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Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

Scaling APM t o lar ger pr oject s and t eam s


For ev ery pr oject m anager, t eam lead er , and t eam m em b er < Day Day Up >



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

Cop yright

" Jim Highsm h is e of f ewPrmoject odern w rit Pra ise f oritJim Higon hsmit h' saAgile Manag emer ents who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he knThowled ge econom y . " e Agile Sof t war e Developm en t Series —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School Pre face

n t rodu ion ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es " This Iis t he ctproj nt sr igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect Agile Ackn metowledg hod s me and Th e Agile e Developm en ld t Series m anagement inSof t ht war is cu rr ent w or of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! "Ch apt er 1. Th e Ag ile Re vo lu t ion —Ly nn eI nEllen, SrPr. odu VPct&Develop CI O, me D TE novat ive nt Energ y Relia ble I n novat ion

" Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of Cor e Ag ile Va lu es pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " Pr oject Manag em ent —NevilleAgile R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. Th riving in a Chaor dic W orld

" The w or ld Journ of preyoduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by Our r einf orcing pr docum ors f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h Ch apt er 2.ocesses, Guiding Pradding in ciples: Cu st om erent s anat d ion Prod, uct br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." Herm an an d Maya —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Th e Guiding Pr in ciples of Agile Pro ject Manag em ent

Deliver Cu stfom er'sValu e ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use Now , one of t he ield lead Em p loy I t era t ive, Fea t ureBased Deliveitryh sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm Ch amtpion Tech nical nce m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces addr essing he quest ionExcelle s pr oject t he five-Cu phase APM fr amctew st om ers an d Produ s or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage Ch aptincludes: er 3. Guiding Pr in ciples: Leade rsh ip -Co llabo rat ion Man agem en t Manag em ent St yle e Busin ess ofof APM SixThpr inciples Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent Leader ship- Collabor at io n Mana gem en t

How t o rage capExp it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies En cou lo rat ion Build Ad apt ive (Self- Orga nizing, Self -Discip lined ) Team s

Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Simp lif y

Princip t o ap Prat ct Cr eat inglesad ivices e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Ch apt er 4. An Agile Pr oject Manag em ent Mod el

Which rojaect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't Principples nd Pract ices An Agile Pro cess Fram ew ork

APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close Ph ase: Envisio n

Ph ase: Spe culat eincluding t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet APM pract ices, Ph ase: Exp lo re

Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

Ph ase: Ada pt Ph ase: Close

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Judg m ent Require d Pro ject Size Agile Pr act ices Ch apt er 5. Th e Envision Phase Get t h e Righ t Peo ple Ph ase: Envisio n Pra ct ice: Pro duct Vision Box an d Elevat or Test St at em ent



Pra ct ice:Table Pro duct Archit ect u re of Contents

Agi le P r ojPra ectct M ice: a nag Proem jecte Dat nt: aCrSh e aeet ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s Pra ct ice: By Jim Highsmit h Get t h e Righ t Peo ple Pra ct ice: Par t icip ant I den t if icat ion Pra ct ice: Cu st Wesley om er Team - Develop er Team I nt erf ace Pu blisher: Add ison Pra ct ice: Pro cess Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00an 4 d Pract ice Tailoring En vision ma77 ry-5 I SBN: 0- 32Su 1-m 219 Ch 6.2 Th e Sp eculat e Phase Pagapt es:er31 Scop e Evolu t ion Ph ase: Spe culat e Pra ct ice: Pro duct Feat u re List Pra ct ice: Feat u re Cards

" Jim Highsm it hPer is form on eanof f ew ment odern Pra ct ice: ce a Requ ir em s Cardw s rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge Release, economMilest y . " on e, and I t erat ion Plan Pra ct ice: —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School Speculat e Sum m ary Ch apt er 7. Th e Exp lore Phase

" This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es I n divid Pe rfor m ance Agile met hodual s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect Ph ase: Exp m anagement in lo t hreis cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " Pra ct ice: Wor kload Manag em ent —Ly nn ePra Ellen, . VP CI O, ct ice: Sr LowCost&Chan ge D TE Energ y Pra ct ice: Coaching an d Team Developm en t

" Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of Pra ct ice: Daily Team I nt egr at ion Meet ing s pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " Pra ct ice: Par t icip at ory Decision Making —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. Pra ct ice: Daily I nt er act ion wit h t he Cust o me r Te am Exp ma ry dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by " The w or ldlorofe Su pr m oduct r einf orcing docum Ch apt erpr 8.ocesses, Th e Ad aptadding and Close Pha sesent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." Pro gress —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Ph ase: Ada pt Pra ct ice: Pro duct , Proj ect , and Team Review an d Ad apt ive Act io n

Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use ase:nex Close APM in yPhour t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly Adap t an Close Sum aryoject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces addr essing t hed quest ion sm pr Ch apt er 9. Building Large pt ive Teampresent s t he five- phase APM fr am ewAda or k, t hen s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage An includes: Achille s' Heel? Th e Sca ling Ch allen ge A Scale d Ad apt ive Fr am ework

Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent A Hu b Or gan izat io nal St ru ct u re Self-t o Orga nizat ion Ext en sions How cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Team Self -Discip line

PutTht ing cust om atuntt he erocol of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong e Com m it m enters - Acco ab ilitcen y Prtot I s I t Working ?

Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " St ru ct ur e an d Tools Sum mpary Which roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't Ch apt er 10 . Re liable I nn ovat ion

APM's fiv eVision phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close Th e Agile I m p lem en t in g t he Vision

APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Relia ble I n novat ion Ther e agin Value-gAdd in gr Proj Man ager Lev you PMIectskills in Agile env ir onm ent s

Con vict ion Bibliog rap hy

< Day Day Up > < Day Day Up >



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Copyright Many of t h e desig nat ions used by m anuf act u rer s and seller s t o dist ing uish t heir pr oduct s ar e claim ed as t r ad em ar ks. Wh er e t h ose design at ions ap pear in t his book , and Ad dison- Wesley w as aw ar e of a t• r ad em ar k claim , t he designat ion s hav e been print ed wit h in it ial capit al let t ers or in all capit als. Table of Contents Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

The au t hor and pub lish er have t ak en car e in t he pr eparat ion of t h is book , bu t m ake no ex pr essed or By Jim Highsmit h im p lied w ar r an t y of any k in d an d assum e n o r esp onsib ilit y f or err ors or om issions. No liab ilit y is assum ed f or incident al or consequent ial damages in connect ion w it h or ar ising out of t he u se of t he inf orm at ion or Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley pr ogr am s cont ained her ein. Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

The publisher of1-fer discount s on t his book w hen or dered in quant it y f or special sales. For m ore I SBN: 0- 32 219s77 -5 in for m at ion, please cont act : Pag es: 31 2

U.S. Corp orat e and Gov ern ment Sales ( 800 ) 38 2- 341 9 cor [email protected] sont echgr oup .com For outitside ed m Stodern at es, please : helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in " Jimsales Highsm h is of onteh eofUn a it f ew w rit er scont whoact are t he kn owled ge econom y . " I—Rob nt ern at ional Aust in, Sales Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School ( 317 58 1- 379 3) in t ernat t ech gr oup. " This is [email protected] t he proj ect son m anagem en t com book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect Visit Addison- Wesley onrr tent he w Web: of in essional. com m anagement in t h is cu or ld w ofww it er. awpr at iv e, crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " Libr Con gress Cat in -Energ Publicat —Lyar nny eofEllen, Sr . VP & alogingCI O, D TE y ion Dat a Hig hsm itah,b ook Jam tes " Finally hatA.r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of Agile proj ect m creat ingp innov at ivaeser pr odu pr oject managemanagem ent . Jimen 'st b: ook has rov ided v icectt os /allJim of Hig us. "hsm it h . p. cm. —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. I nclu des bibliogr aphical r eferences an d index . I SBN 0-ld 3 21977- 5 dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by " The w or of 21 pr oduct 1. Soft w are en gin eer ing . 2. Comp utent er at soft w,are—Dev elopm ent —Managem en t . wI .ork Titin le.g. Highsm it h r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ion or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." QA76. 75.G. H54 04 pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e —Pr est on Sm20 it h, 00 5. 1'2 —dc22 200 4041 144 Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use Copy r igh t © nex 200t4pbroj y ect Pear son Highsm Edu cat ion, I nc. APM in y our . Jim it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces All reservAPM ed. No part ofk,t his p ublicat ions m ay be r epr oduced, in ya pr r etoject r iev alpart syst em t he right five-sphase fr am ew or t hen present specific, pr ov en t oolsstfor or ed ever icip an, tor . tCov r anerage smit t ed, in an y for m , or b y any m ean s, elect ron ic, m echanical, ph ot ocopy ing , r ecor ding, or includes: ot her wise, wit hou t t he pr ior consent of t he publish er . Pr in t ed in t h e Unit ed St at es of Am erica. Published sim ult aneously in Canada. Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent Cov er phot os at f ar left , far r igh t , and cen t er court esy of Alias. How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies For inf orm at ion on obt ainin g p er m ission f or use of mat er ial fr om t h is wor k , please sub m it a w rit t en r eq uest Puttto: ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Pear son Edu catad ion, Cr eat ing ap tIivnc. e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Right s an d Con t ract s Dep ar t m ent rojr eet ect s, Suit w ill eb en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't 75 Ar Which lingt onpSt 300 Bost on, MA 02 116 e 70 phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close Fax : (APM's 61 7) 8fiv 4847 APM pract including Text pr in t ed on ices, r ecy cled papert he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev agin g you r20PMI Fir st pr in er t ing , March 04 skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

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Dedication To Wen die, D eb bie, and Nik k i < Day Day Up >



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Praise for Jim Highsmith's Ag ile Project Manag emen t Tableitof Contents " Jim Highsm h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of in dust r ial- age t hin king t o m anagem ent m or e suit ed t o reliable in nov at ion—is w ell un derw ay. But few people y et un derst and t he im plicat ion s of By Jim Highsmit h t his shift . Agile Pr oject Managem en t ex plains wh at ' s g oing on w it h st art lin g clar it y. Per haps m ore im p ort ant ly, it pr ovides t h e v it al m anagement st r uct ur e and pr act ical adv ice t hat will sup port Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley ong oing innov at ion in y our com pany . " •

Agi le Pwr oj ect in M at nag e nt:led Cr ge e a tieconom ng I nn ovy a .ti ve oduction—f s ork he kem now A tPr ransit r om

Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 032 1-in 219 77 -5 ant Prof essor , Har var d B usiness School —Rob Aust , Assist Pag es: 31 2

" There is a lot of at t ent ion t h ese days being g iv en t o w het her org an izat ion s are harv est ing t h e m axim um benef it s fr om t heir I T in vest m ent s. Th is b ook is t ot ally in alignm ent w it h t hat t heme an d should be a mu st -r ead f or all pr oj ect part icip an t s w ho ar e p assionat e about t heir p roj ect s deliv er ing 'v alu e for mon ey . ' " Jim Highsm is onant e of ina tfhe ew vast m odern w rityerof s who us under t hePrnew at u re of wor " The onitehconst maj orit lar geare p rojhelping ect s I see in m ystr an oled as ojectn Managem entk in t he knProwled ge econom y . " act ice Manager for Fuj it su Consu lt ing is ch an ge. Yet , t r ue t o t he observ at ions t hat Jim has made in —Robt his Aust in, Assist anajor t Pritofessor , Harv Business School b ook, t he m y of t hese prard oject s have been ex ecu t ed as if change is not t h e nor m and as if t he proj ect init iat ors w er e ' seer s' who could f or et ell t he f ut ur e w it h a h igh d eg ree of cert aint y . These " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es pr oject s wer e ru n on t h e basis of t r ad it ional proj ect m anagem en t pr act ices, w here, sim plist ically Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect speaking, t he p roj ect plan w as ' king, ' and per for mance was measur ed and couched in t er ms of m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good 'd eliv ery t o p lan. ' r ead! " —Ly nn Sr . 1VP & CI " Ien Ellen, t h e past 2–18 mO, ontDhTE s, Energ Fu jit u yConsult ing has seen t he p ot en t ial benef it s of ad opt in g m or e 'Agile' app roaches in t he w ay w e deliv er and m anage som e of ou r pr oject s and hav e encour aged our " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of client s t o em brace an 'adapt iv e' p roj ect cult ur e. " pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oyChiver ) Singham , CEO,Consult Th ought k s, or I nc. s, Senior in gWor Direct and Pr oject Managem en t Pr act ice Manager, Fuj it su —Karen Consu lt ing ( Asia Pacific) " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing adding docum enttat ionall , or t her m honing s. This isn't orkbinook, g. Highsm it h " Thereprisocesses, a com mon set of values hat t hef urAgile et hodscost share, and, in w t his Jim Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." uses t h ose v alues p lus his k now ledge of t he Ag ile m et h ods t o pr esen t a com m on fr amew ork for —Pr est on G. Sm it h, incipal,enNew oduct Dy t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Halfent t h eisTim e Agile proj ect m pr anagem t . JimPr shows us nam wh atics/ ancoau Agile appr oach t o pr oject managem about —t h e essen t ial in sigh t s and exp er iences—plus he ex pert ly com bin es t ools and t ech niq ues w it h Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use pr ov en pr oj ect m an ag em ent value, t hose of his own and t hose fr om ot her m et hods, int o t his APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly f ram ew or k. " addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he fivephase APM frPr am ew orDk, t hen s specific, ovst en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . De Luca, oject ir ect or , present Nebulon Pt y . Lt d. pr ( Au ralia) —Jeff Cov erage includes: " Jim 's book , Ag ile Proj ect Managem en t , addr esses one of t h e k ey quest ion s ask ed w hen ad opt in g an Agile sof t w ar e d ev elop ment m et hodology , 'How d o y ou m an ag e t he p roj ect ?' He spends a lot of Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent t ime on t h e v alues and pr inciples needed t o b e successf ul in a less b ur eaucr at ic develop m en t env ent . I t r equires and a su en bstt ant ial m in dset shift by all part ies. He has Howir onm t o cap it alize on emerind ginivgidnual ew discipline pr oduct developm t echnologies don e an ex cellent j ob of d ocum en t ing t h e behav ior s t hat will cr eat e a w inn ing t eam , no mat t er w hat pr is bein u sed I applaud Jim f or creat in,gwahere bookt hey t h atbelong w ill help t ake t he Ag ile m ovem ent t o a Putocess t ing cust om gers at t. he cen t er of you r pr oject new lev el. " Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " —Chr ist ine D av is, Visit ing Scient ist , Carn age Melon Un iv er sit y/ f orm er Ex ecut iv e Vice President and General Manager, Which p roj ect s w illRay b ent heon ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't "APM's Welcom o t he second generat ion ofe,Agile m et fiv e tphases: En vision, Speculat Exp lor e, hodologies! Adapt , CloseAgile Pr oject Managem en t is an Agile m et hodology t hou ght f ully b uilt on t h e k ey ideas and exp er ien ces of ot her AMs. The result is a coherpract en t wices, hole,including fr om pr int he ciples t o pract ices.Box I f yand our Proj j ob ect is t oDat d eliv er ser ious sof t war e, k eep t his APM Pr oduct Vision a Sheet book at hand on you r libr ar y , sin ce in t h e nex t t en year s y ou will use it t oo m any t im es! " Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

—Mich ele March esi, Pr ofessor of Sof t war e Engineering, Univer sit y of Cagliar i, I t aly < Day Day Up >

" The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by rein for cing pr ocesses, ad din g d ocum en t at ion, or fu rt her h onin g cost s. This isn' t wor k ing . Hig hsm it h br illian t ly g uid es us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es. " —Pr est on G. Sm it h, Foun der an d Princip al of New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ Coau t hor , Dev elop ing Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e



" Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile soft war e m ovem ent w it h t he needed disciplin es of pr oject m anagem ent . Jim' s b ook has p rov id ed a ser vice t o all of us. Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

" Agile sof t w ar e dev elopm ent is lar gely a grass- root s m ov em ent t hat f ocuses on r eliably deliv er in g pr oduct s in a dy nam ic w orld. To dat e, m uch of t he Ag ile lit erat ur e has focused on t he engineer ing pract ices t hat su ppor t an Agile p hilosophy , and t h us t h e cov er age of p roj ect m anagement has b een lim it ed. I n t his book , Jim Highsm it h addr esses pr oject m anagem ent in t he Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Agile en viron ment . He doesn' t lim it t his cov erage t o simp ly m ak ing a case f or a new st y le of pr oject Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 m anagement . Rat her, Jim also off ers a pr act ical fr amew ork an d su ppor t in g p ract ices t hat p roj ect I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 m anagers can use t o help sof t w ar e dev elopm ent t eam s be m or e pr oduct ive an d r eliab ly d eliv er Pag es: 31 2 pr oduct s t hat ad d b usin ess value."

By Jim soft Highsmit war eh

—Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Thou ght Wor ks, I nc. " Soft war e dev elopm ent is a hum an act ivit y , alt h ough w e som et im es t ry t o d en y t hat fact b y w rapp ing and ound ou r t us eam s w hich, , can uce " Jim Highsm it h high is oncerem e of a ony f ew pr m ocesses odern w rit er st ools who ar are helping under st an dif tunleash he new ed n at u re p ofrod wor k in som e t r uly am azin g t h ing s. Jim kn ows t his all t oo w ell fr om his b road exp er ience in wor k in g w it h a t he kn owled ge econom y . " ar iet in, y ofAssist pr oject t hat , ex perard ience shines tSchool h rou gh in t his v ery pragm at ic and m uch need ed —Robv Aust an ts,Prand ofessor Harv Business t ak e on Agile pr oj ect m an ag em ent . " " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es ad y sBooch, I BM Fellow Agile —Gr met hod and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! "" Agile m et hod s, wh et her for sof t w ar e dev elopm ent , proj ect m anagem en t , or gener al p rod uct dev elopmSr ent ar e heO,ideal oach —Ly nn e Ellen, . ,VP & tCI D TEappr Energ y f or build ing t hings w here ch an ge is a r isk fact or. Ev ery w here? Hig hsm it h clearly show s h ow it er at iv e dev elopm ent met h ods can be successfu lly applied t o p roj ect m anagement ally . I tt he is tpassion r uly gr ound br eak in gSof w hen ods rent efined t heneeded sof t w ardisciplines e space can " Finally a b ook t hatgener r econciles of t he Agile t warm e et mhovem wit hint he of act ually in for m ot her d iscip lines." pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. —Char les St ack , Founder and CEO, Flashline, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by " This is he proj ect m anagem enent t book allt her been w ait ing for he isn't book wt hat iv ely com r einf orcing prtocesses, adding docum at ionwe' , orvef ur honing cost s.—t This ork ineff g.ect Highsm it h bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." pr oject managem ent in t his cur r en t w orld of it er at iv e, incr ement al Ag ile m et h ods, bu t it 's an all—Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e arou nd good read! Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use " Many T ort ganizat av e m ade ess wh of yAgile etould hodsbe and compy onent developm en,t .t h oroug hly APM in y our Inex p roj ections . Jimh Highsm it h ashmows APMmsh in ever m anager' s t oolkit Or ganizat ions t hat aband oned w at erf all m et hods for un disciplined soft w are hacking hav Agile addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically ine t given rod uces m et hods a bad repu t at ion in som e businesses. A cu re f or t hese w oes can be f ound in Jim t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Hig hsm it h' s n ew book . You really can com bine t h e benef it s of Agile m et hods wit h pr oject Cov erage includes: m anagement disciplines. Jim show s u s t h e way . " nne Ellen, of Senior & CI O, DTE Ener —Ly Six pr inciples Agile VP Pr oject Man ag em entgy "How Jim tHighsm h's Agile Pr oject en t developm is a ref reshing change in t he f low of proj ect o cap it it alize on emer gin g Managem n ew pr oduct en t t echnologies m anagement book s b eing pub lished t od ay . The book comb ines proj ect m anagem en t t heor y and pr act icecust castom in ers comm er m s in a oject m an ner valuable o bot h t h e st udent and user. The Put t ing at ton he-sense cen t er t of you r pr , w here t hey tbelong aut hor 's recast in g and r enaming of t he phases of a p roj ect life cycle adds an app roach likely t o b e Cr eat em ulat ing edad inap t he t iv feutt u eam re lit s er t hat at ure respon in t his d qduick iscip lyline. t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " " His t reat Which p roj mect en st of w illt hbeen gener ef it f al rom p rincip APM—an les t od be w hich f ollowed w on't in t h e Agile Rev olu t ion f or new pr oduct dev elopm ent prov ides a m odel of b eh av ior valuable t o t he en light ened scholar and pr act it ioner of fivect e phases: Enen vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close tAPM's he proj m anagem t pr ocess." APM ices, including he Pr oduct Vision and ect Dat a Sheet Dav id I . Clelan d, Prtofessor Em erit us, IBox nd ust r ialProj Engineer ing Depar t m en t , School of —Dr . pract En gineering, Univer sit y of Pit t sbu rgh Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

" Prod uct develop m en t in t h e 21 st cent ur y m ust m ove fr om t he wor ld of st r uct ur e and com pliance t o < Day Day Up > one of ag ilit y and r ap id lear nin g. As a r esult , p roj ect m anagement m ust ch an ge f rom t he adm in ist r at ion of t ask s t o t h e flexible balancing of possib ilit ies against const r aint s—' managing on t he ed ge of chaos, ' as t he au t hor pu t s it . This b ook exp lains t he process of doin g j ust t hat and should be t h e fou ndat ion f or change—r ead ab le, f ull of logic, and a sound pr ocess." —Mich ael Kennedy , Pr esident , Prod uct Dev elop m ent Solut ion s/ Aut hor, Produ ct Dev elopm ent for t h e Lean Ent erp rise " This is a w onder fu l an d h igh ly p ract ical book . Wit hin h ours of pu t t ing it d own I w as pu t t ing som e of it s adv ice int o pr act ice. I t ' s a hig hly t houg ht - pr ovok ing book t hat argu es, for inst ance, t hat ag ilit y is • Table of Contents m ore at t it ud e t han pr ocess an d m or e env ir onm ent t han m et hod ology . Because of t h e com plex it y of Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s t oday 's soft w are proj ect s, one n ew pr oduct developm en t pr oj ect can r arely be v iew ed as a repeat of By Jim a Highsmit h oject . This m ak es High smit h' s adv ice t o f av or a reliable process over a r epeat ab le on e p rior pr par t icularly t im ely an d im por t an t . " Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

—Mik Coh , Pu b Dat e:eApr il 0n, 6, 2Pr 00esident 4

Mount ain Goat Soft w are/ Aut hor , User St or ies Ap plied: For Agile Sof t w ar e

Dev elopm ent I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 2 "Pag Jimes: 's 31 book r em oves t he m y st er y ar ound Agile p roj ect m anagement and it s associat ed t echniques w hile pr ov iding a f ram ewor k of d iscip line t hat can be easily app lied t o an y high- t ech developm en t and is not limit ed t o soft war e dev elopm ent . "

—Ken Delcol, Dir ect or, Produ ct Dev elopm ent , MD S SCI EX " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t er at ions are clear t he kn" Iowled ge econom y . "ly t he b est way t o cr eat e t h e in nov at iv e pr oduct s t hat cu st om er s w ant t o bu y. Agile Pr oject Managem en t con t ainsard a wBusiness ealt h of School ideas and in sigh t s about how t o m ake a flexible —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv pr oduct dev elopm ent process w or k. " " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es ael A. Cu su mous an o,proj Prof essor, MI T Sloan School Managem ent / help Aut h or, The Agile —Mich met hod s and r igor ect m anagem en t . Not on lyofd oes t his book us m ak eBusiness sense ofof p roj ect Sof t war e m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " " Pract ical Sr and pr ov ocat adv ice allow s t he reader t o ex am ine Agile pr oject m an ag em ent in unu sual —Ly nn e Ellen, . VP & CI O, ivDeTE Energ y dept h , w hich is w hat set s t his book apar t . Jim opens t h e gat eway t o t he clock wor k s of Ag ile pr oject m anagement does it tuhe sing a g reat or yAgile lin e t Sof hat t twar ak es y ou all ent t he wit way rou gh t he disciplines j our ney. Aof " Finally a b ook t hatand r econciles passion of st t he em ovem h tt hhe needed m ust hav e for an y leadersh ip collect ion. " pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. —Wes Balak ian, PMP, Chairm an an d Execut iv e Adv isor , PMI eBusin ess SI G/ Presid en t TSI " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by " Agile pr Processes, oject Managem t is t he book o su ccessf ully cost br in s. g tThis og et isn't her t w heork t hin eor of com itplex r einf orcing addingendocum entf iratstion , or ftur t her honing g.yHighsm h adapt ive sy st em s and t he pract ice of pr oject managem ent in a usable, 'h owt o' f orm at . The book br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." ofon fersG.a Sm r anitge cr et eNew sug Pr gest ions Dy in cluding, m y fav orit e, how t o dev elop as pr —Pr est h, of pr con incipal, oduct nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct in odu Halfctt hveision Tim e st at ement by cr eat ing a p rot ot y pe of t he f in al p ack age. Agile proj ect m anagem en t also help s t he oject it h ing issues of scalabilit t hr ough of fer specific ions ces on tyailor g t ht oe APM Now , pr one of tmanager he f ield 's wlead ex pert s br ing s yt oget h er all t heing k now ledg esugg and est resour ou nineed use appr oach and by devot ing an en t ir e chapt er t o managing t he larg e t eam . I f y ou' re look in g f or APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly pr act ical ions howmtan o dag eliv t he babou est pr oduct y ou can es. given ormatalically const of addr essing t hesuggest quest ion s pron oject er er s r aise t Ag ile ap pr oach Het he systnem inrtaint rod suces t ime an d b udget , t hen APM is one b ook y ou ab solut ely want t o have on y our book shelf . " t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: —Donn a Fit zgerald , Part n er , Kn owt h Con su lt ing/ for m er Proj ect Direct or f or Proj ect Managem ent Sof t war e, Or acle Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent " I n t h is landm ark book , Jim High sm it h cat apu lt s proj ect m anagem en t int o t he 21 st cent ur y . The book goldm in eon of emer t he essent and p racten ices y ou need t o succeed in deliver ing How 's t o acap it alize gin g nial ew principles pr oduct developm t t echnologies in nov at ion and business v alue on any n ew pr oduct vent u re. " Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong —Doug DeCarlo, Pr incipal, The Doug DeCarlo Gr oup Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " " Jim Highsm it h h as done a gr eat serv ice in t his book by pr ov id ing an easy - t o- read and v aluable rWhich ef erence or pr oject m ef anitagf rom er s wAPM—an ho wantdt w o hich fost erw on't gr eat er agilit y t hr oug h a comm on- sense set of p rojf ect s w ill b en pr act ices." APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close —Kev in Tat e, Chief Pr oduct Arch it ect , Alias APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet < Day Day Up >

Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

The Agile Software Development Series Alist air Cock bu rn and Jim Highsm it h, Ser ies Edit or s Agile sof t w ar eTable d ev elop ment cent ers on four v alu es id en t if ied in t he Agile Allian ce' s Manifest o: • of Contents Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim IHighsmit h ndividuals

and in t er act ions ov er p rocesses and t ools

Work ing soft w are ov er com pr eh en siv e docu ment at ion

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

Cust om er collaborat ion over cont r act n eg ot iat ion I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2ing t o change ov er f ollow ing a plan Respond

The develop m en t of Ag ile soft w are requires inn ovat ion and r esponsiv eness, based on g en er at in g and shar ing k now ledge wit hin a developm en t t eam and w it h t he cust om er . Ag ile soft w are developers draw on t he st rengt hs of cu st omer s, users, an d develop er s, f in din g j ust en ough pr ocess t o balance q ualit y and agilit y . " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " The book s in Th e Agile Sof t w ar e Dev elopm ent Series focu s on sharing t he ex per iences of such Agile —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School dev eloper s. I n div idual book s add ress indiv idu al t echn iqu es ( such as Use Cases) , gr oup t echniques (su ch as collabor at iv e decision mak in g) , and pr oven solu t ions t o d if fer en t pr oblems fr om a var iet y of " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es or ganizat ional cu lt u res. The result is a cor e of Ag ile best p ract ices t hat w ill enrich you r exp er ience an d Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect im p rov e y our w or k. m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " Tit l e s in t he Se ri e s: —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y Alist air Cock bu rn, Sur v iv in g Object - Or ient ed Pr oject s , I SBN 0 - 201- 4 9834 -0 " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ookiv has p rov ided, IaSBN ser v0ice t o all of us. Alist air Cock bu rn, ent Wr.itJim ing 's Effbect e Use Cases - 2017 0225 -8" —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. Lar s Mat hiassen, Jan Pries-Hej e, an d Ojelan ki Ngw eny ama, I m p rov in g Sof t w ar e Organizat ions: Fr om " The w or ldt oofPrpr oduct elopm ent7 is b ecom Pr inciples act ice , Idev SBN 0 - 2015820 -2 ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian guides int o Sof an talt ernat iveelopm t hat ent f it s , t Ihe t im0es." war e Dev SBN - 201- 6 9969 -9 Alist air t ly Cock bu rn,usAgile —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Jim High sm it h, Agile Sof t war e Dev elopm ent Ecosyst em s , I SBN 0 - 201- 7 6043 -6 Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM y our nex t pl roj ect .ble, Jim Alist Highsm it h sh ows wh y And APMy sh ouldPat bet erns in ever mect anager' s t oolkit oroug0hly St ev einAdolph, Pau Bram air Cock bur n, and Pols, for yEff iv e Use Cases, ,t hI SBN addr 20 1- essing 7218 4-t8he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Ann e Met t includes: e Jonassen Hass, Conf igu rat ion Managem ent Pr inciples an d Pract ice , I SBN 0 - 321- 1 1766 -2 Cov erage DSDM Consor t ium and Jenn if er St ap let on, DSDM, Secon d Edit ion: Busin ess Focused Developm en t , I SBN Six pr24inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent 0- 32 1112 5 t o cap it alize emer gin g nieck ew ,prLean oductS oft developm enelopm t t echnologies Mary How Poppendieck an d on Tom Poppend w are D ev ent : An Agile Toolk it , I SBN 0 - 32115 078- 3 Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr aig Larm an, Agile and I t er at iv e Dev elopm ent : A Man ager 's Guide , I SBN 0 - 131- 1 1155 -8 Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Jim High sm it h, Agile Pr oject Managem en t : Cr eat ing I nn ovat ive Prod uct s , I SBN 0 - 321- 2 1977 -5 Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't For mor e inf orm at ion v isit w ww . awpr of essional. com / ser ies/ agile APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close < Day Day Up >

APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Preface When t he Manif est o f or Agile Soft war e Developm en t (w ww . agileallian ce. or g) w as w r it t en in spr ing 2 001, it lau nched a m ovem ent —a m ov ement t hat has r aced t hr ough t he soft w are develop m en t com m unit y; gener at ed cont r ov er and debat e; conn ect ed wit h relat ed m ovem ent s in m an ufact ur in g, con st ruct ion, • Table ofsy Contents and aer ospace; and been en ded ent . Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr eex a titng I nn ovint a tiovepr Project oduct managem s By Jim Highsmit h The essence of t h is mov em en t , w het her in n ew p rod uct d ev elop ment , new serv ice off er ings, sof t w ar e applicat ion s, or pr oject m an ag em ent , r est s on t w o f ound at ional goals: deliver ing innov at iv e p rodu ct s t o blisher: ison Wesley custPu om ers (Add part icular ly in highly uncer t ain sit uat ions) and cr eat ing wor k ing env ir onm ent s in w hich people lookPufor w ar t oil 0com in4g t o w ork each day . b Dat e: d Apr 6, 2 00 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

I nnov at ion cont inues t o dr iv e econom ic success f or count r ies, indu st ries, and ind iv id ual com p an ies. While Pag es: 31 2 t he rat es of innov at ion in inf orm at ion t echnology in t he last decade m ay hav e declined fr om pr odigiou s t o m erely lof t y, inn ovat ion in areas such as biot echnology and nanot echn ology is p ick in g u p any slack . New t echnologies su ch as comb inat or ial chem ist r y and sophist icat ed com pu t er sim ulat ion ar e f undam ent ally alt ering t he inn ovat ion p rocess it self . When t hese t ech nolog ies ar e applied t o t h e "inJim h is onteheofcost a f ew odern rit erbe s who aredow helping us under d t he new n atat u ory re ofanwor novHighsm at ion pritocess, of m it er at ionwcan driv en n dr amat icallyst , an enabling ex plor d k in texp he er kniment owledalgepreconom ocessesy .t "o b e bot h m ore ef fect ive an d less cost ly t han ser ial, specif icat ion - based —Rob Aust in, Assist Praofessor Harv ard pr ocesses. When it tan aktes ph ar m, aceut ical Business comp an y School m ont hs t o d ev elop a ch em ical com poun d an d t est it , err or s are cost ly and caref ul labor at ory design becom es t he norm . Wh en com binat orial ch em ist ry can "crThis he proj ect anagem en t book we' pound ve all been ait ing —t he icat book ect com bintes eat eishtundr eds, if m not t housands, of com s in a wday andforsophist edt hat inst reff um enivt sely can t est hem in Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of a f ew m ore d ay s, car ef ul specificat ion an d d esign can b e less ef fect iv e and m or e cost ly t han car ef p ulroj ect m anagement in t hTh is is cusam rr ent w or ld of at w iv ork e, inincrem Agile m et butcir it 'cu s an all- ar oundand good exp er iment at ion. e dy nam ic itiserat t he ent au talomot iv e, in hods, t eg rat ed it , soft w are, rph ead! " ar m aceut ical ind ust ries. I t w ill soon b e at w or k in y our indust r y . —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y But t aking adv an t age of t hese n ew inn ovat ion t echn ologies has prov ed t ricky . Wh en ex plor at ion "prFinally a breplace ook t hatprescr r econciles heocesses, passion pof t he t war e m For ovem entchemist wit h t he needed disciplines ocesses ipt iv e tpr eop le Agile h av e Sof t o change. t he w ho now m anages t hof e pr oject managem . Jim b rocess ook hasr at p rov ser v ice all of us. " him self , and t he m anager w ho has exp er iment al coment poun din's gp herided t hana design ingt ocom pou nds ) Singham CEO, Thent ought Wor I nc. t—Neville o deal w itR(hoy h undr eds of , ex per im s r at herk s, t han a det ailed, pr escript iv e p lan, new pr oject m anagem en t and org an izat ion al p rocesses are required. Ev en w hen t hese t echnologies an d processes are low er cost " Thehigher w or ld of oduct devt han elopm ent prisedecessor b ecom ings,mt hore yn am and an ag and perpr for mance t heir e td ransf oric mat ionuncer of t ent ain. provMan es dyifm ficult . er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br t lyent guides ernat iveoft hat it s dt he t im ess es." School pr ofessor St efan Thom k e's r ecen t b ook Exillian per im at ion us m atint t eros,anasaltt he t it le Har fvar Busin —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev Pr oduct Halfortmanceh e Tim et oexclaim s ( Thom k e 20 03) , bu t m any p roj ect m anagers ar e st ill m ir ed eloping in a pr escript ivse,inconf plan m ent alit y t hat esch ew s t hat v ery ex per im ent at ion. Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in ymour nex t en p roj Jim Highsm it or h sh APM sh ould be in everwit y m s t oolkit , telopm h oroug hly Pr oject anagem t , ect at .least t hat sect ofows p rojwh ecty m anagement dealing h anager' new pr oduct dev ent , addr essing quest s pr oject an?agI terneeds s r aiset oabou Ag ileorm ap pr syst t rod uces needs t o bet he t ransf ormion ed, b ut t o wmhat be ttransf edoach t o mes. ov eHefast er em , beatmically or e fin lex ible, and t he ag fivephase amerewresponsive. or k, t hen present s oject specific, pr ov enent t ools f or ever part icip an t . en t be gressiv elyAPM custfrom Agile Pr Managem (APM) and yagpr ileoject pr oduct developm Cov erage includes: answ er t his t ransf orm at ional need . APM b rings t oget her a set of principles an d p ract ices t hat enables pr oject manager s t o cat ch u p w it h t h e r ealit ies of m odern pr oduct dev elopm ent . Six pr au inciples Agile ag emmanager ent The t ar get dienceoff or t hisPrb oject ook isMan pr oject s, t hose h ear t y individuals w ho sh ep herd t eams t hr ough t h e excit in g b ut of t en messy p rocess of t u rning v isions int o pr oduct s—be t hey cell ph ones or How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies m edical elect ron ic inst r um ent s. APM r ej ect s t he view of pr oject m anager s as f unct ionaries w ho mer ely com ply wit h t he b ureaucr at ic d em and s of schedules and bud get s and r ep laces it w it h one in w hich t hey Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong are int im at ely in volv ed in h elping t eam s d eliv er pr oduct s. Agile pr oj ect m an ag er s f ocus on p rod uct s and people, noting paperw Cr eat ad ap or t ivk. e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Ther eWhich are f our road ed inAPM—an Agile Prdoject Managem p rojb ect s wt opics ill b encov ef it erf rom w hich w on't en t : op por t unit y, pr inciples, f r am ew ork , and pr act ices. The op port unit y lies in cr eat ing in nov at iv e pr oduct s an d ser v ices—t hin gs t hat are new, diff erent , anfiv d cr eat iv e. These are pSpeculat rod uct s e, t h Exp at can't defined com plet ely in t h e beginning but evolv e APM's e phases: En vision, lor e, be Adapt , Close ov er t im e t h roug h ex per im ent at ion, ex plor at ion, and adapt at ion. APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet The principles of APM r ev olve ar ound cr eat ing bot h adapt ive prod uct s t h at are easy and less ex pensiv e t o change ad ap t iv er pr oject t eam t hat env canirrespond Levan erdagin g you PMI skills in sAgile onm ent sr apid ly t o changes in t heir proj ect 's ecosy st em. The

f ram ew or k is a set of h igh - lev el p rocesses, or phases—Env ision, Specu lat e, Ex plore, Adapt , and Day Day Up > Close—t h at supp ort exp lor at ion an d ex per im ent< at ion and deliver r esult s reliably, ev en in t he face of const ant change, u ncert ain t y, and am biguit y . Finally , t he pract ices—f rom developin g a pr oduct vision box t o get t ing t h e right people—prov ide act ion ab le w ay s in w hich p roj ect t eams can d eliv er result s. At it s core, APM focu ses on cu st omer s, pr oduct s, an d people—deliv er ing value t o cust om er s, b uildin g adapt able pr oduct s, and eng ag ing t alent ed people in collabor at iv e w ork . Jim High sm it h January 200 4 Flagst aff , Ar izona



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s < Day Day Up > By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Introduction Agile Pr oject Managem en t con t ains fou r focal point s: t h e agile r ev olut ion and it s im p act on new pr oduct dev elopm ent ; t he v alues and p rincip les t h at dr iv e agile p roj ect m anagement ; a pr ocess f ram ew or k; and t• he specific p ract ices t hat em body t he pr inciples and deliv er r esult s. Table of Contents Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

Chapt er 1 , Th e Agile Rev olu t ion, in t rodu ces changes t hat ar e occur ring in pr oduct dev elopm ent —f rom cell By Highsmit h w are—and how t h ese ch an ges are dr iv in g d own t he cost of ex perim en t at ion an d phJim ones t o soft f undam ent ally alt ering how n ew pr oduct developm en t shou ld be m anaged. The chapt er ou t lines t he Pu blisher: Wesley bu siness obAdd jectison iv es of APM and how or ganizat ions n eed t o ad ap t t o operat ing in a chaot ic w orld. Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

Chapt er s 2 an d 1-3219 descr I SBN: 0- 32 77 -5ib e t he values and pr inciples t hat act uat e APM. The v alu es wer e f ir st art iculat ed in t he Manif est o f or Agile Soft war e Developm en t , and t he pr inciples ar e d er iv ed fr om t he Man if est o, but Pag es: 31 2 t hey ar e adapt ed fr om a d ev elopm ent t o a pr oject m anagem en t p er spect iv e. Chapt er 2 cov er s t he pr in ciples r elat ed t o cust om er s and p rodu ct s, w hile Chapt er 3 cov er s pr in ciples r elat ed t o leadership an d m anagement . Chapt er 2 will also in t rodu ce y ou t o Herm an an d May a, pr oject manager s f rom dif fer en t com panies an d d if fer en t cult ur es, wh o w ill exp lor e t hr ough a ser ies of ch ap t er openin g d ialog ues som e of t he principles an d p ract ices of APM. " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kner owled econom ." Chapt s 4–8gecov er t heyAPM pr ocess f ram ewor k and in div idual pr act ices. Chapt er 4 descr ib es t he phases —Rob Aust in, Assist anork t Pr—Env ofessor , Harv ard Business School in t h e pr ocess fr amew ision , Speculat e, Ex plor e, Adapt , an d Close—and Chapt er s 5–8 ident ify and describe p ract ices in each of t he phases. " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met andg rLar igorge ous proj iv ect m anagem en t .inNot on lyagile d oesptrincip his book help us mtak e sense Chapt er 9hod , Busildin Adapt e Team s, exam es how les ar e used, oget her witofh p roj ect m anagement in ices, t h is cu ent wAPM or ld t of it er at ivpe, crem entlarg al Agile m ets.hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good addit ion al p ract t o rrscale o larger rojin ect s and er t eam r ead! " Chapt 0, Reliable at ion, h ow APM h elps ad dress t he chang ing nat ur e of n ew prod uct —Ly nnere 1Ellen, Sr . VPI n &nov CI O, D TEunder Energscores y dev elopm ent , su mm ar izes t he role of t he ag ile pr oject manager , and ref lect s on t h e need f or conv ict ion "and Finally b ook hat lem r econciles t he passion t he Agile Sof t war em ovement ent. wit h t he needed disciplines of couraag e in timp en t ing agile p roj ect of m anagement and dev elopm pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

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Acknowledgments All book s are collabor at iv e ef for t s, and t his one is no ex cept ion . Many people hav e cont r ib ut ed ideas, r ev iew s, com m en t s, and in spir at ion t hat have helped m e t ur n my ideas abou t agile p roj ect m anagement in of t hofisContents book . • t o t h e r ealit yTable Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

Alt hough I t ak e f ull r esponsibilit y for t h e cont ent of t he b ook, I had a w onderf ul g roup of r eviewer s w ho By Jimr ib Highsmit h cont ut ed significant t im e and eff ort t o t u rn ing m y dr aft s in t o a f in al p rod uct . I ow e a t rem en dous t hank s t o Ken Delcol, Kevin Tat e, D onna Fit zg er ald, Luk e Hohm ann, Wes Balakian, Mike Cohn, an d Lyn ne Nix .Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

Many people cont r ibut ed t o t h e m at er ial in t h is book . They inclu de Jeff DeLu ca, Mar t y n Jon es, Anne I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Mullaney , Mich ele Marchesi, Norm Kert h, Scot t Amb ler, Doug DeCarlo, Ed Your don, Tim List er , Glen Pag es: 31 2 Allem an , Rob Aust in, Ken Or r, Don Olson , Tom DeMarco, Sam Bayer , Alist air Cock bu rn , Ken Sch waber , Polly an na Pixt on , Ken Collier, Sanjiv Aug ust in e, Ole Jepsen , Gr eg Reiser , Roy Sing ham, Robin Gibson, Ly nda Belhou cine, Bob Char et t e, an d I an Sav age. My special t h an ks goes t o Karen Cobur n, president of t he Cut t er Consort ium , f or her sup port of agile " Jim Highsm it h is ent on ean ofdapfer ewm m odern er sewho st anCut d t he n at uions re ofinwor pr oject managem ission t o winrit clud m at are er ialhelping I w rot eus forunder v ar ious t er new pu blicat t hisk in t he kn book . owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School And last , but ( t o u se t he cliché) not least , my t hank s t o Paul Pet ralia at Addison- Wesley for h is su ppor t "and Thisencour is t he ag proj anagem enen t book we'f or ve her all been for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es emect entman d t o Kar Pasley superwbait eding it ing. Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

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The Agile Software Development Series Am ong t he people con cer ned wit h agilit y in soft w are developm en t ov er t he last decade, Alist air Cock bu rn and I fou nd so m uch in com m on t hat w e j oin ed eff ort s t o bring t o press an Agile Soft w are Dev elop ment Series based ar ound r elat iv ely lig ht , ef fect iv e, hu man- p ower ed sof t war e dev elopm ent t ech niq ues. We •base t h e ser ies Table Contents on of t hese t w o cor e id eas: Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

1 . Diff er ent proj ect s need dif f er ent p rocesses or m et hodologies. Add ison Wesley 2 .Pu blisher: Focu sing on sk ills, com m unicat ion, an d com m unit y allow s t he pr oject t o be m or e eff ect iv e and m ore Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 agile t h an f ocusing on pr ocesses. I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

The ser ies as2 t he follow ing m ain t r ack s: Pag es:h31 Techniques t o im p rov e t he ef f ect iveness of a per son w ho is doin g a p ar t icular sor t of j ob. This m igh t be a person w ho is designing a u ser int erf ace, gat hering r eq uir ement s, plann ing a proj ect , desig nin g, or t est ing. Wh oev er is perf or ming such a j ob w ill w an t t o k now how t he best people in " Jim Highsm is on e ofjobs. a f ewWr mitodern ritiv eres Use whoCases are helping us nunder d t Pat he new at u re of wor in ing Effwect (Cock bur 2001st) an and t ernsn for Eff ect iv e kUse t he woritldh do t heir t he knCases owled(Adolph ge econom y . " 200 3) ar e in div idual t echnique b ooks. et al. —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School Techniques t o im p rov e t he ef f ect iveness of a gr oup of people. These m igh t inclu de t echniques for " This tis t he build proj ect enr ospect t book ivwe' all been w ait ing for —tmak he book t hat t he eff ect iv ely eam ing ,mpranagem oject ret es,vecollab orat ion , decision in g, and like. I m pcom rov bin in ges Agile Sof mett war hod es Or and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect ganizat ions (Mat hiassen et al. 2 002 ) and Sur v iv in g Object - Or ient ed Pr oject s (Cock bur n m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an allar ound good 19 98) ar e gr oup t echnique b ooks. r ead! " —Ly nn Ellen, VP &icular CI O,, successful D TE Energ yagile m et hod ologies. Wh oev er is select ing a base m et h odolog y t o Exeam plesSr of. part t ailor w ill w ant t o f in d on e t hat has alr ead y been u sed successfu lly in a sim ilar sit uat ion . Modify in g " Finally ook econciles is t heeasier passion of creat t he Agile t war e and m ovem t he disciplines of an aexbist ingt hat m etr hodology t han ing a Sof new one is ment orewit efhfect iveneeded t han using on e t hat pr oject managem ent . Jim b ook has p rov a ser us.elopm " Agile andv ice I t ert o at all iv e of Dev ent : A Man ager 's Guide (Lar man w as desig ned f or a d's if ferent sit u at ion.ided —Neville R(,oy ) Singham CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I ent nc. (DSDM Consor t ium 200 3) , and Lean S oft w are 20 04) DSDM: Busin, ess Focused Dev elopm Dev elopm ent : An Agile Toolk it (Popp en dieck and Popp en dieck 20 03) ar e exam ples of m et hodology " The w or lds.of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by book r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br t ly guides an ile alt Soft ernat hat f it s t heent timSer es." Thrillian ee book s anchus or int t heo Ag wive are tDevelopm ies: —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now one of t he, Agile f ield 'sPrlead ingManagem ex pert s br t oget h er allsoft t hewkare nowdledg e and resour ces yibe ou how n eeda tvoaruse 1 . , This book oject ening t , gsoes bey ond ev elop ment t o descr iet y APM in our nex p rojbe ectbet . Jim it h by sh ows wh be in y mices. anager' s t oolkit , t hbusiness oroug hly of ypr oject s tcan t er Highsm managed ap ply in yg APM ag ile sh prould inciples anever d p ract I t cover s t he addr essing t heion quest s pr oject an ag er sof r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces j ust if icat , pr inion ciples, and m pract ices APM. t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . 2 . erage Agileincludes: Sof t war e Dev elopm ent Ecosyst em s (Hig hsm it h 200 2) ident ifies t he u niq ue p roblems in t oday 's Cov soft war e dev elopm ent env ironm ent , describes t he comm on pr in ciples behind ag ile dev elopm ent as exp ressed in t he Ag ile Manif est o, and rev iew s each of t h e six maj or agile appr oaches. Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent 3 . Alist air 's book , Agile Sof t war e Dev elopm ent (Cock bur n 2002 ) , ex pr esses h is t hough t s about agile How t o cap it alize emer g n ew oduct enen t ttechnologies dev elopm ent usin on g sev er algin t hem es: pr soft w aredevelopm develop m as a cooperat iv e g am e, m et hodologies as conv ent ion s about coor din at ion, and f amilies of m et hodologies. Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong You can f in d m or e about Cr yst al, Adapt ive, and ot h er agile met h odolog ies on t hese Web sit es: Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect w illbu b en ht t p : / / alist air .scock rn ef .uits/ f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv hig e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close w ww . jim hsm it h. com APM ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet w ww .pract agileallian ce. or g Lev er. agin g roj youect r PMI w ww agilep mg t .skills com in Agile env ir onm ent s

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Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

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Chapter 1. The Agile Revolution I nnov at iv e Pr oduct Developm en t •

Reliab le ITable nn ovat ion of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

Cor e Agile Values

By Jim Highsmit h

Agile Proj ect Management Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Thr iv ing in a Chaor dic World

Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Ou r Jour ney Pag es: 31 2

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" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

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Innovative Product Development Pr oduct developm en t t eam s are facin g a quiet r ev olut ion in w hich bot h en gin eer s and m anagers ar e st r ugglin g t o adj ust . I n ind ust ry af t er in dust r y—pharm aceut icals, soft w are, aut om ob iles, int egr at ed cir cuit s—cust om er demand s f or cont inuous in nov at ion an d t h e plung ing cost of ex per im ent at ion are •sig naling a m assiv Table eofswit Contents ch fr om ant icipat or y t o ad ap t iv e st y les of developm en t . This sw it ch plays havoc Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve oduct s w ho ar e st ill oper at ing w it h ant icipat or y, pr escr ipt iv e w it h engineer s, p roj ect m anagers, and exPr ecu t iv es m s andh pr ocesses g ear ed t o a r ap idly disappearing er a. By in Jimdset Highsmit Sy m yx creat es and operat es h ighly in t egrat ed, com plet e wor k flows t hat en ab le scien t ist s t o ex plor e t heir ideas t o discover and opt im ize new m at erials h und reds t o t h ousan ds t im es f ast er t han Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 t r ad it ional resear ch m et h ods. These w or kf low s con sist of rob ot ics t hat sy nt hesize ar r ay s of m at er ials I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 on a m in iat ur ized scale, creat in g hu ndr eds t o t housand s of t iny ex perim en t s on one silicon ch ip. Pag es: 31 These m 2at erials ar e t hen rapidly screened in parallel for d esired ph ysical and f unct ional pr opert ies, in clud ing chem ical, t herm al, opt ical, elect ron ic, or m echanical at t r ib ut es. The r esult s are cap t ured in dat abase sy st em s for m inin g lar ge set s of d at a t o h elp scient ist s m ake well- inf or m ed decisions on t he next st eps of t he discover y pr ocess. [ 1] Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

[ 1]

Quote cour t esy of Sy my x Technologies, I nc., www.sym yx .com .

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in tSy hemkn econom y . "t he sp eed at 1 % of t h e cost of t radit ional r esearch . Dr ug com panies u sed t o yxowled boastge s 10 0 t im es —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Precific ofessor , Harv School design com p ounds for sp p urp osesard by Business h av ing scient ist s por e ov er how t o m ak e j ust t he r ig ht on e. Today t h ey generat e t ens of t housand s of com poun ds and t h en t est t hem quick ly u sing ult ra" This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es sophist icat ed, u lt r a-sp eedy t ools such as m ass spect rom et ers. Ther e are n ew pr oduct developm en t Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect econom ics at w ork h er e. m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good rI ead! " 200 2, w hen Alias Sy st em s of Toron t o, Canada, st art ed dev eloping Alias Sk et chbook Pr o, a n m id—Ly nn Sr . tVP O, D TE y rr en t ly wit h Microsof t 's laun ch of it s Tablet PC operat ing syst em , soft waree Ellen, package o b&e CI announ cedEnerg concu t he prod uct managem ent and sof t war e dev elopm ent t eam did n't begin w it h a lengt h y pr oduct plan nin g " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of eff ort . The t eam 's mar ket ing and prod uct st rat egy w ork ev olved ov er sev eral m ont hs, but it s pr oduct pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " dev elopm ent ef for t began early , and in par allel, w it h t he st r at egy pr ocess. The t eam h ad a v ision—an —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. easy - t o- use con sum er - focu sed sk et ch ing pr odu ct w ort h y of a p rof essional gr ap hics art ist —an d a e Novem Micr osofent t lau dat ing e. The p rodu ed uncer in t wow eek it er at ions. For each "deadline, The w or ldt hof pr oductber dev elopm isnch b ecom m ore d ynct amev icolv and t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by it er at ion, a shor t p lanning session ident if ied feat ures t o b e dev eloped. Th en , w it hin t he " plat for m r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm "it h arch it ect e constus r aint he ernat op er at sy st and br illian t lyurguides int so of an t alt ivein tghat f item s t he t imTablet es." PC com pu t er s, t h e pr oduct ev olved—it erat ion by it erat ion. I n t he end , t he p rod uct w as d eliv ered on t im e,t hor m et, Dev higheloping qualit yPrstoduct and arsds, an d thhas been —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau in Half e Tim e a success in t he m ark et place. The pr oduct wasn' t p lanned and built , it was env isioned and ev olved. Alias didn',t one st ar of t wtithe h ant eding archit ect ures, p lans, and ecificat ions—it b eg an w ity houa nveed isiont o use Now f ieldicipat 's lead ex pert s br ing s t oget h erd et allailed t he ksp now ledg e and resour ces fAPM ollowinedy our short ly b y t he f ir st it erat ion of t he pr odu ct . The p rod uct , t he ar chit ect ure, t he plans, and t he hly nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug specif icat ions ev olv ed as t he t eam adapt ed t o t h e ever unf olding r ealit y of t h e m ar k et and t he addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces tt he echnology . five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Wit h Alias Sk et chbook Pro, t he t eam lit erally d idn 't kn ow past t h e nex t it erat ion w hich f eat u res would be in clud ed in su bsequent developm en t it erat ion s. Team m em ber s did have a clear pr oduct v ision and a bu siness p lan. Th eyofdid havPr e oject a g en Man er al ag id ea Six pr inciples Agile em ab entout w hat feat ur es wer e needed in t he p rod uct . They d id hav e act iv e inv olv ement f rom p rod uct m ar ket ing. Th ey did hav e an ab solut e t im e d eadlin e and resour ce exp enHow dit ure raint s. ey did e anprover alldevelopm pr oduct plat archit ect ure. Wit hin t h is vision , t o const cap it alize onTh emer gin hav g n ew oduct en t f torm echnologies bu siness and t echnical con st raint s, and ov er all pr odu ct r elease plan, t hey deliv er ed t est ed feat ur es ever y at ed t het heir cen t plans er of you t hey belongt est in g. The t eam 's pr ocess w as t w o wPut eekt ing s ancust d t hom en ers adapt t o trh pr e roject ealit y, w ofhere act ual pr oduct one of ev olut ion and adapt at ion , not plann ing and opt im izat ion . Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " I n t h e aut om obile indu st ry , Toy ot a em ploys set -b ased desig n in it s design pr ocess—maint aining m ult iple Which p roj ectcom s w ill b en efsitunt f rom w hich w on't desig n op t ion s on ponent il latAPM—an e in t he ddev elopm ent pr ocess. Sim ilar ly , BMW uses simu lat ion s t o im p rov e car crashw or t hin ess. Dur ing one design eff or t , it r an 91 simu lat ion s and t w o r eal cr ashes. The En em vision, Speculat Exp2.lor Adapt Close r esu ltAPM's s wer efiv a e30phases: % im prov en t in designe,and 5 e, days per, sim ulat ed cr ash v ersu s 3. 8 m ont hs ( for sim ple t est s) —and t he 9 1 sim ulat ions cost less t h an t h e t w o r eal cr ash es ( Thom k e 20 03) . APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet All of t hese appr oach es t o p rod uct d ev elop ment point t o a v er y crit ical issu e. Wh en w e r educe t h e cost of Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

exp er iment at ion enou gh, t he ent ire econ omics of h ow we do p rod uct d ev elop ment changes—it sw it ch es Day Day Up > f rom a pr ocess based on ant icipat ion ( def ine, d disciplin ed —but wit h self- d iscip line r at h er t han

Reliable Innovation[3] [ 3]

Coll eague and Har vard Business School pr ofessor Rob Austin intr oduced m e to the concept and ter m " reliable innovation."

Ther e are f iv e Table k ey bu siness object ives f or a g ood ex plorat ion p rocess such as Ag ile Pr oject Managem ent • of Contents (Agi APM) : le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

1 . Cont inuou s innov at ion— t o deliv er on cu rr ent cu st omer r equirem ent s Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

2 .Pu bPrDat oduct ad ap t ab ilit y — t o deliv er on f ut u re cu st omer r equirem ent s e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

3 . Reduced deliver y schedules— t o m eet m ark et w in dow s and im pr ov e r et u rn on in vest m ent ( ROI ) Pag es: 31 2

4 . People an d process adapt ab ilit y — t o r esp ond rapidly t o p rod uct and bu siness ch an ge 5 . Reliab le r esult s— t o sup port bu siness g row t h and prof it ab ilit y " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y." Continuous Innovation —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School As I discu ssed in t h e opening sect ion, d ev elop ing new p rodu ct s and new serv ices in t oday 's comp lex " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es bu siness and t echnology w or ld r eq uir es a m indset t h at f ost er s innov at ion . St r iv in g t o deliv er cust om er Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect v alue, t o creat e a p rod uct t h at m eet s t oday 's cust om er r equirem ent s, d rives t his cont inuous in nov at ion m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good pr ocess. I n nov at iv e id eas ar en't gener at ed in st r uct ur ed, aut h orit ar ian env ir onm ent s b ut in an adapt iv e r ead! " cult ur e based on t he pr inciples of self- or ganizat ion an d self- discipline. —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " Product Adaptability —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. No m at t er how p rescient a per son, a t eam , or a comp an y, t he f ut ur e w ill alw ays sur prise us. For som e " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by pr oduct s, changes in t he m ark et , t echnology , or sp ecific r equirem en t s happ en w eek ly. For ot h er r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h pr oduct s, t he t im ef ram e f or in corpor at in g ch an ges v aries fr om m ont h s t o year s. But for ev ery p rod uct , br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." t he t im efr ames ar e shr in king, an d t he only w ay t o su rv iv e is t o st r iv e f or pr oduct ad ap t ab ilit y —a cr it ical —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e desig n cr it er ion f or a dev elopm ent pr ocess. I n fact , in an agile p roj ect , t echnical ex cellence is m easur ed by bot h deliver ing cust om er v alue t oday and cr eat ing an ad ap t ab le p rod uct f or t om or row . Agile t ech nical Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use pr act ices f ocus on lower ing t h e cost of ch an ge ( adapt at ion ) as an int egr al part of t he developm en t APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly pr ocess. I n an ag ile pr oject , d ev elop er s st r iv e f or t echnical ex cellen ce, an d p roj ect m anagers champ ion addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces it . t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes:

Reduced Delivery Schedules

Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent

As t heHow st attist ics fitor r apon idlyemer shr ingin king developm en t en t imt es in dicat e, r ed ucin g d eliv ery schedules t o o cap alize g npr ewoduct pr oduct developm t echnologies m eet m ar k et w ind ows cont inues t o be a hig h- pr ior it y business goal for manager s and execut iv es. The it er at iv e,t ing featcust ur e-b ased natt ur of APM es t o, rweducing deliver y schedules in t h ree k ey w ay s: Put om ers at hee cen t er ofcont your ribu prtoject here t hey belong f ocu s, st r eam lining, and sk ill dev elopm ent . Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Fir st , t he con st an t at t ent ion t o pr oduct f eat ur es and t heir prior it izat ion in shor t , it er at iv e t imebox es f or ces t eamsWhich ( cust om s and eloper s) t o APM—an car efu llydconsid b ot h t he nu m ber of feat ur es t o include in t he p rojerect s w illd ev b en ef it f rom w hicherw on't pr oduct and t he d ep t h of t hose f eat ur es. Const ant at t ent ion r ed uces t he over all w ork load by elim in at ing m arginally icial f eatEn u res. Second, APM—like it se,lean d ev, elop ment coun t er par t s—st reamlin es t he APM's benef fiv e phases: vision, Speculat e, Exp lor Adapt Close dev elopm ent process, con cent rat in g on v alue- adding act iv it ies and elim inat in g ov erh ead and comp lian ce pract ,ices, t heselect Pr oduct Box and Proj ect Dat awSheet act iv itAPM ies. Third APMincluding f ocuses on in g Vision and d ev eloping in div iduals it h t he r ight skills f or t he p roj ect . Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

People and Process Adaptability

< Day Day Up >

Just as pr oduct s need t o adapt t o m ark et place r ealit y over t im e, so do people and pr ocesses. I n fact , if w e w an t adapt able pr oduct s, we mu st f ir st b uild ad ap t ab le t eam s—t eam s whose mem ber s are com for t able wit h change, w ho view change not as an obst acle t o r esist but as par t and par cel of t h riving in a dy namic b usiness en viron ment . The APM guiding pr inciples an d f r am ew ork encou rage lear ning and adapt ing as an int egr al p ar t of deliver ing v alue t o cu st omer s.

• Reliable Results Table of Contents Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

Pr Jim oduct ion p rocesses are design ed t o be r epeat able, t o d eliv er t he sam e r esult t im e af t er t im e af t er t im e. By Highsmit h Good pr oduct ion processes deliv er t he ant icip at ed result ( a kn own r esu lt ) , f or a st and ar d cost , w it hin a given t ime—t hey e pr edict able, if y ou w ill. Exp lor at ion pr ocesses ar e diff erent . Because of t he Pu blisher: Add isonar Wesley un cer t aint y surr oun din g r equirem ent s and new t echn ology , ex plorat ion p roj ect s can't deliv er a kn own , Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 com plet ely pr e- specified r esu lt , b ut t hey can d eliv er a v aluable r esu lt —on e t hat m eet s cust om er and I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 bu siness r equirem ent s as t hey becom e k now n. Good ex plor at ion pr ocesses can deliv er inn ovat ion Pag es: 31 2 r eliably—t im e aft er t im e. But wh ile perf or mance measur es for p rod uct ion pr ocesses can be based on act ual scope, cost , and schedule v ersus t heir predict ed v alu es, ex plorat ion p rocesses need t o be m easur ed somew hat d if ferent ly . Rat her t han scope, cost , and schedu le, ex plor at ion pr oject s sh ould b e m easur ed on v ision, cost , an d schedule. Didit ht hise on pr oject a v alu ab leerp srodu ( imp lem en tus ed under v ision)st an t o dt he omner Didoft hwor e k in " Jim Highsm e of adeliver f ew m odern w rit whoct are helping t hecust new at?u re pr oject deliver t h e pr oduct wit hin t he cost an d t im e const r aint s placed on t he pr oject ? These sub t le b ut t he kn owled ge econom y . " Chapt er 3 . Th e ext rem ely imp ort ant diff er ences bet w een r epeat abilit y and reliabilit y w ill b e r ev isit ed in —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School bot t om line: APM reliably deliver s innov at iv e r esu lt s t o cust om er s w it hin cost and schedule const r aint s. " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en . Not < tDay Dayon Uply> d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Core Agile Values Agilit y is m ore at t it ud e t han pr ocess, m or e env ir onm ent t han m et hod ology . I n 199 4 aut h ors Jim Collins and Jer r y Porr as ( 19 94) wr ot e Built t o Last , a book based on t h eir r esearch t hat set out t o an sw er t he qu est ion, " What mak es t he t ru ly ex cep t ion al com panies diff er ent fr om t he ot her com panies?" One of t heir • Tablet hat of Contents cor e findings was ex cep t ion al com panies creat ed a fou ndat ion t h at didn' t chang e and st rat egies and Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti I nnpanies ov a ti ve dist Pr oduct pr act ices t h at did: " Visionar y ng com ingusish t heir t im eless cor e v alues and endu ring pur pose, w shou ld hnev er ch an ge, f rom t heir oper at ing pr act ices and bu siness st r at egies ( w hich sh ould be Byhich Jim Highsmit changing const ant ly in r esponse t o a chang ing w orld) . " Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

I t hink on e r eason t hat agile soft w are d ev elop ment has grow n in r ecog nit ion an d use du ring t he last f ew Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 y ear s is t h at t he f oun ders of t he m ov ement st at ed ex plicit ly w hat w e b eliev ed in t he Manif est o f or Agile I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Sof t war e Dev elopm ent . We st at ed our cor e v alues and endu ring pur pose. Why t eam s ex ist , wh at w e 2 w hom we b uild it for , and how we w or k t oget her also for m t h e cor e pr inciples of APM. I f in t endPag t oes: bu31 ild, w e w an t t o build gr eat pr oduct s, we need gr eat people. I f we w ant t o at t r act and k eep gr eat people, we need a gr eat org an izat ion . The cor e v alue of an egalit arian m erit ocr acy r un s deep in t he agile mov em en t . I t is sur ely n ot t h e only core value t hat can p rodu ce pr oduct s, but it is a core value t h at defines h ow t he m ajor it y of ag ilist s v iew t hemselves. " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in in angeage in w hich tWe he liv kneowled econom y . " t he v olu me of av ailable inf orm at ion st u pefies us. On any relat iv ely in t erest in g subj ect w e can find t housand s of ,Web ag es, t en s—ifSchool n ot hu ndr eds—of book s, and art icle af t er ar t icle. —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor Harvpard Business How do w e filt er all t h is inf or mat ion? How do w e p rocess all t his in for mat ion? Core ideology and pr in ciples ov ide m echanism for p rocessing andvef iltall er been in g infworm at ion They st eer tus t he ect ion "prThis is tone he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ait ing for. —t he book hatineff ectdivirely comof binwh esat is m ore,met or less, p ort antous . They usanagem m ak e pen rod ecisions alu athelp e developm t p ractof ices. Agile hod s im and r igor projhelp ect m t . uct Notdon ly d oesand t hisevbook us m ak en e sense p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good inciples, or "r ules" in com plex it y t heor y t erm in ology , af fect how t ools and pr act ices are im plem ent ed. rPread! " Pr act ices are ed out —Ly nn e Ellen,how Sr . pr VPin&ciples CI O, are D TEact Energ y . Grand pr in ciples t hat generat e n o act ion are mer e v apor. Conv ersely, specific p ract ices in t he absence of guidin g p rincip les ar e of t en inappr opr iat ely u sed . While use aofbpr acttices ay v ary ftrhe ompassion pr oject of t eam t o pr oject t eam , tovem h e prent in ciples st an t disciplines . Pr inciplesof "t he Finally ook hat rm econciles t he Agile Sof t war em wit h are t he con needed are t he simp le r ules, t he g en er at iv e r ules, of comp lex hu man adapt iv e sy st em s. pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. The Manif est o f or Agile Soft war e Developm en t [ 4] est ablished a set of four cor e v alues, w hich, w it h a sin glewwor change, t he corent e v is alues of APM: " The or ldd of pr oductf orm dev elopm b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h [ 4] © 2001 by Kent Beck , Mik e Beedle, Ari e van Bennekum , Alistair Cockbur n, War d Cunningham, Mar tin Fowler, Jam es br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." Grenning, Ji m Hi ghsm ith, Andr ew Hunt , Ron Jeffr ies, Jon Ker n, Br ian Mari ck , Rober t C. Mar ti n, Stev e Mellor, Ken —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy Schwaber , Jeff Suther land, and Dave Thomas. nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , W one f ield er 's in lead ingt tex ingde s tv oget h erng all[ produ t he k now ledg and resour ceshe y ou n eed use e aofret he uncov g be e rpert w asy br s of el opi ct s] bye doin g i t a nd l pin g otthoer s APM in nex t p roj tect it hv sh ows ewht o y v APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly doy our it . Th rough hi .s Jim w orHighsm k w e ha e com a lu e: addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces I ndividuals and ionspresent ov er psrocesses Wor fking [ p rod uct s] [ 5]part ov ericip an t . t he five- phase APM fr am ewinort er k,act t hen specific, and pr ovt ools en t ools or ever y pr oject Cov erage includes: com pr eh en siv e docum ent at ion Cu st om er collabor at ion ov er con t ract negot iat ion Respon din g t o change ov er f ollowing a plan. [ 5] The Six pr inciples of Agile Pro's oject Man ag Mani fest wor ding is "em softent war e." I use the word " pr oducts" her e as a m or e gener al ter m .

Tha w hi le t hon er eemer i s vgin al ue i t e m sdevelopm on t he ren igh w e va l ue t h e i te m s on t he le f t Howt t ios,cap it alize g nin ewt he pr oduct t tt,echnologies m ore . [ 6] Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong [ 6]

For an in- depth ex planat ion of the Agile Mani fest o, see ( Fowler and Highsm it h 2001) .

Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " " This shou ld not be const r ued as in dicat ing t hat t ools, pr ocess, docum ent s, con t ract s, or plans ar e un im por t an tp. roj Th ect er es isw aill tbr em enit dous fer en cedbet w eenw on't one t hin g b eing m ore or less im port ant t han Which en ef f rom dif APM—an w hich anot her and bein g un im p ort ant " ( Hig hsm it h 200 0) . Tools are crit ical t o sp eeding dev elopm ent an d r ed ucin APM's g cost fivs.e Cont phases: r act sEnarvision, e v it al Speculat t o in it iate, ingExp dev lor eloper e, Adapt -cu st , Close omer r elat ion ship s. Docum ent at ion aid s com m unicat ion. How ever , t he it em s on t he left are t he m ost cr it ical. Wit hout sk illed indiv idu als, w ork ing APM pract ices, including Prstoduct Vision andsivProj ect tDat Sheet pr oduct s, close int eract ions w itt he h cu omer s, and Box respon en ess o cha an ge, pr oduct deliv er y w ill be nearly imp ossible. Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

While t h ese cor e v alu e st at em ent s wer e or iginally w rit t en f or agile sof t war e dev elopm ent , t h ey ap ply Day Day Up > direct ly—w it h a bit of in t erpr et at ion, an d som e t y pes of indiv idu als: The prob lem t h e creat ors hav e is t hat t hey w an t t o go f or t he big pr ize, t o realize t heir visions in pu re f or m ; an yt hin g shor t of t hat t h ey see as less t h an successfu l. Th e st ewar ds, on t he ot her hand, can't get ex cit ed about an innov at ion un t il … t h ey under st an d how t he econ om ic v alue ( prof it ) w ill be cr eat ed ( Aust in 2 003 ) . St ew ar ds ar e cr it ical t o bu siness su ccess—t hey m anage t he nu mb er s and inv est pr udent ly . Businesses w it hou t st ew ar ds oft en fail in t heir fiduciar y r esp onsib ilit ies t o em ployees, cust om ers, an d inv est ors. How ev er, wit hout cr eat or s, t he st ew ard s hav e not h ing t o st ew ard . Wit h out inn ovat ion—new pr oduct • Table of Contents dev elopm ent , n ew processes and pr act ices, new w ays of creat in g b usin ess v alue—t he st ew ards are left Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s m aint ainin g an emp t y hu sk . Wit hout t he st ab le f ound at ion pr ovided by st ew ar ds, cr eat or s may sp in out By Highsmit of Jim cont r ol. h ThePuag ile m Add ovem su ppor t s individuals and t heir int er act ions t hr ough dedicat ion t o t h e concept s of selfblisher: isonent Wesley or ganizat ion, self discipline, egalit arianism , r espect f or in div id uals, and com pet ency . " Agile" is a social Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 m ov emI SBN: ent dr iv en b y bot h t he desir e t o cr eat e a par t icular wor k env ir onm ent an d t he belief t hat t his 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 " adapt iv e" env ir onm ent is crit ical t o t he goal of deliv ering inn ovat ive pr oduct s t o cust om ers. Pag es: 31 2

< Day Day Up >

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Agile Project Management The cent ral quest ion f or pr oject m an ag er s, pr oj ect t eam mem ber s, and ex ecut ives is, " How does pr oject m anagement add value t o a pr oject ?" Un for t unat ely , m any develop m en t engineers consid er p roj ect m anagement t o be a r oadblock—a hin dr an ce, not a help. Proj ect m anagers ar e v iew ed as ad minist rat or s •w ho p ut t oget Table of Contents her det ailed t ask schedu les, cr eat e colorf ul r esou rce p rof iles, bug t eam m emb er s abou t Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: e a ti ng a ti ves Pr s repor t s f or up per m an ag em ent , not as dir ect m icr o- t ask comp let ion s,Crand wr itI nn e ov ream ofoduct st at us cont ut or s tho deliver ing v alue t o cust om er s. Team s oft en view pr oject m anagem ent as over head . As By Jimr ib Highsmit Mich ael Kennedy ( 2003 ), aut h or of Pr oduct Develop m en t f or t he Lean Ent er pr ise (abou t Toy ot a) say s, " OuPu r blisher: pr oduct developm en t ph ilosophy is b ased m ore u pon adm inist rat ion ex cellen ce t han t ech nical Add ison Wesley excellence, and it ' s g et t ing w orse. " Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

SBN: and 0- 32 1-5 of t he way " ex pr esses t oo m an y pr oduct engineer in g t eam s' v iew of " good" " Buy pIizza st219 ay 77 out Pagmanagem es: 31 2 pr oject ent . Rat h er t h an ov erh ead, pr oject m anagem en t shou ld be seen as off ering in spir at ional leader sh ip f ocu sed on deliv er in g cu st om er v alu e. We have m issed t h is poin t b ecause m any p roj ect m anagement pr act ices and pr oject manager s ar e focu sed on com plian ce act iv it ies, not deliver ing v alue. They ar e pr oject ad minist rat or s, not pr oject m anagers. Cust om ers pay for value; ever yt hin g else is ov er head—necessar y ov erh ead in som e r esp ect s, but ov er head n onet heless. Team act iv it ies or ables it t hat elpe comp ly wm it h g overwnm ens t who r egulat ar e nus ecessary budt tt he h eynew rar ely cust omk er "deliv Jim er Highsm h ishon of a f ew odern rit er areions helping under st, an n atadd u re of wor in v alue. Docu ment at ion t hat conf or ms t o legal requir em ent s may b e necessar y , but it m ay not ad d t he kn owled ge econom y . " v alue—at not dir . St at us r ep ort s assist m anagers —Rob Austleast in, Assist anect t Prlyofessor , Harv ard Business School in m eet ing t heir fiduciar y r esp onsib ilit ies, but t hey d on't add value. En dless m ilest one app rov als may d elude m an ag em ent int o t hink in g t h ey ar e in t heyect don ad d valu "cont Thisr ol, is tbut he proj m'tanagem ene. t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect But how d o w ein mt heasu cu stwomer v alu e at and ect ment anagem enm t 'setcont ribut t h allat varalue? orola's m anagement is cure rr ent or ld of it er iv e,proj in crem al Agile hods, bution it ' st oan oundMot good illf at ed r ead! " , m ult ibillion- d ollar I r idium p roj ect w as a spect acular f ailure in t he mar ket . Meanw hile, t he m ovie Tit annn ic,ewEllen, hich wSras sev&erCI elyO,over dgety an d t im e—and v iew ed b y ear ly pun dit s as a $ 200 m illion f lop —Ly . VP D TEbu Energ await ing r elease—w as t he first m ovie t o generat e ov er $1 billion in w orldw id e rev enue. By comm on Tit an ic of pliance-b ased managem ent pract of bud get , scope, and ent schedule perneeded for m an ce, "com Finally a b ook t hatprr oject econciles t he passion of ices t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem wit h t he disciplines w a f ailu re. Wit hin I r idium was acon ccess pras oject managem ent .som Jime'scircles, b ook has p rov ided sersider v iceed t o aallsuof us. " becau se it fu lf illed t he or iginal specif icat ions. —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc.

