales of the Roman Army", Bonner Jahrbucher 174, 245-92. Using the rosters from Dura Europos, Robert Fink discussed the ways in which centuries were indicated in "Centuria Rufi, Centuria Rufiana and the ranking of of the American centuries", Transactions Philological Association, 84 (1953) 210-215, and demonstrated that the genitive form preceded the adjectival, a principle which applies also to auxiliary units. In "How Big was the Roman Imperial Army?" K!io 62 (1980) 2, 451-60, Ramsay Macmullen attempted to calculat the total strength. Publications dealing with the cavalry include The Roman Cavalry, (Batsford, London, 1992), by Karen Dixon and Pat Southern, a general account of the organisation, equipment and training, the horses and stabling from the First to Third centuries. An earlier account, Ann Hyland's Equus: The Horse in the Roman World, (Batsford, London,1990) dealt with the types of horses used, their breeding, training, equipment and use in circus transport and daily life, and she followed it with Training the Roman cavalry, (Alan Sutton, 1993) in which she used a new translation of Arrian's Second Century AD military manual, Ars Tactica, to analyse and describe in detail Roman cavalry training, manoeuvres, tack, equipment, units and weaponry theoretically as well as in practice. Parallel experiments were reported by Marcus Junkelmann in Romische Kavallerie - Equites Alae, (Stuttgart, 1989), on the life, equipment, weapons and horses of the troopers of the curiously named modern Ala II Flavia pia fidelis Domitiana.

Rene Cagnat initiated a study of provincial armies with L"armee romaine d'Afrique et l'occupation militaire de /'Afrique sous les Empereurs" (Paris, 1913) and Jean Lesquier followed with l.'armee romaine d'Egypte (Paris 1918) and Ernst Stl'in with Die kaiserlichen Beamten und Truppenkorper im romischen Deutsch/and unter dem Prinzipat, (Vienna,

1932). These pioneers were followed by Geza Alfoldy, for Dalmatia in "Die Auxiliartruppen der 14 Provinz Dalmatia", AArchA.S.Hungarica, (1962) 259-296, and for Gerrnania in Die Hilfstruppen in der romischen Provin:z: Germania Inferior, Epigraphische Studien 6, (Dusseldorf,

1968), which covered some of the ground of Ernst Stein's work. Jose Manuel Roldan Hervas studied the part played by Spaniards in Hispania y el ejercito Romano, (Salamanca, 1974), as did Patrick Le Roux, L'armee romaine et

l'organisation

des

provinces

Iberiques,

(Paris, 1982). For North Africa, Nacera Benseddik listed Les troupes auxiliaires de I' armee romaine en Mauretanie Cesarienne sous le haut-empire, (Alger, 1984), and Yann Le Bohec did the same for Numidia and Africa Proconsularis in Les unites auxiliaires de l'armee Romaine en Afrique Proconsularis et en Numidie sous le Haut-Empire, (Paris, 1989).

In 1968, Roy W.Davies discussed "The training grounds of Roman Cavalry" in Archaeological Journal CXXV, 731-100, and "The Supply of Animals to the Roman Army and the Remount System" in Latomus, 28 (1969) 2. Interest in equipment and methods, stimulated by re-enactment societies, has produced many new studies, notably Cavalry Equipment of the Roman Army in the First Century by Michael C.Bishop, (B.A.R.lnt.384 (1988)) though earlier, Peter Connolly had drawn and discussed The Roman Saddle, BA.R.Int.336 (1987) at length. C.van Oriel-Murray described The Vindolanda

Michael Speidel described "The Roman Army in Arabia", ANRW II, 8, and Robert Sherk dealt with Anatolia in "The 'inermes provinciae' of Asia Minor", Am,·Yican Journal of Philology 76 (Baltimore, 1955) .ind Greece in "Roman Imperial Troops in Macedonia & Achaia", American Journal of Philology, 78 (1957) while "Thracian units in the Roman

Chamfrons and Miscellaneous Items of Leather Horse Gear, B.A.R.Int.476 (1989) and with

Peter Connolly the vital topic of the "Roman

9

7

ALA' Army" were listed by Michael G. Jarrett in

INTRODUCTION Barnabas Lorincz listed the units of the Army of Pannonia and with Denes Gabler, described the forts. Michael Jarret's "Non-legionary Troops in Roman Britain: Part One, The Units Britannia XXV (1994) and David Breeze's study of the strategic dispositiosns of the cavalry in UCL Institute of Archaeology 29 (1994)completes the survey of provincial armies.

Israel Exploration Journal XIX, (Jerusalem 1969). On the location of units along the Danube, the earliest was Walter Wagner's Die Dislokation

der romischen Auxiliarformationen in den Provinzen Noricum, Pannonien, Moesien und Dakien (Berlin, 1938). A later account was provided by Gerhard Winkler in Die Reichs beamten von Noricum und ihr Personal (Wien-Koln-Graz, 1969), and later still, in .Andras M6csy and Jeno Fitz (eds.): Pannonia rigiszeti kizikonyve, (Budapest 1990),

Meanwhile D.J.Knight has made a start on tracing " The Movements of the Auxilia from Augustus to Hadrian" in Zeitschrift fur

Papyrologie und Epigraphik 82.

Publications dealing with various aspects of the auxilia have been collected in a series edited by Michael Speidel: ·1. Roman Army Studies 1, Michael Speidel, (Amsterdam 1984) 2. Roman Army Papers, J.F.Gilliam, (Amsterdam 1986) 3. Geschichte des romischen Heeres, Geza Alftildy, (Amsterdam 1987) 4. Roman Army Papers, Eric Birley, (Amsterdam 1988) 6. Equestrian Officers of the Roman Army I, Hubert Devijver, (Amsterdam 1989) 5. Esercito e marina di Roma Antica, Giovanni Forni, (Stuttgart, 1992) 7. Pannonien und das romische Heer, Andras M6csy, (Stuttgart, 1992) 8. Roman Anny Papers 2, Michael Speidel, (Stuttgart, 1992) 9. Equestrian Officers of the Roman Army 2, Hubert Devijver, (Stuttgart 1992) 10. Roman Officers and Frontiers, David J. Breeze and Brian Dobson, (Stuttgart, 1993) GENERAL REMARKS and ASSUMITIONS The lists which follow contain the basic details positlon of the unit in the list of cavalry. The of the auxiliary cavalry units of the Roman name of the unit on an altar, votive stone or Army between 31 B.C. and the army reforms other public memorial is followed by the of c.A.D.300. A check-list enables the user to dedicatee or honorand, in II and tombstones find a particular unit among the distinctive are likewise differenced by the case of the names listed in alphabetical order. deceased's name, and the formula used in [). Altars may not attest a unit's presence, and Each entry lists the known inscriptions which though building dedications may not prove the relate to the name of that unit, followed by the activities of the troopers, they do indicate the names of its officers and men. The title of each presence of a unit. Tombstones of serving unit is given in its fullest form with all the soldiers are more likely to indicate the garrison ethnic, imperial and honorary names and titles, station than are the tombstones of veterans. except loyalty affirmations, even though not all The findspots of diplomas have been omitted of them were used at the same time. This is since these do not have any bearing on the followed by instances of the name in upper service record of the unit, though they do case letters as it occurs in descending order of reflect sometimes the origin or career of the authority; first, in Imperial documents, soldier. The name of the unit taken from a diplomas, rescripts, speeches; then in official diploma is usually that on the external face; documents prepared for the unit, religious but it may be a conflated name using both dedications, Imperial dedications, building faces. The named personnel are given with records, muster rolls and lead seals; private such details as their filiations, tribe, origin, documents, 'ex voto' tablets, patronal or length of life (v. ) and of service (m. ). Dates personal dedications, and tombstones follow where known are given in numerals, day and finally literary sources, all instances (arabic) - month (romanl - year (arabic). reduced to the nominative case, and with Summaries of articles an' 1-:1vcn In a separate missing letters indicated by -. The numerals section in chronological order. My comments against each entry on a diploma indicate the and concordances and notes have been added.

10

Abbreviated references to the major printed sources are: CIL = Corpus lnscriptionum latinarum EE = Ephemeris Epigraphica AE = L' Annee Epigraphique ILS = lnscriptiones latinae Selectae - Hermann Dessau, Berlin (1892-1900) RIB = Roman Inscriptions of Britain I, - RG.Collingwood and R.P.Wright, Oxford, (1965) . IAM2 = Inscriptions Antiques du Maroc, tome 2, inscriptions latines, -ed. Jacques Gascou, Pans, (1984) and to frequently quoted works of reference are: PME = Prosopographia Militiae Equestrium quae sunt ab Augusto ad Gallienum - Hubert Devijver, Leuven (1976-87) Realencyclopadie =A.F.von Pauly- G.Wissowa: Realencyclopadie der klassischen Altumswissenschaft, Berlin (1893 I have assumed: 1. a unit's name is a question of usage; most units have a formal and an informal name; 2. the official name of a unit will be used on a diploma, an altar or on a building inscription; 3. an informal version of the name is frequently used on personal inscriptions; 4. units are quingenary unless known to be milliary; 5. an ethnic title reflects the original recruiting ground of the unit; 6. units using the title Augusta were raised by Augustus; those using the title Flavia were raised or upgraded by Vespasian or his sons; similarly the title Ulpia shows the unit was raised or upgraded by Trajan; 7. units using a name in the genitive case were commanded at the time by a man of that name; using the adjectival form were once commanded by a man of that name; units in these categories were probably recruited from Gaul; 8. units using the title 'veterana' other than as a geographical identification, probably used it to distinguish themselves from another unit of the same ethnic origin and name (Cichorius followed by Cheesman), and were not formed as units of recalled veterans (Domaszewski); 9. a man having three names is a Roman citizen; a peregrine has one name and his father's name: 10. a citizen uses a town name for his 'origo'; a peregrine names a province or tribe; a gaul prefers to give his tribe or civitas; 11. the outer face of a diploma is more trustworthy than the inner; 12. unit names on a diploma are usually correct (except as in 11 above) any discrepancies will be found on the internal face;

13. the earliest tombstones use the name of the deceased in the nominative; 14. later tombstones, still of the First Century, use the dative case for the name of the deceased; 15. the fashion of using the abbreviation D.M. (an invocation to the shades) begins around the end of the First Century; 16. the fashion of using D.M. precedes the fashion prevalent in Africa of using D.M.S on tombstones; 17. the findspot of an official inscription indicates that the unit was stationed there at the time; 18. the findspot of the epitaph of a serving soldier usually indicates the unit's station, unless that soldier was (a) on leave, (b) on detached duty; 19. the findspot of a diploma like that of a veteran's tombstone, indicates the retirement home unless the metal was about to be recycled; 20. a numeral following an ethnic name suggests an early inscription. 21. the summaries of the comments of scholars represent a personal choice and should not be regarded as either exhaustive or complete; 22. the summaries and references have been given in chronological order, so that the development of ideas may be perceived; 23. for the provinces of Britannia and Mauretania Tingitana, references have been given to RIB and IAM2 rather than to CIL; 24. references under 'CONCORDANCES' are intended to help and are not intended to be complete and exhaustive; 25. modern names in preference to contemporary names have been used to indicate findspots of inscriptions.

11

ALA'

CHECK-LIST Germania, Pannonia Superior, Dacia Superior

CHECK-LIST of the PRE-DIOCLETIANIC CAVALRY UNITS of the IMPERIAL ROMAN ARMY. [Entries point to distinctive names in upper-case in alphabetical order, with the provinces in which each unit served, and the page numbering; lower-case entries invite attention to the upper-case entry.)

18.

No. 1.

19.

5.

Names AFRORVM - AFRORVM Veterana Afrorum - II Ulpia Afrorum - see suspect units 1. AGRIPPIANA - II Flauia AGRIPPIANA Miniata, Allactica - see Galactica ANTIANA - Gallorum et Thracum ANTIANA Sagittaria Antiochensium - see Antiana (3) Antoniniana - see suspect units 2. APRIANA Provincialis Arabacorum - see II Hispanorum Aravacorum (6) Araborum - see Parthorum et Araborum (61) ARVACORUM - I Hispanorum ARAVACORVM

6.

ARVACORUM - II Hispanorum ARAVACORVM

2.

3.

4.

Provinces page Germania, Germania Inferior 22 Germania,Britannia, Syria

24

20.

Syria, Syria Palaestina

27

21. 22.

Aegyptus

29 23. 24.

Pannonia, Pannonia Superior

31 34

8. 9. 10.

Pannonia, Moesia Inferior Armeniaca - II Armeniaca - see suspect units 3 armillata - Siliana bis torquata bis armillata ciuium Romanorum (71) ASTVRVM - I ASTVRVM Moesia Inferior, Dacia ASTVRVM - Praetoria I Hispanorum ASTVRM Britannia Pannonia, Britannia ASTVRVM - II ASTVRVM ASTVRVM - III ASTVRVM pia fidelis ciuiurn Romanorurn

11.

ATECTOR!GIANA - I Gallorurn ATECTORIGIANA,

Hispania, Mauretania Tingitana

45

12.

Dalmatia, Moesia Inferior A VGVSTA Aegyptus Augusta Britannica - Flauia Domitiana Augusta Britannica milliaria ciuium Rornanorurn AVGVSTA Gallorurn ciuiurn Rornanorurn Hispania, Mauretania Tingitana Augusta Gallorurn Petriana bis torquata milliaria ciuiurn Romanorum (62) A VGVSTA Gallorum PROCULEIANA ob uirtutem appellata Britannia Augusta Gemina Colonorum (28) Augusta Germaniciana (46) Augusta Ituraeorurn sagittariorum (53) Augusta (Moesica) - see suspect units 4 Augusta Moesica - see Moesica felix torquata (57) Augusta Nerviana - I Neruiana Augusta fidelis milliaria (55) Augusta (Noricum) - see I Augusta Thracurn (82) Augusta Parthorurn et Araborurn (61) Augusta Syriaca - see Augusta Germaniciana (46) Augusta Vocontiorum ciuium Rornanorum(86) Augusta - I Thracum Augusta'(81) Augusta - II Thracurn Augusta (82) Augusta - III Augusta Thracum sagittariorurn (83) AVRIANA - I His~anorurn AVRIANA Pannonia, Noricum,Raetia C d · 5 · AVRIANA - II Vlp1a AURIANA BATAVORVM - I BATAVORVM Milliaria ciuiurn Rornanorum Pia Fid:irr ooa, yna Germania, Pannonia Superior. D11riaSupertor

48

7.

13. 14.

15. 16. 17.

12

62

1:,, ,1rrnillata - Siliana bis torquata bis arrnillata ciuium Rornanorum (71) 11" torquata - I Flavia Dornitiana Britannica rnilliaria bis torquata ob uirtutem (19) Iii, torquata - Gallorurn et Thracurn Classiana ciuium Romanorurn inuicta

37 39 42 25.

50 52 55

26.

27. 58 61

28.

62

29.