All prod sim ilar dem an ds—cust om ering needs, , d ev const change, h " The w oruct ld soff ace pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom m oreprdofit yn am ic elop and ment uncer speed, t ain. Man y mant an ag er s cop hig e by qu alitorcing y —t hat ir e high lev els of com ency mu lt iple dom ains exp erisn't t ise.wTh ese en r einf pr requ ocesses, adding docum entpet at ion , orinf ur t her honing cost of s. This ork in g.oftHighsm it h cont r adict or y const and dst on ct dev elopm ent —speed and qualit y , gr eat fu nct ion alit y br illian t ly guides usr aint int o san altdem ernatan ive hat pr f itodu s t he t im es." and lowoncost u ncert y and predict m nam obilitics/ y and sttab ilit, yDev —hav e creat t h esneed fort hpre oj ecte —Pr est G. , Sm it h, aint pr incipal, New Prabilit oducty ,Dy coau hor eloping Pred oduct in Half Tim m anagers an d p roj ect m anagement pr act ices t h at focu s on deliv er in g v alu e. Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM is set nex of vtalues, p rincip and itpr ices wh t hat assistshpould roj ect s iny com ing t o sgrt oolkit ips w it his hly in ay our p roj ect . Jim les, Highsm h act sh ows y APM bet eam in ever m anager' , ht htoroug challenging mion en ts. pr The cor m e van alues APM abou add ress h tpr h eoach need busyst ild agile, adaptin able addr essing ten heviron quest oject ag er sofr aise t Ag bileotap es.t oHe em at ically t rod uces pr and t he n eed t oew cror eat ile,present ad ap t able develop eams. t heoduct five-sphase APM fr am k,e t ag hen s specific, pr m oven ent t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes:

Agility Defined Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject

Man ag em ent

Ther eHow is not oAgilit cap ity alize for Du onmemer m ies.gin Agilit g n ew y isn' pr oduct t a silvdevelopm er bu llet . en You t t echnologies d on't achiev e it in five easy st eps. So w hat is it ? For m y self, I ' ve charact erized agilit y in t w o st at em ent s: Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Agilit y is t he abilit y t o b ot h cr eat e and respond t o change in order t o pr ofit in a t ur bulent b usin ess Cr eat ing ad env ir onm entap . t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which ectabilit s w illy bt oenbef it f romf lex APM—an d w st hich w yon't Agilit y pisroj t he alance ibilit y and abilit ( High sm it h 2002 ) . phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, , Close I n an APM's uncer tfiv aine and t ur bulen t w orld, su ccess belong s tAdapt o comp an ies t h at hav e t he cap acit y t o creat e change, an d m ay be ev en chaos, f or t heir comp et it or s. Cr eat ing change d isr upt s comp et it or s ( and t he ices, stincluding t he Pr Vision Box Proj ect Dat apet Sheet ent ireAPM m ar pract ket ecosy em) ; respon dinoduct g t o change guarand ds again st com it iv e t hr ust s. Creat ing chang e r eq uir es innov at ion: dev elopin g new pr oduct s, cr eat ing new sales ch an nels, r educing pr oduct Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

dev elopm ent t im e, cust om izing pr oduct s for incr easingly sm aller m ark et segm ent s. I n addit ion, you r < Day Day Up > com pany m ust be able t o respon d q uick ly t o b ot h ant icip at ed and unant icip at ed changes cr eat ed by you r com pet it or s and cust om er s. An exam ple of a pr odu ct dev elopm ent ef f ort in w hich all t h e aspect s of agilit y com e in t o play is t hat of sm all, por t ab le D NA analy zers. Th ese inst r um ent s, w hich ar e st ill f iv e or m or e y ear s aw ay fr om com m er cial deploym ent , could be used f or analy zin g su spect ed biot err or agent s (e. g. , ant h rax ) , m ak ing a q uick m edical d iagnosis, or per for m ing env ir onm ent al bact erial analysis. These inst r um en t s m ust be accurat e, easy t o use, and reliable under w id e- r anging condit ions, an d t heir dev elopm ent depends on br eak t hr oug hs in nanot echnology , genom e r esear ch , and m icr ofluid ics. A half - dozen com p an ies ar e r• acing t o b uildTable ver sions of a DNA analy zer , of t en w it h g rant s fr om agencies such as t he US Nat ional of Contents IAgi nstleitPurtojesectofMHealt h ( Gard ner 200 3) . Dev eloping t hese leading- edge pr oduct s requires blend ing f lex ibilit y a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s and st ru ct ur e, ex ploring in t o v arious new t ech nolog ies, and cr eat ing change f or com pet it or s b y r ed ucing By Jim Highsmit h deliv er y t im e. These are n ot p roj ect s t hat can be managed by t radit ional, pr escr ip t iv e p roj ect m anagement m et hodologies. Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

SomPueb people enly assum e t hat agilit y connot es a lack of st r uct u re, bu t t h e absence of st r uct ur e, or Dat e: Aprm il 0ist 6,ak 2 00 4 st abilitIySBN: , generat es 77 chaos. Con ver sely , t oo mu ch st r uct ur e g en er at es r igidit y. Comp lex it y t heory t ells us 0- 32 1- 219 -5 t hat inn ovat ion—cr eat ing somet hing new in w ay s t hat we can 't fully an t icipat e, an em er gent Pag es: 31 2 r esu lt —occur s m ost readily at t he balan ce point b et w een ch aos and order , bet w een f lex ibilit y and st abilit y . Scient ist s believe t hat em ergence, t he cr eat ion of n ovelt y f rom agent int eract ion , happ en s m ost r eadily at t his " edge of chaos. " The idea of enoug h st r uct ur e, bu t n ot t oo m uch, d rives ag ile m an ag er s t o cont inually ask t he quest ion , " How lit t le st ru ct ur e can I g et away w it h?" Too m uch st ru ct ur e st if les cr eat ivit y . Too lit t le st r uct ur e br eeds ineff icien cy. " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in tThis he kn owled econom need t oge b alance atyt.h" e edge of ch aos t o fost er in nov at ion is one r eason pr ocess- cent r ic —Rob Aust in, Assist t PrThey ofessor , Harv Business m et hodologies oft enan fail. p ush orgard an izat ion s in tSchool o ov er- op t im izat ion at t he ex pense of innov at ion . Agile organizat ions don' t g et lost in som e g ray m id dle gr ound; t hey un derst and w hich f act or s r equire "stThis is t he m anagem en t book beenFor w ait —tinhea book t hat eff ect iv ely bin es ent abilizat ion proj andect w hich on es encour ag ewe' expvelorall at ion. exing am for ple, h igh - change p rodu ct com d ev elopm Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of env ir onm ent , r ig orous conf igu rat ion m anagem en t st abilizes and facilit at es f lex ibilit y j ust as a f ocu ps roj onect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an allar ound good t echnical ex cellence st ab ilizes t h e dev elopm ent ef for t . The concept s and pr act ices d escr ib ed in t h is book rare ead! " design ed t o help pr oject t eam s u nder st an d t h is balancin g bet ween flex ib ilit y and st abilit y. They help —Ly nn Ellen, Sr .ion VPof & wh CI O, Energ y le and w hat t o let var y . answ eret he qu est at tDoTE keep st ab "Agilit Finally b ook t hat rresponsiv econciles et he passion wofit hin t he aAgile war em ovem h t said he needed disciplines y maean s being or flexible fr amSof ew tor k or cont ex tent . Aswit I ' ve elsew her e, " The of pr oblem oject managem entt radit . Jimion 's balook ided a ser all ect of us. " pr wit h many sofhas t w arperov dev elopm entv ice andt oproj m anagem en t appr oaches is t hat t hey —Neville oyowly ) Singham , CEO, Th ought s, It hnc. hav e t oo R( narr def ined t he cont ext ; Wor t hat kis, ey 'v e p lanned pr oject s t o a g reat level of t ask det ail, leav ing v ery lit t le r oom f or agilit y t o act ually happ en " ( Hig hsm it h 200 2) . " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcingatprtocesses, adding ent at ionibilit , oryf ur honing cost isn't orkarineg. Highsm it h Balancing he ed ge of chaosdocum bet ween flex ant dher st abilit y r eq uirs. esThis p eop le wwho g ood br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." im p rov iser s—wh o hav e t he ab ilit y t o deal ef f ect ively w it h t he am biguit y , and t he p ar adox , of pu rsuing —Pr on G. Sm it h, prilar incipal, Pr oduct Dyizat namion ics/ hor , Dev eloping Prov oduct Half t hee e Tim t w o est seemingly dissim goalsNew at once. Org an s coau t hat tsuppor t t hese im pr iserss in hav e t hr k eye t r ait s: Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t heivquest oject an ag er s r aise An adapt e cu ltion ur es tpr h at embmraces chang e abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage Min imincludes: al ru les t h at encour ag e self -or ganizat ion, comb ined w it h t he self- disciplin e t o closely adher e t o t hose rules pr inciples of at Agile Pr oject ag em ISix nt ense collabor ion an d int erMan act ion ament ong t h e pr oject com m un it y t o cap it alize gin gdescr n ewibed pr oduct t t echnologies Each How of t hese t r ait s w illon beemer fur t her in t h developm e chapt ersenon t he g uid ing pr in ciples of APM. Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong

The CrAPM eat ingFramework ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat

respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em "

Which p roj ect b en ef it and f romperf APM—an d wm hich w on't Pr oject m anagem ens t wpill rocesses orm ance easur es ar e d if ferent f or ex plor at ion- and exp er iment at ion- based app roaches t h an t hey ar e f or pr oduct ion- and specif icat ion- based ones. APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculatpr e,ocesses Exp lor e,anAdapt , Close Pr oduct ion- orient ed p roj ect m anagement d p ract ices em ph asize com plet e ear ly p lanning and r eq uir ement s specif icat ion w it h m inim al ongoing change. Exp lor at ion- based pr ocesses em phasize APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet nom inal ear ly p lanning, good en ough r eq uir em en t s, and ex per im ent al design w it h significan t ong oing lear nin g and chang e. Each app roach has it s place, but t he lif ecycle fr am ew or k for t he lat t er h as a v ery Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

diff erent flav or f rom t he f or mer . The APM f ram ew or k consist s of f iv e ph ases, each wit h su ppor t in g Day Up > pr act ices. They ar e Env ision, Speculat e, Ex plor

Our Journey The object ive of t his book is t o out line t he v alu es, principles, and pr act ices of Ag ile Proj ect Management —t o descr ibe wh at I believe const it u t es a b et t er app roach t o pr oj ect m an ag em ent w it hin a specif ic cont ex t , which I will also endeav or t o d escr ibe. I f t h is con t ex t does n ot f it you r org an izat ion , t hen •APM may n ot Table be forofyContents ou. Howev er , if t he con t ext does f it , you m ay f ind t hat t he con cep t s and pr act ices of Agi le P r oj ect M a e nt: Cr ti ng goals I nn ov aof ti vedeliv Pr oduct s inn ovat ive pr oduct s t o cust om er s and im pr ov ing y our APM will help ynag ouem achiev eeyaour ering w ork en viron hment . By Jim Highsmit Many , if not m ost , of t he pr act ices of APM are not n ew . I t erat ive lifecy cle d ev elopm ent , for ex amp le, has Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley been ar ound since t he 1950 s ( Lar man 200 4) . Good pr act ices f or bu ild ing a proj ect com m unit y hav e Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 dev eloped st eadily over t h e y ear s. Fu ndam en t al proj ect m anagem en t pr act ices h av e ev olv ed, and m any I SBN:in0- fast 32 1- -219 77 -5 are useful m oving, rapidly changing pr oject s. Pag es: 31 2

Ther e are f ewer t h an 20 pr act ices d escr ib ed in t h is book . Why , t hen, are t h er e 1 ,5 00- page proj ect m anagement book s w it h d ozen s, if n ot h undr eds, of p ract ices? I s somet h ing m issing here? One of t he k ey concept s of agile pr oject m anagem en t and dev elopm ent is t hat t h e pr act ices, w hen d riven by g uid ing pr in ciples, ar e g en er at iv e, not pr escr ip t iv e. Pr escr ip t iv e m et hodologies at t em pt t o d escr ib e ever y act iv it y p rojHighsm ect t eam do.a The writ it herpsrescript ivehelping ap pr oaches is t hat g et nlost They havkein "aJim it h should is on e of f ew pr m oblem odern w who are us under st anpdeop t helenew at u. re of wor m uch t o ch oose fr om and so lit t le g uid an ce as t o ap plicab ilit y t hat t hey h av e t roub le elim in at ing t he kn owled ge econom y . " ext raneous pract icesanfrtom t h eir pr, oject —Rob Aust in, Assist Pr ofessor Harvs. ard Business School set is of tgener atect iv e m pranagem act ices is m in imwe' al set t hat worw k saitwing ell tfor oget as a syst I t iv d oesn 't prbin escr "AThis he proj enat book ve all been —ther he book t hatem eff.ect ely com esib e ever y t hin g a t eam need s t o do, bu t it ident ifies t hose p ract ices t hat ar e of ext r em ely high v alue and Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect should be u sed ever y pr . By ingent t h ese pract projbut ect titeam w illar"gound en er at e" m anagement in on t h isnearly cu rr ent w or ld oject of it er at ivem e, p inloy crem al Agile mices, et hods, ' s ans allgood ot her necessar y su ppor t ing p ract ices as part of t heir t ailor in g and adapt ing t he set t o f it t heir unique r ead! " needs. ar t in gSrw.itVP h a&minimal setEnerg of p ract —Ly nn eStEllen, CI O, D TE y ices an d j ud iciou sly add ing ot her s as n eeded has p rov en t o be m ore ef fect ive t han st ar t in g w it h com pr ehensiv e p rescr ipt iv e pr act ices and at t em pt ing t o st ream lin e t hem n t oasom et hing (Boehm and Turof nert he 20Agile 03) . Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of "dow Finally b ook t hat usable r econciles t he passion pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " So is APMR(new Well, y es and no. CompWor lex itkys,t heory —Neville oy )?Singham , CEO, Th ought I nc. t ells us t h at biological ag en t s ev olv e by recom bin ing exist in g b uilding block s unt il a diff er ent org an ism em erges. APM in volv es car efu lly select ing ex ist ing bu ild ing act ices t hat have en useful t o prd oject in t het ain. p ast —and link " The w orbldlock of s—pr pr oduct dev elopm ent isprov b ecom ing m ore yn am ticeam ands uncer Man y m aning ag ert hese s cop e by pr actorcing ices t oprcore values, a set docum of g uident ingatpr inciples, concept uals.f ram hat indrg.awHighsm s on CAS r einf ocesses, adding ion , or f ur tand her ahoning cost Thisewor isn't kwt ork it h t heor y tas it s f oundat ion. Th alt e "ernat combive inattion" build ing block s—pract ices, values, pr inciples, an d br illian ly guides us int o an hat fof it s all t het hese t im es." concept ualG.f ram k —result in Agile Pr oject Managem entt hor . APM dr eloping aw s on Pr a rich p srojinect m anagement —Pr est on Smewor it h, pr incipal, sNew Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau , Dev oduct Half t h e Tim e legacy , bu t it is v ery select iv e about w hich par t s of t h at legacy it incor porat es. APM also d raw s on a r ich legacy of m m anuf uring, d ssof t w arheerd all ev elop lit erat e and pr act t h at Now , one ofanagem t he f ieldent 's ,lead ing act ex pert s bran ing t oget t he ment k now ledg e ur and resour cesice y ou n eed t o use in corpinorat es nex a wtorpldv d ideolog foun datwh iony bet t ershsuit edbe t o inm ever obilityy m ananager' d sp eed. APM y our roj iew ect . an Jim Highsmical it h sh ows APM ould s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces APM isn' tphase f or ever yon orew evorerk,y tpr oj ect ; it is snot a univ er best pr act APM k s part w ellicip f oran cer t he fiveAPM fr eam hen present specific, prsal ov en t ools f orice. ever y prwor oject t . t ain pr oblem t yp es, in cert ain t y pes of org an izat ions, wit h people wh o hav e a p ar t icular cult ur al p er spect iv e, Cov erage includes: and for m anager s w ho have a cer t ain w orldv iew . I t t h rives in in nov at iv e cult ures an d on p roj ect s in w hich speed, m obilit y , and qualit y ar e all k ey t o su ccess, su ch as in pr oduct developm en t . APM is not d ef in ed Sixall prset inciples Pr oject Man ag em by a sm of pr of actAgile ices and t echniques. I tent defines a st r at eg ic cap ab ilit y t o creat e and r esp ond t o change, t o balan ce flexibilit y an d st ruct u re, t o dr aw creat iv it y and inn ovat ion ou t of a developm en t t eam , it alize on temer ew prce oduct and t oHow leadt oorcap ganizat ions h rou gin gh gt urn bulen and developm uncert ainten y .t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong < Day Day Up >

Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Chapter 2. Guiding Principles: Customers and Products •

of Contents Herm an Table an d May a

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

Guid By Jim The Highsmit h ing

Pr in ciples of Agile Pr oj ect Management

Deliv er Cu st om er Value Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Datploy e: AprI ilt er 0 6, Em at2iv00e,4

Feat ur e- Based Deliver y

I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

Cham Pag es: pion 31 2 Techn ical Ex cellence Cust om ers and Prod uct s < Day Day Up >

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Herman and Maya Maya, a lit t le t ir ed f rom her lat e- nig ht ar riv al, du cked in t o t h e room ju st as t h e speaker w as get t ing st art ed. Slidin g int o a chair beside a slight ly dor k y- looking gu y—in a suit and t ie no less—she r ef lect ed br ief ly on w hy sh e was at t en din g t h e conf er ence. •

Table of Contents

Agi le P rtoj e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nnst ovopp a ti veedPrby oduct s A mon h ect ag M o,a nag herem boss, Alan, h ad . "May a,

y our last pr oject w ent so w ell, I ' d like you t o m anage Jupit er. I t ' s b ig, comp lex , and t hor ny . Just t he k in d of proj ect y ou want , right ?" Alan gr in ned. By Jim Highsmit h " Rig ht . " May a sm iled back . Herd ing a b unch of sharp , opinionat ed geoph ysicist s, ch em ical eng ineers, an d Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley soft war e dev elopers wou ld k eep her bu sy, but she loved t he challeng e. Also, t he Jup it er pr oject was Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 pr oducing a new lin e of t est equipm ent for t h e oil and gas ind ust ry t hat w ould be pu shin g t h e st at e of t he I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 art . Pag es: 31 2

" Any w ay , j ust so I d on't get accused of set t ing y ou up for failur e, I br ought y ou somet hing, " Alan said as he t ossed a b rochu re f or t he Proj ect Univ er se confer ence on her desk . " You can get aw ay f rom our hot Aust in weat her for a few d ay s. Th e sessions on com plex pr oject s and agile d ev elop ment especially caugh t m y ey e. I nt er est ed ?" " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in " Sur e, sound s lik e f un, " said May a. t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob sAust in, Assist anok t Pr Harv ard er Business School Maya' r ev erie w as br enofessor w hen ,t he speak called for a short br eak , and t h e m an sit t ing nex t t o her slam m ed h is n ot ebook closed. " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es hodas rand r igor ouslook proj ectovmeranagem en ect t . Not "Agile Whatmet ?" May esp onded, ing in his dir ion.on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good " "r ead! Oh , sorr y , " he r espond ed sheepish ly . " Do you t h ink an y of t his agile st u ff r eally wor k s?" —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y Maya look ed at his nam e t ag. " Yes, Herm an, it wor k s. We use a sim ilar ap pr oach at Geo- Tech. I 'm here b ooke tout hat how r econciles t heit passion of tpr heoject Agile t"rFinally ying t oa figur t o scale t o a lar ger . " Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " CEO, Th ought Wor k s,bIled nc. a bit ," said Her m an . "—Neville I gu ess IR( ' moya) litSingham t le lost . ,The p resent at ion r am The wmay or ld be of Iprcan oduct devFrom elopmmy entex isper b ecom ingletm' sore d yn ic aand uncert hr t ain. Man y m ag eratsion copuentby " Well, help. ience, see… , "am May f lipped ough t he pran esent il r einfforcing adding docum , ore'f surat her honing cost cr s. eat This in g. om Highsm she oun d t hpreocesses, slide. " Rem em ber t h is ent slidat e?ion Ther pr oduct vision edisn't wit hwt ork he cust er . I tit'sh a br illian us tint ernat iveect t hat f it s t he t imdes." qu ick stt ly ar tguides m et hod hato gan et saltt he proj u nderw ay in ay s or week s, and it ' s it er at iv e. I t f ocuses on —Pr on capabilit G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New nam ics/ coau dt hor Devwit eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e lot Tims eof in divest idual y an d k now led ge.PrIoduct t uses Dy f eat urebased eliv,ery h fr equent feedback . And collaborat ion an d self - discipline wit hin t h e t eam. " Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use in, yMay our a,nex roj ect . Jimw ord Highsm y APM ould in ever mlyanager' s t oolkit , on t h oroug "APM Sor ry it ' ts pj ust f ancy s. I nitthh eshr ows eal wwh orld, m y sh p roj ect be s are lat e, yug , and generally t h e hly t heing quest s pr m an agYou er s kr aise t Ag ap pr es. He em at ically in t rod uces vaddr er geessing of head soution h ev eroject y m inut e… now abou t he wor ldilew her e oach Mur phy is insyst charge?" t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . "Cov Sound s likincludes: e y ou' ve had som e t ou gh pr oject s. Bu t t his app roach wor k s, f or us at least . Don' t g et m e erage w ron g—y ou h av e t o get some t hin gs r ig ht , b ut if y ou do, t h e rest just sor t of f alls in t o place. " Six we pr inciples Agile Man ag em ent " I gu ess need t oofget ou tProfoject h er e," said Her m an . " The n ex t session is st ar t in g. Cou ld w e gr ab a cu p of coff ee? I 'v e j ust been ask ed t o head up a new Web dev elopm ent pr oject , and m y dev elopm ent t eam t o cap gin ghav n ew oduct t echnologies k eepsHow t elling m e itt alize o lighton enemer up and e mprore condevelopm fidence inen t htem . I don' t see h ow I can. They 'r e m ost ly k ids r igh t out of college, bu t I 'v e got t o get t h is proj ect don e on t im e. I 'm skept ical, b ut I 'm willin g t o list en.Put " t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ingMay ada. ap She t iv e trealized eam s t hat ly t o an gesminakyeour 's "eecosy st em " " Sur e," said t h atrespon t alk indg qt ouick Herm anchwould h erp roj ar tect iculat her ow n ideas m or e clearly . Also, wit h a lar ger pr oject loom in g, she did n't w an t t o pass u p an oppor t un it y t o lear n som et hing Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't t hat might help. APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close < Day Day Up >

APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

The Guiding Principles of Agile Project Management I ndividual k now ledge, t he int eract ion s of k now ledg eable t eam m emb er s, and t he t eam 's abilit y t o lear n and apply new k now ledge dr iv e success. Success in an agile con t ex t is ab out p eop le and t h eir in t eract ion s, not st ru ct ure an d process. An d since p eop le ar e guided by t h eir v alue sy st em s, creat in g •agilit y depends Table Contents on of align ing t h e env ir onm en t w it h t h eir v alue sy st em s—wh ich is wh y im plement ing APM Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: a tisome ng I nn tov a ti ve Pr oduct s w ill be nearly imp ossibleCrfeor eam s an d or ganizat ions. APM is v alue d riven because people are value dr Jim iv en. A t eam By Highsmit h can em ploy agile pr act ices, bu t it w on' t achiev e t h e pot ent ial benefit of agile d ev elop ment w it hou t em br acing agile v alues an d p rincip les. Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Accor din g t o Carl Lar son an d Fr an k LaFast o ( 1 989) , w hose r esear ch is sou rce m at erial for a long list of Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 t eamw or k book s, pr in cipled lead er ship is on e of t he most crit ical of t he eight char act er ist ics of eff ect iv e 0- 32 1219for 77m -5 an ce t eam s, " t h e leaders m an ag ed t h e pr inciples, an d t h e pr in ciples m an ag ed t h e t eams.I SBN: I n highper t eam. Pag " es: 31 2 Six pr inciples, derived fr om t h e core values of t h e Agile Manifest o, g uid e APM ( see Figur e 2 .1 ) . Wit hout t hese g uid ing pr in ciples, even seem in gly ag ile pr act ices—it er at iv e deliver y , for ex am ple—are oft en used in t h e w rong w ay, or even wor se, used such t hat t eam s consider t hem selv es agile w hen t hey aren' t . These gu iding ciples h elp t eam swdrit eterersmwho ine wh pr act ices apst pran opriat generat " Jim Highsm it hprisinon e of can a f ew m odern areathelping us are under d t hee,new n at ueren ew of wor k in pr act ices w hen t hey are necessary , ev aluat e new pr act ices t hat ar ise, and imp lem en t p ract ices in an agile t he kn owled ge econom y . " m anner. The pr inan ciples are d iv, idHarv ed int o Business t wo cat egSchool ories, one pr odu ct and cust om er relat ed and t he —Rob Aust in, six Assist t Pr ofessor ard ot her m anagem en t r elat ed : " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good Fi gu r e 2 .1 . APM Gu id in g Pr i ncipl e s r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close Cust om er Value t hrou gh I nn ovat ive Prod uct s APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Deliv er Cu st om er Value Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

Em ploy I t er at iv e, Feat ur e- Based Deliver y

< Day Day Up >

Cham pion Techn ical Ex cellence Leadership- Collabor at ion Man agem ent St yle En cou rage Ex plor at ion Build Adapt iv e ( Self -Org an izing, Self- Disciplin ed ) Team s •

Simp lify Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

These six pr inciples for m a sy st em - of- pr in ciples—t hey wor k t og et h er ef fect ively. Wh ile separat ely each By Jim Highsmit h pr in ciple m ay be h elpf ul, t he six t oget her cr eat e an env ir onm ent t hat encour ages em er gent r esult s. For exam ple, deliver in g cu st omer v alue an d encou raging exp lor at ion ar e b ot h lin ked t o b uilding selfPu blisher: Add ison Wesley or ganizing t eam s. Th e link age r em inds us t hat t he pr oduct is built by t h e in t er act ions of com pet en t Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 in div iduals w ho ar e const ant ly self -or ganizing . Similar ly , cham pionin g t echn ical excellence and SBN: g0-ex 32 1219 77ion -5 ar e link ed in t hat one key g oal of design should be t o redu ce t he cost of chang e. encourIagin plorat Pag es: 31 2

This chapt er w ill addr ess t he cu st om er - and pr oduct - or ient ed gu iding pr inciples, an d Chapt er 3 will cov er t he managem ent principles. < Day Day Up >

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Deliver Customer Value While t h is may app ear t o be a sim ple pr inciple, one nearly t oo sim ple t o ar t icu lat e, it is one t hat m ust be em phasized over and ov er lest p roj ect t eam m em b er s f org et . When or ganizat ions get b igg er and adm in ist r iv ia incr eases, w hen comp lian ce act iv it ies t ake a lar ger and lar ger por t ion of a t eam 's t im e, • hen t he comTable of Contents w m unicat ions gap b et w een cu st omer s and pr oject t eam m em bers w idens, an d w hen pr oject Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em nt: Cr e a ti int ng erm I nn ov a ti ve Pr s m anagement plan s feocus on inable intoduct er mediat e art ifact s, d eliv ering som et h ing u sef ul t o t he [ 1] cust er geths lost . By Jimom Highsmit [ 1]

I n thi s book , t he ter m " customer " r epr esents a wide r ange of entit ies—com mer cial busi ness- to- business cust om er s,

Pu blisher: Add ison r etail consum erWesley s, and customers internal to an organization. The people i ncluded in each of these instances var y, from those uall y 4use a product, to executiv es w ho approve pur chase, to pr oduct manager s w ho coor dinate cust om er Pu b Dat e:who Apr ilact 0 6, 2 00

inter actions wi th developm ent or gani zati ons. I wil l use the t er m s " custom er team " and " pr oduct manager " to r epr esent I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 all of the potent ial combi nati ons of customer s. Pag es: 31 2

I n d ef in ing cust om er v alue, on e quest ion alway s com es t o t he f ore, "Who are t he cust om er s? Ar e t hey user s of t he pr oduct , or manager s, or ot her st ak eh older s?" A direct an sw er is t hat t he cust om er is t he in div idual or gr oup t hat uses t he creat ed p rodu ct t o generat e b usin ess v alue. This d ef in it ion separ at es cust om ers fr om ot h er st ak ehold er s, so in t his b ook t he w or d " st ak ehold er s" w ill repr esen t t h ese ot her in div iduals he m prodern oject . w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in " Jim Highsmassociat it h is onede w ofitah ftew t he kn owled ge econom y . " I—Rob f we want pr oduct s an t hat eliv er out st and cust om er v alue, t h en w e m ust have a cust om er- dev eloper Aust in, Assist t Prdofessor , Harv ardingBusiness School par t nership, one w it h r esp onsib ilit ies an d accoun t ab ilit y on bot h sides ( and sim ilar relat ionships wit h key supp . Agile t eam s con st an seekwe' cust in volv eming entfor and ar ebook alw ayt hat s asking heelyquest "Is " Thislier is s) t he proj ect m anagem enttlybook veom allerbeen w ait —t he eff ecttiv comion bin,es w hat w e ar e doing useful t o y ou in m eet ing you r business goals?" Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good While r ead! " d eliv ering som et h ing usef ul t o t he cust om er r em ain s par am oun t , k eep ing all t h e part icip an t s in fornn m ed and inSrvolv ed&isCIcrO, it ical success. Senior managem ent may h av e d if ferent pr oject obj ect ives —Ly e Ellen, . VP D TEt oEnerg y t han t he p roj ect spon sors. For I T pr oj ect s, t he pr oj ect sponsor m ay be a m ar k et ing ex ecu t iv e w ho f"ocu ses aonb ook feat ur es rand business alue, w hile IT m anagem ent emm ayovem const r ain proj ect w it hdisciplines of Finally t hat econciles t he vpassion of t he Agile Sof t war ent witt he h t he needed arch it ect ur al r equirem ent s. pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. The su ccess of any pr oduct in volv es m eet ing ex pect at ion s—t hose of t h e ult im at e cust om er, t hose of m anagement an d ent t hose t he ing pr oject t eam it self. There is at ain. big Man d if fery en beterween " The w or ld of st prakeholders, oduct dev elopm is bofecom m ore d yn am ic and uncer m ce an ag s cop e by rr eq uir ement s and exp ect at ions: r eq uir em en t s are t angible; ex pect at ions are int ang ible. Yet ult im it athely , it einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm is t he int ang ible ex pect at ions ag ainst which act u al r esult s w ill be m easu red. Cult iv at ing com mit t ed br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." cust est omon ersG. and olving hem ics/ in dcoau ialogt hor ue ,about bot h r equirem and t h e Tim e —Pr Smstitak h,eholders pr incipal,means New Prinv oduct Dytnam Dev eloping Pr oduct senint sHalf exp ect at ions. As colleagu e Ken Delcol com ment s, " This also includes t h e Kenny Rogers sch ool of m anagin the com mu'snicat w itpert h cu and hsterakeholder s—kn owewh en resour t o hold, f old, Now , oneg of t he f ield leadions ing ex s st bromer ing s st oget all t he k now ledg and ceswyhen ou nt oeed t o wh useen tAPM o walk aw ay , and wh en t o ru n. Pr oject manager s m ust hav e t he b usin ess sav v y t o und er st and t his. " in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces e are t wo part ant issues olv ed in deliver cust omever er vyalue in a part newicip p rodu tTher he fivephase APMicular fr amlyewim orpor k, tt hen presentinv s specific, pr ov ening t ools f or pr oject an t .ct dev elopm ent (NPD) env ir onm en t : f ocusin g on innov at ion and adapt abilit y rat her t han eff icien cy and Cov erage includes: opt im izat ion and concent r at ing on deliver y r at h er t han com pliance act iv it ies. Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent

Innovation and Adaptability How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew

pr oduct developm en t t echnologies

" We liv e tin t im eom w here it y t, er innov at ion , and iv e t h e wor ld, " w rit e Tom Wuj ec and Put inga cust ers atcr teat he ivcen of you r pr ojectim , waginat here ion t heydrbelong Sandr a Muscat (2 002 ). Cr eat ing new p rodu ct s and serv ices dif fer s f rom mak in g m inor enhancem ent s t o apftirivste m t eam t hats on respon d at q uick t o ad chap antges p roj 's " ecosy st em "f ocu ses on exist inCrgeat oning es. ad The ust sf ocu in nov ion ly and ab ilitiny ,y our w hile t h eect second usually eff icien cy and opt im izat ion. Eff icien cy deliv er s p rod uct s and serv ices t hat w e can t hink of . I nnov at ion Which roj sect APM—an hichcyw on't deliv er s p rodpuct t hsatw ill w eb en canef bit arf rom ely im ag ine. d Effwicien and opt imizat ion are app rop riat e dr iv er s for a pr oduct ion pr oject , w hile innov at ion and creat iv it y should dr iv e an ex plorat ion- t y pe pr oject . A pr odu ct ion APM's e phases: vision, e, Expdoable. lor e, Adapt , Close m in dset canfiv rest rict ou r En v ision t o wSpeculat hat appears An ex plorat ion m indset helps us ex plore what seem s im possible. APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Op t im izat ion im plies t hat we alr eady kn ow how t o do somet hing but t hat we now need t o im prov e it . Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

I nnov at ion im plies t hat w e don 't k now how t o do som et h ing , and sear chin g for t h at k now ledge is Day Up > par am oun t . No p roj ect , no pr oduct developm en< t Day ef for t is all on e w ay or all t he ot her, but pr oject m anagers (t eam m em bers, cu st om er s, and execut iv es) should u nder st an d t h is fun dament al d if ference w hen d eciding how t o plan and m an ag e t heir proj ect s. The cu st om er v alu e goal of APM h as t w o equally cr it ical comp onent s: cr eat ing in nov at iv e pr oduct s t hat deliv er out st anding cust om er valu e t oday and t omor r ow. The and t om orr ow phr ase speak s t o t he need f or ad ap t ab ilit y , w hich in t ur n sp eak s t o t he im por t an ce of t echnical ex cellence. Pr odu ct s t hat meet t oday 's cust om er requir em ent s but can not ad ap t easily t o f ut ur e n eeds are d oomed t o short life spans. APM's core pur pose of cr eat ing in nov at iv e new pr odu ct s and serv ices m eans d ealing w it h const ant • Table of Contents t echnological and com pet it ive change, g en er at ing nov el id eas, and cont inually r educing pr oduct Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s dev elopm ent sch ed ules. Th e cor e pur pose is n ot r educin g cost , alt hou gh t hat m ay happ en , or gainin g By Jim Highsmit eff icien cy, althhoug h t hat m ay happ en also. How ev er , t h er e are t im es w hen ev en t he m ost inn ovat ive t eam needs t o br in g a bit of eff icien cy t o t heir pr oj ect —all part of t he b alancin g act t hat m ak es pr oject m anagement Pu blisher: Addin ison t er Wesley est in g, and diff icult . Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31and 2 Planning Control to Execution

When proj ect m anagers focu s on deliv er y , t hey add v alue t o pr oj ect s. Wh en t hey f ocus on p lanning and cont r ol, t hey t end t o add ov erh ead. [ 2] [ 2]

Ken Delcol in NPD you are needhelping both, andusthe t ri ck st i s an baldance, hich n changes t hrwor oughk t in he " Jim Highsm it h isobser on e ves, of a" The f ewr eality m odern w ritiserthat s who under t he wnew at u re of dev elopm ent lifecycle. Most people don't get this." t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob t Pr ofessor , Harv ard A quickAust revin, iewAssist of t h eangener al m anagem en t Business lit er at u re School u ncov er s h und reds of book s on leadersh ip and

st r at egy , b ut int er est ingly enoug h, v ery few on how t o act ually execut e. Ram Charan, a dist ing uish ed " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es aut hor and consu lt ant t o CEOs, echoes t his observ at ion . " As I f acilit at ed m eet in gs at t he CEO and d iv ision Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect lev els, I wat ched an d st udied , and I saw t hat lead er s p laced t oo m uch em ph asis on w hat som e call hig hm anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good lev el st rat egy , on in t ellect ualizin g an d p hilosophizing , and not en ough on im plement at ion" ( Bossid y and r ead! " Char an 20 02) . —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y Wit h r esp ect t o proj ect m anagem en t , Gr eg How ell and Laur i Koskela ( 2001 ) ar gue t hat t r adit ional pr oject " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of m anagement pr act ices f ocus t oo m uch on managem ent - as- p lanning and a t her most at m odel for cont r ol, pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " and not en ough on wh at t he maj or pr oject managem ent f ocus should b e—ex ecut ion . —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. Accor din g t o Howell an d Kosk ela, t he com m on p roj ect m anagement appr oach is com posed of t hr ee " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by pr ocesses t hat ex change inf orm at ion —plann ing , cont r ollin g, and execut ing. I n const r uct ion proj ect s, t hey r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h see sever al t r oub ling asp ect s of t radit ion al p lanning. First , t he m ot ivat ion f or planning oft en comes fr om br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." out side t h e pr oject ; t h at is, plan s are developed t o sat isf y legal, regu lat or y, or m an ag em ent —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e r eq uir ement s r at h er t han b eing based on t h e wor k t h at needs t o be accom plished. Secon d, t h e m ot iv at ion t o plan of t en r elat es m ore t o t h e desir e f or cont r ol t han t he needs of act u al w or k execut ion, Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use per haps b ecause t he people planning t he w ork ar e n ot inv olv ed in t he d oing of t he wor k . This h ap pens APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly const ant ly in sof t war e dev elopm ent , w her e t he t ask - based p lanning t hat proj ect m anagers use f or cont r ol addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces has lit t le r elat ion ship t o how sof t war e engineer s r eally wor k . Third , plan nin g an d con t rol becom e t h e focal t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . point s; ex ecut ion is considered of m inor im por t an ce, an d legit im izing t he p roj ect t ak es pr ecedence ov er Cov erage includes: pr oducing result s. Cont r Six ol has h ist or ically centPr ered onMan corrag ect ion r at h er t han lear ning, b ecause plans wer e v iew ed as pr inciples of Agile oject em ent r easonably cor rect , and t r an slat in g t h e plan int o act ion was con sider ed a sim ple pr ocess. Wit ness t he conv ent iontal " w isd om" on t hat congin st rug ct it self (cardevelopm pent r y, elect plum bing, et c. ) is m er ely m anual, How o cap it alize emer n ion ew pr oduct en t trical, echnologies m ech an ical w ork w it hout m uch decision m aking or cr eat ivit y ( j ust f ollow t he plans) or t hat sof t w ar e pr ogr Put am m ingcust is just coding whcen at ' st er specified plans, are v iew ed as corr ect , t hen cont r ol focuses on f ix ing t ing om ers at t he of you r. Iprf oject w here t hey belong m ist ak es and ex plaining discrepancies, not lear ning somet h ing new t h at m igh t legit im at ely alt er t he eat ingprob ad ap t ivse wt eam q uick t o rch ges e in iny ap ourprpopriat roj ecte'sm" an ecosy st em plan s.CrOt h er lem it h t hs ist hat h istrespon or ical vdiew of ly cont ol an in clud ipu lat ion" of w or k in or der t o m eet t h e plan , redu ced possibilit ies f or collab orat ion, incorr ect int erp ret at ion of p er for m ance, Which p rojt ect s wise ill b ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't and reluct ance o rev p en lans. APM's fiv e phases: En vision, e, Exp e,d-Adapt Close APM is an execut ion- biased m odel,Speculat not a plann inglor - an cont r,olbiased m odel. I n APM, t h e pr oject m anager' s pr im ar y role is t o facilit at e cr eat ion of a pr oduct v ision and gu ide t he t eam t ow ard m aking t hat pract Vision Boxand andcont Proj ectprDat a Sheet v isionAPM a realit y, ices, not t including o d ev elop t he planPrsoduct and schedules r ol ogress such t hat t h e " plan" is im p lem en t ed . Howev er, we need t o int er pr et t he for goin g ideas caref ully —APM is not an ant i-p lanning Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

m odel. Planning ( an d con t rol) is an int eg ral part of APM; it is just not t he f ocal poin t . As w it h m any < Day Day Up > aspect s of agile d ev elop ment , t here is a w ide gap b et w een on e t hing bein g less im por t an t t h an som et hin g else and being un im p ort ant . On ce pr oject t eam s f ocus on ex ecu t ion , a nex t cr it ical st ep is t hen t o concen t rat e on v alue- adding act iv it ies, t hose t hat assist t he t eam in d eliv ering r esu lt s, r at her t han t hose t h at m er ely en su re com pliance.

Delivery versus Compliance •

Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

APM is f ir st an d f or em ost ab out d eliv ery —d eliv ering result s and deliv ering value t o cust om er s. Too m an y By Highsmit h pr Jim oject manager s, t oo many pr oject of fice m emb er s, t oo m an y or ganizat ions h av e d rift ed t owar d com pliance as t h eir pr im ary , if of t en imp licit , f ocus. Comp lian ce act iv it ies, at t heir best , at t emp t t o m it igat e t heAdd risk m ist ak es, fr aud, poor per for mance, and f in an cial over ru ns. Managers w an t r ep ort s. Pu blisher: isonofWesley Account an t s w an t n um Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 bers. Audit ors want sig n- off s. Gov ern ment al agencies want docu ment s. St andard s gr oups ( I SO, SEI , and ot h er s) w ant p roof of com pliance. Leg al d ep ar t m ent s w ant ev ery t hing. Failur e t o I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 diff erent iat e bet ween deliver y and com plian ce r esult s in ev er -incr easing comp lian ce wor k —pr oducing Pag es: 31 2 docum ent s for r egulat ors, lawy ers, or m an ag em ent —w hile d eliv ering pr oduct s falls t o secondar y pr ior it y . I n on e of m y f av or it e b ooks, Sy st em ant ics: How Sy st em s Wor k and Especially How Th ey Fail , John Gall ( 197 7) war ns again st t h e risin g t ide of "sy st em ism " —" t he st at e of m indless belief in syst em s; t h e belief t hat syst em s can be m ade t o f unct ion t o achiev e desir ed goals. " Gall's point is t hat " t he fun dament al oblem does lie einofany partmicular t r atare herhelping in sy st em as such sy st he "prJim Highsm it hnot is on a f ew odernsywstritem er sbu who us sunder st an. "d These t he new n em at u srebecom of worek t in r at h er tge haneconom t h e m ean tgoal he kn owled y . " s t o a goal. —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School Adh er ent s of t hese " syst em ism s" w ould ar gue t hat im plem ent in g t hese pr ogr am s should not result in losing of t he y goal r atve herallt han Bu—t t Gall poin t tshat outeff how t his " This ist rtack he proj ect pr mimar anagem en t( result book swe' beenprwocess) ait ing . for he book ect iv ely subv com ersion bin es becommet es hod in evsit and ab le rtigor h rouous gh proj t wo ect of his ax iom s:en1t). "Not Sy ston em t o Ex pand t o Fill t he n Univ Agile m anagem ly sdTen oes dt his book help us m ak Know e sense of per rojse" ect and 2) " Sy st em t oent Oppose Pr oper Fuent nctal ionAgile s, Especially Connect it hound t h e good m anagement in st hTend is cu rr w or ld Their of it erOwn at iv e, in crem m et hods,inbut it ' s anion all-war rPhenom ead! " enon of 'Ad m inist rat ive Encirclem ent ' " ( Gall 1 977) . —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y Consider, for ex amp le, t he rou nds of pr ocedu res an d m oun ds of d ocum en t at ion t hat ar e r eq uir ed t o gain I" SO or CMM certt hat if icat ion. I w ork ed passion w it h a comp y t hatSof had w or kar oundent aftwit er h w or karneeded ound t odisciplines cir cum vent Finally a b ook r econciles t he of t heanAgile t war em ovem t he of it I SO processes. Chang he st an dard pr ocesses buof rdensom e t hat ev er y one used prsoject managem ent . Jiming 's btook has p rov ided a ser vwas ice t osoall us. " w ork arou R( nds. ever , ,t hey d id e one —Neville oy )How Singham CEO, Thhav ought Worsolut k s, I ion nc. f or t he volum es of p rocess docu ment s—a sophist icat ed au t om at ion syst em in wh ich ju st t he list of pr ocesses went on for page aft er p ag e aft er " The wIorex ldamined of pr oduct devitelopm ent is ecom ing m ore yn am ic and unceraudit t ain.s)Man y m an s cop by page. an aud or 's repor t ( bI SO cert ificat ion drequ ir es periodic of som e 1ag 0 er p ag es tehat r einf pr ocesses, adding docum entas at ion , oresf ur s. m This w ork in g.ofHighsm w er eorcing f illed wit h comp lian ce issues such failur t ot her signhoning or d at ecost a for or isn't t he absence som e it h br illian tent ly guides intnootana alt ernatsub ive stt hat f ites deliv t he tery im es." docum . There us was single an t iv issue m ent ioned in t he r epor t ! Managers had t o —Pr estton h, prt incipal, Pr toduct ics/ Dev eloping s in wHalf Timt he ese spend imeG.anSm alyitzing his aud itNew repor and tDy h ennam w rit in gcoau anott hor h er, repor t abou tPrhoduct ow t hey ouldt hkeeep t err ib le t hin gs f rom happening again, wh en of cour se t heir only concern w as t o placat e t he au dit or s, n ot Now , one t he 's lead ing ent ex pert br ing oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use t o mak e mof ean ingf ield ful im pr ovem s inst he sy ssttem. APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr pr oject m an er sr un r aise t Agev ileerap syst em ateically in t rod uces Clearessing ly , t hist he comquest panyion ' s IsSO " sy st em " ag had am abou ok . How , tpr heoach sy stes. emHe had becom so ingr ain ed in t he fiveAPM m fr aint am ew or k, t hen present s ch specific, ov enhat t ools or ever pr oject part icipbur an tden . compphase an y—and ainin g cer t if icat ion su a mantprr a—t g et tf ing out yf rom u nder t he was Cov pr overage ing exincludes: ceedingly diff icult . Th is illust r at es Gall's first ax iom, wh ich says syst em s t end t o exp an d t o f ill t he kn own un iv erse. Once un derw ay, syst em s b ecom e v ery dif ficult t o change, and com pliance, not deliv er y , becom es t he goal. At t he poin t w her e emp loy ees ar e t r y ing t o deliv er r esult s, t hese sy st em s ar e Sixuniver pr inciples Pr ojectt hMan ag pede em entp rogr ess. The sy st em s, as Gall say s, inevit ably t en d t o alm ost sally hof at Agile ed because ey im opp ose t heir ow n pr oper fu nct ion ing . How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Pr oject m anager s need t o r eliev e t he pr oject t eam f rom as m uch comp lian ce w ork as possible, even if Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong t hat means t ak ing on t he t ask s t hem selv es. Sever al y ears ag o, w hen t alking t o a pr oject manager of a v er y su ccessf ul CMM Lev el 5–cert if ied sof t w ar e d ev elop ment or ganizat ion , I ask ed him about all t h e Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " docum ent at ion, m et rics, and repor t ing wor k t h at w en t int o cer t if icat ion . " Oh ," he said , " I t ak e care of m ost Which of t h atpm self. The elopm entAPM—an t eam need t o concent rojy ect s w ill bdev en ef it f rom d wshich w on't rat e on t h e r eal w ork . " Build ing pr ocess f ram ew or t hat don' t succum b lor t o e, Gall' s ax,iom s is dif ficult . Agile f r am ewor k s d o need APM's fiv e phases: Enks vision, Speculat e, Exp Adapt Close m in im al docum ent at ion and a m ech an ism t o conv ey k now ledge ab out proj ect success and f ailu re t o ot her sAPM in t hpract e or ices, ganizat ion. Thet he an swer isn'tVision eliminat g eitProj her ect docum at ion or p rocess, bu t appr oachin g including Pr oduct Boxinand Dat ent a Sheet bot h f rom a sim plif ied, lean, bar ely suf ficient , ju st -enou gh persp ect ive. St ream lin ing p rocesses, t ar get ing a lev el oferbar e suf ficiency and recogn izinenv g tirhe diffent erence b et ween com pliance an d d eliv ery act iv it ies Lev agin g you r PMI, skills in Agile onm s

( alt hou gh some act iv it ies hav e aspect s of bot h t h at aren' t alw ay s easy t o separ at e) will pay b ig dividends Day Day Up > in d eliv ering v alue t o cust om ers fast er and at a< lower cost .

Lean Thinking Many of t h e id eas of t he agile m ov ement f ir st ar ose wit hin lean m anuf act uring, wh ich began in t he aut om ot iv e indu st ry in Jap an in t he 19 80s. One of t h e f undam ent al t en et s of lean m an ufact ur in g is t he sy st em at ic eliminat ion of w ast e; t hat is, any act ivit y t h at doesn' t deliv er value t o t he cu st omer . On e w ay t o st reamlin e pr oject s (d oing f ew er t hings, doin g t h e r igh t t h ing s, elim inat in g b ot t leneck s) in volv es • Table of Contents diff erent iat ing bet w een deliv er y act iv it ies and com pliance act ivit ies and app ly ing app ropr iat e st rat egies t o Agi le P[ r3] oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s each . By Jim Highsmit h [ 3]

For backgr ound infor m ation i n thi s area, although t he aut hor s don't r efer to compli ance or deliver y activ ities, see ( Womack and Jones 1996) .

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Pu blean Dat e: m Apr il 0 6,act 2 00 While anuf u 4ring ideas h av e b een used in t he Unit ed St at es for a while, lean pr odu ct I SBN: 032 1219 77 -5 dev elopm ent ideas, especially t hose of Toyot a, have gained less r ecognit ion. The Toy ot a d ev elop ment sy st em Pagoff es:ers 31 2huge pot ent ial p rodu ct iv it y gains by elim in at ing non- v alu e- adding com pliance act iv it ies—many org an izat ion s st and t o incr ease t h eir pr oduct iv it y t hr ee t o four t im es! Allen Ward is t he m an r esponsible for br inging many of t he ideas f rom Toy ot a's lean pr oduct developm en t sy st em t o t he US. When War d ask s Toy ot a's Am er ican engineer s an d m anagers how m uch t im e t hey spend adding v alue ( i. e. , act ually d oing engineering wor k ) , t heir response av erages 80% . The sam e quest ion ask ed of engineer s an d m anagers at Am erican aut om ob ile comp an ies av erages 2 0% . How can y ou com pet e wit h " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in com panies t hat ar e get t ing four t im es as m uch v alue- adding wor k f rom t heir d ev elop ment engineer s? t he kn owled ge econom y . " ( Kennedy 2003 ) —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School

Tr y t his sur v ey in y our or ganizat ion, bu t b e pr ep ar ed for a sh ock. Ask y our ent ire st af f or y our pr oj ect " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es t eam, including m an ag er s, h ow m uch t im e t hey sp en d d oing eng ineering or dev elopm ent act iv it ies—h ow Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m uch t im e d o t h ey sp en d ad din g v alu e t o t h e cust om er? How m any of y our " im prov em en t " init iat iv es m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good ( CMM, I SO, Six Sigm a, TQM, BPR) hav e j ust ad ded layer aft er layer of f orm s, p rocedur es, m eet ings, an d r ead! " appr ov als t o t eam s t ry ing desperat ely t o pr oduce somet hing usefu l? Too m uch st r uct ur e not only k ills —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y in it iat iv e and in nov at ion, it con sum es enorm ou s chun ks of t ime. Th e fu ndam ent al issue is n ot t h at t hese in it iat iv es because ar e not but t hatSof t h ey fuendam en t ally value st r needed uct ur e ov er ind iv id ual " Finally a bare ookvalu t hateless, r econciles t het hey passion of t,he Agile t war m ovem ent wit h t he disciplines of kprnow ledge an d capabilit y . And t hat ' s w hy t h ey ar e so dif f icult t o im plement —people feel devalu ed . oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. The issues su rr ound ing deliv er y v ersu s com pliance act iv it ies h av e sp ecial significan ce for proj ect m anagers. p roj ect an ag er s need t o aning alym zeore pr oject act iesuncer t o m taxim e an spent deliver " The w or ld Fir of st pr,oduct devmelopm ent is b ecom d yn am icivit and ain. ize Mant im y m ag eron s cop e by y. Second, proj ect m anagers m ust analyze t heir ow n act iv it ies t o d et er m ine wh et h er t hey are con t ribut r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h ing tbr o illian deliver or comuspliance. ex amive ple,t hat w hen pr oject m an ag er cr eat es a st at us r epor t f or m an ag em ent , t ly yguides int o anFor alt ernat f it sat he t im es." she is " com plying" w it h a m anagement dict um . How ev er , wt hor hen, sh e is coord Pr inat ing tshe iv itt hies b et w —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau Dev eloping oduct in act Half e Tim e een t w o f eat u re t eam s or assist ing a t eam in r each ing a cr it ical design decision, sh e is cont r ib ut in g t o deliv y —she addf ield s v alue t oing t heex deliver ocess. Now ,erone of t he 's lead pert s ybrpr ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly Lean t hin king ovides ew ay t omseparat eliv ery fr tom pliance wem hich t ur ninenables addr essing t heprquest ionon s pr oject an ag er se rdaise abou Agcom ile ap pr oachact es.ivit Heies, syst at in ically t rod uces com panies t o op t im ize deliv er y act iv it ies ( Wom ack et al. 1 990; Wom ack an d Jones 1996 ) . Theanfou t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip t . r t en et s of lean t hink ing are: Cov erage includes: 1 . Specif y v alue of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent Six pr inciples 2 . IHow denttifoy cap t h eit valize alue on st r emer eam gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies 3 . Flow Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong 4 . Pull Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Valu eWhich can onply e defined byeft it hef rom ult imAPM—an at e cust d om it is ex pr essed in pr oduct t erm s—cust om er rojbect s w ill b en wer, hichanwdon't needs, p rice, t im e, and qualit y . The cust om er in t his analy sis is alw ay s t he end consum er , one ou t in t he m ark et place. ify in g En t h vision, e w rongSpeculat cust ome, er Exp ( e. g. in tAdapt er nal ,mClose anagement ) can lead t o misin t er pr et at ion APM's fivIedent phases: lor, e, of m ark et place v alu e. APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet A value st r eam con sist s of t he act iv it ies r equired t o b ring a pr oduct t o cust om er s: p rodu ct dev elopm ent , or der Lev pr ocessing t hr ough y , Agile pr oduct an ufent act su ring. Each of t h e specif ic act iv it ies is t hen an aly zed er agin g you r PMI deliv skillserin env m ir onm

t o det er m in e wh er e it add s v alue an d w her e it doesn' t . < Day Day Up >

Flow t hink in g encou rages ev ery one—m anagers an d st af f—t o abandon t he t radit ion al b at ch -and - queue m ode of t h ink ing for t h at of sm all-lot f low . I n ot her w ord s, w hat ev er t he st ep , k eep act iv it ies f low ing f rom one t o t he next w it h out d elays for app rov als or w ait in g f or t he next depar t ment . For ex amp le, a d ru g dev elopm ent t eam u sing r apid ex periment at ion t ech niq ues w ould not be ex hibit ing f low if it const ant ly had t o w ait for lab t est ing result s. Finally , pull t hink ing m eans w ait ing for cu st omer s t o ask for p rod uct s, r at h er t han b uilding a lar ge in vent ory and t h en " push ing " pr oduct t o cust om er s. Dell Comp ut ers operat es a pull syst em , w ait ing unt il a cust om er 's order " pu lls" t he prod uct t hrou gh t he sy st em .[ 4] •

Table of Contents

Agi le P[ 4] r ojFor ect m More a nag e nt:Developm Cr e a ti ng ent I nn,ov a ti(ve Pr oducteck s and Poppendieck 2003) . onem Lean see Poppendi By Jim Highsmit h Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Necessary Compliance Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32t177e-5t hat t here ar e g ood r eason s f or som e com p liance act iv it ies—w e j ust need t o keep I t is imp ort ant o219 not es: im 31 2peding pr ogr ess. Proj ect m anagers can add v alue t o a pr oj ect by h an dling com pliance t hem Pag f r om issu es well.

Ev ery organizat ion, ev er y com pany , ever y pr oject t eam h as legit im at e com pliance issues. For ex am ple, in t he au t omot iv e in dust r y , an enor m ous volum e of docu ment at ion mu st be ret ain ed f or pot ent ial p rod uct liabilit y law su it s an d gov er nm ent cr ash inv est igat ions. I n t he p harm aceu t ical in dust r y, comp an ies m ay " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in decr y US Food and Dr ug Adm in ist r at ion ( FDA) in ef ficiencies, but few consu mer s w ould w ant t o b uy dr ugs t he kn owled ge econom y . " un fet t ered by f ederal r eg ulat ion. Ex ecut ives have a respon sibilit y t o shareholders, em ployees, and —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School cust om ers t o ex ercise ov er sig ht , w hich m ay t ak e t he for m of audit s, pr oj ect st at us r epor t s, pur chasin g policies, or cer ions. " This is t he projt ificat ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect The act ivit ies surr oun din g t h ese comp lian ce eff ort s don' t d eliv er cust om er value ( ex cept in a conv olut ed, m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r oundabou t w ay) , but t hey are necessar y act iv it ies nonet h eless. I n shor t , com pliance is a cost of doing r ead! " bu siness. But com pliance w ork can also st rang le innov at ion , r aise cost s d ram at ically, and lengt h en —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y pr oduct dev elopm ent cy cles. " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of As Figur e 2 .2 sh ows, comp lian ce act iv it ies can sp ir al ou t of con t rol as p er f orm ance shor t f alls ar e " f ix ed" pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " by ad dit ional com plian ce act iv it ies ( " We' ll n ev er m ak e t h at m ist ak e again ! ") , wh ich in t ur n negat iv ely —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. im p act deliver y r esu lt s. Lar ge com panies t end t o put heav y p rocesses in p lace t o prev ent low - prob ab ilit y m ist ak eliv eryent process w it h p ap w ork t rols. " The w es, or ldbur of dening pr oductt he devdelopm is b ecom ing m er ore d yn an amdiccon and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e

Fi gu r e 2 .2 . Th e Com pl ia n ce Loop

Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close Ther eAPM are act pract ually ices, t wincluding o kinds oft he com Prpliance oduct Vision act iv itBox ies—int anderProj nal ect andDat ex a t erSheet nal. Ext er nal comp lian ce can't be avoided an d sh ould n't be. Gover nm en t r egulat ions wer e est ab lish ed f or a r eason, but w hen t h e r easons Levt he er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile exp ir e, r egulat ions rar ely f ollow. Theenv st r iratonm eg y ent for smost ext er nal comp lian ce act iv it ies is t o do j ust

enoug h, bu t n o m ore t han is ab solut ely requ ir ed . I nt ern al com pliance act ivit ies grow wit h t he size of an Day Day Up > or ganizat ion. Clear ly a 50, 00 0- person or ganizat< ion w ill hav e m ore comp lian ce act iv it ies t han a 10 0per son on e. But t he obj ect iv es of APM ar e t h e same—r educe t h e bur den of com pliance w ork as m uch as possible an d d on't let it in t er f er e any m or e t han necessar y w it h deliv er y act ivit ies. For necessary comp lian ce act iv it ies, t he st r at egy shou ld be t o m inim ize t h em and get t h em off t he crit ical pat h and t he cr it ical p eop le. Comp lian ce act iv it ies should be ex am ined f r om a r isk m anagem ent per spect iv e: What d o w e hav e t o accom plish in or der t o balance t h e cost of com pliance w it h p ot ent ial r isk s? Th is is an ex t rem ely imp ort ant point . Com p liance act iv it ies do not , n or should t h ey be ex pect ed t o, pr oduce cust om er v alu e. We should t hin k of all com pliance act iv it ies as over head and ov er sig ht cost , necessar y t o some degr ee but subj ect t o minimizat ion based on t he risk in volv ed . • Table of Contents Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Delivering Value Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Anot h er salient poin t is t h at t oo many people (especially m anager s and pr ocess design er s) t h ink Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 com pliance act iv it ies—rev iew s, check poin t s, for m al docum ent at ion, and elaborat e and d et ailed I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 plan s—ad d valu e. One of t he ot h er t en et s of lean t hink ing ( and ag ile dev elopm ent ) is t o t r ust t h e people Pag es: 31 2 act ually doing t he w or k and t o p ush decision m aking and collab orat ion d own t o t he w ork ing lev el. A v er y sim ple bu t inf requent ly u sed m et hod of dist ingu ishing deliv er y f rom comp lian ce act iv it ies is t o ask t h ose doing t he w or k, " Does t his act iv it y help y ou deliver cust om er v alue, or is it over head ?" Unf ort u nat ely , m any m anagers an d p rocess d esigner s don 't like t he answ ers t hey r eceiv e. colleague ly erecoun t ed m a odern st or y twh rit at er illu rat es e t r ouble along st wan it hdconf "AJim Highsmrecent it h is on of a f ew s st who aret hhelping us ( under t he usion new nabout at u re of wor k in emp ment ") t hat t yhis t"he knower owled ge econom . " confu sion bet w een deliv er y and com pliance can cau se. I n a com pany h e pr eviously worAssist k ed f or, ior m anagers decid ed t o " em pow er" em p loy ees, so t hey p ushed all t he p roj ect —Rob Aust in, an t sen Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School m anagement act iv it ies dow n t o t h e engineer s. Now , r at her t han design ing pr oduct s, en gin eer s spent "mThis proj ect m anagem eng, t book ve all ing adm for —t he rbook t hatpeff ely com binhad es uch isoft he t heir t im e on bud get in st at uswe' repor t inbeen g, andw ait ot her inist iv ia t hat roject ectivm anagers Agile met hod s and .r igor proj m anagem en tpow . Not on ly t d oesfelt t hisb urd book help us mwak e sense of gp roj ect pr eviously handled The ous en gin eerect s didn' t f eel em ered, hey en ed . They ere sp en din m anagement in t hinisgcu rr ent w or ldfeedin of it ergatt hivee,com in crem Agilemm v aluable engineer design t ime panyent 's al paper ill.et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " While pliance iesO,can beEnerg cost lyy, an ev en mor e serious pr oblem is t h eir im pact on develop m en t —Ly nncom e Ellen, Sr . act VPivit & CI D TE t ime. For exam ple, if w e v iew f or mal docu ment at ion ( e. g. , a design docum ent ) as help ing deliv er value, "wFinally a bassign ook t hat t he passion of ever t he Agile t wart hat e m design ovem ent wit h ent t he as needed of e w ould t h er econciles t ask t o d ev elop er s. How , if w eSof v iew docum a comdisciplines pliance pr oject b ookit has ided a serso v ice t o cou all of " art ifact , managem w e w ouldent t ry. tJim o of'sfload f romp rov developers t h ey ld us. concent r at e on value-add ing act iv it ies. —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. Let 's post ulat e t hat dur in g a design session, a t eam const r uct s a ser ies of design diagram s on a " The w or ldd.ofFrom pr oduct elopm ent d yn am ic Man y msan ag er w hit eboar a pr dev oduct deliv er yispberecom specting iv e,mtore ak ing digit al and p hotuncer os of t ain. he diagram and stsorcop in g et hby em r einf orcing ocesses, atev ion f ur taher honing cost s. This isn't( say w ork g. aint Highsm it h in a proj ect pr f older m ay adding be suffdocum icient . ent How er, ,or fr om comp lian ce persp ect ive , t oin m ain I SO br illian t lyion) guides int o ans alt ernat it s t heand t im es." cert ificat , t heus diagram n eed t o ive be tfhat ormfalized docum ent ed in a st and ar d for m at . Once t he d esign —Pr G.e Sm it h, preincipal, Pr oduct nam t hor t, he Dev eloping Pr oduct s in t h e Tim diag est ramon s ar com plet on t h e New w hit eboar ds, Dy sup porics/ t stcoau aff —not eng ineer s—sh ould b eHalf available t oe t r an sfer t he low - cer emon y diag ram s int o for m al d ocu m en t at ion. Suppor t st af f fr ee t he en gin eer ing st aff Now , one of deliv t he ery f ieldact 's lead ingwit exhpert s br ingschedule s t oget h er allact t he k now e and cost resour ces low y ouer. n eed to w use t o cont in ue ivit ies minimal imp , plus t hledg eir salary s are Wh en e APM nex ecter. yJim it h sh ows y APM ould be inregar everdy cleaning m anager'up s t and oolkit , tm h oroug f ail t oind yifour ferent iatt ep roj deliv andHighsm com pliance act ivwh it ies, w e sh m ist ak enly for alizinghly addr essing he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s bet r aise t Ag apof prfload oaching es., He emou atrselv icallyesin tt orod uces docum ent attion as helping dev elopers build t er abou pr odu ct s.ileBy w e syst for ce conf ront tt he am ew orand k, t hen s pliance specific,act priv ovit en or ecking ever y pr oject part icipsch aned t . ules. he fivet ru e phase cost ofAPM comfrpliance, w e kpresent eep com ies tfools rom fwr dev elopm ent Cov erage includes: < Day Day Up >

Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Employ Iterative, Feature-Based Delivery I f you w ant t o innov at e, you hav e t o it er at e! The ser ial, or w at er fall, d ev elopm ent lifecy cle h as been u nder at t ack for years, but it st ill has it s •def en ders. ForTable of ple, Contents Donald Reinert sen ( 1997 ) wr it es, " The vast m aj orit y of academic lit er at ure on exam Agi le P r oj dev ect M a nag em e nt: a ti ng ovards a ti ve tPr s en t ial appr oach . This is in st r iking cont r ast t o t he pr oduct elopm ent is Cr skeew ed I tnn ow heoduct sequ enor mou s shift t hat has t ak en place in m anagerial p ract ice t owar ds a m ore con curr ent ap proach. " By Jim Highsmit h I n t h e soft war e dev elopm ent f ield, t h e at t ack on w at erf all appr oach es goes b ack decad es, as t hor oughly Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley docum ent ed by Cr aig Larm an (2 004) . As Larm an recalls, a 19 70 paper by Winst on Roy ce was credit ed b art Dat e: il 0 6,"w 2 00 w it hPust ingAprt he at 4erf all" t rend . I n f act , Roy ce w as an adv ocat e of it erat iv e d ev elop ment f or an yt h ing I SBN: 032 1219 -5 s. I n 1985 t he US Depart m ent of Defense ad opt ed a wat erf all- based st andar d m ore t han sim ple pr77 oject Pag es:-2 31167 2 ), wh ich it lar gely aband oned for it er at iv e m et hods aft er ex perien cing high failur e r at es. ( DOD -STD But even t hou gh ser ial appr oaches hav e been at t ack ed as t oo simp list ic, n ot only do t hey con t inu e t o b e w idely used, t h ey cont in ue t o in fluence cont r act ing pr ocedur es and execut iv e persp ect iv es. So in or der t o r esp ond t o t h e widespr ead m isinfor m at ion about ser ial d ev elopm ent , t eam s t hat pr act ice APM need t o un derst and w hy it er at iv e, f eat ur e- based deliv er y is u sef ul, and in fact crit ical, t o innov at iv e p rodu ct " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in dev elopm ent . t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School "Creating This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es a Better Product Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in et hbased is cu rr dev ent elopm w or ld ent of itcan er atbe iv e,defined in crembent Agile et hods, but ive, it ' s an ar based, ound good I t er at iv e, f eat ur y fal our k ey mwor ds: it erat f eatallurert imebox ead! " ed, and increm ent al. I t er at iv e dev elopm ent m eans t hat w e bu ild a part ial v er sion of a pr oduct —Ly e Ellen, Sr .t hVP CIsion O, DtTE Energ y ccessive sh ort t im e periods of d ev elop ment f ollow ed by r eview s and nn t hen ex pand at &v er hr oug h su and adapt at ions. Feat ur e- based deliver y m eans t hat t he engineering t eam builds feat ur es of t he final " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oduct or , part icular ly wit h ind ust r ial pr oduct s, at least a close r ep resent at ion of t h e final pr oduct ( such pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " as a sim ulat ion m od el) . —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. I t er at ion s are const rained t o pr oduce a result w it hin a cer t ain period of t im e—a t imebox . Tim ebox es for ce " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by closu re; t h ey for ce us t o m ak e som et h ing concr et e, oft en befor e w e ar e quit e r ead y. I ncr em en t al r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h dev elopm ent means t hat w e bu ild t hese part ial prod uct s su ch t h at t hey w ill be deploy ed at t he end of on e br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." or m or e of t he it erat ions. Part ial pr oduct s can be deliver ed in h ar dw are t o allow f or ear lier t est ing of k ey —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e per for m an ce at t ribut es. For soft w are comp an ies, it er at iv e d ev elopm ent and incr ement al d eliv ery have becom e a of com pet it iv e Now , one t he f ield 's adv leadant ingage. ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly Shor t , t im eb oxed it er at ions are a fixt u re of APM. How ev er, it er at ions ar e only half t he st or y —feat ur es, addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces r at h er t han t ask s, are t he ot h er . Cu st omer s d on't und er st and, nor do t hey care ab out , t h e engineer in g t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . t asks r eq uir ed t o bu ild a DVD p lay er or an aut om obile. Th ey do, how ev er , un derst and t he feat ur es of Cov erage includes: each of t h ose pr oduct s. I f we Six ar e pr t oinciples build prof oduct s tPr hat deliver cust om er v alue each an d ev ery it erat ion, t h en t he hig hest - lev el Agile oject Man ag em ent cont r ol on t he p rocess m ust be f eat u res abou t w hich t he cust om er can say , " Yes, t hat feat ur e does w hat I ex pect edt oit cap t o do, andon it emer is v aluable." t o tdevelopm he cust omenert tat t h e end of m ilest one 1, " Yes, w e How it alize gin g n ewSaying pr oduct echnologies f inished t he r elat ional dat abase schem a" or " We got t he CAD d raw ing s of t he fluid t r ansfer v alv e don e" j ust dPut oesn 't wor . This m at iont er isnof 't you somet st om er can relat e t o, m uch less mak e a p riorit y t ing custk om ers infor at t he cen r prhing ojectt he , w cu here t hey belong decision ab out . Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " The feat ure deliver y appr oach h elps define a w or kable int erf ace bet ween cust om er s and p rodu ct dev eloper s. pCust omsers and pr ior ize f eat ur es; pr oduct engineer s f ig ur e out wh at t asks Which roj ect w illget b ent oef schedule it f rom APM—an d wit hich w on't w ill be necessar y t o deliv er t h ose feat ur e and w hat it w ill t ake in t erm s of t im e and cost . Sh owing a APM's e phases: Speculat Exp'llloroft e,en Adapt Close cust om er a fiv t ask plan canEn bevision, d an gerou s, ase,t hey ask,, "Wh at ' s t h is four w eeks at t he en d for t est in g? Can 't we cut t h at dow n?" This f eat ur e- based appr oach app lies t o ev ery one else, t oo. Senior APM pract t heu Pr Vision Datmaan Sheet m anagement is ices, rest r including ict ed t o f eat re oduct managem entBox , r atand her Proj t hanect t ask ag em ent ; t hey can cu t f eat ur es bu t not t asks. Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

For proj ect s and pr oduct s in w hich t h e requ ir ement s can ev olv e ov er t im e, it is cr it ical t hat t he result s < Day Day Up > r ev iew ed b y cust om ers dur in g t he dev elopm ent pr ocess be as close t o ver sions of t he act ual pr odu ct as possible. Cu st om er s h av e a ver y diff icult t im e v isualizing fr om docu ment s how a prod uct will f unct ion, w hich is w hy in ind ust ry af t er in dust r y, com panies h av e em br aced m odeling, sim ulat ions, and pr ot ot y pin g t o imp rov e t h e feedback loop fr om cust om ers t o t he dev elopm ent t eam s. One of t h e fou r cor e v alues of agile p roj ect m anagement speaks t o "w or king pr oduct s ov er com pr ehensiv e docum ent at ion, " indicat ing t hat cu st omer s r espond t o r eal ver sions of pr oduct s t hey can act ually u se. Shoe developers build v er sion s of shoes dur ing t h e dev elopm ent p rocess. Airp lane d esigner s use ext en siv e sim ulat ions ( t hat ar e heavily visual) t o m ak e sur e sy st em s will int egr at e well b ef or e spending illions dollars building t he first ver sion of a p lane. Aut om ob ile design er s b uild bot h fu ll•hu ndr ed s of mTable of of Contents scale and r ed ucedscale me odels of ov new cars. I n each of t h ese cases, t h e dev elopers hav e supp ort Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr a ti ng I nn a ti ve Pr oduct s docum ent at ion—but t he pr oof is in t he act ual pr odu ct . Whet her t he f eat ure is im plem ent ed in a By Jim Highsmit h pr ot ot y pe, m odel, or sim ulat ion has t o do wit h t he cost . Soft w are f eat ures can be demon st rat ed fair ly in ex pensiv ely and t hen be easily changed. Building ver sions of an airp lane w ould be m uch m ore Add ison tWesley expPu enblisher: siv e, hence h e in dust r y 's heav y r elian ce on sim ulat ions. Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

Mich aelI SBN: Schr0-age ( 2077 00) 32 1- 219 -5 descr ib es t he dif fer en ces bet w een m odels, sim ulat ions, and pr ot ot y pes in h is book Serious Play . He t hen g oes on t o say , " I n eff ect , m odels, sim ulat ions, and pr ot ot y pes h av e b ecom e Pag es: 31 2 'f lav or s' of t he sam e t hing—t h e eff ort t o u se t echnology t o re- cr eat e som e aspect of a realit y t h at m at t er s. " And w hat mat t er s is t hat t he pr oj ect t eam an d t he cust om er t eam hav e com mon gr oun d, a shar ed space, in w hich t o discuss, debat e, and decid e on crit ical pr oduct feat ur e issu es. Feat ur es ar e closer t o realit y t han ot her int erm ediat e ar t ifact s. They indicat e real, not ar t if icial, p rogr ess. On ce w e are f aced wit h real pr ogr ess, p roj ect t eams, cust om er s, and st ak eh older s are for ced t o conf ron t t he dif f icult "t rJim Highsm it h is on e of acost f ew, m odern w rit er sscope. who are usprunder ananagers, d t he new n atotuhreerof wor k in ad eof f decisions ar ound sch ed ule, and Cuhelping st om er s, odu ctstm and tsthe kn owled ge econom y . " akeholder s can n o longer be ind if fer en t by st ander s in t he dev elopm ent pr ocess. —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School I t er at iv e d ev elopm ent , wh en accom panied wit h reasonable end- of- it erat ion r eviews—pr odu ct , t echnical, "prThis is t he proj ectalso m anagem t book we' ve all ple, beenarchit w ait ing fore—t book hat inefft he ect iv ely com bin es en t ocess, t eam —is self- coren rect ing. For ex am ect ur is he consid er ted, serial developm Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect w orld at least , as com plet e near t he b eg inn ing of a p roj ect . Howev er, sev eral t y pes of f eed back can m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an allar ound good in dicat e p oor archit ect ur al d ecisions. Finding ex t ensive int egr at ion pr oblem s at an it erat ion or milest one r ead!p"oint t o poor coor din at ion bet ween subt eams, poor com ponent or m odule sub div ision or in t er f ace can —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP CI O, Dot TEh.Energ desig ns, or a comb inat&ion of b I t eratyive developm en t t eam s ex pect t o confr ont pr oblem s lik e t h ese and eit her ev olv e t he ar chit ect ure or put addit ional coor din at ion m ech an ism s in p lace. " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr obably oject managem Jimt an 's bt ook hasofp rov ided a ser v ice t o allom oferus. " Pr t he m ostent im.por aspect selfcor rect ion is cust f eedb ack on t h e pr oduct as it ev olv es. —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. As t hese evolut ionary ch an ges get incor por at ed in lat er it erat ions, t h e cust om er' s conf id en ce in t he pr oduct gr ows, or conv ersely , it b ecom es clear t h at t he prod uct isn' t w or king and should b e " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by abandon ed —ear ly . r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e

Producing Earlier Benefits

Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM our nexion t p roj Jim bHighsm it h shwh ows ouldcrbe in ever y m anager' s t oolkit h oroug hly Dr iv ining yex plorat is ect cr it.ical, ut k now ing enwh t o ystAPM op isshalso it ical. Pr oduct developm en t is, tex plor ing addr t he quest ion w s itprhoject m an er sstrrain aiset s.abou t Ag ile, ap oached es.it erat He syst at ically in t rod uces w it h essing a p urp ose, usually in a set ofag con Fr equent t impr ebox ion sem com pel t he t he elopm five- phase ew or k, t hen present pr ov en icult t oolst rfadeoff or everdyecisions pr oject ear partlyicip . en dev ent anAPM d cufrstam omer t eam s and executs ivspecific, es t o m ak e diff anan d toft Cov erage du ring t heincludes: p roj ect . Feat ur e deliv er y cont r ib ut es t o realist ic evalu at ions becau se t he p rod uct m anager s can look at t an gib le, v erifiab le r esult s. Pr oject Man ag I n m ySix earpr lyinciples y ear s ofofitAgile erat ive developm enem t , Ient t h ought t imebox es w ere act u ally abou t t im e—m ak ing sur e t hings wer e accomp lished w it hin t he specif ied t im efr ame. What I came t o r ealize is t h at t imebox es ar e How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies act ually about for cin g t ou gh decisions. I f a t eam plan s t o deliver 1 4 f eat u res in an it erat ion and it can only pr oduce 10, om t hen e dev eam om erhere t eam, an d possibly t he ex ecut ive sponsor m ust Put t ing cust erst hat t he elopm cen t erent of tyou r ,prcust oject , w t hey belong f ace t he shor t fall an d d ecide w hat act ions t o t ak e. Man y f act or s w ill in fluence t he decision m aking—w het her is eit terat is early in tdh e pr oject w het herojshort w ill im pact Cr eat ing ad apt ht iv eamion s t hat respon q uick ly t oor chlat ane, ges in yher our t p ect 'sf all " ecosy st em " t he deliv ery dat e or p rod uct v iab ilit y ( ev er y p rodu ct has a set of f eat u res t h at const it ut es t h e m inim um v iab le set ) —but t hep roj salient poin is ef t hat t hese decisions e addr essed f requ en t ly in an agile p roj ect . Which ect s w ill bt en it f rom APM—an d war hich w on't All t ooAPM's of t enfiv , sequent iallyEndeveloped p rod uct r each final, st ag es, only t o d iscov er maj or pr oblem s e phases: vision, Speculat e, sExp lor e,t he Adapt Close w hen t he opt ions av ailab le ar e lim it ed. By f orcing dif ficult decisions ear ly and of t en, t im eb oxed feat ur e deliv er y g iv es t he t eam m or e opt for solving pr oblem I t erat APM pract ices, including t heions Pr oduct Vision Box and s. Proj ect ions Dat aallow Sheety ou t o m anage r isk sooner —you do not hav e t o b uild t he w hole pr oduct t o f in d out if y ou can m eet a par t icular specif icat ion . Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

Anot h er benefit of cont inuou s f eat u re d eliv ery is t hat f or som e pr oduct s, soft w are b eing a good ex am p le, < Day Day Up > in crem ent al releases can p rov ide early benefit s. Rat her t h an w ait 12 or 18 m ont hs for n ew sof t w ar e f eat ur es, in crem en t al deliv er y can p rov id e quar t erly or even m ore fr equent ones. I ncrem ent al releases can f avor ably alt er ROI calculat ions b ecause t hey allow pr oduct manager s t o addr ess oppor t un it ies t hat w ould be lost in 18 m ont hs. Howev er , ev en t h ough som e pr oduct s can b e dev eloped it er at iv ely using sim ulat ions or pr ot ot y pes, t hey ar e v er y d if ficult t o r elease in crem en t ally . As t he bat t le over Web br ow ser s show ed in t he lat e 19 90s, cu st omer s of t en can' t assim ilat e new p rod uct r eleases ev er y t hr ee t o f our m ont hs.