bis Bis torquata Bis torquata BOSPORANORVM -

torquata (26) . - Gallorum PE'triana milliaria civum Romanorum bis torquata (62) - Siliana bis torquata bis armillata civium Romanorum (71) I BOSPORANORVM Syria, Pannonia Superior, Moesia, Dacia Superior . . . . . Brauconum - see suspect units 5. BRITANNICA - I Flauia Domitiana Augusta BRITANNICA milhana cmmm Romanorum bis torquata ob uirtutem . . . Germania, Britannia, Italia, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Dacia, Pannoma Inferior, Syna BRITTONVM Veterana ciuium Romanorum Pannonia Inferior Caesariensium - see suspect units 6 - see Ala Sebastena (69) CAMPAGONVM -1 Hispanorum CAMPAGONVM Miliaria Pannonia, Dacia Inferior, Dacia Superior CANNENEFATIVM - I CANNENEFATIVM ciuium Romanorum Germania Inferior, Germania Superior, Pannonia Superior CAPITONIANA - I Claudia Gallorum CAPITONIANA Germania, Moesia Inferior, Dacia, Dacia Inferior CATAFRACTARIA - Gallorum et Pannoniorum CATAFRACTARIA - Ala noua firma miliaria CATAFRACTARIA Moesia Inferior, Dacia Porolissensis CELERVM - see suspect units 7. Ciuium Rornanorurn - Ill Asturum pia fidelis ciuium Romanorum (10) Ciuium Rornanorum - Augusta Gallorurn ciuiurn Romanorurn (13) Ciuium Rornanorurn - Flauia Dornitiana Britannica milliaria ciuium Romanorurn torquata ob uirtutem (19) Ciuium Romanorum - I Brittonum ueterana ciuium Romanorurn (20) Ciuium Romanorum - I Cannenefatium ciuium Romanorum (22) CIVIVM ROMANORVM - I Flauia CIVIVM ROMANORVM Pannonia, Dacia Superior, Pannonia Inferior, Syria Civium Romanorum - Gallorum et Thracum Classiana invicta bis torquata civium Romanorurn (26) Civium Romanorum - I Ulpia Contariorum milliaria civium Rornanorurn (31) Civiurn Rornanorum - Gemelliana civiurn Rornanorum (43) Civiurn Romanorum - II Flavia Hispanorurn civiurn Romanorurn (50) Civium Romanorurn - Gallorum Petriana rnilliaria civiurn Romanorurn bis torquata (62) Civium Romanorurn - I Praetoria civium Rornanorum (65) Civiurn Romanorum - Siliana torquata civium Romanorurn (71) Civium Romanorum - I Flavia Singularium civiurn Rornanorum (72) Civiurn Romanorum - Sulpicia civiurn Rornanorurn (74) Civiurn Romanorum - II Septirnia Syrorurn civium Romanorum (75) Civium Rom,anorum - Gallorurn Tauriana torquata victrix civium Rornanorurn (77) Civium Romanorum - Hispanorurn Vettonum civium Romanorum (84) Civiurn Rornanorum - Augusta Vocontiorurn Civium Romanorum (86) CLASSIANA - Gallorurn et Thracurn CLASSIANA civium Romanorum invicta bis torquata Britannia Claudia miliaria - see suspect units 8. Claudia - I Claudla Gallorum Capitoniana (23) CLA VDIA - I CLA VDIA nova miscellanea Dalrnatia, Gerrnania, Moesia, Moesia Superior COLONORVM - I Augusta gemina COLONORVM Judaea, Cappadocia COMMAGENORVM - I COMMAGENORVM Aegyptus, Noricum

13

65

68 72

74 77

80 82

85

87

89 92 94

ALA 2

CHECK-LIST

31.

CONTARIORVM - I Ulpia CONTARIORVM Milliaria civium Romanorum Pannonia Superior, Syria 32. DACORVM - I Ulpia DACORVM Cappadocia 33. DARDANORVM -I Vespasiana DARDANORUM Moesia Inferior Domitiana - Flavia Domitiana Britannica milliaria (19) 34. DROMEDARIORVM - I Ulpia DROMEDARIORVM Milliaria Palmyrenorum Syria, Arabia Electorum - see Illyricorum (51) 35. EXPLORATORVM POMARIENSIUM Mauretania Caesariensis felix - Moesica felix torquata (57) Fida Vindex - see suspect units 9. fidelis - III Asturum pia fidelis civium Romanorum (10) fidelis - II Flavia pia fidelis (37) fidelis - I Hispanorum pia fidelis (49) fidelis - I Nerviana Augusta fidelis Milliaria (56) fidelis - I Flavia Singularium pia fidelis civium Romanorum (72) fidelis - II Thracum Augusta pia fidelis (83) firma - nova firma miliaria Catafractaria (24) 36. FLAVIA - I FLAVIA Numidica Africa, Numidia Flauia - I Flauia Augusta Britannica (19) Flauia - I Flauia Ciuium Romanorum (25) Flauia - I Flauia Gaetulorum (40) Flauia - I Flauia Gemelliana (44) Flauia - I Flauia Gemina, (Fidelis), (Fida Vindex) (45) Flauia - II Flauia Agrippiana (2) Flauia - II Flauia Gemina - see II Flauia pia fidelis milliaria (37) Flauia - II Flauia Hispanorum (50) 37. FLAVIA - II FLAVIA Pia Fidelis Milliaria Syria, Raetia 38. FLAVIANA Gallorum Moesia Inferior, Moesia Superior 39. FRONTONIANA - I TVNGRORVM FRONTONIANA (Germania, Pannonia, Pannonia Inferior /Britannia), Dacia Porolissensis 40. GAETVLORVM - I Flauia GAETULORUM Veterana Iudaea, Moesia Inferior, Pannonia Inferior, Arabia GALACTICA - see suspect units 10. 41. GALLICA - ueterana GALLICA Syria, Aegyptus Gallorum - I Claudia Gallorum Capitoniana (23) Gallorum - Flauiana Gallorum (38) Gallorum et Pannoniorum Catafracta (24) Gallorum et Thracum Antiana sagittaria (4) Gallorum et Thracum Classiana ciuium Romanorum (26) Gallorum et Thracum Constantium (30) Gallorum Indiana (52) Gallorum Petriana milliaria ciuium Romanorum bis torquata (62) Gallorum Picentiana (64) Gallorum Sebosiana (70) Gallorum Tauriana torquata uictrix ciuium Romanorum (77) Gallorum - I Gallorum-et Bosporanorum (18) Gallorum - II Gallorum et Pannoniorum - see Catafractaria (24) 42. II GALLORVM Cappadocia 43. GEMELLIANA Mauretania Tingitana 44. GEMELLIANA - Flauia GEMELLIANA Germania, Raetia 45. GEMINA - I Flauia GEMINA Germania, Germ,rni., Superior Gemina - Augusta Gemina Colonorum (28) Gemina - II Flauia GEMINA pia fidelis (Germania) - II FLAVIA pia fidcli, milliaria (37) Gemina - Pia Gemina Sebastena (69)

14

GERMANICIANA - Augusta GERMANICIANA alias Praetoria Singuiarium alias Augusta Syriaca Cappadocia, Syria Gigurrorum - see Ala Claudia Gallorum and_suspect units 9 . . . Harniorvm - I HAMIORVM Syrorum Sagittanorum Mauretan1a Tmg1tana 47. HERCULIANA - Thracum HERCULIANA Macedonia, Syria, Aegyptus 48. Hispanorum - see suspect units 13. Hispanorum tironum - see Early units 5 Hispanorum veterana - see Early units 4 Dacia Inferior, Dacia Superior HISP ANORVM - I HISP ANORVM pia fidelis 49. Hispanorum - I Hispanorum Arauacorum (5) Hispanorum - II Hispanorum Arauacorum (6) Hispanorum - Praetoria I Hispanorum Asturum (8) Hispanorum - I Hispanorum Auriana (15) Hispanorum - II Hispanorum - see suspect units 14. so. HISPANORVM - II HISPANORVM - II Flauia HISPANORVM ciuium Romanorum Hispania ILLYRICORVM - I noua ILLYRICORVM Dacia 51. INDIANA - Gallorum INDIANA Germania, Britannia, Germania Superior 52. inuicta - Gallorum et Thracum Oassiana ciuium Romanorum inuicta bis torquata (26) 53. ITVRAEORVM - I Augusta ITVRAEORVM sagittariorum Pannonia, Dacia, Pannonia Inferior Latobicorum - see suspect units 15 - see Batauorum (17) Lemauorum - see suspect units 16. Germania 54. LONGINIANA Macedonica - see Herculiana (48) 55. MAVRET ANA - I Thracum MA VRETAN A Mauretania Caesariensis, Judaea, Aegyptus Mauretana Tibicensium - see suspect units 21. MILLIARIA (Caesaricnsis) - I Neruiana Augusta fidelis MILLIARIA 56. Mauretania Caesariensis Milliaria (Dacia Superior) - I Batauorum milliaria (17) Milliaria (Dacia) - Hispanorum Campagonum milliaria (21) Milliaria (Dacia) - noua firma miliaria Catafractaria (24) Milliaria (Pannonia Inferior) - I Flauia Domitiana Britannica milliaria bis torquata ob uirtutem (19) Milliaria (Raetia) - II Flauia pia fidelis milliaria (37) Milliaria (Syria) - II Flauia pia fidelis milliaria (37) Milliaria (Syria) - I VIpia Dromedariorum milliaria Palmyrenorum (34) Milliaria (Tingitana) - II Septimia Syrorum milliaria ciuium Romanorum (75) miniata - I Agrippiana miniata (2) 57. MOESICA Felix Torquata Germania Inferior Neruiana Augusta fidelis Milliaria (56) NORICORVM Germania Inferior 58. noua - noua firma milliaria Catafractaria (24) noua - I noua lllyricorum (51) Numidica - Augusta Numidica - see suspect units 17 Numidica - I Flauia Numidica (36) ob uirtutem - Augusta Britannica (19) ob uirtutem appellata - Augusta Proculeiana (14) Palmyrenorum - see Dromedariorum (34) Pannoniorum - Gallorum et Pannoniorum Catafracta (24) 59. PANNONIORVM - I PANNONIORVM Pannonia, Moesia, Numidia Pannoniorum - I Pannoniorum Sabiniana (66) Pannoniorum - I Pannoniorum Tampiana Victrix (76) 60. PANNONIORVM - II PANNONIORVM ueterana 46.

97 101 102

104 106

107

111 115 117 124 126

130 131

133 135

15

137

140 142 19 19 144

147 150 152

154

156

158

160

163 165

167

I

CHECK-LIST

ALA2

61.

62. 63.

64. 65.

66.

67. 68.

69. 70. 71. 72.

73. 74.

75. 76. 77.

Syria, Moesia Superior, Dacia Pansia - see suspect units 14 PARTHORVM - Augusta PARTHORVM ET ARABORVM Sagittaria Dalmatia, Germania, Mauretania Caesariensis PATRY! - Early units 1. Paullini - see Augusta (12) , PETRIANA - Gallorum PEmANA Milliaria ciuium Romanorum bis torquata Germania Inferior, Germania Superior, Britannia PHRYGVM - VII PHRYGVM Syria Palaestina pia - III Asturum pia fidelis ciuium Romanorum (10) pia - II Flauia pia fidelis (37) pia - I Hispanorum pia fidelis (49) pia - Pia Gernina Sebastena (69) pia - I Flauia Singularium pia fidelis ciuium Romanorum (72) pia - II Thracum Augusta pia fidelis (83) PICENTIANA- Gallorum PICENTIANA Germania, Britannia Pomponiana - see Petriana (62) PRAETORIA - I PRAETORIA ciuium Romanorum Pannonia, Moesia Superior, Pannonia Inferior Praetoria I Hispanorum Asturum (8) Praetoria Singularium, alias Augusta Syriaca - Augusta Gerrnaniciana (46) Proculeiana - Augusta Proculeiana (14) Quingenaria - see suspect units 18. RVSONIS - Early units 2. SABINIANA - I Pannoniorurn SABINIANA Britannia Sag!ttar!a - Gallorum et Thracum Antiana Sagittaria (4) Saglttana - Augusta Parthorum Sagittaria (61) Sagittariorum - I Hamiorum Syrorum Sagittariorum (47) Sagittariorum - I Augusta lturaeorum sagittariorum (53) Sagittariorum - I Thracurn Veterana sagittariorum (79) Sagittariorum - III Augusta Thracum sagittariorum (83) SARMATARVM Britannia SCAEVAE - Early units 3. SCVBVLORVM Moesia, Germania, Germania Superior SEBASTENA - Pia Gemina SEBASTENA Judaea, Mauretania Caesariensis SEBOSIANA- Gallorum SEBOSIANA Britannia Septimia -II Septimia Syrorum miliaria ciuium Romanorum (76) SILIANA bis torquata bis armillata ciuium Romanorurn Africa, Italia, Germania Inferior, Pannonia, Pannonia Inferior, Dacia Porolissensis SINGVLARIVM - I Flauia SINGULARIVM pia fidelis ciuium Romanorum . . . . . . Germania Inferior, Germania Superior, Raetia Smgulanum • Praetona Smgulanum ahas Augusta Syriaca - Augusta Gerrnaniciana (46) SINGVLARIVM - I Vlpia SINGVLARIVM Syria Singularium - II Flauia Singularium - see suspect units 19 SVLPICIA ciuium Romanorum Germania Syriaca - Augusta Germaniciana (46) - (see suspect units 20) Syrorum - I Harniorum·Syrorurn Sagittariorum (47) SYRORVM - II Septimia SYRORVM milliaria ciuium Romanorurn Mauretania Tingitana TAMPIANA - Pannoniorum TAMPIANA Victrix Britannia, Noricum TAVRIANA - Gallorum TAVRIANA Torquata Victrix ciuium Rornanorum Hispania, Gallia, Germania, Hispania, Mauretania Tingitana Tautorum (- see suspect units 21) - see TAVRIANA (77) Thracum - Gallorum et Thracum Antiana (3) Thracum - Gallorum et Thracum Oassiana c.R.(26) Thracum - Gallorurn et Thracum Constantium (30)

16

173

176 19

179 183

185

187

20 189

191 20 192 195 198 200 204 207 209

Thracum - Thracum Herculiana (48) Thracum - I Thracum Mauretana (55) Germania, Britannia, Germania Inferior 78. THRACVM = I THRACVM 79. THRACVM - I TI-IRACVM Veteranorurn sagittariorum Pannonia Superior, Pannonia Inferior Pannonia Superior 80. THRACVM - I THRACVM Victrix Syria, Raetia, Noricurn 81. THRACVM - I Augusta THRACVM Mauretania Caesariensis 82. THRACVM - II THRACVM Augusta 83. THRACVM - III Augusta TI-IRACVM sagittariorum Syria, Pannonia Superior, Pannonia Inferior Tibicensium - Mauretana Tibicensium - see suspect units 22 tironum - Hispanorurn tironurn - see Early units 5 torquata - I Flauia Dornitiana Britannica milliaria bis torquata ob uirtutcm (19) torquata - Gallorum et Thracurn Classiana ciuium Romanorum inuicta bis torquata (26) torquata - Moesica felix torquata (57) torquata - Gallorum Petriana rnilliaria ciuium Romanorum bis torquata (62) torquata - Siliana bis torquata bis armillata ciuium Romanorum (71) torquata - Gallorum Tauriana torquata uictrix (77) Treverorum - see suspect units 17 Tungrorum - I Tungrorum Frontoniana (39) Vallensium - see suspect units 24. Vespasiana - I Vespasiana Dardanorum (33) Veterana - sec suspect units 25. ueterana - Afrorum Veterana (1) ueterana - I Brittonum ueterana (20) ueterana - I Flavia Gaetulorum ueterana (40) ueterana Gallica (41) ueterana - Hispanorurn ueterana - see Early units 4. ueterana - II Pannoniorum ueterana (60) ueterana - I Thracum Veterana sagittariorum ciuium Romanorum (79) Britannia 84. VETTONVM - Hispanorum VETTONVM civium Romanorum VI - see suspect units 26. Victrix - Pannoniorum Tampiana uictrix (76) Victrix - Gallorum Tauriana torquata uictrix (77) Victrix - I Thracum Victrix (80) Vindex - see Ala I Flavia Gemina (45) Virtutem - Augusta Gallorum Proculeiana ob uirtutem appellata (14) Vlpia - I Vlpia Contariorum (31) Vlpia - I Vlpia Dacorum (32) Vlpia - II Vlpia Afrorum (1) Vlpia - II Vlp[ia Auriana (16) Aegyptus 85 VOCONTIORVM VOCONTIORVM - AVGVSTA VOCONTIORVM Ciuium Romanorum 86. Germania, Britannia, Germania Inferior Xoitana - see Augusta (12)

211 215 217

17

221 223 226 228 231 234

236

238 240

1

ALA 2

EARLY UNITS ALA PATRUI

1.

Suspect and Fourth-Century units which should not be numbered among the auxiliary cavalry units of the Imperial Roman army before A.O. 284. 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

13. 14. 15. 16.

II Vlpia Afrorum Allactica - see Ala Galactica Antoniniana II Armeniaca Augusta (Moesiaca) Brauconum Caesariensium Celerum = Equites Singulares Claudia Miliaria ? Fida Vindex Galactica Gigurrorum Hispanorum II Hispanorum Latobicorum Lemavorum Milliaria

243

17. 18. 19 20. 21. 22. 23. 24, 25. 26. 27.