Table of Contents Progressive Risk Reduction •

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Highsmit h Pr Jim oduct developm en t

is r isk y bu siness. As Tom DeMarco and Tim List er ( 200 3) so pit hily st at e, " I f a pr oject has no r isk s, don' t do it . " " Risk is an essen t ial char act er ist ic of pr oduct in nov at ion, " say s Pr est on Sm it . " ProdAdd uct develop Puhblisher: ison Wesley m en t inv olv es in nov at ion…t her e are alway s p ieces of in for m at ion t hat w e n eed nowPutbhat w ill not be k 4now n unt il we ar e f ur t her dow nst r eam " ( Sm it h and Merr it t 20 02) . Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

Risk cover s a w ide r an ge of t op ics, f rom t echnical ( can we b uild it ?) t o m ar ket ing ( can w e sell it ?) t o Pag es: 31 2 f inancial ( can we sell it at a p rof it ?). I n m any or ganizat ions risk m an ag em ent is a " bolt -on " t o pr oject m anagement act iv it ies: " Well, we'll do some risk m anagement if w e h av e t im e. " I t er at iv e, feat ur e- b ased dev elopm ent int egr at es t he consider at ion of m aj or r isk issues dir ect ly in t o t h e pr ocess. At each st ag e of plan nin g an d d ev elop ment , t he cu st omer and engineer ing t eam s d iscuss bot h business v alue an d r isk : " What f eat u res ar e highest priorit y f rom a bu siness v alu e persp ect iv e?" and " Wh at feat ur es w ill have t he " Jim it h isononr isk e ofreduct a f ewion?" m odern ritim eres s who are helping under st an at u eref eat of wor k in gr eatHighsm est im pact Somwet t he answ ers t o tus hese quest iond st he ar enew t he nsam ur es, t he kn owled ge ,econom y . " ain r espect s t he t wo qu est ions ar e j ust d if fer en t per spect iv es on t he sam e som et im es not but in cert —Rob Aust Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School issu e—d elivin, ering v alue. " Thisexisam t he proj m anagem t book veoduct all been w ait he book hatofefft echnical ect iv ely com For ple, in ect a plan nin g ex en ercise for we' a pr , t here ming ay bfor e —t a com binat tion r isk bin (a es new met hod and projand ect m anagem en(t we'r . Note on d oes his book help us shou m ak e of p.roj tAgile echnology arschit ectr igor ur e ous f or us) f eat u re r isk n otly sur e wt hat t he f eat ur es ld sense look like) I nect m anagement inu tres h is for cu rritent or ld of it er attivhe e, tin crem al Agile m et hods, but ' s an ar ound good pr ior it izin g f eat er atwion planning, eam w ent ill need t o balance a st ratitegy of allb road feat ur e r ead! " en t at ion ear ly ( t o r ed uce f eat ur e r isk ) or in- dept h t echnical developm en t ( t o redu ce t ech nolog y im p lem e Ellen, & CI O, D" vTE Energ r—Ly isk )nn . Som et im Sr es. t VP he hig hest alue" w illy be t o r ed uce t h e t echnical r isk f ir st . " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of < Day Day Up > pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Champion Technical Excellence Agile develop er s ar e dedicat ed t o t ech nical ex cellence, not because of aest het ics ( alt houg h t h at m ay be a r at ionale for som e) , but because a d ed icat ion t o t echnical ex cellence d eliv ers cust om er v alue. Pr oject m anagers mu st be champ ions of t echnical ex cellence; t hey m ust su ppor t and adv ocat e t echnical • Table of Contents excellence w hile m ain t aining a w at ch ful ey e on ot her pr oj ect obj ect iv es. Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

Cham pionin ght echn ical excellence is cr it ical bot h t o creat in g t he pr odu ct cust om ers w an t t oday w it hin t h e By Jim Highsmit est ab lished con st rain t s of t im e and cost and t o reducing t he cost of change so t h e pr oduct rem ains r esp onsiv e t o fu t ur e cust om er need s. I f APM's cor e p urp ose is t o cr eat e in nov at iv e pr oduct s, and if Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley com pet ent indiv idu als ar e a k ey part of deliv ering t hose pr odu ct s, t hen it ' s imp ossible t o suppor t a Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 pr in ciple t hat ad vocat es t echn ical m ed iocr it y —eit her ex plicit ly or , as is usu ally t he case, im plicit ly . I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

Few p Pag rodes: uct31 s 2t od ay , p ar t icu lar ly indu st rial p rodu ct s, are one-sh ot w onder s. Pr oduct s ev olve over t im e, im p rov in g con st an t ly . For exam ple, t he Boein g 747 passen ger jet has been in exist ence f or ov er 3 0 y ear s, bu t t h e 747 –400 planes r olling of f t he assem bly lin e t oday ar e m uch dif f er ent t han t h e 100 ser ies plan es fir st pu t int o ser v ice in Janu ar y 19 70. Tech nical excellence is k ey t o p rod uct ev olu t ion. I n d iscussing t he Toy ot a lean pr oduct dev elopm ent syst em , Mich ael Kennedy ( 2003 ) lam en t s t hat in t oo " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in m any or ganizat ions p roj ect m anagement has b ecom e f ocused on adm inist r at iv e ex cellence rat her t han t he kn owled ge econom y . " t echnical ex cellence. He goes on t o st at e t hat one of t he f our p illars of t he Toy ot a sy st em is an " Ex pert —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School En gin eer ing Wor kf orce, " w hich encou rages b ot h t ech nical excellence and in div idual r espon sibilit y . " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Som e cr it ics consider agile m et hods t o be ad h oc, und iscip lined, and, ult im at ely , t echnically inf erior. They Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect are wr ong. First , for t r adit ionalist s, w ho t hr iv e on pr ocess, procedu re, and docu ment at ion, t h e in for m alit y m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good of agile m et hods is in t er pr et ed as u ndisciplined. Not hin g cou ld be f ur t her f rom realit y. Discipline is d oing r ead! " w hat y ou said you w ould d o. Using t his d ef in it ion, m any or ganizat ions wit h elaborat e p rocesses f ail—t h ey —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y hav e v olum es of processes, pr oced ur es, for m s, and docum ent s t h at are syst em at ically ig nor ed . Agile ganizat e lesselabor at e pr ocess st es, but t o follow t hhet ones t h ey have. "orFinally a ions b ookh av t hat r econciles t he passion ofr uct t heur Agile Sof tt hey war et end m ovem ent wit he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " Second, t he diff erence of opin ion isn 't over w het her t ech nical qualit y is im por t an t bu t ov er how t ech nical —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. qu alit y can be achieved. Crit ics say , "Ag ile dev elopm ent ign ores d esign. " Wh at t hey ar e really obj ect ing t" oThe is twhe ex t ensive up- fr ont n, believ ing t hat is ic t he on uncer ly v alid design ocess. Agile or lack ld of of pr oduct dev elopm ent desig is b ecom ing m ore d ynitam and t ain. Man yprm an ag er s cop e by dev eloper s believe t hat it erat iv e, em ergent desig n and f requ en t f eed back yield super ior d esigns. r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm itSo h again, n ot a qus uest of alt desig n vive er su s ad br illian titly' s guides intion o an ernat t hat f it shoc t hed ev t imelop es."ment , but a d isagr eem ent ov er desig n appr oach. —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e As aret he developm en t ing consu lt ants, br I ' ve a successful t w ar eces com pany ( altt o hough Nowa , soft onewof f ield 's lead ex pert ing never s t ogetencoun h er all tter heedk now ledg e andsof resour y ou n eed use m y sam ple size is lim it ed) in w hich t he t eam leaders an d p roj ect m anagers wer e not t echnically sav v y. hly APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug Whet her a com ron r um abou ent attion, jetap enprgin es,es. or He pur syst e sofem t war e pr oduct s, uces pr oject addr essing t he pany quest is ionbsuilding pr ojectelect m an agicerinst s r aise Ag ile oach at ically in t rod m anagers need specif ic t echnical ex pert ise t o ad eq uat ely m anage p roj ect s. Cham pion ing t echnical t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . excellence r equires t h at t he pr oject m anager, and t eam m em bers in gener al, u nderst and w hat t echn ical Cov erage includes: excellence m eans—in t he pr oduct , t h e t echnology , and in t he skills of t h e people doing t he w or k. They m ust under st an d, w it hin t he cont ext of t heir specif ic prod uct , t h e diff er ence bet w een ex cellence and per fect ionpr. inciples No com pany canPraff ord Man t o prag oduce a per fect prod uct , b ut b uilding a pr oduct t hat deliv er s Six of Agile oject em ent cust om er v alue and m aint ains it s t echn ical in t eg rit y is essen t ial t o com m ercial su ccess an d t h e t echnical o act capion. it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies t eam'How s sat tisf t ingit ioners cust omoperat ers at et he of ise youtrhat pr oject , w here t hey belong Som ePut pr act on cen t h et er pr em proj ect m anagem en t pr act ices ar e gener ic an d can be applied acr oss any pr oject . They m ay ar gue t h at som eon e w it h good pr oject m an ag em ent skills doesn' t eat ing ap ex t iv pert e t eam t hat respon d q uick ly ay t o be ch an y our p roj ain ect s, 's "inecosy st al emit" doesn't apply need Cr deep domad ain ise.s While t his p rem ise m t ruges e ininsom e dom gener t o prod uct develop m en t w here t ech nical, scient ific, or engineering skills ar e param oun t . " Proj ect Whichwh p roj ect s't w ill b en it f rom dw hichare w on't m anagers o don under stef and t he t APM—an echnology t hey m anaging can lose t he con fidence of t h eir t eams, part icular ly t eam s t h at are prou d of t heir t echnical ab ilit y , " says aut hor Er ic Verzuh ( 19 99) . APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close Som e pr oj ect m an ag er s, in p ar t icular t hose isolat ed in pr oj ect m an ag em ent off ices, also bandy ab out t he APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet not ion t hat p rodu ct dev elopm ent and proj ect m anagem en t can be separat ed—again, believ ing t hat t he pr oject manager s can somehow glide along ab ove t he w or k of pr oduct dev elopm ent , m onit oring and Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

cont r ollin g w it hout get t in g t h eir hand s dirt y . Wh ile generat ing an it er at iv e f eat u re plan and gat hering t he Day Up > r eq uir ement s f or a pr oduct feat ur e are dif fer ent< kDay inds of act iv it ies, t hey are each so depend en t on t he par t icular t yp e of pr oduct t hat sep ar at ing t h em is a sur e pat h t o f ailure. The f allacy t h at pr oject m anagement and pr oduct developm en t can be separ at ed m ay have root s in t he widespr ead use of ser ial lifecy cles—Plan, Design , Build, Test . Fr om t h is perspect ive, p lanning, design ing , build ing , and t est ing an elect r onic inst r um ent m ay not seem v ery d if fer en t f rom doin g t he sam e for a m ot orcy cle. How ever , em ploy in g a feat ur e- b ased appr oach r ap idly point s out t he need for an in t eg rat ed ap pr oach t o t he t w o act iv it ies. On e of t he reasons p roj ect m anagers (in t heir r ole as decision mak ers or inf lu en cer s) n eed a t echnical back gr ound isTable t hat of w hile t ech nical excellence is a laudable goal, t here may b e considerably diff er ent • Contents appr oaches t o ach ieving t hat ex cellen ce. Should t he sof t war e t eam focu s on ref act or ing, aut om at ed Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s t est in g, and sim ple design? Ex t ensiv e f ron t - en d m odeling ? Or som e balance of t he t w o? Proj ect By Jim Highsmit h m anagers need t o be inv olv ed w it h t he t eam in debat ing and deciding on t he t echnical ap proach t o dev elopm ent , as well as keeping t he t eam aw ar e of t h e business obj ect iv es as t echn ical issues ar e Pu blisher: Add isonect Wesley decid ed . The proj m anagers m ay not m ak e t he decision , bu t t hey sh ould be kn owledgeable en ough t o Pu bt he Dat e: il 0 6,ions 2 00 4b et w een t eam m emb er s, m ak e sur e pr oject dat a ( e.g ., ar chit ect ural plat for m st eer intApr eract const r aint s)0-ar ully77u-5nderst ood by t he t eam , and k eep t he t eam on t r ack in m ak ing t im ely t ech nical I SBN: 32e1-f219 decisions. Pag es: 31 2 Fu rt h er m ore, p roj ect m anagers m ust ch am pion t ech nical excellence b ecause t h er ein lies t h e k ey t o adapt abilit y and low - cost it er at ion t hat dr iv es lon g- t erm prod uct su ccess. Pr oj ect m an ag er s ar e j ugglers, alw ays k eeping m ult iple balls in t he air . Th ey mu st be aw are, f or ex am ple, of t he poin t at which t heir t eam st art s t ip pin g t h e balance fr om t echnical ex cellen ce t o p er fect ion. Th ey mu st be aw are wh en t he "prJim Highsm h er is pushes on e of at oo f ewhar m dodern w rit eran s who are helping us under sty. anHelping d t he new n at u re of wor k in oduct m anitag for speed d f eat ures over adapt abilit pr oject t eam s f ind tand he kn owled econom y . " point s is near ly im possib le u nless t he pr oj ect m an ag er has t he necessary m aint ainget hese b alance —Rob Aust in, Assist Pr ofessor ard Business School t echnical b ack gr oundan. tThe proj ect, Harv m anager doesn' t hav e t o be a t echnical gu ru , but he has t o kn ow enoug h t o r ecogn ize and conv erse wit h one. That said, if t he p roj ect m anager isn' t a t echnical gu ru , he " This t hee proj book en we' veeer allor been ait ing bet t erishav one ect in tm heanagem f or m ofenat chief gin d ev w elop er . for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good < Day Day Up > r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Customers and Products Deliv er in g cu st omer v alue—p rodu ct f eat u res p rodu ced w it h in t he t ar get t im efr am e—is a cor nerst on e of APM, and t he cust om er driv es t he p rocess. I n order t o in nov at e in deliv er in g t hat v alue in an ef fect iv e and t im ely fashion, agile t eam s em ploy it er at iv e, feat ur e- based deliver y. Finally, t o ensur e t h at v alue g et s •deliv er ed bot hTable of Contents t oday and in t he fut ure, t hat pr odu ct s can adapt t o changing cust om er demand s bot h Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em nt: Craft e a er ti nginit I nn ovdeploy a ti ve Prm oduct du ring developm en teand ial ent ,s p roj ect m anagers an d t eam s n eed t o cr eat e an env ir onm ent hin wh ich t echnical ex cellence is v iew ed as a cr it ical p riorit y. By Jim Highsmit Chapt er 3 will cov er t he n ex t set of guiding pr inciples, t hose r elat ed t o m an ag em ent an d or ganizat ional Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley issu es. Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

< Day Day Up >

Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Chapter 3. Guiding Principles: LeadershipCollaboration Management •

Table St of y Contents Management le

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

Busin By Jim The Highsmit h ess

of APM

Leadership- Collabor at ion Man ag em ent Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b e: rage Apr il 0 6, 00 4 at ion EnDat cou Ex2plor I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

Build iv e ( Self -Org an izing, Self- Disciplin ed ) Team s Pag es: Adapt 31 2 Simp lify Pr inciples t o Pr act ices < Day Day Up >

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Management Style Sit t ing in t he local Jav a Jer r y' s, Herm an pick ed up his conv er sat ion w it h Maya. "Ag ile pr act ices lik e it er at iv e deliv ery sou nd okay , bu t I 'm having a p roblem w it h t he managem ent st y le. I m ean, 'egalit arian w ork place' soun ds lik e som e liber al, socialist conspiracy . " •

Table of Contents

Agi le Ptr oj ectm Me a nag emed e nt:on Cr polit e a ti ng I nnHer ov am ti ve oduct sI hear d him ask was why , if w e t hink it 's im por t ant for " Don' g et st art ics, anPr . What our g over nm ent t o oper at e as an egalit arian d em ocr acy , we'd accept an aut hor it ar ian hier archy in our By Jim Highsmit h w ork place? I t 's t he old com m and- cont r ol v er sus collabor at ion arg um ent . " Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

" But pr oject s ar en 't dem ocracies. Th ey 'r e d ict at orsh ips. We don' t v ot e on cr it ical issues. I f I don' t m ak e b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 t he Pu decision s, t hey d on't get m ade. " I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

" Keep Pag y our t eam on t heir t oes, huh ?" es: 31 2 " Ev ery d ay . " " You' re inch- p eb ble t rack ing alr ead y? Ar e t hey com plet ely incom pet en t ?" May a asked. Jim Highsm e ofp,a jfust ew undiscip m odern lin w rit s gwho helping under st an d t he news n u re of wor in "" No, t hey 'r e it prhetist yonshar eder… ot t oare k eep aft er us t hem . My t eam seem t oatwait arou ndk for t he ge econom ." " m e tkn o owled t ell t hem w hat t oy do. —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " Mayb e y ou h av e t o k eep aft er t hem because you k eep aft er t h em . " " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es "Agile Whatmet ?" hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good Maya r ead! " alm ost bit her t ongu e wh en she saw t he look of sur pr ise on Herm an' s f ace. Th e guy was clear ly a m icr nn o- manager , bu t if&she w ant edEnerg t o cont —Ly e Ellen, Sr . VP CI O, D TE y inue t his conv ersat ion , she'd bet t er f ind a gent ler w ay t o m ak e her point s. " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of "prI foject you don 't mindent me saying, t hey m ig ht seem ndisciplined managem . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided auser v ice t o all because of us. " y ou'v e t rain ed t hem t hat w ay. I k—Neville now I can count on one hand t h e num ber of t im es I 'v e had t o im plem ent an inch- pebble appr oach. My R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. t eam divv ies up t he w or k amon g t hemselves. Micro- m anagin g isn' t m y t h ing ." " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by "r And peoplepract ually doadding wh at tdocum hey shent ould be ,doin henhoning t hey should d oing w itin hou y ou layiting einf orcing ocesses, at ion or fg, ur twher cost s. be This isn't itw, ork g. tHighsm h it out for t ly t hem, an duswit hout din give t hem?" br illian guides int o anhoun alt ernat t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e " 95% of t he t im e. " Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use "APM Maybine,y our an d nex on et day pigs will Highsm f ly . So, ithow wor get sh assigned?" an. s t oolkit , t h oroug hly p roj ect . Jim h shdoes ows wh y kAPM ould be inasked ever y Herm m anager' addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces "t he Well, whphase en t heAPM t eam is run nin h ly , t hey assig n pr wor t ot ools t hemfselves. som etpart im es fivefr am ew or k,g t sm henoot present s specific, ovken or ever yBuprt oject icipinant he t. beginning I 'su ggest ' assignm ent s. I t ry t o m ix people wit h diff er ent sk ill lev els, but I also w ant t o Cov erage includes: encour age t he most exp er ien ced people t o wor k on t he most diff icult p rob lem s, t he g ood p er f orm ers on ot her pr oblems. I put t he p oorest perf orm ers, as lon g as t hey last , on com pliance w or k. " Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent " Don' t t h ey hat e t hat ?" How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies " Of cou rse t h ey do, b ut t h is act u ally accom plishes t wo goals. First , t he poor er perf or mer s can' t scr ew up t he prod w hile are t er flexof ible, am ent alhere r esptonsibilit ies come wit h t hat f lex ibilit y . Put uct t ing. Second cust om ,ers at t w hee cen youfrund pr oject , w hey belong Technical ex pert ise, excellence, and t eam behavior m at t er . " Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " " But , " Her man m ut t er ed , " doesn't pr ocess help m ake up for lack of sk ill? That 's wh at pr ocess pr oponent s p roj ect s wfor ill by en it f romallAPM—an d en w hich hav e Which been preaching earefs—inst com pr eh siv e w pron't ocesses an d t h en u t ilize less skilled indiv idu als. " e phases: Enunsk vision, Expicallor e, Adapt , Close " Well,APM's t hat mfivight wor k f or illedSpeculat lab or ore,cler t y pe j obs, " said May a. " But t he idea t hat y ou can subst it ut e process for sk ill is bull. A pr ocess helps u s or ganize wor k , but if my t eam is d esigning an pract ices, Boxeng and Proj ectsk Dat elect rAPM onic sen sor an dincluding t hey don't he t h Pr av oduct e any Vision elect rical ineering ill a orSheet ex per ience, t h e chances of b eing successful ar e nil. " Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

" Ev ery one on m y t eam has reasonable skills. I t 's just ju dgm ent t hey lack . " < Day Day Up >

" And t hat ' s w hy p rocesses w ork . I f y ou can t r ust t h em t o m ak e good decisions m ost of t he t im e, t hen y ou can t r ust t hem t o d o t h e job . We look for r aw t alent lev eraged by t r aining and ex per ience. We p lace t hose t alent ed p eop le in a loose process fr am ew ork and let ' em rip, " said Maya. " Well, I need t o get back an d pack . May I call you af t er t he conf erence?" Her man r eached int o his coat pock et and hand ed her h is b usin ess car d. Maya pick ed up her PDA fr om t he t ab le. " We can syn c, or y ou'll hav e t o b e pat ien t w hile I d ig arou nd for a b usiness car d. " •

Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

" I can w ait . But I really w ould lik e t o chat lat er . " By Jim Highsmit h

Maya pulled t he car ds ou t f rom under t h e ju mb le of st uff in her br iefcase and hand ed him one. "Feel f ree t o call. I ' m not sur e t hat what wor k s at Geo- Tech will w or k at …" May a g lanced at his nam e t ag again, Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley " Gr eat Mid- West I nsur ance, but I can share w hat has w ork ed for u s." Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

I SBN: 32 1-car 219d 77 in -5 t o his d ay plann er , t h en pack ed u p h is br iefcase. Ex t ending his hand , he said, Herm an put0-her Pag 31 2 " Thank s,es: May a. I t ' s been fu n, bu t t h is st uff w ill be a t ough sell. "

Wat chin g h im h ur ry f r om t he cof fee h ouse, Maya look ed f or war d t o t alk in g. Sh e had a feeling t hat t he conv ersat ion s m ig ht be int ense, but t hey 'd also help her clar if y her t h ink ing ab out t hese concept s and k eep her shar p. " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in < Day Day Up > t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

The Business of APM What d oes a bu siness ex ecut iv e w ant fr om a p rod uct d ev elop ment and pr oject m anagem en t p rocess? She want s t hr ee key t hin gs. Fir st of all, she want s t he p rocess t o be r eliable—t o pr oduce innov at iv e r esu lt s proj ect aft er p roj ect . Second, sh e w an t s t he pr ocess t o b e pr edict able—so sh e can ef fect iv ely plan • Table business of Contents and m an ag e such act iv it ies as f in an cial m an ag em ent , st af fing, an d prod uct launches. Th ir d, sh e Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr a ti ng I nn a ti ve Pr oduct s w an t s depend ab le, r ealit y -ebased infov orm at ion , because v isions can be w r ong, business m odels can be w ron people By Jim g, Highsmit h m ay hit b lock s t hey can' t g et past , and pr ogr ess is not alw ay s smoot h . I f t he p roj ect needs t o be t er m in at ed, she w ant s t o do it ear lier rat her t h an lat er . Dependable pr ogr ess r ep ort s en ab le m anagers t ak e Wesley appr opr iat e act ion s early. Pu blisher:t o Add ison Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

Not e t h at t he w or d "r epeat ab le" isn't in t he ag ile lex icon . I m p lem en t ing r ep eat able pr ocesses has been I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5an ies, bu t in rapidly changing en viron m en t s, repeat abilit y t ur ns ou t t o be t h e t he goal of many comp es: 31in 2 f act , it t ur ns out t o b e an ex t rem ely cou nt erp rodu ct iv e goal. Which b rings us t o t he cr it ical w ron gPag g oal; diff erence b et w een r eliab le and r ep eat able. Repeat able m ean s doing t he sam e t h ing in t h e same way t o pr oduce t he sam e r esult s. Reliable m eans m eet ing t ar get s regard less of t h e im p ed im ent s t h row n in y our w ay —it m eans const ant ly adapt ing t o m eet a goal. abou ablewhas m anhelping y org anus izat ion s st t oan pur r epeat able "Conf Jim usion Highsm it h tisr eliable on e of and a f ewr ep meat odern rit ercaused s who are under d tsue he new n at u re of wor k in pr ocesses—v ery st r uct u red an d precise—w hen ex act ly t he op posit e ap proach—m ildly st r uct ur ed and t he kn owled ge econom y . " f—Rob lexible—w or ks ast onish ing ly b et t er f or new pr odu ct and serv ice developm en t . I f you r goal is t o d eliv er a Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School pr oduct t hat meet s a kn own and unch an gin g sp ecificat ion, t hen t ry a repeat able process. How ever , if our goal t o deliver a v alu ab rod uct o aall cust om er w it h infor som boun enbin chang "yThis is t heis proj ect m anagem enlet pbook we't ve been w ait ing —t e het arget booked t hat eff daries, ect iv ely wh com es e and deadlines e sign if icant factect or s,mtanagem hen reliable pr ocesses w or kt his betbook t er. help us m ak e sense of p roj ect Agile met hod s ar and r igor ous proj en t . Not on ly d oes m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . Repeatable VP & CI O, D TE Energ y Reliable, Not " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of Failur e tmanagem o diff er entent iat .e Jim bet's ween hlypuncert aina and ight o ly all cerof t ain pr oject b ookhig has rov ided ser vhice us.proj " ect env ir onm ent s cau ses m uch of t—Neville he confu R( sion about measur ing p roj ect per for mance. Th is confu sion st ems fr om t w o sources—t he oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. def init ion of scope an d t h e diff er ence b et w een est im at es and const r aint s. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by Repeat ab le pr p rocesses ed uce vdocum ar iab ilit y at t hion roug h measur ent an d con st an isn't t p rocess cor ion. The r einf orcing ocesses, radding ent , or f ur t her em honing cost s. This w ork in g.rect Highsm it h t erm or iginat ed in manu fact ur in g, w here result s w ere well d ef in ed and r ep eat abilit y m eant t hat if a p rocess br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." had est consist ent initput t hen d efNew in ed Pr ouoduct t put s Dy wou ld ics/ be pcoau rod uced Repeat ab le Pr m oduct eans tshin at Half t he conv er sion —Pr on G. Sm h, s, pr incipal, nam t hor ,. Dev eloping t h e Tim e of in put s t o ou t put s can b e replicat ed wit h lit t le v ariat ion. I t im p lies t hat n o new inf orm at ion can be gener at ed of dur ingf ield t he'sprlead ocess hav t o khnow t h ek now in forledg mateion in resour adv an ces ce iny ou or der t o tporedict Now , one t he ing because ex pert s w breing s teoget er allallt he and n eed use tAPM he out put r esu lt s accur at ely . Repeat ab le p rocesses hav e sever e pr oblem s wit h pr oduct developm en t hly in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug pr oject s: p recise result rar elympr input s tv ar considerably projem ectatt oically pr oject , and t he addr essing t he quest ionssarpreoject anedict ag er ab s rle, aise abou Agyile ap pr oach es.f rom He syst in t rod uces in put t oout p ut conv er sion s t hem selv es are hig hly var iable. t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Reliab le p rocesses f ocus on out p ut s, n ot input s. Using a r eliable pr ocess, t eam mem ber s f igu re ou t w ays t o consist ent ly achiev e a g iv en g oal ev en t h ough t he inp ut s v ar y dr am at ically . Because of t he inp ut v ar iatSix ions, h e t eamofmAgile ay not u se t he sam e pent rocesses or pr act ices f rom one pr oj ect , or even one pr tinciples Pr oject Man ag em it er at ion, t o t h e nex t . Reliabilit y is r esult s dr iv en. Repeat abilit y is inp ut driv en . The ir ony is t hat if ev er y pr oject pr ocess som ade epeat ab le, tdevelopm he pr ojectenwt ould be ex t rem ely u nst able because of How t o capwas it alize onehow emerm gin g nrew pr oduct t echnologies in put and t ransf orm at ion v ariat ions. Ev en t hose org an izat ions t hat pur por t t o hav e repeat able pr ocesses Put cust om t he cenoft ert hof you pr oject , bu w here t hey belong are oft ent ing successf ul ers not at because ose prrocesses, t b ecause of t he adapt abilit y of t he people wh o are usin g t h ose pr ocesses. Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Ev en at best , a r epeat ab le p rocess can only deliver w hat was sp ecified in t he beginning. A r eliab le, Whichprpocess roj ectcan s w ill b ually en ef itdeliv f romer APM—an w hicht han w on't em er gent act a bet t er dresult any one ev er conceiv ed of in t he beginning. An em er gent pr ocess can pr odu ce wh at y ou wish y ou had t houg ht abou t at t he st ar t if only you h ad been e phases: Enh. vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close sm ar tAPM's an d pfiv rescient enoug ices,ional including hehPrproduct Proj ect Dat a Sheet HereinAPM liespract a definit issue twit oject Vision scop e.Box Wit hand pr oduct ionst yle pr oj ect s, t hose am en ab le t o r ep eat able pr ocesses, scope is consider ed t o be t he def ined requ ir ement s ( an d con st raint s) . But in Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

pr oduct dev elopm ent , r equirem ent s ev olv e and chang e ov er t h e life of t he p roj ect , so " scope" can nev er < Day Day Up > be precisely defined in t he begin nin g. Ther efor e, t he cor rect scope t o consid er f or agile p roj ect s isn 't def ined requ ir em ent s but t he ar t icu lat ed p rod uct v ision. Proj ect m an ag er s may b e w orr ied ab out specific r eq uir ement s, but execut iv es are con cer ned ab out t he pr odu ct as a whole—does it m eet t he vision of t h e cust om er or pr oduct m ar k et ing ? When m an ag em ent asks t he ev er- pop ular qu est ion, " Did t he p roj ect m eet it s scope, schedule, and cost t ar get s?" t h e scope p ar t of t he answ er should b e evaluat ed accord ing t o t he v ision, v alu e, an d t ot alit y of t he f eat u res d eliv ered, not on t h e set of sp ecific f eat ur es d ef in ed at t he st ar t of t he pr oj ect . Anot h er sou rce of confu sion arises fr om v iew in g cost and sch ed ule as est im at es r at h er t han con st rain t s. For a repeat able m of anContents ufact ur in g p rocess, t h e cost s and schedule est im at es are pr ed ict ive; t h e act ual • Table rAgi esu lt s sh ould app rox im at e t h e est im at es. But what happens wh en t h e pr oject is v olat ile an d init ial le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s est im at es are ver y lik ely t o be w ron g? Does t his m ean ex ecut iv es shou ldn 't exp ect pr ed ict able result s, Jim Highsmit h tBy hat t hey should ju st accep t r esult s as t hey u nfold? Let 's look atAdd anison ex Wesley am ple t o answ er t he qu est ion. The pr oject t eam develops a release plan w it h t h e best Pu blisher: est im ese:it Apr can mak Pu batDat il 0 6, 2 00e4 early in t he pr oject . Let ' s assum e t hat t he t eam est im at es t h e pr oject w ill t ak e 15 m ont hs and0-cost $4 77 .5 -5m illion. Produ ct m ark et in g t h en coun t ers, as alway s, " That will n ev er fly , w e hav e I SBN: 32 1- 219 t o have t he pr odu ct in 9 m ont h s, for no m or e t han $3. 0 m illion. " Vigor ous n eg ot iat ion , fu rt h er refinem en t Pag es: 31 2 of f eat ur e d ef in it ions, and feat ur e r ed uct ion est ablish a " plan" t hat bot h en gin eer ing and pr oduct m ark et ing agr ee on for 1 1 m ont h s and $3 .5 m illion. Ever yon e un derst ands t hat significant ch an ges w ill occur d uring t he proj ect —feat ur es w ill ch an ge, t echnology w ill becom e bet t er und er st ood, an d h undr eds of ot her chang es w ill occu r. How ev er , t h e pr oduct v ision r emains, and t he 1 1 mon t hs and $3 . 5 m illion r em ain as con st rain t s—a t arg et r at h er t han a predict ion . " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in tWhen he kn owled y." t hin gsge checonom an ge, decisions n eed t o be m ade and t r ad eof fs m ust occu r. The pr odu ct 's v ision, —Rob Austand in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv Business schedule, cost becom e bou ndar ies ard t o guide t h eseSchool change d ecisions. As long as t he proj ect r emains w it hin it s const r aint s, sw apping one f eat u re f or anot her d oesn 't change t h e pr oject "scop e. " Wh en t he "prThis is tm heanproj ectcomes m anagem enht an book we' ve grou all been ait ing iv ely com ot binhers es can oduct ag er up wit ex cit ing p of w new featfor ur —t es,he hebook h as ttohat d eteff erect m ine which Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p ect be deferr ed in ord er for t h e pr oject t o r em ain w it h in t he con st raint s. I n an agile p roj ect , he can no roj long er m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an allar ound good scream , " These new f eat u res h av e t o get int o t he prod uct . We'r e lost w it h out t hem—j ust find a w ay! " He rhas ead!t o" be a part of f ind ing t h e way , w hich cou ld be g oing back t o t he ex ecut ive sp onsor w it h a ch an ge t o —Ly nn eect Ellen, Sr r. ain VPt s. & CI O, D TE Energ y t he proj const "Agile Finally a ect b ook t hat r econciles t he of t he Agileable—it Sof t warcan e mdeliv ovemerent wit h tshet hat needed of proj m anagem en t is bot h rpassion eliable and pr edict pr oduct m eet disciplines t he pr oject managem Jim 's wbitook idedyaconst ser v rice t os all " an y ot her pr ocess f or a given lev el cust om er' s ev olv inent g n. eeds hin has t he pb rov oundar aint betof t erus. t han —Neville R( oy Singham Th oughtNot Worbk ecause s, I nc. som e p roj ect m anager specif ied det ailed t asks and of un cer t aint y .) Wh y does, CEO, t h is happen? m icr om an ag ed t hem , b ut b ecause APM est ablishes an en vir onm en t in w hich people want t o ex cel, m eet "t heir The w or ld of pr oduct elopm is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by goals, and do t hedev best t heyent can. r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t lyp guides us rint o ananot alt ernat ive t hat f it sif ied t he in t imt he es."phr ase " for a giv en lev el of u ncert ain t y. " Wh ile The last ar agraph aises h er issue, ident —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau , Dev eloping Pr oduct in tHalf t h pr e Tim APM is r eliab le, it is n ot infallible, and it cannot eliminat e t htehor v ag ar ies of uncert aint ysor he sur isese encount er ed w hile ex ploring. APM can shif t t he odd s t ow ard success. I f ex ecut ives ex pect p roj ect s t o Now ,erone t he f ield 's vlead ing ing st s rain t oget er specified all t he k now ledg ouwniteed deliv on of the pr oduct ision , wex it hpert in t shebrcon t shof t ime aned and cost ,resour ever yces t imye, h outt o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly f ail—t h en t hey sh ould be ru nning an assemb ly lin e, not d ev elop ing pr odu ct s. addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he fivephase fr ampr ewoject or k, m t hen present specific, ov en f or ever icip an t. Finally , neit h er APM t he best anager nor st he best t pr eam p ert fools orm ance cany tpr ruoject mp orpart ganizat ional Cov erage includes: polit ics. Nor can any met h odolog y m ak e u p f or out r ageous f ant asies or dict at or ial edict s. These t rait s m ake for w hat Ed Your don ( 199 9) calls "d eat h m arch" pr oject s—pr oject s t hat hav e f ailed befor e t h ey begin an d g o dow nh ill sh ar ply f rom t here. Ag ile pr oject m anagem ent can' t d eliv er on fant asies, and it s Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent m anagement st y le is at t he op posit e en d of t h e spect r um f rom dict at or ial edict s. Agile m et hods won 't help yHow ou on m arch oject s.gTh e only usefudevelopm l st rat egies su ch p roj ect s are (1 ) t o get ou t —now ; t o deat cap ithalize on pr emer gin n ew pr oduct en tfor t echnologies ( 2) if y ou can 't get out , hide; and ( 3) if y ou can' t h ide comp let ely , t ell m anager s ex act ly w hat t h ey want t o hear —because it 'sers ex act hey Put t ing cust om at tlyhewhat cen t ter of deserv you r pre.oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em "

Progress Reporting Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it

f rom APM—an d w hich w on't

APM is n ot abd ion of En cont r ol; it Speculat ' s an endor semlor ente, of accou nt abilit y and a rev ised definit ion of " w hat " APM's fiv eicat phases: vision, e, Exp Adapt , Close t o cont rol. Pr oject t eam s sh ould be accou nt able for p er for m ance, for result s t hat t hey hav e had a par t in plan nin g. Per iodic p rogr ess r eport assistVision s t he pr oj ect y —ex ecu t iv es, pr oject manager , and APM pract ices, including t he ing Pr oduct Box andcom Projmu ectnitDat a Sheet t eam—in cont r olling t he proj ect and det erm inin g when t o t ak e adapt iv e act ion. Because ag ile pr oject s ar e er agin PMI skills Agile env iraint onm s r ecogn it ion of issues and pr oblems is essent ial t o of t en Lev ex plor in g garyou easr of high riskinand uncert y ,ent early

ear ly adapt iv e act ion. By em ploying shor t , t im eb oxed it er at ions an d r ev iewing w ork in g f eat ures t hat < Day Day Up > dem onst r at e real pr ogr ess ( or lack t her eof ) , APM pr ovides t h e t ools needed t o id en t if y pr oblem s ear ly , w hen t here is a wider set of adapt ive act ions av ailable, inclu din g proj ect t er minat ion . A manu fact ur in g p rocess op er at es on kn own infor m at ion. A p rodu ct dev elopm ent pr ocess essent ially pu rchases infor m at ion. The u ncer t ain t y of pr oduct dev elopm ent t urn s a p roj ect int o an in for m at ion discover y pr ocess in w hich m oney and t ime ar e sp en t gat her in g r equirem ent s, t r y ing out desig ns, bu ild ing f eat u res ( or m odels), and t est ing alt er nat iv es. At t he end of each it er at ion , addit ional infor m at ion is k now n abou t t h e pr oduct . The pr oj ect t eam , m anager s, and ex ecut ives access t h e pr ogr ess in for m at ion, com p ar e it again st t ar get s, decid e if t h e pr oject is st ill viab le, d et er mine if new t ar get s are needed, and ident y Contents adapt ive act ions. Th ey ar e essent ially ask in g t h e quest ion, " Was t he inf or mat ion • Tableifof gener at ed w ort h t he mon ey an d t im e w e spent on t his last it er at ion?" This is a v ery d if fer en t qu est ion Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s t han, " Did t he proj ect conf or m t o p lan?" By Jim Highsmit h

Pr oduct ion- st yle pr oj ect m an ag em ent begins w it h d et er minist ic, p redict iv e plans and t h en ex er cises contPur ol ov erAdd t hose plan s, so it can be ch ar act erized as h av in g a " confor m ance t o plan" cont r ol ment alit y . blisher: ison Wesley APMPubegin w itil h0 6,pr2oject plans t hat ad ap t ov er t im e t o changing condit ion s. I n or der t o have bot h b Dat e:s Apr 00 4 pr edictIabilit y 32 and in nov SBN: 01- 219 77 -5 at ion, w e h av e t o br oaden ou r cont r ols fr om conf orm ance t o plan t o conf orm ance t o vision and v alue. Conf or mance t o v alue recognizes t he crit ical nat ur e of t he business out com e of a Pag es: 31 2 pr oject . I f w e pr oduce a pr oduct t hat 's on schedule, on b udg et , an d m eet s specificat ions but doesn't sell in t h e m ar k et , w e hav e not been successfu l. The say in g " Th e m ap is not t he t er r it or y" should be em blazoned on pr oject p rogr ess r eport s, as som e m easur em en t s of t en h ide real prog ress. Wor king pr oduct ( or sim ulat ions and mod els, in som e cases) are "t he Jimult Highsm onye- of a f ew m ifodern rit er s who helping under t he ur new at udone—f re of wor k in im at e itinh ris ealit based , v er iable,wdepend ab le are p rogr ess m us easu rem st enan t s.d Feat es nare inished tand he kn owled ge econom . " cu st om er s—or t hey ar e not . Measur in g f eat u re com p let ion closes t he gap accept ance t est ed yby —Rob Aust in,map Assist an t he Pr ofessor , .Harv ard Business School bet w een t he and t er rit ory "PrThis is t he projt in ect anagem enojt ect book we' venit ally been w ait book t hat eff ect elyt he com bin es ogress repor g hmelps t he pr com mu det erm in eing if tfor he—t prhe oject is st ill mov ingivin right Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of direct ion and w het her t he cust om er f eels t h at she is g et t ing v alue for t h e m oney. I f t h e cust om er porroj ect m inert hconfirm is cu rr ent w orvldalu ofe itiserbeing at iv e, dineliv crem ent talheAgile m etpr hods, but t o it ' tshe annex all-taritound good pr anagement oduct m an ag s t hat ered, pr oj ect oceeds erat ive rdeliv ead!er " y cy cle. I f v alue has not been d eliv ered, t hen t he pr oj ect is t erm in at ed or adapt ive act ion is —Ly nnede . Ellen, . VPof&an CI O, D TE y om er m ay say , " I t hough t I u nderst ood w hat I want ed fou r in it iat At t heSrend it erat ionEnerg t he cust w eek s ago, but now t h at I see t he result s, and based on r ecent business infor m at ion, we now need t o "change Finally dir a bect ook r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof em ent needed disciplines of iont hat ." Or , t he developm en t g roup m ay deliv ert war a set ofovem f eat ur es,wit buht tfhe or som e reason it pr issed oject wh managem ent Jimer'sint b ook has Ipnrov a ser v io icet here t o allisoflitus. m at t he cu st.om ended. eitided h er scenar t le"b lam ing , and t he r esponse is, " Now —Neville R(ow oy )wh Singham , CEO, Th, ought Worwe k s,best I nc.m ov e f orw ard?" t hat we kn at w e now k now h ow do " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by < Day Day Up > r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Leadership-Collaboration Management Most p roj ect s are over m an ag ed and und er led. Adm ir al Grace Hop per once said , " You cann ot m anage m en int o bat t le: You m anage t h ing s . . . y ou lead p eop le. " What is t h e diff er ence bet w een pr oj ect m anagement and pr oject lead er ship? Alt hou gh t here is an elu siv e line bet ween t hem, t he cor e diff erence •is t hat managem Table Contents entof deals w it h com plex it y, wh ile leadersh ip deals wit h ch an ge. Wit h out ad eq uat e Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e ti ngs I rapidly nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct m anagement , comp lex pr oja ect descen d sint o chaos. Plan s, cont r ols, b udget s, an d p rocesses help pr Jim oject manager s st av e of f pot ent ial pr oj ect - t h reat en ing com plex it y. Howev er , w hen uncer t aint y , r isk , By Highsmit h and change ar e pr om in en t , t hese pr act ices ar e in suff icient . Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Pr oject m anager s should be b ot h m anager s and leaders, wit h t he imp ort ance of t he lat t er escalat ing Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 r ap idly as t h e exp lor at or y n at u re of proj ect s increases.[ 1] Good lead er ship con t ribut es sign if icant ly t o 0- 32 1- As 219 77 -5h ors pr ojectI SBN: success. aut Carl Lar son an d Fr an k LaFast o ( 1 989) poin t out , " Our r esear ch st rong ly 31 2t he right person in a leadership role can ad d t r em en dous valu e t o an y collect iv e eff ort . " in dicatPag eses: t h at [ 1]

The t er m s " pr oj ect m anager " and " t eam leader" ar e com monly used. I will use these term s also, but I will em phasize t he leader ship char acter isti cs of the pr oj ect m anager 's r ole.

Leaders ar e lead er s n ot because of w hat t hey do, but becau se of w ho t h ey ar e. Aut horit arian m anagers " Jim pHighsm it thenis in onteheoff orm a f ewofmfear, odern rit er s who tare us gunder d tLead he new redof k in use ower , of t o wget people o d ohelping som et hin t heirstwan ay. er s n d at epuen f orwor t he t he . " her t han pow er, an d inf luence derives fr om r esp ect rat her t h an f ear . Respect , m ostknpowled ar t ongeinfeconom luence yrat —Rob in, Assist Pries ofessor Harv in t u rn,Aust is based on an qu talit such, as intard egritBusiness y , abilit y,School fair ness, t r ut hf ulness—in shor t , on charact er. Leaders ar e p ar t of t he pr oj ect t eam , an d alt hough t h ey ar e giv en or ganizat ional au t hor it y , t h eir real "aut This proj m anagem en t nbook ve allbot been ait ing for t—t eff ect iv tely com binaesled horisit yt he isn' t d ect elegat ed t op dow but we' ear ned t om wup. Fr om hehe oubook t side tahat m anaged eam and Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect t eam can look t he sam e, bu t f rom t he inside t hey f eel v ery dif f er ent . m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good rPread! " m anager s w ho ar e eff ect iv e at d eliv ering in com plex sit uat ions—plan nin g in det ail, creat in g oject —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, rDoles, TE Energ or ganizat ional posit ions and m onityor ing t hr oug h d et ailed budg et and pr ogr ess repor t s, and solv ing t he my r iad day- t o- d ay proj ect pr oblems—d on't lik e change. Ch an ge leads t o paradox and am big uit y, an d "t hese Finallym aanagers b ook t hat r econciles t he passion t het oAgile t war e itmy ovem ent witehout t heofneeded disciplines of spend enorm ou s energ y t rof ying d riveSof am b igu and chang t heir p roj ect s. pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville as R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor I nc. Leaders, opposed to m anagers, en cour agkes,change—by creat ing a v ision of fu t ur e possibilit ies ( wh ich are usually shor t on det ails) , by int er act ing w it h a lar ge net wor k of p eop le t o discov er new inf orm at ion The will w orhldelp of tpr oduct dev elopm ent isint b ecom ing uncer tof ain. y m ag en er sdeav copor e by t"hat urn t h e pr oduct v ision o realit y, m anore d bdy yn cram eatic ingand a sense pu Man rpose in an t he t hat rweinf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h ill mot iv at e people t o w or k on somet hing out side t h e nor m . br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est s, on lik G.e Sm it h, pr incipal, Newbot Prhoduct Dy nam coau t hor , Devteloping in diff Halficult t h et o Tim e Pr oject or ganizat ions, need leaders and ics/ manager s. Unfor un at ely,Pritoduct is oftsen find bot h sk ill set s in t h e sam e person. And since creat ing a proj ect bu dget is mor e t ang ible t han, say , Now , one tof ield 's ylead ex pert br ing t oget h erisfy all conflict t he k now e om anderresour cesp yroj ouect n eed t o use r esolving het he am fbiguit t h ating arises whs en t r y sing t o sat ingledg cust gr oups, APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit m anagement t r aining t en ds t o f ocu s on t angible pr act ices and t ools. Grow in g lead er ship sk ills ,int h oroug hly addr essingist he quest ion s pr ag er s raaise abouion t Ag pr oach es. He emen atces ically m anagers clear ly possib le,oject bu t m it an r equires dedicat t oileunap derst anding t hesyst dif fer betinwt rod eenuces t he tt w heo fivephase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t. r oles. Cov erage includes: As au t hors Phillip Hodgson and Randall Whit e ( 20 01) obser v e, " Lead er ship is w hat crosses t h e fr ont ier bet w een w hat w e did yest er day and wh at w e' ll do t om orr ow . We'll ar gue … t hat t he r eal m ark of a leader Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent is conf idence wit h uncert aint y —t he abilit y t o ad m it t o it and deal wit h it . " The aut hor s p ose six quest ion s t hat illust r at e t he damaging illu sions of our 20 t h- cent ur y appr oaches t o managem ent : How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Why d o y ou believ e y ou are in cont r ol? Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Why d o y ou behave as if y ou can p redict t h e fu t ur e, it s consequences and out com es? Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't Why d o y ou t hin k t hat becau se y ou'v e d one it bef ore an d it w or ked t hat it will w or k again? APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close Why d o y ou believ e ev ery t hing im por t ant is m easur ab le? APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Why d o y ou t hin k t hat wor ds like leadership, m anagem en t , and change have t he sam e m ean ing f or ever y one? Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

Why d o y ou t hin k t hat redu cing un cer t aint 20 01) Agile proj ect m anagers help t heir t eam balance at t he edge of chaos—some st ru ct ure, but not t oo m uch; adequat e d ocum en t at ion, but not t oo m uch; som e up- f ron t ar ch it ect ur e w ork , b ut not t oo m uch. Finding t hese b alan ce point s is t h e " art " of m an ag em ent . Wh ile book s lik e t his can help r eader s u nderst and t h e issu es and ident ify pr act ices t hat help, only ex per ience can ref ine a m an ag er ' s art . High ex plor at ionf act or p roj ect s are full of anx iet y , change, am biguit y , and uncer t aint y t h at t he pr oject t eam m ust deal w it h. I t t ak es a diff erent st yle of p roj ect m an ag em ent , a diff er ent pat t ern of pr oject t eam operat ion , and a d if ferent t y pe of p roj ect m anager. I ' ve labeled t his t y pe of m anagem ent leader sh ip- collabor at ion. •

Table of Contents

A y oduct le creat Agileadershiple P r oj ect M acollaborat nag em e nt:ion Cr e m a tianagem ng I nn ov ent a ti vestPr s es a cer t ain kind of social arch it ect ur e, one t h at enables org an izat ions and t eam s t o f ace t he v olat ilit y of t heir en viron m en t . Such a social ar chit ect ur e By Jim Highsmit h blen ds p er f orm ance and passion , r esult s and egalit arianism . As I ' v e w rit t en elsew here, "Com m ander s k now t h e obj ect iv e; leaders gr asp t he dir ect ion. Com mand er s d ict at e; leader s influence. Cont rollers blisher: Add isonat Wesley demPuand; collabor ors facilit at e. Con t roller s m icr o- m an ag e; collab orat or s encour age. Managers wh o Pu b Datte:h e Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4ip- collabor at ion m odel under st an d t heir pr imar y r ole is t o set direct ion, t o pr ovide em brace leadersh gu idance, o 219 facilit I SBN:and 0- 32t177 -5at e con nect ing people and t eam s" (Hig hsm it h 200 0) . The values of APM resonat e w it h concept s such as egalit ar ianism , com pet en ce, self- discip lin e, and self- or ganizat ion. A leadersh ipPag es: 31 2 collaborat ion managem ent st y le creat es a social ar chit ect u re in wh ich t hese v alues flourish. Jim Collins ( 200 1) has a similar concept t hat he r efers t o as a " cult ure of discipline, " m ean ing self disciplin e, not im posed d iscipline. I n d iscussing comp an y gr ow t h and t h e fr equent im posit ion of " pr ofession al m anagem en t " t o cont r ol t hat g row t h, Collins say s, " The comp an y begins t o hire MBAs and "season Jim Highsm h is of a bf ew odern wpritan eries. s who are helping us under an d t hes,new at ut he re of wor k in ed ex it ecu t ivon esef rom lue-mchip com Pr ocesses, pr ocedur es, st checklist an dnall r est begin tt he kn owled ge econom y . " o sprou t u p lik e w eed s. What w as once an egalit arian env ir onm ent get s r eplaced wit h a hier archy . Th ey —Rob in,out Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv School cr eat e Aust or der of chaos, bu t t h ey alsoard k ill Business t he en t repr eneurial spir it . The p urp ose of bu reaucracy is t o com pensat e f or incom pet ence and lack of discipline. " " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile hod s and proj ect onaor ly ddic oesAgt his book help m en ak d e less sense p roj ect Or , asmet Dee Hock ( 19r igor 99) ous so eloqu en tm ly anagem put s it , en " I nt . tNot he Ch e, success willus d ep onofrot e and m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an allar ound good m ore on r eason ; less on t he aut hor it y of t he few and m ore on t h e ju dgm ent of t he m any ; less on rcom ead!pulsion " and m ore on m ot ivat ion; less on ex t ern al con t rol of p eop le and m or e on int er nal discipline. " —Ly nn Ellen, VP & CI D TEles Energ y So, t h eelast t hrSr ee. guidin g pO,rincip of APM addr ess how t o achiev e a lead er ship- collab orat ion m anagement st y le—Encou rage Ex plor at ion, Build Adapt ive ( Self- Organizin g, Self - Disciplined) Team s, and " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of Simp lify . pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. < Day Day Up >

" The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Encourage Exploration Chang e is hard . While agile v alu es t ell us t hat respond ing t o change is m or e imp ort ant t han follow in g a plan and t hat em b racin g r at her t han resist ing change leads t o bet t er pr oduct s, wor k ing in a hig h- change env ir onm ent can be n er v e-w r ack ing for t eam m emb er s. Exp lor at ion is dif ficult ; it causes anx iet y , •t r ep idat ion, and Table of et Contents som im es ev en a lit t le f ear . Agile proj ect m anagers need t o encour age and in spir e t eam Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e at he ti ngdIifnn ov a ti ve of Pr oduct s - ch an ge env ir onm ent . Rem ain ing calm t hemselves, m emb er s t o w ork t hrou gh ficult ies a h igh encour agin g hex perim en t at ion and learning t hr ough bot h su ccesses and m ist ak es, an d helping t eam By Jim Highsmit m emb er s u nder st an d t h e v ision ar e all par t of t h is en couragem ent . Good lead er s cr eat e a safe envPu ir onm ent in wh ich people can v oice out lan dish id eas, som e of which t ur n ou t n ot t o be so out lan dish blisher: Add ison Wesley aft er all. Ex t er nal en couragem ent an d inspirat ion h elp t eam s b uild int er nal m ot iv at ion. Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

I SBN: 1- 219flow 77 -5 fr om inspirat ional lead er s. Cook , Magellan, Sh ack let on , and Colu mb us w ere Gr eat exp lor0-at32ions Pag es:al31leader 2 in spir at ion s w it h v ision. Th ey persev er ed in t he f ace of m onum ent al obst acles, n ot t h e least of w hich w as f ear of t h e unk now n. Mag ellan, af t er year s of dealing wit h t he ent r enched Spanish b ureaucr acy t r ying t o scu t t le his plans, launch ed his f iv e- ship f leet on Oct ob er 3, 15 19. On Sept emb er 6, 15 22, t he Vict or ia, last of t he ship s, sailed int o p ort w it hou t Magellan, w ho had d ied in t he Philipp ines af t er com plet ing t he m ost t reacherou s par t of t h e j ourn ey —est ablishing a rou t e arou nd Cape Hor n and sailing Joy ner 2) . us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in across t he v ast Pacif ic of Ocean t he first t im " Jim Highsm it h is on e a f ewf or m odern w rit eres (who are 199 helping t he kn owled ge econom y . " Gr eat exp s ar t iculat e ofessor goals t hat insp ir eBusiness people—gSchool oals t h at get people ex cit ed such t hat t hey in spir e —Rob Austlor in,erAssist an t Pr , Harv ard t hem selv es. These goals or v isions ser ve as a un if ying focal point of ef f ort , galv an izing people an d eat ing an proj esprect it de ps amen ong t he we' t eam I nspir at ional goals need o be tener elling, "crThis is t he m cor anagem t book ve. all been w ait ing for —t he tbook hat gizing, eff ect iv comp ely com bin esclear, and feasible, t j ust b arous ely .proj I nspirat goals inton o aly t d eam passion Agile met hod sbuand r igor ect mional anagem en tt.apNot oes' st his book. help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good cou" raging leaders also kn ow t he d if ference bet ween good goals an d b ad on es. We all k now of rEn ead! egocent ic manager sw poin t oEnerg som ey m ount ain and say, " Let 's get up t h er e, t eam , " w hen ever yon e —Ly nn er Ellen, Sr . VP & ho CI O, D tTE else is t h ink ing, " Who is he k idding? There' s not a snow ball' s chance in t he h ot place t hat w e can carr y brhavado; g ood BHAGs are of off .a" "bBad [ Big Hairt yheAud aciousofGoals] , it t ur nst war oute, ar e set ent w it hwit "t hat Finally ook BHAGs t hat r econciles passion t he Agile Sof m ovem t he needed disciplines set w it h un derst anding , " say s Jim Collins ( 200 1) . I nspirat ional leaders kn ow t hat set t ing a v ision for the pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " pr oduct is a t eam eff ort , one b ased on an aly sis, un derst and ing , and realist ic risk assessm ent , com bined —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. w it h a spr ink le of adv ent ur e. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by Ir nnov at iv e pr ct devadding elopm ent t eam s at ar ion e led , not an honing ag ed . They allow t o Highsm b e in sp itirhat ional. einf orcing pr odu ocesses, docum ent , or f ur tm her cost s. Thist heir isn't leaders w ork in g. They alize tus he int leader enernat couragem entf it. sGrt he eat t new p rodu ct s, out st and ing enhancem ent s t o exist in g br illianint t lyern guides o an'salt ive t hat im es." pr oduct s, an cr eat e incipal, new bu New siness iat ives ar e ics/ dr ivcoau en by passion and inspirat ions. in Pr oject —Pr est on G. dSm it h,ivpr Pr init oduct Dy nam t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct Half t hmeanager Tim e s w ho f ocus on n et wor k diagram s, cost budg et s, and resour ce hist ogr am s ar e doom ing t heir t eam s t o , [ 3] m ediocr it yof . [ 2]t he Now , one f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly [ 2] Thi s sentence should not be interpr eted as say ing t hese things ar e unim por tant, because, pr oper ly used, each can addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces be useful to t he proj ect manager . It i s w hen they becom e the focal point that tr ouble ensues. t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage [ 3] Ken includes: Delcol obser ves, " Most PMs ar e not sel ected for thei r abilit y to i nspir e people! Leader ship and business

influencing sk ills ar e har d t o establish in an interv iew. Most manager s have a difficult ti me i dentify ing and evaluating people w i th t hese sk ill sets."

Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent Leaders help art iculat e t he goals; t eams in t er nalize t hem and m ot ivat e t h em selv es. This int ern al m ot ivHow at iont oenables expon lor at ion.gin Weg don' arr ive atdevelopm som et h ing , bet t er , diff erent wit hout t r ial and cap it alize emer n ew t pr oduct en tnew t echnologies err or , laun chin g of f in m ult ip le n ew d ir ect ions in or der t o f in d t h e one t hat seems pr om isin g. Magellan Putships t ing cust om ersdat cen t er tof r pr , wt he here t hey and his sp en t 38 ay tshe cov ering heyou 334 moject iles of st rait s tbelong hat now bear his nam e. I n t h e v ast exp an se of islands an d p en insu las, t hey ex plored m an y dead end s bef ore f in din g t he cor rect passages Cr eat ( Kelley 200ing 1) . ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect sorwiaill sailed b en ef itnear f rom APM—an d w hich on't for t h—u p est uar ies t hat dead- ended, an d Magellan 's sh ip Vict ly 1, 000 m iles, backwand back out —t im e and t ime ag ain. Magellan (h is crew , act ually) was t he f ir st t o cir cum nav igat e t h e globe. APM's fivpr e obably phases:have En vision, e, ion Exp-st lorye, , Close But he w ould driv enSpeculat a p rod uct le Adapt pr oject manager or ex ecu t iv e a lit t le cr azy, because he surely didn' t f ollow a plan. Bu t t h en , any det ailed p lan wou ld hav e been f oolish—no one ev en APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet k new if sh ips could g et arou nd Cap e Horn ; non e had foun d t he w ay wh en Magellan launched. No one k new Lev hower large he Pacif Ocean even he sbest gu est im at es t ur ned ou t t o be t h ousands of agin g tyou r PMIic skills in was, Agileand env ir onmtent

m iles shor t . His v ision n ev er changed, but his " execut ion" ch an ged ev ery day based on new inf orm at ion . < Day Day Up >

Team s need a sh ar ed pur pose and goal, but t hey also need encou ragem ent t o exp er iment , ex plor e, mak e m ist ak es, regr oup, and for ge ahead ag ain.

Shared Space " The b igg est sin gle t rend w e' v e observ ed is t he g row in g ack now ledgm ent of in nov at ion as a cent erp iece of cor porat e st rat egies, " say s Tom Kelley ( 200 1) , g en er al manager of I DEO, one of t he w or ld' s leading • Table of Contents in dust r ial desig n firm s. I DEO uses a com bin at ion of met h odolog ies, w ork pract ices, cu lt u re, and Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s in fr ast ruct u re t o cr eat e an env ir onm ent con ducive t o innov at ion . I t s m et hodology inclu des un derst anding Jimissues, Highsmit h tBy he obser ving r eal people, v isualizin g t h rou gh t he u se of sim ulat ions an d prot ot yp es, ev aluat ing and ref ining t he prot ot yp es, an d im plem ent in g t he concept . The use of pr ot ot yp es, sim ulat ions, and m odels has Add a pison rof ound Pu blisher: Wesleyinfluence on I DEO's en t ir e pr oduct desig n p rocess. Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

" Vir t ually ev er y significan t m ark et place inn ovat ion in t his cent ur y is a d ir ect result of ex t ensiv e I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 pr ot ot y pin g an d sim ulat ion, " says Mich ael Schr age ( 20 00) . His inv est igat ion int o t he w orld of es: 31 2 ar t ing wit h his w ork at t he Media Lab at MI T—led him t o a st ar t ling conclusion : " You did n't pr ot otPag y pes—st hav e t o be a sociologist t o r ealize t h at t he Lab 's demo cult ur e w asn' t just about creat in g clev er ideas; it w as about creat in g clev er int eract ion s bet w een people." I nnov at ion cannot be g uarant eed b y som e det erm inist ic p rocess—in nov at ion is t he r esu lt of an em ergent pr ocess, oneitin which hea int eract ion of windiv als ware it h helping cr eat iv eus id eas result som et hing " Jim Highsm h is on e tof f ew m odern rit eridu s who under st ansd in t he new n at u new re of and wor k in diff erent . Dem os, p rot ot y pes, sim ulat ions, and m odels ar e t h e cat aly st s f or t hese clev er int er act ions. t he kn owled ge econom y . " They ut Assist e t he "an shar space" ( Schr age's t er m ) School in w hich develop er s, m ark et ers, cust om er s, and —Robconst Aust it in, t Pred ofessor , Harv ard Business m anagers can hav e m ean ing ful int er act ions. " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Shar space as t w o r eq uirproj em en an d on com onalit y . book On e of t heus comm pr oblem in ect t he Agileed met hod shand r igor ous ectt s—visualizat m anagem enion t . Not ly m d oes t his help m ak on e sense of psroj pr oduct dev elopm hat r equirem en t sent docu mentm s et had neit h er it q 'ualit When enggood ineers m anagement in t hent is cufield rr enthas w orbeen ld of t it er at iv e, in crem al Agile hods, but s any.allar ound m ov ed r ead! " t o conv er sat ions w it h cust om ers ar oun d p rot ot y pes an d w or king feat ur es r at h er t han d ocum en t s, t—Ly he qualit y of t hSre. inVP t er&act creased nn e Ellen, CIions O, DinTE Energ ydr amat ically . Visualizat ion dr iv es indust r ial design t oday. For exam ple, Alias Sy st ems, wh ose soft w are builds special eff ect s for t oday' s m ov ies—Lor d of t he Rings, Spiderm Hartry t er —also tpr soph ed soft areet omindu stent rial wit d esigner s w ho need to " Finally aan, b ook hatPot r econciles heovides passion of ist t heicat Agile Sofw t war ovem h t he needed disciplines of vprisualize t h eir pr oduct ear in t he d ev elop ment pr ocess. oject managem ent . sJim 'slyb ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. Com m onalit y m eans t hat t he pr ot ot y pe n eeds t o be un derst ood by all part ies t hat have a st ake in t he dev t . So, forelopm ex amp elect ical d iagr am uncer s might help elect icalagand " Theelopm w or ldent of ef prfor oduct dev entle,is wb hile ecom ing rm orecirdcuit yn am ic and t ain. Man y mr an er s cop e by m anuf act u ring en gin eeradding s com m unicatent e, at t hey ould creat e a sh ar ed spaceisn't for w mork ar ket or cust om er r einf orcing pr ocesses, docum ion ,wor f urn't t her honing cost s. This in g.ing Highsm it h r epillian resent iv es. Pr leadalt erernat s n eed b e fawar e, at br t ly at guides usoject int o an ivet ot hat it s t he t imeach es." st age of t he p roj ect , of wh o n eeds t o int eract at t hest at on st age andit h, w hat t h e shared needs t o be or der t h ateloping t o happen. —Pr G. Sm pr incipal, New space Pr oduct Dy nam ics/incoau t horfor , Dev Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Pr oject t eam need ship m ay at kvnow ar iou s t imes om t heces pr oject anager , a Now , one of tshe f ielden 's cour leadag inging exleader pert s br ingtshat t oget h ercom all et he ledg e andfrresour y ou nm eed t o use t echnical ar chit or ect a t.eam em berit. hDeliv er inwh g tyanAPM gib leshf eat u res fr equent int er v als—creat t h is hly APM in y our nexect t p, roj Jim m Highsm sh ows ould be at in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , in t hgoroug shar ed space at dr iv ess tpr heoject t eammtan o cr int er act ions—is a pr key t ool encou inn ovat ion.uces addr essing t het hquest ion ageat er sive r aise abou t Ag ile ap oach es.ofHe systraging em at ically in t rod t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes:

Encouragement Isn't Enough Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent En cou ragem ent ex t ends beyon d rousing speech es t o prov idin g t h e m ech an ism s f or innov at ion. As Tom DeMarco How(2t o003 cap) itad alize vises, on ifemer y ou gin want g n tew o inv pr ent oduct somet developm hing new en t , t don echnologies 't also t r y t o wr est ev ery m inut e of t ime fr om y our t eam . They need t im e t o t hink , t o ex per im ent , t o br ainst or m . " People under t im e Put om ers cenmt er you rList pr oject w here t hey fastat er,t"he com entof s Tim er. [ 4], Managem entbelong need s t o set som e t im e t o do t his pr essu ret ing don'cust t t hink out side of a proj ect 's t im e const r ain t , par t icular ly for k ey t echnology f easibilit y st udies. Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " [ 4]

Quoted in ( DeMar co 2003) .

Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't I nspirat ion needs t o b e pr im ed w it h p olicies and pr act ices. For cont in ually deliv er in g n ew , innov at iv e APM's e phases: En vision, e, Exp Close pr oduct s—d fiv ecade af t er decad e—noSpeculat com pany bestlor s e, 3M.Adapt The ,com pany b ack s up it s core ideolog y of const ant in nov at ion wit h specific m echanisms, such as a lon g- st anding policy t hat giv es r esear chers a APM ices, t im including t he igPratoduct Vision Box ow and a aSheet per cen t ag epract of t heir e t o in vest e id eas of t heir n. Proj 3 M ect alsoDat has ser ies of prest igiou s aw ar d pr ogr am s t hat r ecognize ent r ep reneur ship , dissem inat ion of t echnology , st imu lat ion of new t echn ology , Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

and cross- f er t ilizat ion of ideas across t he com pany ( Collin s and Por ras 1 994) . < Day Day Up >

Year af t er y ear I DEO w ins m ore design com pet it ions t han any ot her fir m. General m an ag er Tom Kelley out lin es t he t eam env ir onm ent he t h ink s b uilds " Hot Team s" : Fir st , t hey w ere t ot ally dedicat ed t o achiev in g t he end r esult . Second, t hey faced dow n a slight ly ridiculou s deadline. Third , t he grou p w as irr ever ent and non hier archical. •

Table of Contents

Agi le PFou r oj ect nag tem e nt:wCr e aw ti ng ov a ti ve and Pr oduct s rt hM, at he eam as ell Irnn ound ed r espect f ul

of it s div er sit y .

By Jim Highsmit h

Fift h, t hey w or ked in an open, eclect ic space op t im al for f lex ib ilit y , gr oup w ork , and br ainst or m in g.

Pu blisher: isongrou Wesley Finally Add , t he p f elt

emp ower ed t o go get w hat ever else it need ed ( Kelley 200 1) .

Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

While tIhSBN: er e 0-seems o -5 b e a cont radict ion bet w een DeMar co's and 3M's " giv e t h em t im e" and Kelley' s 32 1- 219t 77 " slightPag ly es: r idiculous d eadline" ad vice, I t hink t h ey ar e act ually com pat ib le. Ast u t e pr oject manager s k now 31 2 t hat meet in g a t ig ht d eadlin e m ay be achiev ed by r educin g t he day - t o- day pr essu re rat her t han const ant har pin g on t h e t eam . I n a pr essure- cook er en viron ment , people hav e, or at least perceiv e t h at t hey h av e, no t im e t o t hink ; t h ey just hav e t im e t o do. Wit h less p ressur e and m ore encou ragem ent t o in t eract w it h each ot h er , t eam s can act ually g o f ast er in t he long ru n b y slow in g down t od ay . " Jim in Highsm it h is'sonlist e ,ofwae fsee ew m odern w rit er aref r helping usinunder st an t he new nerper at u resonal, of wor k in Look g at Kelley t hat inn ovat ions who com es om br eak g down r igdidit ies—int t he kn owled ge econom y .hile " space, or ganizat ion al—w concent r at ing on t he en d r esult and it s k ey t im e const r aint . Managers wh o —Rob in, innov Assistatan School w an t t oAust build ivtePr professor odu ct s,, Harv wh o ard w antBusiness t o inspire t h eir t eams t o g reat ness, need t o const ant ly st r iv e f or a w ell- def ined goal and creat e a f lu id t eam en vir onm en t . " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s andprod r igor ous projtect m anagem . Not1.on oes ts—r his equires book help us m ak e sense roj ect Dev eloping great uct s—par icular ly new, ven ert sion 0 ly prdoduct ex plorat ion, not t r of ackping m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an allar ound good against a p lan. Magellan h ad a vision, a goal, and some general id eas ab out sailing fr om Spain d own t he rcoast ead! " of Sou t h Amer ica, av oiding Port uguese ships if at all possib le, f ind ing a w ay arou nd Cape Hor n, —Ly Ellen, Sr .oss VPt & O, D TE t hennn tre ack in g acr heCIPacific t o Energ once-yag ain kn own t er rit ory in t he Sout heast Asia archipelagoes. Gr eat new pr odu ct s com e f rom sim ilar ly au dacious goals and roug h plans t hat of t en have larg e gaps in w hich "" Finally a bhapp ook en t hat r econciles he mpassion t he war ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of m ir acles ," m uch like t the ir acle ofoff in dinAgile g t heSof St rt ait s eofmMag ellan. pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. < Day Day Up >

" The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Build Adaptive (Self-Organizing, Self-Disciplined) Teams Adapt iv e t eam s for m t he core of APM. They blend fr eed om w it h r espon sibilit y , flexibilit y w it h st ru ct ur e. I n t he face of inconsist ency an d am biguit y , t he t eam 's goal is t o consist ent ly deliver on t he prod uct vision ( in clud ing adapt abilit y) wit hin t he pr oject ' s scope. Accom plishing t his r equires t eam s w it h a self•or ganizing st ru Table Contents ct ur of e and self- disciplin ed individual t eam m emb er s. Bu ild ing t h is kind of t eam is t he cor e Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a 's ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s of an ag ile pr oject m anager job. By Jim Highsmit h

A sim ple definit ion of a t eam is t hat it has a d ef in ed g oal, consist s of t w o or mor e p eop le, and requ ir es coor din at ion am ong t h ose people ( Lar son and LaFast o 198 9) . Bey ond t his def init ion , t her e are n um erous Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley v ar iat ions in t eam comp osit ion and st r uct ur e, bu t t he self- or ganizing t eam seem s best f it t ed for Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 exp lor at ory w or k. I n a self- or ganized t eam , indiv idu als t ak e r esp onsib ilit y f or m anagin g t h eir ow n I SBN:shif 0- 32 219k77am -5 ong t hem selves based on need and b est fit , and par t icipat e in t eam decision w ork load, t 1wor Pag es: 31 2 m em bers hav e consid er able leeway in how t hey d eliv er r esult s, b ut t h ey ar e account ab le m aking. Team f or t hose r esu lt s an d for w ork ing wit hin t he est ablished f lex ib le f r am ewor k . Self - org an izin g t eam s ar e not , as some perceiv e, leader less t eam s. Any grou p left t o it s ow n dev ices w ill self - organize in som e f ashion , but t o be eff ect iv e in d eliv ering r esult s, it n eeds t o b e st eer ed in t he r ig ht ion. Self - org an e izing en 't charact b y helping a lack of a stnyat leuof "direct Jim Highsm it h is on of at eam f ew smar odern w rit er s erized who are usleadership, under st an db ut t hebynew re leadership. of wor k in Ther e is a big dif fer en ce bet w een t he t er m s " self organizin g" and " self -d ir ect ing ." Self -d ir ect ing usually t he kn owled ge econom y . " im p liesAust self-in, ledAssist , as van arious t eam m em bers me t he leader ship r ole depending upon t he sit uat ion. The —Rob t Pr ofessor , Harv ard assu Business School self - dir ect ing m odel r uns cou nt er t o mu ch r esear ch t h at indicat es g ood lead er s ar e a m ajor ing redien t of sonve and 198 . —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es pr oject or ganizat success ( Larwe' " This is an t hed proj ect m ional anagem en t book all LaFast been wo ait ing9)for Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect Cr eat ing a selfin- organizin f ram ails: m anagement t h is cu rr gent w orewor ld ofk itent er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y Get t in g t he r igh t p eop le " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of Ar t iculat ing t h e pr oduct vision , boun daries, and t eam r oles pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( raging oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Worion k s,flow I nc.bet ween t eam s En cou in t er act ion and in for mat " The w or ld at ofing pr oduct dev ent is bmecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by Facilit par t icip at elopm ory d ecision aking r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." I nsist ing on us accoun t abilit y —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e St eering, not con t rolling Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use in ael y our nex t p 'roj Jimwond Highsm sh ows APM shlean ould prod be inuct ever y m anager' oolkit t h oroug hly IAPM n Mich Kennedy s (ect 200. 3) er f ulit hbook on wh t h ey Toy ot a develop m en t ssytst em, , he st at es, addr t he s tpr oject anpeople ag er s r aise abouttoAg ap pror oach He syst ically ucesely , " Thisessing book is abquest out t hion e in eract ionmof and how m ile anage inf es. luence t hatem intat eract ionin. "t rod Ult imat t he fivephase APMpeople fr am ew or k, t hen s specific, prtov oolsan f orenv ever y prent oject icipindividual an t . APM is also about and t heir intpresent er act ions an d abou cren eatting ironm in part w hich Cov erage includes: cr eat ivit y and capabilit y er upt t o creat e gr eat pr oduct s. I t ' s people, not st ru ct ur e, t hat b uild great pr oduct s. Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent

Getting People How tthe o capRight it alize on emer gin g n ew

pr oduct developm en t t echnologies

Put t ing cust at tthe he proj cen tect er of you r pr oject w here t hey belong The organizat ion,om t hrers ough m anager or ot ,her m anagers, has t he responsibilit y t o st af f t he pr oject wit h t he r ig ht p eop le. At t he t eam level, get t in g t he r igh t p eop le m eans f in din g t h ose w it h Cr eat ad ap t iv an e tdeam t hat respon q uick t o ect ch anlev ges y our roj ect 's " ecosy st em appr opr iat eing t echn ical b ehs av ioral sk ills.d At t helyproj el, int he p rojpect m anager wor k s "t o en sur e t hat t he right leaders are assig ned t o each t eam . The proj ect m anager should have t he aut h orit y t o reject an y Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't t eam m em ber t h at ot her m anagers m igh t w ant t o assign , un ilat er ally , t o t he proj ect . APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close The ag ile value of p eop le ov er pr ocess dr iv es t he need t o get t h e r igh t people. Pr ocess pr oponent s ar gue t hat aAPM goodpract pr ocess ill com p en for less cap ab le st af f,Proj an dect t h Dat er efor e get t ing t he r ight people isn' t as ices, w including t hesat Preoduct Vision Box and a Sheet cr it ical t o success as get t ing t he r ight pr ocess. Ag ilist s believ e t h at pr ocess can p rov id e a com m on f ram ew orerk agin w it hin whrich people w or kenv effirect iv ely, Lev g you PMI skills can in Agile onm ent sbut it cannot replace cap ab ilit y and sk ill. Prod uct s

are built by capable, skilled individuals, not by p rocesses. Ef fect iv e p roj ect m an ag er s focus on people, < Day Day Up > pr oduct , an d process—in t h at or der. Wit hout t he right people, not hing get s bu ilt . Wit h out a laser focu s on t he prod uct , ex t raneous act iv it ies cr eep in . Wit h out at least a p rocess f r am ewor k , t her e can be in ef f iciency an d p ossibly a lit t le chaos. Get t in g t he r igh t p eop le ( w hich im plies, of cour se, get t in g r id of t h e w rong ones) an d t h e r igh t m anagers det erm ines pr oj ect success m ore t han an y ot her f act or . ( I w ill cover t h e issu e of get t in g t he r igh t p eop le in m or e det ail in Chapt er 5 . )

• Table of Contents Articulating the Product Vision Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jimproj Highsmit The ect mh anager ensur es t hat ev ery ind iv id ual under st an ds t h e pr oduct v ision and his or h er role in t he proj ect . The vision m ig ht include a vision box (d escr ib ed in Chapt er 5 ) and an ar chit ect ural ov erv iew t o help t eamAdd mison em Wesley ber s gr asp t he big pict u re, as w ell as com p onent d escr ip t ions and int er face d ef in it ions Pu blisher: t o help t hem g et a sense of t h eir piece of t he p rodu ct . I n add it ion t o un derst and ing pr oduct Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 r esp onsibilit ies, indiv idu als n eed t o u nder st an d t h eir r oles w it h r espect t o t he ot h er s. I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

31 2 Com prPag ehes: en din g t he pr odu ct v ision also inclu des un derst anding t he proj ect 's bound ar y cond it ions. For exam ple, t he p roj ect m anager ( or pr oduct manager ) needs t o h elp t he t eam gr asp n ot only t h e act ual schedule, but also wh y t he dat es are cr it ical. Sh e needs t o conv ey t o t he t eam a sense of what t he f ew high- pr ior it y areas are an d why t hey are hig h p riorit y . The bet t er t he t eam m emb er s com pr ehend t he r easons for p roj ect const r aint s, t he b et t er t h ey can help in meet in g t hose const r aint s and mak in g t r adeoff decisions in titheir aye- tof o- day " Jim Highsm h is don a f eww or m k. odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " Ar t iculat ingin, the pr oduct vision is not a onet ime act ivSchool it y . Pr oduct s evolve. New p eop le ar e added t o a —Rob Aust Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business pr oject . I n t he h eat of daily act iv it y, visions becom e blur red. Art iculat ing t he v ision, t he end result desir be an ong oingent ask of pwe' roj ve ect all and pr oduct managem . " Thised, is t sh he ould proj ect m anagem t book been w ait ing for —t heent book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good rEncouraging ead! " Interaction —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y

The capabilit y oft hat selfr-econciles org an izing t eam s lies of in tcollab oratSof ion—t er act ent ion an er at ion of t w o or of " Finally a b ook t he passion he Agile t warhe e int m ovem witdh coop t he needed disciplines m ore people t o j oin t ly p rodu ce a r esu lt . Wh en t w o eng ineer s scrat ch out a design on a wh it eboard , t hey pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " are collabor at in g. When t eam mem ber s m eet t o brainst orm a desig n, t h ey ar e collabor at ing . When t eam —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. leader s m eet t o d ecide if a pr odu ct is r eady t o ship, t hey are collabor at ing . The result of any collabor at ion can e or cat as dev a t angible deliv ab le, ing a d ecision, oram shared now ledge. " Thebw ldeg oforized pr oduct elopm ent is er b ecom m ore d yn ic andk uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h The qualit y of r esu collabor iv ef iteff dres." iv en by t r ust an d r espect , f ree f low of inf orm at ion , br illian t ly guides uslt sintfroom an any alt ernat ive tat hat s tor het is t im debat e, and act iv e par t icipat ion—bound t oget h er b y a par mak in gs pinrocess. —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coaut icipat t hor , ory Devdecision eloping -Pr oduct Half t hWhen e Tim ean y of t hese com pon en t s is m issing or in ef fect ive, t h e qu alit y of t he r esu lt s suff ers. I n a collabor at iv e t eam, one t heof k ey inv olv es f acilit at ing coachin g, tcajolin g, ledg and ein and fluencin g t hces e t eam em ber s to Now ,ofone t heleader f ield 'sr oles lead ing ex pert s br ing s t ,oget h er all he k now resour y ou nmeed t o use bu ild h ealt hy r elat ionsh ips. APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces At cor e of healt t eam relat is t rust and respect . When eam m yem s don 't icip respect t het he fivephase APMhfryam ew or k, tionships hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools ftor ever prber oject part an t . t he kCov now ledge an d capabilit ies of ot hers, meaningf ul debat e f alt ers. The line bet ween confidence and erage includes: arr ogance can be aw fu lly narr ow , and in div id uals somet imes blu st er t o cov er up lack of k now ledg e. The pr oject manager m eld s a g roup of p eop le int o a w ork in g t eam b y w ork in g t h rou gh t hese t y pes of issu es—and get t ingoft he w r ong people h eent t eam wh en n ecessary . Six pr inciples Agile Pr oject Manoff ag tem Com plex em it s,alize suchonasemer lar gegin proj ions, t h rive int er act ion an d inf orm at ion f low . The Howsyst t o cap g nect ew or prganizat oduct developm en ton t echnologies pr oject managem ent t eam sh ould be const ant ly ask ing quest ion s such as, " Ar e t he r ight people Putatt ing w cust ersotather t heabou cen t er you r tpr ojectat, wt he here t hey coor din it h om each t heof right hings right t imbelong es?" and " I s t h e right in for m at ion available at t h e right t ime?" These are cr it ical quest ion s w hose answ ers can help t h e t eam operat e eator ingbog ad ap e t eam s t hat respon d q engineer uick ly t o ch our pde rojtect " ecosy emm" anuf act uring sm ootCr hly t het ivt eam d own . The design whan o ges f ails int oyinclu h e 's id eas of st t he engineer en ds u p w it h p rod uct s t h at are t oo ex pensiv e t o m ak e. Sof t w ar e engineers wh o f ail t o w or k Which roj build ect s wcode ill b en ef it isf rom APM—an dw hich w on't closely wit h pQA t hat diff icu lt an d ex pensive t o t est . Too lit t le coordinat ion and infor m at ion, and t eam s will div er ge so f ar t h at int egrat ion becom es a nig ht m are ( h en ce t he n eed for fr eq uent APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close in t egrat ion) . Too mu ch coor dinat ion and in for m at ion flow, an d t eam s becom e m ir ed in const ant meet in gs and inAPM for mat ionices, overincluding load. pract t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Pr oject need t o fskills ocus in onAgile int eract , collabor Levmeranager agin g syou r PMI envion ir onm ent s at ion, and coor din at ion first and ap pr opriat e

docum ent at ion second , because docum ent at ion d iscour ages conv ersat ion. One of t he pr oblem s w it h < Day Day Up > serial p rod uct d ev elop ment , and one r eason w hy com panies hav e m oved t o cr oss- fu nct ion al t eam s, is t hat it t ends t o discour ag e people fr om int eract ing by sug gest ing , imp licit ly at least , t h at docum ent at ion pr ov ides t he infor m at ion t hey need. Comp lex , t acit inf or mat ion is p rim ar ily conv eyed by int er act ion an d conv ersat ion ( pr obably in t h e rang e of 70 % t o 75% ) and only secon darily b y docum ent at ion ( 25 % t o 30 % ) . Un derst and ing , not docum ent at ion , is t he goal of inf orm at ion t r ansfer . Docum ent at ion- heav y t eams will h av e d if ficult y ach iev ing agilit y. Alt hough collabor at ion an d int er act ion dr iv e eff ect iv e agile dev elopm ent , not all en gin eer s ( and ot her t eam m em ber s) are ef f ect ive comm u nicat or s.[ 5] This fact giv es r ise t o anot her k ey r ole f or agile pr oj ect m t eamof leader s: coach. Ag ile pr oject manager s w ill assist t eam m em bers in dev eloping t he • anagers an dTable Contents in t eract ion sk ills t hey need t o becom e eff ect iv e collabor at or s. Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s 5] Ken Delcol By Jim [Highsmit h makes a sober ing point about collaboration. " Most peopl e in product developm ent ar e not collaborativ e;

they do not like to t alk to each other . I nnovation requir es i nt er acti ons and ex change of ideas, and if y ou don't like talk ing t o people, t hi s becomes difficul t. Com panies need t o dev elop env ir onm ents, bot h phy sical and cul tur al, that Pu blisher: ison Wesley pr om pt/Add demand/ ex pect collaborati on. Par t of the r eason for lack of coll abor at ion is the education system for technical Pu b people." Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

Participatory Decision Making Decision m ak ing is t h e heart an d sou l of collab orat ion. Any one can sit dow n and chat abou t a p rod uct desig n. Collabor at ion m eans w ork in g t oget her t o b uild a feat ur e, creat e a d esign, or w rit e a pr odu ct 's " Jim Highsm it h isCollabor on e of at a ion f ewismaodern w rit er.s So who areher helping st an dwitt he newher n atin u re woror k in docum ent at ion. j oint eff ort w het y ou arus e dunder esigning h anot divof idual tsthe kn owled . " it ies or decid ing if t he pr odu ct is r eady t o ship, t here ar e lit erally t h ousands of r ugglin g w ge it h econom f eat u re yprior —Rob Austlarge in, Assist Pr ofessor , Harv arderBusiness decisions, an d an smt all, t o be m ade ov t he life ofSchool a pr oject . How a t eam m ak es t hose d ecisions det erm ines w het her t he t eam is a t ru ly collabor at iv e one. Som e t eam s ar e dr iv en t o qu ick d ecisions by a "senior This ist ech t he nical proj ect midual, anagem book all en been ait ingw for helou book eff ect ivhely bin esis in div when ilet ot herswe' arevedriv by w t hose it h —t the destt hat v oice. Neit er com sit uat ion Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect condu civ e t o t ru e collaborat ion. m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good rSev ead! er"al years ago, I w r ot e an ar t icle on dist ribut ed decision m ak ing . I n r esear chin g t h at art icle, I r ev iew six book on&pCI rojO, ectD m and fou nd only one par agraph on decision mak in g. Many , if —Ly nned e Ellen, Sr . sVP TEanagement Energ y not m ost , pr ocess- cent r ic appr oach es t o b ot h prod uct d ev elop ment and pr oject managem ent seem t o "spend Finallyno a bt im ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t hedecisionneeded mak disciplines of e on decisionm aking pr ocesses. Bu tAgile f or all t he general neglect , t eam in g pr oject managem . Jim b ook p rov ided v icemtan o ag all em of ent us. ", ag ile or ot her wise. Fr om f easib ilit y capabilit ies are abent solut ely 'scrit ical has t o successf ul aprser oj ect —Neville oy ) Singham CEO, k s, I nc. go/ no- g o R( decisions, t o w,het her Th or ought not t oWor r elease a pr odu ct , t o each an d ev ery minut e design choice—t he w ay t eam s m ak e decisions will hav e a m ajor im pact on t h eir perf or mance. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by rLeadership einf orcing pr adding docum ent at ion , or f urItnher honing s. This isn't w ork Highsm is ocesses, also cr it ical t o good decision m ak ing. in nov at iv ecost pr oduct developm enint g. w or k t her eit hare br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." t hou san ds of d ecisions t o b e m ade—an d t h e in for m at ion av ailable t o m ake t hose d ecisions oft en r em ain s —Pr estCust on G. h,efpr incipal,mNew Pr oduct ics/t echnology coau t hor , Dev eloping oduct in t ried Half, tand h e Tim e f uzzy. omSm er itpr erences ay be fuzzy . Dy Thnam e new b eing used Pr may b esun t her ef or e fu zzy . For ev er y clear decision t o b e m ad e t her e are t en ot her s t h at r eq uir e " f uzzy" log ic. Now t he f ield 's lead ing by ex pert br ing s t oget er all teheback k nowand ledgfor e tand resour ces y ouWh n eed t o use Team, sone canofbecom e par aly zed t his sf uzziness an dhoscillat h over d ecisions. en all the APM in y ourdebat nex t e, p roj ectdialogue . Jim Highsm sh ows wh im y APM sh oulden bet hine ever mitanager' oolkit , t h oroug hly discussion, and h av eit rheach ed an passe—wh ambyigu y of t hes tsit uat ion addr essing ion s m praking oject m anab agilit erys of r aise t Aghe ile leader ap pr oach t rod" Well, uces ov er w helm st he t hequest decisioncap t heabou t eam—t of t es. en hHe as syst t o stem ep at inically and in say, tt he phase am ew or t hen present specific, pr. "ovAn en eff t ools ever y pr oject icipam an biguit t. he fivedir ect ion isnAPM 't abfrundant ly k, clear , bu t w e'r es going East ect ivf or e leader " ab sorb part s" t he y, Cov erage includes: t ak es respon sibilit y for t he decision, an d allow s t h e t eam t o g et on wit h it s wor k . Know in g when and how t o car ry t his of f is one m ark of an eff ect iv e leader . inciples of tAgile Pr oject ag em Ther eSix areprt wo wor ds hat eng ineersMan seem t o ent h at e most , m ay be because t hey see a r elat ion sh ip bet w een t he t wo—p olit ics an d com pr om ise. Com pr om ise r esult s fr om w in- lose t h ink ing, in wh ich I am r igh t and How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies y ou ar e w ron g. An alt er nat iv e m odel is w in- w in t h ink in g, in wh ich reconceiv ing replaces comp rom ise. [ 6] Reconceiv in g cust m eans comatbining ideas t o you creat e som bet t er tbelong han any ind iv id ual could cr eat e on h er Put t ing om ers t he cen t er of r pr ojectet , hing w here t hey ow n. I t isn' t giv ing up , bu t adding t o. I nn ovat ion and cr eat ivit y ar e emer gent , n ot causal, prop er t ies of t eamw k. ing There is t nivoe set ofsstt hat ep s respon t hat guar t ees ovat ion; init yem fr om m eldsting Croreat ad ap t eam d qan uick ly tinn o ch an ges ourerpges roj ect 's "aecosy emof " gr adually exp an din g ideas t h at are t he r esu lt s of int er act ion. I n t his p rocess t h er e are pieces of y our ideas, and piecesWhich of mine, h ats cont t he APM—an ev ent ualdsolu t ion.w on't This pr ocess of m elding ideas, of sub ject in g t hem p rojtect w ill br ib enutefeit t of rom w hich t o discussion, of analyzing t hem in t he ligh t of ou r pr oduct ' s v ision and const r aint s, is not a pr ocess of fivbut e phases: vision, in Speculat Expise lor e, Adapt , Close com prAPM's omise, one of En reconceiv g. Com e, pr om polar izes. Reconceiv in g u nit es. [ 6]

Collpract eagueices, Rob Austin or igi nated use of the wor d " r and econceive" i n tDat his way. APM including t he Prthe oduct Vision Box Proj ect a Sheet

How ev er,erwinor rr econ ceiving not im ply decision m aking. Part icipat ion d oesn 't Lev aginwginyou PMI skills in should Agile env ir onm entconsensus s

m ean consensus eit her . Self - org an izin g t eam s h av e m anagers w ho m ak e unilat er al d ecisions on Day Day Up > occasion, but t heir p rim ar y st y le is inclusiv e, t o< en cour ag e wide p ar t icipat ion in decision m aking in or der t o mak e t he best d ecisions. Self- or ganized t eams hav e a lot of d iscret ionary decision - mak in g aut h orit y , bu t it is balan ced w it h t hat of t he p roj ect m anager. As in ot h er ar eas, balance is t h e k ey t o agilit y in decision mak in g.