243 244 244 245 245 246 246 247 247 247 248 248 249 249 249

Augusta Numidica Pansia Quingenaria II Flavia Singularium Augusta Syriaca Tautorum Victrix c.R. Mauretana Tibicensium Treverorum Vallensium Veterana VI

Problems Pl. Brauniacum P2. Macedonica P3. Mauretania P4. Quadorum PS. Ubiorum

249 250 250 250 251 251 252 252 253 254 255

255 256 256 256 256

served in GALLIA and SYRIA.

ALA PATRVI [nominative]

NAME as attested on a funerary stone with invocation [ ] Larinum CJL ix 733 PERSONNEL

-. ----

-atruus [PME P121]

principalis M. Valerius C. f., Hispanus, (domo Leonica), eques de.,

Praefectus Fundi Larinum

AE 1983, 182 CIL ix 733

COMMENT which, however, he thought showed the career Conrad Cichorius (1893) noted the one First structure; first an eques, then a decurio. Century inscription from Larinum, a tombstone. Leonica was a town of the Edetani of Hispania As the trooper was a serving soldier, he Citerior situated to the east of Saguntum and thought it showed the movement of cavalry Valencia. through Italy. Segolene Demougin (1992) referred to AE 1983, Leonard Cheesman (1914) listed ala Patrui as a 182, an inscription containing the name Patruus unit raised in Gallia Lugdunensis. and the letters MIL, and agreed with G. Pesini Eric Birley (1978) noted the inscription from that the rarity of the cognomen justifies the Larinum and commented that the trooper could identification of the man from Fundi in Latium hardly have been buried later than the war Adiectum as the commander who gave his between Octavian and Antony. The wording name to this unit. She placed his career belonged to a period when units did not have between 43 and 31 BC, remarking that Spanish a permanent name, but he could not suggest who might be the commander of the unit. auxiliaries were employed in Italy in 36 BC to Michael Speidel (1980) proposed to read eques put down the armed bandits that roamed de(c). ala Patrui rather than eques de ala Patrui; central Italy, according to Appian Bellum Civile 5, 547 (and CIL i 1860). he pointed out that decurion is sometimes abbreviated to de., that equcs dee. is common in the early period, and that the rank of dccurion If the death of a decurion at Larinum suggests, is suitable for a citizen. Larinum i,:; Central as Cichorius noted, that the unit was on its way Italy as a findspot of this tombstone of a to Brindisi to take ship for the East, either with serving officer could be explained if the unit Caesar, or later with Antony and Octavian, or was raised by Caesar and accompanied him on with Octavian and Agrippa, it might be a Gallic his march through Italy in 49 BC. It is thus the unit which became part of one of the several oldest surviving evidence for an ala. units of 'Gallorum et Thracum' of Syria. But ~ Le Roux (1982) confirmed the claim the origin of the deceased suggests a Spanish made by Cheesman that this unit was Gallic in origin for the unit is more likely and Segolene origin, and also the reading made by Speidel, Demougin's conjecture is preferable. JS. REFERENCES Cichorius (1893): "Ala", Rea/encyclopiidie I, 1 1257. Cheesman (1914): The Auxi/ia of the Roman Imperial Army, Oxford. Birley (1978): "Alae named after their commanders", Ancient Society 9, 268. Speidel (1980): "A Spanish Cavalry Decurion in the time of Caesar and Augustus", Archivo Espagnol de Arque/ogia LIII; 211 = Mavors 1; 111. Le Roux (1982); L'armee romaine et ]'organisation des provinces lberiques, Paris; 191-2. Demougin (1992): Prosopograp/iie des chevaliers Julio-Claudiens, Rome; no.26.

CIL i 1860

18

CONCORDANCES CIL ix 733

= ix 4503 = ILS 2484 = ILRRP 500.

19

= ILS 2499 = AEA

LIJI, 1980 211.

ALA2

2.

-

EARLY UNITS

ALA2

ALA RVSONIS

-

EARLY UNITS

REFERENCES

served in GERMANIA NAME as attested on a funerary stone with invocation I J AL RVSONIS [nominative) Mainz (=Moguntiacum) CIL xiii 7031 PERSONNEL eques Adbogius Coinagi f., na. Petrucorius, eq., Mainz (=Moguntiacum) CIL xiii 7031 COMMENT Conrad Cichorius (1893) had only one inscription to produce as evidence for the Ruso is known neither as a cognomen nor as a existence of this unit as part of the First nomen; the genitive indicates a very early unit Century army of Gennania. which was probably renamed at a later date. Ernst Stein (1932) noted the finding of the Just as ala Paullini (in Aegyptus) became ala tombstone of an Aquitanian trooper of an Augusta, ala Rusonis probably became ala otherwise unknown cavalry unit at Zahlbach Picentiana (also based near Mainz), or, was near Mainz dated to the earliest Imperial times. absorbed into Flavia Gemina. JS. REFERENCES Cichorius (1893): "Ala", Realencyclopiidie I, 1 1259 Stein (1932): Die kaiserlichen Beamten und Troppenkorper im romischen Deutschland unter dem Prinzipat, Vienna; 149.

NOTE nummum ab octavis ordinibus ad primipilum I. Hubert Devijver lists Scaeva as S93 of PME. se traducere pronuntiavit (eius enim ope Cheesman's reference is to Caesar: Bellum castellum rnagna ex parte conseruatum esse Civile III 53: scutoque ad eum relato Scaevae constabat) [cohortemque postea duplici centurionis inventa sunt in eo foramina CXX. stipendio frumento veste cibaris militaribusque Quern Caesar ut erat de se meritus et de donis amplissime donavit.) republica, donatum milibus CC

4.

ALA HISP ANORVM VETERAN A

5.

ALA HISPANORVM TIRONVM

served in GERMANIA according to a cursus honorum to P. Cornelius Scipio (MEFRA 104, (1992) 178) COMMENT Since a group of five prefects dedicated an name these units used later is uncertain, but 48. I Hispanorum is an obvious candidate as a honorary inscription to P. Cornelius Scipio and three of the units, Agrippiana, Astyrum and successor unit to one, or maybe both, of them. Praetoria were in Germania during the preAnother possibility is that one or both were Flavian period, it is presumed that the other incorporated in the two Gemina units which two, Hispanorum Veterana and Hispanorum Vespasian reformed. Less likely successor units Tironum, served in that province also. What are I Aravacorum and I Auriana. JS.

CONCORDANCE CIL xiii 7031 = ILS 2500

3.

Cichorius (1893): "Ala", Realencyclopiidie I, 1 1259. Cheesman (1914): The Auxilia of the Roman army, Oxford; 24 Birley (1978): "Alae named after their commanders", Ancient Society 9, 257,

ALA SCAEVAE

served in GALLIA (possibly) or AEGYPTVS.

ALA SCAEVAE [nominative)

NAME as attested on a funerary stone with invocation I Traetti (Regio 1) CIL x 6011

PERSONNEL Q. Ancharius C. f. Pol. Narbones, eques evocatus, (v.24),

eques Traetti

REFERENCE Castelli (1992): "Dedica onoraria di eta Tiberiana a due membri della famiglia degli Scipioni", Melanges de l'Ecole de France a Rome - Archeologique, 104, 177-208.

CIL x 6011

COMMENT Conrad Cichorius (1893) recorded the one alae incorporated in his new standing army by inscription suggesting that the trooper met his Augustus, were commanded by primipilares. death on a march through I!aly during the Civil The trooper buried at Minturnae could hardly War. be later than the Battle of Actium. Leonard Cheesman (1914) followed Mommsen in ascribing the unit's name to Caesar's The tombstone of Ancharius from Traetti (= well-known officer 1 . Mintumae) presumably indicates the place of Eric Birley (1978) also pointed out that decease of the trooper, since he was born in Mommsen had suggested the centurion Caesius Narbonensis; but why he was eques evocatus Scaeva, decorated after the battle of Dyrrachium when he was annor. nat 24 only, is difficult to in the Civil War, presumably with the grant of explain, unless he was originally a legionary equestrian rank and command of an ala. He seconded to an ala. The unit, however, is not added that Domaszewski thought that the first identifiable with any other, unfortunately. JS. 20

21

AFRORVM 1.