Insisting on Accountability Responsibilit y an d accoun t ab ilit y cr eat e self- or ganizing t eams t hat wor k . When an in div idual com mit s t o • Table of Contents deliv er in g a part icular f eat ure dur in g an it er at ion, he accep t s account abilit y f or t hat deliv er y. Wh en t h e Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s t eam com mit s t o a set of feat ur es by t h e end of t he second pr oject milest one, all mem ber s of t he t eam By Jim Highsmit h abilit y f or t hat . When t he p rod uct m anager is in volv ed in it erat ion p lanning, she has accep t account agr eed t o b e account able for prov idin g r equirem ent s inf orm at ion t o t he t eam . The proj ect m anager agr ees t o beAdd accou nt able for r esolv ing im pedim ent s t o t eam pr ogr ess. When a t eam m em ber com mit s t o Pu blisher: ison Wesley pr ovPuide some inf orm b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00at 4 ion t o anot her t he next day , he has agr eed t o be account able f or t hat act ion. When t eam m em ber s com m it t o each ot her, wh en t he t eam comm it s t o t he cu st omer , w hen t he pr oject I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 m anager comm it s t o pr ovide t h e t eam w it h a par t icular resour ce, t hey ar e all agr eeing t o b e held Pag es: 31 2 account able. And it is in cum bent on each and ev er y t eam m em ber an d t he pr oject m an ag er t o hold each ot her t o t hose com m it m ent s. Trust is t he f oun dat ion of collaborat ion, and m eet ing one's com mit m en t s is cor e t o b uilding t ru st .

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in Steering, Not Controlling t he kn owled ge econom y." —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School Leaderless t eam s ar e r udd er less t eam s. Managers w ho w ant t o cr eat e an adapt ive, self- or ganizing " This is t eam he proj anagem en tcon book we'hey ve all been w ait forf—t heatbook t hat m effen ect ely com pr oject s stect eer mr at h er t han t rol—t influence, nuing dge, acilit e, recom d,ivassist , urbin ge,es Agile metand, hod syes, and dr igor projeect mances. anagem en t . vNot oes es t his help (us ak eand sense of poroj ect Larmson LaFast counsel, ir ectous in som inst They iew on t h ly emdselv asbook t eachers m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good 19 89) . r ead! " Micr ag er sSrwill alw hav e t oEnerg microm —Ly om nn eanEllen, . VP &ays CI O, D TE y anage, com plaining t he w hole t im e ab out st af f m em ber s w ho are unw illing t o t ak e r esp onsib ilit y . But w hat abou t individuals and t eam s t hat d on't hav e exp er ience w ork in g ainb a selft hat - organizin g m anner ? Surely n eed Sof a heav an agent er ialwit hand il t h ey disciplines ar e self - of " Finally ook r econciles t he passion of tthey he Agile t warier e mmovem h t heu nt needed disciplin ed enoug hent t o. fJim ulf ill's tbheir ar t of t heided f reedom sibilit y bar pr oject managem ookphas p rov a ser v- respon ice t o all of us. " gain, right ? Alas, dest ruct u ring r—Neville ar ely f ollow s )stSingham r uct ur ing,. CEO, Managers wh ose R( oy Th ought Wor kfus,ndam I nc. ent al belief s t end t ow ard st r uct ur e r at h er t han f lexibilit y r ar ely g iv e up t he pow er an d con t rol necessar y t o creat e an adapt iv e or ganizat ion. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by To achieve anocesses, adapt able, self- or ganizing roj ect m anager gr This an t s isn't t he tw eam asg.mHighsm uch au titonom y r einf orcing pr adding docum ent att eam, ion , ort he f urpt her honing cost s. ork in h br illian t ly guides us int o an ernat ive tpossib hat f it sle,t he es." coaches in div iduals and get s r id of t hose wh o as possible, dest ruct u res t o alt t he ex t ent andt im t hen —Pr'test don fiton . G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e St eering Now , oneisofnot t heabf ield dicat 's ion leadofing d ecision ex pert smbr aking ing. s tSelfogetdir h erect alling t he( as k now opposed ledg e tand o selfresour or ganizing) ces y ou tneam eed s—t t o use hose APM t hat tin heoret y our ically nex t dp on't roj ect hav . Jim e a Highsm single leader it h sh ows —t enwh d tyo APM dr if t sh anould d p rocr be ast in ever inat e, y m w hich anager' is not s t oolkit appr ,opr t h iat oroug e f orhly addr f ast - essing m ov ingt he pr odu quest ct ion devselopm pr oject entmt an eam ags. er St s reer aise ingabou m ean t Ag s ile t heap manager pr oach es. m ak Heessyst unilat em eral at ically decisions in t rod uces at t he imes fiveanphase d m ak es APM decisions fr am ew or w itk,h tthen eampresent inv olv ement s specific, at otpr h er ov ten im tes, oolsbut f orprever im arily y pr delegat oject part es icip decisions an t . to the tCov eam. erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent

Self-Discipline

How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Self - discipline enables f reedom and em pow er m en t . When ind iv id uals an d t eam s w ant m or e aut onom y , Put t ing cust omgers t er of e. you r prof oject w here t hey belong t hey m ust exer cise reatater t he self-cen disciplin One t he, acut e dangers of pr ocess- cent r ic dev elopm ent and pr oject managem ent is t hat t h ey rem ove an y in cen t iv e f or self- d iscip line. When manager s imp ose Cr eat ingough ad apdet t iv ailed e t eam s t hat respon d q uick o ch an or geselse" in y—t ourhey p roj " ecosy em " self disciplin e t hr p rocesses—" f ollow t hislyptrocess stect ifle'sinit iat iv estand disciplin e. These sam e manager s t hen t ur n ar oun d and com plain, " Why doesn't any one ar ound here t ake Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't any init iat iv e or accept an y respon sibilit y ?" I m posed - disciplined t eam s g et s t hings accom plish ed . Self disciplin ed t eams accom p lish near -m iraculous t h ing s. APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close Self - disciplined ind iv id uals: APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

Accept accoun t ab ilit y f or r esu lt s < Day Day Up >

Conf ron t r ealit y t hr ough r igor ous t hin king En gage in int ense int eract ion and d eb at e Work willing ly w it hin a self- or ganizing fr amew ork Respect colleagues Dialogue, d iscussion, and par t icipat ory d ecision m aking are all part of build ing self - discipline. A series of • ord s scat t er ed Table Contents w t hrofoughou t Jim Collin s's b ook Good t o Great (20 01) cr eat es an image of t he r ig orou s Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: e a ti ng I nntov ti ve- discipline—t Pr oduct s t hink in g and debat e t hatCrare core o aself r ut h and bru t al fact s; dialogu e and debat e, not coercion; a penchant for d ialog ue; quest ionin g. Collins f oun d t h at in div iduals in gr eat com panies wer e By Jim Highsmit h ext rem ely int eract iv e, eng ag ing in d eb at es t hat of t en last ed a long t im e. Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Self - discipline is also bu ilt on com pet en ce, persist en ce, an d t he w illingness t o assum e account abilit y f or e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 r esuPultbs.Dat Com pet ence is m or e t han sk ill an d abilit y ; it ' s at t it ude an d ex perience. Get t h e r igh t people I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 line com es m ore easily . Get t he w ron g people, and imp osed disciplin e creeps in, in volv ed , and selfd iscip Pag es: t31 2 , r esp ect , an d t he egalit arian at m ospher e. " The point is t o f ir st g et self -d isciplined people dest r oying r ust w ho eng ag e in v ery rigor ous t h ink ing, w ho t hen t ake disciplined act ion wit hin t h e fr am ew or k of a consist en t sy st em, " say s Collin s ( 20 01) . One r eason w ould - be agile t eam s don 't succeed is t hat t hey f ail t o realize t he self- discipline requ ir ed . Ther e is no bin ar y sw it ch t o go f r om no discipline t o self - discipline; it 's a jou rney t h at som e individuals get right aw ay , w hile ot her s need t o t ak e a longer t r ip . " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in < Day Day Up > t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Simplify I f you w ant t o be fast and agile, k eep t h ing s sim ple. Speed isn' t t h e r esult of sim plicit y , but sim plicit y enables speed . [ 7] I f y ou want t o be slow an d rigid , pile on t h e bur eau cracy . A fr iend w ho on ce w ork ed f or NASA relay ed t h e st or y of his t eam' s u niq ue sof t war e desig n cr it er ion —least imp act on docum ent at ion . •The docum entTable Contents at ionofr ev ision pr ocess was so oner ous and t ime consum in g t h at m in im izing t he Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: e a ti ng eI nn ov amtiajor ve Pr oduct s obj ect iv e. This is a clear ex am p le of h ow com plian ce docum ent at ion ch an gesCr becam t he design w ork not on lyh im pedes deliv ery b y dr aining away engineering t im e, bu t also un derm in es t echnical d esign By Jim Highsmit decisions. Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley [ 7]

Coll eague Luke Hohm ann has a speed- or iented cat ch phrase that he shar ed with m e: " When you want y our boat to

Pu b e: ,Apr il 0easier 6, 2 00 to 4 cut anchor s than add hor sepower ." goDat fast i t is I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

When Pag you es:simp 31 2 lify p rocesses by t ak in g out t h e det ailed t ask s and com pliance, y ou f or ce people t o t h ink and t o int er act . Neit her t hey nor t heir m anagers can u se st ru ct ur e as a cr ut ch. Wh ile som e st r uct ur e aids agilit y , t he ov erabun dance of st r uct ur e in many organizat ions gives people an ex cu se not t o t h ink , or bludg eon s t hem int o not t hin king. Eit her way , people f eel t heir cont r ibu t ions are devalu ed , and t hey lose any sense of p er sonal r esp onsibilit y or account ab ilit y f or r esult s. " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " Generative Rules —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School "The Thisepisittom he eproj ect mleanagem en twbook vestall been w ait ing —t heook—a book t5x hat ectcar iv ely binlin es es of simp r ules lies it h in we' Nord rom 's emp loy eefor handb 8- eff in ch d t hcom at out Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect Nord st rom ' s goal of pr ov iding out st and ing cust om er serv ice an d list s t he com pany ' s r ules: m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! "Rule # 1: Use y our good ju dgm en t in all sit uat ions. Ther e w ill be no addit ion al r ules (Collin s and —Ly nn Por e ras Ellen, 1 994) Sr . .VP & CI O, D TE Energ y Simp le parincip ( orr econciles r ules) ar et he on epassion facet ofof" sw int Sof elligt war en ce" om com t heor y. This is t he idea " Finally b ookles t hat t hearm Agile e mfrovem entplex wit hit yt he needed disciplines of tpr hat t hemanagem r ig ht set ent of sim ple's rbules, app lied it h ina aser gr voup int"eract iv e indiv idu als, gener at es oject . Jim ook has p rovwided ice of t o highly all of us. com plex bR(ehoy av) iors such ,as in nov ion an d cr eatI nc. iv it y . Jim Donehey , f orm er CI O of Cap it al On e, used f our —Neville Singham CEO, Thatought Wor k s, r ules t o help ensu re ev ery one in his or ganizat ion w as w ork ing t owar d t he sam e shared goals: " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h s alignusI Tint act w it h ive t he tbusiness. . Alway br1illian t ly guides o iv anit ies alt ernat hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e 2 . Use good econom ic jud gm en t . Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use 3 . in Bey four lex ib le.t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly APM nex addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces 4 . fiveHave em pat hy frfor h er t he present or ganizat ion ( Bonabeau d Mey 2001 t he phase APM amot ew orsk,int hen s specific, pr ov enan t ools f orerever y )pr. oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Do t hese fou r ru les con st it ut e ev er yt h ing t hat Donehey 's depart m ent need ed t o do? Of cour se n ot , but w ould a 4 00- page act iv it y d escr ip t ion get t he j ob d one? Wh at Donehey w ant ed was b ounded in nov Six at ion—a depart ent t Pr hatoject t h ought f orem it self pr inciples ofmAgile Man ag ent in a v er y v olat ile busin ess env ir onm en t , bu t also one t hat un derst ood boun daries. How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Pr inciples do n ot d ef in e act iv it ies t hat a dev elopm ent grou p sh ould accom plish. How ever , t he right set const it ut tes e mom inim umatset rules hatyou boun innov iv e and odu ct iv e w ork . Th ey creat e an Put ingt hcust ers t heofcen t er tof r prdoject , wathere t heyprbelong in nov at iv e env ir onm ent b y specif y ing a sim ple set of r ules t hat gener at e com plex b eh av ior . APM, for eatdoesn't ing ad ap t iv e teeam s t hat d q uick ly t o ice. ch anI tges in mes y ourt hat p rojwect 's "aecosy em " exam Cr ple, includ a conf ig urrespon at ion cont r ol pract assu hen t eamstneeds conf igu rat ion con t rol, it w ill figur e out a m inim um configur at ion cont r ol pr act ice and use it . Ag ile m et h ods p roj s w ib ill eb en ef ity t fhin rom w hich w on't eff ort m ig ht n eed in t h ousands of pages of don 't Which at t em pt t oect d escr ever g tAPM—an hat any d ev elop ment docum ent at ion. I nst ead, t hey d escr ib e a m in im um set of act iv it ies t hat is need ed t o creat e sw ar m APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close in t elligence. APM pract ices,l set including t he oduct Vision Box andsince Proj ect a Sheet Dev eloping a usefu of r ules is Pr n ot a t rivial ex ercise, t he Dat r ig ht com binat ion can oft en be count er in t uit iv e. Appar en t ly m inor chang es can h av e u nfor eseen result s. Ch an gin g on e pr act ice, w it hou t Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

un derst anding t he int er act ions an d t h e concept s of swar m in t elligence, can cau se an agile sy st em t o < Day Day Up > r eact in unf or eseen w ay s. The g uid ing pr inciples of APM, an d it s p ract ices, con st it ut e a set of r ules t hat hav e been sh own t o wor k t og et h er well.

Barely Sufficient Methodology When deciding on process, m et hodology , p ract ices, d ocu m en t at ion, or ot her asp ect s of pr oduct dev elopm ent , t h e adm onit ion t o sim plify st eer s us t ow ar d a bar e suf ficiency , t ow ard st r eam linin g, t ow ard im p lem en t ing " a lit t le bit less t han ju st enoug h. " Sim plicit y n eeds t o balance t h e need f or speed and • Table of Contents f lexibilit y w it h r et ainin g enou gh st ab ilit y t o w ar d off car eless m ist ak es. Barely suff icien t d oes not mean Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s in suf ficient . I t does not m ean " no docum ent at ion " or " no pr ocess. " Fur t herm or e, bar ely suf ficient for a By Highsmitpr h oject will b e v er y diff erent fr om b ar ely su ff icien t f or a pr oject of only 10 people. 10Jim 0- person John Wooden's adm onit ion t o h is basket ball t eam s seem s appr opr iat e h er e: " Be qu ick , b ut d on't hu rr y ." Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley As au t hor And rew Hill ( 200 1) recount s his playing day s w it h Wooden, h e enr iches t h e m ean ing of t he Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 ph rase " Life, lik e bask et ball, m ust b e play ed fast —bu t nev er out of con t rol. " I n p rod uct d ev elop ment , lack I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 of qu ick ness r esu lt s in com pet it ive disadv ant age, w hile h ur ry in g causes m ist ak es. Balancing, one of t h e Pag es: 31 2 k ey s t o agilit y, was part of Wooden's coachin g t echn iqu e. As Hill w rit es, " Wood en 's geniu s w as in h elpin g his player s f ind and m aint ain t h at r azor 's edge b et w een q uick ness and h urr y ing . " Finding t hat razor' s edge isn' t easy. I f it w as, ev er y one w ould b e doing it . An engineer w ho hur r ies t o desig n a feat ur e but f ails t o adequ at ely rev iew or t est it creat es def ect s t hat ult im Highsm at ely slow t heonproj Deliv y actwivrit it ies one are qu ick ly and us ef fect iv ely spdeed oject hile " Jim it h is e ofect a .f ew m er odern er s dwho helping under st an t heprnew n s, at uwre of wor k in ov emowled phasis com p yliance act iv it ies act as a sp eed br eak . Select ing t he act ivit ies t hat absolut ely , t heerkn ge on econom ." posit av eAssist t o beandone, and doing w ell, contSchool r ibu t es t o quick ness. Sloppy ex ecut ion of t hose k ey —Robiv ely Austhin, t Pr ofessor , Harvt hem ard Business act iv it ies can be t he consequence of h ur ry in g. " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es On e ofmet t hehod comp et itriv e adv ages f in din g ten hist . balance, b eing it h out urak ryeinsense g, is t hat en Agile s and igor ousant proj ect of m anagem Not on ly of d oes t hisquick bookwhelp ushm of pitrojoft ect f orces t h e cominpet intent o hur r ying. This actin u ally of Agile t h e pot ial d an gers plement agile m anagement t hitision cu rr w or ld of it er atisiv e, cremone ent al m ent et hods, but it ' sof animallar ounding good oject rpread! " managem ent an d d ev elop ment appr oaches. Less disciplin ed or ganizat ions and t eam s m ay conf use ick ness w it h ing m isu —Ly nn e qu Ellen, Sr . VP & hCIurr O,y D TEand Energ y nderst and t h e fou ndat ion al w or k, ex per ience, and dedicat ion it t ak es t o b alance on t he edg e. Wooden u sed t he fast b reak t o incr ease t he t em po of t he g am e enou gh "t hat Finally b ook t hatwas r econciles he int passion t heBecause Agile Sofoft war m ovem entber wit he needed of t he aop ponent pressur ted o hur ryofing. his et eam mem s'hdtiscipline anddisciplines w ork et h ic, oject ent b ook hasspbut rov ided a ser ice rt ool.allProf us. "t eam s can use t he sam e st rat egy . tpr hey coumanagem ld play fast er. Jim t han's opponent st ill be in vcont oj ect —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. New pr oduct developm en t t eam s inhabit a w or ld of gr ow ing com plex it y, developin g ev er m ore com plex " The w or of prbein oduct dev barded elopm ent ing m ore yn am icfor and uncer ain. Man m an agcoax er s cop e by pr oduct s ld w hile g bom w itis h ba ecom b ew ildering arrday of in m at ion. tLeader s wyho can r einfplif orcing pr ocesses, docum at ion t her honing costpr s. ocess, This isn't ork infind g. Highsm it h s sim icat ions ou t of t hadding e com plex it y , ent w ho can, or instf ur it ut e j ust en ough wh owcan t hat r azor' br illianbet t lyween guides us ness int o an althernat ive t he edge quick an d ur ry in g ht hat av e fait smu cht im b etes." t er ch an ce of success. —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e < Day Day Up >

Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Principles to Practices Ult imat ely , w hat people do, h ow t hey behav e, is w hat cr eat es gr eat pr oduct s. Pr in ciples and pr act ices are gu ides; t h ey help id en t if y and reinfor ce cert ain behaviors. I n agile dev elopm ent t he b eh av iors we want t o encour age are t hink in g, act ing , and in t eract in g. We w ant kn owledgeable people t o glean new inf orm at ion •f rom t he pr oduct Tabledev of Contents elopm ent process; app ly t h at new inf orm at ion t hou ght f ully ; and t o int er act w it h Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em Cr e a ng I nn ov a ti veatPr s t heir peer s t o gener eatnt: e em erti gent , innov ivoduct e ideas and ap ply t hose ideas t o t he bu ildin g of r eal, dem r ab leh p rod uct com pon en t s. By Jimonst Highsmit While p rincip les gu ide ag ile t eam s, sp ecific p ract ices ar e necessar y t o act ually accom plish w ork . A Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley pr ocess st r uct ur e and specif ic pract ices for m a m inim al, flexible fr amew ork for self - org an izing t eam s. Th e Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 nex t f iv e ch ap t er s ident ify and d escr ibe t he p rocesses and pr act ices of APM. I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

< Day Day Up >

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Chapter 4. An Agile Project Management Model •

Pr inciplesTable an dofPrContents act ices

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

Agileh Pr ocess By Jim An Highsmit

Fram ew or k

Phase: En vision Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 e 4 Phase: Speculat I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

Phase: Pag es: 31Ex 2 plore Phase: Adapt Phase: Close Judg ment Required " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " oject —RobPrAust in,Size Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School icesm anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es " This Agile is t hePract proj ect Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en . Not < tDay Dayon Uply> d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Principles and Practices " Hi, May a, it 's Her man. " " Hi, dude, h ow' s y our p roj ect going?" asked Maya. •

Table of Contents

Agi le P ect MTh a nag nt: Cr e autially ng I mov nn ov ing a ti vealong. Pr oductWe' s ve im plem ent ed a f ew of t he agile p ract ices. Bu t y ou " Pret t yr ojwell. ingem s eare act kBynow , I 'm j ust an act ion k in d of guy . Just exp lain t he pr act ices t o m e. Th e pr inciples st uf f st ill seem s lik e Jim Highsmit h f luf f. " Pu blisher: Wesley " I t hou ght t Add heyison w er e f lu ff , t oo, at t he b eg inn ing ," May a r espond ed . " But once y ou' ve used APM for a Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 t hat it 's t he principles t hat m ake t he p ract ices f lex ib le. " w hile, y ou'll und er st and I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

" OK, ap inciples t o it er at ion planning. " Pagply es: pr 31 2 " Think about Deliv er Cu st om er Value. For us, t his p rincip le g uid es t he select ion of feat ur es. We' re const ant ly asking our selv es w het her one f eat u re is m or e v aluable t han t he n ex t . " " But won 't m ost of t h e feat ur es ship any w ay?" " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in kn owled . "o t h ing s in m ind. Somet imes we release increm ent al ver sions, an d t he goal of "t he Possibly , buge t weconom e k eep yt w —Rob an t Prleofessor ardk eeps Business alw aysAust hav in, ing Assist a r eleasab p rodu ,ctHarv r eally u s onSchool our t oes. " t he proj ect un m anagem t m book we'ed ve. all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es " IThis sn 't is ear ly release lik ely ?" en Her an ask Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect "mMost ly , b ut last m rr erent w ewhad ere,wit a crent it ical pr oblem. We wer e able t o allt akar e ound a p rodgood uct t h at anagement in tsum h is cu or ldaofcust it erom at iv in hcrem al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an w as t "hr ee- qu ar t ers finished, do a coup le of q uick special feat ur es for t he cust om er, and deliver it in t hree r ead! w eeknn s. eThe cust er & was b low n aw ay, yand t his one sp en ds m egabuck s. " —Ly Ellen, Srom . VP CI O, D TE Energ " So, on at obtook he Emp I t erat ive, Feat u re- Based er Sof y p rincip That seem sh r edund an t w it disciplines h the Finally t hatloy r econciles t he passion of t heDeliv Agile t war ele. m ovem ent wit t he needed of pr act icemanagem t o m e, but be's t bhat forided ces ita sser imvpice ort ance. oject entm. ay Jim ookj ust hasrein p rov t o all "of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " That 's t he g en er al id ea. See, y ou alr eady under st an d t his st uf f, Her man! You ju st don 't t ru st it y et . " Maya t o oduct herself . Sh e k new hard Her m an,am wic hoand woruncer k ed f or a 75 -y earoldaginsur ance f ir m , " The wgrorinn ld ed of pr dev elopm ent itiswbas ecom ingf or m ore d yn t ain. Man y m an er s cop e by tr oeinf break w itpr h ocesses, t h e conserv at iv e,docum t r ad itent ional ap ,pror oach hat honing Great Midhad alwways t aken t o ev ery orcing adding at ion f ur tther costWest s. This isn't ork in g. Highsm it h t hing, buillian t he twas t ry in g, him s of f credit br ly guides usand int oshe an gave alt ernat ivelott hat it s t he. t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e " That 's fine as far as it g oes, but does t his scale? You an d I bot h k now t hat an y com pet en t PM can com plet e aofsm all,f ield sh ort - t er m oject or ce w illh er alone, bukt now t hatledg all changes wh en y ou scale ole Now , one t he 's lead ingprex pert sonbrfing s tof oget all t he e and resour ces y ou n eedt he t o wh use t hing inup. " nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly APM y our addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces Yeah , but t hatAPM ' s w here he or Sim in.prI tov ' s en how youf or scale t hing part up w it hou t"he fivephase fr amtew k, plify t hen principle present s comes specific, t ools everevy ery pr oject icip an tt. t r ip pin g ov er you rself and y our p rocess. For ex am ple, on Jup it er , t he n ew pr oject I 'm ru nning, w e h av e a big Cov erage includes: t eam. And t o m ak e m at t er s w or se, one f eat u re t eam is dist r ibu t ed . Adop t ing a collabor at ion st r at egy was a g iv en , bu t w e also figur ed t hat w e m ig ht n eed som e addit ion al d ocu m en t at ion t o k eep ev er y one in sy nc. "Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent alize ginI gt old n ewy ou pr oduct Herm How an intt o er cap ru ptited w iton h aemer " See, so. " developm en t t echnologies ing plify cust om ers at keeps t he cenitt er of you r pr oject " But tPut he tSim pr inciple fr om t u rning in t o ,t hwehere pount hey ds ofbelong p ap er w ork you gener at e, " May a laug hed. " We'r e bears about usin g t he sim p lest d ocu m en t at ion t hat accom plishes t h e goal. We wor k w it h eat docu ing ad ap t iv t eam s t hat respon d orm q uick an ges in y w our p roj ect " ecosy eme" t o t im e as j ust aCrfew ment s eand keep t hem as inf al lyast ow ch e can . Then e adapt t h'sem fr omstt im w e find w hat w or ks an d what doesn't ." Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't " So, y ou use t h e pr inciples t o h elp ad ap t p ract ices t o specif ic sit u at ions, " Herm an said. APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close " Rig ht . Wit hout t hese gu iding pr inciples we could get hun g u p on t h e specif ic pr act ices in st ead of APM practtices, Pr oduct Visionk eep Box us andfr om Projgoing ect Dat a er Sheet un derst anding he intincluding ent of t het he pract ices. They ov boar d. " Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

" On e I r eally get hun g u p on is En cour ag e Ex plorat ion ," Her m an r eplied. " This w hole not ion of respond ing < Day Day Up > t o change ov er follow ing a plan , of act ually emb racin g ch an ge, is r eally f oreign. " " That 's a t oug h one," said May a. " We can respond t o change and d eliv er reliably. I t ' s all in how y ou look at t h e r elat ionship bet ween uncer t aint y and t im e. " " My m anagement doesn' t car e. They ju st w ant a comm it m en t ," said Her m an. " There is no w ay arou nd t he f act t h at t he h igh er t he un cer t ain t y, t he w id er t he pot ent ial schedule v ar iat ion, " said May a. " I t ' s t oo bad you aren' t h er e—I need a wh it eboar d t o dr aw t his, but im agine t h at t he prob ab ilit y cu rv e of schedu les is a skew ed dist r ibu t ion cur ve, on e w it h a long t ail of possible ver y lat e • Table of Contents deliv er y d at es. High ex plor at ion- fact or p roj ect s hav e a lot of p ossible dat es based upon t echnology and Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s r eq uir ement s v olat ilit y . " By Jim Highsmit h

" Ev ery one ar ound her e j ust assum es a p roj ect is a p roj ect is a pr oj ect . There's no allow ance f or r isk ier pr oject s—w Add e j ust et t he mant r a ' on t im e, on bud get , on scope' over and ov er. I t ' s lik e a b rok en r ecord ." Pu blisher: ison g Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

" Don' t r emind m e. Hopefu lly we' re p ast t hat . I n eff ect , t he r ole of dat es changes. I n low - uncer t aint y SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 pr ojectI s, d at es ar e p redict ions. For high- u ncert ain t y pr oject s, d at es ar e b oundar ies, as in 'We w ill deliver Pag es: 31u2res as possible by June. ' Does t hat mak e sense?" as m any f eat " I t hink I u nder st an d, bu t I 'm not sure if t h e folk s arou nd here will get it , " Her man said. " I t t ook u s a w hile t o w ork t hr ough it , t oo, " Maya cont in ued. " That ' s w hy t h e pr in ciple En cou rage Ex plorat ion isit hcris it ical g odern p eop le's y . I are havhelping e t o keep couraging in din " Jim Highsm on et oofr ed a fucin ew m w ritanx er siet who us en under st an d tpeople he new and n at urem re of worgk in tt hem t h at r esp onding t o chang e is par t of our dayt oday w or k. We alw ay s have a few p eop le f rom a he kn owled ge econom y . " conf orm ancet oplan t y pe or ganizat ion who get a lit t le crazy at f ir st . We p roj ect m anagers have t o —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School encour age t hem . " " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es "Agile Lot s met t o t hhod ink sab outr,igor " said an. m " By e f or now and ousHerm proj ect anagem en t .. "Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good < Day Day Up > r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

An Agile Process Framework Pr ocess may n ot b e as imp ort ant as people, but it 's f ar fr om u nim por t ant . Pr ocess has got t en a bad rap in agile circles ( m uch of it deserv ed) as b eing st at ic, prescr ipt iv e, an d d if ficult t o change. But pr ocess, per se, doesn' t h av e t o be n eg at iv e, alt hou gh in m an y com panies t he m ov e t o "im pr ove process" lead s dow n •a slipp er y slope Table Contentsizat ion and cert ificat ion, at w hich point t he st at ic, pr escr ip t iv e, and dif ficult t o t o of st andard Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr er e aally ti ng accurat I nn ov a ti e. ve Pr Pr oduct s like an yt hin g else, mu st be t ied t o b usin ess object ives. change crit icisms are g en ocess, I f Jim t he Highsmit b usiness By h object ive is repeat ab le m anuf act ur ing , t hen a pr escript iv e p rocess m ay be comp let ely j ust if ied. How ev er , if t he b usin ess obj ect ive is reliable inn ovat ion, t h en t he pr ocess fr amew ork mu st be or ganic, flexAdd ible, easy t o adapt . An ag ile pr ocess fr amew ork need s t o emb ody t he pr inciples Pu blisher: isonand Wesley described in t he last t w o chapt ers. I n addit ion t o su ppor t in g b usin ess obj ect iv es, t he f ram ewor k needs Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 t o: I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

Pag es: 31 2

Sup port an en vision, exp lor e, ad ap t cult ur e Sup port self - organizin g, self - disciplined t eam s Pr omot e reliabilit y an d con sist ency t o t he ex t ent possib le g iv en t h e lev el of proj ect u ncer t ain t y " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he knBe owled y . " t o adapt f lex ge ib leeconom and easy —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School Sup port v isibilit y int o t he process " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile Imet hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect ncorp orat e lear ning m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! "I ncorp orat e p ract ices t hat sup por t each p hase —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y Pr ovide m anagem en t check point s f or r ev iew " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of The APMmanagem m odel' s ent st r uct ur e—Env -Close— f ocuses on deliv er y ( execut ion) pr oject . Jim 's b ookisionhas pSpeculat rov ided ea Ex serplor v icee-tAdapt o all of us. " and adapt at ion ( see Figur e 4 .1 ) . I t is b ased on t he Sp eculat eCollabor at e- Lear n m odel f ir st d escr ib ed in —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. Adapt ive Soft w are Dev elop m ent (Hig hsm it h 200 0) . I n t he APM m odel, t h e Ex plore phase r ep laces t he " The w oratlde of pr oduct elopm ent is b Alt ecom ore dorat yn am uncer t ain. Man an ag er tshe cop e by Collabor phase in t hdev e ear lier m odel. houing gh m collab ionicprand act ices d ominat e t yh emphase, " act ion" r einf pr ocesses, adding ent atwh ionile , or f ur t her honing s. This orkof in g. it h is betorcing t er described by Ex plor e.docum Sim ilarly, Learn r ef lect s t hecost m onit oringisn't por twion a fHighsm eed backbr illian t ly guides int o com an alt ernat t hat f itNot s t he t imises." gat her ing ph ase, us Adapt plet es tive he loop. only t he t eam lear ning, it is also t ak ing act ion on t hat —Prnin estg. on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e lear Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s Fi pr oject s re aise abouPr t Ag ile ap oach Heor syst gu r em4an.1ag. erTh APM oce ssprFr ames.e w k em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

The APM ph ase names reflect bot h act iv it ies and r esu lt s. For ex am ple, t he Env ision p hase r esult s in a pr oject vision . Fu rt h er m ore, t h e depar t ure fr om t r adit ional phase n am es—such as I nit iat e, Plan, Manage, "Cont Jim rHighsm it h subt is onle, e of a f ew m odern w,rit er svision who "are usmunder an dional t he "new n at of wor ke in ol—while is sign if icant . Fir st " En r ephelping laces t he or e t rstadit I n it iat e"u treo indicat t he tcrhe kn owled ge econom y . " it icalit y of vision. Secon d, a Speculat e p hase replaces a Plan ph ase. Wor ds con vey cer t ain m eanings, —Rob Austm in,eanin Assist Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business and t hose gsan artise f rom syst em at ic use ov er tSchool im e. The wor d " plan" has b ecom e associat ed wit h pr edict ion an d r elat iv e cer t aint y . " Sp ecu lat e" in dicat es t h at t he fut u re is uncert ain. We k now t he f ut ur e of " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es any p roj ect , part icular ly hig h ex plorat ion - fact or pr oject s, con t ains uncert aint y , bu t w e st ill t r y t o "p lan" Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect t hat uncert aint y aw ay . We have t o lear n t o speculat e an d adapt rat her t han plan an d bu ild . m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good rThird ead! ," t he APM m odel replaces t he com m on Man ag e phase w it h Exp lor e. Ex plore, w it h it s it er at iv e —Ly Ellen, Sr exp . VPlicit & ly CI O, D TE Energ y delivnn er ye st y le, is a nonlin ear , concur r en t , non- w at erf all m odel. Quest ion s dev eloped in t he Speculat e phase ar e " ex plor ed ." Speculat ing im plies t he need for f lex ibilit y based on t he f act t hat you " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of cannot fu lly pr ed ict t he r esult s. The APM mod el em ph asizes execut ion an d t h e fact t hat it is ex plorat or y pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " r at h er t han d et er m inist ic. Four t h, a t eam pr act icing APM keeps it s ey es on t he vision , m onit ors —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. in for m at ion, an d adapt s t o cu rr ent con dit ions—t h er efor e t he Adapt phase. Finally, t he APM m odel en ds w it h a Close ph ase, in which t he p rimar y obj ect iv es are kn owled ge t r ansfer and, of cour se, a celebr at ion. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h To su m up , t he five phases of agile pr oj ect m an ag em ent are: br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e 1 . Env isio n: det er m ine t he p rodu ct v ision an d p roj ect scope, t h e pr oject comm un it y , and how t he Now , tone f ield lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use eamofw tillhew or k t's oget her APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr t he ion s pr m an ag er srelease, r aise abou t Agon ilee,ap es. systt oem at ically rodvuces 2 . essing Spe cul a tequest : develop a oject feat urebased m ilest anprdoach it erat ionHe p lan deliv er onintthe ision t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov includes: 3 . erage Ex plor e: deliv er t est ed f eat u res in a shor t t im efr am e, const ant ly seeking t o reduce t he r isk and un cer t aint y of t he p roj ect Six pr Agile Pr oject 4 . Ada ptinciples : rev iewoft he deliver ed r Man esu ltag s, em t heent cur rent sit uat ion, an d t he t eam' s p er for m ance, and ad ap t as necessar y How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies 5 . Cl ose: con clud e t he proj ect , pass along key lear nings, and celebr at e Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong < Day Day Up > Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em "

Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Phase: Envision The Env ision p hase creat es a v ision for t he cust om ers and t he p roj ect t eam t hat cov er s w hat , w ho, and how . Ab sen t a v ision, t he r emainin g act ivit ies in get t in g a pr oject of f t he grou nd ar e w ast ed ef for t . I n bu siness- speak , v ision is t he " cr it ical su ccess fact or" ear ly in a pr oj ect . First , we n eed t o en vision w hat t o •deliv er —a v ision Table Contents of oft he p rod uct and t he scope of t h e pr oject . Second , w e need t o env ision w ho will be Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: a ticust ng I nn a ti oduct sm an ag er s, pr oj ect t eam m em ber s, and st ak eholders. in volv ed —t he com m unitCr y eof omover s,veprProduct And hird , t he By Jim, tHighsmit h proj ect t eam m emb er s m u st env ision how t hey in t en d t o w ork t oget her. Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

< Day Day Up >

Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Phase: Speculate The wor d "sp ecu lat e" f ir st calls t o m ind an im age of r eckless risk t ak ing , bu t act ually t he dict ionary def init ion is " t o con ject ur e som et hin g b ased on incom plet e fact s or in for mat ion, " w hich is ex act ly w hat happ en s du ring t his phase. [ 1] The w ord " plan " has come t o conn ot e cert aint y and pr edict ion, w hile t he •m ore useful d Table of Contents ef in it ion of plan, for ex plor at ory pr oject s at least , is speculat ing or hy pot h esizing based on Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em nt: Cr e a ti ng Iue nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s es a gr eat observ at ion: " Peop le b eliev e w hen t hey plan in comp let e inf orm ateion. Colleag Ken Delcol m ak t hat hey in t rod By Jim t Highsmit h uce cert aint y , w hich is f ar fr om t he t ru t h. What t hey in t rod uce is som et hin g t o gauge t heir per for m an ce by . Then, wh en t he gauge does not ref lect r ealit y, t hey fail t o r eplan. " APM consist s m or e of envPu isionin g and ex plor in g t han p lanning and doin g—it f orces u s t o confr ont t he realit y of t oday 's blisher: Add ison Wesley pr ecar iou s bu siness env ironm ent and hig hly volat ile pr oduct dev elopm ent env ironm ent . Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

[ 1] I SBN: ® 1219ld 77English -5 Encar0-ta32 Wor

Dictionary , © 1999, 2000 Mi cr osoft Cor por ation.

Pag es: 31 2

The Speculat e p hase, wh ich is act u ally an ex t en sion of and int er act iv e w it h t he Env ision phase, consist s of : Gat her ing t he init ial br oad requirem ent s for t h e pr oduct " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he knDefining owled get he econom y . " as a list of p rodu ct f eat u res w or kload —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School Cr eat ing a deliv er y p lan (r elease, milest ones, and it er at ion s) t hat includes sch ed ule an d r esour ce " This allocat is t he ions proj ect for m t hanagem ose featen ur tesbook we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in ing t h isrisk cu rrment w or ld st ofr at it er at iv e, ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good I ncorp orat it igat ion egies intinocrem t h e plan r ead! " Est at ingSrpr oject cost generat —Ly nn e im Ellen, . VP & CI O,sDand TE Energ y ing ot her requ ir ed adm inist r at iv e and f inancial inf orm at ion " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile < Day DaySof Up t>war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Phase: Explore The Ex plor e ph ase deliver s pr oduct f eat ur es. Fr om a proj ect m anagem en t per spect iv e t h er e are t hr ee cr it ical act iv it y areas du ring t his ph ase. Th e fir st is deliv er in g plann ed f eat ur es by m an ag ing t he wor k load and usin g ap prop riat e t echnical pr act ices and r isk m it ig at ion st rat egies. Th e second is creat ing a •collaborat ive, Table of ganizing Contents pr oject com m un it y , w hich is ev er y one's respon sibilit y but is f acilit at ed by self- or Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr etahtiirng I nn ivit ov ay ti ve s g t he t eam' s int eract ions w it h cu st omer s, pr oduct t he proj ect m anager. The d act is Pr moduct anagin m anagement By Jim Highsmit h, an d ot her st ak eholders. Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

< Day Day Up >

Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Phase: Adapt Cont r ol and corr ect ion are com m on t erm s ap plied t o t his lif ecy cle phase. Plans are m ade, r esult s are m onit ored, an d cor rect ions ar e m ade—im plying t hat t he plans w ere right and t he act ual r esult s, if diff erent fr om t h e plan , are w r ong. "Adapt " im plies m odif icat ion or change r at her t han success or f ailu re. •I n p roj ect s guTable ided of byContents t h e philosop hy t hat respon din g t o change is mor e im port an t t han f ollow ing a plan , Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct at t ribut ing f ailu re t oevnt: ar Cr iateion fr om t he plan isn 'ts pr oduct ive. A pur ely ad hoc pr ocess fails t o lear n f rom it sJim m ist ak es, hwh er eas t he incor por at ion an d ret ent ion of lesson s lear ned ar e k ey pieces of APM. By Highsmit Af t er t he En vision ph ase, t h e loop w ill generally b e Speculat e- Ex plore- Adapt , wit h each it er at ion Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley successiv ely r efinin g t he pr oduct . Howev er, p er iodically r ev isit ing t he Env ision ph ase may b e necessar y Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 as t h e t eam gat hers new in for m at ion. I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 es: 31phase 2 I n t h ePag Adapt t h e r esu lt s ar e r ev iew ed fr om cust om er, t ech nical, people and pr ocess perf orm ance, and pr oject st at u s per spect iv es. The analy sis looks at act ual v er sus plann ed , but even m ore im por t ant ly , it considers act u al v er su s a r ev ised ou t look on t h e pr oject giv en up- t o- t he- m inu t e in for m at ion. The r esu lt s of ad ap t at ion ar e f ed int o a r ep lanning eff ort t o b eg in t he next it er at ion. Day are Day Up > " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s

Chapter 5. The Envision Phase Get t he Right Peop le •

Phase: En vision Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

Pr act ice: Prod uct Vision Box an d Elev at or Test St at em ent

By Jim Highsmit h

Pr act ice: Prod uct Archit ect ur e Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Pr act ice: Proj ect Dat a Sheet

Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 PrI SBN: act ice: Get t h e Rig ht Peop le Pag es: 31 2

Pr act ice: Part icipant I dent if icat ion Pr act ice: Cust om er Team - Dev eloper Team I n t er f ace Pr act ice: Process an d Pr act ice Tailor ing " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he knEn owled geSum econom vision m aryy . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School < Day Day Up >

" This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Get the Right People " Hi, May a," said Her m an. " How 's t he w orld t reat in g y ou t hese day s?" " Not t oo bad, but I ' m up t o m y eyeballs on Jup it er. " •

Table of Contents

Agi le ry P r oj Mh a nag e a ti ngbI ut nn ov a ti in ve a Pr bin oduct " Sor t oect bot er yem oue nt: at Cr h ome, I'm d.sI ask ed f or m ore people for m y p roj ect , but y ou sh ould see w ho t h ey gave m e. I t hink I m ay be wor se of f now t han I w as befor e, " Herm an moaned. By Jim Highsmit h

" How m an y t ur k ey s did y ou get ?" May a asked. Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley b Dat e: Apr 0 6,y2ou 00 4ad d t hem t o m y ex ist ing pr oblem s, I feel lik e I ' ve got a hig h sch ool basket ball t eam " ThrPuee, but whilen w hen wI SBN: hat I0- really 32 1- 219need 77 -5 is t he LA Lak er s. Managem en t d oes a t err ible job ju dging t heir capabilit y . I t hink it 's a case of br av ado winning out over hu m ilit y . " Pag es: 31 2

" I hear y ou, " Maya said in agr eem ent . " Wit h t h e wr ong t eam y ou'r e eit her goin g t o f ail or un derdeliv er. That ' s w hat I lik e abou t APM. I t helps exp ose st aff ing pr oblems ear ly . Of cour se t hat 's w hy so many com panies st ick w it h t h eir old p roj ect m an ag em ent m et h ods—t hey d on't r eally w ant t o f ace realit y. I t ' s m anagement by w ishfu l t hin king. " " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in " a, wh at ' s t h at noise? You hav e a m ot or r unn ing ?" "t he So,kn w owled hat dogeI deconom o? Hey y, .May —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " Oh , t hat 's our p roj ect cat Herm ione. And t h e answer t o y our f ir st qu est ion is t o set p er f orm ance " This is ds. t he Ev proj t book all goals been wand ait ing heshe book t hat effeet ect."iv ely com bin es st andar enect Hermmanagem ione, ouen r pr oject we' catve , has obj for ect—t iv es has to m Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect anagement in tright h is cu "mYou' re k idding, ?" rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " "—Ly On lynnae litEllen, t le. Herm ione, mO, y cat , com es yt o wor k w it h m e about half t he t im e, an d sh e really is t her e t o Sr . VP & CI D TE Energ r eliev e st r ess. Pet t ing a cat can be v er y soot hing. Bu t ser iously, wh ile I don 't alw ay s g et t he people wit h Finally b ook r econciles t he of t he Agile Sof e mlet ovem ent con wit ht ribut t he eneeded t"he skill alev els I t hat need, I on ly h av e tpassion o k eep people w hose att war t it ude s t hem t o t h e disciplines pr oject . " of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " "—Neville So I t ak eR(itoy if )ySingham ou can get a catTh ont o t he proj , y ou mu st alw ay s get t he people y ou want , huh ?" , CEO, ought Wor k s,ect I nc. " Of rse . Ioduct don 't dev alwelopm ay s get wit hm tore he sk ill am levic elsand I need , bu t in Man t h isycomp an er y sI alw Thecou w or ld nofotpr entt he is bpeople ecom ing d yn uncer t ain. m an ag copays e byget people w it h pr t he right atadding t it ud e. "docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h r einf orcing ocesses, br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." "—Pr So est y ouonhav t heit h, right t o f ir e ev en Pr if yoduct ou can' h ir e?" Herm an.eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e G.eSm pr incipal, New Dyt nam ics/asked coau t hor , Dev "Now I t soun dsofd raconian hen ing youex say it slikbreing t hat But hwer e dall o thav a st ledg r ongecult e, an dces t hey tou eam m akes it , one t he f ield 'sw lead pert s t. oget he ek now andurresour n eed t o use clear t o new folk s t hat t hey eit h er p ull t h eir ow n weig ht or t hey get out . I 'v e m ost ly got selfst ar t er s w APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h orougho hly aren' t w ait ing fors som eonemtan o ag m an t hem —t they m anage t h em addr essing t hearoun questdion pr oject er sagr eaise abou Ag ile ap pr oach es.selv Hees." syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . "Cov Anderage how includes: d id y ou accom plish t hat , Oh Might y All- Know ing One?" Herm an ask ed. " By m aking sur e ev er y one shar es t he sam e v ision—of t h e pr oduct , t he pr oj ect , an d h ow w e get w or k don e.Six " pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent " My mHow anagement alw ays alk s abou ep eat able pr ocesses.en Tht ey t hin k t hat pr ocesses, pr ocedur es, sign t o cap it alize on temer gin g tn rew pr oduct developm t echnologies of fs, and st at us repor t s w ill deliv er result s ev er y t ime. " Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong " And w hen t hey don' t ?" Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " " Well, t hey j ust f ig ure we did n't adher e closely en ough t o t he pr ocess." Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't " Like, it d idn 't wor k t h e first t ime, so w e' ll j ust do m or e of it ," May a t eased. " People aren' t m achin es, an d pr oduct dev fiv elopm ent isn'En t avision, cook ieSpeculat cut t er pr p rob,lem w it h pr oduct dev elopm ent , as opposed APM's e phases: e,ocess. Exp lorThe e, Adapt Close t o prod uct manu fact ur ing , is t hat we can 't cont rol t he input s—ev ery p roj ect is diff erent . Our p rocess is APMnot pract ices,able. including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet r eliable, repeat " LevReliable er agin gr at you r PMI in ab Agile ir onmt oent " Hm m. her t hanskills repeat le. Ienv 'll have msull t hat one ov er for a wh ile. Nex t t im e," said

Herm an. < Day Day Up > < Day Day Up >



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Phase: Envision



I t is r ar e t o discover any t hing in t he r ealm of h um an behav ior t hat occur s w it h gr eat consist en cy. … Ther ef ore, it was su rp rising t o f in d t hat in ev ery case, w it h out ex cept ion , w hen an eff ect iv ely f unct ionin g t eam w as id en t if ied, it w as d escr ib ed by t he r esp ondent as hav in g a clear u nderst and ing Contents of it s objTable ect iv eof (Lar son and LaFast o 198 9) .

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

IByt 's v isionh t hin g again! Vision ing and goal set t in g h av e b een id en t if ied t im e af t er t im e as k ey Jimt he Highsmit in gr ed ient s of pr oject , and gener al m anagem en t , success. Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

But how d oes t his need for a clear vision j ibe wit h t he ex plor at ory nat ur e of pr oduct dev elopm ent , w hich b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 w e Pu hav e ju st g one t o gr eat lengt h s t o describe as v olat ile an d f uzzy ? This ap parent dichot om y is r esolved 32 1-wh 219ile 77 -5 by t he I fSBN: act t0-hat t he d et ails of requir em ent s an d d esign can b e v olat ile and fu zzy, t he ov erar chin g Pag es: 31 2or p rod uct v ision m ust b e clear. I n f act t w o cr it ical aspect s of a v ision ar e clar it y and an bu siness g oal elev at ing goal t hat mak es a d if fer en ce an d con vey s a sen se of ur gency t o t he p roj ect ( Lar son and LaFast o 19 89) . Ab sent a clear v ision, t he ex plor at ory nat ur e of an agile proj ect w ill cause it t o spin of f int o endless exp er im ent at ion. A clear vision m ust boun d ex plorat ion . I f ev ery one kn ows t hat cr eat ing a clear , com pellin g v ision is so cr it ical t o pr oject success, t hen why do so " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in m any t eams suf fer f rom lack of v ision? The answ er is t hat cr eat ing a clear, com pelling v ision is h ar d—it t he kn owled ge econom y . " t ak es wor k , and it t akes leadership. I n t he p rocess of d ev elop ing a n ew pr oduct t here ar e so many —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School opt ions t hat cr eat ing a clear pat h for w ar d can b e daunt ing. This is one act ivit y in w hich ef fect ive leaders lead—t cut m t hr ough t he biguit y ve and usion o creat e an ef fect tive Com " This ishtey he help proj ect anagem en tam book we' allconf been w aitting for —t he book hatvision. eff ect iv ely pound com bining es t h e pr oblem is t he f act t hat t here is no f ix ed rule f or creat in g a good v ision st at em en t . I t 's one of t hose " I ect ' ll Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj kmnow it w hen I see it , but I can't describe it " p henom en a, in par t because t h e essen ce of a good v ision anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good is tr he leader' s art iculat ion of it . ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y The pur pose of t h e env ision ing ph ase is t o clear ly ident ify w hat is t o b e done an d h ow t he w or k is t o be accomp , t h ist he phase answof er tshe t h Agile e f ollow ing quest s: ent wit h t he needed disciplines of " Finally lished. a b ook Specifically t hat r econciles passion Sof t war e m ion ovem pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. What is t h e cust om er' s pr odu ct v ision? " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by What is t h e scope of t h e pr oject an d it s con st rain t s ( inclu din g t h e business case)? r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides int opar an t alt ernats ive t hat Who ar e t h eusright icipant t o in cludf itesint he t het im pres." oject com m unit y ? —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e How w ill t he t eam deliv er t he p rodu ct ( appr oach) ? Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APMsmall in y our ect . ifJim it ht he sh ows APM shision ould and be inSpeculat ever y meanager' t oolkit For projnex ectts,p roj m uch n otHighsm m ost of w orkwh ofyt he Env phasesscan be , t h oroug hly addr essing t heinquest prickof ojectf" m an ag. er s rlarg aiseerabou Ags, ilerequ ap priroach es.s He em, at ically in t rod uces accomp lished a sinion gles "k week For p rojt ect ement gat syst her ing addit ional t r aining, fivefr tam ew or t hen present ov en t and ools can f or ever pr oject t . 0 ( see rt he esou rcephase p rocurAPM em en , and ark, chit ect ural w orks specific, may t ak eprlonger b e inyclud ed inpart an icip I t eran at ion Cov erage Chapt er 6 )includes: . For lar ge- t o medium - sized pr oject s t h er e is nor m ally a debat e and discussion per iod r eq uir ed in ord er t o obt ain agr eem ent about t he p rodu ct v ision. D uring t he Env ision phase t he vision const ant ly evolv es based on new inf orm at ion . Aft er t h e En vision phase it n eeds t o be r ev iew ed Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent per iodically t o ensur e t h at t he t eam con t inu es t o under st an d t he v ision. How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Depending upon t h e sit u at ion, t he infor m at ion available t o an Env ision phase w ill v ar y , but t he key out p ut s r em ain con st an t : pr odu ct scope, p roj ect obj ect iv es and const r aint s, p roj ect par t icipat ion, an d Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong pr oject ap pr oach. While t her e are ot her im por t ant asp ect s of in it iat ing a pr oj ect , such as bud get s, st aff or ganizat ion, s, respon w it hou td aq uick comm v ision t hepproj roject ect'sw" ill falt er Cr eat ing and ad apr ep t ivort e ting eamneed s t hat ly only t o chheld an ges in y our ecosy st.em " En visioning evef erit feasibilit y st ud yd in iat esw on't t he p roj ect . Because t he APM m odel as show n is Which begins p roj ect sinwwh ill at b en f rom APM—an w ithich not a por t f olio or t ot al pr oduct lifecy cle mod el, it uses inf orm at ion p rov id ed by t he f easibilit y st udy an d ext enAPM's ds it . Many com panies conduSpeculat ct f easibilit anlor dm ket ing st udies pr ior t o in it iat ing dev elopm ent fiv e phases: En vision, e, yExp e, ar Adapt , Close pr oject s, w hile ot hers use only br ief p roj ect r eq uest s. APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Figur e 5 .1 depict s t he ev olu t ion of a pr oj ect plan —fr om v ision, t o scope, t o feat ur es—u t ilizing t hr ee sim ple buert agin p ower ful pr ract v isionenv b ox, t he ent p roj Lev g you PMIices: skillst he in Agile ir onm s ect dat a sh eet , and t h e it er at iv e f eat ur e plan

( accom p lish ed in t he Speculat e phase) . Each of t hese art ifact s is sim ple in concept , pow er fu l, and low Day Up > cerem ony ( infor m al) , and each op er at es on t he< pDay rincip le of lim it ed " r eal est at e. " The v ision b ox exer cise f orces t h e t eam t o con dense in for m at ion ab out a pr oduct v ision ont o t he limit ed sp ace of a box . Th e pr oject dat a sheet f orces t he t eam t o condense k ey pr oject scope and const r aint inf or mat ion int o a sin gle page. Feat u re car ds f or ce t he t eam t o condense t he k ey in for m at ion ab out a feat ur e ont o a sin gle 4x 6in ch index car d. Lim it ing t he sp ace in w hich w e r ecor d inf orm at ion r equires f ocus an d select ion—it dem ands collabor at ion and t hink ing , and it com pels t he t eam t o mak e eff ect iv e t r adeoff s.

Fi gu r e Table of Contents



5 .1 . Ev ol u t ion of a Pr oj e ct Pl a n

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . I n t h e En vision and Speculat e phases of APM it is part icular ly im por t an t t o rem emb er t hat : Cov erage includes: The t eam m em bers should con st an t ly ask t he qu est ion, " What is t he bar ely suf f icient pr ocess and Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent docum ent at ion t h at w e need?" How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies All t he pr act ices r elat ed t o " how " a t eam d eliv ers are su bject t o t ailor ing and adapt at ion t o im pr ov e per an ceom asers t heatproj ogrofesses. Put tfor ingmcust t heect cenprt er you r pr oject , w here t hey belong The com y sand pr ocesses and ices w ill olv e. For le, as t h "e pr oduct Cr eatproj ing ect ad ap t iv m e unit t eam t hatit srespon d q uick ly p t oract ch an ges in ev y our p roj ectex 'samp " ecosy st em arch it ect ur e evolv es, t he t eam st r uct ur e m ay need t o evolv e also—not h ing is f ix ed. Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't The pract ices ex plained in t h is ch ap t er fall int o four cat egor ies: v isions for p rod uct , pr oj ect , comm un it y , and appr oach ( see Figur eEn5vision, .2 ) .[ 1] Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM's fiv e phases: [ 1]

For pract additiices, onal infor m at ion on oj ect enviVision sioning,Box see (and Highsm ithect 2000) er 4. APM including t heprPr oduct Proj Dat, Chapt a Sheet

Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

Fi gu r e 5 .2 . En se Pr a ct i ce s



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met Vi hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect Product sion m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " Preoduct box anO, d elev or t est —Ly nn Ellen,vision Sr . VP & CI D TEatEnerg y st at em en t Pr oduct u re an d g uidpassion ing pr inciples " Finally a b ookartchit hat ect r econciles t he of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " P roj e ct Scop ( Obj ect ,i ve s a nd Con stWor r ai knts,s)I nc. —Neville R( oy )e Singham CEO, Th ought " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by Pr ojectprdocesses, at a sheetadding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h r einf orcing br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." P roj e ct Com m u ni t y —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use Get t he r igh t p eop le APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces Part icipt he an tquest idention if icat ion t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Cust om er t eam- dev elopm ent t eam int er face Appr oa ch Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap Pr ocess an dit alize p racton ice emer t ailorgin ingg n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong < Day Day Up >

Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Practice: Product Vision Box and Elevator Test Statement Objective •

Table of Contents

Agi P r oj ect nag embox e nt: and Cr e a ti ng Iat nnor ov taest ti ve st Prat oduct s Thele prod uctMvaision elev ement galvanize m em b er s of t h e pr oduct t eam in t o f ocusin g tBy heir oft en disp ar at e v iew s of t h e pr oduct in t o a con cise, v isual, and shor t t ex t ual for m . These t w o p roj ect Jim Highsmit h art ifact s prov ide a " h igh concept " of t he p rod uct f or m ark et er s, d ev eloper s, and m an ag er s. Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

Discussion I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

I nnov at ion, or creat in g em erg en t r esu lt s t hat w e cann ot pr edict , requ ir es an ev olu t ionar y pr ocess t hat can accom m odat e exp lor at ion and mist akes. A good pr oduct v ision r em ains r elat ively const ant , w hile t he pat h t o im plem ent t he v ision need s r oom t o wand er . Em er gent r esult s of t en com e f rom pur poseful accident s, so m anagers m ust cr eat e an env ir onm ent in w hich t hese accid en t s can happen. Mou nt ain clim bin g is a good an alogy f or t his p rocess. The goal rem ains get t in g t o t he t op of t he m ount ain, a fixed " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in point . Th e goal m ay also h av e con st rain t s, such as only hav in g f ood for n ine days. Ev er y clim bing t eam t he kn owled ge econom y . " has a rou t e plan f or gain ing t he sum m it . Ever y clim bin g t eam also alt er s it s r out e p lan on t h e w ay t o t h e —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School t op—som et im es in minor w ays, somet im es in m ajor ones—depend ing on cond it ions. " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Similar ly , ev er y pr odu ct needs a m ar k et ing t hem e, a cr isp v isual image an d f eat ure descript ion w hose Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect in t ent is t o dr aw pot ent ial cu st omer s int o f ur t her inv est igat ion . I n t h is design- t h e- b ox exer cise m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good ( dev eloped origin ally by colleag ue Bill Sh ack elf ord ), t he p roj ect and cust om er t eam s, w it h ot h er r ead! " par t icipant s, cr eat e a visual im age of t he pr oduct . ( Vision d oes im ply " v isual," aft er all.) For sof t w ar e and —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y ot her sm all pr odu ct s, t he im ag e should be t h e pr oduct package. For lar ger pr oduct s—aut om ob iles or m edical elect ron ics eq uip ment , for ex amp le—t he vision could b e a on e- t o t w o- page p rod uct b rochu re or " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of one t o t w o Web pages. pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. I n t h e desig n- t he- box act iv it y, t he ent ir e t eam , including cust om er s, b reaks in t o gr oup s of f our t o six people. Their t ask is t o desig n t h e pr oduct box —f ront and back. This in volv es com ing up w it h a p rod uct " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by nam e, a gr aphic, t hr ee t o four k ey bu llet point s on t h e fr ont t o "sell" t h e pr oduct , a det ailed f eat u re r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h descript ion on t h e back , and operat ing requ ir em ent s. Figur e 5 .3 sh ows a sam ple vision box develop ed br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." du ring a w ork shop session. —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly Fioject gu r em an 5 .3 ct Vi si on Box Exes. amHeplsyst e em at ically in t rod uces addr essing t he quest ion s pr ag.erPr s r odu aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't Com inAPM's g u p wfiv it eh phases: f if t een orEnt went y prod uct f eat ureslorprov es t o , be easy . I t 's figur ing ou t w hich t h ree or f our vision, Speculat e, Exp e, Adapt Close w ould cause som eone t o buy t he p rodu ct t h at is diff icult . Usually t his inv olv es an act iv e discu ssion about id en t ifAPM y ing pract t he real om er . Even it h a Vision simp le Box p rodand uct Proj ex amp t he pr oduct vision box es can var y ices,cust including t he Prwoduct ect le, Dat a Sheet qu it e a bit amon g t hree t o f iv e t eams. Present at ion s by each of t he g rou ps ar e t hen follow ed b y a Lev er agin g you PMIerent skillsfocal in Agile env ir onm s discussion of how t her diff point s can beent reduced t o a few t h at ever yon e agr ees upon. A lot of

good infor m at ion get s g en er at ed b y t his ex er cise—plus, it 's fu n. < Day Day Up >

I n add it ion t o t he vision box , t h e t eam concur rent ly d ev elops a shor t st at em ent of t he pr odu ct 's posit ioning using an " elev at or t est st at ement " —a couple of sent ences t hat ind icat e t ar get cust om er , k ey benef it , and com pet it iv e adv an t age:



For m idsized com panies' dist ribut ion war eh ouses w ho need adv anced car t on m ov em ent f unct ionalit y, t he Supply -Robot is a robot ically cont r olled lif t ing and t ransf err in g sy st em t hat pr ov ides dy nam ic w arehou se reallocat ion an d t ruck loading of m u lt isized car t ons t hat reduces dist ribut ion cost s and loading t im e. Unlik e com p et it iv e p rodu ct s, our p rod uct is h ighly aut om at ed and aggressiv ely p riced . Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

The elev at or t est st at em ent —an ex plan at ion of t he p roj ect t o someone wit hin t w o minut es—t ak es t he By Jim Highsmit h at : f ollow ing for m Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

For (t ar get cu st omer )

Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

I SBN:(st 0- at 32em 1- 219 77 -5 Who ent of t he need or oppor t unit y ) Pag es: 31 2

The (p rod uct n am e) is a ( p rodu ct cat egor y) That (k ey benef it , comp elling reason t o bu y) Unlik e ( pr im ary com pet it iv e alt er nat iv e) " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he knOu owled ge econom y . " ent of prim ar y d if ferent iat ion ) ( Moor e 199 1) r pr oduct ( st at em —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School Ev ery prod uct an d p roj ect needs a core con cep t f rom wh ich det ails can flow. Wit hout a cor e concept , "t eam This is t heber proj anagem t book we'ing ve blind all been w saitand ing rfor —t he up book ect ivcont ely ribut com bin m em s ect can m spend t imen e inv est igat alley acking costt hat s w iteff h out ing es t o t he Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of roj ect pr oject ' s success. Part icular ly wit h new pr oduct s for w hich t he r isk and un cer t ain t ies ar e high, h avping a m t h is cu rr or ld it er atgivdown e, in crem Agile m et hods, coranagement e concept , in a vision, isent critw ical t o of keepin t h e ent costalof ex plorat ion . but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP CI O,elev D TE The prod uct v ision box& and at Energ or t esty st at ement v iv id ly d ep ict a pr oduct v ision. They em phasize t hat pr oject s prod uce pr odu ct s. Som e pr oject s (e. g. , int er nal I T pr oject s) m ay not creat e pr odu ct s f or t he "ext Finally ook t he passion of tshefor Agile Sof ent swit h tthe needed disciplines of er nalambar k ett ,hat butr econciles v iew ing t hem as pr oduct an in t ert war nal e mm ar ovem k et k eep t he eam grou nded in a pr oject managem . Jim ook her has tphe rovproj ided v ice t ovolve all ofen us. " cust om erpr odu ctent m in dset's. bWhet ecta rser esult s in hancement s t o an int ern al account ing —Neville ) Singham , CEO, k s, ed I nc.t h ink ing reaps benefit s. sy st em orR(aoy new d igit al cam era,Thp ought rod uctWor - orient " The w,orwld pr oduct devselopm b ecom m ore d yn am ic and uncer Man ypaper m an ,agt he er st eam cop ecan by Finally it hofsever al h our of actent iv e pisrodu ct ving ision discussion record ed on t ain. f lipchart rconst einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h r uct a good out line for a comp let e one- t o f iv e- page pr oduct v ision d ocum en t . This m ight include br t ly guides us int,opict an ualt ernat hat es, f it s" tthe im es." t heillian mission st at ement res of tive he "t box argt et cust om ers an d each of t heir n eeds, t he elev at or —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau ology t hor , Dev Pr oduct s in Half Tim e t est st at em en t , cust om er sat isf act ion measur es, key t echn an deloping op er at ion al r equirem entt hs,e cr it ical pr oduct const r aint s ( perf orm ance, ease of use, v olu mes) , a com p et it iv e analysis, and key f in an cial Now , one in dicat or s.of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addraessing quest ionh sprprojoject anvag er s r aise abou t Ag ile tap preoach He syst atillically t rod uces For fou r- tt ohesixm ont ect , tm his isionin g ex ercise m igh t ak halfes. a day, butem it w pay in big t he five- phase APM ew orrepor k, t hen s specific, pr ov t ools f or sever oject part icip an tb. rou ght a dividends. Recent ly ,fraam client t ed present t hat spend ing t h ree t oen fou rs hour f or ya pr v isioning session Cov erage gr oup w it hincludes: w idely diff er ent ideas about pr oduct direct ion int o alig nm en t . The mor e cr it ical t he deliv er y schedule and t he mor e v olat ile t h e pr oject , t he m ore im por t ant it is t hat t h e t eam have a good v ision of t he final desir ed out com e. Wit hout t his v ision, it er at iv e d ev elop ment pr oject s ar e lik ely t o becom e Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent oscillat ing proj ect s, because ev er y one is looking at t h e m inu t iae r at her t han t he big pict u re. [ 2] How cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies [ 2] Kent o Delcol com ments, " This statement is tr ue r egar dless of t he development appr oach. The big pictur e is key for both, and the j oy of the it er at ive appr oach i s that if y ou ar e lack ing one, it should becom e obv ious sooner than in the Put t ing cust omional ers at t he cenThe t er trof r pr oject , wcrhere heyill usion belong case of the t r adit approach. adiyou tional appr oach eates tthe that a vision exi sts for a num ber of m ont hs before someone figur es out w hat is going on."

Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Com panies doing NPD hav e a r ange of ot her " vision ing " t ools available t o t h em , some of wh ich sig nif icant ly pr roj ed uce ofitex perim en t at iond w and cycle t im e. One ex am p le is St u dio Tools, a gr ap hics Which ect st hweillcost b en ef f rom APM—an hich w on't soft war e pr oduct fr om Alias Sy st em s, w hich indust r ial design firm s use t o "sk et ch" new pr oduct ideas. APM's fivud e io phases: Enecedes vision, (Speculat e, Exp lorCAM e, Adapt , Close The use of St Tools pr and f eeds) CAD/ t ools, pr ov id ing t he ab ilit y t o exp lor e pr oduct possibilit ies v isually , as sh own in Figur e 5 .4 . APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

Fi gu r e 5 .4 . A Pr odu ct Vi si on ( Cou r t esy of Ali a s Sy st e m s, I nc.) < Day Day Up >



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " The next st ep, a p rot ot y pe or w ork in g m odel, is t he realm of com panies such as St r at asy s. I t s fused —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y deposit ion m odeling ( FDM) syst em cr eat es plast ic m odels sim ply by d own loading a 3D dr aw ing (" analogou t o at hat 3D copy m achine hat creat plast ic pSof ar t s) . Figur 5 .5 ent sh ows ex needed amp le ofdisciplines t he par t s of Finally a bs ook r econciles t he tpassion ofest he Agile t war e me ovem wit hant he pr oduced. I n oper at ion, a liquef ier m elt s and ex t ru des t he plast ic in u lt r af in e lay ers. The m odel is built pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " lay er by layer f rom t he bot t om up. These par t s can be used t o con st ru ct w ork ing mod els q uick ly an d cost —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. eff ect iv ely . Bell & How ell used FDM t o cr eat e a new t op - of- t he- line scanner , bu ildin g w or king pr ot ot y pes f"rom p ar s creat ed by dev FDM. Bot hent t heisdesign oduct er eMan r educed . Using The w ortld of pr oduct elopm b ecom cycle ing mand ore dpryn am ic part and count uncer tw ain. y m anby ag 50 er s%cop e by ear lyorcing lifecy cle v isioningadding t ools such as ent St ud io Tools t hat feed cost d at as.t oThis aut om at w edork prot ot Highsm yp ing t ools r einf pr ocesses, docum at ion , or f ur t hercan honing isn't in g. it h such asillian FDMt ly( wguides hich m us ightintbe emalt ploy ed in h er ftithset En or early in t he Ex plor e p hase) can gr eat ly r educe br o an ernat iveeit t hat he vision t im es." cy cleest t im and exitper imincipal, ent at ionNew costPrs.oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e —Pr one G. Sm h, pr Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly Fi gu trhe e 5quest .5 . ion A sPlprast i c mPr a N ew n nees. r DHe esig Cour addr essing oject anot agot er sype r aiseof abou t Ag ile Sca ap pr oach systnem( at icallyt esy in t rodof uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present specific, Stsr at asys,prIov nen c.)t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect While t h ese pract h- concept ofent t healprod f or combut plicat pr alloj ect t he vgood ision m anagement in t hices is cuprrrovide ent w aorhig ld of it er at iv e,v ision in crem Agileuct m, et hods, it ' ed s an ar sound ay need t o be su pplem ent ed wit h addit ional concept docum ent s an d f in an cial analy ses. Howev er , rmead! " w it hou hig h-Sr concept ision, t hese ot her —Ly nn te aEllen, . VP & vCI O, D TE Energ y sup port ing pr act ices t end t o gr ow lar ge and unf ocused. A 25 page vision docum ent subv ert s t he w hole m ean ing of a con cise v ision. For lar ger pr oduct s and pr oject s, an over all oduct can also e supp lem w it Sof h v ision em ent s f wit or thhe maj or comdisciplines ponent s. of " Finally a bpr ook t hatvision r econciles t he bpassion of ten het ed Agile t war estmatovem ent t he needed Each comp onent tent eam sh ould par has t icipat e in t h isa visioning ocess for" it s own area. pr oject managem . Jim 's b ook p rov ided ser v ice t oprall of us. —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. < Day Day Up >

" The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

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Practice: Product Architecture Objective •

Table of Contents

Agi P r oj ective M a nag em e nt: e achit ti ngect I nn ti ve oduct s t h e in t er nal plum bing of t he p roj ect —a design t h at Thele object of prod uctCrar uov reais t oPrdepict fBy acilit at es ex plorat ion an d g uid es ongoing pr oduct dev elopm ent . Pr oduct archit ect ur e guides b ot h t h e Jim Highsmit h t echnical w or k and t he or ganizat ion of people wh o carr y ou t t h e t echnical w ork . Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

Discussion I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

Pr oduct ar chit ect u re may seem lik e an odd pr act ice t o put int o a p roj ect m an ag em ent t oolb ox, but a pr oduct ' s t echn ical ar chit ect ure, t oget her wit h t he ov erall size of t h e pr oject , h as sign if icant im plicat ion s f or pr oject and pr odu ct success. For ex am ple, t he or ganizat ion of com pon en t s and m odules m ay im pact decisions ab out ou t sour cing or about dist ribut ed dev elopm ent an d h ow t o m anage d ist r ib ut ed g rou ps. Similar ly , if a t eam is building a com plex pr oduct wit h bot h hard war e and soft w are com p onent s, t he " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in in t erf ace specificat ions m ay have a m aj or imp act on t he ch an ge m anagement pr ocess. I n agile t he kn owled ge econom y . " dev elopm ent , ar chit ect ur e is a guide, not a st r aight j acket . I t is int end ed t o com mu nicat e t h e lar ger —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School cont ex t t o t he develop m en t t eam, not lock in a desig n. " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es While in general agile pr act ices encour age ch an ge and adapt at ion, cer t ain chang es hav e gr eat er imp act Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect and requ ir e caref ul coord inat ion. For exam ple, in aut om obile design, t he t r an smission and dr iv et rain m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good com ponent s hav e a cert ain w ell- defined int er face. Changes wit hin t h e com ponent , wh ich don' t ch an ge t he r ead! " in t erf ace, can be h an dled less for mally t h an t h ose t hat af fect t he int erf ace. I t is not a m at t er of —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y cont r ol—w ho get s t o m ake t he decisions—as m uch as it is a mat t er of coor dinat ion—m ak ing sur e t h e t eam und er st ands t he t ot al imp act of a ch an ge and w hich gr oups are af fect ed. A poor t echn ical " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of arch it ect ur e m ak es t h is change coor dinat ion j ob d if ficult . Ast ut e p roj ect t eams will r ecognize w hen pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " excessiv e t im e spent on cross- com ponent coord inat ion or int egr at ion point s t o poor ar chit ect u ral —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. decisions t hat need t o b e rem edied. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by I n g en er al, t ech nical archit ect ur es ut ilize some comb inat ion of plat f orm , com pon en t , int erf ace, and r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h m odule elem ent s. A new spor t u t ilit y v ehicle m ay begin wit h a " t ru ck" or a " car" plat f orm . A sof t war e br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." pr oduct m ay ut ilize a Wind ows or a Mac p lat for m , or b ot h. Th e SUV has com p onent s su ch as a body , —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e dr iv et rain, and engine. A soft w are com p onent m ay hav e applicat ion p rog ram ming in t erf aces (API s) t h at specif y how herf ield com ar e t o sinbr t ering act it h it mut he lt ifuknct ion PCe device m ay ces havyeou pr nint er , t o use Now , one of ot t he 's ponent lead ings ex pert s twoget h .erAall now ledg and resour eed scanner, and fax ing com ponent s, each of w hich has subor din at e m odules ( wh ich in t his case inclu de hly APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug in t egrat ed cir cuit boar ds) . addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . A feat ur e br eak dow n st ruct u re (FBS) can be u sed t o depict a p rodu ct ar chit ect ur e ( see Figur es 5 .6 A an d Cov erage includes: 5. 6B) . Ther e are ot her archit ect ur al r epresent at ion s t h at are u sef ul f or t echnical t eam s, but t he FBS serv es t o com mu nicat e b et w een cu st omer and dev elopm ent t eam s and act s as a br idg e bet w een t he En vision Speculat e phases. TheMan FBS ifies a back log of f eat ur es f rom wh ich an it erat ion p lan will Six and pr inciples of Agile Pr oject agident em ent be develop ed . How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong

Fi gu r e 5 .6 A. Sof t w ar e Fe at ur e B r ea k dow n St r u ct u r e f or a CRM Appl icat ion Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

Fi gu r e 5 .6 B. H ar d w a r e Fea t u r e Br e a kdow n St r uct ur e for a M a ss

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in Sp ect r om et e r ( Cour t esy of M D S Sci e x) t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent On e of t he reasons p roj ect m anagers need t echnical dom ain ex per ience as well as proj ect m anagem en t How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies sk ills is t hat t hey n eed t o under st an d t he int eract ion s am ong t echnical ar ch it ect ur e, pr oject organizat ion, and plan nin g. Poor t echn ical st ru ct ures can cause sev er e or ganizat ional pr oblem s, j ust as poor Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong or ganizat ional st ruct u res can som et im es r esult in bad t ech nical decisions. Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Finally , in m any p roj ect s, t he p roj ect t eam st ru ct ur e and t he t echnical ar chit ect u re ar e decided u pon in t he begin ninpgroj and e ill t hereaft f ix ed.APM—an Colleague Mik e w Cohn Which ectar s w b en ef iterf rom d w hich on't com m ent s, " This is a r eal p rob lem w it h st aff in g large pr oject s t oo quick ly . I f you h av e 2 0 p eop le on a p roj ect t hat need s 5 t o st ar t wit h, y ou hav e a t endAPM's en cy tfiv oe w ant t o f inEn dw or k forSpeculat t he ot her 1 5 so as Adapt not t o, Close be ineff icient . This m ean s t hat t he sy st em phases: vision, e, Exp lor e, get s part it ioned along t h e sk ill set s of t he 2 0 d ev elop er s r at her t han along bou ndaries appr opr iat e f or t hat pr oject . " ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet APM pract A bet tLev er er mod el gw you ouldr be t he in h um an env or ganizat agin PMIf or skills Agile ir onm ion ent san d t h e t echnical ar chit ect ur e t o co- ev olve over t h e

life of t he p roj ect . ( Tech nical arch it ect ur e evolut ion is a dif f icult concept f or en gin eer s w hose ex perience has b een t o design and fix t he ar chit ect ure ear elop ment pr ocess. ) I t m ay ap pear b en ef icial, w it h a lar ge proj ect , f or t he p roj ect subt eam s t o be align ed w it h t he m aj or pr oduct com ponent s. I n aut om obile d esign we m igh t hav e bod y, fr ame, d riv et r ain, en gin e, and elect ronics sub t eam s. While t his or ganizat ion m ay be useful lat er in t he p roj ect , a cor e t eam of all disciplin es m ay wor k bet t er in t h e beginning. The cor e t eam dev elops t he ov erall ar chit ect ur e and , v er y imp ort ant ly , t he int er faces. On ce t he int er faces hav e been specif ied t hrou gh in t er act ion and debat e, com ponent - based su bt eams m ay wor k bet t er. The cor e t eam m ay evolve int o a p ar t - t im e ar chit ect u re and int egr at ion gr oup t hat coor dinat es changes am ong sub t eam s. An ot her adv an t ag e of t his app roach comes fr om t he cross- fu nct ion al r elat ionsh ips t hat ar e bu ilt in t h e ear ly pr oject st ages, w hich facilit at e coor dinat ion as people are t h eir it ial assig nm en t s int o var ious subt eam s. •dispersed fr om Table of in Contents Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Guiding Principles Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

A second p iece Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0of 6, t2he 00 4ar chit ect u ral gu ide is, app ropr iat ely en ough , a set of g uid ing p rincip les ( GPs) t o assist developm en t t eam s in " m old ing " t he pr oduct t o m eet cust om er pr eferences. Just as agile v alu es I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 and pr inciples guide p eop le in t heir eff or t s, guiding " prod uct " p rincip les assist in st eering t he p rod uct 's Pag es: 31 2 evolut ion in t he d esired direct ion . [ 3] GPs are usually not m easur able requ ir em ent s or const r aint s but concept ual gu ides. For ex am ple, defining t he u biq uit ou s ph rase " user f rien dly " in m easur able t er m s m ay be dif ficult . Howev er, a GP st at ing t hat " Th e t arg et user for t his m ed ical dev ice, an en t ry - lev el m edical t echnician, sh ould be ab le t o use t he basic f eat ur es of t h e pr oduct wit h m inim al t r aining" wou ld help st eer a d ev elopm ent t eam in it s user int erf ace design . A guidin g p rincip le f or t his b ook was t o f ocus on d eliv ery "r Jim it h is on e ofpract a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in at h erHighsm t han com pliance ices. t he kn owled ge econom y . " Coll eague Kev in ntr oduced m e toard t hisBusiness idea of guiding pr inci ples. —Rob[ 3]Aust in, Assist anTate t Pr iofessor , Harv School GPs early in a pr oject b ef ore requirem entfor s or decisions have been ade. " Thiscan is t be he used proj ect m anagem en t book we'specif ve all icbeen w ait ing —tdesign he book t hat eff ect iv ely commbin es For exam ple, an early m ous igh t proj be, ect "Max ize t heen em reusable com ponent s ak and ser v ices Agile met hod s and GP r igor mim anagem t . ploym Not onent ly dof oes t his book help us m e sense of pt oroj ect speed d ev elopinment could e e, used as aent considerat ion in design it m , for m anagement t h is."cuThat rr entGP w or ld oft hen it er atbiv in crem al Agile m et hods, but, itw' shere an allaright ound good rexam ead! "ple, encour ag e t he select ion of a t echnology plat for m . An ear ly GP m ay ev olv e int o a specif ic r eq uir latSr er.. VP I n t&h eCIcase of tEnerg he medical d ev ice m en t ioned abov e, aft er sever al it erat ions of —Ly nnement e Ellen, O, D TE y exp er iment ing, t he m inim al t r ainin g GP m ig ht be sup plem ent ed w it h sp ecific u ser int erf ace desig n eq uir ement s and able t he rainpassion ing ob ject es.Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of "r Finally a b ook t hatmreasur econciles of iv t he pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " Alt hough R( som GPs m ay , be devTh eloped —Neville oy e) Singham CEO, oughtdur Worinkgs,proj I nc.ect env isioning, t h ey oft en emer ge ov er ear ly dev elopm ent it erat ions. Each pr in ciple should be d escr ibed in a sent en ce or t w o, and t he t ot al nu m ber for p rojwect on e t dev im e,elopm shou ent ld not ar ound "aThe or ,ldatofany pr oduct is bexceed ecom ing m ore tden. yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e A p roj ect dat a sh eet ( PDS) is a single- p age sum m ar y of k ey business obj ect iv e, pr oduct Now , specif one oficat t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s bren ingt sinf t oget all Itthe ledg e and resour cess yt he ou pr n eed use , ion, and pr oject m anagem orm haterion. is kanow docu m ent t o help focu ojectt ot eam APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly m anagem ent , and cust om er s. The PD S's sim plicit y belies it s pow er t o conv ey qu ick ly t hese k ey addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces pr oject elem ent s. I t is one of t hose sim ple pr act ices w it h a pow er fu l im pact . Not only does it s t he fivephase APM fr at amappeal ew or k, t ot hen prtov en be t ools f orinv ever y prinoject partect icip, an t . rem in d condensed for m st akpresent ehold erss specific, who m igh not fully olv ed t he proj and Cov erage includes: t hose who are fully inv olved about t he m ost im por t ant aspect s of t he pr oj ect , it also p lay s a p ar t w it h t hose who dev elop it (Hig hsm it h 200 0) . Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent Sect ion s of t he PDS m ight in clude some comb inat ion of t he f ollowing, depending on organizat ion and pr oject t yp e: How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cl ie n ts/ cust om e rs: a list of t h e k ey clien t s or cust om er s Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " P roj e ct m a na ge r Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't Product m a n age r APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close P roj e ct obj e ct i ve st a t e m en t ( P OS) : a specif ic, sh ort ( 25 or few er wor ds) st at em ent t hat inclu des im p ort ant scope, schedule, and resour ce infor m at ion fr om t h e t r ad eof f m at r ix APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Tra de of f m at r ix ( TO M) : a t able t hat est ablishes t h e r elat iv e pr ior it ies of pr oj ect scope, r esou rces, Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

schedule, and defect s—w it h one an d on ly on e of t hese est ablished as t he h igh est pr ior it y < Day Day Up >

Ex plor at i on fa ct or: a m easur e ( 1 t o 1 0) of t h e r isk and un cer t aint y of t he p roj ect D e la y cost : t he daily , w eek ly , or mon t hly cost of p roj ect delay ( p ar t icu larly usef ul w hen sch ed ule is t he hig hest pr ior it y) Fea t ur e s: a list of t h e k ey feat ur es Cl ie n t be ne f it s: t he k ey benefit s and / or selling point s of t h e pr oduct •

of q Contents P er for mTable a nce/ ua li t y at t r ibu te s: a list of t h e k ey perf orm ance and qu alit y at t ribut es of t he

Agi le Ppr r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s oduct By Jim Highsmit h

Ar ch it e ctu re : key ar chit ect ur al comp onent s of t he pr odu ct ( plat f or m, comp onent , int er face, m odule)

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Pu b Dat e: s/ Apr ri il 0sk 6, s: 2 00fact 4 ors I ssue

t hat cou ld adv er sely im pact t h is proj ect

I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

Tradeoff Matrix The t radeoff mat r ix is an agr eem ent am ong t he proj ect t eam , t he cu st om er ( p rodu ct m anager) , an d t h e execut iv e sponsor t hat is used t o m anage ch an ge du ring t he p roj ect . The TOM inf orm s all part icipant s "t hat Jim changes Highsm ithhav iseon e of a fen ewces m odern w rit er sa who are us undermstak aning d t.he new n at u re of wor k in con sequ and act s as b asis f orhelping t eam decision t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust anTOM, t Pr ofessor , Harv Business Figur e 5 .8 , dSchool ep ict t he k ey dimensions t hat cr eat e a pr oduct ' s The row s ofin, a Assist proj ect as show n inard v alue—scope, deliv ery sch ed ule, st abilit y ( def ect s) , and r esou rces. Th e colum n s display t h e r elat iv e " This t he proj ect m anagem t book ve allFix been w ait ing for he book eff ect iv ely tcom Fix ed m eans hat tbin h ees im p ortisance of each dim ensionenand ar e we' labeled ed , Flexible, an—t d Accept . [ 4]t hat Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of roj ect dim en sion, sch ed ule for ex amp le, is f ix ed or con st rain ed and t hat t radeof f decisions shou ld not imppact m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an allar ound good per for m an ce in t hat dim ension. Fix ed also conn ot es t hat t he dim en sion in qu est ion has t he hig hest rpread! ior it" y . Flex ib le is on e st ep d own f rom Fixed; t he d im ension is st ill v er y imp ort ant , but not im por t ant —Ly nnhe tEllen, . VP D TEdimension. Energ y enoug o t r ad Sr e off f or& tCI heO,Fixed Accept in dicat es t h at t he dim ension—cost , f or exam ple—h as a w id er range of accept able t oler ance. I n f act , as t h e im por t ance goes fr om Fix ed, t o Flex ible, t o Accept , " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of t he t olerance for v ariat ion in creases. pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " [ 4] Finding —Neville R( oy )the Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc.has pr oved t ri ck y. Lynne Nix has used Ex cel, Im pr ove, and r ight names for these colum n headings Accept, indicating a dim ension in which to str iv e for excel lence, a dim ension to im pr ov e as long as t he Excel dim ension doesn't suffer degradation, and ent a dimisension w hose perore for mdance coul be acceptabl e. I an Savage suggested Fixeed, " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm b ecom ing m yn am ic dand uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop by Fl exi ble,prand Free to adding me i n andocum e- m ai l ent m essage, adapted fr om cost his and Lynne's usage. im es it i sitsimpl r einf orcing ocesses, at ion ,and or fI 'v uret her honing s. This isn't w orkSom in g.et Highsm h er to think of pri or ity 1, 2, and 3. br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e

Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use Fi gu e ows 5 .8wh . Tr a desh off Mbe at rinixever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h rsh y APM ould addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " I n t h eWhich m at rix, colum w o can each cont ain on ly on e ent r y. I f t h e highest priorit y is scope p roj ect s ns w illone b enand ef it ft rom APM—an d w hich w on't ( Fix ed ), t hen ev ery t hing else t ak es lower pr ior it y. Schedule m igh t b e desig nat ed as t h e second- highest pr ior itAPM's y ( Flexfiv ibele)phases: . SimilarEn ly vision, , t h e t eam wou ld r iv lor e t e, o maint accep t ab le (Accept ) defect lev els ( w it h in Speculat e, st Exp Adaptain , Close som e specif ied t oler an ce lev el; f or ex am ple, 5 sigm a) and t o st ay wit h a r easonable t oler ance on t ot al pr oject cost ( possibly + / –1 5% t)he . [ 5]Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet APM pract ices, including [ 5]

e mi g ghtyou ar gue thatskills ther ein ar eAgile no toler ance lev els LevSom er agin r PMI env ir onm entfor s defects, t hat t he agil e pri ncipl e of technical excell ence

pr ecludes any t radeoffs for defects. Whil e this may be the case at a m odule level for engineer s, fr om an ov er al l product < Day Daye,Upext > ensive QA test ing. A video game w on't have the same per spectiv e ther e can be levels of emphasi s on, for exampl " pr oof of quali ty" dem ands as a CAT scan machi ne. Balancing bet ween excellence and per fection can be t ri ck y for engineer ing team s.

Many m anagers and ex ecut ives con sider pr oj ect success t o be on t ime, on bu dget , and on scope. They def ine each charact erist ic wit h no t olerances an d t h en f an t asize t hat t he p roj ect t eam can r espond t o all m anner of change wit hout t oler ances. Soft war e engineer in g m et r ics g ur u Capers Jones ( 19 94) poin t s out t hat it is comm on f or cust om er s " t o in sist on cost s and sch ed ules t hat ar e so f ar below US nor ms t hat com plet ion on t im e and wit hin b udg et is t echnically im possib le. " I f t hese t hr ee charact erist ics—p lus a f ourt h , qu alit y —are all t op pr ior it y , t h en how do t eam s m ak e hard t r adeoff decisions? Ex ecut iv es and t eamofs Contents int o an im possib le p osit ion b y dem anding t hat t h ey respond t o change, w hile f ailing •cust om ers putTable t o giv t hect emM areasonable oler anIces d ealing wsit h t hose changes. Agi le Per oj nag em e nt: Crt e a ti ng nn ovfor a ti ve Pr oduct By Jim Highsmit h

I f a cust om er execut ive asser t s t h at t he d eliv ery schedule is of param oun t imp ort ance, t h en he should also be w illing t o p riorit ize ot her charact erist ics—t o say , for ex am ple, t hat cut t in g feat ures wou ld be Pu blisher:t Add ison Wesley pr eferable o slipping t he schedu le. Th e t eam st rives t o m eet all t h e goals, but it also need s t o kn ow t he Puivb eDat e: Apr 0 6, 2 00 r elat imp ortilance of4 t he k ey charact erist ics in or der t o m ak e in for m ed day - t o- day and en d- of- it erat ion decisions. I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

Anot h er power fu l piece of inf orm at ion t hat can assist t eam s in m ak ing pr oject d ecisions is delay cost . I once w or ked w it h a p roj ect t eam for w hich t he calcu lat ed d elay cost w as nearly a m illion dollars a day in lost r ev enue. Kn owing t his cost dr ove mu ch of t h e decision mak in g on t h e pr oject and h elped war d of f t he const ant f low of new feat ur es f rom m ar ket ing. Wh en st ak eh older s insist t hat sch ed ule is t he m ost cr it ical elem ent of a pr oject , h av ing t hem calculat e a delay cost pu t s t he crit icalit y of t h e schedule in " Jimspect Highsm per iv e. it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School

Exploration Factor " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book

we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m t h is rr ent ld of itetereratof iv e, in crem ent al yAgile et hods, butect it ' s. Big an allarect ound good Ananagement exp lor at ioninfact orcu act s aswaorbarom t he uncert aint and m r isk of a proj p roj s are rdiff ead! " erent fr om sm all pr oj ect s; risky proj ect s ar e diff er ent fr om low - r isk on es. One issue in select ing —Ly nn emanagem Ellen, Sr .ent VP pract & CI O, D TE y pr oject ices andEnerg processes is t he part icular p rob lem dom ain in w hich t he pr oj ect t eam has t o oper at e. An ex plorat ion f act or of 10 in dicat es a h igh ly ex plorat ion- orien t ed ( high- r isk ) p rob lem "dom Finally b ook econciles t hestpassion of lem t he env Agile Sof tent war. eI tmisovem ent of ain ,aand a 1t hat ind ricat es a v ery ab le p rob ir onm im por t anwit t tho tidhe enneeded t if y t he disciplines var ious pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " pr oblem dom ain fact or s, but it is even m ore im por t ant t o t ailor pr ocesses an d p ract ices t o t he pr oblem —Neville oy )exSingham Th ought and t o adjR( ust pect at ion, sCEO, accord ing ly . Wor k s, I nc. " Theex w plorat or ld ofion pr oduct elopm is baecom ingatmion oreofd yn ic and m an s cop The f act or dev is deriv edent f rom com bin t heam v olat ilit y uncer of a pt ain. roduMan ct 's yrequ ir ag emer ent s anedby t he rnew einfness—an orcing prdocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm t h us u ncert aint y —of it s t ech nolog y plat for m. The ex plorat ion f act or mat r ix sh own it inh Figur e br t ly guides usegint o anofaltrequ ernat ive t hat it s tilit hey t: im 5. 9illian sh ows fou r cat ories ir ement s vf olat eres." rat ic, fluct uat ing, rout ine, and st able. " Err at ic" —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau tis hor , Devsteloping Pr oduct in Halfort h prod e Timuct e r eq uir ement s depict a sit uat ion in wh ich t he p rodu ct v ision under ood, b ut t he bus siness r eq uir ement s are fuzzy . An ex am ple w ould b e a v ersion 1 . 0 NPD eff ort in w hich f eat u res ar e un foldin g as Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use t he proj ect g oes for w ar d. I n t his case, t he r equirem ent s m ight change drast ically as t he p roj ect APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly pr oceed s, not fr om poor requirem ent s gat hering but fr om ev olv in g kn owled ge of t h e pr oduct . Fluct uat in g addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces r eq uir ement s w ould be one st ep dow n in uncer t aint y . While an err at ic pr oblem sp ace might exp er ience a t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . r eq uir ement s change of 25% t o 50% or m ore, a fluct uat in g one m ig ht b e m ore sed at e at 20 % t o 25% . A Cov erage includes: r out in e cat eg orizat ion wou ld apply t o a wide r ange of pr oject s in which up- f ront r eq uir em en t s gat her ing y ield s a r eason ab ly st able baseline f or fu rt h er wor k , w hile a st able env ir onm ent m ight be som et hing like a [ 6] f ed er ally m inciples an dat ed of chang t ooject a payMan roll ag syst Six pr Agilee Pr emem entt h at is w ell defined an d u nlik ely t o change. [ 6]

Ken Delcol com ments, " This guides the PM in both how the pr oject and indivi dual r equir em ent s should be m anaged.

How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies For exam ple, er r atic r equir em ents need a m ore iter ativ e appr oach and should be planned that way up fr ont r egar dless

of the ov er al l state of the r em ai ning r equi rem ents. Not all r equir ements fall into the sam e buck et . The tr ick is to r ealize Put t ing cust om ersar eatk ey t hetocen you r success—there pr oject , w here which r equir em ents ov ert er all of pr oduct i s not hey pointbelong r ushi ng forw ar d to specify the stable r equir em ent s when cr itical , hi gh- r isk r equir ements ar e er r atic or fluctuating!"

Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't

Fi gu r e 5 .9 . Pr oje ct Ex plor a t i on Fa ct or s

APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close

APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

The ex plorat ion f act or' s t echnology d im ension also has f our cat egor ies: bleed ing edge, lead ing edge, f am iliar , and w ell k nown . " Bleeding ed ge" w ould inv olv e a t ech nolog y so n ew t hat v ery f ew people hav e Add h ison expPu erblisher: ien ce wit it .Wesley Wit h bleeding- edge t ech nolog y, learning by t ry in g is t h e only st r at egy becau se no one Dat e: il 0 t6,o 2use 00 4 it eit h er . I n t he early 20 00s, Microsof t . NET or nanot echn ology might be ex am ples elsePukbnow s Apr how of bleed I SBN: ing -edg 0- 32 1e 219 t echnologies. 77 -5 Leading- edge t ech nolog y is r elat iv ely new , bu t t h er e ar e pock et s of exp er tPag isees:t o31t u2 rn t o—alt hough t he cost and availabilit y of t hese ex pert s m igh t be an issue. Pr oject s em ploy in g bleedin g- or lead ing - ed ge t echnology h av e m uch higher r isk prof iles t han t hose using f amiliar or w ell- k now n t echnologies. Dev elopm ent t eam s sh ould car ef ully ev aluat e in what part s of t he prod uct t echnology r isk is j ust ified , because ev en w it h in a single pr oduct , not all comp onent s sh ould be bleeding or leading edge. "Com Jim binin Highsm h is element on e of as,f ew odernf ind w ritt hat er s who us under st an d t heedge new tnech at unolog re of ywor k in g t hitese we m might an erare rat ichelping r eq uir ement s, bleedingtpr heoblem kn owled ge econom y . " space receiv es an ex plor at ion fact or of 10 , w hereas a st able r eq uir em en t s, w ell- k now n —Rob Aust in, Assist t Pres ofessor ardA Business t echnology p roj ect r an eceiv a fact,orHarv of 1. p roj ect wSchool it h fluct uat ing requ ir em ent s and leadin g- ed ge t echnology r eceives a fact or of 7 . By d et er m ining t he ex plorat ion f act or, p roj ect and cust om er t eam s can " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es now d iscuss pr oject s f rom t he p er spect iv e of t he ov erall " un cer t ain t y" of t he p rob lem space. An 8, 9 , or Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect 10 pr oject will r equire a v er y agile app roach since t he un cer t aint y and risk are h igh . Shor t it erat ions, m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good f eat ur e- driv en planning, f r eq uent r ev iews w it h cust om ers, and a recognit ion t hat plan s are ver y r ead! " speculat iv e are im perat ive for solving pr oblem s in t his dom ain . I n con t rast , p roj ect s w it h a 1, 2, or 3 —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y r at ing w ill be r elat iv ely st able and low risk. Plans cou ld be mor e det er minist ic, it erat ion s could be ew hat , and addit iontal p- fr ont requ ir ement gat hereing and desig n t himt e b e cost ef fect iv e. "som Finally a b long ook er t hat r econciles heu passion of t he Agile sSof t war m ovem ent wit hecan needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " Wit h out t he r ecog nit ion of dif f er ent p rob lem dom ain s, one- size- fit s- all pr oject p rocesses and pr act ices —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. seem ju st if ied. Wit h su ch a recognit ion , cust om izat ion an d t ailor ing t o specif ic prob lem s w ill enable pr oject t ooduct be successf ul. ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by " The w ort eam ld ofs pr dev elopm r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h Dayt im Dayes." Up > br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s

Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Practice: Customer Team-Developer Team Interface Objective •

Table of Contents

Agi P r oj ective M a nag Cr eice a ti ng ov a ti ve tPr oduct s orat ion int erf ace bet w een t he cu st om er t eam and t he Thele object of tem hise nt: pr act is It nn o define he collab dev elopm ent t eam . By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Discussion Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

A signPag if icant ber of pr oject failur es are cau sed by poorly def ined cust om er- dev eloper int erf aces. es: 31num 2 While cust om er s and dev elopers are of t en on t h e same " t eam , " t hey ar e of t en not on t he sam e sub t eam . When t his in t er f ace—w hich is def ined by inf orm at ion f low s, account abilit ies, and r esp onsibilit ies—is ill def ined, proj ect f ailu re loom s close by . Ev ery proj ect shou ld hav e a p roj ect m an ag er an d a pr oduct manager . On e of t he key r eason s int ern al I T "prJim Highsm h is on e of f ew, m w ritst eran s din whog are ust hunder d t he Prod new uct n at ug re oject s fail, itor u nderp er a f orm is odern m isu nder t h e helping nat ur e of ese t st woanroles. rouof pswor of t kenin tdo he akn owled ge econom y . " decent job of diff erent iat ing t hese r oles, b ut I T proj ect s of t en m iss t he prod uct manager r ole. At one —Rob Aust in, Assist t Pr , Harv Business lev el t he r esponsib ilitan ies ofofessor t he prod uct ard m anager and School pr oject manager ar e sim ple—t he f ir st is r esponsib le f or " what t o b uild" an d t h e second for " how t o bu ild it . " I n pract ice each r ole, each p er son, has in put and " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es in fluence on t he en t ir e pr oject —bot h t h e w hat and t he how . Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement cu rr ent wissu or lde.ofRoles it er atar ivee,not in crem entdescript al Agileion m setthods, it ' ishly s an allar ound good This br ings upinant hotisher wider st at ic hat webut slav f ollow ; roles are rinead! " st an t iat ed by individuals, and ev ery person w ho f ills a r ole p lay s it diff erent ly . Just as ever y act or —Ly nn eMacb Ellen,et Sr . VP & his CI O,own D TE Energ play ing h br ings t alent s, yin t er pr et at ion, and ex perience t o t he play, ev er y person w ho fills a p rodu ct or p roj ect m anager role ( or any ot h er r ole) play s it d if fer en t ly . One pr oduct m anager may h av e " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of ext en siv e t echnical ex perience, anot her less. To t ell t h e first per son t h at she sh ould n't hav e any inpu t t o pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " t he t ech nical decisions would be t h row in g aw ay a v aluable r esou rce. To t ell a pr odu ct dom ain —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. exp er ien ced pr oject manager or d ev elop er t hat he will h av e n o input t o t he pr odu ct v ision or specif icat ions w ould b e an eq ual wast e of t alen t . " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h Pr oject m anagem en t b ooks and comp an y job descr ipt ions oft en cont ain specif ic role nar rat ives t hat br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." in clud e decision- m ak ing au t hor it y . While r ole boun daries are im por t an t , in p ract ice a role shou ld be —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e f lexible, ad ap t in g t o t he sp ecific p er son wh o f ills it . At best , a role t ak es a page of descr ipt ion . Roles ar e f init e. People ar e infinit e. Role descr ipt ion s are mer ely a st ar t in g p oint f or act u al p rod uct and pr oj ect Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use m anagers t o bu ild r elat ionship s t h at w ill q uick ly t r an scend st at ic r oles. How each individual int erp ret s h is APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly or her r ole an d h ow he or sh e in t eract s w it h ot h er s w ho are int er pr et ing t heir own r oles r esult s in a addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces r ichn ess of relat ionship t hat t r anscen ds ou r feeble at t em p t s at r ole descript ion s. Tr ying t o f or ce people t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . in t o a fixed role descr ipt ion is not only ult im at ely im possible, it is cou nt er t o ag ile pr inciples. People ar e Cov erage includes: not only m ore im por t an t t h an pr ocess, t hey ar e m ore im por t an t t h an r oles. Get t inSix g back t o t h e of in tAgile er f ace t her has pr inciples Pr issues, oject Man ageem entlong been a cont r over sy in I T circles about w here p roj ect m anagers should com e f rom —cu st omer or I T d ep ar t m ent s. Because of f ailed in t eract ion s on pr oject s, com panies t em pt t o push oject r esponsibilit y ont cust om er by having som eon e fr om t h e How t ohave cap itatalize onedemer gin g pr n ew pr oduct developm enot tthe echnologies cust om er org an izat ion be t he p roj ect m anager. Unf ort unat ely , t hese indiv idu als of t en d on't hav e t he t ime, Put p roj ect cust m anagement ical k now ledge required f or t he j ob. Th e r eal cust om ert ing om ers at t sk heills, cenor t ert echn of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong dev eloper pr oblem s get lost in t his shuf fle, because t her e is no dif fer ent iat ion b et w een p rod uct and Cr eat ing ad ap t iv. eAll t eam t hat respon o ch an in y sour ect t'sh e" ecosy pr oject managem ent t oo soft en cust omderq- uick sid elyprtoject mges anager t r yptroj o do j ob ofstbem ot h" proj ect m anager an d p rod uct m anager in add it ion t o t heir full- t im e job and end up failing at all t hr ee. Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't Figur e 5 .1 0 sh ows t he ou t lines of a solut ion t o t his p rob lem of w ho is responsible for w hat . Wit hin any APM's e phases: vision, e, an Exp e, Adapt pr oject t herefivshould b e aEn dev elopmSpeculat ent t eam d lor a cust om er, Close t eam . The developm en t g roup shou ld be headed by a p roj ect m anager an d t he cust om er gr oup by a pr oduct manager . So wh o get s t he f in al say ? APM pract ices, t he a se Sheet I n m ost cases, t h e princluding oduct m an agPr eroduct does.Vision Eit her Box m anand ag erProj canect of Dat cour appeal decision s t o t he execut iv e sponsor , b ut if t he prod uct and p roj ect m an ag er s can' t wor k out m ost conf lict s, t h e pr oject r isk Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

escalat es rapidly. < Day Day Up >

Fi gu r e 5 .1 0 . Cr e at in g a Cu st om e r - De ve lope r I nt e r f ace



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

For a sm all pr oject , t h e pr oduct m an ag er m ay also be t he pr im ar y cust om er. For an I T pr oject f or w hich Jim eHighsm h is om on eerofdepar a f ewt ment m odern w rit er sacross who are ansdptrov he idin newg nr at u re of ent worsk in t" her are t enit cust s, spr ead six helping cit ies, wus it h under 15 0 ust ser equirem t he ge econom in putkn , owled a pr oduct m an agyer. " sh ould b e appoint ed t o coor din at e t he cust om er infor m at ion flow and decision —Rob Aust an tdPr , Harv ard Business m aking. Forin,a Assist p rod uct evofessor elop ment or ganizat ion, t heSchool pr oduct manager —w ho of t en r esides in t he m ark et ing depar t m en t —coord inat es t h e gat her ing of infor m at ion fr om t h ousands or even m illion s of r et ail "cust Thisom is ers, t he condenses proj ect m anagem enot a book we' fve all, been ait ing t hat eff m ectaking iv ely pr com bin es t h em int usable orm and t hwen coorfor din—t at he es tbook he decisionocess. Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cuade rr ent ld int of er it er ation iv e,an indcrem Agile m et hods, but it ' sand an dev all- ar oundent good While any decision sm w itwhor out act d ebent at ealbet ween t he cu st omer elopm grou ps rwead! " ill be poor ones, ult im at ely t he " wh at " decisions ar e m ad e by t he cust om er t eam and t he " how " —Ly nn e Ellen, . VP CI O, D elop TE Energ decisions ar e mSr ade by&t he d ev mentyt eam . Good develop m en t gr oup s hav e a w ealt h of k nowledge about t he p rod uct d omain and shou ld hav e sig nif icant in put in t o t he " wh at " decision. Pr oduct m an ag er s " Finally a bcust ookom t hat econciles t he ofavt he Agile Softt war ent wit t he needed disciplines of. and ot her er rgr oup m em berpassion s of t en h e significan inpuet m intovem o " h ow" a prh oduct m igh t b e design ed managem Jim 'sgr b ook ided a ser vsibilit ice t oy—and all of us. " ect s fail becau se t hese Iprn oject t h e end, how event er,. each oup has has pitrov s ow n respon p roj R( oy Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. r—Neville esp onsibilit ies) ar en't clear. " Theresponsibilit w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm is bt he ecom mions ore dbet yn w am ic and erccess. s cop eI nbyt he The ies of each g rouent p and inting er act een t he tuncer w o grt ain. oupsMan ar eyk m eyant oagsu rear einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h uct ly Env ision st ag e of a p roj ect , bot h gr oups are inv olv ed in creat in g a pr oduct vision , but t he prod br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." m anager is responsible for t he f inal decisions. D uring t he Speculat e and Ex plore phases, t he grou ps —Pr est on Smze it h,r eq pr uir incipal, oduct nam ics/ coau oduct s in Halfintt ho e Tim e in t eract t o G. analy em enNew t s, t oPrident ifyDy feat ur es, an d tthhor en , t Dev o pr eloping ior it ize tPr hose f eat ures dev elopm ent it erat ions. Cu st omer s def ine feat ur e r eq uir ement s and help t he proj ect t eam m ake day- t oNow r, efinement one of t hes.f ield ing br ing s tan oget h er om all ers, t he kwnow ledg ande resour n eed day Larg'serlead p roj ectex s pert m ays hav em y cust ho oft enehav conf lictces ing ynou eeds an tdo use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t pr ior it ies. No single per son m ay hav e k now ledg e of all t he feat ur e requ ir ement s. For t h ese larg erh oroug hly addr essing he quest ion prhoject mrang an aging er sneeds r aise abou Agomer ile apinfor pr oach icallyt oinconsolidat t rod uces e pr oject s, or t for pr oj ect s swit widefor cut st m ates. ion,Heit syst is imem poratt ant tmhe fivephase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an ult iple v oices int o a consist en t " cust om er v oice, " a t ask t h at is ult im at ely t h e pr oduct m an ag ert .'s Cov includes: r esperage onsibilit y. Wit h out a st ron g p rod uct m anager, t he w or st sit uat ion arises—p riorit izat ion f ails, and t he d ev elopm ent Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent t eam, in or der t o k eep t h e pr oject fr om bog gin g d own , begins m ak ing t he pr ior it y d ecision s it self. This degener at es int oitaalize no- w sit uatgin iong, nas cust om er s can alw fault t h e decisions and t h en use t hat How t o cap onin emer ewt he pr oduct developm en t ays t echnologies f ailur e as an ex cu se t o reduce t heir inv olv ement f urt her. Wh en a p roj ect loses it s part n er ship r elat ionsh ips cust an d om part iesatabdicat e tter heirof r you esponsib ilit ies, t hat pt hey roj ect is in big t rou ble. Th is pr oblem Put t ing ers t he cen r pr oject , w here belong som et im es occur s in com panies because p rodu ct m anagers t end t o w ear bot h a m ar k et ing hat an d a dev elopm . The ketsing t ak es solymtuch ime h ey phave left ov Cr eatent ing hat ad ap t iv emar t eam t hatrole respon d qup uick o chtan gest hat in yt our roj ectlit'st le" ecosy ster emf or " w ork ing w it h dev elopm ent . Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't On e of t he fallacies of serial developm en t m et hodologies is t he idea t hat comp lex infor m at ion can b e t r an sferr ed fiv fr om one grou t o t he Speculat next v ia e, docum ent ion alone. Most NPD ef for t s u t ilize cr oss- fun ct ional APM's e phases: Enpvision, Exp lor e,atAdapt , Close t eams becau se com pany m anagers realize t hey cann ot depend on docum ent at ion t o conv ey com plex pract ices, en including t he Pren oduct and ect Dat a but Sheet in for mAPM at ion. Docum t ed r equirem t s, atVision som e Box level, areProj n ecessary insu ff icien t . Wit h out int er act ion bet w een t he cust om er and d ev elopm ent gr oups, requirem ent s docum ent s w ill be st er ile hu sk s. Agilist s Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

believe t hat cr it ical under st an din g com es f r om in t er act ion and discu ssion rat her t h an docu ment at ion. I n m any cases, t he agr eem ent an d under st an din g< nDay eedDay t o Up be> docu ment ed, but not t he ch urn t h at w as cr eat ed in ord er t o get t o t h e agr eem ent and u nderst and ing .[ 10] [ 10]

For additi onal infor m at ion, see ( Cockbur n 2002) .

The final int er act ion show n in Figur e 5 .1 0 is accept ance. I t is t h e cust om er t eam ' s j ob t o accep t t he pr oduct by v er if ying t hat it meet s r equirem ent s. This accept ance can be don e t hr ough a com b inat ion of f orm al t est ing and cust om er focus gr oups. A t echnical qualit y assur an ce gr oup may assist t he cust om er s and pr oduct m an ag er in t his eff ort , but ult im at ely t h e respon sibilit y f or accept ance lies wit h t he cust om er t eam. •

Table of Contents

Agi P rhojmany ect M a nag em epr nt: Crices, e a ti ngdefining I nn ov a ti ve oduct s er -d ev elop er As lewit ot her act t hePrcust om

int er face pr esen t s diff erent challen ges w hen y ou areh usin g it w it h a t eam of 10, or 100, or 1, 000 . Tr ying t o cor r al 1 00 cust om er s fr om disparat e By Jim Highsmit bu siness d ep ar t m ent s is m uch m ore dif f icult t h an w ork ing wit h a sin gle one. Sim ilar ly , w ork ing wit h a gr oup of 10 Add 0 eng Pu blisher: isonineers Wesley creat es m or e headach es t han wor k in g w it h 2 . Howev er, t he basic int eract ion s show n in t he cu st om er - developer in t er face d iagr am and t he r esp onsib ilit ies of t he r oles as described Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 abov e don 't change w it h size. The m eans t o t he end s w ill be d if ferent , but t he out com es should be I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 consist en t . Pag es: 31 2 < Day Day Up >

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Practice: Process and Practice Tailoring Objective •

Table of Contents

Agi P r oj ective M a nag Cr eice a ti ng a ti vea Pr s an d pract ice fr amew ork —d riven in par t b y a self Thele object of tem hise nt: pr act is It nn o tov ailor product ocess or ganizat ion st r at eg y—t hat def ines t he app roach t he t eam m emb er s w ill t ak e in w ork ing t oget her. By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Discussion Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

On e ofPag t he erist ics t hat def ines hig h- perf or mance t eam s is t h eir appr oach t o doing t heir w or k. es: charact 31 2 App roach rivals v ision an d ob ject iv es in im por t an ce because it det er mines h ow a t eam w ill ex ecut e, how it w ill deliver r esu lt s ( Kat zenbach an d Sm it h 1993 ) . Since APM st resses ex ecu t ion, t he t eam 's ap proach t o t hat ex ecu t ion becom es v it al. Par t of t he self - discipline requ ir ed of a t eam is t h at it agr ee on an appr oach and t hen act ually use it . Eit her f ailu re t o agr ee or failur e t o execut e ind icat es lack of selfdisciplin e. " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t heocess kn owled econom y . " ing defines t he ap pr oach t hat t he p roj ect t eam will u se t o d eliv er a p rodu ct . Pr an d ge p ract ice t ailor —Rob Aust in, Assist an t , Harvion's ard Business This appr oach st ar t s w it Pr h tofessor h e or ganizat st an dardSchool f ram ewor k , and t hen t he pr oj ect m an ag er and t eam t ailor it t o t heir needs wit hin t h e f ram ew or k' s con st rain t s. For ex am ple, a comp an y m igh t u se t he APM " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es high- lev el pr ocess fr amew ork wit h org an izat ionally m andat ed checkp oint s ( appr ovals) at each p hase. Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect Wit h in t his pr ocess f ram ew or k, t he com pany ident ifies a set of requ ir ed pr act ices and deliv erables ( a m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good st r eam lined set ) . The t eam t hen t ailors t he r equired pr act ices and ad ds add it ional ones it deem s r ead! " necessar y . —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y Self - org an izat ion st r at egy concent rat es on h ow people wor k t og et h er , h ow t hey collabor at e, and t h e " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of m ech an ism s f or t hat collab orat ion . Pr ocesses and individual pr act ices con cent rat e on w hat p eop le pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " act ually do. Alt hou gh t he st r at eg y and pr ocess seem t o ov erlap , t hey ar e act ually com plem ent ary . For —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. exam ple, t he p ract ice of daily t eam in t eg rat ion m eet ing s descr ibes t he concept s an d mechanics f or condu ct ing shor t daily m eet ings t o coor dinat e t eam act iv it ies. But if t her e are mu lt iple subt eam s, t he " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by pr oject need s a st r at egy f or usin g t hese m eet ings ef fect ively in lar ger gr oups. r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." Finally , pr ocesses an d p ract ices ev olv e. I n t he Env ision ph ase t he t eam m ay dev elop a gener al p lan for —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e it s use t hat w ill und oubt edly be r evised as t he r elease plan det ails are developed in t he Sp ecu lat e ph ase. Then, as each it er at ion and m ilest one reaches com plet ion, t he pr ocesses an d pract ices will b e adapt ed t o Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use t he feedback f rom t he pr oj ect it self . Not h ing is st at ic in APM—neit her t he p rodu ct n or pr act ices. Team s APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly are en couraged t o ad ap t ev er y t hin g ex cept t he bar e essen t ial policies an d p rocess f r am ewor k t o t he addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces r ealit y of t h e act ual sit uat ion as it unf old s. t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes:

Self-Organization Strategy

Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent

The t er m "tself - org an izat st r at egy " ew soupr nds like developm an ox y morenon, becau se self- or ganizat ion im plies t h at How o cap it alize onionemer gin gn oduct t t echnologies " st uf f happens" wit hout plan nin g and f oret hou ght . Som e consult an t s and pr act it ioners have int er pr et ed t he ideas of com adapt e sy sttem s t you o mean t hat , self - org tan izatbelong ion happ en s m agically w it hin gr oups of Put t ing custplex om ers at tiv he cen er of r pr oject w here hey people. All g roup s self - org an ize, bu t if we want eff ect iv e self- or ganizat ion, w e hav e t o t hink caref ully aboutCrhow t o creat t yp es of env ir onm dent . eat ing ad apet ivt heist eam t hat respon q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Pr oject m anager s of enill per e a hAPM—an ierar chical, com mand Which p roj ect s tw b enpet ef ituat f rom d w hich w on't - cont rol m anagem ent p hilosophy in t heir pr oject org an izat ions by f ocusing on or ganizat ional char t s, det ailed pr ocess and act iv it y ident ificat ion, APM's ent fiv at e phases: En vision, Exptlor Adapt , Close st rat egy at t em pt s t o br eak t his and docum ion r equirem en t s. Speculat Think inge,abou a e, selfor ganizing m in dset by having t he p roj ect m anager and proj ect t eam f ocus f ir st on int eract ions—how ev ery one APM including Pr oduct Vision and Dat a Sheet associat edpract w it h ices, t h e pr oject willt he play t oget her . TheBox st rat egyProj estect ablishes t h e t eam ' s appr oach t o com m unicat ions, coor dinat ion, collab orat ion , decision mak in g, and ot her individual-t o-indiv idu al and Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

t eam- t o- t eam in t eract ion s. Team s need t o ask quest ion s such as: < Day Day Up >

How w ill we collabor at e w it h cust om ers? How w ill mem ber s f rom dif fer en t f eat u re t eam s collabor at e wit h each ot her ? How w ill t he t eam in At lant a collabor at e w it h t he t eam in Seat t le, or Bom bay ? On ce w e figur e out how people ar e going t o collabor at e, t hen, an d on ly t h en , should we figur e out t he or ganizat ion, pr ocesses, an d p ract ices t hat w ill supp ort t hat collabor at ion. •

Table of Contents

Agi le Ppr roj oj ect em e nt: Cr e aappr ti ng oaches I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct Most ectM amnag anagement includ e a scom m unicat ions plan. The Pr oject Man ag em ent IBynst it u t e' s A Gu ide t o t h e Pr oject Managem en t Body of Know ledge (Pr oject Managem ent I nst it ut e 2 000 ) Jim Highsmit h in clud es com mu nicat ions m anagem en t as on e of it s k ey k nowledge ar eas. How ev er , com m unicat ions is not enough . Com m unicat ions is basically one w ay—I sen d y ou in for m at ion ( ev en if y ou sen d som e b ack ) . Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Collabor at ion is mu ch m or e t han com mu nicat ion; it inv olv es int eract ion t o pr oduce some "j oin t " r esu lt . Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 Collabor at ion int egr at es y our ideas and mine int o a w hole. We comm un icat e st at us repor t s t o I SBN: 0- .32We 1- 219 77 -5 orat e am ong pr oject t eam m em bers using pract ices such as w hit eboar d m anagement collab 31 2 session s t o creat e a design. Th rou ghout t he prod uct develop m en t w orld, in ind ust r y aft er br ainstPag ores: m ing in dust r y , t he rising t ide of cr oss-f un ct ional t eams speak s t o t h e need t o collaborat e.

When for m ulat ing t heir self - org an izat ion st r at eg y, t eam s sh ould ask t he follow in g q uest ions: " Jim Highsm it h sist oont e f ewom m odern Who need alkoft oa wh w hen?w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —RobHow Austare in, Assist t Pr ofessor , Harv School t hese an people w ho t alk t o ard eachBusiness ot her going t o m ak e decisions? " This Who is t heisproj ect m anagem t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es accoun t ab le f or wen hat ? Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in ices t h is cu or ld goft oit er at iv in crem Agilee?m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good What p ract ar err ent t h eywgoin use t oe,f acilit at eent t healabov r ead! " —Ly nnt e While h is Ellen, ear lySrf ocus . VP & onCIself O, -Dorg TEan Energ izingyst rat egy m ay appear t o be a t h row back t o a serial ap proach t o pr oject managem ent , t h e f act is t hat any t hing and ever yt h ing in an agile pr oj ect should follow t h e " Finally hat r econciles t heetpassion of feedback t he Agile, Sof e m. ovem ent h tinhet hneeded disciplines ph ilosopahyb ook of sttar t qu ick , do som hin g, get andt war adapt The pr actwit ices e Env ision phase, of oject 's berent ook has p rov ice t,ot halle of us. "t im e w ill be spent in d ev elop ing a tpr his on emanagem in cluded, ent are. Jim n o diff . The lar ided ger t ha eser pr voject m ore —Neville R( oyg) st Singham CEO, ought ing Worand k s, Iadapt nc. in g t he st r at egy in subsequ en t p hases will u lt imat ely self - organizin r at eg y, , but im Th plement be t he cr it ical su ccess fact or. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." Process Tailoring —Pr est on G.Framework Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now one t he proj f ieldect 's lead ex pert br ingfrsam t oget allillt he now ledg resour ces n eed t o ple, use Ev en, in anofagile , t heing broad pr socess ew h orerk w b e kshaped bye tand h e org an izat iony .ouFor ex am APM in ydev our elopm nex t pent roj ect . Jim Highsm h sh owsloy whsom y APM sheould evergat y m t h oroug pr oduct organizat ions oftiten emp e t yp of stbe agein and e anager' lif ecy cles tfroolkit amew, ork t hat hly addr essing t he fquest pr oject m ancert ag er s rinf aise ile ur apes, pr oach es. Hes syst embe at ically in t rod pr oduct s m ust ollow .ion Ats each st age ain ormabou at iont ,Ag feat or art ifact mu st av ailable anuces d t he fiveew or k,sttrhen specific, ovcom en t m ools ever y pr sh oject t. appr ov edphase . I n orAPM der tfroam balance uct urpresent e and fslex ibilit y , tpr his on ffor r am ew ork ouldpart be icip as an st ream lined Covpossible, erage includes: as en ab ling a degr ee of consist ency fr om a senior execut iv e persp ect iv e wit h flexibilit y at t he pr oject t eam level. The APM pr ocess f ram ew or k, show n in Figur e 4 .1 , sh ould be int egr at ed w it h t h e com pany 's br oad er p rod uct d ev elop ment lifecy cle. How ever , if t he com pany 's pr oduct lifecy cle is ov erly pre, inciples ag em ent pr escrSix ipt iv appr ovof al Agile or ien Pr t edoject , andMan docum ent at ion -cent r ic, in t eg rat in g t he APM fr amew ork will be diff icult . How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies The process f r am ew ork sh ould st r iv e t o id en t if y t he b ar ely su ff icien t ( or m inim um accept able) st andar ds Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong f or an or ganizat ion for t h e pr oject , alt hough " m in im um " m ay be dif fer en t f or lar ge p roj ect s t han for sm all ones. Th e gr eat er t he " weig ht " of t his fr amew ork —nu m ber of pr ocess element s, num ber of r equired Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " art ifact s, n um ber of decision gat es, great er docum ent at ion f orm alit y —t he less agile t he pr oject t eam can be. Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't BecauAPM's se t hisfivgu f ram or k should be e, designed g t h, eClose " barely suf ficient " cr it er ia, t here sh ould n't e iding phases: Enew vision, Speculat Exp lor e,usin Adapt act ually be m u ch t ailor ing by t he p roj ect t eam . Wh en pr oj ect t eam s begin appr oachin g managem ent w it h r eq uest s f or ex cept t o t he tst f ram ew orBox k, it and should st r aong sig nal t hat t h e fr am ew or k has APM pract ices,ions including heanPrdard oduct Vision Projbe ectaDat Sheet cr ossed t he t hreshold fr om bar e suf ficiency t o bur eaucracy . Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

Practice Selection and Tailoring

< Day Day Up >

Agile develop m en t and pr oject managem ent ar e bu ilt on an under ly in g p rem ise t hat individual capabilit y is t he cor ner st one of success, and f urt herm or e, t hat individuals are unique con t ribut or s. I t follow s f rom t hese p rem ises t h at r at h er t han m oldin g p eop le t o a set of comm on pr ocesses an d p ract ices, p rocesses and pr act ices should be m olded t o t he t eam it self . While an org an izat ion m ig ht insist t hat pr oject t eam s f ollow a guiding fr amew ork , t here sh ould be flex ibilit y as t o w hat ind iv id ual pract ices are u sed t o m eet t he need s of each p hase. The t eam should discu ss w hat p ract ices ar e going t o b e used or not used. Just because a p ract ice is a good one d oesn 't m ean it needs t o be u sed in ev ery proj ect . Ther e should alway s •be a discu ssion Table of Contents about how t o ap pr oach each it erat ion ; w hat w as don e in on e m ay not b e r eq uir ed f or t he Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e a act ti ngices, I nn oveach a ti ve tPr oduct s t ailor t h em in diff er ent way s accord ing t o t he nex t on e. Wit h in diveidnt: ualCr pr eam will capabilit ies ofh t he t eam mem ber s, t he size of t he pr oject , t he num ber of cust om er s, and many ot her By Jim Highsmit f act or s. Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Ther e are f our f und am ent al qu est ions t he t eam should ask it self abou t t h e pr act ices t hey select and t ailor Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 f or a par t icular proj ect : I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

What p ract ices ar e r equired? What su pplem ent ar y pr act ices do we need ? What m odificat ions do we need t o m ak e t o t he select ed pr act ices? " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he knWhat owledlevel ge econom . " y or cerem ony sh ould b e used for docu ment at ion, app rov als, ch an ges? of f ormyalit —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School I n add it ion t o a b ar ely su ff icien t pr ocess f ram ew or k, org an izat ion s m ay also sp ecify a set of b ar ely "suf This is t he projices ect for m anagem t book we' ve ingeloping for —t hea book hat eff ect com bin es ficient pr act each pren oject p hase. Forallexbeen amp w le,aitdev f eat urtebased , itiverely at iv e r elease Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p rojed ect plan is a r equirem ent , n ot an opt ion, f or a com pany app ly in g APM, alt houg h t he pr act ice can be t ailor m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an allar ound good f or charact erist ics such as it er at ion lengt h . The pract ices in t his b ook can b e v iewed as an init ial cut at a rbar ead! ely" suf ficient set of pr act ices. Ther e m ay be su pplem ent al pr act ices t hat t eam s need t o em ploy , bu t —Ly nn eprEllen, Srdiscu . VP & CI O, y t he 18 act ices ssed in Dt hTE is Energ book appr oach a m inim um set . "The Finally a b ook r econciles he dpassion of tivhe Agile e m ovem ent t heor needed of 18 pract icest hat of APM f ocus ton eliv ery act it ies, butSof ast war pr eviously not ed,wit evh ery ganizatdisciplines ion also h as pr oject managem Jim deliv 's b ook has pt rov v ice t o allt ooft he us.set " of r equired deliv er y pr act ices. com pliance act iv itent ies .and er ables hat ided n eeda tser o be added —Neville oy m ) Singham CEO, ought s, It hese nc. as m uch as p ossible, at som e point t he t eam j ust While p rojR( ect an ag er s ,can at t Th emp t t o Wor redukce has t o accep t som e lev el of com pliance w ork an d add t h ose pr act ices t o t he r equired set . " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by rThe einfbest orcing pr ocesses, at ion oryf ur herices honing w hing ork in isn g. Highsm it h t r igg er for im adding plem entdocum in g su ent pplem ent, ar pr tact is t o cost not es.wThis hen isn't somet 't wor k ing br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." t hr ough an it er at ion or t w o. I f prob lem s or r isk s ar e get t ing lost , for ex am p le, an issues r ecord ing and —Pr est on G.prSm h, m pray incipal, oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor m onit oring act it ice need New t o bePrinst it ut ed, alt hough p roj ect, tDev eameloping s m ay Pr adoduct d t h iss t in o tHalf h e t h e Tim e supp lem en t ary list dur in g t he En vision ph ase. Team m emb er s an d p roj ect m anagers need t o fight t he Now , one tof t he fsupp ield 'slem lead br ing h erneed all t he ledgil ea and resour cessign y ou n eed need t o use t endency o add ening t ar yexppert ractsices ears lyt oget —t hey t o kwnow ait unt specif ic and if icant APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly arises. addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t"he phase APMisfran amim ewpor or k, t hen presentToo s specific, ov en t ools f orakever part icip an t .requ ir es Sig fivenif icant need" t ant qualifier. of t en , rpr easonable m ist es (yafpr t eroject all, in nov at ion Cov includes: bot herage successes and m ist ak es) ar e f ollowed by k nee- jer k react ion s t o ad d con t rols or n ew repor t s or new r est r ict ions on t h e dev elopm ent t eam . For a lar ge n um ber of t hese " m ist ak es," m uch mor e t im e and energ y goes int o pr ocesses and pr ocedur es t o prev ent t hem fr om occur r ing again t h an w ould b e spent on Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent a " f ix on occur r en ce" st rat egy . How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies As wit h ad din g su pplem ent ary pr act ices, t eam s sh ould u su ally wait t o m odif y pr act ices u nt il af t er t hey' v e t r ied t hem f or an it erat ion or t w o. I f t he pr act ice it self has been defined u sing t h e barely suf ficient Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong pr in ciple, it w ill u sually get t he t eam st art ed. I n lar ge p roj ect s, t he t eam m ay det erm ine early t hat a pr act ice isn't d ens hance it . Cr eat ingsuf adficient ap t iv e an t eam t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " The im plem ent ions of at ionAPM—an an d appdrov als iswoft en wh at separat es b ar e suf ficiency fr om Which p rojatect w illd ocu b enm efen it ftrom w hich on't bu reaucracy . The br eadt h of t h ing s t hat ar e d ocu m en t ed , t he for malit y or cer emon y of t hat docum ent at ion, and t he En revvision, iew and appr oval pr ocesses for t ,he docu ment s can d et er m ine whet h er a APM's fiv e phases: Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt Close pr act ice, or pr ocess, is st ream lined or not . For exam ple, a change cont r ol pract ice ( wh ich in t r ad it ional pr oject s oftpract en becomes a change ance practBox ice) and can Proj be aect simDat plea act iv it y of discussing chang es and APM ices, including t he resist Pr oduct Vision Sheet docum ent ing t hem m inim ally, or it can b e an elab orat e p rocess of d ocum en t at ion, an aly sis, and r ev iew Levs erup agin Agile ir onm s t hat eat botghyou t imrePMI and skills p ap erin. Au t horenv Mich ael ent Kennedy ( 2003 ) relat es t h e v iew of docu ment at ion in

t he Toyot a pr oduct developm en t sy st em: " At Toy ot a, specificat ions ar e t he docum ent at ion of t he result s, < Day Day Up > not a r ecipe of t he plan. " When t ailor in g t heir docu ment at ion pract ices, t eam s sh ould consider dist ing uishing bet w een per manent docum ent at ion ( w hich is con sist ent ly upd at ed because a b udget has been est ablish ed ) and wor k ing paper s ( w hich don 't need t o be u pdat ed) . They sh ould also cont em plat e t h e lev el of cer em ony t hey need—r ough not es wor k f ine for m any , m any docu ment s. [ 11] I n or der t o u se key eng ineer ing st aff eff ect iv ely , pr oject manager s shou ld of fload nearly all com pliance d ocum en t at ion t o adm inist r at iv e st af f. The issue isn' t zero or bu rdensom e d ocum en t at ion, it ' s f ir st w hat docum ent at ion cont r ib ut es t o deliver y ( t oday and in t h e fu t ur e) an d second w hat d ocum en t at ion is requ ir ed f or ext er nal com plian ce (• regu lat ion s, fTable or exof amContents ple) . Colleague Ly nne Nix has a gr eat mant r a f or docum ent at ion: " A lit t le docum ent at ion g oes a long way if it ' s t h e r igh t docu ment at ion. " [ 12] Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s 11] For exampl By Jim [Highsmit h e, new Xer ox copier s can tak e hand- wr it ten not es, cr eate a phot ocopy , and e- m ail it to you. This i s a

nice way of gett ing electr onic docum ent and st or age with lit tle or no effor t. Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley [ 12]

For additi onal infor m at ion, see ( Rueping 2003) .

Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

I n t h e Iear ly 0-t o32m id- 199 SBN: 1- 219 77 -5 0s k now ledg e m anagement pr act ices placed an em ph asis on ex plicit ( wr it t en) k now ledge, b ut in m ore recent y ears t he p en dulum has swun g t owar d an emp hasis on p eop le and t acit Pag es: 31 2 k now ledge—k now ledg e shared t hr ough int eract ion. When t he cr it ics of agile ap proaches decr y t h e " lack " of docu ment at ion, it 's en ough t o mak e one scream, " The issue is not docum ent at ion; t he issue is un derst anding. " Und er st anding requ ir es a b lend of in t er act iv e conv ersat ions and docu ment at ion. Th e agile ph ilosophy is t h at w hen d ocum en t at ion is used t o r ep lace conv ersat ion, it is m isu sed . When it is used t o com plement conv ersat ion , it is used corr ect ly . " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School

Early Planning

" This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile s and r igor oust hproj ect mtanagem en ift .ied, Notand on lyofdt oes his bookprior helpt oust he m ak e sense of p rojFor ect Ther emet arehod alway s act iv it ies at need o be ident en ptlanned, Exp lor e phase. m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an allar ound good exam ple, end- of- it erat ion cust om er f ocus g roup r eviews requ ir e t he at t end an ce of cust om ers wh o m ay rnot ead! w"ork w it h t h e pr oject t eam on a day- t o- day b asis. I t t h er efor e behoov es t h e pr oject t eam t o schedule —Ly nnr eeview Ellen,sessions Sr . VP &ear CIlyO,( at D TE Energ t hese least for yt he f ir st t h ree t o fou r m ont hs) . Wait ing unt il a f ew week s bef ore t he session t o in vit e p ar t icipant s usually r esu lt s in poor at t endance. Th e t eam need s t o rev iew all of t he "prFinally b ook hat r econciles heplor passion of t he e m" pr ovem ent ing wit"hneeds t he needed disciplines of act icesa in t he tSpeculat e and tEx e p hases t o Agile ascertSof aint war if any eplann t o occur . pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. < Day Day Up >

" The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Envision Summary En visioning goes b ey ond pr oj ect in it iat ion. I nit iat ion con jur es an im age of adm inist r at ion, of bud get s and det ailed schedu les. And w hile t h ese ar t ifact s m ay be necessary , t hey need t o f low f rom a w ell- art iculat ed, discussed , and agreed- on v ision . The four com p onent s of v ision wer e ex pressed as quest ion s early in t h is •chapt er : Table of Contents Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

What is t h e pr oduct v ision ?

Pu blisher: Add Wesley What is t hison e pur pose

of t he pr oj ect ( obj ect ives) an d it s con st rain t s?

Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

Who included in t h e pr oject com m un it y ? I SBN:will 0- 32be 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

How w ill t he t eam deliv er t he p rodu ct ? For some proj ect s t h is Env ision p hase can b e accom p lish ed in a day, or sever al d ay s. For ot her s, par t icularly t hose t h at hav en't gone t hr ough a f easibilit y st udy of som e k ind, it may t ak e longer —not necessar ily in ef for t , bu t in t he calend ar t im e it t ak es for t he v ision t o j ell wit hin t he pr oj ect com mu nit y . " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t hevisioning kn owled doesn' ge econom " er t h e Env isioning phase. At t he b eg inn ing of each it erat ion ( or m ilest one) , as En t st opy .aft Aust an t Pr ofessor , Harv t—Rob he t eam min, eetAssist s t o speculat e ab out t h e ard nex tBusiness it erat ion School , t eam m em b er s n eed t o r ev isit t he vision. This r ev isit in g can be for t h e pur pose of m od if ying t he v ision or t o rem ind t h e t eam , am id t h e hect ic daily " This m anagem t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es gr in d,isoft he t h eproj purect pose of t heir en endeav ors. Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e,

Chapter 6. The Speculate Phase Scope Ev olut ion •

Phase: Speculat e Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

Pr act ice: Prod uct Feat ure List

By Jim Highsmit h

Pr act ice: Feat ur e Card s Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Pr act ice: Perf orm ance Requ ir em ent s Cards

Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 PrI SBN: act ice: Release, Milest one, an d I t erat ion Plan Pag es: 31 2

Speculat e Sum m ar y < Day Day Up >

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Scope Evolution " Hi, Dudess, how ' s it going?" Herm an's v oice b oomed cheerf ully in May a's p hone. " Her m ie, w ho y ou b een hanging w it h lat ely ?" May a r et ort ed . •

Table of Contents

Agi le Pmy r oj ect M a nag e nt: Cr e a ti'rng I nn ov a ti ve Pr " Just t eam . I em g uess t hey e beginning t ooduct rub sof f on me a lit t le. They' re kind of cool w hen y ou get t o k now t h em . " By Jim Highsmit h

Maya laugh ed . " Well, don' t g o chang ing t oo mu ch, or I 'll t hink t h e body snat chers got you . But ser iously , Add ison howPu 'sblisher: it going wit hWesley APM?" Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

" Good Iand SBN: bad. 0- 32 1-We'r 219 77e-5t r ying t o use it er at ions and feat ur es, but I can't get ar ound m anagem en t 's fixat ion on scope cont r ol," Her m an r eplied. " They r ead t he repor t s on p roj ect failur es f rom scope cr eep, so w e'v e Pag es: 31 2 got st ringent chang e cont r ol pr ocedu res. " " Hav e t hey wor k ed?" May a asked. " My exp er ience has been t hat st r ict change cont rols u sually fr eeze r eq uir ement s. The cu st omer s get so f ru st rat ed wit h t he pr ocedur es t hat t hey j ust st op ask ing f or need ed changes. " " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in kn owled ge econom y . "t o st ab ilize our proj ect , bu t I 'm not su re ou r cust om ers ar e v ery happy . I t h ink "t he Well, we have managed —Rob in, ab Assist t Pr ofessor Business our conAust cer ns out danest abilizat ion, Harv hav eard caused r ig iditSchool y . Ther e' s a m iddle gr ound w it h how mu ch ch an ge m akes sense, b ut I ad mit I haven' t f oun d it y et . " " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and igor ous proj ect enpt t . ion Nott hon oes t his book us m ak eofsense roj ect " That 's because it 's ralway s chang ingm . anagem An assum atlymdad e sense at t hhelp e beginning t he pof rojpect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an allar ound good clearly w on' t w ork by t h e t im e y ou' r e in t he middle. We'v e f ound t hat you need t o accom mod at e nor mal rscope ead! " ev olu t ion r at h er t han j ust t ry an d con t rol chang e. " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " But I don' t see any opt ions; y ou eit her cont r ol scope or y ou don 't , " Herm an said. " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of oject . Jim 's b ook p rov ided ser of v ice all of definit us. " ions of agilit y as 't h e abilit y t o "prNot q uitmanagem e, " May a ent r esp onded. " Lethas ' s go back t o aone t h teobasic —Neville , CEO, oughtatWor k s,t rIying nc. t o cr eat e a bot h / an d sit uat ion r at her t han an balance stR( aboy ilit) ySingham and st r uct ur e.' Th I look it as eit h er / or one. We t h ink we can do bot h, an d t he secret is self- disciplin e. I n t he past , w e' v e had bot h "cust Theom w or ld and of prdevelopers oduct dev elopm ent eismbade ecom ing mes ore ic…" and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by ers wh o hav chang ond aynwam him r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian guides o an s t hewt im " Oh , w telyhav e t hatusallintt he t imalt e.ernat Firstive t het hat cu stf itomer antes." s on e t hing; t wo w eek s lat er h e w an t s t he —Pr est on G. Sm it h, New Pr oduct namand ics/ coau Dev eloping oduct s inbyHalf h e Tim e opp osit e. The proj ectprt incipal, eam s f eel w hip saw edDy back for t h.t hor Unf, ort u nat ely , tPr hey r eact ign toring t he cust om ers. " Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use ouru sed nex tt op roj ect .sim Jimilar Highsm it h s, shwows APM sh ould be by in ever y m anager' s in t oolkit , t h oroug "APM Rig htin. yWe have pr oblem hichwh w yere ex acer bat ed dev eloper s w ant g t o add feat urhly es addr t he ionay s pr er s rbecause aise abou ile ap oach emrat ically t rod w illy -essing nilly . Th ey quest got aw w itoject h it fm oran a ag w hile w te Ag w ere soprscar edes. ab He out syst b eing igid; w einw entuces t heerfiveAPM t hen present specific, en ftast oolsw fitor pr oject icip an t . t hem ov boarphase d t he ot her frwam ay ew fororak,t im e. Now w e sanaly ze chpr anov ges hinever t heyt eam andpart docum ent Cov includes: w it herage in for m al n ot es. I t ' s r eally ab out at t it ude change—fr om ch an ge r esist ant t o encour agin g ch an ge. Chang e cont r ol is ab out coor dinat ion , not denial. " Six diff pr inciples Agile Pr oject agm em ent ch an ges?" ask ed Herm an. " Do you erent iatof e bet w een m inorMan and ajor cap it alize on emer ewbou pr oduct developm t t echnologies " Well,How if t h teo change im pact s t h egin ovgernall ndar ies of t h e pren oject , w e t alk wit h t he ex ecut iv e sp onsor. Pr ev iously w e f ound t h at m inor changes b ased on a wh im wer e dest abilizing t o ou r pr oject s. On ce w e Put selft ing dcust om ers abou at t het chang cen t eres, of ev you pr oject , w here tthey belong became iscip lined enr maj or changes en ded t o st abilize t he pr oj ect at t h e sam e t ime we wer e adapt in g t o t he change. I t sou nds weir d, but t hat 's how it w or ked for us. " Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " " I don 't kn ow, " said Her man. " You seem t o be say ing t h at self -d iscip line is t he key . I f I 'm u nderst and ing Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't y ou, u ndisciplined flexibilit y descen ds int o chaos, w hile un disciplined st ab ilit y cr eat es rigidit y . " APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close " That 's a good w ay t o p ut it . To cr eat e r eal agilit y , w e balance flex ib ilit y and st r uct ur e t h roug h t he applicat ion of r ig orous self -d iscipline, " Maya said. " Hey , I k ind of lik e t h at ! Got t a go. Next t ime. " APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up > < Day Day Up >



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Phase: Speculate Plans are guides, not st raig ht j ack et s. Agile t eam s p lan, b ut t hey r ecogn ize t h at r ealit y alway s int r udes. Plans in t h is con t ex t ser v e as a vehicle f or em bracing change, not blocking it . Plans hav e t o adapt because t he cust om er s' un derst anding of t heir requ ir em ent s changes, because est im at es of w or k eff ort •v ar y b ecause Table ofnow Contents of unk ns, b ecause p eop le ar riv e or depar t f rom t he pr oj ect t eam , an d f or a v ariet y of Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: a tihng I nnject ov aur ti ve oduct st he f ut u re—our b est guess at w hat w ill occur given t he ot her r easons. Plans ar eCrbeot con esPrabout in for at ion we By JimmHighsmit h have—and gu ides t o t he fut ure—det er mining wh at w e w an t t o occur and m ak ing it happ en . Developm en t g en er at es new infor m at ion t hat in t ur n cr eat es t he n eed t o replan . Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Plann ing is an im por t ant act ivit y , bu t speculat ing is a m or e appr opr iat e t er m as un cer t ain t y in creases. Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 Speculat ing est ablishes a t ar get and a d ir ect ion, but at t he sam e t im e, it in dicat es t h at w e exp ect m uch I SBN:ov 0-er 32 1219lif 77e-5of a proj ect . As I m en t ioned in t o change t he Chapt er 4 , sp eculat ing isn't w ild r isk t ak ing but Pagues: 31 2somet h ing based on incom plet e fact s or inf orm at ion ." Plans are alway s conj ect ur es ab out " conj ect ring t he fut u re. When w e " plan ," we ex pect t he act ual pr oject result t o conf orm t o t hat plan , and t hen dev iat ion s becom e pr oj ect t eam m ist akes or a sig n of t he t eam 's f ailur e t o w or k har d enou gh. Wh en w e " speculat e, " w e v iew t h e act ual result s posit iv ely —it 's t he plan w e su sp ect w as w rong . The plan, or speculat ion, is a piece of inf orm at ion , but it is only one piece t h at w e w ill ex amine in ord er t o det erm ine rse ofit h act in of t he ex tmitodern er at ion. "our Jimcou Highsm ision on e a fnew w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " The prod uctin,ofAssist t he Speculat e phase is aard release plan School t h at out lin es, t o t he best of t h e pr oject t eam 's in it ial —Rob Aust an t Pr ofessor , Harv Business k now ledge, a plan t hat is based on feat ur es deliv er ed rat her t han act iv it ies. The r elease plan ut ilizes for misattion ab out pr odu cten 's tsp ecificat plat f ormw ar re,her esour aniv aly sis, d efbin ectes "inThis he proj ectt he m anagem book we'ion, ve all been aitchit ing ect foru—t book ces, t hatr isk eff ect ely com lev els,met b usin const r aint s, proj andect t ar m get scheduen les. Agile hodess s and r igor ous anagem t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good rTher ead!e" are t wo cru cial comp onent s of an it er at iv e planning an d develop m en t appr oach—shor t it erat ive t—Ly imebox and Sr f eat ur es. are p roj nn e es Ellen, . VP & CIFor O, soft D TEwEnerg y ect s, it er at ions ar e g en er ally t w o t o six w eek s in leng t h. Hardw are pr oject s w ill hav e lon ger it er at ions an d g reat er var iat ion—elect ron ic devices w ill generally hav e t er taim eboxtes say , aut ob iles. of Short it er at ions act et omacceler at ewit pr oject By keeping "shor Finally b ook hatt han, r econciles t heom passion t he Agile Sof t war ovem ent h t hes.needed disciplines of tpr imef ram es shor t , t eams hav e t o figur e out fast er w ay s of accom plishing ever y aspect of d ev elopm ent . oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " For ex am R( ple, ser ial dev elopmTh ent , majWor or qualit y assur an ce act iv it ies are perf orm ed once t ow ard t he —Neville oyin ) Singham , CEO, ought k s, I nc. end of t he p roj ect . I n it erat iv e d ev elop ment , QA act iv it ies are comp let ed ev ery it erat ion. The QA st af f has figur e ld outofhow t o bedev m or e eff ent ect ivise band effing icien because perf orm t tain. heseMan actyivm it ies six, , or "t oThe w or pr oduct elopm ecom mtore d yn amt hicey and uncer an ag er seight cop e by im es r at t han once. rt en einft orcing prher ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." Featest ur e-b dev ent is New n ot aPrsoft w aret echcoau niq ue. ar dw are rod uct elop —Pr on ased G. Sm it h,elopm pr incipal, oduct Dy only nam ics/ t horMany , Devheloping Pr p oduct s ind ev Half t h ment e Tim e eff ort s are driv en by first creat in g a pr oduct st ruct u re an d t h en an ext ensive list of t h e feat ur es. I n addit, ion , sin and m ing or e ex pr pert oduct emhbedd sofktnow war e, hard war resour e and soft arenfeat ar e Now one of ce t hemfore ield 's lead s sbrinclude ing s t oget er alledt he ledg e and ces w y ou eed ur t oesuse bot h in candidat es tf or t his ur Highsm e- driv enit happr oach. APM y our nex p roj ectf.eat Jim sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces first phase goal ofAPM featfruram e- bew ased and dev elopm ent is en t o tm akef or t heever p rocess v isible, d an t . tThe he fiveor k,plann t hen ing present s specific, pr ov ools y pr oject partan icip un derst andable, t o t he cust om er t eam. All t oo oft en pr oduct dev elopm ent p lanning has con cen t rat ed on Cov erage includes: m aking t he t echn ical wor k u nderst and ab le t o t he en gin eer ing t eam . Cust om ers and pr oduct manager s had t o w ade t h rou gh list s of t echnical act ivit ies, m any of which made lit t le sense t o t h em . A sof t war e Six pr inciples of Agile oject ag em ent dat a sch em a d esign" m eans lit t le t o m ost cu st omer dev elopm ent t ask such as "Pr Creat e aMan n orm alized t eams. How ev er , a hardw are feat ur e such as " Develop a DVD feat ur e t hat w ill play sect ions of m ovies" o cap alize ont eam emers.gin g nom ew ers pr oduct en t t echnologies r esonHow at es twit h cuitst om er Cust und erdevelopm st and pr oduct s, com p onent s of p rod uct s, and feat ur es of t hose comp onent s. They can at t ach significan ce ( value) t o t hese and t heref ore can m ak e p riorit y Put t ing custt hom at tengineering he cen t er ofstyou pr oject belong decisions ab out emers . The af f rcan t hen, w t r here anslatt hey e fr om a cust om er -f acing v iew t o a t echnical v iew in or der t o design and bu ild t h e pr oduct . Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Feat ur es act as t he int erf ace bet ween developm en t eng ineers and cust om er t eam s—a m ediu m f or shared Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't un derst anding. This shared space t ak es t he f or m of a f eat u re car d. Th e fr ont of t his hand - wr it t en in dex card cont ains f eat u re inf orm at ion f or plan nin g p ur poses, wh ile t he b ack of t he car d con t ains t ech nical APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close t ask in for m at ion t o enable t he t eam t o est im at e eff or t and m anage it s w ork . APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Using t his st y le of plan nin g, pr odu ct m anagers cont r ol wh ich feat ur es are included in t he prod uct . Dev elopm ineer s cont r ol how f eatenv u res ar e desig Lev erent agineng g you r PMI skills in Agile ir onm ent s ned an d im plem ent ed. Pr oduct m an ag er s wouldn' t

hav e t he au t hor it y t o say, for ex amp le, " We'r e ru nning behind; let 's cut t est ing t im e. " I nst ead , t hey cou ld < Day Day Up > only say, " We' re r un nin g b eh ind ; let ' s cut f eat ur es 34 and 68 ." Sim ilarly , t he develop m en t t eam couldn' t arb it r ar ily add a f eat u re because " it wou ld be w ay cool. " Obv iou sly t h is delegat ion of r esponsib ilit ies un dergoes discussion an d d eb at e, as pr oduct manager s m ay hav e sug gest ions ab out (b ut not f in al aut hor it y over ) how pr oduct s get bu ilt , and dev elopm ent eng ineers m ay m ak e sug gest ions ( but not final decisions) abou t p ot en t ial feat ur es. Agile proj ect speculat ing helps t h e pr oject t eam :



Det erm ine how t he pr odu ct and it s feat ur es w ill ev olve Table of Contents

Agi le PBalance r oj ect M aant nagicip em eat nt: Cr eof a tifeat ng I ur nn es ov aand ti ve Pr oduct sw it h ion design

adapt at ion as t he pr oj ect unf old s

By Jim Highsmit h

Focu s on t he hig hest -v alu e feat ur es ear ly in t he pr oject Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Think abou t t he pr oject , bu siness goals, and cust om er exp ect at ions

Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 b udg et and schedule in for mat ion t o m anagement PrI SBN: ovide n ecessary Pag es: 31 2

Est ablish pr ior it ies f or t radeof f decisions as ch an ges occur Coor din at e int er relat ed act iv it ies and feat ur es across feat ur e t eam s Consider alt ern at iv es and ad ap t iv e act ion s " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he knProwled . " analyzing event s t hat occu r dur in g t h e pr oject ovidege a econom baseliney for —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School Ev ery one accept s t he p rem ise t h at our b usin ess wor ld con st an t ly ch an ges. Howev er, w e st ill sh rink f rom "t he Thisimisplicat t he ion projs ect anagem en t book we' been ait plan ing for het chang book te, hat ect iv elyvcom es We of tm hose changes. We st ill ve antall icipat e tw h at s w—t on' at eff least not ery bin m uch. Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect st ill v iew chang e as som et hin g t o be con t rolled, as if w e h av e som e p ower ov er t he w or ld out side our m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an allar ound good pr oject s. We st ill b eliev e t he way t o r ed uce t he cost of chang e is t o ant icip at e ev ery t h ing at t h e beginning rofead! t he" pr oject . —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y The only prob lem is t hat t his appr oach d oesn 't wor k . I f we const ant ly measur e people' s p er for m ance " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles hey passion of . t Ihe Agile Sofad t war m ovem entib ilit wityh, innov t he needed disciplines of against t he plan, t hen ad ap t ab tilit w ill suf fer f we w ant ap teabilit y , f lex at ion, an d oject managem . Jim has plear rovnided ser v ice t o all of us. " need t o r ew ard t he t eam ' s rpresp onsiv eness t oent cust om's er bs ook as t hey n ewa inf orm at ion , t hen we oy ) Singham CEO, Th ought Woronish k s, I nc. r—Neville esp onsivR( eness t o t hese ,changes, n ot adm t eam m em bers for n ot " m aking plan . " " The w or ld of pr oduct ent is b ecom ing ms,ore d yn am ic and t ain.m Man y m an ag erant s cop e by t o Thr ough t h eir act ions, dev perfelopm orm ance m easurem ent and v ision, agileuncer p roj ect anagers const ly need rencour einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h age t eams t o lear n and ad ap t as p roj ect s evolv e. Ev olut ionar y pr oject s ar e diff icu lt —f ull of br t lyy guides us and int o uncer an altternat t hat f it rew s t he t imfor es."adapt ing in or der t o deliver bu siness v alu e are amillian big uit , ch an ge, aint yive —but t he ar ds —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e gr eat . Now ,pract one ices of t he f ield 's lead ex ap pert er eg allories, t he k now ledg ne in and resour ces The ex plained in ting h is ch t ers br falling ints ot oget t wo hcat as show Figur e 6 .1 : y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Fi gu r e 6 .1 . Spe cul a t e Pha se Pr act ices Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " Fea t urAust e Bre k dowan n tStPrruct ur e , Harv ard Business School —Rob in,aAssist ofessor " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Pr oduct feat ur e list Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t hsis cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good Feat ur e card r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O,ent D TE Energ Perf orm ance r equirem s car ds y " Finally b ook hat Re le a sea Pla nntin g r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. Release, m ilest one, it erat ion p lan " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by The release plan can t akedocum sev eral s,, such a release readsheet Figur e Highsm 6 .4 ) , a fiteat r einffinal orcing pr ocesses, adding entf orm at ion or f uras t her honing plan cost s.spThis isn't w (ork in g. h ure br illian card lay t lyout guides ( Figurus e 6int .5o) , an a palt rojernat ect "ive par tking hat flot it s" t (he Figur t imees." 6 .7 ) , or som e com binat ion of t h ese. —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM roj ect .mJim sh ows wh yf or APM sh ould be Syst in evereymm anager' s tioolkit Fiin guy our r e 6nex .4t .pSum ar yHighsm Re leitahse Pl an t he CRM ( I t e r at on 5, tihsoroug t h e hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m anfag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces ir st m a j or m il e st on e .) t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: [ View full si ze image]

Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles passion SofW t war ovem wit hout t he needed disciplines of Fi gu r et he6 .5 . Feaoft ut he r e Agile Ca r d hi et emboa r dentLay pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. [ View full si ze image]

" The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef f rom w hich on'tk i ng Fiitgu r e APM—an 6 .7 . Prdoje ct wPar

Lot Pla n

APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " < Day Day Up > —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Practice: Product Feature List Objective •

Table of Contents

Agi P r oj ective M a nag Cr eice a ti ng ov apand ti ve Pr Thele object of tem hise nt: pr act is It nn o ex t hoduct e prsoduct vision , t hr ough an ev olut ion ar y p rodu ct rByeq uir ement s def init ion pr ocess, in t o a p rod uct f eat u re list ( sim ilar t o a m an ufact ur in g p ar t s ex plosion Jim Highsmit h list ) . Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

Discussion I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

A prod uct feat ure list , an ex pansion and r efinement of t he one dev eloped in t h e Env ision phase, id en t if ies and docum ent s t he f eat u res g at h er ed for a p rod uct f r om feasib ilit y or m ar ket ing st udies, init ial r eq uir ement s- g at h er in g ef for t s, and / or prod uct v isioning. For ex ist ing pr oduct s, cu st omer s, dev eloper s, pr oduct m an ag er s, and cust om er supp ort st aff ar e const ant ly m ak ing suggest ions abou t pr odu ct enhancem en t s. Part of a p rodu ct m anager' s j ob is t o const ant ly sift t hr ough t his list an d sor t it ( wit h " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in cust om er in volv em ent ) int o pr ior it y order . This list and t he accom pany ing f eat ur e car ds ar e t he maj or t he kn owled ge econom y . " in put s for r elease, m ilest one, an d it erat ion p lanning. —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School Feat ur e det ails ev olv e ov er t he d ev elop ment ph ases. I n t he Env ision ph ase t he t eam cr eat es a " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es pr eliminary feat ur e or pr oduct br eak dow n st ru ct ure in w hich f eat ur es ar e id en t if ied an d st r uct u red ( as Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect show n in Figur e 5 .6 ). I n t h e Speculat e phase, t he t eam ex pands t his list , and f or each f eat ur e cr eat es an m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good in dex card t hat cont ains basic descript ive an d est imat ing inf or mat ion. Du ring t he Exp lor e phase, in t he r ead! " specif ic it er at ion in w hich t he feat ur e is plan ned f or imp lem en t at ion, t he f eat ur e r equirem ent s ar e —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y det erm ined in det ail, and t he f eat u re is b uilt and t est ed. " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of Ther e are t rem en dous dif fer ences bet w een dev eloping an aut om obile, an elect ron ic inst r um ent , a pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " soft war e applicat ion, or an airp lane, and so t h e specif ics of an aly zing and specif y ing r eq uir em en t s and —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. f eat ur es v ary w idely . Som e p rodu ct s w ill requ ir e m ore ear ly r equirem ent s sp ecificat ion t han ot hers based on t he cost of alt er ing desig ns lat e in d ev elopm ent . Since soft w are is m or e m alleable t han nearly any " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by ot her pr odu ct , an ev olu t ionar y specif icat ion p rocess w ill usually ser ve it best . How ev er, as m en t ioned r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h bef ore, ev en t h e m ost soph ist icat ed in dust r ial pr oduct s ar e u nderg oing ev olut ionar y dev elopm ent v ia t he br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." use of sim ulat ions and m odeling . —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e The result s of t he requ ir em ent s specif icat ion pr ocess, wh at ev er t he eng ineer ing disciplin e in volv ed , Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use should be d ocu m en t ed as a hier ar chy of prod uct f eat ures—pr odu ct , com ponent , grou p, and f eat ur e. [ 1] APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly For business soft w are pr oduct s t hese cat eg ories could b e pr oduct , business subj ect ar ea, b usin ess addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces act iv it y , an d f eat u re (as ex plained lat er in t h is ch ap t er ) . Sm all sof t w ar e pr odu ct s m ig ht u se only t he t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . f eat ur es lev el, wh ile lar ge indust r ial pr odu ct s w it h em bedded soft w are m ay use t he ent ire hier ar chy . Cov erage includes: [ 1]

Depending on the t ype of pr oduct, this " par t s ex plosion" feat ure break down m ay be hier archical , but it m ight also be nonhi er archical , par ticularl y in the case of softwar e.

Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent For a gr owing num b er of com pu t er, inst r um ent at ion, and elect ronic p rodu ct s, a f eat u re h ier ar chy w ill capdw it alize gin ge nfeat ew ur pres. oduct en t t echnologies in cludHow e bottho har ar e on andemer soft war Par developm t of t he d esign pr ocess will b e det erm inin g w het her lowlev el feat ur es will b e im plement ed in h ar dw are or soft w are. Pr oduct s t hat w ere once considered Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong " hard war e" pr oduct s wit h ru dim ent ar y emb ed ded sof t w ar e now have such a lar ge set of sof t w ar e f eat ur es t hat t hey could be considered soft w are pr oduct s wit h su ppor t in g h ar dw are. I n ju st a f ew y ear s, Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " f or ex am ple, cell phones have prog ressed f r om har dwar e w it h m in im al soft w are t o hu ndr ed s of t hou san ds ofp roj lin es are dr iv e d ( orw hich " suppwort , " depending on w het her y ou are a hard war e or Which ectof s wsoft ill bwen ef itcode f romt hat APM—an on't a sof t war e engineer) all asp ect s of t he hardw are. APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close So wh at is a f eat ur e any w ay ? I n g en er al, a feat ur e is defined as a piece of a pr oduct t hat deliver s som e usefu APM l an d pract valu ab le f including un ct ionalitt he y t oPraoduct cust om er. Feat es for softDat w are prod uct (t h e abilit y t o ch eck a ices, Vision Boxurand Projaect a Sheet cust om er' s cr edit rat ing) or an airplane ( a com f ort able seat for t he passenger ) w ill be v ery dif fer en t , bu t t hey bLev ot herfagin ocusg on d reliv ering v alue t o t he cust om ent er . sI n plann ing a prod uct , h owev er , som e it ems t hat you PMI skills in Agile env ir onm

need t o be deliver ed m ay not sound —at least t o cust om ers or pr oduct m an ag er s—as t h ough t hey p rov id e Day Day Up > direct benefit . An in t er f ace com pon en t d eep in

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Practice: Feature Cards Objective •

Table of Contents

Agi P r ojpose ect M a emue re nt: car Cr e ds a ti ng ov ov a ti ve s Thele pur ofnag f eat is It nn o pr idePraoduct sim ple m ediu m for gat hering basic inf orm at ion abou t fBy eat ur es, r ecor ding hig hlev el r equirem ent s, and dev eloping wor k est im at es. Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Discussion Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

Feat urPag e-bes: ased 31 2 dev elopm ent is int end ed t o be cust om er -f acing dev elopm ent . Feat ure car ds ar e u sed t o id en t if y , but not t o d ef in e, feat ur es. Feat ur e cards[ 2] act as agr eem ent s b et w een cu st omer s and pr oject t eam m em ber s t o discu ss ( and docum ent , t o t he ex t ent necessar y) det ail r eq uir em en t s du ring an it er at ion. Discussion is cr it ical t o u nderst and ing , w hich in t urn is cr it ical t o est im at ing . Feat ur e card s id en t if y f eat ur es t h at t he cu st omer w ant s in t he p rod uct . For lar ge pr oduct s, hard war e com ponent or bu siness act ivit y " gr oup" car ds ( fr om t he feat ur e br eak dow n st ru ct ure, or FBS) can be used t o or ganize " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in and plan individual f eat ur e list s. A gr oup card m ay encom pass 10, 15, or even 20 det ail f eat ur es. t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob[ 2]Aust in, Assist anam t Prmofessor Harv ard story Business I n Ex tr em e Pr ogr ing t hese, ar e called car ds.School Ot her agil e softwar e development methods may use simi lar term s—com ponent s, use cases, backlog i tem s—alt hough they ar e not identi cal concepts.

" This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Feat e card as illust rat ed proj in Figur e anagem 6 .2 , ar e en 4xt 6inchonind car tds w hich t he an d cuof st om Agileurmet hods, s and r igor ous ect m . Not ly ex d oes hison book help usprmoject ak e sense p rojerect tmeam m em berin s rtecord t he ionit er g at t heir equirem ent d iscussions. Theall-crit anagement h is cu rr entinfworm or ldatof athivere,edin in crem entral Agile m etshods, but it ' s an ar ical oundpiece goodis t he discussion. As in ot her agile pr act ices, t he en t ir e t eam, not t he pr oj ect m an ag er alone, is r espon sible f or r ead! " in t eract g andSr pr. odu t heDfeat ur e cards. The pr oj ect m an ag er facilit at es t h e discu ssion and mon it or s —Ly nn einEllen, VP cing & CI O, TE Energ y act ion it em s, b ut agile plann ing is a t eam spor t . " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc.

Fi gu r e 6 .2 . Sam pl e Fea t u r e Ca r d ( Re qui r e m en t s Un ce r t ai n t y Scal e r e fe r s t o

" Thet h w or of pror oduct dev felopm entca is tbeecom m ore ynram t ain. y m an agRout er s cop e lde xpl a t ion a ct or goring ie s; E= dEr a t ic i c,and F=uncer Fl uct uaMan t i ng , R= inee,by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h S= Sta ble ) br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e

Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect The car ds t hemselves imp pre,ovinide am obile, t act m ileetmhods, ed iumbut t hat mar em bers good can m anagement in t h is cuar rr eent w ort or ldant of. itThey er at iv crem ent al Agile it ' st eam an allound w rit e "on, shuf fle about on t he t able, and have conv er sat ions aroun d. Once dat a g et s ent ered in t o a r ead! f—Ly ormnn al emedium less likely t o ych an ge it . The inf orm at ion on t he car ds becomes t he p rodu ct of Ellen, Srpeople . VP & ar CIeO, D TE Energ t he t eam 's collab orat ive ef for t an d a focal point f or m ut u al u nderst and ing of t h e pr oduct at a d et ail lev el. " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of A it em s ofent inf. orm at ion shou ecorda ed feat e of card s." Supp lem en t ary d ocum en t s can be pr few ojectk ey managem Jim 's b ook hasldpbe rovrided seron v ice t ourall us. used for d et ailed requ ir em ent s inf or mat ion. Ty pical it ems on feat ur e cards are: —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by Feat urpr e ocesses, ident if ier adding and nam e r einf orcing docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." Feat ur e descr ipt ion: a sen t ence or t w o t h at descr ibes t he f eat ur e in cu st om er t er m s —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Feat ur e t y pe ( C= cust om er dom ain, T= t echn ology dom ain) Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly Est im at ed w ork ef for t : t he est im at ed w or k eff ort needed t o deliv er t he f eat u re, inclu din g t im e f or addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. [ He syst em at ically in t rod uces r eq uir ement s gat her ing , desig n, coding, t est ing , and docum ent at ion 3] t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: [ 3] Many pr oj ect m anager s and team m em ber s ar e accustom ed to estim ating activ iti es or t asks, not featur es. When estim ating featur es, i t is im port ant to cov er all t he activ ities inv ol ved.

Six pr inciples Agileaint Pr oject em Requirem ent s of u ncert y ( errMan at ic,agf lu ct ent uat in g, r out ine, st able) : an " exp lor at ion fact or " f or a specif ic f eat ur e How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Feat ur e depend en cies: dependencies t hat cou ld in fluence im p lem en t at ion seq uencin g Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Accept ance t est s: cr it er ia t he cust om er t eam w ill use t o accept or r ej ect t he feat ur e[ 4] Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " [ 4]

These cr iter ia coul d be im plemented in speci fi c test cases or included in a custom er focus gr oup r ev iew.

pel s the cust om er team to defi ne w hat " done" m eans. WhichFi pgur rojing ectout s wacceptance ill b en ef itcrfiter romia com APM—an dw hich w on't

Of t enAPM's cu st om recogn izable feat ur es and e, t ech nical actAdapt iv it ies, Close pr ov ide ort h ogonal v iew s of t he sam e fivere -phases: En vision, Speculat Exp lor e, pr oblem space. I n plan nin g t he nex t it erat ion f or a p roj ect ( as I discuss lat er in t his chapt er ) , t he t eam f ir st t APM ur ns pract t he f eat u reincluding car ds over list s tVision h e t echnical actProj ivit ies t o specify , design, build , t est , ices, t heand Pr oduct Box and ect required Dat a Sheet and docum ent t he f eat u re. To pr ogr ess fr om a cu st omer - recognizable unit of w ork t o a reasonable Lev er aginofg wyou env ent segat ion of t hat wor k . Technical act iv it ies f r om t echnical u nit orkr , PMI t h erskills e w ill in pr Agile obably beir onm a reaggr

sever al cu st omer f eat u res ( e. g. , m ult ip le f eat u res d isplayed on a cont r ol panel) may b e aggr egat ed int o a < Day Day Up > sin gle t ech nical w ork package. Design an d t echn ical archit ect ur es will inf luence t his reaggr egat ion . For larg er proj ect s—t hose w it h 1, 0 00 feat ur es, for ex am ple—t he f eat u re car ds will pr obably r eq uir e som e f orm of au t omat ion f or shar ing am ong feat ur e t eams. Wh ile each individual t eam m ay use card s f or it s ow n p lanning sessions, sh ar ing acr oss m ult ip le t eam s w ould p rov e diff icu lt . Dist r ibu t ed t eam s and t eam s w ork in g under f orm al cont r act s m ay need t o aut om at e t he car ds—or m ore corr ect ly , t he inf or mat ion on t he car ds—ev en f or sm aller pr oject s. As w it h ot her agile p ract ices, t h e t eam should let t h e need dict at e t he use and for m alit y of t he d ocum en t at ion. The level of r equirem en t s u ncer t ain t y and t he t echn ology risk fact or s w ill in fluence not only feat ur e Table of Contents schedulin g, bu t also t he t eam 's appr oach t o im plement ing a f eat u re. Gener ally , h igh - risk feat ur es ( err at ic Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s or f luct u at ing) w ill b e scheduled in ear ly it erat ions so t hat t he t eam can d et er m ine first , if t he feat ur e can By beJim im Highsmit plem enthed at all, and secon d, if it can b e im plement ed, if it w ill t ak e m ore t im e or m oney t h an ant icipat ed t o imp lem en t it . I f t he r equirem ent s ar e diff icult t o gat her or p in dow n, a ser ies of discov ery pr otPu otblisher: y pes m ay beWesley required. I f t he best design opt ion isn' t clear , a ser ies of d esign exp er im ent s Add ison ( simPuulat ions, t hr4 ow- aw ay im plem ent at ions) m ay need t o be conduct ed. High ly u ncer t ain f eat ur es b Dat e: Aprquick il 0 6, 2 00 m ay requ ir e0-addit ion77al-5r esear ch w or k befor e t h ey can be plann ed at all. Even w it hin a pr oduct t her e w ill I SBN: 32 1- 219 be t ech nolog y areas or f eat u res t h at r un t he g am ut fr om low t o hig h r isk . Treat ing each w it h an appr oach Pag es: 31 2 geared t o t he lev el of risk w ill im pr ov e bot h eff ect iv en ess and prod uct iv it y. •

< Day Day Up >

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Practice: Performance Requirements Cards Objective •

Table of Contents

Agi P r ojance ect M ar nag em e nt: Cr s e acar ti ngds I nn ov a ti veen Prt oduct Perfleorm equirem ent d ocum t h e ks ey operat ions and per for m an ce requ ir em ent s of t he pr oduct t o be bu ilt . By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Discussion Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

While Pag som p 2er for m ance r eq uir ement s could b e def ined on a feat ur e card and ot her s could be cov er ed as es:e 31 accep t an ce t est s on a f eat u re car d, t h er e ar e m an y sit u at ions in w hich a d ist in ct , and v er y v isible, def init ion of per for m an ce and operat ional requirem ent s is n ecessary . For exam ple, m yr iad desig n decisions—in f act t he m aj or desig n d ecisions—in air cr aft desig n r evolv e arou nd weig ht . Weig ht isn' t a f unct ion of a sing le f eat u re, av ion ics or en gin es, but a pr opert y of t he ent ir e plan e. Sim ilarly, t he exp ect ed load on an I nt er net sit e is a f unct ion of t he sit e, not an individual f eat ur e. I n t h ese cases it " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in w ould be inapp rop riat e t o h av e t h e per for mance requ ir em ent be an accept ance t est f or an individual t he kn owled ge econom y . " f eat ur e, alt h ough in t he case of aircr aft desig n, each su bsyst em t eam is g iv en a weig ht t ar get . I f —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School subsy st em s are t oo h eav y , t eam s mu st coor dinat e by t r ading weig ht credit s and negot iat ing ot her per for m an ce crit eria. " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect Perf orm ance car ds—w hich can have a diff er ent color t han f eat ur e card s—cont ain t he name, d escr ip t ion, m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good and quant it at iv e per for m an ce goals of t he prod uct , as sh own in Figur e 6 .3 . A card m ig ht b e labeled , say, r ead! " " Dat abase Size" or " Aircr aft Weight Limit " or "Tr aining Tim e. " Teams should focus on t hose per for m an ce —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y at t ribut es t hat w ill dr iv e t h e desig n p rocess. For ex am ple, weig ht , p ay load , rang e, and speed are crit ical air craf t design param et er s; each w ould have a per for mance car d ( obv iously back ed up b y m ore ex t ensiv e " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of docum ent at ion) . Perf or mance car ds sh ould also cont ain accept ance t est s—how t h e t eam will d em onst r at e pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " t o t he cust om er t eam t hat t he pr odu ct m eet s t he perf orm ance cr it er ia. These t est s ar e essent ial w hen —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. t he perf orm ance cr it er ia t o be met inv olve crit ical real- w or ld risk s ( e.g ., plan es fallin g ou t of t h e sk y) . Since t est ar e vdev er y elopm diff icuent lt t oisr b unecom un t iling t hempr oduct is fully built , cr eat ingMan in t yerim s s( using " The wsom or ldeof pr soduct ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. m ant est ag er cop e by sim ulat ions, pr ot ot yp es, m odels, or h ist or ical calculat ions) sh ould b e consid er ed. r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e

Fi gu r e 6s .3 . Sam plheerPe a nce r dresour ces y ou n eed t o use Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert br ing s t oget all rt for he km now ledg eCa and APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School Som e per for m an ce at t ribut es can be derived fr om t h e gu iding pr inciples est ablish ed du ring t he Env ision ph ase.is Ot hers k now nen byt book eng ineers w or k wwit specif ic he prod uct s.t hat I n an case, ile bin feat " This t he projare ectwmellanagem we' vewh allo been aithing for —t book effyect iv elywh com esur e specif icat ions t ell t he engineering t eam wh at t o b uild, perf orm ance r equirem en t s of t en h av e m or e Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect rmelevance t o t he ocess it self—t eyiv for cecrem desig n al t radeoff s and of t en m ust be alld ealt w it h early anagement in tdesign h is cu rrpr ent w or ld of it erhat e, in ent Agile m et hods, but it ' s an ar ound good in tr he proj ect . They ar e a v it al par t of t he infor m at ion a pr oduct dev elopm ent t eam h as t o gat her an d ead! " analy ze as it p lans an d im plem ent s f eat ures. —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y < Day DaySof Up t>war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc.

" The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Practice: Release, Milestone, and Iteration Plan Objective •

Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ectm Milest a nagon eme, e nt: ti ng ion I nn ov a ti veprPr oductss a r oad map of how t he pr oject t eam int end s t o ach iev e A release, anCr d eitaerat p lan esent tBy he prod uct vision w it hin t he p roj ect scope and const r aint s id en t if ied in t he proj ect d at a sheet . Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Discussion Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

As I discu ssed Pag es: 31 2 in Chapt er 2 , agile lif ecycles are bot h it er at iv e and feat ur e dr iv en. Th e feat ur e- d riven aspect chang es t he p rim ar y f ocus of p lanning and execut ing fr om t ask s t o pr oduct feat ur es. Most t r ad it ional pr oject m anagem en t p lans u t ilize t ask s t o const r uct wor k br eak dow n st ru ct ur es ( WBSs) t o or ganize wor k . [ 5] Alt hou gh ex per ienced pr oject m anager s concent r at e first on deliver ables and t h en on t he wor k necessar y t o creat e t h ose deliver ab les, w ork - or t ask - dr iv en plans oft en degener at e int o v er y det ailed , pr escript iv e p lans. An y pr oduct has a set of f eat ur es t hat cust om ers use f or some pur pose. The " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in m ore quickly w e can lin k t hose cu st omer s w it h t h e feat ur es t hey h av e r equest ed and g et feedback on t he kn owled ge econom y . " t hem , t h e m ore lik ely t he pr odu ct dev elopm ent ef f ort will b e successful. —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School [ 5]

Ken Delcol com ments, " The WBS is r eally an ex tension of t he PBS and hence closely r eflect s the pr oduct's

" This architect is t he proj m anagem en t book we' ve Thi alls been w ait for —tons he ar book t hat eff ely com es the ure,ect which the engineers under st and. is cr iti cal wing hen functi e allocated t o ect theiv subsy st em bin s ( i.e., deter subsystem suppor t en w hich custom er dfeat ures/ functions) . I f t he up this way, then Agile team met hod s mines and r which igor ous proj ects wi m llanagem t . Not on ly oes t his book help us WBS m akies set sense of p roj ect there is a str linkage w een and m anagement in onger t h is cu rr ent bet w or ld offeatur it er es at iv e, subsystems." in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " Season ed p roj ect m an ag er s under st an d t hat how t hey br eak t he pr oj ect dow n int o w ork b reakd own —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y st r uct ur es can h av e a sign if icant im pact on how t hat p roj ect is m an ag ed and imp lem en t ed . Each possib le WBS h asa adv antthat ag esr econciles and disadv ant ages. Aoffeat e br eak ct ur eent ( FBS) st r ike som e proj ectof " Finally b ook t he passion t heurAgile Sofdow t warnestmruovem wit hmay t he needed disciplines [ 6] but it off ers t he significan t adv ant age of incr easin g m anagers as bein g m or e diff icult t o adm in ist er, pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " in t eract ion een t he ,prCEO, oject Th t eam and cust ers. Phase- based WBSs ( r eq uir ement s, design , bu ild , —Neville R(bet oy )wSingham ought Wor k s,om I nc. t est , et c. ) m ay be easier t o ad m inist er , b ut t hey don' t m at ch how eng ineers act ually wor k . " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by [ 6] With a task- based WBS, tasks ar e r elativ ely per manent . Wit h a featur e- based WBS, featur es can be added or r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h del eted dur ing each it er at ion. This adding and deleting of featur es can cause r esour ce pl an m anagem ent and r epor ting br illian t ly guides ussolution int o antoalt ive tishat f itoup s t he es." difficul ties. One thiernat s pr oblem to gr featt im ur es such that specific feat ures can easily change while the —Pr est group on G. of featur Sm it h, es rpr emains incipal, m orNew e st able. Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Anot er adofvant ons abrping rodsuct 's feat ( ankdnow it s ledg ar chit ect u re, w hich instnant by Now ,h one t heage f ieldof's basing lead ingplans ex pert t oget h er ur allest he e and resour ces isy ou eediatt oeduse fAPM eat urines) is tnex hat titpkeeps oj ect t eam d t he omsh erould t eambesyinnchr onized. I t also ocuses e t eam y our roj ect . t he JimprHighsm it h shan ows wh ycust APM ever y m anager' s tfoolkit , t ht horoug hly on deliver t h quest e pr oduct feat ur esmr an at hag erert shan int er mediat ent ates. ionHe ar tsyst if actem s. at ically in t rod uces addr essingin tghe ion s pr oject r aise abou t Ageiledocum ap pr oach t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . The ab oveincludes: st at em ent isn' t m ean t t o m inim ize t h e im p ort ance of all for m s of docu ment at ion; n o one wou ld Cov erage consider building, say , an air plan e or an au t omob ile w it hou t ex t en siv e docu ment at ion. Th e pr oblem is n ot docum ent at ion p er se but t hat proj ect t eam s of t en get lost pr oducing int er m ed iat e art ifact s t hat h av e Six pr inciples Agiles Pr oject Man agtem lit t le bearing on t heoft eam' r eal p rog ress owent ard a f in al p rod uct . All t oo of t en, deliv erables are docum ent s, an d t h e WBSs d ef in e docum ent deliver y schedules. I n h ar dw are d ev elop ment t he t eam might How o cap it alize emer gin n ew developm t tions, echnologies deliv er dettail dr aw ings,on assemb ly dgraw ingprs,oduct t est cases, sim en ulat specif icat ion cont r ol dr aw ings, and bills of m at erials—all of w hich ar e used by t he eit her t he manu fact ur in g or ganizat ions or t he v endor s t o Put tting cust omThese ers atdtocum he cen of you , wvalu heree tgener hey belong pr oduce he par t s. ent ters cont r ibrutpre oject t o t he at ion st ream . Ev en so, valuegener at ing docum ent at ion h as a gr eat t endency t o m or ph int o com pliance docu ment at ion. Feat u re- dr iv en Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " plan nin g an d con st an t t hink in g abou t v alu e generat ion h elp t o ov ercom e t h is pr oblem . Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't How ev er, many pr oject m anager s can't f at h om a t w elv e-m on t h p roj ect br ok en dow n in t o t w o- w eek it er at ions, wh ich is und er st andable. Once proj ect s go bey ond fou r t o f iv e m ont h s, pr oject part icipant s APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close usually n eed in t er im checkp oint s bet w een t w o- week in t erv als an d t h e pr oject ' s end. Larger p roj ect s t hat em ploy dist r ib utices, ed t eam s or v endor supp lied comBox ponent w ill ect h avDat e parob lem s sy nchr onizing ever y t w o APM pract including t he Pr-oduct Vision ands Proj Sheet w eek s. Ther ef or e m an y pr oject s will r eq uir e t h ree lev els of it er at ion. The longest p er iod is t h e release cy cle.Lev Pr oduct e grenPMI er ally released cust om erent s per er agins garyou skills in Agilet oenv ir onm s iodically —f or exam ple, once ev er y y ear or

eigh t een m ont hs. < Day Day Up >

I t er at ion s pr oduce accept ance- t est ed f eat ur es. The goal is t o hav e a p ar t ial- feat ur e pr oduct t hat cou ld be deployed at t h e end of any it er at ion—t hat is, t he feat ures, t est s, docum ent at ion, an d ot her pr oduct deliv er ables could be packaged up and deploy ed. Act ual deploy m ent of t he it er at iv e r esult s—r efer red t o as increm ent al deliver y —depends on a var iet y of f act ors ( as I w ill d iscuss in t he sect ion on f ir st f easible deploym ent ) . A developm en t t eam uses an it er at ion t o con cen t rat e on sm all increm ent s of wor k . I n sof t war e dev elopm ent , an it er at ion m igh t b e t w o t o six w eek s or slight ly lon ger for som e proj ect s.[ 7] I f y ou' re bu ild ing an air plane, t h e it er at ions w ill su rely be longer ( alt h ough ear ly pr ot ot yp e analy sis m igh t use ver y • Table of Contents shor t it erat ions) . Feat ur es dev eloped wit hin a feat ur e t eam ( usually f ew er t han t en p eop le w ho wor k on a Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s gr oup of f eat ur es) should be int egr at ed and t est ed by t he end of t he it er at ion. By Jim Highsmit h [ 7]

I ter ation l ength will v ar y considerably across pr oduct ty pes. Ev en within a single pr oduct, it er ations for the hardw ar e and embedded softw are feat ures m ay be of differ ent lengt hs, but they m ust sy nchr onize at m ilest ones.

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Pu bones Dat e: are Apr il int 0 6,er 2 00 Milest m 4ed iat e point s, u sually fr om on e m ont h t o t h ree m ont h s apar t . Milest ones can h av e I SBN: 032 1219 77 -5 bot h a p roj ect m anagement f unct ion and a t echn ical fu nct ion . Fr om a proj ect m anagem en t per spect iv e, es: pr 31 2 m ilestPag on es ov ide a chance t o rev iew p rogr ess and m ak e significant p roj ect adj ust m en t s. While som e r ev iew s sh ould occur ev ery it erat ion ( e. g. , a cu st omer t eam r eview of t he p rodu ct ) , ot her s m ig ht b e appr opr iat e at t he end of a m ilest one ( e. g. , a m ini- r et rospect ive of t he t eam 's perf orm ance) .

The mor e imp ort ant use of milest ones is as maj or syn chr onizat ion and int egrat ion poin t s. For a pr oduct t hat has har dw ar e and sof t war e com ponent s, m on t hly (or ev en less f requ en t ) sy nchr onizat ions m ay b e " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in ent irely ad eq uat e. A sof t w ar e pr odu ct t eam ut ilizing an ex t er nal vend or for a comp onent m ight plan t o t he kn owled ge econom y . " in t egrat e t hat com ponent st art ing at m ilest one t w o (t w o mon t hs int o t he p roj ect ) and at ev er y ot h er —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School m ilest on e aft er t h at . Biw eek ly syn chr onizat ion w it h t h e v en dor could b e t oo cost ly . On t h e ot her hand , if less eqtuent syn ch ron izat ion senare goinwe' g p ve oorly, it m igh t indicat t hat h e syt nchr onizat ould " Thisfris he proj ect m anagem t book all been w ait ing fore—t he tbook hat eff ect ivion ely sh com binoccur es m ore oft en. Milest ones can also be v iew ed as " int er mediat e" plan nin g h orizons. Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good Som e com ponent s w ill inv ariably t ak e longer , or appear t o t ak e longer , t han one it erat ion t o com plet e. r ead! " Usually wh en t eam s are pressed t o decom pose a " big " com ponent in t o bit e- sized f eat u res, t h ey figur e out —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y a w ay. I n ab ilit y t o br eak t hin gs d own in t h is mann er is u sually an issue of lack of exp er ience rat her t han a u n- decomp osab le rcom pon en tt he . How ev er, of in tt he he Agile unusuSof al sit uateion in w hich a comp ' s dev elopm entof " Finally a b ook t hat econciles passion t war m ovem ent wit h t heonent needed disciplines spans t wo or m ore it er at ions, t h e pr oject manager and t eam need t o k eep in m ind t he add ed r isk pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " in volv ed in d elaying cust om er feedback on it . —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. Tw o fw act release, m ilestent one,is and it ering at ion plans—cu v alue t an d risk. u re ay deliv " The oror ldsofdriv pr e oduct dev elopm b ecom m ore d yn amsticomer and uncer ain. Man yAmf eat an ag er m s cop e by er high v alue b ut n ot b e risk y, or it m ay em ploy r isk y new t echn ology t hat is inv isible t o t he en d cu st om r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h er . Norm h e firstus pr int ior oit yanin alt assign ions is deliver ing cust om er v alue as defined b y t he br illianally t ly tguides ernating ive fteat haturf ites s tt o heit er t imates." [ 8] cust om er t eam , an d t h e second prior it y is t o schedule f eat ur es ,t hat ce risk early in Half t h e pr —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor Dev redu eloping Pr oduct s in t hoject e Tim. e Som et im es a t echn ical risk t ak es t op pr ior it y . For exam ple, if an airp lane h as a per for m an ce crit erion t hat it m ust fly of 10, 0 00 miles wit ing houtexfupert elinsgbr and t echnology t o kdo t his is eas y etresour unk now t hen t here no Now , one t he f ield 's lead ing st hteoget h er all t he now ledg and cesn,y ou n eed t o is use point in hav ing t he cust om er s priorit ize feat ur es unt il t he t echn ical t eam has som e degr ee of conf id en ce APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly t hat essing it can mt he eetquest t he perf ance m r equirem . Allabou ot her schedulin g cones. sider ions—r esou rceinav ailab ilit y , addr ion sorm pr oject an ag er sent r aise t Ag ile ap pr oach Heatsyst em at ically t rod uces depend en cies, and ot hers—ar e subor dinat e t o t hose of v alu e and risk. t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: [ 8]

The v alue may need to be expli cit ly calculated for each featur e or gr oup of feat ures. This t opic is cover ed in m or e dept h in Chapt er 8.

Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o0cap it alize on Iteration

emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies

Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Som e people t hink agile developm en t g iv es dev elopers license t o div e in an d b uild ( or code, in t h e soft war e arena) . They con demn agile m et hods, say ing t hat su ch m et hods spend lit t le or no t im e on ear ly Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " r eq uir ement s gat her ing or ar chit ect ur al issues. On t he ot her h an d, t h er e has been an eq ually negat iv e r eact ion t o pr oject whbich mitont hs and mon tdhsw of plann ing , requ ir ement s specif icat ion , and Which p roj ectss inw ill en ef f rom APM—an hich w on't arch it ect ur al p hilosophizing occur befor e t hey d eliv er any cust om er v alue. Ther e is a b alan ce point , b ut t he arAPM's gum ent w ould leadEn y ou t o believe t hat h er e m idd g rou nd. I t erat ion 0 is a pract ice t hat can fiv e phases: vision, Speculat e, tExp lorise,no Adapt , le Close help t eam s f ind t hat m idd le g roun d an d b alance ant icipat ion w it h adapt at ion. The " 0" im plies t hat not hing usefu APM l t o t hpract e cust om er—f eat u res, in oduct ot her Vision wor ds—g s deliver ed in t his t im e p er iod. How ev er, t he f act ices, including t he Pr Boxetand Proj ect Dat a Sheet t hat we have design at ed an it erat ion im plies t hat t he w or k is useful t o t he pr oject t eam . Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

A proj ect t o dev elop a lar ge bu siness sof t w ar e app licat ion, on e t hat mu st be int egr at ed w it h ot h er < Day Day Up > bu siness app licat ions, m ay r eq uir e som e d at a ar chit ect u re wor k in or der t o ad eq uat ely def ine t he in t erf aces wit h t hose ot her app licat ions. I n t he case of an elect ronic inst r um ent , t h e t eam might f ind it usefu l t o cr eat e a pr elim inary comp onent izat ion ar chit ect ur e. Teams ut ilizing un fam iliar t echnology m ay need t im e f or t rainin g p rior t o a pr oject 's laun ch. A cust om er may d em and a r equirem en t s d ocu m en t pr ior t o sig nin g a cont r act . All of t h ese ex am ples ind icat e a n eed for som e t im e ex pendit ure pr ior t o laun chin g int o act ual it erat ive feat ur e dev elopm ent . For each of t hese it ems, a f eat ur e card ( w hich w ill usually con t ain an ar t if act —a shape arch it ect ur e diagram , f or exam ple—r at her t han an im plem ent able f eat ur e) shou ld be cr eat ed and placed in it er at ion 0. Th e need for an it er at ion 0 w ill usu ally b e obv iou s bef ore t h e pr oject get s un derw ay and will b e plan ned as part of t he Env ision p hase. •

Table of Contents

While t h e relev ant issues may v ary , t he out com e is t h e same—som e pr oj ect s requ ir e m ore ex t ensive Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s in it ializat ion w or k t han ot hers. The k ey t o ef fect ively ut ilizing it er at ion 0 is t o b alan ce t he possible By Jim Highsmit h adv an t ages of f urt her plann ing w it h t h e gr owing disad vant age of lack of cust om er- d eliv erable f eat ur es. Ther e are alway s t r adeoff s. I f t he cost of a t echnical p lat f orm ch an ge is v ery h igh , t hen addit ional w ork t o blisher: ison Wesley im pPu rov e t heAdd odds of a cor rect init ial decision may b e ju st if ied. Th e t imef ram e of an it erat ion 0 f or a n ex t Pu batDat e: jum Apr il b 0 6, 00lin 4 er w ill be mu ch d if fer en t t han t hat for a port ab le CD play er . gener ion o j2et I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

Iterations 1–N For most pr oject s, t h e t eam will n eed t o cr eat e a plan t h at assign s f eat ur es t o it er at ions for t h e du rat ion of t he pr oject in order t o get a feel for t he pr oject flow and det erm in e com plet ion d at es, st af fing, cost s, " Jim ot Highsm h is on e ofing a finfor ew mmodern rit err sesult whoant areplan helping us vunder anad spr t heeadsh new neet at ,u re wornk inin and her pr it oject plann at ion. wThe can be iew edstin as of show t he kn geeeconom " Figur e owled 6 .4 . Th pr oject yt.eam and k ey m em b er s of t h e cust om er t eam , including t he p rodu ct m anager, do —Rob Aust in,nin Assist anet act Pr ofessor Harved ardinBusiness School it er at ion plan g. Th iv it ies in, volv laying out t he it erat ion p lan include: " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es g hrow en t ifproj ied ect risks will inf luence it erat plann ing book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect Agile Det meterm hodinin s and igoridous m anagem en t . Not on ion ly d oes t his m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! "I dent if y ing t h e schedule t arg et —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y Est ablishing t he milest one an d it erat ion p er iod s " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of Dev eloping aent t hem e 's f orb ook eachhas it erpatrov ionided ( or amser ilest on e) pr oject managem . Jim v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. Assig nin g f eat ure car ds t o each it erat ion, balan cing cust om er pr ior it ies, r isk s, r esour ces, and depend as dev n ecessary " The w or ld ofenprcies oduct elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h Sum m arizing t h e plan in som e com binat ion of a f eat ure- lev el spreadsheet p lan ( Figur e 6 .4 ) , a br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." f eat ur e card lay out ( Figur e 6 .5 ) ( u su ally on a wall) , or a pr oject p ar k ing lot ( Figur e 6 .7 ) —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Calculat ing an in it ial p roj ect schedule f rom st af f availabilit y an d t ot al f eat u re ef for t est im at es Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly Adj ust ing t he com plet ed plan as necessary addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces tWhile he fiveAPMmfran am t hen s specific, en tdet oolserm f orinever y prpriorit oject ypart t h ephase pr oduct agew er or ( t k, og et h er present wit h t he cust om erprt ov eam) es t he of ficip eatan u ret . Cov erage includes: assign ment t o it erat ions, t echn ical risk issu es m ay inf lu en ce her decisions. As pr ev iously d iscussed, cust om er v alue and r isk ar e t he prim ar y d river s f or feat ur e schedulin g. For exam ple, in a pr oj ect w it h an err at ic requ ir em ent s risk ( t he t eam r ealizes t h at r eq uir em en t s w ill be diff icu lt t o d et er m ine an d v olat ile) , Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent t he decision s on w hat f eat u res t o im plement early m ay be diff erent t han t hose f or a p roj ect w it h high t echnical ( t he t eamonhas n evgin er gused heoduct t echndevelopm ology comb ion b ef or e) . There m ay be t im es w hen Howr tisk o cap it alize emer n ew t pr eninat t t echnologies high- v alue feat ur es, which wou ld nor m ally b e im p lem en t ed f ir st , w ill have t o b e defer red in f av or of h igh r isk f eat res,cust w hich eedat t ot he b ecen im pt er lem t edr early t o, reduce he r belong isk . A risk list should b e rev iew ed t o Putut ing om ners ofenyou pr oject w here tthey det erm ine w hat im pact r isk mit ig at ion might hav e on t he it erat ion p lan, sp ecifically t he sequencing of f eat urCr eseat and incor at ion r iskditqem s.lyOtt o her such eat u reo- feat ingt he ad ap t iv epor t eam s tof hathighrespon uick chconsiderat an ges in y ions, our p roj ectas 's "f ecosy st tem " ur e depend en cies, m ay have some inf lu en ce on scheduling , but cust om er v alue and r isk ar e par am oun t . Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't Ev ery proj ect h as some t arget deliver y dat e select ed by m ark et in g, m anagem en t , or a cu st omer . A t ar get fivhat e phases: Enou vision, lor e, Adapt , Close est ab APM's lishes w som eone t side Speculat t he pr oj e, ectExp t eam desir es due t o an und er st anding of t he b usin ess. I n t he case of a co- prod uct release ( say Micr osoft is releasin g a new v er sion of Window s, f or wh ich y our APM hpract including oduct Boxdat and ect fixed. Dat a Sheet com pany as a ices, com plem ent aryt he pr Pr oduct ) , aVision release e mProj ay be A t ar get m ay also be u sed t o ensur e a f ix ed limit on dev elopm ent cost . While t h e r at ionale behin d t h ese dat es can v ary fr om a Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

t hou ght f ul analy sis of t he m ar ket t o an off - t he- cuff g uess, t hey ar e im por t ant . Wh et h er of f -t h e- cu ff or Day Day Up > t hou ght f ul, t hey r ep resent t he st ak eh older s' ex lar ger ones car ds m ay be t aped t o w hit eboar ds. A sum m ar y spr eadsheet can sh ow a snapsh ot of t h e ent ire p roj ect and m aint ain r esou rce su m mar ies. While car ds sh ould ident if y f eat u res t h at are as in dependent fr om each ot her as possible, d ep en dencies w ill occur and influence t h e or der of im p lem en t at ion. I t ' s cr it ical t h at t his infor m at ion be capt u red on t he car d. Ot h er t ech niq ues can cr eat e a m or e reliable schedule. The f ir st is t o add t im e t o each it er at ion f or changes t hat ar e id en t if ied dur in g an it er at ion rev iew . One f eat ur e car d ent it led " Rewor k and Cont ingency " is p laced in each it er at ion. I ' ve oft en seen plan s w it h inspect ion or r eview t ask s but wit hout any t im e allot t ed f or t he ch an ges t hat arose f rom t hose r eviews! At t he end of each it er at ion , an agile hr ougofh Contents sev eral quick r ev iew s, b ot h cu st omer and t echnical. Th e plan nin g p hases of som e •pr oject goes t Table agile m et hods im ply t hat feat ur es are st ar t ed and f inished wit hin a sing le it erat ion . Ex per ience sh ows t hat Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s m ost f eat u res act ually ev olv e ov er t w o or t h ree it erat ion s as cu st omer f ocus g rou ps p rov id e feedback . By Jim Highsmit h I nclu din g a rew ork and cont ing en cy " feat ur e" car d in each it er at ion ( 10 % + of t he ef for t sch ed uled for t he it er at ion) pr ovides t im e for changes t h at are inev it able, even t houg h t he det ails ar en 't kn own . Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

A second t echn for Pu b Dat e: Apr il iqu 0 6, e 2 00 4 incr easing t he r eliab ilit y of t h e schedule, part icular ly wit h hig h ex plorat ion- fact or pr ojectI s, is 0t o32set asid e one or mor e " em pt y " it er at ions at t h e end of t he p roj ect . These bu ff er s ar e used SBN: 1- 219 77 -5 t o accom m odat e chang es, new feat ur es, or ot her pr oject alt erat ions. Alt er nat ively, feat ur es assigned t o Pag es: 31 2 t he last it erat ion or t w o should b e t hose t hat can be dr opp ed if necessary . A final poin t about r elease plann ing needs t o be made. Desp it e su perf icial app ear an ces, t his is not pr escr ipt iv e p lanning. Ev en t h ough a f ull r elease plan w it h f eat ur es assig ned t o each it er at ion m ay look pr escr ipt iv e, t he plan is subj ect t o rev iew and r ev ision at t he en d of each it er at ion an d milest one. " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School

Component- or Business Activity-Level Planning and Reporting

" This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es For lar ger igor p rojous ect s, feat e-anagem level plan g is on t oo at help least us f ormmakan cust om d Agilemedium met hodtso and proj ecturm ennin t . Not ly fdine oesgrained, t his book e ysense of ers p rojan ect m anagers. I n in autt hom devwelopm , for p le, ent a p ar s ex plosion ( a t but y pe itof' s FBS) f or an en good t ir e car anagement is ot cuiv rreent or ld ofent it er at ivex e, am in crem al tAgile m et hods, an allar ound cont r ead!ain " s t h ousan ds of sm all p ar t s. Sim ilar ly , a lar ge sof t war e applicat ion m ay cont ain t h ousan ds of f—Ly eat ur WhileSr t h. eVP dev ent eam nyeeds t o p lan an d d eliv er at a det ail lev el, cust om er s and nnes. e Ellen, & elopm CI O, D TEtEnerg m anagers can be mor e ef fect iv e at a coarser lev el of gr an ular it y . " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of Iprn oject su ch managem sit uat ion s,ent a .prJim act's iceb ook d er ivhas ed pfrrov omided t h e wor k vof DeLuca, a ser iceJef t of all of us. "one of t he aut hor s of Feat ure- Dr iv en Dev elopm ent ( FDD) , can help. The FDD ap proach r elies on a g ranu lar feat ur e hierar ch y. I n a cu st omer —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. r elat ionsh ip m an ag em ent ( CRM) applicat ion d ev elopm ent pr oject , t h e hier arch y m igh t be business " Theect w orarldeaof(Sales) pr oduct dev elopmact ent m ore d yn amfeat ic and t ain.e Man mor anyag er s cop subj , business iv itisy b( ecom Salesing Analysis), and ur e uncer ( Generat a Tery rit Sales b y e by r einf orcing ocesses, ent at ion or hierar f ur t her s. This w ork in g. Body Highsm h p Pr oduct Reppr ort ) . For anadding au t omdocum obile pr oject , t,he ch yhoning m ig ht cost b e plat f or misn't ( SUV Tr uck ) , gitrou ly guides int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it sf eat t heurteim( Const es." r uct t he Sh if t Lev er) . DeLuca uses a park ing (brDrillian iv ettrain ) , comus ponent ( Transm ission) , and —Prdiagram est on G., as Smillust it h, rpr Newe Pr oduct Dy nam coau hor , Dev eloping oduct in Half t h e Tim e lot atincipal, ed in Figur 6 .7 , t o plan andics/ r ep ort tat t he comp onentPr(h ar dwsare) or business act iv it y ( business soft w are) lev els. Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in ourshnex ectf.orJim Highsm it h wh y des APMt wsho ould in subj everect y mareas anager' s t oolkit t h oroug Figur e 6y.7 owst pa roj plan a CRM sy st emshtows hat inclu b usinbe ess ( Sales Man, ag em enthly addr Mar essing t he) quest ionen s prbusiness oject m an agiver s r aise abou t Ag ile ed ap pr es. wit Hehin syst em at t rodject uces and k et ing and sev act it ies, each r epresent asoach a box each ofically t hosein sub t he fiveAPMAnaly fr amsis, ew or t hen inpresent specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part . e areas ( e.phase g. , Sales Prk, ospect g, and sTerr it ory Managem ent under Sales Man ag emicip entan ) . tTh Cov erage includes: nu mb er s in parent h eses u nder t he act iv it y n am es indicat e t he num ber of det ail f eat u res ident ified f or t hat act iv it y ( e. g. , 18 for Sales Analy sis) , an d t h e dat e at t he bot t om of t he box indicat es t he m ont h and y ear w hen t hat act iv it y w ill b e com plet ed. Large ap plicat ions, like t hose f or CRM, m ig ht have 30 t o 50 act iv it ies Sixerpr of Agile oject ag em ent t o planning, t he cust om er t eam is heav ily inv olv ed in and sev alinciples t h ousand feat urPr es. I n tMan his appr oach schedulin g at t he com pon en t or act ivit y lev el, while t he d et ailed sch ed uling at t h e feat ur e lev el is left t o How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies t he en gin eer ing t eam ( w it h in volv em ent fr om cust om er s w ho m ay h av e d et ailed prod uct or cust om er r esou rce schedu ling kn owledge) . This " t w o- t ier " appr oach t o plan nin g can be v er y eff ect iv e. I t gives t he Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong cust om er t eam a depend ab le and r eliable planning mechanism and t he d ev elop ment t eam som e f lexibilit y. [ 10] Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " [ 10]

I n FDD ( for soft war e) , DeLuca br eak s the t echnology domain into User I nterface, Database, and System s I nter face

Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't featur es. Scheduling these featur es is pr im ar il y the r esponsibil ity of t he development team , whi ch schedules them as

r equir ed by the customer's scheduli ng of business act ivi ties. For i ndustr ial pr oducts, t her e could be simi lar cat egori es of APM's fiv efeatur phases: Enwere vision, Speculat e, techni Adaptcal , Close technology es t hat scheduled pr ime,ar Exp il y bylor the team .

pract ices, including Pr oduct and Projscheduled ect Dat a Sheet I n t h eAPM Figur e 6 .7 ex am ple, t h et he Pr osp ect ingVision act iv itBox y has been f or com plet ion in Ju ne 2 004. Based on depend en cies, r esou rce av ailabilit y , and ot her f act or s, t he developm en t t eam m ig ht sch ed ule Lev erPr agin you skills Agile env ir in div idual ospgect ingr PMI f eat ur es ininAp ril, May , onm and ent Junse. The f eat ur es g o t hr oug h t h e same det ail plan nin g,

dev elopm ent , and r eview pr ocess dur ing t h eir scheduled it erat ion as p rev iou sly descr ibed. So, f or Day Day Up > exam ple, if t h e dev elopm ent t eam sch ed uled a

Finally , t eam m em ber s sign up for f eat u res or act iv it ies based on t heir skills and / or desir es. I n som e pr oject s t eam m em bers sig n u p f or imp lem en t ing w hole feat ur es; in ot her s t h ey sign up f or act iv it ies w it hin feat ur es ( an d som eone else sig ns u p t o m ake su re t he w hole feat ur e is com plet ed) . Not ice t hat t he r elevant w ords are " signed up for " n ot " assign ed t o" ( i. e., by t h e pr oject manager ) . Taking on t he r esp onsibilit y f or get t in g t he w ork done r ein for ces each in div idual' s com m it m ent t o t h e pr oject an d t her eb y cont r ib ut es t o building a self - org an izin g t eam . Som e t eam s m ay not hav e t he ex perience or self disciplin e t o car ry t his sign - up off , bu t t h e pr oject m anager 's an d t eam 's ab ilit y t o m ak e it wor k is a g ood in dicat or of t h eir m at ur ing int o an eff ect iv e, ad ap t iv e t eam . •

Table of Contents

Of t en in wor k shops or pr esent at ions t he inevit able quest ion arises, " Well, w hat happens if n o one sign s Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s up f or a par t icular t ask ?" or " What happ en s w hen someone wit h t he w ron g sk ill set signs up for a t ask or By JimurHighsmit h is n ot capable of deliv er in g?" Team s t h at are just learn ing t h e pr ocess m igh t need t o b e f eat e t h at he coached w it h a gent le, "We d on't leav e t he plann ing m eet ing un t il all t ask s ar e t aken. " Wit h ex per ienced selfPu - disciplined blisher: Add ison t eam Wesley s, t h e quest ion n ev er com es up—t hey und er st and t ask - lev el plann ing and t he expPu ect t hat all2 00 t ask b at Dation e: Apr il 0 6, 4 s w ill be cov ered. I n t h e secon d case, t he pr oject m anager w ould " nu dge" t h e t eam m em ber o a77diff I SBN: 0- 32int 1- 219 -5 er ent assignm ent , p ossibly pairing t he inexp er ien ced per son w it h som eone else. Pag es: 31 2

First Feasible Deployment Since t her e are significant b en ef it s t o ear ly p rod uct d ep loy m en t , one t hin g a pr oduct t eam can do is det ine a it f irhstis feasible ent ( FFD) ; [ s12]who t hat is,helping t he firstusit er at ionstin t he prod cou ld k in " Jimerm Highsm on e of adeploym f ew m odern w rit er are under an w d hich t he new n at uuct re of wor pot ent ially be d ep loy ed. For ex am ple, a com pany m ig ht b e able t o d ep loy early v ersions of a pr oduct t o t he kn owled ge econom y . " k ey cust omin, er sAssist who an hav ask g f or a p rodu ct . The cust om er s u nder st an d t h at t he prod uct —Rob Aust t ePrbeen ofessor , in Harv ardsuch Business School only has cer t ain feat ur es, but t hey ar e willin g t o w ork wit h t hat lim it ed f unct ionalit y. For t h e dev elopm ent "t eam, This isear t he anagem book all en been w aithelp ing for he uct book t hat eff ect iv ely com binent es has ly proj d ep ect loy mmen t m ightenbrt ing in we' b otve h rev ue and ful —t p rod f eed back. Early deploym Agile met hod igor ous projial ect m anagem Not onment ly d oes t his m ak of p rojs.ect cert ain b en ef its sand but r also pot ent cost s, and hen ight . deploy cost s wbook ould help off setussom e eofsense t he benefit m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! "[ 12] For soft war e pr oducts, this fir st feasibl e deploym ent is often called a " release candidate." —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y Team s cont em plat ing an early deploym ent st rat egy n eed t o t hin k about it dur in g init ial r elease p lanning, f eat u arebsch uling m ay be imp ed. Forof ex amp le, an ly ed m epovem loy m en r at m ig ht sudisciplines ggest "as Finally ookedt hat r econciles t he act passion t he Agile Sofear t war entt st wit h eg t hey needed of schedulin g all of t he f eat u res in a par t icular ar ea ear ly such t hat t h e pr oduct w ould be rich enou gh in t hat pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " one ar ea R( t o oy d ep loy . I n t he absence of anWor earkly ent st rat egy , imp lem en t ing f eat u res acr oss —Neville ) Singham , CEO, Th ought s, deploym I nc. f unct ional ar eas m igh t w ork as w ell or even bet t er. Early deploy ment and bet a t est st r at egies also need t"oThe be wconsidered t oget dev her .elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by or ld of pr oduct r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h I t er at ivt ely dguides ev elopm es ernat deployable of taimpes." rod uct , w hereas incr em ent al dev elopm ent act u ally br illian usent int ocreat an alt ive t hatpieces f it s t he deploys pieces of t he pr odu ct . I n som e t y pes of soft w are d tev elop ment —Webasedssyst em s,t hfeorTim e —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau hor , Dev eloping Prboduct in Half one—each it erat ion can be an incr em en t al d ep loy m en t . Wit h early deploym ent of part ially com plet ed pr oduct s, of eart ly en'suelead caning boost ROI d sear ly f eed fr om cust omeerand s can en hance t hen eed t o use Now , one her ev f ield ex pert s ,bran ing t oget h er back all t he k now ledg resour ces y ou dev elopm ent dur ing sub seq uent it erat ions. Ot her pr oduct s will b e diff icult t o par t ially deploy. APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkitFor , t h oroug hly exam ple, if tahecomp et ion it ors has a pr oduct m ark et w it h ile a cer t ain capabilit , it m ayatnically ot beinfeasible to addr essing quest pr oject m an agon er st he r aise abou t Ag ap pr oach es. Heysyst em t rod uces [ 13] And needless t o say , it w ould b e in ad visab le t o deploy y our pr odu ct un t il it has comp ar able cap ab ilit y . t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . deploy a pincludes: ar t ial air plan e. Cov erage [ 13]

On the other hand, Ken Delcol notes that " wai ting for a full- featur ed pr oduct can be a m istake. Part ial deploym ent for ces t o ident w hich t he feat ures ar e ent most im por tant to your custom er s. Most softw ar e pr oducts have w ay t oo Six pryou inciples ofifyAgile Profoject Man ag em m any featur es that the cust om er r ar el y uses. Par ti al deploy ment when the com pet ition has a com plete pr oduct may allow you t o lear n som ething about the customer that you and the competiti on do not know."

How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies

So ident ify ing t he FFD it er at ion pr ovides b ot h t he engineering an d cu st omer t eam s w it h an idea of w hen Put uct t ing might cust om at prof t he itcen t erd of youed r pr w here hey t he prod firers st be ab ly ep loy . I oject f t he , FFD is t tow ar dbelong t he end of t h e pr oject , it indicat es a pot ent ial sch ed ule risk or m ay even call int o q uest ion t he feasibilit y of t he proj ect it self. Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't

Estimating

APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close

I n n ear ly ev ery present at ion or w or ksh op, I g et t he q uest ion, " How do you est im at e an ag ile pr oject ?" APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet The basic answ er is " Using t he sam e t echniques you alr ead y emp loy . " Ther e are t hree su bt let ies un derlying t he g " hyou ow rt oPMI est imat uest ion: Lev er agin skillse"inqAgile env ir onm ent s

How t o est im at e t he u nk now n

< Day Day Up >

How t o est im at e by f eat u res r at her t han act iv it y How t o do p rog ressiv e est im at ion Fir st , sin ce ag ile m et hods ar e of t en u sed f or hig h ex plorat ion- fact or pr oject s, t he cr it ical est im at ing qu est ion becom es " How d o y ou est im at e t he u nk now n?" and t h e answer is " You can't . " Wh en t h er e are un kn owns, you ar e guessin g, n ot est im at in g—and it ' s t h e best w e can do. Th is is one r eason w hy t ime en vofiew ed as con st rain t s, not est im at es, in agile pr oject s. Agile or ganizat ions lear n t o liv e •and cost ar e oft Table Contents w it h un cer t aint y rat her t h an t r ying t o demand cert aint y in a fast - changing w orld. Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit Second, ag ileh pr oject s

ar e plan ned by f eat ur es, w hereas m any p roj ect m an ag er s may b e m ore fam iliar w it h t ask- b ased est im at ing . These m anagers have t o lear n t o app ly t h eir exp er ience t o est im at ing t ask s blisher: Wesley f or Pu each featAdd ur ison e. For ex amp le, r at her t han est im at e requ ir em ent s gat hering for an ent ire proj ect , t hey w ill be est Pu bim Datat e:ing Apr ilit 0on 6, 2 a 00f4eat ur e- by -f eat u re basis. Team s m emb er s w ho hav e spent sev eral day s ident ify in g f eat ur es and0- 32 assign I SBN: 1- 219ing 77 -5 t hem t o it er at ions usually h av e a mu ch b et t er u nder st an din g of t h e pr oduct t han t hose Pag who hav e r elied on t ask - based p lanning. So in most cases, feat ure- based plann ing pr ov ides bet t er es: 31 2 est im at es. Third , good pr oject manager s h av e alw ay s t r ied t o em ploy pr ogr essive est im at ion pr act ices ( e.g ., com plet ing requ ir em ent s definit ion pr ior t o est im at ing t h e rest of t he p roj ect ), but t hey ar e oft en st y mied by organizat ional dem ands for early nu mb er s f or bu dget in g pur poses. Team s pract icing APM can pr ov ide " Jimilar Highsm is fon of a pur f ewposes, m odern rit er siswho are helping st an t he new at u redeliver of wory k in sim est imitathes or esuch butw APM fun dament ally ausprunder ogressiv e dest imat ingn and t heocess kn owled econom " u al w ay pr odu ct infor m at ion unf old s ov er t im e. pr t hatge mirr or s t hey . act —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School As good proj ect m anagers using t ask - based p lanning k now , accum ulat ing a pr oject est im at e fr om "det This is t est he im proj m anagem en ts book we' w ait for —t he book t hat ely com bin ailed atect es of eit her t ask or feat urve es all canbeen r esult in ing ov erest imat ing t he enteff ireect privoject . Mult ipes le Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect t echniques—bot t om up and t op d own , com parisons t o sim ilar pr oject s, u sing est im at in g t ools—can help m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an allar ound good t eams arr iv e at bet t er over all pr oject est imat es, b ut t h ey can 't m ak e u p f or un cer t aint y . Wh ile m ult iple rt echniques ead! " p rov ide a b et t er est imat e f or t he en t ir e pr oject , t eam m em ber est im at es should be used for —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . plan VP &. ICI O,imp D TE y t eam d ev elop ment and cohesion t hat t eam m em bers be t he next it er at ion t is ortEnerg ant for r esp onsible, and accou nt able, for t h ese ear ly it erat ion plans. As pr oject it erat ions p rogr ess, t he t eam " Finally ook t hat t heim passion of tthe he next Agile itSof t war m ovem ent witalso h t he of m emb eras bsh ould getr econciles bet t er at est at in g f or er at ion,e wh ich should imneeded prov e t hdisciplines e est im at es . Jim.'s b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " fpr oroject t he rmanagem est of t h eent pr oject —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. When est im at ing high ex plor at ion- fact or p roj ect s, usin g d ist r ib ut ion cur v es for est im at es can help " Theywone—developm or ld of pr oductendev elopm ecom d ynex am ic and uncer t ain.t he Man m anof aguerncer s cop e tby ever t t eam ment embiserbs, custing om m er ore s, and ecut ives—assess imypact t ain y rand einfrisk orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h . For ex amp le, f or a giv en pr odu ct scope, a skew ed dist r ibu t ion cur ve wou ld show t h e cum ulat iv e br obabilit illian t ly yguides userint an aaltrange ernat ive t hat s t hecutrv imees." pr of deliv in go on of dat es.f itThe m ig ht sh ow t hat t he pr obabilit y of hit t in g t he —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ t hor , Dev eloping oduct s in Half t arg et dat e is 7 5% , w hile t h e pr obabilit y of hit t in g t h e coau t arg et dat e p lus t wo mPront hs is 85% . t h e Tim e Nowproj , one t he f ield in 's lead s br ing ir s es t oget h er t all k now ledgbers e and cesf eat y ou eedWhile t o use As ect of s increase size,ing estex impert at ion requ m ore hant he t eam m em estresour im at ing ur nes. in m y our nex t ap roj ect . Jim Highsm h shlong ows wh y APM ould tbe in ever m anager' s tleast oolkitfor , t h oroug hly tAPM eams ay have reasonable id ea of ithow it will t ak esht hem o dev elopyfeat ur es ( at addr t he s pr oject m an s r aiseunabou t Ag ile eapt hpreoach Heinsyst t rodinuces it er atessing ions ear ly quest in t heion proj ect ) , t hey w ag ill er usually derest imat w orkes. load volvem ed at inically coor in dinat g w it h t he fivephase fr am ewin orcrk,eases, t hen present pr ov ensom t ools f oresever y pr an tple, . ot her t eam s. AsAPM t eam size p rod uctsivspecific, it y decreases, et im dr am at oject ically .part Foricip ex am in Cov war erage includes: soft e dev elopm ent a sing le sm all t eam w it h good t ools m ig ht ach ieve a pr oduct iv it y r at e of 50 f unct ion p oint s ( a sizing m easur e) per st aff mon t h, w her eas a 100 -p er son t eam wou ld be h igh ly u nlik ely t o ach ieve ev en one- half of t h at . Un derst anding in dust r y nor m s and using soft w are t ools in est im at ing Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent can p rov ide t eams w it h sanit y check s on t eam est imat es. Ev en t he b est t eam is unlik ely t o deliv er a pr oduct in tonet he on t imemer e t hat has ev erdevelopm done it ben ef or How o caphalf it alize ginany g none ew pr oduct t te. echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong

Scope Evolution

Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em "

APM ap proaches scop ent realist ically . hich Scope cr eep isn't t he pr oblem , ev en t hou gh m an y Which p roj ect s weillmban enag ef itemf rom APM—an dw w on't obser ver s lam ent t he p roblems w it h escalat ing r eq uir ement s. Realit y is mor e com plex t han an adm onit ion t o "avAPM's oid scope handle.Speculat Som e scope are, inex pensiv e b ut valuable. Som e scop e fiv e creep" phases:can En vision, e, Expch loran e,ges Adapt Close changes ar e ex t ensiv e and exp en siv e bu t cr ucial t o deliver in g cu st omer v alue. Of cour se scope ch an ges can b APM e detpract r im ent al t oincluding a proj ectt he if tPr hey are Vision ar bit rarBox y and t houg out Bu t in g en er al, scop e changes ices, oduct andill Proj ecthtDat a .Sheet t hat ar e incor porat ed t o m eet ev olv in g cu st omer r equirem en t s and un dert ak en w it h an und er st anding, Lev er aginof g you skills env irincr onm ent st he pr obabilit y of pr oject success. and appr oval, t heirr PMI im pact on int hAgile e pr oject ease

< Day Up Jim > At t he XP2 002 soft w are developm en t con ference in IDay t aly, Joh nson of t he St and ish Gr oup pr esent ed som e in t erest in g inf orm at ion r elat ed t o scope. Fir st , Johnson discussed t w o federally m andat ed st at e child w elfar e pr oject s—one in Florida and t h e ot her in Minnesot a. The Flor ida pr oject was begun in 19 90 w it h an origin al b udget of $32 m illion, a st af f of 10 0, and a d eliv ery dat e of 199 8. As of t he last r eview, t he proj ect w as est im at ed at $17 0 m illion and ex pect ed t o b e com plet ed in 200 5. Th e Minn esot a syst em , w it h t he sam e b asic goals, began in 19 99 an d f in ished in 20 00 wit h a st aff of 8 w ho ex pend ed $1 . 1 m illion. Ad mit t edly , many fact ors could b e r espon sible f or t he d if fer en ces, b ut a sig nif icant por t ion of t he diff erence w as at t r ibu t ed t o " gold p lat in g" r equirem en t s.

Gold p lat in g is a t yp e of scope cr eep t h at can b e a significan t pr oblem , as t he St an dish and ot her st ud ies • Table of Contents ( Jones 1 994) sh ow. Agile dev elopm ent en cour ag es change t hat arises f rom ev olv ing kn owledge, w hile at Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s t he sam e t im e it discourages t he g old plat ing and requ ir em ent s bloat t hat of t en occu r in t r ad it ional upJim Highsmit h fBy ront r eq uir ement s gat her ing . Johnson r ep ort ed on t wo ot her St and ish st udies ( one d one f or Dup ont and anot her gener al st udy ) . I n t h e f ir st , Dup ont est imat ed t hat on ly 2 5% of t he f eat u res im plem ent ed in it s softPu war e applicat w er e act ually needed. Th e St andish st udy est imat ed t hat 4 5% of soft w are f eat ures blisher: Add isonions Wesley w erPu e bn Dat ev er used, and e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4only 20 % w ere used of t en or alw ay s. Th is p oint s out anot her r eason w hy par t ial deploym ent can b e in st rum ent al in ROI gener at ion—it m ay k eep y ou fr om bu ild ing cost ly but un used I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 f eat ur es! I f y ou w ere ab le t o cut pr oject sizes in h alf and proj ect t eam s in h alf, wou ldn 't t hat g reat ly Pag es: 31 2 speed d ev elop ment and redu ce cost s at t he sam e t ime? Given t hese nu mb er s, it 's ir onic t hat m an y t radit ion al r equirem ent s- gat hering pr act ices decr y t he dr ead ed " f eat ur e cr eep" as a m ajor prob lem in d ev elop ment . I w ould cont end t h at it ' s f ast er an d ch eaper t o let f eat u res ev olv e ov er t he life of t he pr oject ( wit hin som e lim it s, of cour se) t han t o h allucinat e about w " Jim hat Highsm t h e requ it hir ement is on esofare a fin ewt he m odern b eg innwing rit erand s who t hen are build helping t hemusw under it hout stconst an d ant t he cust new om n ater u re invofolvwor emken int . A t hest rat kn owled egy ofgeb uilding economminimu y." m f eat ur es and ( a v ery im por t an t " and" ) a capabilit y t o easily an d r—Rob easonably Aust in, adapt Assist t o an chang t Pr ofessor e can b, eHarv v er yard p rof Business it able. School Agile " This develop is t he proj m en ectt is m about anagem focu en ts book and balance—f we' ve all been ocusinwgaiton ingt he forpr —toject he book 's k eyt hat vision eff ect and iv ely goals com anbin d fes or cing Agile hod sd and r igortous m anagem . Not on.lyAgile d oesdev t his bookent help us m sense of p roj ect har d tmet r adeoff ecisions hat proj bringect balance t o t hene t pr oduct elopm plans byakf e eat ure, in cust m anagement om er t ermininolog t h is cu y, rrt hereby ent w orcon ld of cen it er t rat ating iv e,t he in crem p lanning ent al pr Agile ocess m et on hods, som et but hing it ' s t an he cu all-staromer ound can good relat e tr oead! an d " p riorit ize easily . Becau se plan s are ad just ed each it er at ion based on act ual dev elopm ent exp notSrsom or wyish es, nice- t o- hav e feat ur es are pushed in t o lat er it erat ion s and —Lyer nnien e ce, Ellen, . VPeone's & CI O,guesses D TE Energ are oft en elim inat ed com plet ely. " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of A 's scopeent sh ould byp cust om era value, f easibilit y an d cost , t he im pact on a pr prod ojectuct managem . Jim be 's bdriv ook en has rov ided ser v icet echnical t o all of us. " pr oduct ' s R( adapt y , and crit ical business —Neville oy ) abilit Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor kschedu s, I nc.le n eeds. I t should not b e held h ost ag e t o a plan dev eloped wh en our prod uct an d p roj ect k now ledge was st ill in it s inf ancy . " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by The ort it pr er ocesses, at ions in adding agile d ev elopment entat, ion comb w it hhoning end- of -it erat st omer m ak iteht he r einfsh orcing docum , orined f ur t her cost s. ion Thiscuisn't w orkr eviews, in g. Highsm br illian ent ire tteam ly guides —dev us elopers, int o ancust altom ernat er s, iveand t hatmfanagers—f it s t he t im es." ace realit y. We can t ak e a r equirem ent s d ocum en t and " est imG. at e" it willNew t ak ePr t ooduct develop and ics/ t estcoau t het hor code, or eloping we can Pr build a ssminall sett hofe feat —Pr est on Smhow it h, long pr incipal, Dy nam , Dev oduct Half Tim ur e es and m easur e how long it act ually t ook t o dev elop t hem . " Yes, w e est im at ed t hat we could imp lem en t 2 5 , one of tithe f ield 's bu lead ingrealit ex pert s bronly ing s deliver t oget hed er all k now ledg and resour ou n feed use fNow eat ur es t his erat ion, t in y, we 15 .t he Now w hat ?" e We n ow hav eces t o ydrop eat ut o res, APM st inaff y our nex p roj ect JimprHighsm it he.shNot ows APM be ininever y mect anager' oolkitis, st t hill oroug add , and/ ort ex t en d .t he oj ect t im e twh h aty w e dosht ould his early a p roj w hens tthere t im ehly essing t he s prappr ojectoaches m an agdelay er s r aise abou Ag iled ecisions ap pr oachunt es.il He emat at w ically t rod taddr o comp en sat e. quest Tr adition ional t hese dif fticult t he syst p oint hich inad ap tuces iv e t heion fivefr am ew or k, tthen present ov fen ever y tpr oject icip an t . act is phase nearlyAPM im p ossible. Shor - cy cle realit sy specific, check s k pr eep eattuools rit isf or fr om get ing out part of hand. Cov erage includes: Shor t it erat ions also k eep dev eloper s f ocused . Wit h a d eadlin e appr oach ing ev er y f ew week s, t he t endency t o " enhance" f eat u res d im in ishes. Th e pr ior it izat ion pr ev iously discussed emp hasizes r educin g Six ber pr inciples ofes Agile Pr oject ent t he num of f eat ur u ndert ak en.Man Sh ag ortem it er at ions t hen act t o lim it t h e size of t hose f eat ur es. Agile pr act ices incorp orat e ch an ge int o t he dev elopm ent pr ocess, w hile at t he sam e t im e redu cing pr oj ect size How cap itint alize emer gin n ew oduct ials. developm en t t echnologies by con st antto and enseonconcent r atgion onpressent Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong eat ing ad ap and t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly RiskCrAnalysis Mitigation

t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em "

Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't Since APM was d esigned t o h an dle hig h- risk , uncer t ain pr oduct developm en t p roj ect s, a separat e r isk analy sis m ay seem r edund an t . Redun dant or not , it is cr ucial t h at r isk analy sis and m it igat ion becom e an APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close in t egral par t of ev ery APM ph ase and p rocess. APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Unt il a final pr oduct em erg es, t he p rodu ct d ev elopm ent pr ocess is fu ndam en t ally one of gat h er in g and pr ocessing in forgmyou at ion. A pr oduct d esign Lev er agin r PMI skills in ' sAgile envevolv ir onmes entfrsom un derst and ing r eq uir em en t s and const r aint s an d

t he under ly in g science or engineering. "Will t his sp ecialized chip d o ev er y t hin g we sp ecified? Will t h is < Day Day Up > t it an ium piece p ass our st r ess t est s?" Pr oduct dev elopm ent con sist s of an swer ing hu ndr ed s, or ev en t hou san ds, of such qu est ions. Each answ er ed quest ion , each new p iece of in for m at ion, reduces t he r isk of pr oject failur e. Plann ing doesn' t elim in at e pr oject r isk s; con st an t gat h er in g of inf orm at ion sy st em at ically r educes t h em over t h e life of t he p roj ect . Gat hering in for m at ion cost s m oney , so w e w ant t o const ant ly ask what in for mat ion has t he hig hest v alue. Th e st r at egies w e emp loy t o gat her inf orm at ion should be g uid ed in p ar t by our r isk an aly sis—it 's an int egral par t of t he pr oduct dev elopm ent process and a cr it ical com pon en t of it er at ion planning. Rat her t han sum m ar ize wh at has b een w ell docum ent ed by ot h er s abou t r isk m anagem ent , I w ill use m at erial t o discuss h ow APM add resses diff erent cat eg ories of r isk . I n Walt zing wit h Bear s, •som e exist in g Table of Contents tAgi heir book on soft war e risk m anagement , Tom DeMarco an d Tim List er id en t if y fiv e core risks t hat le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s dom inat e soft w are pr oject s: By Jim Highsmit h

1 .Pu blisher: I nherent schedule Add ison Wesley f law s Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

2 . Requirem ent s inf lat ion ( cr eep) I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

Pag ploy es: 31ee 2 t urn over 3 . Em

4 . Specif icat ion b reak down 5 . Poor pr odu ct iv it y (DeMarco an d List er 200 3) " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in Fir st , as t hese aut h ors poin t ou t , " The b est bang- p er - buck risk m it igat ion st r at egy we kn ow is t he kn owled ge econom y . " in crem ent al deliver y. " I nh er ent sch ed ule flaw s occu r w hen t h e size of t he pr odu ct t o be d ev eloped is —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School eit h er g rossly m isest im at ed or t he engineering t eam is giv en a dat e based on f ant asy r at h er t han r ealit y . For highly uncer pr oducten , ftailing o mve eetalla been schedule planfor m—t ay he notbook be at hat flaweff but t hebin es " Thisa is t he proj ectt ain m anagem book t we' w ait ing ectm iver elyelycom im p ossibilit y of schedulin g t h e unk now n. I n t hese cases, execut iv es and pr oduct mar ket ing ( an d t phe Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of roj ect engineer ing t eam ) h av e t o und er st and w hat t he pr ocess of ex plor at ion inv olves—and wh at are m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar oundreasonable good and r ead!unr " eason ab le ex pect at ions. Wh ile APM add resses t he issue of sch ed ule flaw s in a nu mb er of mat er ial w ay s, pr ocess—ag orO,otD her —Ly nnneoEllen, Sr . VP ile & CI TEwise—can Energ y m ake up for an org an izat ion bent on t he p olit ics of fant asy . APM t ech uest hat t hatr econciles ad dr ess schedule risk of are: " Finally a niq b ook t he passion t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville ) Singham , CEO, in Thpought Worand k s, est I nc. HeavR(y oy t eam inv olv ement lanning im at ing " The w orly ld fof prback oductondev elopm is byecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by Ear eed deliver y ent v elocit r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us intreo tan alt ernat it s tand he t dept im es." Const ant pr essu o balan ce tive he tnhat um fber h of feat ur es w it h schedule const r aint s —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Close int er act ions bet w een engineer in g and cust om er t eams Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in . Jim sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly Eary our ly ernex ror tdpetroj ectect ion/ corrHighsm ect ion titohkeep a clean w or king pr oduct addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces Requirem ent s cr eep frmam ustewfirst dif fer en t iatsedspecific, fr om r eq s evolut ion. ir em enticip s evolut t he five- phase APM or k,be t hen present pruir ovement en t ools f or ever y Requ pr oject part an t . ion is in everage it ab le includes: in ex plor at ion proj ect s; in f act it is desirable, becau se t he cost of change rem ains low in ag ile Cov pr oject s, and t h er efor e r eq uir ement s evolut ion rem ains cost eff ect iv e. Requirem ent s ev olu t ion is a r at ional pr ocess in w hich t h e dev elopm ent and cust om er t eams are con st an t ly ev olv ing t he r equirem en t s pr inciples Agile er Prin oject Manconst ag emraint ent s su ch as t im e and cost . Requ ir em ent s ev olut ion is a of t heSix pr oduct wh ileofconsid g ot her j oint eff ort in w hich all p ar t ies part icip at e in decid ing on feat ur es. Requirem ent s cr eep occur s w hen t here cap emer n ew oducts developm t tin echnologies isn 't aHow j ointt oeff ortit,alize wh enoncust omgin ersg or devpreloper add feat urenes discr im inat ely . Requirem ent s g row t h has acquired a negat ive connot at ion because of t h e high cost of ch an ge in m any d ev elop ment eff ort s. Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Elim in at e or gr eat ly r ed uce t hat barr ier , and evolv ing r eq uir em en t s becom e a v irt u e, not a vice. Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Em ploy ee t urn over , par t icularly losing a k ey per son , r em ain s a r isk fact or f or an y pr oduct dev elopm ent eff ort Which . The im pact t uillrnov b e APM—an r ed uced d b ywcross p roj ectof s w b ener ef itcan f rom hich wt rainin on't g ( w hich r arely happens) an d docum ent at ion ( w hich con vey s v ery lit t le of t he t acit k now ledge t hat is so crit ical t o su ccess) . Ag ile pr oject s have - in t u rnov er m it Speculat igat ion because e em,phasis APM's fiv built e phases: En vision, e, Exp lorofe,t hAdapt Close on collabor at ion. I n sof t war e dev elopm ent , f or ex am ple, t he u se of pair prog ram m ing has demon st rat ed bet t er kn owledge sh ar in g w it hinAPM t he pract t eamices, , w hich r ed uces t hePrim pactVision of t ur nov ( William s an d aKessler including t he oduct Boxerand Proj ect Dat Sheet 2 003 ) . SpecifLev icaterion b reak down sw t he cuirstonm om er s sor p rod uct m anager s f ail t o agr ee on specif icat ion s. agin g you r PMIoccur skills inhen Agile env ent