ALA AFRORVM Veterana

served in GERMANlA and GERMANIA INFERIOR. NAME as attested on a diploma AFROR VETERANA 4/6 (G.) 15-IV-78 AF----------/- {G.I.) 107/114 - - R VET 3/4 (G.I.) 158 votive tablet to I I AFROR [incerto) Monterburg 7 A AFER [Matres Masanabus) 1 Koln (=Colonia) (G.l.) cursus honorum ALA AFRORVM [Statilius Optatus) near Rome funerary stone with invocation I J ALA AFFRO [nominative] Koln (=Colonial (G.l.) ALA AFRORVM [nominative) Koln (=Colonia) (G.l.) AL AFR [nominative) Koln (=Colonia) (G.J.) ALA AFROR [nominative] Dodewaard (G.J.) ALA AFROR [dative) Neuss (=Novaesium) silver ring ALA VETER Xanten (=Vetera) (G.l.)

CJL xvi 23 CIL xvi 59 RMD52 CIL xiii 8692 CIL xiii 8223 CIL vi 31863 CIL xiii 8303 CIL xiii 8304 CIL xiii 8305 CIL xiii 8806 AE 1926, 67

7 km. from Rome

Koln {=Colonia) (G.!.) Koln (=Colonia) (G.I.) - Koln (=Colonia) (G.l.) Monterburg ?

CIL vi 31863 CIL CIL CIL CIL

xiii xiii xiii xiii

8303 8304 8305 8692

Neuss (=Novaesium)

AE 1926, 67

Koln Kain Kain Kain

CIL CIL CIL CIL

(=Colonial (=Colonial (=Colonia) (=Colonia)

(G.J.) (G.I.) (G.!.) (G.!.)

Xanten (=Vetera) {G.!.) Dodewaard (G.!.) Kain (=Colonia) (G.!.)

The name veterana presents difficulties; ii cannot distinguish an older from a newer unit, since there is no ala Afrorum nova, and ala II Afrorum, if it existed before Diocletian, seems lo be a very late Third Century creation. Perhaps veterana should be taken as a geographical identifier, like Xoitana for the unit stationed at Xois, or possibly the name has a religious significance. This question is further discussed under suspect units 17 - ala Velerana. The unit only appears in Germania Inferior, probably arriving as Alfoldy suggested in the aftermath of the Civilis revolt of 70-71. By the late First Century, the unit was recruiting locally, though Anno lrnilconis f. is, from his Punk names, clearly an 'afer'.

JS.

CIL xiii 10024,34

PERSONNEL Praefectus T. Statilius -. -. --- Optatus, praef., [[PME S69) principales Flauus, [dee.), Precus Capito, [dee.), Finnanus, [dee.], Crescens, [dee.], immunis Oclatius Carui f.,Tunger, sign., equites L. Crispi f., Marsacus, Oluper, Cergaepuri f., Romanus Atti f., Dar-----, Simplex Sepli f., eques, sing.cos., dimissi Flauius Simplex, uetr. ex dup., M.Traianius Gumattius, Gaisonis f.,uet., Anno lmilconis f.,(v.60)2

members of the unit were no longer Afri but Germans as the names, tribes and worship proved.

11,e career of T.Statilius Optatus flowered under Hadrian and ii is probable that he was the unit's prefect in the first years of Hadrian. The Xanten diploma (RMD 52) shows that it was still in Lower Germany in 158, but its station is uncertain; he named five cavalry forts where it might have been. He added {p.172) that Carvus was an lllyrian name, that Romanus was a Dardanus from Moesia Superior, Simplex and Firmanus were names from Lower Germany and Seplus was of Celtic origin. Paul Holder 0980) admitted his inability to provi~ason for the unit's assumption of the title veterana. Nacera Benseddik 0984) stated that the inscription from Cartenna {to which Cichorius referred) was the tombstone of a trooper of ala Flavia. k@. Marie Lassere fill0. pointed out that the epitaphs of the seven troopers shows that the

xiii xiii xiii xiii

8303 8304 8305 8223

CIL xiii 10024,34 CIL xiii 8806 CIL xiii 8335

REFERENCES Cichorius (1893): "Ala", Real,:ncyclopiidie I, 1, 1228-9. Stein (1932): Die Kaiserlichen Beamten und Tmppenkorper im romischen Deutsch/and unter dem Prinzipat, Vienna; 120. Kraft (1951): Zur Rekmtiemng der Al,:n und Kohort,:n an Rhein und Donau, Bern; 140. Alfoldy (1968): "Die Hilfstruppen in der rornischen Provinz Gerrnania inferior", Epigraphische Studien 6, Diisseldorf; 17-19, 172. Holder (1980): Studies in the Auxi/ia of the Roman Army from Augustus to Trajan; BAR 70, Oxford; 19. Benseddik (1984):Les troupes auxiliaires de /'armee romaine ,:n Mauretanie Cesarienne sous le haut-empire , Alger; . Lassere (1987): "Les Afri et l'armee romaine", L'Africa Romana 5, Sassari; 178 = AE 1988, 1091.

CIL vi 31863 = AE 1893,120 = !LS 9011 CIL xiii 8303 = !LS 2508 AE 1903,276 = CIL xiii 8305

CONCORDANCES CIL xiii 10024,34 = ILS 9146 AE 1903,275 = CIL xiii 8304 AE 1926,67 =17 BRGK 304 = AE 1924,21 NOTES

The dedication to Matres Masanabus is unique and as yet unexplained. \ 2. CIL xiii 8335 from Kain is the\tomb of an 'Afer'; as such he is probably a veteran of the 1.

COMMENT Conrad Cichorius (1893) referred lo a Flavian area of Kleve (CIL xiii 8692), but the later diploma and inscriptions from Kain and station was uncertain. He noted the silver ring Dodewaard as evideni:e for the permanent from Xanten and the inexplicable title veterana. presence of this unit in Lower Germany. He Konrad Kraft (1951) noted its presence on the believed that the veteran on the fragment from diploma for Gerrnania Inferior for 78 and an unknown find-spot was Trajanic, and the probably for 107/114, and its departure during tombstone from Cartenna (CIL viii 9657'/ the Second Century. referred to a man from this ala, which proved Geza Alfoldy (1968) agreed that the unit came that a vexillation from this unit look part in from Africa to the Rhine and dated this to 70 the Moorish war of Antoninus Pius. because the Wiesbaden diploma (CIL xvi 23) .£!:!ill.Stein (1932) followed Cichorius in attested it in Lower Germany in 78 as did the ascribing an African origin to the unit as well other diploma for 107-114 (CIL xvi 55) and the as a Rhineland garrison either al Kain or in the inscriptions for the Flavian-Trajanic period.

22

Ala Afrorum as other tombstones of men of this unit have been recovered from Koln. 3. On CIL viii 9657 Cichorius took EQ ALAE lo be an error for EQ AL AF.

23

.,.

AGRIPPIANA

ALA AGRIPPIANA

2.

II Flavia, Miniata served in GERMANIA, BRITANNIA and SYRIA. NAME as attested on a diploma AGRIPPIANA MINIATA

11/13 (Br.) 17-VII-122 1/4 (Syr.) 156-157

dedication to I I AGRIPPIANA (P. Cornelius Scipio) Rome cursus honorum - - - AGRIPPIAN' (Septimius Petronius) Cherchel EW-II: ArPITITIIANHt [ignotus] Eilha (Syria) EIAHt AflYTHPAt •M ArPITinIANEt (Antonius) Thyatira (Asia) funerary stone with invocation I I ALA AGRIPPIAN (nominative] Grenoble (Gal.Nar.) ALA AGRIPPIANA (nominative] Worms (=Borbetomagus) ALA FLA AGR [nominative) Palmyra (Syria) fragment 2 - - - - - - - -PIANA Vaison la Romaine AE 1967, 287 PERSONNEL Praefecti L. Septi- Petro---, pr-, (PME 537) Cherchel -. Avt. KA. AA.cl>. Aptyvotoi;, tnapx~ [PME A132) Thyatira (Asia) Ignotus, Eilha (Syria) principales -. Decmanius Caper, subpraefectus,' Grenoble (Galia Narb.) Valerius Gaianus, dupl., Palmyra (Syria) eques Partus Mutii f.,Treuer,(v.35;m.14), Worms (=Borbetomagus) COMMENT Conrad Cichorius (1893) believed that II Flavia Agrippiana was named for 'Agrippa' and CIG 3497, a 'cursus honorum' of the time of Antoninus Pius gave the unit's full name. Its presence on the Rhine in the First Century as ala Agrippiana was attested by a tombstone from Worms and the sub-prefect named on He CIL xii 2231 was also First Century. suggested that the unit went to Syria for Trajan's Parthian war when Valerius Lollianus (CIL iii 600) commanded the combined cavalry detachments. He also referred to a Second Century inscription from Batanea (Le BasWaddington 2121) which showed that the unit was a part of the Syrian army. Leonard Cheesman (1912) suggested that the unit was raised in Gallia. Ernst Stein (1932) thought either Vipsanius Agrippa, or Agrippa I was the origin of the name for the unit, which was in Britannia in 122 as Agrippiana miniata. But it was in Syria as II Flavia Agrippiana in the Second and Third Centuries, which would suggest it was 24

CII •,, h9 CII

, ·, 106

M ~IHA 104,127

Al: t7 ALA II ARA VAC- - - - [H.S.E.] Dalya(=Teutoburgium) ALA II ARAVA Dalya(= Teutoburgium) --II ARA------[stria (=lstros) II II II II

PERSONNEL principales Cl. B~tt! f. Valerius, decurio, Hispanus, (vix.S0;mil.30) Dalya(=Teutoburgium) T1. Cl. Bntll f. Flaecus, dee., Dalya(=Teutoburgium) C. lulius Pr-----, dee., Matschin (=Arrubium) Acutus, [duplicarius), Aquileia (Regio X) Liccaeus [sesquiplicari.us), Aquileia (Regio X) Titinius Seuerinus, sesquiplicarius, !stria (=lstros) equites Crispinus Ai---- -., eq., Pali (P.I.) Niger Bataronis f., Suetrius,(v.37;m.17) Eszeki (=Mursa)(P.l.) dimissi Ael. Longinus, uetranus, Calachloi (M.1.) Aurelius Cotus, uet.,(v.47) Rutschul = Prista (M.I.) Tib. Cl. Victor, uet.,(v.60;m.39), Gavren (M.I.) Aur. Firmus, ueteranus ex dec.,(v.50) !stria (=lstros) -. -. --culanus, Ramid--, uet ex stator- -----cti,(v.-0;m.26) Hirsova (M.I.)

T!.

34

!stria (=Istros)

M. Vettius Felix, ex dec.,(v.60)

CIL xvi CIL xvi CIL xvi CIL xvi CIL xvi RMD50

26 30 31 44 83

AE 1980, 814 CIL iii 7603a AE 1980, 815 AE 1934, 106 CIL iii 6218 AE 1919, 15 AE 1919, 17 CIL iii 3271 CIL iii 3286 CIL iii 10366 CIL iii 12359 AE 1984, 796 AE 1960, 333 AE 1940, 34 AE 1990, 386 CIL CIL CIL CIL

iii iii iii iii

14039 10258 10258 14214,29

CIL iii 3271 CIL iii 3271 CIL iii 6218 AE 1990, 386 AE 1990, 386 AE 1919, 17 CIL iii 10366 CIL iii 3286 AE 1934, 106 AE 1940, 34 CIL iii 12359 AE 1984, 796 AE 1960, 333

AE 1919, 15

COMMENT against Decebalus. He could not decide to Conrad Cichorius 0893) stated that the ala first which of the two units of Aravaci to allocate ~din Pannonia, at Teutoburgiu~, where C.lulius Ianuarius (CIL v 4095). two inscriptions were found. A third, also Barnabas Llirincz (1990) noted that it was part from the First Century, came from near Mursa. of the army of Pannonia in the First Century. EE ii 612 probably refers to this ala rather than Based at Mursa, it moved to Teutoburgium in another ala II, but thls is not provable. The ala the reign of Claudius. In the 80s it was moved to Moesia Inferior, probably because of transferred to Moesia Inferior. Domitian's Dacian War. Other inscriptions, CIL iii 7603 and 6218, attest the service of ala The original name of the unit was ala II II Aravacorum in Moesia Inferior, but do not Aravacorum, and it was raised from a Spanish give its station. Which of the two alae tribe probably under Tiberius. Towards the Aravacorum was commanded by the prefect end of the Flavian era, a recruit unit of Hispani named on CIL v 4095 was unknown. were added and amalgamated officially as on EM Cagnat (1920) quoting from the article the diploma for Moesia. But, unofficially, it which he reviewed, noted that the unit was in continued to be II Aravacorum. In Pannonia it garrison at Carsium, although the stone was seems to have garrisoned Eszeki (=Mursa) and found at Histria. Dalya (=Teutoburgium), but in which order or Konrad Kraft (1951) noted the unit's station in when it moved cannot be decided without pre-Claudian times as Mursa, and in the 40-70 further evidence. It is certain however that it period at Teutoburgium. It took part in moved to Moesia Inferior between 85 and 99 Domitian's Dacian war, and stayed in Moesia when the army of Moesia Inferior had six alae, at least until 200. three including I Aravacorum, are named on ~ Manuel Roldan Hervas (1974) placed the CIL xvi 44 and the others on CIL xvi 45. As unit's first station at Teutoburgium, whence this unit is not mentioned on the diploma for came so many inscriptions. Tib. Claudius 105 (three alae), or 134 (two alae) which follow Valerius may have been an original member; on from CIL xvi 45, its absence does not mean his 30 years of service suggests entry during the epoch of Tiberius or Augustus. One of the that it was not in Moesia, since other diplomas two 'decuriones missicii', whose names are may be found. It was stationed at Hirschova (Carsium) where it probably built the fort as missing, might be Ti. Claudius Cossicus. The well as rebuilt it. What happened to the unit unit was not transferred to Moesia until 99, so in the Third Century is not known. JS. it may have fought in Domitian's campaign REFERENCES Cichorius (1893): "Ala", Rcalencyclopiidie I, 1 1230. Cagnat (1920): L'Annee Epigraphique 1919, no. 17. Kraft (1951): Zur Rekrutierung der Alen und Cohorten an Rhein und Donau, Bern; 151. Roldan Hervas (1974): Hispania y el ejercito Romano, Salamanca; 88-90. Lorincz (1990): Pannonia regeszeti kezikonyve, Budapest; 75

AE.1940, 34 = AE 1911, 219 EE ii 216 = CIL iii 3286

CONCORDANCES CIL iii 10258 = CIL iii 3273

NOTES Aravacorum at Hirsova; the date is fairly 1. The diploma, CIL xvi 26 = AE 1988,891 certain, since it is dedicated to Trajan, and gives citizenship to those who have completed their period of service in one of four alae and records the name of the legate of Moesia to men who are still serving in two of them. Inferior for the period 102-3. 3. The dedication from Matschin, CIL iii The date of RMD 50 is discussed in note 1 of 24. Catafractaria. 6218, is not evidence for the unit's presence there, since the dedicator was stationed at the 2. AE 1980, 814; despite the absence of the provincial capital as a beneficiarius of the name of the unit, this fragment is said to be procurator, when he commemorated his father. the inaugural plaque of the camp of ala II 35

II ARA VACORVM

ALA I ASTVRVM

7.

4. AE 1919, 15 and 17 both from Constantza carry identical farewell messages, aue uiator et vale, which suggests that the units and invocations were also identical. 5. CIL iii 3286 from Mursa probably refers to ala II although no number is given; but CIL v 4095 is probably for a commander of ala I.

The numeral would be needed as soon as a second unit appeared in Pannonia. 6. On CIL iii 12359, the numeral is only partly readable, but it seems to have enough space for the second upright stroke. 7. The findspot of CIL iii 10439 is noted as on Schneckenberg hill at Aquincum.

served in GERMANIA, MOESIA INFERIOR, and DACIA. NAME as attested on a diploma 1/3 (M.I.) Recipient 1/2 (D.1.)