For ex am ple, w hen an int er nal I T pr oject h as 10 cust om er depart m ent s an d t hey can't decid e on business < Day Day Up > pr ocess or bu siness r ules issu es, t he specif icat ion p rocess b reaks dow n. Unf ort unat ely , in m any ser ial pr oject s, t h e pr oject cont in ues un der t he f alse assum pt ion t hat t h e decisions w ill be made somet ime lat er . The r esult of indecision—conf lict ing specificat ions or mu lt iple near - dup licat e feat ur es—can have dev ast at ing result s f or t he proj ect . APM lessen s t his r isk by insist ing on a pr oduct m an ag er role. The pr oduct m an ag er , aided b y t he ex ecut iv e sp onsor, is charg ed w it h eit h er st op pin g sp ecificat ion br eak dow n or halt ing t he proj ect u nt il t h e specif icat ion p rocess can be f ix ed. Cr eat ing a v iable specif icat ion d ecision- m ak ing pr ocess is t he responsibilit y of t he cu st omer t eam . DeMarco an d List er' s f in al r isk of poor pr oduct iv it y ar ises f r om t hr ee sour ces: having t he w r ong people on t• he t eam , h av Table in g a oft eam t hat d oesn 't wor k w ell t oget her , and poor m or ale. The APM pr act ices of g et t ing Contents tAgi heleright people on t he t eam , coach ing and t eam dev elopm ent , and f orcing realit y on t he p roj ect help P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s of fset t h ese risks. Sim ilarly, usin g sh ort it er at ions t o f ocus on f eat u res, f eat u re d ep t h, and f eat u re v alu e By Jim Highsmit h of t en r ed uces t he t ot al am oun t of w or k on a pr oduct , wh ich cont r ibu t es t o ROI , if n ot d ir ect ly t o pr oduct iv it y . Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Colleag uee:Ken cont end s t echnology r isk should b e added t o t h e list f or har dw ar e pr oj ect s, an d Pu b Dat Apr ilDelcol 0 6, 2 00 4 colleagI ue na Fit zger SBN:Don 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 ald alway s includes it on her list of risk s f or soft w are p roj ect s. The issue in bot h cases Pag is tes: hat31t2echn ology can 't just be assum ed. On some pr oject s a hig h level of t echnology r isk is appr opr iat e, w hile on ot her s it m ig ht bord er on f oolishness. I n add it ion, NPD exp er t Robert Cooper list s f our k ey f ailur e ar eas for n ew p rod uct s: poor mar ket ing r esearch , t echnical p roblems, insu ff icien t m ark et in g ef for t , and bad t im ing. Coop er ' s list indicat es t hat m uch of t he su ccess or failur e of a n ew pr oduct is out sid e t he eng ineering t eam' s cont rol. Howev er it ' s " Jim it hscope is on eofofwh a at f ewt he m odern rit er s whoineering are helping usoduct underm stan anag d tem heent new n at u ld re be of wor k in st ill wHighsm it hin t he en t ir e w t eam—eng and pr —shou t he knant owled ge econom ." const ly exam in ing . Iyncrem ent al deliver y m ig ht m it ig at e some of t hese r isk s, but in g en er al t he —Rob Aust in, process Assist anitt self Pr ofessor Business dev elopm ent w on' t ,mHarv ak e ard up for poor mSchool ar k et ing r esearch un less p er iod ic rev iew s are held w it h t he act u al ex t ernal cust om er ( Cooper 20 01) . [ 14] " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es 14] Ahod Agile [met s and r igorfor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his help m ak good r efer ence r isk managem ent in pr oduct development is ( Sm it hbook and Mer r itt us 2002) . e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good Agile r ead! "develop m en t t ar get s r isk y pr oject s—t h ose wit h hig h levels of un cer t ain t y and short deliv er y schedules. Un derst and&ing t heDrisks, wit hin —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP CI O, TE Energ y t he cont ex t of a part icular p roj ect , requ ir es exp er ien ce. Mount ain clim ber s w ho get int o t he m ost t rou ble ar e t hose wh o don 't und er st and t he r isk s. Exp er ienced m ount aineer s k tnow heir lim it s;t he t hey hav e of a six sense abt war out ewm hen t o ent con twit in ue ecause get t ing t oof " Finally a b ook hat rteconciles passion t het hAgile Sof ovem h ton—b he needed disciplines tpr heoject t op managem of maj or peak requ es push oneself eam o t"he edge, b ut not ov er t he ed ge—an d ent . sJim 's birook has ing p rov ided a and ser v one' ice t so tall of tus. w hen t o tR( ur oy n back. Proj ect t eamTh s ought and mWor an ag er Isnc. n eed t o be v isionary an d p osit ive, and at t he sam e t im e, —Neville ) Singham , CEO, k s, br ut ally hon est about t he r isk s. For pr oject t eam s op er at in g at t he edg e on hig hly risky pr oject s, t her e " Theno w or oflaic pr oduct dev is brecom ing m oreirdes yntam and t ain. Man m anback ag erfsrom cop tehe by are f orldmu an swer s telopm o m anent ag ing isk . APM requ he ic p roj ectuncer m anager t o styand r einf orcing ocesses, docum at ion , ororf urt he t her s. answ This isn't w ork in g. pr ocess andprconst ant lyadding ask quest ion sent and m onit sithoning uat ion tcost o get ers sooner ratHighsm her t h anit hlat er . br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." Risk m an ent a incipal, t r ick y prNew oposit for Dy p roj ectics/ m anagers. one h an d,Prt oduct hey msuin st Half be realist ic ab —Pr est onag G.em Sm it h,is pr Pr ion oduct nam coau t hor ,On Dev eloping t h e Tim e out t he dangers facing t he p roj ect —d en ial leads t o sur pr ise, w hich lead s t o last - m inu t e scram bling and , one of On t het he f ieldot'sher lead ingd,ex pert ant s brlying s tpin oget er r all k now e and ces yeou use fNow ir ef ig ht in g. h an const har g hon isk st he can demledg oralize a tresour eam . Ther aren eed so mt oany APM in yquest our nex roj ect pr . Jim Highsm it h shent ows wh yitAPM ould exact be in ly ever m anager' t oolkit t hWhat orougare hly diff icult ionts pabout oduct dev elopm : Will sell?shWhat do yt he cust omsers w an,t ? addr essing t he ion Can s pr oject m an s rtaise ap pr es. t ar Heget syst em?atWill ically t rod uces our com pet it orsquest doing? w e d eliv eragiteron im e?abou Can t wAg e ile bu ild it oach f or t he cost t hein new telect he fivephase fr am k, t hen s specific, f or ever y pr oject tpart an t . r onic cont rAPM ol syst emew b eorready in present t im e? And on and pr onov . en Thet ools p roj ect leader needs o pricip oj ect Cov conferage idenceincludes: in t he posit ive out com e of t he pr oject w it hout glossing ov er t he dang er s. Lik e m ost of t h e ot her aspect s of lead er ship, r isk m anagem ent is a delicat e balancin g act . Agile Pr oject ag em entuse of it er at iv e, f eat ur e- based dev elopm ent in and of SelectSix ion pr ofinciples an agileofappr oach, par tMan icu larly t he it self, reduces som e risks an d incr eases ot h er s. For exam ple, APM p roj ect s adv ocat e less up - fr ont How t ochit capect it alize g n ews pr oduct developm t t echnologies plan nin g, ar ur e, on andemer requgin ir ement gat her ing becauseeninfor m at ion is gat her ed f or t hese as t h e pr oject unf olds. Shor t p lanning and deliver y it er at ions redu ce t he r isk s of losing cust om er inv olv em en t , Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong w ast ing up- f ron t w or k as pr oject changes occu r, encou nt ering analy sis paraly sis, and delay ing r et urn s. On t h e flip sid e, t oo lit t le init ial plann ing increases t he risks of m aj or r ew or k du e t o ov ersight s and scope Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " oscillat ion d ue t o hur ried cu st omer int eract ion, p lus t he incr eased cost of f requent r ev iew s and chang es. Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't Ev ery prod uct develop m en t pr oj ect gat hers, an aly zes, an d g en er at es in for m at ion. Team s cond uct pr oduct v isionin ex ercises t hat b eg in t o con e t Adapt h e gat, her ing pr ocess. Prod uct designer s u se t he APM's fiv e gphases: En vision, Speculat e, cen Expt rat lor e, Close gat her ed r equirem en t s and const r aint s in for mat ion t o solve t he pr oblem of how t o build t h e pr oduct . Pr oduct developm en tincluding p roj ect s tgenerat e incr edib leBox am and ountProj s of ect in for m at ion—infor m at ion t hat need s t o APM pract ices, he Pr oduct Vision Dat a Sheet f unnel t hr oug h a syst em at ic, it erat iv e, f eed back - int ensiv e p rocess. Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

" A t ot ally predict able process will gener at e no inf orm at ion, " w rit es Donald Rein er t sen ( 1 997) , an exp er t in Day Day Up > in dust r ial pr oduct desig n. Reinert sen believ es t

Speculate Summary Pr oduct developm en t h ing es on managing in for m at ion an d h ow t hat inf orm at ion ev olv es ov er t he cou rse of a p roj ect as lear nin g t ak es p lace. This pr ogr ession of inf orm at ion r equires a fr amew ork , or mod el, t h at assist s in get t in g t he r igh t inf orm at ion t o t he r ig ht p eop le at t he r ig ht t im e, guides p roj ect par t icipant s, •and m onit or s Table of Contents r eal prog ress. Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

Ther are t hree By JimeHighsmit h

k ey act iv it ies t h at need t o be comp let ed p rior t o b eg inn ing f eat u re dev elopm ent —art iculat ing a p rodu ct v ision, d ef in ing t h e pr oject 's scope and const r aint s, an d cr eat ing an it er at iv e, feat ur e-b ased deliv er y plan. Th e last of t hese is t he p rim ar y deliv erable fr om t h e Speculat e Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley ph ase. Once t he release plan h as been com plet ed , ot her com m on proj ect m anagem en t planning Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 art ifact s—such as ex pendit ur e bud get s—can b e finalized . The fact is, w hen you get t he f eat u re list and 32 1- 219 77 -5 r eleaseI SBN: p lan0-done, t h e r est is relat iv ely easy ! Pag es: 31 2

While a Speculat e p hase m ay sound a lit t le, well, sp ecu lat iv e, in r ealit y t he p ract ices p resent ed in t his chapt er hav e pr ov en h igh ly r eliab le in ex t r act ing usefu l plann ing infor m at ion ear ly in dev elopm ent . Feat ur e-b ased plan nin g f or ces t he eng ineering and cust om er t eam s t o un derst and t he prod uct in way s t hat t ask - based p lanning r ar ely d oes. Wit h t he r eplann ing t h at occur s at t he end of it er at ions and m ilestHighsm on es, plans and t hea pf ew rodumctodern ev olvwerit aserinf orm at ionhelping is gained h rou gh exdper ent at and " Jim it h is on e of s who are us tunder st an t heimnew n ion at u re of const wor k ant in ft eedb ack . he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School < Day Day Up >

" This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Chapter 7. The Explore Phase I ndividual Perf or mance •

Phase: Ex plore Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

Pr act ice: Work load Management

By Jim Highsmit h

Pr act ice: Low - Cost Ch an ge Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Pr act ice: Coachin g and Team Dev elopm ent

Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 PrI SBN: act ice: Daily Team I n t eg rat ion Meet in gs Pag es: 31 2

Pr act ice: Part icipat or y Decision Mak in g Pr act ice: Daily I nt eract ion w it h t h e Cust om er Team Ex plore Sum m ar y " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in < Day Day Up > t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Individual Performance " How w as y our clim bin g t r ip last w eek end?" Her m an ask ed as May a answ er ed t he ph one. " Gr eat . I redpoint ed a 5. 12 b and f lashed an 1 1a," May a r esponded. •

Table of Contents

Agi le P r'tojhave ect M aanag nt: Cr e wh a ti ng ti ve said, Pr oduct s I ' ll assum e it 's good. I ' ll st ick t o g olf ," said Her m an . " I don cluem e eabout at Iynn ouovjaust but "ByNow t ell m e abou t em ploy ee per for m an ce. Wit h a f lex ible pr oject managem ent syst em lik e APM, how do Jim Highsmit h I m easu re p er f orm ance?" Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley " Well, my basic rule is m easu re ef fect iv e ef for t , n ot conf orm ance t o t he plan. The b est exam ple of t his is Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4m e. He play ed b ask et ball f or John Wooden at UCLA. Accor din g t o him , Coach was a st or y m y un cle t old SBN: ly 0- 32 1- 219 an incrIedib com pet77it-5 iv e m an w ho w an t ed t o win, b ut he nev er t alk ed abou t w in nin g. He f ocused on eff ort .Pag Accord es: 31 2ing t o Wooden, if ev ery one play s t o t heir pot ent ial, t hat ' s t he m ost he could ask. "

" But isn' t t hat t h e wr ong t hing? We alw ay s hear about how n eg at iv e it is wh en a com p an y focu ses on act iv it y rat her t h an r esu lt s. Wh at else is eff or t ex cep t act iv it y?" Herm an ask ed. " Mayb e, but you g ot t a r em em ber, Wood en 's t he best colleg e basket b all coach of all t im e, " said May a. "" Jim Highsm it hrief is on of end a f ewofmeach odern w rit er s who aret hhelping an bd est t hewnew n at udre wor When w e d eb at et he milest one, I ask e t eam us if wunder e d id st t he e could o. of Did w ek in twhe kn owled ge econom y . " ork hard? Did we w or k sm ar t ? Did ev er y one m ak e t he ef for t t o f ulf ill our goals?" —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " Yeah , and I bet ev ery one just says t hey did t heir b est . " " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met, hod and r igor projivect anagem t . Not on ly dpeople oes t his help us m ak e sense of p roj ect " Act ually by sf ocusing onous ef fect e efm for t r at herent han a plan, arbook e really m ore honest in t heir m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an allar ound assessm ent . As t hey adm it , t hey can alw ay s weasel ou t of a plan v ar iance, b ut eng ineer s t end t ogood be rbread! " hon est . I f t h ey slack ed of f a lit t le, t hey t end t o f ess up ." ut ally —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " I don 't t hin k t hat wou ld happen aroun d here, " Herm an replied. " Can' t t he t eam ju st u se 'w e did our best ' b ook tabilit hat r yeconciles t he t"oFinally shir k aaccount f or result s?"passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor "—Neville Sur e, w itR( h oy a lessdisciplin ed t eam. Her e, w ke's, r eI nc. accou nt able, " said May a. " The t eam pu t s in ex t r a eff ort , and t hey 'v e alw ays been h onest about m issing goals. Ear ly on, t eam s t end t o be opt im ist ic. Af t er an " The or ld is b ic. ecom inghave m ore am icand and—tuncer t ain. Man y mclosely an ag er w s ecop e by it er at w ion or of t w pr o, oduct t hingsdev getelopm mor eent r ealist You t o duyn nderst he k ey isn't how cam e to rmeinf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h eet ing schedule bu t how mu ch v alu e w e creat ed. " br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." Smyitou h, ag pr incipal, oduct Dyperf namorm ics/ance coau ton horm, yDev eloping Prman oduct s in Half t h e Tim e "—Pr So,est leton m eG.ask ain. HowNew d o IPrim pr ove t eam ?" Her asked. Now , one of t he for f ieldt h'se lead ing pert s braing t oget h erI all hef acilit k nowatledg e and y ouonn eed t oenuse " By being t here t eam . I ex find t hat lots of w hat d o tis e—sor t of resour k eep tces hin gs an ev APM ourmnex t perroj . Jimt eam Highsm ows sh ould be er in pressur ever y me,anager' t oolkitag , teh toroug k eel. in A yfew emb s ect of my t en dit h t osh r et r eatwh t oy tAPM heir cub es und and I sencour hem thly o addr t he quest pr oject er s rtaise Ag ile es. He emt hem. at ically k eepessing in t eract in g. As tion o hsow t o g etmt an he ag t eam o perabou for mt bet t erap , t pr heoach an swer is tsyst o ask Aftinert rod all,uces since t he APM ew present s specific, pr ov en t ools f ort oever y eprtoject part icip heyfive'r e t phase he ones w hofr am mak e or t hk, ingt hen s happ en , t hey 'r e t he ones w ho need mak h e change. " an t . Cov erage includes: " OK, got t a r un. Call y ou next w eek , " said Herm an. Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent


How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Phase: Explore A comp lex adapt ive syst em ( CAS) is a collect ion of agent s w ho exp lor e t o ach ieve a goal ( fit ness in a biological sen se) by int eract in g wit h each ot her according t o a set of r ules. A CAS exp er im ent s wit h alt er nat iv es, select s and execut es viable ones, com pares t h e r esu lt s ag ainst it s fit ness goals ( t he •sy st em ' s obj ect Table of Contents iv es), an d ad ap t s as n ecessary . Ex t end ing t his m et aphor t o a pr oj ect t eam , t he pr oj ect Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e a ti dim ng I nn a ti ve Prooduct s ant ly help t h e t eam ar t icu lat e and un derst and t he goal m anager' s j ob t ak ese nt: on Cr new enov sions—t const and con sthrain t s, t o help t he t eam int eract ef f ect ively, t o f acilit at e t he decision - mak in g p rocess, t o By Jimt he Highsmit ensur e appr opr iat e f eed back is being g at h er ed and incor porat ed int o t he next it er at ion, an d t o k eep scor e andPudeal witAdd h realit y w hen t h ing s go off t rack , as ev er y pr oj ect does. blisher: ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

The CAS m odel def ines a usefu l met aphor for a lead er ship- collab orat ion m anagem en t st y le, one t hat SBN: 032 177 -5( inn ovat ive) , r isk - t aking behav ior . Seen in t his light , t he k ey pr oj ect m an ag em ent encourIages em er219 gent es: 31e2 est ab lishin g a vision and creat in g a collab orat iv e w or k env ir onm ent . The pr act ices in t h is t asks Pag becom chapt er are focused on t he lat t er object ive. Th e pur pose of t he Ex plore phase is t o deliver t est ed, accep t ed f eat u res. Rat her t han concent r at e on t he t echn ical det ails of how t o accomp lish t h is goal, how ever , t he ag ile pr oject manager f ocuses on creat in g self- or ganizing, self- disciplin ed t eam s t hat can best deliv er on t he u lt im at e prod uct goal. " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in even ysom tMany he knindividuals, owled ge econom . " e in t he ag ile com mu nit y, t hin k agile pr oj ect m an ag em ent eq uat es t o less m anagement . I n m y ex perien ce, ,adHarv ap t iv e, Business leader shipSchool -collabor at ion m an ag em ent m ay be diff erent , but it —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor ard is cert ain ly n ot less t im e con sum ing . The people managem ent aspect s—decision m ak ing, coaching, in gmwanagem it h cu st omer s andwe' st ve akeholders—ar a significan t loadt hat on t eff he ect pr oject m anager' "f acilit This at ising, t he wor projkect en t book all been w aiteing for —t he book iv ely com bin es s Buck in gham and Cur tenCoff m anon( ly 199 9) wr it e,book b ased on us ex tm ensive researofchp roj ect t ime. met As aut s Marcus Agile hodhor s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem t . Not d oes t his help ak e sense ( inanagement t er v iew s w itinh tov 00 0wmoranagers t he lastent 25alyAgile ear s) ,m"et The m anager inside m h isercu80, rr ent ld of it erdur at iving e, in crem hods, but it ' sr ole an is all-t oarreach ound good reach ead! "em ploy ee and r elease h is unique t alen t s int o perf orm ance. " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y The proj ect m anager, in her r ole as coach and t eam builder , cont r ib ut es in six k ey w ay s t o pr oject success: " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. 1 . Focu sing t he t eam on d eliv ering r esult s " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by 2 . Mold ing a g rou p of indiv idu als int o a t eam r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." 3 . Dev eloping each in div id ual' s capabilit ies —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e 4 . Pr oviding t he t eam w it h r eq uir ed resour ces and rem oving r oad block s Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM y our nex t p roj ect . Jim 5 . in Coachin g t he cust om ers Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he phase amt eam ew or'sk,rht hen 6 . fiveOr chest r atAPM ing tfrhe yt h mpresent s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: The essence of an agile pr oj ect m an ag er 's role is not cr eat ing Gan t t ch ar t s or st at u s r ep ort s ( alt hou gh doing t hat r em ains a part of her w ork ) ; it is cr eat ing a h igh -p er f orm ance ex plor at ion t eam fr om a gr oup Six pr inciples ofatAgile Pr oject Man ag em ent t h e fou ndat ion s of new p rod uct d ev elop ment , inv olve t he of individuals. Ex plor ion and exp er im ent at ion, r isk of m ak ing m ist ak es—of failin g—and t hen learning fr om t h ose m ist ak es. Man ag er s m ust r esp ond by How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies m aking risk t ak ing , w ell, less r isk y . As au t hors Rob Aust in and Lee D ev in ( 20 03) not e, " Art ful m anagers m ust also d o t heir part ; t hey m ust creat e cond it ions in which mak ers can w ork at r isk . Willingn ess t o Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong w ork at risk is v it al in ar t fu l mak in g, in p ar t becau se ex plor at ion is uncom for t able. " While t eam mem bers t hem selv esing m ust part icipat e sint hat t hese act ivdit ies, t he m anager' s rpole is t 's om ake sure Cr eat ad ap t iv e t eam respon q uick ly tporoj chect an ges in y our roj ect " ecosy st emt"hey happ en . I t is a d if ficult , never - en din g, and ult im at ely r ewar din g role. Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't While all t he pr act ices in t his phase ar e pr oject managem ent on es, t wo are gear ed t o t eam m em b er s ( w orkAPM's load mfiv aneag em ent , En low - cost chang e) ,e,w hile ot hers ar e ,gClose ear ed t o pr oject m anager s ( e.g . , coach ing phases: vision, Speculat Exp lor e, Adapt and t eam developm en t ) . The Exp lor e ph ase pract ices fall int o t hr ee cat egor ies, as show n in Figur e 7 .1 : APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

Fi gu r e 7 .1 . Ex< pl or e Pha se Pr a ct i ce s Day Day Up >



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

D e li ve r on V isi on an d O bj e ct i ve s " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —RobWork Austload in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School m anagement "Te This is ca t he ect ch ni l Pproj ra ct icemsanagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! "Low - cost chang e —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y P roj e ct Com m u ni t y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " Coachin d t eam, dev elopm ent Wor k s, I nc. —Neville R( oyg) an Singham CEO, Th ought Daily eam in t eg rat ion m eet ingis s b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by " The w or ld tof pr oduct dev elopm ent r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h Part icip at or y decision m ak ing br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Daily int eract ion s w it h t he cust om er t eam Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use Dayy Day Upsh > ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows< wh APM addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Practice: Workload Management Objective •

Table of Contents

Agi P r oj ective M a nag em eknt: Cr emanagem a ti ng I nn ovent a ti veisPr oduct Thele object of wor load to havse t eam m em b er s t h em selv es m anage t h e day - t o-d ay act iv it ies r eq uir ed t o deliv er feat ur es at t h e end of each it er at ion. By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Discussion Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

To t hePag gres: eat31 est 2 ext ent possible, t eam m em bers should m anage t h eir ow n wor k load. Each individual and t he t eam as a w hole ar e account able t o deliver t h e result s t h ey have comm it t ed t o in t h e it er at ion plan . How t hey accom plish t hat g oal ( w it h in t he process an d p ract ice fr am ew ork t he t eam desig ned) and w hich t eam m em ber s t ak e on w hich t asks should be lef t t o t eam m emb er s collect iv ely t o d ecide. As wit h many of t he ag ile pr act ices, in div iduals an d t eam s t h at exer cise self- discipline can carr y t h is off eff ect iv ely —ot hers can't . " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in tI he get he econom " at ion plan , t eam m em b er s d et er m ine t he t ask s r eq uir ed t o deliv er plann ed n d kn ev owled elop ing next yit.er —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business f eat ur es and sig n u p f or t hose t ask s t hemselves. WorSchool kload m anagem ent also inv olv es t eam m em ber s m onit oring t heir ow n pr ogr ess dur in g an it er at ion ( in par t du ring daily int egrat ion meet in gs) and m aking " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es necessar y adj ust m en t s. This d oes not mean t hat t h e pr oject manager or t eam leader abd icat es his Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement r espon sibilit ies. When t he t eam con sist ent ly m eet s it s comm it ment s, few int erv ent ions b y m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good t he manager ar e requ ir ed. How ev er, wh en t h e t eam is im plem ent ing a new p ract ice or t ech nolog y, wh en r ead! " new or less- ex perienced m em bers join t he t eam, m an ag er ial int erv ent ion —oft en in t h e for m of —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y coachin g—m ay be n ecessary . " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of The proj ect m anager needs t o m onit or wit hout m icr o- managing, pr im arily b y est ab lishin g and m onit oring pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " per for m an ce goals ( feat ures, q ualit y t arg et s, requ ir ed pr act ices) r at her t han t ask s. I n som e sit u at ions t he —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. diff erence b et w een coaching an d micro- m anagin g is at t it ude. Micro- m anagers at t em p t t o specif y det ailed act iv it ies and t hen const ant ly m onit or whet h er or not t h ose act iv it ies are comp let ed on t im e. At t h eir " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by cor e, most of t hese m anagers v iew non at t ainm en t of t h ese micro- act iv it ies as a m ot iv at ional pr oblem. r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h They b eliev e t hat em ploy ees ar en't w ork in g h ar d enough or f ast enoug h. br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Coachin g manager s, in cont r ast , un derst and t hat t here will b e m ot iv at ional pr oblem s wit h only a sm all per cen t ag e of emp loy ees ( t hey hav e t r ied t o g et t he right people, af t er all) . They appr oach per for m an ce Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use as a capabilit y issu e and conclu de t h at st aff m em bers wh o aren' t p er f orm in g don' t hav e t he inf or mat ion, APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly t ools, or exp er ience for t h e t ask at h an d. They see t h eir r ole n ot as t h e hallw ay mon it or , bu t as t he addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t each er wh o helps w it h r esources, inf orm at ion , or t echnical coaching. Dur ing an it er at ion, a coach ing t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . m anager' s at t it u de is r eflect ed in t he quest ion , " How can I help y ou d eliv er result s?" Th e m icr oCov erage includes: m anager' s at t it u de is r eflect ed in t he quest ion , " Why isn't t ask 412 d one y et ?" The proj m anager in his p osit ion ecause Six ect pr inciples of is Agile Pr oject Manbag em entof p ar t icular sk ills, abilit ies, and ex perien ce. I t w ould be a w ast e of t hose capabilit ies f or him t o st an d aside and let t he t eam f loun der. Proj ect m anagers ar e exp ect ed ttoo guide and on coach t o gin fu rt e t eam ' s en capabilit y. Agile pr oj ect m an ag er s st eer r at h er How cap it alize emer g hner ewdevelop pr oductt hdevelopm t t echnologies t han cont r ol; t hey nud ge r at her t han blu dgeon. How ev er , cont inued in t erv ent ion by t he m anager is an in dicat or t of oo lit ogress, le oject cap ab ilithere y , t oo lit t le self- disciplin e, or t he w r ong person in Put ingf ailure—t cust om ers at t le t heprcen t er oft oo youlitr t pr , w t hey belong t he role. Team mem bers should manage t heir ow n w ork load—m anager s hav e t heir hands full w it h ot her eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " act iv itCr ies. Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d< w hich w on't Day Day Up > APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Practice: Low-Cost Change Objective •

Table of Contents

Agi P r oj ective M a nag em e- nt: a ti ng Ienn oven a ti ve Pr lied oductt o s t ech nical pr act ices is t o redu ce t he cost of it er at iv e Thele object of low costCr echang wh app dev elopm ent t hr oughou t t h e dev elopm ent and ong oing sup por t ph ases of a pr oduct . By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Discussion Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

Most tPag echn es: ical 31 2 pr act ices are specif ic t o t he en gin eer ing d omain of t h e pr oduct . Howev er , t h er e ar e sever al pr act ices t h at can b e applied generically t o m any t y pes of prod uct s, par t icu larly t hose wit h bot h hard war e and soft w are comp onent s. These g en er ic t echnical p ract ices ar e imp ort ant t o t he goal of cr eat ing adapt able pr oduct s—deliv ering cust om er value t oday and t om or row . Th ey ar e dr iv en by t h e desir e t o k eep t he cost of chang e, t he cost of exp er im ent at ion , t o a m inim um , t her eby gr eat ly ex panding t he desig n p ossibilit ies. Th e fou r t ech nical pr act ices I w ill discuss in t his sect ion—sim ple design, fr equent " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in in t egrat ion, r ut hless t est in g, and opp ort un ist ic r ef act oring—also w ork in concert w it h each ot her . While t he kn owled ge econom y . " t her e are many ot her t echnical pr act ices, t h ese f our ar e cr it ical t o adapt abilit y . [ 1] —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School [ 1]

Thi s is not a book on engi neer ing—softwar e, el ectr oni c, m echanical, or ot her wise—so it doesn't incl ude specific

" This technical is t he proj ect m anagem t book we'skve ait ing fornes —t he eff ect ivSoftwar ely com bin es pr actices. However,en foundational illsall in been t he varwious discipli ar e book cr it icalt hat to success. e products get sbuilt goodproj softwar ingenskt .ills. Electr onic instrtuments don't get us builtmwak ithout goodof electr onic Agile don't met hod andwitr hout igor ous ect emengineer anagem Not on ly d oes his book help e sense p roj ect engineer ing The four w pror actldices fr crem om Extent remale Agile Pr ogr am g Ex plain br ace ge ( Beck m anagement in sk t hills. is cu rr ent of ar iteeradapted at iv e, in mmetinhods, buted:it 'Em s an all-Ch aran ound good2000) . r ead! " But fir st , let ' s consider t he p henom en on t hat m akes t hese pr act ices necessar y : t echnical debt . —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " Technical Debt —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. When prod uct develop m en t and supp ort t eam s giv e lip serv ice t o t echn ical excellence, w hen p roj ect and " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by pr oduct m an ag er s push t eam s beyon d q uick ness int o hur r ying, a t echnical d eb t is incur red. Techn ical r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h debt can ar ise d uring in it ial d ev elop ment , ongoing m aint enance ( k eepin g a prod uct at it s original st at e) , br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." or enhancem ent ( add ing f unct ionalit y) . As show n in Figur e 7 .2 , t echn ical debt is t he gap bet w een a —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e pr oduct ' s act ual cost of change ( CoC) an d it s opt im al CoC. As I ' v e said, t he t w in g oals of APM are deliv,erone in g of cu tsthe omf ield er v'salu e t oday . Managin echknical debte help achiev e t yhe orr tow Now lead ing exand perttsom br orr ingow s t oget h er allg tthe now ledg and sresour ces out om n eed o use goal. APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes:

Fi gu r e 7 .2 . Te ch ni ca l De bt Re sul t s f r om Hu r r yi ng

Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

For soft w are p rod uct s in part icular , t he act u al CoC cur v e rises slow ly at f ir st and t hen acceler at es r ap idly aft er a f ew y ear s. Wit h sof t war e t hat has been ar ound 1 0 y ears or m ore, dev eloper s ar e loat h t o t ouch t he now " fr agile" code. Con st an t p ressur e t o cu t t h e t im e an d cost of enhancem en t s, no allow ance f or " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in per iodic r efact oring, and poorly m aint ained t est dat a all con t ribut e t o f ragilit y and t he incr eased t he kn owled ge econom y . " CoC—w hich is ex em p lif ied by com p an ies w it h 10 - t o 15- y ear - old pr oduct s w hose QA cy cles ex t end for a —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School y ear or m or e. Ev ery prod uct , sof t war e or ot h er w ise, has a cur ve su ch as t he on e in Figur e 7 .2 , b ut t hey w ill have dif proj fer enect t sh es an den busin esswe' im ve plicat " This is t he map anagem t book all ions. been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect The bot t om line is t hat incr easin g t ech nical debt direct ly reduces responsiv en ess t o cust om er s. m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good Cust om ers and pr oduct manager s, int ernal and ext er nal, don' t u nderst and w hy a seem in gly sim ple r ead! " enhancem en t t ak es m ont hs and m ont hs, or ev en years, t o imp lem en t . Yet t heir r elent less pushing for —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y f eat ur es, feat ur es, feat ur es, fast er, fast er, fast er is oft en t he r oot cau se of t he p rob lem . Wit h out a firm dedicat o longm t echnical eb t m anagem t , dev grou ps e pr red in t odisciplines the " Finally ion a b took t hatt er r econciles t hedpassion of t he en Agile Sofelopm t war eent m ovem entarwit h essu t he needed of in creasing t echnical debt t rap. As t he debt g et s w orse, t h e delay s b ecom e g reat er . As t he d elays pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " leng t hen, R( t hoy e )prSingham essu re incr eases, u su ally leadin t o anot her hu rr ied im plement at ion, w hich incr eases t h e —Neville , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, Ignc. t echnical d eb t y et again. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by Ex it ing t his pr d own war d sp ir al isdocum v ery dif ficult , because t hehoning long er cost t he s. t echnical debt cy in cleg. goes on,itthhe r einf orcing ocesses, adding ent at ion , or f ur t her This isn't w ork Highsm m ore ex pensiv e it is t o f ix . And fixing it is a polit ical nig ht m ar e, because aft er sp en din g significan t t im e br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." and m oney, t he p rodu ct 's fun ct ionalit y w on' t b e any gr eat er t han b ef ore ( alt houg h d ef ect s w ill be —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e r ed uced) . The big ger t he d eb t , t he mor e ex pensiv e it is t o fix , t he mor e d if ficu lt it is t o j ust ify , and t her ef or e tof het he d eat h spiral Now , one f ield 's leadcont ing inues. ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly Convessing ersely,t he t here doesn seem muerch ive for ar r ap owing t hees. t echn ly in pruces oduct ' s addr quest ion s't pr ojectt ombe an ag s rincent aise abou t Agn ile pr oach He ical syst debt em at ear ically in tarod lifecy cle (w hen doing so is inexp en siv e) , becau se t he d elays ar e st ill shor t . Nev ert heless, t he secret to t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . lon gt erm t ech nical debt redu ct ion lies in d oing it early and oft en w hile t he cost is low. The sm aller t h e Cov erage includes: debt , t he less exp en siv e it is t o fix, t he less diff icult it is t o j ust if y , and t his v ir t uous cycle r einf orces it self . Reducing t echnical debt , k eeping t he cost of change low , has t o b ecom e an in grained t echn ical st r at egy t of anoforAgile ganizat ion's Man dedicat ionent t o t echnical ex cellen ce. Six—par pr inciples Pr oject ag em I t m ust bet o n ot edittalize h at mon anemer ag inggin t echnical d oesn 't keepenpr s fr om becom in g ob solet e. A How cap g n ew prdebt oduct developm t toduct echnologies t echnical d eb t st r at eg y doesn' t at t em pt t o st av e off ev ent ual obsolescence b ut t o k eep t he cost of chang e t ingcust cust om at t he cen t er rem of you r prasoject t hey belong low soPut t hat om erers responsiv en ess ains high, washere possible dur ing a prod uct 's life. Cr eat ing appr ad apoach t iv e tteam s tissue hat respon d qget uick y our ect 's " ecosy The hist or ical o t his w as t o it lyr igt ohtch t han e ges f ir st in t ime anpdroj t hen h old on tst igem ht ." Hold on t ight , t hat is, t o t he origin al d esign or arch it ect ur e, an d resist m eaningf ul chang e. Wh en t h e pace of chang e Which roj ect s wegy ill bmay en ef ith av f rom d winhich w on't w as slow er, pt his st rat e w APM—an or ked, but m ost p rod uct sit uat ion s t oday , cling ing t o t he p ast and r esist ing chang e don 't wor k . Hold ing t he cost of chang e dow n by not ch an gin g only means t hat w hen APM's phases:neit En vision, Exp e, Adapt change has fiv t o ehappen, her t h eSpeculat pr oduct e, nor t hlor e people w,illClose b e r eady for it . t hedsPrgoduct Vision Boxerand Dat Sheet " OK, "APM you pract m ay ices, t hink .including " This soun ood, bu t I 'll nev g etProj m yect cust omaers or m anagement t o inv est t h e t ime or m oney in early t echnical d eb t r ed uct ion . " I hav e t hr ee answ er s t o t his. Fir st , t he alt ernat ive will Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

be t o lose cust om ers t o com pet it ors wh o are mor e r esponsive, especially n ew en t rant s int o a m ark et who < Day Day Up > are not b ur dened b y old pr odu ct s. ( Their t im e w ill com e, b ut t hey will also st eal you r cust om er s u nt il t hen. ) Secon d, a w ell- fun ct ioning agile t eam w ill wor k f ast er and at low er cost w hen p ract icing t echnical excellence. Third , even if pract icing ex cellence cost s a lit t le m ore init ially , t he reduct ion in com pliance w ork using APM will m or e t han pay f or t he d if fer en ce.

Simple Design The object ive of sim ple design is t o k eep t he eng ineering t eam gr ound ed in w hat is kn own r at h er t han • Table of Contents ant icipat in g t he un kn own . Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

By JimeHighsmit Ther are t woh fu ndam en t al app roaches t o m anagin g ch an ge—an t icipat ion and ad ap t at ion—and good desig n st r at egies en com p ass asp ect s of bot h. Ant icipat ion inv olv es p lanning for t he f ut ur e and pr ed ict ing w hat k in ds of anWesley ge ar e pr obable. Adapt at ion m ean s w ait in g u nt il requirem ent s ev olv e or changes Pu blisher: Addch ison m anif est t hem selv es and t hen building t hem int o t he p rodu ct . Adapt at ion also m ean s ex periment ing , Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 select in g t h ose exp er im ent s wit h t he b est r esult s, and incorp orat in g t hose r esu lt s int o t he prod uct . Th e I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 low er t he cost of chang e, t he lower t h e cost of ex perim en t at ion, t he h igh er t h e lik elih ood of significant Pag es: 31 2 in nov at ion.

Build ing a t ax - rat e p ar am et er int o a soft w are payr oll sy st em ant icipat es fut u re ch an ges in f ederal w it hh olding r at es. Com p onent izing elect ron ic inst r um ent s ant icipat es using t h e in st rum ent s in conf igu rat ions n ot cur r en t ly f or eseen. I f t her e is a high pr obabilit y t hat som et hing will ch an ge, w e should n t he syitst t oeeasily in corp orat e wt hritaterchange. Th helping is is a k now n t ypst e an of dfutthe ur enew change. I n of hard "desig Jim Highsm h em is on of a f ew m odern s who are us under n at u re worwar k ine a lot ge of eff ort is yspent definin g int er faces; hence sub syst em s act as black box es an d can easily be tdesig he knnowled econom ." sw ap ped inin, anAssist d ou t an p rov ed t h e ,inHarv t er face oes not change. —Rob Aust t Pridofessor ard dBusiness School Also, a g ood d esign leav es some unu sed band widt h for f ut u re op por t unit ies; f or exam ple, a back plane t hat con t ains a few u nused signal and dat a " This is he proj ectples m anagem t book we' ve all st been w ds ait ing —tocols, he book t hat allow eff ectgr iveat ely er com bin es y , lines. Otther exam include en usin g r ecognized andar andfor p rot w hich f lex ibilit Agileusin metghod s and r igor proj ect m anagem en t . of Not on lymem d oesory t hist obook help e sense of tphe rojcost ect and ch ip m ount s t ous hat allow easy up grading CPUs/ t h e nex t gus en m er ak at ion. Sin ce m anagement in her t h isfor cu rr ent ware, or ld adapt of it erab atilit iv e, intcrem ent al Agile m et hods, it ' s anorallar ound of chang e is hig hardw y of en r equires a m odicu m of but ant icipat y design . good r ead! " Conv ersely, t here t o Energ t h e buysiness env ironm ent t hat ar e v ery d if ficult t o an t icip at e. For —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . ar VPe &chang CI O,es D TE exam ple, I T or ganizat ion s imm er sed in d ev elop ing client / serv er syst em s in t he m id- 1990 s had lit t le " Finally a bt he ookI nt t hat r econciles t hewpassion of t heover Agile mort ovem ent panies wit h t he needed in klin g of ern et boom t hat ould r apidly t akSof e t ht war ose eeff s. Com t hat spentdisciplines hun dr ed s of of pr illions oject managem Jimer'sprbise ookr esou has prce rovplann ided ing a ser ice us. m of d ollar s ent on .ent syvst emt os all durof in g t h" is sam e t im e w er e concer ned wit h —Neville R(egr oy )atSingham CEO,ions, Th ought I nc.years lat er in t eg rat ion acr oss com panies becam e in t ernal int ion of ap,plicat wh erWor easkas,f ew cr it ical. Today , ant icipat ing changes in t he biot echnology indust r y ex plosion wou ld be im possib le. Dealing " The or ld uofnant pr oduct dev and elopm ecom ing m ore d yn amr ic t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by w it h twhese icipat ed, oftent en is unbfor eseeable, ch an ges eq and uir esuncer adapt at ion. r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian guides us intvoaluin an alt ernat hat s tticipat he t im es." Simp let ly d esign m eans g ad ap tive ing tov erf itan ing . ( Ant icipat ing or plan nin g isn' t un im por t ant ; it 's onimG.por Sm it h,t han pr incipal, New oduct Dysnam ics/ coau t hor , Dev oductand s int hen Half respond t h e Tim eing t o j—Pr ust est less t ant ad ap t ing .) Pr This m ean desig nin g for w hat w eloping e k now Pr t oday w hat w e lear n in t he f ut u re. I f our ob ject iv e is an ad ap t able prod uct , w e shou ld be able t o dem onst rat e Now , oneabilit of t yhedur f ield ing ment ex pert ing s t oget all tin hefork m now ledg How e and ou tnoeed t o use it s adapt in g's dlead ev elop bys br respond ing thoernew at ion. evresour er , t h eces extyent which t his APM oach in y our roj ect . Jim it h shilit ows sh m ould y min anager' s t oolkit appr is unex sef tulp depend s onHighsm t he m alleab y ofwht hyeAPM m ediu w ebe arein wever or king ; sof t war e is v,ert hy oroug hly addr essing( wit t heh quest s prn)oject m an again er s tryp aise t Ag ile eap pr oach em at ically in t rod m alleable good ion desig , w hile cert es abou of hard war are less es. so. He Th esyst m ore malleable t he uces t he fiveAPM tfrh am ew or present s specific, t ools or ever yofpran oject part icip ansus t. m ediu m,phase t he lower e cost ofk,cht hen an ge, t he easier it w ill pr beovt en o t ip t h e fbalance t icipat ion v er Cov erage adapt at ionincludes: t ow ard t he lat t er. So malleabilit y depends on low- cost it er at ion, but some comp onent s, ev en in sof t w ar e sy st em s, are n ot Six pr inciples Pr oject Manof agant emicipat ent ion and adapt at ion m ust sw ing back t ow ard v er y m alleab le. TherofefAgile or e t he b alance ant icipat ion . Plat f orm ( an d p rod uct lin e) ar chit ect ural decisions, f or ex am ple, are oft en ex pensiv e and How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies t ime consum in g t o change, and t h us t h ey should b e appr oach ed f rom an ant icipat ion perspect ive. Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong But even w it h less- m alleable hard war e sy st em s, t h e adv en t of h igh ly sop hist icat ed sim u lat ion and m odeling t echnology pr ov ides hardw are design er s w it h n ear ly as m alleable an env ir onm ent as soft w are Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " desig ners—t h e desig n of t h e Boein g 7 77 being a g ood ex am ple. Of cour se changes im m ed iat ely b ecam e m ore Which ex pensiv e ect whsenw ill thb e en 777 fr om o const r uct ion, b ut u nt il t hat point , Boeing p roj ef itt rfansit rom ioned APM—an d wdesig hich nwton't em ploy ed sim ple design pr act ices ( t o a cert ain d eg ree) t h roug h t heir cr eat ive an d ex t ensiv e u se of sim ulat ion. fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM's Pr act icing simp le d esign has t ht e advVision an t ag eBox of point in g ect out Dat b otat leneck APM pract ices, including headded Pr oduct and Proj Sheets in t h e dev elopm ent pr ocess. Say y ou ar e build ing an elect ron ic t est in st rum ent . Ev er y t im e y ou w ant t o chang e t he design, qu alitLev y assur ance com plains t hatinint egr atenv ionir an d regr er agin g you r PMI skills Agile onm ent session t est ing is so ex pensiv e and t im e consum ing

t hat it can not get t he cycle t ime for t h is t est ing und er four weeks. You'v e j ust discov ered a bot t leneck, < Day Day Up > one t hat r esist s ch an ge by mak in g it t oo ex pensiv e and t ime consum in g. Rat her t h an accep t t h e QA posit ion and for go design chang es, t he b et t er st r at eg y w ould be t o ex am ine h ow t o b ring QA cost and t est t im e dow n. The ef fect iveness of sim ple design and r ef act oring ind icat es t o a pr oduct t eam how adapt able it s dev elopm ent process can be. Bar riers t o t h ese p ract ices ar e b ar riers t o r educing t he cost of change. Th e k ey quest ion isn't " How m uch does it cost t o im plem ent t hese pr act ices?" bu t " Can you aff or d n ot t o im p lem en t t hem ?" Not e t hat sim ple design doesn' t m ean sim plist ic design . Of t en coming up w it h un derst andable, adapt able, sim ple design s t ak es addit ional t ime. Doing less, by eschewing nonessent ials and focu sing on cust er value, can f r ee up t he t im e requ ir ed t o do bet t er—simp le d esign. • Table of om Contents Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Frequent Integration Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

ThePuobject ive of fr eq uent int egr at ion is t o en sure t hat p rodu ct f eat u res f it t oget her int o an int egr at ed b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 w hole ear ly and of t en d ur ing dev elopm ent in or der t o r educe b ot h t he high cost of lat e m isalignm ent an d I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 t he bur den of t est ing. No m at t er wh at t he prod uct —f rom sof t w ar e t o aut om obiles t o ind ust r ial cont r ol Pag es: 31 2 sy st em s—t h e less f r eq uent t h e in t egrat ion, t h e m ore su scep t ible t he developm en t ef for t w ill be t o m ajor pr oblem s lat e in t h e pr ocess and t he m or e diff icult , and ex pensiv e, it w ill be t o find and fix t hem . Consider som e com mon pr oblems wit h emb ed ded sof t w ar e in indu st rial prod uct s. Hard war e and soft w are com ponent s nev er seem t o be com plet e at t he sam e t im e. Soft war e engineer s com plain t hat h ar dw are 't av ailable, gin eer w s rit hav h e sam com p laint aboutstt an he dsof t wnew ar e. nWhile w ar ke in "isn Jim Highsm it hwishile on ehardw of a fare ew en m odern eres twho areehelping us under t he at u resof of twor ions and hard war tsim he ulat kn owled ge econom y .e" pr ot ot y pes can ease t h e sit u at ion for som e p rodu ct s, t hey can bot h be exp en siv e and ov er sim y r eal- wor ld sit uatBusiness ions. OneSchool comp an y t hat was d ev elop ing t he em b ed ded —Rob Aust in, Assist an tplif Pr ofessor , Harv ard soft war e for a cell phon e r an int o f r ust rat ing pr oblem s w it h h ar dw are t est equipm en t f rom a m aj or "vThis is, tslow he proj anagem we'f ield ve all he sim book t hat ecttivrely comebin en dor in g ect it s m t est ing effen ortts.book An oilserbeen vice w firait ming foufor nd —t t hat ulat ionseff can' eplicat alles t he Agile and r igor m anagem enalso t . Not on ly divoes hispensive. book help us ming ak esyst sense v ar iat met ionshod of tshe r eal w orous ld, proj but ect " live" t est ing is p rohibit ely tex Operat em of andp roj ect m anagement in tar he is dcu ent er w sorseem ld of itt er at ivconst e, in crem Agile m etdur hods, it ' s anent all-. ar com put er har dw evrrelop o be ant lyent outalof ph ase ing dbut ev elopm Atound som egood level, rinead! " ing hard war e and soft w are w ill alw ays be ch alleng ing and t he p rob lem s only par t ially solvable. t egrat —Ly e Ellen, Sr . VP O, sD need TE Energ How nn ev er, developm en&t tCI eam t o styr iv e f or fr equent in t eg rat ion t o m it igat e t he pr oblem s. "Ken Finally a b ook econciles heMDS passion of int he Agile Sof war em ovem entet er wits.h "tWe he needed disciplines of Delcol usest hat t h isr ap proach tat Sciex developin g tm ass spect r om hav e ju st g one pr ent . Our Jim 'sf irbmw ookare has rov ided a ser t o all t hroject ough managem t h is process. grpoup deliver ed vf irice m war e tof o tus. he "har dw ar e gr oup in it erat ions b ased —Neville oyschedu ) Singham , CEO, Thficient oughtfun Worctkionalit s, I nc.y w as con firm ed, t h en t he soft w are grou p w as b roug ht on it s t estR( ing le. On ce suf in t o add ap plicat ions. Wit h t his appr oach w e d idn 't need a f ully p opulat ed digit al b oar d t o b eg in firm w are " Thehard w or ld dev telopm entWe is ach b ecom inga m d ynof amt hings ic and (tuncer t ain.weMan y mev aneragachiev er s cop and warofe pr in oduct t eg rat ion est ing. ieved n ore um ber he best have ede) by : rineinf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h ); t egrat ion t est ing st art ed sooner, hence issu es w er e r esolv ed m or e quickly ( bet t er schedule and cost brtillian us tint an on alt ce ernat ive tal hat f itdw s tare he twimases." in egratt ly ionguides w as con inuoous m inim h ar in place, hence no p eak in resour ces; an d —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/t icipat coau ted horin, Dev oduct com m unicat ion was im pr oved becau se all gr oup s par t h e eloping in t egratPr ion. " s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one t he f ield 's lish leadcr ing ex fun pertctsional br inghar s t oget all ts, hemk an now andgrresour t o use While comof panies est ab ossdw arheert eam y ledg soft we are oups ces contyinou uenteed o operat e APM in ely y our nex t pifrojt he ect .developm Jim Highsm h shoach ows wh be- frinont ever y icip m anager' s t e, oolkit t hnct oroug separat . Ag ain, en t itappr is ay tAPM raditsh ionould al, up , ant at or y on t his, fu ion hly al addr essing t he quest s eprsense—t oject m an ertsw raraise Ag ile pr oach emneed at ically t rod separat ion seem s t o ion mak heag sof e grabou oup thas it s ap requir em es. ent sHe ansyst d j ust s t oingo douces it . t he fiveAPMsep fr am ewion or k, t hen presenttso specific, ovegr en at t ools f orsoft ever y pran oject part icip But t his fphase unct ional ar at can be deadly ef fect iv eprint ion of w are d hardw are.an t . Cov erage includes: Chang ing t o an agile d ev elop ment m odel can im prov e t he f lex ibilit y of pr oduct s cont ain ing bot h h ar dw are and soft w are. Figur e 7 .3 is an adapt at ion of a p rod uct d ev elop ment m odel fr om Harv ar d Bu siness Sch ool Six prMarco inciples of Agile Man agicat emes entt hat hard war e dev elopm ent is t y pically br oken in t o pr ofessor I ansit i. ThePrdoject iagr am ind concept developm en t , w hich at some poin t becom es f rozen ( at least f or m ost p ur poses) becau se t he cost How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies and t im e d elays of fu rt h er d esign changes im pact p ar t s pur chasing , m an ufact ur ing eq uip ment acquisit ion, or d own st ream m an uf act u ring set - u p and har dw ar e im plem ent at ion. Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em "

Fi gu r ep roj 7 .3 odu ct Ded ve l opm en t Cycle s ( Adap t e d f r om M ar co Which ect.s M w od ill b el en efof it fPr rom APM—an w hich w on't I an sit i , Te ch nol ogy I nt e gr a t i on) APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

Sof t war e dev elopm ent , on t he ot her hand, can f ollow eit her a ser ial or an it er at iv e appr oach . I n t h e f orm er, concep t d ev elop ment ( archit ect ure, design, requ ir em ent s) is fr ozen —somew hat lat er t han t he har dw ar e dev elopm ent , but it essent ially uses t h e hard war e m odel. The agile app roach, r at her t han at t emp t ing t o lim it ( fr eeze) r equirem en t s, t ak es ad vant ag e of soft w are' s f lex ibilit y by over lapping t he "concept Jim Highsm it h is on of a imp f ew lem m odern w ritact er sivwho t het wnew at u re of wor k uch in developm en et and en t at ion it ies are andhelping t herebyusexunder t endsstt an he d"sof ar e nf reeze" unt il m tlat heerkninowled ge econom y . " t h e pr oduct dev elopm ent process. Th is allow s t h e dist inct possib ilit y t hat lat e- discover ed —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor ,enHarv ard Business har dw ar e f law s ( or new r equirem t s) can be imp lemSchool en t ed in sof t w ar e. Furt h er m ore, t he f lex ibilit y of soft war e feat ur es, an d oft en inex pensive t hrow aw ay feat ures, can be u sed t o adv an t ag e in t he t est ing of " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es k ey hard war e com ponent s. Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement t h is cu w or e ld on of new it er atpr iv oduct e, in crem al Agile mcle et hods, it ' sare an eng all- ar ound hav good Becau se of t hein const antrr ent p ressur devent elopm ent cy t im e, but h ar dw ineers e rbeen ead! "for ced int o ear lier and earlier pu rchase or dering f or part s. Design changes t hat cause alt er at ion s t o —Ly e ead Ellen, VPpur & chasin CI O, DgTE Energ ycan be ver y exp en siv e and t im e con sum ing . How t he prod uct is par t snnalr y inSrt .h e p ipeline r am ped up t o prod uct ion and t he size of t h e in it ial p rod uct ion r un will b e big f act ors in t he t eam 's abilit y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of t o change t h at har dw ar e. Sin ce t her e are n o p hy sical inv ent or y considerat ion s w it h sof t war e ( alt hou gh pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " t her e are t est ing, configur at ion m anagement , and ot her issues) , sof t war e engineers can of t en m ake lat e —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. changes cost eff ect iv ely . " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by I an sit i pr ov ides an ex am ple of how fr equent ly hard war e pr oblem s wer e solv ed by sof t war e solu t ions r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h du ring a Silicon Gr aphics w ork st at ion dev elopm ent pr oject . When hard war e pr oblem s w ere fou nd, br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." soft war e wor k aroun ds w ere used 7 0% of t he t im e, t he p roblems became "f eat ures" 1 0% of t he t im e, a —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e com bin at ion of hard war e and soft w are changed 10% of t he t im e, and pur e har dw ar e chang es w er e in volv ed only 10 % of t he t ime. Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly I n ser ial m odels, " a dist inct separ at ion exist s b et w een concept dev elopm ent an d im plem ent at ion ," say s addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces I an sit i. " This m odel wor k s w ell w hen t ech nolog y, prod uct feat ures, and com pet it iv e r eq uir em en t s are t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . pr edict able." I n an ag ile appr oach ( w hich I ansit i calls a flex ible ap proach) , "t h e k ey t o t h e pr ocess is in Cov erage includes: t he ab ilit y t o gat her and r ap idly r esp ond t o new k now led ge about t echnology and applicat ion cont ex t as a pr oject ev olves. Techn ology int egr at ion capabilit y is cen t ral t o meet in g t h e challenges of su ch un predict able change" ( I an sit 19 98) . ag em ent Six pr inciples of Agile Pr ioject Man I n an How agilet oappr rol occur ot by confordevelopm m ance t oen concept - dr iv en p lans, b ut b y const ant capoach, it alizecont on emer gin gs nnew pr oduct t t echnologies in t egrat ion and t est ing of t he ev olv in g f eat ure set s as t hey em erg e dur in g t he pr oduct dev elopm ent pr ocess. prers oduct ect ureofisyou imrpor ant , ,bwuthere h av ing t ech nolog y in t egrat ion is v it al t o Put tHav ing ing custaom at tarchit he cen t er pr toject t heygood belong success. For t his reason, ar chit ect s need t o be h eav ily inv olv ed in prod uct int egr at ion. Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it Ruthless Testing

f rom APM—an d w hich w on't

APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close The object ive of rut hless t est ing is t o ensur e t h at pr oduct qualit y r em ains hig h t h rou ghout t he [ 2] dev elopm APM ent pract process. ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet [ 2]

t er mg" ryou uthl ess testiskills ng" comes fromenv colleague Kev sin Tate. While a gr owi ng num ber of softwar e developer s use LevThe er agin r PMI in Agile ir onm ent

" test - fi rst dev elopm ent," r uthless t esting is a bett er gener ic ter m t hat is widel y appli cable to all types of pr oducts. < Day Day Up >

The old adage t hat qualit y can' t b e added on b ut mu st be built int o t he developm en t p rocess r emains t r ue. Ex t ensiv e t est in st rum ent at ion assist s dev elopm ent of ev ery t hing fr om cell- phon e chips t o aut om obile eng ines. Ru t hless t est ing cont r ib ut es t o t he g oal of cr eat ing adapt able pr oduct s becau se f ind ing f au lt s ear ly , w hen t here is st ill t im e t o corr ect t hem , r educes t h e cost of ch an ge. When prod uct dev eloper s w ait u nt il lat e int o t h e lifecy cle t o t est , t h e t est ing pr ocess it self becom es cum bersom e r at her t han st ream lined. Fur t herm or e, t he lack of const ant t est ing r em ov es a n ecessary f eed back loop int o t he dev elopm ent process. Wait t oo long , and design s solidify . Th en w hen t est s are f in ally run , t he t eam is un willing t o m ak e d esign changes—it ' s t oo exp en siv e now ! Const ant rut hless t est ing, including accep t an ce t est ing , challenges t h e dev elopm ent t eam —no m at t er w hat t he pr odu ct —t o f ace t he r ealit y of • Table of Contents how it s d esign act ually w ork s. Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

By h elopm ent , rut hless t est ing includes soft w are eng ineers per for ming const ant unit t est ing, I nJim sofHighsmit t w ar e dev in t egrat ing qualit y assur an ce and accept ance t est ing in t o each d ev elop ment it er at ion, and having a f ull r an ge of t h ose t estWesley s aut om at ed . The ult im at e goal is t o pr odu ce a deploy ab le, lim it ed- f eat u re p rod uct at Pu blisher: Add ison t he Pu enb dDat ofe:each it er at ion. Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

Opportunistic Refactoring The object ive of oppor t unist ic ref act or in g is t o const ant ly and cont inuously im p rov e t he pr oduct desig n—m ake it mor e adapt able—t o enable it t o meet t he t w in goals of deliv er ing cust om er v alu e t oday and t he futiture. " Jim inHighsm h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " A clientAust w asin,considering m ult iy ear , m ard ult imBusiness illion- dollar pr oduct r ed ev elop ment pr oject for an exist ing —Rob Assist an t Pra ofessor , Harv School soft war e pr oduct —2 0+ y ear s in it s ev olu t ion —wh ich cont ained sever al m illion lines of cod e. Wh ile t he pr oduct been r um en t al bu siness ccess, asing also iew as ant hat anchor e prbin ogr " This is thad he proj ectinst m anagem enttobook we' vesuall beenitwwait forv—t heedbook eff ectt oiv fu elyt ur com esess. Maint enance an d enh an cem ent s wer e t ak ing longer and long er t o imp lem en t , and t he cost s of in t egrat ion Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect and regr ession t est ing had in creased sub st an t ially . At t he sam e t im e, t h e com pany 's cust om er s w ere m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good in creasing ly ask in g f or shor t er respon se t im es. Replacem ent w as seen as t he solut ion t o t he p rob lem s of r ead! " a cr eak y old sySr st em . My ion t hemy was t h at t he new pr oduct wou ld f ace sim ilar p rob lem s w it h in —Ly nn e Ellen, . VP & CIcaut O, D TEt o Energ f iv e y ear s if t hey didn' t include a syst em at ic prod uct - lev el refact or ing d iscip line int o t h eir dev elopm ent pr ocess.a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of " Finally pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " Refact or ing inv) olv es up dat ing aTh p rod uctWor 's inkt er —Neville R( oy Singham , CEO, ought s, nal I nc.com ponent s ( im pr oving t he design ), wit hout chang ing ext er nally v isible fun ct ionalit y , in order t o m ak e t h e pr oduct easier t o enh an ce in t he fut u re. One un for w t unat of ser d ev elopm is t he t hat costt ain. of chang t in g " The or ldeoflegacy pr oduct devial elopm ent is ent b ecom ingidea m ore d ynredu am iccing andt he uncer Man y emdepend an ag erss on copget e by cor rect ar chit ur al and design decisions in t,he egtinn . Given t hes. con st an cy wofork change an d our r einf orcing prect ocesses, adding docum ent at ion or bf ur hering honing cost This isn't in g. Highsm it h in ilit yt lyt oguides pr edictust hose ch an w ive it h any acy, brab illian int o an altges ernat t hat accur f it s t he t imour es."desig ns sh ould inst ead be based up on w hat we k—Pr nowestt od d it a h, willing ness tNew o en gage in rDy edesign in coau t he ftut ur,e.Dev Sineloping ce it is Pr in oduct ev it absleint hHalf at prt hoduct onay G.an Sm pr incipal, Pr oduct nam ics/ hor e Tim e enhancem en t s ar e som et im es " bolt ed on" wit hout pr oper desig n con sider at ions, a ref act or in g discipline Now , one of tteams he f ield lead ing ex pert s br ing speriodically t oget h er all t hecor k now e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use encour ages t o'sr evisit t hese decisions and rectledg t hem. APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly Anot h er client ho imion plem ed ag ile ag dev h ad a sof w ar p rodu ey develop ed tin o tcoin cide addr essing t hewquest s prent oject m an er elopm s r aiseent abou t Ag ile tap preoach es. ctHet hsyst em at ically rod uces w it h anot her com pany 's m aj or plat for m annou ncement . Alt h ough t hey u t ilized r efact or ing and r ut hless t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . tCov est erage in g, t he im m ut able deliv er y dat e caused t hem t o " hur ry " a lit t le mor e t h an t h ey would have liked. So includes: up on t h e fir st r elease, r at her t han div ing right back int o t he new f eat u re enh an cem ent s m ar k et ing w as clam or ing f or, t hey spent t wo m ont hs ref act or in g an d g et t ing t heir au t om at ed t est s in sh ap e. Only t hen, pr inciples of Agile oject Man agdid emt ent w it h aSix t echn ically solid prodPr uct in hand, hey r esum e dev eloping feat ur es for t he nex t release. I asked t he prod uct develop m en t m anager if t h ey wou ld hav e t aken t hat t wo m ont hs pr ior t o im plement ing agile How ent t o ,cap it alize on emer n ew pr oduct echnologies dev elopm and his answ er wgin as g" no. " Living w itdevelopm h t he painenoft tanot her leg acy prod uct f or w hich t h e " t echnical d eb t " had got t en aw ay f rom t hem, t he t eam m em bers wer e det erm ined it w ould not happen on t his nPut ew tping rodcust uct .om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ad ap t-iv e el t eam s t hat d q euick ly mou t o chsan ges it ins yover our paroj ect uct 's "'s ecosy em " or ing Sy st emoring pr oduct lev ref act or in respon g can hav enor benef prod life. st Refact im p rov es a p rodu ct 's design but does n ot add new f unct ionalit y —it im pr ov es adapt abilit y . Adding new Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't f unct ionalit y usually ent ails r edesign , and ref act or in g sh ould p recede t hat redesig n. Th e gr eat er t he rat e of chang e infiv a ep phases: rodu ct 's En feat ur es, Speculat t he m or ee,quick ly te,h eAdapt pr oduct ' s ar ch it ect ur e or d esign will d eg rade. A APM's vision, Exp lor , Close lar ge r edevelopm en t p roj ect —w hose just ificat ion relies on r ed ucin g t he cost of change—has t h at v er y j ust if icat ionpract u nderm w hen t dev elopm an d su ppor t t Proj eamect s ( ifDat t hey are separ at e) fail t o in st ill an APM ices, ined including he Pr oductent Vision Box and a Sheet ong oing r ef act oring discipline. Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

The old axiom w as " Get it r ig ht t he f ir st t im e t o k eep d ev elop ment cost down . " The n ew ax iom, one t h at Up > m akes m or e sense as b usin ess and prod uct ch r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Practice: Coaching and Team Development Objective •

Table of Contents

Agi P r oj ective M a nag em e nt: Cr eand a ti ngt eam I nn ovdevelopm a ti ve Pr oduct Thele object of coaching enst is t o unleash t he cap ab ilit y of t h e t eam by h elping t eam m emb er s con t inu ously im pr ove t heir d omain k now led ge ( t echnical, bu siness) , self - discipline, and By Jim Highsmit h " t eam ing" skills. Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

Discussion I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

This pr act ice w or ks in close conj unct ion w it h t h e Get t h e Right Peop le p ract ice. Many pr oject m anagers v iew t heir job as g et t ing t he best ut ilizat ion out of t he st af f assigned t o t hem, but t hat 's not en ough . On goin g st af f dev elopm ent is ev ery m anager 's j ob, wh et h er sh e is a pr oj ect m an ag er or t eam lead er . While p roj ect m an ag er s st rive t o get t he r ig ht people, w it h b ot h t he r igh t sk ill set and at t it u de, t her e is also a per vasiv e b elief in agile proj ect s t h at w e can alw ay s imp rov e per for m an ce, t hat w e con t inu ally " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in st r iv e f or ex cellence. t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Austioned in, Assist an int t Prr odu ofessor ardchapt Business School As I ment in t he ct ion, Harv t o t his er, t he six k ey building blocks of coach ing and t eam dev elopm ent ar e f ocusin g t h e t eam on deliver ing r esu lt s; molding a gr oup of in div iduals in t o a t eam ; " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es dev eloping each in div idual' s capabilit ies; pr ov id ing t he t eam wit h required r esou rces and r em ov in g Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect r oad block s; coaching t he cu st omer s; and orch est r at ing t h e t eam ' s r hy t hm . m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y

Focusing the Team on Delivering Results

" Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent .get Jim ookinhas rov ided ser of us.least " Ev ery t eam m em ber s 's m bired detpails and faorg etvsice t het og all oal—at periodically . Good pr oj ect —Neville oy )ind Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor kf s, I nc. m anagersR(rem t h e t eam ab out t he goals rom t im e t o t im e b y r ev isit in g t he k ey const r aint s an d t r ad eof f par am et ers an d by r einv ig orat in g t he gr oup w it h t he ult im at e pur pose of t he pr oject . This is part " The w or ld of gprex oduct dev entmisig bhtecom ing m ore d aynleader am ic and uncer t ain. rMan mtan agone er s cop byust of encour agin plorat ionelopm , w hich be considered 's cheer leader ole, ybu it 's t h ate m rbe einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h based in r ealit y rat her t han f an t asy . Team m emb er s want a boost ever y now and t h en , but t hey d on't bran illian guides int orah anspeeches. alt ernat iveTeam t hat fmem it s t he w t mt ly eanin glessusr ahbert simwes." an t t h e fact s, ev en n eg at iv e ones, so t hey can —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e help f ig ure out how t o deal w it h t h e sit u at ion. Now t hemf ield 's lead pert s br ing s t oget er all t wh he at k now ledgect e ed andofresour y ou eed On e ,ofone t heofkey ot ivat or s fing or inexdiv iduals is und er sthanding is exp t hem ces —but in nt er mst oofuse APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t out com es, not st eps. Gr eat m anagers an d lead er s m anage ou t com es, not act ivit ies. " Def ine t he hr oroug ig ht hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod ucesand out com es and t hen let each per son f in d h is own r out e t ow ard s t hose out com es, " Marcus Buck in gham tCur he tfivephase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Coff man ( 199 9) recom mend . I f you hav e t h e right people, t hey w ant t o k now w hat need s t o be Cov erage includes: accomp lished and t heir role, but t hey w ant t o f ig ure out how t o deliv er t he r esult s. They w an t t o un derst and w hy w hat t h ey do is im por t an t , and t hey w ant t o w ork wit h a t eam t hat is com m it t ed t o deliv er in gprqualit y w of orkAgile . [ 3] I Pr ndoject iv id uals accoun t ab ilit y f or deliv er ing cer t ain feat ur es, w hile t he Six inciples Manassum ag em e ent t eam as a w hole assum es accou nt abilit y for d eliv ering all t h e feat ur es plan ned f or an it er at ion. Th e pr oject manager olds on botemer h in div t he t eam as a whole t o t heir com m it ment s. How t o cap ithalize giniduals g n ewand pr oduct developm en t t echnologies [ 3]

Bucki ngham and Coffman ( 1999) , these ar e tw o of the tw elve core elements needed to att r act, focus, PutAccor t ing ding custtoom ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong and k eep k ey em ployees.

ingect adsap iv ediff t eam respon q uick ly tino sig ch an in y our p rojin ectt o's t"he ecosy On larCr geeat proj it t is icu lts ttohat k eep t h e dend goal ht ges w it hout giving w orst ryem " I "d on't k now how w e'r e ev er goin g t o finish t h is. " Par t of t h e v alue of an it er at iv e appr oach, w hich n eeds t o b e Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't r einf orced by t h e pr oject m anager occasionally , is t hat it br eak s v ery larg e dev elopm ent ef for t s int o m anageab chu nk s. While f acing aSpeculat t w o- y ear dev elopm ent eff ort seem s d au nt ing, t r y in g t o deliv er a APM'slefiv e phases: En vision, e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close hand ful of f eat u res in t he n ex t few w eek s doesn 't . The pr oj ect m an ag er n eeds t o help t he t eam balance—un derst andincluding ing t he ent he d goal but wor k ingBox har and d in Proj t he ect p resent erat ion. Sh e begins each it erat ion APM pract ices, Pr oduct Vision Dat a itSheet by rem ind ing t h e t eam of t he ov erall vision and const r aint s of t he p roj ect and reit er at ing t h e v ision b ox and prLev oject d atga you sheet inforskills m at ion. The env v ision prov ides er agin r PMI in Agile ir onm ent s a con t ex t for d ay - t o- day decisions ab out cu rr ent

w ork . Sh e t hen rapidly focu ses on t he nex t it erat ion and , in p ar t icu lar, t he t h em e of t he it er at ion . < Day Day Up >

The manager helps t h e t eam focu s on bot h t he over all goal of t he proj ect and t he it erat ion t hemes. Th is m ay appear t o b e an easy t ask, but w it h t he hig h r at e of chang e and t he pr essur e t o d eliv er quick ly , t he t ask is a diff icu lt —and const ant —on e.

Molding a Group of Individuals into a Team Tom DeMarco and Tim List er ( 199 9) use t he t er m " j elled t eam " t o d ef in e wh en individuals m ake t he • Contents t r an sit ion f r omTable a grofoup t o a w ell- f unct ionin g t eam . But get t ing a t eam t o j ell isn't easy (f ew t eam s Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s act ually m ak e t he t r an sit ion) b ecause it inv olv es f our t h ing s t hat are d if ficult t o achieve in any gr oup of By Jim Highsmit people: t r ust h, int eract ion , sat isf act or y con flict resolu t ion, an d p ar t icipat or y decision mak in g. Teams w it h lit t le t ru st int eract on on ly a super ficial lev el. Lack of int eract ion f ost ers a f ocus on individual r at h er t han t eam goals. Add Unsat Pu blisher: ison isfact Wesleyory conflict r esolut ion r educes t r ust . Win- lose decision m aking un derm in es people' s com m it m ent t o t he t eam. Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

Tr ust is an easy wor d t o band y arou nd, b ut it is a diff icult t h ing t o achiev e. " Tru st is t he confidence es: 31 2 am ongPagt eam m em bers t hat t heir peer s' int ent ions ar e good , and t hat t here is n o r eason t o be pr ot ect iv e or caref ul arou nd t he gr oup ," say s Pat rick Lencioni ( 200 2) . Tr ust en ab les t eam m em bers t o shar e halfbak ed ideas w it hou t t h e fear of r idicule. Trust and respect ar e also closely t ied t oget her—it ' s diff icult t o r esp ect t hose w e d on't t r ust , and v ice v ersa—w hich is one reason t hat get t ing t he w r ong people on t he t eam can h av e su ch a det riment al ef fect . Respect com es f rom und er st anding ot her people' s r oles on a pr oject . Engineer need and how m ark et ing cont r ibut es t odprt he oject an d " Jim Highsm it h isson e of tao funder ew m st odern w rit erprsoduct who are helping us under st an newsuccess, n at u re of wor k in pr m ar ge k eteconom ing lik ewise t heoduct kn owled y . " needs t o ackn owled ge eng ineering' s cont ribut ion. Frequ en t int eract ions h elp gener e under st anding, hich in, tHarv ur n can t o r espect —Rob atAust in, Assist an t Prwofessor ard lead Business Schooland t r ust . in gham andwCof fm an havet hat an int t wistbin onest he Managers t o t rm ust also. Au s Buck " This is t hehave proj ect anagem en t hor book we' ve all been ait ing for (1 —t999 he )book efferest ect iv in elyg com com on vhod iews of earr igor nin gous t r ust . They end ten hat eatonmanager r eject is view. kn ow of t hat if ,ect Agilemmet and proj ect mcont anagem t . gr Not ly d oes tshis bookt hhelp us m"Th ak ey e sense p roj fmundam ent ally,in you t ru w storp ld eop t hen her is no line, no poin in t im but e, bey wh ich people anagement t h is don cu rr'tent ofle, it er at iv te, inecrem ent al Agile m ett hods, it ' sond an allar ound good sudd r ead!en " ly b ecom e t rust w or t hy . " Managers wh o f undam ent ally don 't t ru st people w ill jum p at t h e f ir st f—Ly ailurnn ee t oEllen, im pose rict&cont Sr .stVP CI O,rols: D TE" See, EnergI yt old y ou we can 't operat e w it h out rigor ous cont rols." Conv ersely , m anagers wh o do t r ust p eop le k now som e failur es will occu r becau se of hum an nat ur e. For t h e few t r uly " Finally t hat idu r econciles he passion of tshe Agile Sof t war e m ovem entt hem—inst wit h t he needed disciplines un t rust waorb took hy indiv als, t he tgreat manager hav e a solut ion—get rid of ead of abu sing t h eof pr oject . Jim 's densom b ook has p rovrided a ser o all of, us. " ag er s in org an izat ion s eit h er h av e a ent ire ormanagem ganizat ionent wit h bur e cont ols. As I 'vveice obtser v ed " Man R(aloyt )ruSingham , CEO, ought s, I nc. f—Neville undam ent st of people or tTh h ey don'Wor t —tkhere is no m iddle gr ound " ( Hig hsm it h 200 2) . " The wtor ld ofoft pren oduct elopm ent is ecom ing m ore am icical and uncerPar t ain. Man m an ag ermanager s cop e by Jelled eams hav dev e f ierce debat esband conflict ov erd yn t echn issues. t of t h ey pr oject 's r einf orcing ocesses, addingt he docum ent , orit f bu ur tilds her thoning cost s. Thisr at isn't ork inund g. Highsm leader sh ip rpr ole is t o channel debat e at soion t hat r ust and respect her wt han er m in esit ht hem . br illian t lyerguides us int ive t hat t he t im es." The lead can f acilit at o e an t hisalt byernat focusing t hef itdsiscussion on t h e issues an d n ot on individuals. Man ag ing —Pr estood on G. it h, pr incipal, New Dy one's nam ics/ coau t hor , is Dev eloping Pr oduct Half h eillsTim e ar e t he "m " ofSm t he t eam ( m ost ly by Pr m oduct anaging own m ood) one of t hose " sof ts" in lead er tsk t hat so h ar d t o d o w ell. While self - discipline com es f r om w it hin each t eam m em ber , a leader can help t he Now f ield 's elead ing exe,pert s br s t oget h er allmak t heinkgnow resour t eam, one buildofit st he disciplin of debat conf licting , and decision t o ledg fu rt heerand "j ell" t he ces t eamy ou . n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing quest s pr oject antag s r aise t Ag apan pr izat oach es. is Het hat systinn emovat at ically in t rod uces I nt eract ion tdhe rives innion ovat ion. Onemof heert enet s ofabou adapt iveileorg ions ion em erges fr om t he fivefr am hen present s hspecific, ovbring en t ools f or ever prdoject partt o icip int er phase act ion APM of diver seew in or divk,id tuals, each wit ideas, wprho in for m at iony an insight t han e t. Cov erage ent includes: dev elopm process. Pr oduct dev elopm ent proj ect s usu ally inv olve t eam s w hose m em bers possess a com plex m ix of infor m at ion and t alent s. En gin eer s, pr oduct specialist s, and scient ist s f r om diver se dom ain s m ust consolidat e t heir ex per t ise int o a consist en t , high- qu alit y pr oduct design . To accom plish inciples of balance Agile Pr toject Maneagt oem ent t his gSix oal, pr individuals im e alon develop t h eir par t icular piece of t h e pr oduct puzzle w it h f acet o- face t im e w it h ot her s t o fit t h e pieces t oget her. Wh en t eam m emb er s d on't int eract , t h er e is no How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies sy nerg y of id eas, and innov at ion suf fer s. I n t er act ion can t ak e m any f or ms ( br ainst or ming sessions, hallw ay chat s, t echnical d esign rev iew s, online gr oup discussions, and , in t h e soft w are wor ld , pair Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong pr ogr am m ing) , b ut t h e obj ect iv es are t he sam e: t o sh ar e infor m at ion, t o co- cr eat e a pr oduct feat ur e or dev elopm act t o msak e a respon joint d d ecision about oject manager s m ust en"cour ag e t his Cr eatent ing aradt ifap t iv, eort eam t hat q uick ly t o chan an issue. ges in Pr y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em peer- t o- peer in t eract ion , par t icular ly as pr essu re mou nt s and individuals hav e a t end en cy t o "g o dar k ." Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't Ther e is m ore t o successfu l int er act ions t han t alking. Fr om t im e t o t im e in any proj ect t eam 's dev elopm entfivt ehere ar e " cr conv ersat ion charact erized, Close b y v ar y ing opinions, high st akes, and APM's phases: Enucial vision, Speculat e,s," Exp lor e, Adapt em ot ional int ensit y . Th ese ar e t h e m ak e- or- br eak conv er sat ions, t he on es in w hich t h e charact er of t he t eam APM is forpract ged. ices, Do t hincluding ese con ver satPrions degenerat e intand o personal at t acks and finger point ing, or do t hese t he oduct Vision Box Proj ect Dat a Sheet conf lict s help j ell t he t eam ? There ar e a cou ple of t hings t hat d et er mine w het her t h e t eam has t h e self Leveerand agincharact g you r er PMI ir onm s er sat ions. First , each and ev ery mem ber m ust disciplin t o skills h av e in su Agile ccessfenv ul cru cialent conv

t ak e t he init iat iv e t o conf ron t ot h er s w hen t hey are not perf orm ing, or behaving, accor ding t o t eam r ules. Up > This inclu des t he ad minist rat ive assist an t callin id en t if y t hem . Usually, wh en p roblems are ident ified , t he t eam mem bers in volv ed in t h e solu t ion get t oget her b rief ly af t er t he int egr at ion m eet ing. The proj ect m anager' s p ar t icipat ion is anot her d elicat e f act or in successful int egr at ion m eet ings. Th e obj ect iv e of t hese m eet ing s is coor din at ion, n ot st at us rev iew . When m an ag er s b eg in asking quest ions lik e " Why didn' t t hat t ask get finish ed as p lanned?"t eam m em bers feel pr essur e, som et im es sub t le, som et im es not so su bt le, t o conf orm t o t h e plan r at her t han discuss coord inat ion issues. The ast u t e PM r ep hrases t h e quest ion t o un cover imp ed im ent s t o pr ogr ess and find out wh at t eam m em ber s need fr om him t o get b ack on t r ack. Task perf orm ance p ressur e in t h ese int egr at ion m eet ings should com e f r om peers, not f r om m an er s. • Table of ag Contents Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

The meet in g f acilit at or' s r ole, which can be rot at ed fr om day t o day , is t o smoot h t h e pr ogr ess of t he By Jim ing Highsmit h Th e facilit at or might nud ge t h e t eam , "Th at ' s a gr eat poin t , bu t let ' s t ak e t he fu rt her m eet it self. discussion of fline fr om t his m eet ing ." Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Responses o tilhe Pu b Dat e: tApr 0 6,quest 2 00 4 ion " What im pedim ent s ar e in t he w ay of y our w ork ?" become act ion it em s f or t he t eam leader or pr oject m an ag er . I m pedim ent s may b e or ganizat ional—" We can't get a respon se fr om t h e I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 m ark et ing depar t m en t " —or t hey m ay be r esour ce relat ed—" We'r e hav in g t roub le g et t ing an elect ronic Pag es: 31 2 cir cuit b oar d we need "—or have some ot her cause. I t ' s t h e PM's job t o rem ov e t he im pediment as qu ick ly as possible. Daily t eam in t eg rat ion m eet ing s ar e a t ool f or self- or ganizat ion; t hey assist t he t eam m em b er s in coor din at ing t heir own w ork an d solving t heir own pr oblem s. As such, t he p roj ect m anager' s r ole sh ould " JimasHighsm it h ise on of a f ew He m odern w rit er sotwho helping t he new ing n at, uorrewof wor be unob t rusiv asepossible. should u se her fare orum s for gus at hunder er in g ststan atdu s, coach ork ingk in t he owled geon econom . "ance issu es. w it hkn t he t eam p er forym —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School As wit h an y ot her pr act ice, t he charact erist ics of t he d aily m eet in g ( m eet ing t ime, f r eq uency , and " This is t he wproj ect mtanagem t book we' ve ait ing for adapt —t he at book t hat effbe ectf or iv ely bindeliv es er y at t endees) ill need o ev olveenfor d if ferent sitall u atbeen ions. wOne su ch ion might t hecom core hod proj t . Not on lyt dfun oescttions his book uslym. ak e sense of p roj ect tAgile eam met m em berssand t o mr igor eet ous daily, whect ile m managem em ber s en f rom suppor join inhelp w eek m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good Ot h er" ad ap t at ions can be made for p roj ect s w it h m ult iple sub t eam s or f eat ure t eam s. I nt egr at ion r ead! m eetnn ings can bSr e .used e acr oss —Ly e Ellen, VP &t oCIcoor O, Ddin TEatEnerg y t h ese feat ur e t eam s, w it h app rop riat e ad ju st ment s. For exam ple, in a p roj ect w it h f our feat ur e t eams, t wo m emb er s of each t eam might at t end a t hr ice- week ly in t er- t eam in t egt hat rat ion m eet ingt.he Dur in g t im of es tof eat erSof coor dinat needs—say, at needed t he begin nin g of a of " Finally a b ook r econciles passion hegr Agile t war e mion ovem ent wit h t he disciplines pr oject wh en ov erall esign ar ep rov b eing discu ssed t eam managem ent .d Jim 's bissues ook has ided a ser v ice—int t o er all- of us. "m eet in gs m ight be daily , w hile lat er on t hey mR( igoy ht ) be w eek ly,. CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. —Neville Singham Finally t eam sh ould const antent ly ask qu esting ionsm(especially m ilest one t rev s) ylikme:an"ag Areer tshese " The w,ort he ld of pr oduct dev elopm is b ecom ore d yn am at ic and uncer ain.iew Man cop edaily by tr eam in t eg rat ion m eet ing s adding v alue t oion t he proj ?" honing and " How could weisn't im prwove t hem?" The it h einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at , or f urect t her cost s. This ork in g. Highsm br illian t ly guides int o ans is altcoor ernatdin iveat tion, hat n f itot s thhe t im obj ect iv e of t heseussession av in g es." daily m eet ings or an swer ing t he t hr ee quest ion s (—Pr accom p lish , plan im pedim for tDy h eir owics/ n sak e. tThose acteloping iv it ies mPreroduct ely f acilit at e ach inge t he est on G.edSm it h, ned, pr incipal, Newent Prs) oduct nam coau hor , Dev s in Half t h eiev Tim obj ect iv e. Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows< wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly Day Day Up > addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Practice: Participatory Decision Making Objective •