I ASTVRVM ALA I ASTVRVM I ASTVR

14-VIll-99 14-VIII-99 13-XIl-140

CIL xvi 45 CIL xvi 45 RMD 39

altar to I ] Gyogy (=Germisara) CIL iii 1393 - LA ASTVR • • [Fortuna, pro salute Augg.nn.] Saint Gereon (nr.Koln) AE 1990, 732 ALA I ASTUR [Matronae) dedication to I MEFRA 104,178 ASlYRVM [P. Cornelius Scipio) stamped tiles between Galt and Heviz CIL iii 1633,11 ALAS Heviz (D.Ap.l CIL iii 8074,lb ALA IA cursus honorum to I ALA ASTYRVM' (Baebius luncinus) Messina (Sic.) CIL x 6976 ALA I ASTVRVM [Nonius Caepianus) Rimini (=Ariminum) CIL xi 393 ager Raetinus CIL ix 4753 ALA I ASTVRVM [Prifernius Paetus) funerary stone with invocation I ] CIL xiii 2613 ALA ASTVRVM [nominative) H.S.E.) Chalons-sur-Saone AE 1988,998 ALA ASTVRVM [nominative) Constantza (=Tomi) A.Anz.27(1912) 563 ALA PRIMA ASTRORVM [D.M.nom.] Sofia PERSONNEL Praefecti L. Baebius L. f. Gal. Iuncinus, praef., [PME BIO) Messina CIL x 6976 Ti. Julius Ti. f. Pup. Agricola, (PME 114] 14-VIII-99 CIL xvi 45 P. Prifernius P. f. Quir. Paetus Memmius Apollinaris, praef., IPME P107] [donis donato exped.Dac. ab Imp.Traiano hasta pura vexillo corona murali] S.Laurentinium (R.IV) CIL ix 4753 -1. Gem. Ant., praef., [PME A34) Gyogy (=Germisara) CIL iii 1393 C. Nonius Caepianus, praef., [PME N12] 2 Rimini (=Ariminum) CIL ix 393 princi pales C. Valerius Satuminus d-., Rimini (=Ariminum) CIL ix 393 L. Pontius -. -. Seneca, decurio, 3 Ankara (Phrygia) AE 1981, 786 equites Meticus Solae f., Bessus, 14-Vlll-99 CIL xvi 45 Albanus Excingi f., Vbius,(v.35;m.12) Chalons-sur-Saone' ClL xiii 2613 Victor, eques, (militat in Mysia), Saint Gereon (nr.Koln) AE 1990, 732 dimissi Ti. Claudius Arrenti f. Quir. Saturninus, duplic., uet.,(v.64;m.32) Constantza (=Tomi) AE l;, Elkab (rock-cut) Aur. Quartinus, Pielach bei Melk (Nor.) Attius Acceptus, (v.25;m.5) Wolfsberg (Nor.) Terentinus Taurionis f.,e.,(v30) Kircheiselfing (R.) dimissi C. Junius Isaeus, ex dee., (v.60) Celje (Nor.) P. Ael. Germanus, ueter. ex dee.• Tulln (Nor.)

uto,;,

CIG 5057 CIL iii 14368,24 AE 1982, 914 0.Jh.29, 387 ClL Iii 5091 AE 1973, 381 CIL iii 5224 CIL iii 5652

COMMENT Conrad Cichorius (1893) noted the presence of the unit have been found as well as an the ala on a diploma for Aegyptus in 83 and on inscription to Mithras from a nearby site which an inscription from Talmis. does not name the unit but asks for the welfare ~ Lesguier (1918) noted two undated In of 'COMAO(a)E ET COM(magenorum)'. inscriptions from Talmis and the diploma for the Third Century a vexillation of the ala was 83, but was unsure whether. this unit should be perhaps stationed in the Melk area as indicated identified with the Ala Commagenorum of by the funerary inscription. Recruits came from Noricum in 106. the east (OL iii 5224) as well as from Noricum Konrad Kraft (1951) believed the unit was (CIL iii 5091, 14368). raised in 72, but was in Noricum from 106 until Michael Speidel (1988) claimed the unit was on the Third Century. the southern limits of Aegyptus before 96, for Geza Alfoldy (1974) suggested that the unit was which the three inscriptions from Talmls were formed (citing Wagner and Kraft) in 72 and enough evidence. It was perhaps stationed at Koptos, where Ala Vocontiorum replaced it. arrived in Noricum before 106 where its garrison town was named Commagena after the Jochen Garbsch (1989) suggested that on the diploma for 109, II Flavia Commagenorum unit. This is now Tulln where tiles stamped by 94

95


poov tnri~ lcrtoptoov nap8tKc.ov Lucian, De Hist. Contrib. 16. PERSONNEL Praefecti C. Aelius Brocchus3 (PME A26) T. Annius Maximius Pomponianus [PME A122) Q. Planius Sardus L. Aufidius Panthera (PME A19B) -. -arius T. f. --iscus,• --ef, Q. Ter. lngenus, prae. (PME T9) T. Flauius Flaccus (PME F48) 97

Ebersdorf (=Arrabona) Como (=Comum) 1-VT-125 2-Vll-133 Celje (=Celeia) Gyor (=Arrabona) Ebersdorf (=Arrabona)

CIL iii 4360 CIL v 5266 Unpublished CIL xvi 76 ZPE 52, 175 CJL iii 4362 CJL iii 436

CONT ARIORVM T. FI. ltalicus' [PME FSl) Ebersdorf (=Arrabona) CIL iii 4362 M. Valerius Maximianus,6 praef., [PME V23] Diana Veteranorum AE 1956 124 7 A.O.A.W.W.64 Cl. Vi - - - x (PME Cl92] M. Macrinus Auitus Catonius Vindex,' [donat. donis mil. in bell. Germ. ab imp. Aur. Antonino Aug. hast pur. II et vexill. II coma mural. et vallar.] [PME M4) Roma CIL vi 1449 C. I-l_ius Gai~nus,' praef., [PME G28) Gyor {=Arrabona) AE 1908, 46 T. Cnonus Sabmus [PME C211) Stein am Anger (=Savaria) CIL iii 4183 principalis Martinus, dee. St.Leu (=Portus Magnus) CIL viii 21620 immunes Vlpius Tertius, curator, Tipasa {M.C.) CIL viii 9291 FI. Tutor, imag., Tipasa {M.C.) CIL viii 9291 M. Aur. [Valerian]us, vex., Raab (=Arrabona) CIL iii 11081 Aur. Saturnidinus, domo Siscia, libr.,(v.35;m.15) Bacsa CIL iii 13441 Luc. Vindex, librarius, Bacsa CIL iii 13441 equiles Vlpius - f. Valens, Bessus, 3-V-113 Unpublished Vlp. Eptatralis, Bessus, (v.40;m.15) Gyor (=Arrabona) CIL iii 4378 Vlp. Aulucentus, 10 (Bessus?) Gyor (=Arrabona) CIL iii 4378 Claudius Motti f. Nouanus, Helvetius, 2-VIl-133 CIL xvi 76 dimissi Ulp. Variu. Ore, uet.ex stat., (v.45) Iaurini {=Arrabona) CIL iii 4379 Aur. Bassus," quondam sig., (v.29;m.8) Apamee (Syria) AE 1987, 955 Aur. Marcus, uet., Raab (=Arrabona) ClL iii 4370 Aur. Te--es, uet., Raab (=Arraboma) CIL iii 4370 Aur. Doriso, uet. ex sta. praef., Iaurini (=Arrabona) CIL iii 4369 COMMENT Conrad Cichorius (1893) believed that this unit remained at Arrabona throughout the Second was raised by Trajan for the Dacian war, and Century and had not moved before the reign of sent by him to garrison Arrabona so that ala I Septimius Severus, and that Domaszewslt- - - - - -, mapxo,;, [PME C165] Palmyra r. Ounllwc; Kt:>..t:p,E!tClpxoc;[PME V92) Palmyra KpE!tEptoc;,Eitapxoc;, [PME C254] Atalia (=Attaleia) immunis Mada'in Salih dromedarius Kaocri -, 6poµ£15aptc;, Mada'in Salih Oul..mc;Mocyvoc;,lltltat