Table of Contents

Agi P r oj ective M a nag em eicipat nt: Cr eor a tiyng I nn ov a timak ve Prin oduct Thele object of part decision g isst o pr ov ide t he pr oj ect com mu nit y wit h specif ic pract ices tBy o Jim fr am e, m ak e, an d analyze t he m y riad d ecisions t hat ar ise dur ing a p roj ect . Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Discussion Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

The lack of 31 adequat e d ecision- m ak ing pr ocesses in or ganizat ion s is ev ident in a cou ple of quot es fr om Pag es: 2 client s I 'v e w or ked w it h in t h e past f ew y ear s. " That on e decision- gr adient diag ram [ Figur e 7 .4 ] w as t h e m ost imp ort ant piece of t he t w o- day consu lt ing session, " said a pr oduct developm en t VP clien t r ecen t ly . " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessorFi , Harv School Gr a di e nt gu rard e 7Business .4 . D ecision " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " IThe t 's dwifor ficult elopm en ing m anagem t akicesand w eek s t o t ain. m ak eMan k ey decisions, lameent ld oft oprspeed oduct up devdev elopm entent is bwh ecom m ore den ynt am uncer y m an ag er s "cop by ed an I rorcing ish devpr elopm ent manager w hoseent com pany ecut ar e incost Silicon Valley r einf ocesses, adding docum at ion , or ex f ur t herives honing s. This isn't. w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." "—Pr Ou rest pron oject anagers are lik eNew a herd of deer st anding on tt he way w it h Pr a oduct t ract ort r ailer bear G. m Sm it h, pr incipal, Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau horh, igh Dev eloping s in Half tt hruck e Tim e in g dow n on t hem, " said one pr oject t eam mem ber . " They can't f igu re ou t w hich w ay t o jum p , but if t hey don decide , w e' e going t o pert get srubrn ing ov sert." Now't, one of tsoon he f ield 's rlead ing ex oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly As I essing t rek ar ound t he ion worsldprof pr odu ct ag dev an dt Ag proj I 'm em conatt inu allyinam azed addr t he quest oject m an erelopm s r aiseent abou ileect ap m pranagem oach es. en Het , syst ically t rod ucesat how lit t le or ganizat ions t hin k about t heir d ecisionm ak ing pr ocesses. Many of t hem pu t t im e and en t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . er gy in t o erage p rocesses lik e t im e r ecord ing and v ir t ually ig nor e decision m ak ing . How ev er, in a f ast -p aced agile Cov includes: pr oject , d ecision m aking—lik e ot h er act ivit ies—m ust be d one qu ick ly an d ef fect iv ely . Slow decision m aking, rev isit ing decisions ag ain an d again, ov er- analy zing decision s, and poor par t icipat ion in t h e Six m prak inciples of Agile Prdoject em,ent decisioning pr ocess will oom Man a prag oj ect as poor decisions cascade int o a f lood of addit ion al decisions. How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies How ev er, decision m ak ing can im pr ove, and it can be p ar t icipat or y, as t he GE j et engine p lant in Put,t ing omolina, ers atprt ov hees. cen"tAt er GE/ of you pr oject w here t hey is belong Dur ham Nor tcust h Car Durrham, ev ,ery decision eit her an A decision, or a B decision, or a C decision, " w r it es Char les Fishm an ( 1999 ) in an ar t icle in Fast Com pany . " An A decision is one t hat Cr eatming ader ap mak t iv e es t eam t hat wit respon q uick lyin tgoany ch an gesBindecisions y our p rojarect " ecosy t he plant an ag hersself, hout dconsult one. e 's also m adst e em by "t he plant m anager, b ut wit h inp ut f r om t he people af fect ed. C decisions—w hich m ake up t he m ost comm on Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't t y pe—are m ade by consensus, by t h e people direct ly inv olved, wit h plent y of discu ssion. " Usin g t his sy st em , t he plant m anager only m akes 10 t o 1 2 " A" decision s in a year and spends sign if icant t im e APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close exp lain ing t h ose t o t h e st aff . APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet The ar t icle goes on t o addr ess t he ver y cru cial issue t hat ar ises in discussing self- or ganizing t eams: Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

What is t he r ole of a plan t m anager in a place t hat m anages it self? I f t he p lant need s a m anager lik e < Day Day Up > Sim s t o m ak e ju st 1 0 d ecisions a y ear , w hat does she d o w it h t h e bulk of her t im e? She does t he kinds of t hings t hat m ost m anagers t alk abou t a lot but t hat t h ey act u ally spend ver y lit t le t im e on . At t h e oper at ional lev el, h er j ob is t o k eep ev ery one's at t en t ion f ocu sed on t he goals of t he plant : Make perf ect engin es, quickly , cheaply , saf ely. St r at egically , t h e plan t m anager 's job is t o m ak e sur e t h at t he p lant as a w hole is m ak ing sm art decisions ab out t alen t , about t im e, and about oppor t un it ies for grow t h ( Fishm an 1 999 ) . These m anagem en t r oles ar e analogou s t o t he coaching and t eam d ev elop ment pr act ices I d iscussed ear lier in t his ch ap t er . Oh, and t he GE/ Dur ham p lant is a m odel of ef f ect iveness an d ef ficiency . On e of t he • Table of Contents cr it ical sk ills wor k er s have t o lear n t here is h ow t o f unct ion as par t of a h igh - perf orm ance t eam . Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

By EvJim en Highsmit au t horshCarl Lar son an d Fr an k LaFast o ( 1 989) , w ho at least recognize t he im por t ance of decision m aking, don' t delve int o how t o act ually im p rov e t he pr ocess. Th ey do, h owev er , ob ser v e, " The t hir d set of leader ship prison in ciples, Pu blisher: Add Wesley and we believ e t h e m ost imp ort ant , clearly focu s at t ent ion on t he creat ion of a supp ort iv e decisionm4ak ing clim at e. " They also point out t h at achiev in g a goal requ ir es change, t h at Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 changeI SBN: requ0-ir32 es1- decisions b e m ad e, and t hat m ak ing decisions inv olves r isk . Wit hout a safe en vir onm en t 219 77 -5 in w hich t eam m em bers can t ak e r isk s, eff ect iv e decision mak in g w ill be st y m ied. Pag es: 31 2

At it s core, collabor at ion is ab out decision m aking. We can t alk, share ideas, and debat e issu es, but in t he f inal analy sis decisions m ust be m ade—about desig n, about f eat ur es, about t r ad eof fs, ab out a host of issu es. Collab orat ion isn't t alk in g, it 's deliver in g, and deliv er in g m eans m ak ing d ecisions. A par t icipat ory decision- m ak ing pr ocess can be useful f or lar ger gr oups or f or t wo in div iduals—t h e pr ocess and t he "issu Jimes Highsm is on eFur of taher f ew me, odern s ep who are us m under st an d t he new u re of less wor k in are t hitehsame. mor w hilew rit t heer st s of t h helping e decisionak ing process may npat roceed tf orm he kn owled geeen econom y." ally bet w t w o individuals t han t hey w ould in a gr oup, t he em phasis on sust ainable, w in- w in —Rob Austbased in, Assist an t Preofessor ard Business School decisions on debat and fu ,ll Harv par t icipat ion r em ain s k ey. "On This is t heional proj ect m anagem en tPart book we'or vey all been wmak ait ing —t book effes) ect iv binfres e definit point is crit ical: icipat decision in gfor ( ev erhe y one p art that icipat isely diffcom er ent om Agile met hod s and rm igor m anagem t . Not d oes book sense p roj consensus decision ak ous ing (proj ev erect y one v ot es inenf avor ) . on Thely lat t er tishis t oo slowhelp andus isnm't ak apeprop riatof e in m ect any m in t hwisher cu e rr ent orerg ld of at iv in crem ent al Agile m et limit hods,t he buteff it ect ' s an all- ar ound pr anagement oject sit uat ions t he w div en it ceerof ide, eas an d op inions would iv eness of t hegood m ak ing pr ocess. Th e cr it ical elem ent isn' t consensu s bu t sust ainabilit y : Will t h e t eam rdecisionead! " consist t ly imSr plem ent s tEnerg hat arye m ade? Par t icipat ion leads t o su st ainabilit y m ore ef ficient ly and —Ly nn eenEllen, . VP & decision CI O, D TE eff ect iv ely t h an consensus. I n consensus decision m ak ing ev er y one v ot es on t he decision, and no " Finally acan b ook hatplem r econciles t hehout passion of t he Agile SofI nt war m ovem wit h t he neededt eam disciplines ofs decision be t im ent ed wit a u nanim ous v ot e. paret icipat oryent decision m aking, mem ber pr oject managem . Jim 'sp rocess, b ook has a sermvanager ice t o allmof par t icipat e in t he ent decision bupt rov t h eided pr oject ay us. act"ually m ak e t h e decisions, or t he —Neville isR(made oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought nc. decision by a p repon derance ofWor t h ekvs,otIe. " The w or lddecision of pr oduct ore d yn and uncer Man mices. an agWhile er s cop e by No d oubt m akdev ing elopm is har ent d, b is ut bitecom is m ing ade mharder t ham an ic necessar y b tyain. poor pr yact r" rat einfional" orcingdecision pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it haking m aking m ay be a fant asy , t her e are p ract ices t hat can assist p roj ect t eams in m br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." bet t er, im plement able decisions. Th ree elem ent s comp ose a decision pr ocess: d ecision f ram ing , decision —Pr est onanG. it h, prr incipal, New nam ics/ coau hor ,gDev oduct Half twh h e ile Tim e m aking, d dSm ecision et r ospect ion .PrFroduct am ingDyest ablishes " wt ho" et s eloping in volv edPrin t h e sprinocess, decision mak in g est ablishes " h ow" t he " w hos" g o about m aking a decision. Ret r ospect ion pr ov id es one int of ot he 's leadm ing s br ing As s t oget erhall t he k pr now e decisionand resour y ou eed t o muse fNow eedb, ack t hef ield d ecisionakex ingpert pr ocess. w it hhot er APM actledg ices, m ces aking pr nact ices ust APM y our p roj Jim plify Highsm it h sh ows APM ould bet eam in ever m anager' , t h oroug be iminplem entnex ed twit h tect he. Sim principle in m wh ind y; ot hersh wise t he willy end up w itsht oolkit j ust anot h er hly addr essing ion s pr an oject mms. an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces un wieldy sett he of quest pr oced ures d f or t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes:

Decision Framing Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent The int ent of t he oft en over used t er m " em pow er m en t " is t o delegat e d ecision- m aking aut hor it y t o lower t o an cap it alize emer gingg wn ho ew m prakes oductdecision developm en t t echnologies s. Decision f ram in g focuses on w ho get s in volv ed lev elsHow of org izat ions on by ch an gin in t h e decision p rocess. Managers w ho m ak e decisions w it hout in put fr om sub ordinat es and peers m ak e Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong poor d ecisions. Eng ineers wh o m ak e decisions w it hout inp ut fr om m anagers an d p eer s m ake poor decisions. Who m ak es t h e decision is less imp ort ant t han get t in g t he r igh t p eop le inv olv ed in t he d ecision Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " pr ocess. Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't How ev er, fr aming in volv es m ore t h an " w ho" ; it also m ean s considering t he v alu es and principles t hat par t icipant shearphases: e. Wit h out t h ese shared values in ciples, pr oject t eam s w ill have dif f icult y r eaching APM'ss fiv En vision, Speculat e, Expand lor e,prAdapt , Close sust ain ab le d ecisions. The agile v alu es and pr inciples ar t icu lat ed in ear lier chapt ers, w het her adop t ed v er batAPM im or adapt ed including for a specific oroduct ganizat ion, arBox e v itand al t oProj you r decisionm ak ing process. Th er e is a pract ices, t he Pr Vision ect Dat a Sheet hier arch y of decision- m ak ing crit er ia—v alu es an d principles, p rodu ct v ision, and pr oj ect t r ad eof f m at r ix, as w ell aserdagin et ailed cr rit er ia skills such as designenv p ar ametent er ss ( e.g ., usabilit y ) . Team s t hat fail t o agr ee on Lev g you PMI in Agile ir onm

pr in ciples—ex plicit ly —w ill h av e p rob lem s m aking sust ain ab le d ecisions as pr oject s prog ress. < Day Day Up >

The next t ask in f ram in g d ecisions in volv es ident if ying t y pes of decisions t hat n eed t o b e m ade. For exam ple, in an ag ile pr oject , r eplann ing occur s at t he end of each it erat ion or m ilest one. Replan nin g oft en in volv es m ak ing t radeof f decision s—schedule v er sus cost v ersus feat ur es. Proj ect s shou ld in clude a def ect t riage decision fr amew ork , which is basically asking and an swer ing t he quest ion , " I s t his pr odu ct r eady t o r elease?" For each decision t y pe, t yp ical fr aming quest ions ar e: •

Table Who is im pactofedContents b y t he d ecision ?

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

need By Jim Who Highsmit h s

t o pr ovide inpu t t o t he d ecision?

Who should b e in volv ed in t h e discussions about t he d ecision?

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e:should Apr il 0 6,m2 00 Who ak4e

t he d ecision ( t he prod uct m anager , t he proj ect m anager, t he p roj ect t eam , t he 32 1- 219 77 -5w it h t h e t eam , et c. ) ? prI SBN: oject0- manager Pag es: 31 2

What d ecision cr it eria shou ld be u sed ? How and t o w hom should t he decision result s be comm u nicat ed? Who should r eview t he d ecision? " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn y . " ions w ill in volv e sev er al ov erlapping grou ps of ind iv idu als. For exam ple, t here The anowled sw ersge t o econom t hese quest —Rob in, Assist t Pr ofessor Harved ardbyBusiness School m ay beAust a wide g roupanof p eop le im, pact t he decision, but only select ed individuals f rom t hose gr oups m ay be con t act ed for inp ut . Ev er yon e wh o p rov id es in put t o a decision m ay not be inv olv ed in t he "discussions This is t he proj ectt hose m anagem en t book we'arvee m allany been w ait ing tfor t hatt eam eff ect ely er com bin est hu s about d ecisions. There decisions hat—tbhe orebook proj ect mivemb s, and Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of t hey d on't w an t t o be inv olv ed, w hile t hey do want t o b e heard on ot her decisions. Sort ing out t hep roj ect m in t h is scushould rr ent wbe or tldh eofresult it er atof iv e,car ineful cremt hent Agile but itber ' s sanand all- tar good v aranagement ious inv olv ement inkal ing by tm h eetthods, eam mem heound p roj ect and rpread! " oduct m an ag er s. —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y Team m em ber s of t en f eel isolat ed fr om decision processes, not k now ing w hen, w hy , or h ow decisions g et " Finally a b ook decisions t hat r econciles of t he Sof t.war e m, ovem t heen needed disciplines m ade. Making is on lyt he p arpassion t of im plem entAgile ing t hem Rapid eff ectent iv e wit im ph lem t at ion requ ir es a of pr oject managem ent . t Jim b ook ided a ser vwit iceh t tohe allr elevant of us. " in for m at ion, gat hered t oget her at par t icipat ory p rocess h at 'sinv olv eshas t hep rov right people, —Neville t he right tR( imoy e.) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. "Many The wcom or ldpanies of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ore am on ic and uncer t ain. prMan y m antag er sd ecision cop e by and pr oject m anagers spending farmm or ed yn t ime d ev elop ment ocesses han rmeinf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it hin d t o aking, wh ich br ing s t o mind a r acecar engine r unn ing on increasing ly v iscous sludge. Bot h w ill gr br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." a h alt . Fram ing is t h e first st ep in get t in g t h e slu dge ou t of y our decision -m ak ing p rocess. —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use Decision Making APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces APMions, fr amdecision ew or k, tm hen present s specific, prinov lose en t ools or ever pr oject icip t . ocess It he n mfiveany phase or ganizat aking is v iewed as a w p ropfosit ion . yPart icip anpart t s in t han e pr Cov includes:ed v iew of t he r ig ht answ er, an d t heir appr oach is t o arg ue as loudly as p ossible unt il hav eerage a p reconceiv t he opposit ion gives up. Par t icipat ory decision m aking f ocu ses on win- w in—or "b ot h/ and" rat her t han " eit her / or. " Win- win decision m ak ing f ocuses on m ut ual und er st anding rat h er t h an loud post ur in g. Th is Six t pr of Agile Pr ed oject Man ag embut enta d iscussion f ocused on t r y ing t o und er st and t he shouldn' iminciples ply a lack of heat discu ssion un derlying issues rat her t h an debat ing pr eor dain ed posit ion s. Part icipat or y decision mak in g can be How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies cont ent ious but civ il, based on m ut u al t rust and respect . I t mov es t eam s bey ond com prom ise t o r econ ceiving. Par t icipat or y decision mak in g is a process of reconceiv in g a solut ion t o a prob lem b ased on Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong in for m at ion fr om all t eam m em bers. Comp rom ise im plies g iv in g u p on e id ea for anot h er (and of t en r esu ltCr s in ferior decisions) ing dimp lieslya tjooining of idineas. eatining ad ap t iv e t eam; sr econceiv t hat respon q uick ch an ges y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Collabor at ionp roj is ect hard. n bseemingly intAPM—an erm inable Which s wIill en ef it f rom d wmeet hichinwgs, on'tt eam m emb er s of t en flounder in t he " gr oan zone, " aut hor Sam Kaner 's ( 1 996) wond er f ul t erm for t h e t im e p er iod in wh ich m eet ing part icipant s st r uggle t o und st and each ot her .Speculat While me,any hav e , hear d of t h e f am ous t eam pr ogression APM's fiv eerphases: En vision, Exppeople lor e, Adapt Close pr ocess " for m ing , st or ming, nor ming, perf or ming" ( or, mor e apt ly at t im es, for m ing , st or ming, t hr ash ing , cr ashing) Kan erices, ' s m including odel consist ofoduct t he div erg enBox t zone, he grect oan zon e, an d finally t he con ver gin g zon e. APM, pract t hes Pr Vision andt Proj Dat a Sheet Ther eLev areertagin wo obj ect rives ainstinwh ich any g you PMIagskills Agile env irdecisiononm ent sm aking pr ocess m ust b e ju dged. Fir st , d oes t he

pr ocess r esult in t he b est choice given t he circu mst ances in wh ich t he decision w as m ade? Second , w as < Day Day Up > t he decision imp lem en t ed? As m any pr oj ect m an ag er s h av e f ound ou t t he hard w ay, mak in g and im p lem en t ing decisions ar e t w o dif fer en t t h ing s. How m an y t imes have you encoun t er ed d ecision s m ade w it hin t he con fines of a con ference room t hat f all com plet ely ap ar t wh en t he part icipant s w alk out t he door ? Any one can mak e a d ecision , but eff ect iv e m anagers grasp t hat im plem ent at ion r equires p eop le t o un derst and and suppor t t he d ecision. A part icipat or y decision- m aking pr ocess has t h ree com ponent s: pr inciples, fr am ew ork , and pr act ices. The f undam ent al pr inciples have just been allud ed t o: viewing t he p rocess as a win- w in pr ocess and t reat in g all par t icipant s wit h respect . All collab orat iv e p ract ices ar e based on t rust and respect , or p er haps m ore pr ild ing t r ust an d respect . [ 5] Kan er 's diver ge- groan- conv er ge m odel pr ovides a fr amew ork • ecisely , on bu Table of Contents fAgi or lebuilding t hese posit iv e r elat ion ship qu alit ies. I n t h e diver ge- groan- con ver ge f ram ewor k , t he t ransit ion P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s f rom t he div er gent zone t o t he con ver gent zon e exp lain s how t eam m em bers m ove fr om hav in g By Jim Highsmit h in div idual opinion s t o having a u nif ied posit ion. At f ir st , people's ideas d iv er ge. Even t hou gh each person w an t s t o cont r ibu t e t o success and t o m aking a q uick d ecision , each w an t s t o v oice h is or her own Pu blisher: Addone ison Wesley opinion . Ev ery has a d if fer en t per spect iv e or a dif fer en t ex perience, wh ich br in gs n eeded diver sit y t o b Dat e: Apr 0 6, 2 00bu 4 t n ot m uch agr eem ent . This g roaning period t ak es t im e, t im e f or people t o speak t he Pu decision prilocess and hear, e 1f or I SBN:t im 0- 32 219t hem 77 -5 t o build t r ust . A lit t le ex t r a t ime ( it ' s not really ex t ra, b ut it seem s as if it is) t ak en Pag on es: decision m ak ing in t he early st ages of a p roj ect w ill sign if icant ly redu ce t im e as t he p roj ect 31 2 cont inues. [ 5]

The i dea of bui lding tr ust m ay seem counter to t he ear lier stat em ent that m anager s either tr ust or don't t rust. Howev er , a m anager can beli eve in t rusting team mem ber s but also under st and that the level of tr ust m ust be ear ned thr ough act ions. People are pr edisposed to t rust or not tr ust , but they st ill want proof of t hat pr edi sposi tion.

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in Conv erg en ce occur s as t h e in div idual id eas ar e int egrat ed in t o a w hole solu t ion . Conv erg en ce, done t he kn owled ge econom y . " cor rect ly , d oes not necessar ily m ean t hat ev ery one is in com plet e agr eem ent but t hat ev ery one has —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School par t icipat ed and w ill su ppor t t he f inal decision. Th e goal is not m er ely agr eem ent but " sust ain ab le agr eem posit ion. " This is ent t he" —a projun ectif ied m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect The t ransit ion per iod bet w een diver gence and conv ergence, t h e gr oan zon e, is t he t im e dur in g w hich m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good t eam m em ber s g roan an d com plain. I n t he div er gent zon e, most gr oup m em b er s v oice t heir op inions t o r ead! " m ake su re t he gr oup hears t heir ideas. Much of t his t im e could b e considered pr esent at ion, du ring wh ich —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y m emb er s ar e less concer ned w it h und er st anding each ot her t h an w it h selling t h eir ow n ideas. Part icipant s t hey are in g t o un and one oteher, an d ent u nder dinneeded g r equires t hough tof . "begin Finallyt oagrb oan ook because t hat r econciles t het ry passion of derst t he Agile Sof tan war m ovem witsth an t he disciplines Iprt oject is r elat iv ely easy t o t ak e a posit ion an d ar gue for it . I t is m uch m or e diff icult t o at t emp t t o und er st and managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " w hy ot herR(part an t s hold t heir inions. —Neville oy ) icip Singham , CEO, Thop ought WorPar k s,t icipant I nc. s w ant t o ask qu est ions, t h ey want t o be heard , t hey w ant t o—part icip at e. Th e gr oan zon e pr ovides a perf ect descript ion of wh at happens in m ost t eam s; it is awt or u rbu lent herelopm e in nov at iv creat ing iv e rm esu ar eam g en at ed . " The ld of pr zone oductwdev ent ise,b ecom orelt sd yn ic er and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h On e of t tlyheguides best t ools t est ing how decision ocess br illian us intf or o an alt ernat ivet he t hat f it s t heprt im es." is pr oceeding, an d f or arr iv ing at t he decision it self, is a decision g radien t t h at r ep laces t he f am iliar y es- no v ot A decision gr adien as show n ine —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , ing Dev. eloping Pr oduct s in t ,Half t h e Tim Figur e 7 .4 , g iv es par t icipant s m or e opt ions: in fav or; OK, b ut wit h reserv at ions; m ix ed f eelin gs; not in fNow av or, ,one but of w ill comm o iming plement ; sv et allh er part plot t h eir respon sesces on yaou line w it ht ot huse ese t he f ieldit's tlead ex pert bro. ingWhen s t oget allicipant t he k snow ledg e and resour n eed gr adat ions, t he ent ire t eam get s t o view it s collect iv e opinion . The t eam can t hen ad dr ess issues lik e APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly taddr r ying t o under an d ion t hes per son wmho eter oed t he decision y ing t o und st and m any p eop le ar e essing t he st quest pr oject anvag s r aise abou t Agorilet rap pr oach es.erHe syst wh emyatso ically in t rod uces clu st er ed ar ound " m ix ed feelings. " Vot ing—or act u ally , t h e discu ssions about wh y t he v ot ing was one w ay t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . or anot her —leads t o a d eeper u nderst and ing of t h e issues an d ev ent ually t o anot her v ot e. Decision Cov erage includes: gr adient s m ak e f or bet t er discussion and m ore ef fect ive, su st ainable decisions. [ 6] [ 6]

Kaner ( 1996) for mor infor m ation SixSee pr inciples of Agile Pr eoject Man agon emdecisi ent on gr adi ents.

WhenHow some ( m an er , tgin echn designat ed t he decision m aker , a p repon derance of t o person cap it alize onag emer g nical ew leader) pr oductisdevelopm en t as t echnologies agr eem ent am ong par t icipat ing t eam m emb er s is h elpf ul but not essen t ial. But when a t eam as a wh ole is t hePut decision m aker , w at hatt he actcen ions aftyou a sust ab ,lewdhere ecision? many people' s m in ds, consensus has t ing cust om ers t ercr of r prain oject t heyI n belong com e t o mean " unanimou s," an d I t oo w as using t he u nanim ou s connot at ion ear lier in t his sect ion. But consensus hasad anot ef in its ion cor respon hean idea prepon of agstreement am ong Cr eat ing ap thivere d t eam t hatt hat respon d q uickds ly ttoo tch ges of in ay our p rojderance ect 's " ecosy em " par t icipant s. I nt el is one com pany kn own f or it s at t en t ion t o d ecision m aking. I n t el em phasizes decision Which p roj w illploy b en ef it and f romt he APM—an d w hich w on't m aking t rainin g ect f or sem ees, com pany focuses on decision fr aming and decision- m ak in g on a r eg ular basis. I n t el has an en grained d ecision- m ak ing cult ur e in w hich t h e ph rase " disag ree and com m it " APM's fiv Iet phases: Speculat Exp lor e, wAdapt is oft en used. m eans t En hatvision, som eone m ighte, disag ree it h a ,dClose ecision, but he w ill com m it him self t o it s im p lem en t at ion. APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet This non unanim ous t y pe of consensus is b uilt on t h e follow in g prem ises: Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

Day Day Up > Ev ery one has had an op por t unit y t o have

A good pr oject m anager has t o be a v ision ar y , a t eacher, a m ot iv at or , a f acilit at or, an d ot h er t hin gs, bu t she m u st also be a decision m aker . The sam e is t r ue of ch ief engineer s for t echnical issues. So t he qu est ion becom es, at wh at point d oes a m anager' s d ecision m ak ing damage self- or ganizat ion? First , w hen t he t eam loses respect f or t he leader. But w hat cau ses loss of respect ? The answ er: when t he m anager begin s m aking unilat er al d ecisions. The m or e unilat eral decisions, t he less part icipat ion fr om t he t eam, t he less lik ely t he decision s are t o b e eff ect iv ely imp lem en t ed . Ev ery t eam and sit uat ion are dif fer ent , so t here isn' t a quant it at iv e answ er t o t he quest ion of h ow m an y •un ilat er al d ecisions Table ofare Contents t oo m any . Howev er, ev en t hough p resent in g absolut e n um bers risk s Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

m isint erp ret at ion , I t hink t h e follow ing guidelines m ay help def ine ap prop riat e " lev els" of m anagem en t t h at w ill cont in ue t o fost er self - org an izat ion . For b ot h manager s and chief eng ineer s, t his r ough guide is on e unilat er al d ecision ever y m ont h or t w o, t hr ee t o four decision s per m ont h w it h t eam in volv em entAdd , an d tWesley h en d eleg at e t he h undr eds of ot her decisions t o t he t eam . I n pract ice, few good Pu blisher: ison m anagers mak e com plet ely unilat eral decisions—t h ey norm ally t alk issues over w it h at least k ey Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 m emb er s of t heir t eam. But occasionally t her e is a need t o get t hings mov ing by m aking a u nilat er al I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 decision. I n t hat sam e v ein, it is ap pr opriat e f or pr oject m anagers and chief engineers t o m ak e cert ain Pag es: 31 2 decisions wit h t eam p ar t icipat ion , bu t if t hey are mak in g m or e t han t hr ee or f our of t hese d ecisions per m ont h, ev en wit h t eam inv olvem ent , t h ey ar e pr obably t oo ab sorbed in t h e det ails. decision mak hin g By Jim Highsmit

Anot h er issue r elat ed t o m anagement decision mak in g is t h e leader 's j ob of absorb ing am big uit y. I n f ast m ov ing pr oduct dev elopm ent ef for t s in wh ich k ey decision s m ust be m ade q uick ly, consen sus unanim ous)itdhecision bu t w evrit ener ps ar t icipat decision m ak ing can m ir ed discu ssion "( Jim Highsm is on e m ofak a ing f ew fails, m odern who areory helping us under st an d t get he new n atinu re of wor k in and debat e. Many pr odu ct dev elopm ent issues, b ot h t echn ical and ad minist rat iv e, m ay be fuzzy an d t he kn owled ge econom y . " am big uous. I nAssist t heseancases, once ,par t icipat has evSchool olv ed t o a cer t ain point , m anagers hav e t o b e w illin g —Rob Aust in, t Pr ofessor Harv ard ion Business t o mak e f inal decisions. " Well, t he inf or mat ion av ailab le t o us isn' t cr y st al clear , bu t in order t o m ove "f orw Thisard is tw heit hproj t heect proj mect anagem , w e' llen go t book in t h iswe' dirve ectall ion. been " w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect Good leaders hav crld edib y at t oivm t hese t echbut nicalit 'st espect t h egood leader' s m anagement in t heisear cuned rr entt he w or of ilit it er e,ake in crem entdecisions. al Agile m The et hods, s aff an rallar ound rj udgm ead! " ent ( based on pr ev ious act ions t ak en) , par t icipat e in t h e analy sis an d d eb at e pr ocess, and w illingly accep e decision in &ord m ov e on.y Th e leader has absor bed t he am biguit y of t he sit uat ion, w her eas —Ly nnt et hEllen, Sr . VP CIer O, t o D TE Energ leav ing t h e decision t o consensus wou ld hav e bog ged t h e pr oject dow n in int er m inable debat e. Good k now st ep in and ake charge an Agile d when en courage o t ake ch ar disciplines ge. Th ey also "leader Finallys a b ookw then hat tr oeconciles t he tpassion of t he Soft ot war e m ovemt he ent t eam wit h t he needed of k now t o d ig ent in t .o Jim w hy's tbeam ak ing isn' t w or it "shou ld. pr ojectw hen managem ook decision has p rov m ided a ser v ice t o king all ofasus. —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by Setand Delay-Based Decision Making r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." I—Pr f weest want t o Sm b uild t iv e t eam and pr oduct s, not ly dt hor o w,eDev need a par Pr t icip at ory ak ing on G. it h,ad prap incipal, News Pr oduct Dy nam ics/on coau eloping oduct s ind ecisionHalf t h emTim e pr ocess, but w e also n eed t o look at crit er ia for d ecision m aking t hat en cou rage ex per im ent at ion . Poin t based engof ineer dom inat es ent . Point - based v iew s desig a Now , one t heing f ield 's lead ing cur ex rent pert sprbroduct ing s tdev ogetelopm h er all t he k now ledg e eng and ineering resour ces y ou n eed nt oasuse series decisions each decision narr s tyhe optsh ionould s f orbe fu in rt hever er d yecision s, and he pr,odu ct APM inofy our nex t p in rojwh ectich . Jim Highsm it h sh owsowwh APM m anager' s t toolkit t h oroug hly pr ogressing esses tinhea quest st eady fr om a ag gleam in t habou e m art kAg etile er 'sapeye t o aes. f in al rod uct addr ionf sash prion oject m an er s r aise pr oach Hep syst em.at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Toy a up set t his apple cart , at least as it pert ains t o t he au t om ot iv e indust r y 's design pr ocess. Toy ot a' s Cov ot erage includes: appr oach, set - based concu rr ent eng ineering ( SBCE) , prov ides a n ew insight in t o pr odu ct desig n. SBCE oper at es on t w o fun dam en t al con cept s: post pon e desig n d ecisions as lat e as possib le and m ain t ain "set s" Sixn pr inciples Agile Pr oject ag em ent of desig solut ions of t hrou ghout t he Man maj orit y of t h e design p rocess. How alize on emer n ew mprunicat oducting developm enst tof echnologies " SBCE assut omcap es tithat r eason ing gin andg com about set id eas leads t o m ore robu st , opt im ized sy st em s an d g reat er over all eff icien cy t han wor k ing w it h on e id ea at a t ime, ev en t hough t h e in div id ual t ing cust ers at, "t he t er wofaryou pr oject w here hey belong d K.r Sob ek , ,Allen C. t Ward , and Jef fr ey K. Lik er ( 1999 ) . Rat her st eps Put m ay look inom ef f icient wr itcen e Dur t han conv erge on a design " answ er , " Toy ot a's en gin eer s m aint ain set s of design s. For a part icular car Cr,eat ingmad apt t m iv eaint t eam t hat uickions ly t o tch our p roj ectand 's " ecosy stup ems"f or t he pr oject t hey igh ain ssix alt respon er nat iv de qsolut h ataninges cludine ypr ot ot y pes m ockexh au st sy st em desig n. Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't Unlik e point r equirem ent s, set - based r equirem en t s f ocus on r anges or m inim u m const r aint s. So t he body APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close desig n g rou p w ould im pose a crit er ia " range" on t h e exh au st sy st em, k eeping t he t olerances as broad as possible in t he b eg inn ing and nar row in g t hem ov er t im e as t h e car ap pr oaches manu fact ur in g. As t he APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet bod y design and ex haust sy st em desig ns ev olv e, engineers ar e m or e lik ely t o balance su bsy st em opt imLev izater ion w itgh you ov erall opt im izat ionir .onm I n aent poin agin r PMIv ehicle skills in Agile env s t - based appr oach, each su bsy st em t eam has a

t endency t o qu ick ly cr eat e opt imized d esigns for it s p ar t icular sub syst em t h at are oft en at odd s w it h < Day Day Up > ov er all sy st em desig n ef fect iv eness. Toy ot a's slow nar row in g of opt ion s ex t en ds ev en t o die m ak ing. Rat h er t han sp ecify precise part fit , desig ners specif y w ider t oler ances. The d ie m ak er s t hemselves cr eat e t he p ar t s, see h ow t hey act ually f it t oget her , and t hen sen d t he pr ecise m easu rem ent s b ack t o t h e design g roup s t o finalize t he d et ail CAD dr awings. En gin eer s, w het her of aut om obiles or com put er s, t end t ow ar d point - based solut ion s—t hey analy ze t h e pr oblem , r ev iew t he con st raint s, and t hen design " t he" solut ion. Bu t t h er e ar e alw ay s mu lt iple design opt ions, and t he lar ger t he p rodu ct or p rodu ct f amily , t h e m ore likely t hat early design decision s w ill lock • Table of Contents t he t eam int o subop t im al solut ions. Main t aining m ult iple set s of solut ion s and delay in g f in al d esign Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s decisions, ev en t h ough it m ay appear t o b e in ef ficient , may in fact be f ast er and m ore ef ficient in t h e lon g By Jim As Highsmit h and his coaut h ors observ e, " Toy ot a considers a br oad er range of possib le d esigns and r un. Sobek delay s cer t ain decisions longer t han ot her aut om ot ive comp an ies d o, y et has w hat may b e t he fast est and Pu blisher: Addvehicle ison Wesley m ost ef ficient d ev elop ment cy cles in t he indust r y " ( Sobek et al. 19 99) . Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

< Day Day Up >

Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Practice: Daily Interaction with the Customer Team Objective •

Table of Contents

Agi le Pint r ojeract ect M aion nagw em e nt: a ti ng I nn a ti ve, Pr Daily it h t h Cr e ecust om erovt eam woduct hich sincludes t h e pr oduct m an ag er , h elps en su re t hat t h e dev elopm ent ef for t s st ay on t r ack t o meet t h e needs and ex pect at ions of t he cu st omer . By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Discussion Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

On e ofPag t he es: key 31 2 t enet s of APM is close in t er act ion w it h pr oduct m an ag er s and cust om er s. When d ealing w it h un cer t aint y , r isk , fluid r eq uir em en t s chang es, an d t echn ological f r ont ier s, pr oduct m an ag er s need t o be fully inv olv ed in id en t if y ing f eat ur es, specif y ing f eat ur e r equirem ent s, det er mining feat ur e pr ior it ies, m aking k ey t radeoff decision s ( cost , schedu le, et c. ) , dev eloping accept ance cr it er ia an d t est s, and m or e. Bein g t h e " cust om er" for an ag ile pr oject is not an in sign if icant job, but it m ay not need t o be f ull t im e. The key t o k eeping t he p roj ect m ov ing is v ery f r eq uent , if not daily, int er act ion in w hich t h e pr oject t eam " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in r eceiv es a const ant f low of inf or mat ion and d ecisions fr om t h e pr oduct m an ag er . [ 7] Wh ile in t er act ion w it h t he kn owled ge econom y . " cust om ers m ay be imp ort ant t o ot her t y pes of pr oject s, it is absolut ely essent ial wit h hig h ex plorat ion —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School f act or p roj ect s. " This [is t he proj ect m anagemdaily en t int book we' ve been w ait ingy or foreven —t he book tthat ivactice ely com bin es" 7] While, str ictly speaking, er action mayallnot be necessar possible, itli ngeff thiect s pr " fr equent Agile inter metaction hod s leaves and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of too m uch r oom for mi sint er pr etation. A m or e explicit ti tle such as " r egular , hi gh- fr equency p roj ect inter action" berrsomew enough over come the verbut bosity t heallphrase. I n t he long m anagement in woul t h isdcu ent what or ldm ore of itspecific, er at iv e,butinnot crem ent altoAgile m et hods, it ' sofan ar ound good r ead! "r un, I choose to stick w it h " daily " since it bet ter conv eys the sense of this pr actice. —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y I n b ot h general business and pr oduct or ganizat ion s, in div iduals oft en blan ch at t he p rospect of daily in t eract ion w it h t dev ent t eam s. As I not lier,Sof prod uct s of t en earneeded t wo hat s—an " Finally a b ook hat elopm r econciles t he passion of ed t heear Agile t war em m anager ovem ent wit h twhe disciplines of ext er nal m ar k et ing hat an d an in t ernal pr odu ct dev elopm ent one. Unfor t un at ely, t he ex t ernal dem ands pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " of t en ov err he int er nal ones,Thand t imWor e wkits, h It hnc. e dev elopm ent t eam suf f er s. When ex plor at ion fact ors —Neville R(id oye) t Singham , CEO, ought are low er an d d ev elop ment t eams possess pr oduct dom ain k now ledge, t he pr oj ect m igh t not suf fer as m uchwfrorom lack of int erdev actelopm ion bet w een he cuing st omer t eam s, bMan ut w " The ld of pr oduct ent is btecom m oreand d yndev am elopm ic and ent uncer t ain. y hen m anexp ag erlor s ing cop e by un cerorcing t aint y pr processes, ev ails, t his int eract ion is it al ult fim e success. Feedback cr it ical at ionit h r einf adding docum entv at iont o, or urat t her honing cost s. Thisisisn't w orkt oinex g. plor Highsm because, it hou t us it , int ex operiment s v eer f in ft itoscost and br illian t ly w guides an alt ernat ive of t hat t helyt im es."unp rodu ct iv e direct ions. —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Finally , t he proj ect m anager ( an d t he t eam in cer t ain cir cum st an ces) need s t o coordinat e n ot only w it h cust ers,ofbut h st ak er ss in t o obt ainallr equired resour ensur e supp . Dee Nowom , one t healso f ieldw'sitlead ingehold ex pert br ord ing sert oget h er t he k now ledg eces andand resour ces y ou nort eed t o use Hock ( 199 9) has a u niq ue per spect iv e on t he r esponsibilit ies of a m anager . The f ir st is t o m anage self , hly APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug w hich he defines as " One's own in t egrit y , char act er , et hics, kn owledge, w isdom , t em per ament , wor ds, addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces and act s. " The second is t o m anage t he people w ho have au t horit y ov er one—m an ag er s, su perv isor s, t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . execut iv es, regu lat ors, an d ot hers. Th e t hird is t o manage peer s, " t h ose over w hom we have no aut h orit y Cov erage includes: and wh o h av e n o aut hor it y ov er u s—associat es, com pet it ors, supplier s, cust om ers. " The response t o t his of m ag erMan ial rag esponsib Six pr inciples oflist Agile Pran oject em ent ilit ies, Hock repor t s, can oft en be p ar aphr ased as, " I f we do all t hat , w e w on' t h av e t im e t o manage subor din at es. " To w hich Hock say s, " Ex act ly ! " The mor e t eam s Howt hem t o cap it alize onless emer ginproj g n ew t t ene. echnologies m anage selv es, t he t he ect pr m oduct anagerdevelopm has t o inen t erv And t he mor e t im e t he proj ect m anager can spend m anagin g u pw ar ds an d out w ar ds—t hat is, managing t he p ar t icipant s out side t he Putt eam t ing —t cust erse at t he ivcen of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong pr oject heom mor ef fect e ht er e is. Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em "

Stakeholder Coordination Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom

APM—an d w hich w on't

e phases: vision,sibilit Speculat Exp lor e, coor Adapt , Close Anot hAPM's er projfiv ect m anagerEn respon y is ste,akeholder din at ion. Pr oj ect m an ag er s m u st secur e r esou rces and ensur e ong oing sup por t f or t he t eam . A pr oject t eam m ay need a com ponent fr om anot her ices, including t he Pr oduct ing Vision Box and Proj DatpaerSheet t eam APM or anpract ex t ern al su pplier. The account depar t ment m ayect need iod ic inf or mat ion. Ex ecut ives may need t o be br iefed on t he pr ogr ess of t he pr oject . Pr oject manager s w ho don' t ident ify each st ak ehold er Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

and in it iat e a coord inat ion p lan t o ensu re t h at each on e get s t h e serv ice he or she need s f rom t he t eam < Day Day Up > r un t he r isk of get t ing b lin dsid ed by a disgr unt led st ak eh older . Som e st ak eh older s cont r ib ut e t o t he pr oject ' s success, and ot her s can b e serious im pedim ent s—b ut t hey all hav e t o be m anaged. While m emb er s of t he pr oject t eam can assist , m anaging up and out is g en er ally t he responsibilit y of t he pr oject manager , w ho mu st shelt er t he t eam f rom t he som et im es cr azy polit ics of st ak eholder coor din at ion. [ 8] [ 8]

For some specific t ools for m anagi ng stakeholder r el ati onships, see ( Thom sett 2002) . < Day Day Up >



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Explore Summary Ex ploring is how agile t eam s ex ecu t e. Rat her t han st ep pin g t hrou gh a pr escr ipt iv e p lan, agile t eam s execut e t hr ough a ser ies of p lanned exp er im ent s, a ser ies of feat ur e deliv er ies, a ser ies of at t em pt s t o cr eat e a concret e f or mu lat ion of t h e pr oduct vision w it h in t he b ound ar ies of a business m odel. •

Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect a nag em e nt: ed Cr eby a ti ng I nn ov ti ve, Pr oduct s Ex ploring isMaccom plish comp etaent self -d iscip lined t eam s led b y com pet en t m anagers wh o cr eat e self organized env ironm ent s. Team m em bers wor k in a sem i- au t onom ous f ashion , st r iv in g t o m eet By Jim Highsmit h it er at ion plan s t hat t hey t hem selv es hav e had a hand in con st ru ct ing , m an ag ing t h eir ow n w or kload, collaborat ing t o g en er at e innov at iv e ideas, an d app ly in g sp ecific t echnical pract ices aim ed at building Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley adapt able pr oduct s t hat in t ur n f acilit at e t he ver y exp lor at ion pr ocess t hat t hey are em ploying. Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

0- 32 1-s219 77 -5 pr oduct manager s) are dir ect cont ribut or s t o t he t eam 's ex plor ing pr ocess. They Pr ojectI SBN: m anager ( and es: r31 encourPag age at2h er t han m ot iv at e; t hey are d em anding, but not arbit r ar y ; t hey em pow er t he t eam , but m ake cer t ain decisions t h em selv es; t h ey coach r at h er t han cr it icize; and t hey f acilit at e r at her t han com m an d. Ef fect ive ag ile pr oject manager s w ork hard t o unleash t he t alen t and abilit ies of t h eir t eams by f ocu sing t h eir eff ort s, molding ind iv id uals int o jelled t eam s, dev eloping each individual's capabilit ies, pr ov iding resour ces t o t he t eam , w ork in g wit h cu st om er s and st ak eh older s, and facilit at ing a ory itdhecision "par Jimt icipat Highsm is on e-m ofak a ing f ew pr mocess. odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in

t he kn owled ge econom y . " Any one wh o st ill believes t hat t h e pr oject manager 's role is t o b uy p izza and get out of t he w ay is —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School ig nor ing t he ab und an t r esearch on successful p roj ect s ov er t he last 15 or m or e y ear s. Conv ersely , one hoproj believ t h at pr oject managem mainly rescript ive tthat ask s, edely ules, r esource "any This is twhe ectes m anagem en t book we' veent all is been w aitab ingout forp—t he book effsch ect iv com bin es char t s, and pr eor dain ed plans w ill hav e a r ude aw akening t r ying t o ap ply t hese id eas t o v olat ile ct Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense ofp rodu p roj ect dev elopm ent proj ect s. m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y

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" Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

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Chapter 8. The Adapt and Close Phases Pr ogress •

Phase: Adapt Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

Pr act ice: Prod uct , Pr oject , an d Team Rev iew and Adapt ive Act ion

By Jim Highsmit h

Phase: Close Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Adapt and Close Sum mar y

Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

< Day Day Up >

Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Progress " Hi, May a," Her m an said as sh e picked up t he phone. " Ready f or anot her r ound ?" " Sur e, fire aw ay ," May a r eplied. •

Table of Contents

Agi le P ect ling M a nag em Cr ing e a ti ng I nn ess ov a tiusing ve Pr oduct s pr act ices. I don 't see accou nt abilit y . Wh en t hings "I'm strrojugg wit h etnt: rack p rogr agile change dur in g an it er at ion, you j ust replan . When develop er s don' t m eet t heir est im at es, y ou change By Jim Highsmit h v elocit y . How can m anagement hav e any conf id en ce in pr oj ect st at us?" Pu blisher: Add ison " Mainly because inWesley ev ery it erat ion w e d eliv er feat ur es t hat ar e t ang ible ev idence of prog ress. Whet her Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, m anagement lik es 2t00 he4 r esult s or not , t hey are confident in our st at us, " said May a. I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

" My mPag anagement j ust w ant s t o see bu dget and schedu le r epor t s," said Her m an . es: 31 2 " But how can t hey r eally k now you r st at u s if t hey don 't t alk t o y ou? I sit dow n w it h m y b oss and t he pr oduct m an ag er , and w e discuss issues in d ep t h. I t ry h ar d t o u nder st an d t h e bu siness d river s, and m y boss get s an ear fu l ab out t he t echnical ch alleng es fr om m y t echn ical folks. We joint ly decid e on how t o adapt goin g f or war d, usu ally wit h sch ed ule as t he h igh est pr ior it y . " " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in kn owled ." "t he Well, t hat 's ge wheconom at t hey yclaim ar ound her e, t oo, bu t it 's really a f ar ce. We nev er mak e our dat es. " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " My m anagement is t oug h, bu t t h ey ' re w illing t o mak e t r adeoff decisions. Th ey push us, but t hey "un This is and t he proj m anagem t book we'unr ve all been w aitWell, ing for —tver he ybook t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es derst our ect sit uat ion , anden t hey 'r e not eason ab le. not ." Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect cuarr lot ent of w or ld of at iv in crem al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good "mI tanagement soun ds lik eint ht herise's give anitdert ak e,e, " Herm anent said. r ead! " "—Ly Rig ht " said "You hear som nn, e Ellen,May Sr .a.VP & CIshou O, DldTE Energ y e of t he 'discussions. ' I t g et s hot and heav y —bot h w it h m anagement and wit hin m y t eam . Bu t w e'r e honest ly t r ying t o g et at w hat ' s going on, h ow t o m ak e t he " Finally a b ook hat dr econciles of in t he Agilediscussion Sof t war e s, m so ovem entfeel witincluded h t he needed disciplines best decision s. tThe ev t eam stt he ay spassion inv olv ed t hese t h ey and ar e w illing t of o pr oject managemaccoun ent . Jim 's leb ook p rov ided hold t hemselves t ab f or thas he result s." a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " That all sounds good, m ay be t oo good . But w hat happ en s w hen t he ex ecs cut t he schedu le? They do it " The dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by all t h ew or t imlde of h erpre.oduct " r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h "brLast t hat h ap t eam ive looked w ees." could cut , and we did n't t hink t h er e w ere m any illiany tear ly guides uspened. int o anMy alt ernat t hat at f it sw ther he et im f—Pr eat ur could e incipal, pr uned New an d st h av e Dy a comp et itcoau ive prod . Hiring was fr ozen at Half t he ttime, soew e estes ont hat G. Sm it h,bpr Prilloduct nam ics/ t hor ,uct Dev eloping Pr oduct s in h e Tim r ecom m ended st ick in g w it h t h e plan or k illing t he proj ect . " Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use "APM And?" in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces "t he They gr phase um bledAPM somfre, t af er t ghen rilling m e f or an hour ,prt ov hey fiveambu ew or tk, present s specific, enk illed t oolsitf." or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: " Wow! " said Her m an . " And y ou' re st ill em ployed?" " Sur e.Six I t pr t urinciples ned outoft oAgile b e t he b est Man t hingagwe er did. I f w e' d come t o m ark et wit h a poor pr odu ct , t he Pr oject emev ent com pet it ion wou ld hav e k illed u s," Maya replied. " Oh, w hich r em ind s m e about m an ag ing b et w een t h e act iv itHow ies." t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies " WhatPut ? Th is you newest ?" t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong t ing custr om ers atinsight t he cen " I t hitCrmeat e wing henadIap w tas iing st he Norrespon t h Face Crest t e.ect Look at st t r em ees" is on e iv eskt eam t hat d qlast uickweek ly t o en chdanatges in yed ourBut p roj 's "ing ecosy sur efire w ay t o hit t hem . You st art w orr y ing about hit t in g on e, an d, b an g, y ou do. I k eep m y ey es Which roj ectI swant w ill bten ef it tfhe romspace APM—an w hich w on't f ocu sed on wp here o go, bet wdeen t hem ." fiv e En vision, Speculat e, ExpHer lor m e, an Adapt , Close " And APM's t his r elat esphases: t o pr oject m anagem en t h ow?" q ueried . pract including oduct Vision Sheet " MostAPM p roj ect mices, anagers ar e sot he worPrr ied ab out t h eBox silly and old Proj m axect im Dat t hata proj ect s get lat e on e day at a t im e t hat t hey m icr om an ag e t asks on a daily , or even hou rly, basis. Det ail t ask s ar e lik e t he t rees. The Lev er lose agin gt r ack you rofPMI s is t r ying t o deliv er t hat it er at ion. By const ant ly m anagers t heskills goal,inofAgile t h e renv esu irlt onm t he ent t eam

har assing t he t eam about w het her t hey f in ished some fou r- hou r t ask , t hey ru n int o pr oject t rees." < Day Day Up >

" But wh at about cont r ol?" Her m an ask ed. " I m anage f eat ur e com plet ion at t he en d of t he it er at ion , not daily t asks. Our con t rol m echanism m ay seem less r obust , but it w ork s, " said Maya. "Th e t r ick is t o narr ow un cer t ain t y ov er t he lif e of t he p roj ect . I t com plet ely solv es t h e 90% com plet e prob lem 9 0% of t he t ime. " " We usually h av e t h e opposit e. The fur t her w e get int o t he proj ect , t he mor e f ru st rat ed our m anagement becom es t hat we haven' t h it t he or ig inal plan, ev en t hou gh in m any cases t hey h av e caused pr oblem s b y changing pr ior it ies and shuf flin g p eop le, " said Herm an. " Th ey alway s f org et t hat t he or ig inal plans w ere • Table of Contents of t en don e v er y q uick ly —at t heir r equest —befor e w e f ully un derst ood t he requ ir em ent s. " Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

" So, said Maya, "ev en t h ough concept u ally y our t radit ion al p rocess shou ld w ork f in e, in r ealit y it p ut s all By Jim" Highsmit h t he bur den on t h e pr oject t eam and alm ost none on m anagem en t and t he cust om er . " Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

" Well, I guess y ou could p ut it t hat w ay, " Her m an m um bled. " I 'm b eg inn ing t o see how y our app roach Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 m akes it so each par t y has t o st ep up t o t h eir r esp onsib ilit ies. May be t h at 's w hy I ' m hav in g a hard t ime 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 get t ingI SBN: people ar oun d h er e t o buy int o it . Oh w ell, I ' d bet t er get going. My w eek ly fant asy r ep ort s are du e. " Pag es: 31 2 Not e: Alt h ough bot h t he Adapt and Close phases are included in t his ch ap t er ( b ecause t he in for m at ion on Close is br ief ) , it is cr it ical t o rem em b er t hat t h e Adapt pract ices ar e an in t egr al part of ev er y it er at ion , w hile Close occurs only once, at t he end of t he proj ect . " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in < Day Day Up > t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Phase: Adapt I f plans are sp ecu lat ion s or hy pot heses ab out t he f ut ur e, t hen fr equent and ef fect ive feedback is necessar y t o t est t hose hy pot heses. Agile p roj ect s are ex plorat ion p roj ect s, and as such, success depend s up on r ealit y - based f eed back. Adapt at ion depend s up on under st an din g a wide r ange of •in for m at ion, including Table of Contents an assessm ent of t he proj ect 's prog ress, t echn ical risks, t he r equirem en t s Agi le P r oj ect M a em e nt: com Cr e a ti ng itI iv nneovm a ti ve et Pr oduct evolut ion, andnag ong oing pet ark analyssis. APM h as t he p ot en t ial t o sav e m oney t h rou gh t he earJim ly Highsmit t erm in ath ion of pr oject s, b ut on ly if t he proj ect t eam and execut iv es ar e w illing t o face r ealit y early . By I t er at iv e p roj ect s are also pr one t o oscillat ion—going back and for t h wit hou t m aking pr ogr ess. Two t hings count er act tAdd hisison p otWesley en t ial r isk : a g ood v ision and cont in ual feedback . Ev ery proj ect t eam needs t o Pu blisher: const ant ly evaluat e and m ak e app ropr iat e ad ap t at ions in t he follow ing f our areas: Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2fun ct ionalit y , p rimar ily fr om t h e cust om er t eam ' s per spect iv e Pr oduct

Pr oduct qualit y , pr im arily fr om t he t ech nical t eam' s p er spect iv e Team perf or mance " Jim Highsm on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in Pr oject itsthatisus t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob at Aust Assist t Pr ofessor , Harv ard tBusiness School Adapt ionsin,can t akeanmany for m s. A t eam h at r ushes t o deliv er f eat ures but creat es def ect s—h urr y ing r at h er t han b eing quick —need s t o ad ap t it s b eh av ior. A cr eeping desig n d eg en er at ion gives rise t o "addit This ion is talhe" rproj ect m anagem t book w ait ing —t he t hat eff by ect iv elyprcom binstes ef act oring" act iv iten y in t he nwe' ex t ve it erall at been ion. Cost ov erfor r uns ar ebook h igh lig ht ed t he oject at us Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect r ev iew , and appr opr iat e act ion is t ak en. m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good rThe ead!com " m on pr oject managem ent t er m f or respon din g t o dev iat ions f rom plan is " corr ect iv e act ion ," a —Ly nn Ellen, Sr . VP O, pr D oject TE Energ y has made an er ror or u nder perf orm ed. Th e " conf orm ance t o ph rase et hat im plies t h& at CI t he t eam plan " m ent alit y r uns deep in p roj ect m anagers' psy ches. Th e Pr oject Managem en t Bod y of Know ledge "def Finally a b rook r econciles t he passion Agile Sof t war h t he of ines cor ect ivt hat e act ion as " any t hin g d oneoft ot he br ing ex pect ed feutm urovem e p erent for mwit ance in needed line wit hdisciplines t he p roj ect pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " plan " ( Pr oject Managem ent I nst it ut e 2 000 ) . The t erm cor r ect iv e act ion is based on t he assum p t ion t hat R(corr oy ) ect Singham , CEO, k s, lack I nc.in g. Since p lans ar e speculat ions in t he first place, APM t—Neville he plan is and t he act u Th al pought er for Wor m ance abandon s t he t er m cor rect ive act ion in fav or of " adapt ive act ion" —r eact in g t o ev en t s r at her t han t o a " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by pr edict iv e plan . React ing t o ev ent s is m or e diff icu lt t han react ing t o a plan , because t h e t eam has t o r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h answ er t hree cr it ical quest ion s: br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Ar e cust om ers get t in g v alu e fr om t h e pr oject ? Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in nex t p roj ect .essing Jim Highsm it h orily sh ows I s yt our he pr oject p rogr sat isf act ? wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he fiveAPM tfream am ew or k,ing t hen present prim ov posed en t ools ever y prent oject icip . I s tphase he pr oject adapt eff ect iv ely st ospecific, changes b yf or m an ag em , cupart st om er an s, tor Cov erage includes: t echnology ? " Are cu st om e rs ge tt i ng va l ue f rom t he pr oj e ct ?" I n an agile pr oject , because of ch an ges ov er t he Sixof pr of Agile ag em cour se aninciples it erat ion, t eamPr s oject need Man t o cont inuent ally r ev iew t he prod uct 's v alue. The cust om er s and p rodu ct m anager mak e f requ en t adj ust m ent s in t he f eat u re p riorit ies based on t heir int er pret at ion of f eat u re t o cap it valize g n ew oduct developm eneasur t t echnologies v alue.How Measuring alue on canemer be dgin if ficult , mpr ore d if ficult t han m in g cost or schedule again st plan, b ut w it hou t a const ant at t ent ion t o det er mining value—if only an im plicit cust om er r an king r at h er t han an Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong exp licit num erical calculat ion—guiding an agile p roj ect w ill pr ove dif ficult . The p rod uct m anager needs t o assess wh et h er t he v alue generat ed dur ing an it er at ion was wor t h t he cost of dev elopm ent . Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " " I s t he proj ect progr essin g sa t isf act ori ly ?" This quest ion is also m ore dif ficult t o an swer t han Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't w het her t he p roj ect is conf orm ing t o p lan. Con for m an ce t o p lan is one aspect of sat isfact ory pr ogression, bu t only one. ber s ofEnt he pr oject t eam e,m Exp ust lor aske, t hem selves t he q uest ion, "Giv en t h e cir cum st ances APM's fivMem e phases: vision, Speculat Adapt , Close du ring t he last it er at ion, did w e m ake suff icient p rog ress, and w hat addit ion al inf orm at ion did we learn?" Pr ogress beices, measur ed in at he varPr ietoduct y of wVision ay s depend ing Proj up on e pra oject . For lar ge p roj ect s, esp ecially APMcan pract including Box and ectt hDat Sheet t hose inv olv ing gov er nm ent cont r act s, a for m of earn ed v alue an aly sis (w it h v alu e calculat ed f rom f eat urLev es er com plet ay be appr iat e.env For sm aller agin g ed) you rmPMI skills inopr Agile ir onm ent spr oject s, a sim ple gr aph of feat ur es com plet ed by

it er at ion should suff ice. < Day Day Up >

" I s t he proj ect te a m a da pt i ng e f fe ct iv e ly t o cha nge s i m pose d by m a na ge m e n t, custo m e r s, or t e ch nol ogy?" As r eq uir em en t s ev olv e, st aff chang es t ake place, com ponent delay s occur , and a m ult it ud e of ot her t h ing s im p act a pr oject , t he t eam m emb er s n eed t o assess h ow t hey are ad ap t ing t o t hose ch an ges. Also, if m anagers and ex ecut ives want pr oject t eam s t h at can b e f lexible and ad ap t t o change, t hen t h ey m ust g iv e t eams appr opr iat e cr ed it for t h at f lex ibilit y. When a t eam deviat es fr om t h e or iginal plan bu t eff ect iv ely r esponds t o a sur prise pr odu ct r elease fr om a com pet it or, t hat t eam shou ld be ev aluat ed on t he sit uat ion and t heir r esponse, n ot t he out dat ed plan. The Adapt p hase cont ain s a single pr act ice, w hich inclu des sev er al subpr act ices: •

Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Pr Highsmit oduct h, p roj ect ,

and t eam rev iew and adapt iv e act ion

SomPueblisher: of t h eAdd prison act ices w it hin t his Adapt phase sh ould be scheduled at t h e end of each it er at ion ( e.g ., Wesley pr oduct evaluat ions) , while ot hers, such as t he t eam per for m an ce r ev iew , could be schedu led at a Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 m ilest on e. Howev er, if t he t eam is u sing t w o- week it er at ion s and t w o-m ont h m ilest ones, t he t eam rev iew 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 shouldI SBN: pr obably occu r ever y second it erat ion—w ait in g t wo m ont hs wou ld be t oo lon g. Fur t herm or e, part es: 31 2 iew should include ev alu at ing t he t im e per iods bet w een t hese v arious r ev iews. I n APM, of t he Pag t eam rev not h ing shou ld happen by d ef ault ; t he t eam sh ould alw ays be ev aluat ing t he r elev an ce and cont ribut ion of ev er y pr act ice. < Day Day Up >

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Practice: Product, Project, and Team Review and Adaptive Action •

Table of Contents

Objective Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

The object ive of t he r eview an d adapt iv e act ion pr act ice is t o ensur e t hat fr eq uent feedback and high lev els of learning occur in mu lt iple proj ect d im ensions. Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Discussion Pag es: 31 2

Ther e are t wo m ain reasons f or condu ct ing r eview an d adapt iv e act ion sessions at t he en d of an it er at ion or m ilest one. The f ir st reason is ob vious—t o ref lect , lear n, and adapt . Th e second is mor e sub t le—t o change pace. Shor t it erat ion s giv e a sense of u rgency t o a proj ect because a lot has t o happen in a f ew w eek s. Team m em b er s w or k at a q uick pace, not hur ry in g, b ut w or king qu ick ly at a high lev el of "inJim Highsm is on a fion ew rm odernperiod w rit ershould s who are helping us ed, under an dt im t he at u re of wor in t ensit y . Th it e hendofe-itof erat eview be m ore relax a bst rief e (new nor mnally a day or kso) tinhew kn owled ge econom y . " hich t h e t eam ref lect s on t h e last it erat ion and p lans ahead for t h e nex t . Most t eam s n eed t his br eak —Rob Austy in, Assist an t tPr ard Business in int ensit periodically o ofessor gat her ,t hHarv eir energ y for t heSchool nex t it erat ion. Du ring t his r ef lect ion p er iod , fou r t y pes of r eviews ar e u sef ul: pr oduct fu nct ion alit y fr om t he cust om er t eam 's persp ect iv e, t ech nical qu alit y " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es f rom t he engineering t eam 's per sp ect iv e, t eam perf orm ance ch eck point s, and a r eview of ov er all pr oj ect Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect st at us. m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y

Customer Focus Groups

" Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem . Jim 's b ook has pdem rov ided v ice t o allver ofsions us. " of t he f in al p rod uct t o t he cust om er Cust om er f ocu s grent oup ( CFG) sessions onst aratser e ongoing oy )t oSingham , CEO, Th back oughton Wor k s, w I nc. t—Neville eam in orR(der g et per iodic f eed how ell t he prod uct m eet s cust om er r eq uir em en t s. While CFGs are conduct ed at t h e end of it er at ions an d m ilest ones, t h ey sh ould b e scheduled at t he beginning of Theproj w orect ld of oduct elopmpart enticip is ban ecom ingavmailable ore d yn ic rand t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by t"he t o pr ensur e tdev he right t s are atam t he ight uncer t im es. r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br guides o an alt ernat ive it sprt he t im. es." A illian CFG tisly one f ormusofintaccept ance t est ingt hat f or f a oduct I n div id uals fr om t he cust om er t eam , t og et h er wit h —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t horfeat , Dev eloping Pr oduct s inedHalf Tim om e er dev eloper s, m eet in a f acilit at ed session in w hich t h e pr oduct ur es are demon st rat t o t thhee cust t eam. The sessions follow scenar ios t hat d em onst r at e t he pr oduct ' s use by cust om ers. As t h e Now one rof t he fpield 's lead ing ex pert s uest br ing t oget h er all ledg " dem, onst at ion" roceeds, chang e r eq s sare generat edt he an dk now r ecord ede. and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr t he pr oject an ag er s wit r aise abou t Ag ile ap prt eam oach tes. He systt em at ically inen t rod Whileessing cust om er quest t eamion r eps resent at m iv es w ork h t he eng ineering hr oughou a developm t uces tithe fivefr am or k,audience t hen present prion ov en t ools f or y pr oject part icip . two er at ion,phase a CFGAPM br ings a ew wider in t o st hspecific, e evaluat pr ocess. Forever ex am p le, w hereas onane t or Cov in diverage idual includes: cust om ers fr om m anuf act uring m igh t b e in volv ed in t h e day - t o-d ay wor k w it h a proj ect t eam on a m anuf act u ring soft w are ap plicat ion, eight t o t en m ig ht be inv olv ed in a CFG. This w ider aud ience par t icipat ion help s ensur e t hat feat ur es don' t get ov erlooked, t he p rodu ct encom passes m ore t han t he Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent v iew poin t of a few people, conf idence in t he p rodu ct 's pr ogress incr eases ov er t ime, and cust om er s begin t o become iliar w it hon t he prod uct ef orpr e oduct act ualdevelopm deploy m ent ese r ev iew sessions t yp ically t ak e t w o How t ofam cap it alize emer gin g nb ew en t. tTh echnologies t o four hour s, but t his t im ef r am e is h igh ly d ep en dent on t h e t y pe of pr odu ct and t he it erat ion lengt h . CFG r ev iewPut s ar e wcust onder f or t build er, tw eam – develop m en t t eam par t nerships. [ 1] t ing omful ersv ehicles at t he cen er of ing youcust r pr om oject here t hey belong [ 1]

Who part ici pat es in CFG sessions depends on whet her the pr oduct is for int er nal or ext er nal custom ers. In the case Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em "

of external custom er s, pr oduct m ar k eting has to determ ine when, and if, exter nal cust om er s w ill be br ought in to r ev iew the pr oduct. Considerati ons that i mpact t hese decisions incl ude confidentiali ty, bet a testi ng str ategies, and ear ly Which p rojial. ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't sales potent

APM'sdev fivelopm e phases: vision,f or Speculat e, Exp lorners e, Adapt I n a shoe ent prEn ocess, ex am ple, desig wor k, Close w it h ideas, sket ches, and t hen m ore for m al CAD dr aw ings. At sever al p oint s in t h e pr ocess, t he designers t ake t heir ideas ov er t o t h e " lab, " w her e APM pract ices, including oduct Vision Box- ups and ar Proj a Sheet t echnicians build m ockup s of tthe h e Pr shoe. These m ock e wect earDat able, usab le sh oes built in v ery sm all qu an t it ies. At t h e end of a m ilest on e, t he sh oes can b e show n t o t he mar k et ing st aff f or t heir feedback or Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

even t o a select ed g roup of t ar get cust om er s. < Day Day Up >

The definit ion of accept ance t est ing v ar ies by indust r y , bu t in g en er al CFG r ev iew s p rov id e a w id er focus t han accept an ce t est ing . Accept ance t est in g con cen t rat es on sy st em behavior r elat ed t o crit ical engineer ing design par am et ers, wh ile CFGs focu s on how t h e cust om ers use t h e pr oduct . CFG rev iew s gat her f eedb ack on look and f eel, general oper at ion of t he p rod uct , and t he use of t he pr oduct in bu siness, consu mer , or oper at ional scenarios. For ex am ple, a specific accept ance t est could m easu re t h e heat d issip at ion of an elect r onic inst ru ment , or a sof t war e accep t an ce t est case m ig ht en su re a business r ule is prop er ly calculat ed. Runn ing ex haust iv e eng ine, elect r onic, and hy dr au lic t est s t o check pr edet er m in ed v alues w ould be par t of an air plan e' s accept ance t est in g. Act u al f light t est ing —t est ing t he pr condit of act ual use—wou ld be sim ilar t o a CFG. • oduct und erTable of ions Contents Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

CFG r eview sessions: By Jim Highsmit h

Shou ldAdd beison f acilit at ed Pu blisher: Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

Shou ld be lim it ed t o eigh t t o t en cu st omer s ( Dev elopm ent t eam s ar e pr esent bu t hav e lim it ed 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 inI SBN: volv em ent ; t hey are prim ar ily ob ser v er s. ) Pag es: 31 2

Rev iew t he prod uct it self , not docum ent s Focu s on discover ing and r ecor ding desir ed cust om er changes, b ut not on g at h er in g d et ailed r eq uir ement s ( if , f or exam ple, new feat ur es are ident ified) " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in CFGs are part icular ly useful in dist r ib ut ed develop m en t scenarios in which daily cont act b et w een t he kn owled ge econom y . " dev elopm ent t eam s and cust om er s is diff icult . When t eam s have less- t han- opt imal cont act wit h —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School cust om ers dur in g it erat ions, end- of - it er at ion focus gr oups can k eep t he t eam fr om w an dering t oo f ar off [ 2] t" rThis ack .is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile [met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect 2] For a detailed exam inat ion of cust om er focus gr oups, see ( Bay er 2001) . m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good rCust ead!om " er change requ est s are r ecord ed f or rev iew by t he p roj ect t eam aft er t he f ocus g roup session . I t 's —Ly nn CI O, D TE y b ecause analysis of t h ese request s oft en leads t o t echnical best t oewEllen, ait untSr il .afVP t er&t he CFG t o Energ d o t his discussions t hat ar en't r elevant t o m any of t he cust om er par t icipant s. Fur t herm or e, t he eng ineering "t eam' Finally a bial ook t hat rse econciles t he passion Agile Sof millovem enticult wit h(or t heexneeded s init respon t o ch an ges t ends t oof b et he defensiv e—"t war Th ate w b e diff pensive)disciplines " —w hich of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " cust om ers m ay int er pr et as a n eg at iv e r espon se t o t heir sug gest ions. This env ir onm en t d iscour ages R( oy ) ions, Singham CEO, Th ought s, ect I nc. f—Neville urt h er suggest and, sessions lose t Wor h eir keff iv en ess. The bet t er appr oach is f or t he t ech nical t eam t o ev alu at e t he r equest s t h e nex t day and t h en discuss op t ions w it h t he prod uct m anager . Norm ally , 80% " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by or m or e of t he r equest s can be handled w it h lit t le eff ort , wh ile t he ot h er s may r equire ad dit ional st udy or r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h f all out sid e t he proj ect 's scope. Accum ulat ed sm all changes ar e hand led usin g t h e t ime allocat ed t o t he br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." r ew or k and cont in gency card s descr ibed in Chapt er 6 . Significant ch an ges and new f eat ur es ar e recor ded —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e on feat ur e card s t hat will ser ve as inp ut t o t h e nex t it er at ion planning session. Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly Technical addr essing t heReviews quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Coveerage On of t heincludes: key p rincip les of ex plorat or y, ag ile pr oject s is t o k eep t he cost of it er at ion low ( bot h dur in g dev elopm ent an d af t er first deploy m ent ) su ch t h at t he pr oduct it self can adapt t o changing cust om er needs. Keeping t he cost of it er at ion low and adapt abilit y high depends on unceasing at t ent ion t o t ech nical Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent excellence. Poor ly d esigned, poor -q ualit y, defect - pr one p rodu ct s are ex pensiv e t o ch an ge and t her ef or e in flex How ible t toochang ing cust er gin dem en cust om ers en buy a $50 0, 000 biom ed ical dev ice, t hey w ant cap it alize on om emer g nands. ew prWh oduct developm t t echnologies it t o respond t o fu t ur e needs ( w it h in lim it s) quick ly and cost eff ect iv ely . Oft en, t he f lex ibilit y of indust r ial pr oduct such asom a biom icalcen device, on t he lex ibtilit y of it s em bedded soft w are. Puts,t ing cust ers atedt he t er ofdepends you r pr oject , w fhere hey belong Periodic t echnical r eviews, bot inf or mal and r eg ular schedu he 'spr"oject eam Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s ht hat respon d q uick ly t oly ch an gesled, in yprov our pide rojtect ecosytst em "w it h f eed back on t echnical pr oblems, design issu es, an d ar chit ect u ral flaws. These rev iew s shou ld addr ess t he k ey t echnical p ract ices desig n, cont inuouds w inthich egr at Which p roj ect sofwsim ill bple en ef it f rom APM—an wion, on't r ut h less t est in g, and r ef act oring t o ensu re t hat t hey are being eff ect iv ely im plem ent ed. Technical rev iew s are also a collabor at iv e p ract ice an d as such cont r ibfiv ut e tphases: o relat ionship building wit hin t helor t eam. As alway s, t hese r eview s should b e condu ct ed in APM's En vision, Speculat e, Exp e, Adapt , Close t he spir it of agile dev elopm ent —sim ple, b ar ely su ff icien t , m inim al d ocum en t at ion, short sessions, lot s of APM ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet in t eract ionpract . Lev err eviews, agin g you PMIalskills ir onm entinu s ously d ur ing an it er at iv e deliver y cy cle. How ev er , Technical infr orm onesinatAgile leastenv , occur cont

at p er iod ic int er vals—an d at least on ce per m ilest on e—a scheduled t echnical r ev iew should be cond uct ed. Day Day Up > I t shou ld not t ake mor e t h an a cou ple of hour s,< ex cept in sp ecial sit uat ion s. Technical r eview sessions: Ar e facilit at ed Ar e gener ally lim it ed t o t w o t o six indiv idu als w ho ar e com pet ent t o ev aluat e t h e t echnical m at erial Rev iew t he prod uct , select ed docum ent s, and st at ist ics, such as def ect lev els (Th e t echnical t eam Tablet im of eContents should t ake t o ref lect on t he over all t echnical q ualit y of t he prod uct an d m ak e Agi le Pr recom oj ect M a nag em e nt: e a ti ngr ef I nn ovoring, a ti ve Prad oduct s m endat ion s Cr about act dit ional t est ing , m ore fr eq uent int egr at ion , or ot her t echnical at hion s.) By Jim adapt Highsmit •

As wit h cu st om er ch an ge r eq uest s, t echnical ch an ge r eq uest s can be hand led in t he t im e allocat ed t o t he Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley r ew or k and cont in gency card s. [ 3] Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 [ 3] I SBN: Ther e 0- ar 32e1-sev 219er 77al-5good

r efer ences on the pr actice of peer r eview s. For exam ple, see (Wieger s 2001) .

Pag es: 31 2

Team Performance Evaluations A fun dament al t enet of APM is t h at pr oject s ar e diff erent and people ar e diff erent ( and t hus t eam s ar e " Jimerent Highsm h efor is on of a f ew should m odernb ew rit er s who us eunder d t he new n at re ices of wor diff ) . Thiter e,e no t eam shoehor nedare inthelping o t he sam set ofst panrocesses and pruact ask in t he kn owled ge econom . " ld w ork w it hin an over all f ram ew or k and guidelines ( such as t his APM anot her . Pr oject t eam s yshou an t Pr ofessor , Harv Business f—Rob ram ewAust or k in, andAssist it s associat ed gu iding prard inciples) , b utSchool t hey should be able t o ad ap t pr act ices t o m eet t heir un iqu e needs. Self - org an izin g principles d ict at e t h at t he wor k ing f ram ew or k should gr an t t h e t eam as "mThis t he proj ve all been w ait ing Selffor —t he book eff ect com uch isflexibilit y ect an d mauanagem t horit y en t o t mbook ak e dwe' ecisions as possible. discip lin ar yt hat p rincip lesiv dely ict at e tbin hatesonce Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect t he fr am ew ork has been ag reed u pon, t eam m em bers wor k w it hin t hat fr amew ork . Assessm ent s of t eam m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an allar ound good per for m an ce should t ouch on b ot h of t hese fact or s. r ead! " —Ly nnpeeop Ellen, . VP & CIee O, of D TE While le wSr ant a degr flexEnerg ibilit y y, t hey also g et v ery t ir ed of const ant ly st art ing w it h a b lank sh eet of paper , especially w hen t hey k now t hey can use est ablished t ech niq ues f rom sim ilar proj ect s in t he " Finallycomp a b ook econciles t he passion of ment t he Agile war ovem ent t he ect needed disciplines same an y.t hat For rex amp le, chang ing docu at ionSof fortm at se frmom p roj ectwit t oh proj can be a sou rce of of oject managem ent . t eam Jim 's m b ook has pSt rov a itser t o all us.ew " or k and adapt in g it b ased on fpr rust r at ion t o pr oject em bers. ar ided t in g w h av ice comm on of f ram —Neville ) Singham CEO, Thinat ought Wor k of s, It hese nc. fr ust r at ions. pr oject anR( d oy t eam n eeds ,can elim e many " The wprorojldect of m pran oduct is b ies ecom ing m ore yn am ic uncer t ain. m an by Many ag emdev entelopm m et hent odolog r ecomm endddoing retand r ospect iv es at Man t he yend ofag a er prsojcop ect .e This rmeinf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h ay be f in e for passing learn ing on t o ot her t eam s, b ut it doesn't help imp rov e p er for m ance du ring a br o anone alt ernat ive t hat f it soft he t iman es." pr illian ojectt.lyI tguides erat ion us or int milest ret r ospect iv es ev en hour or t w o giv e t eam s an oppor t unit y t o ref lect —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct in Half h eamine Tim e on wh at is w ork in g an d w hat isn' t . I n com ing up w it h t his assessm ent , t he t eam w ills want t o tex m any aspect s of t h e pr oject , ask ing q uest ions like " Wh at w en t w ell?" " What d idn 't go as well?" an d " How Now , one f ield ing pert s br ing s t oget t hemk Ker nowt ledg e and ces ion, y ou "nWh eedat t o use do we im profovt he e nex t it'serlead at ion ?" ex The t eam might alsoh er askallNor h' s int erestresour in g q uest don 't APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly [ 4] w e und er st and?" addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces [ 4] The t he fivephase fr ambook ew oronk,conducting t hen present s specific, ovthen t ools best APM r efer ence r et rospectives is (pr Ker 2001) . f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: The inf orm at ion show n in Figur e 8 .1 can be used as a st ar t ing poin t f or evaluat ing t eam per for m an ce. The t eam ev aluat es it self in t w o dim ensions—deliver y per for m an ce and behavior—on a t hree- point scale: prdard inciples Agile d, Pr oject Man st agan em ent On deliv er y per for m an ce, t he t eam m em bers ar e ask ing belowSix st an , at of st andar or ab ove dard. t hem selv es t he fun dament al qu est ion, "D id we do t he best job w e could d o in t he last it er at ion?" Not ice t o cap on emer g n ew en t t echnologies t hat tHow he q uest ionit alize isn' t relat ed t ogin p lans b utprtoduct o t h e developm t eam ' s assessm ent of it s own per for m an ce. Whet her t eams conf orm t o plan or n ot d ep en ds on bot h p er for m ance and t he accur acy of t he p lan ( so one piece of Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong t his ev aluat ion m ight be f or t he t eam m em bers t o assess how well t h ey plann ed t h e it er at ion) . A t eam could m eet t h e plan and st ill not be p er for m in g at an op t im al lev el. I n a well- fu nct ion ing t eam , m em b er s Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " t end t o b e open and honest abou t t h eir per for mance. Th e t eam discu ssion, not t he assessm ent chart it self,Which is t he pimp ort ant aspect his ex ercise. d w hich w on't roj ect s w ill b en efof it ftrom APM—an APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM Fi pract gu r eices, 8 .1including . Te amt he SePrloduct f- Assessm Vision Box e nand t Cha Projr ect t ( for Dat aea Sheet ch Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

m i le st one , M n)

< Day Day Up >



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

The second aspect of t he ev aluat ion is t eam behav ior , in w hich t h e t eam, ag ain, assesses it s ow n per for m an ce. This ev alu at ion inv olves an swer ing t he quest ion s, " How w ell ar e w e f ulfilling our r esp onsibilit ies?" an d " How w ell is t h e org an izat ion f ulf illing it s respon sibilit ies?" Answer in g t h ese t wo qu est ions cou ld gener at e a raf t of ot h er quest ion s, such as: " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " e allin, t eam m an emb erofessor s p ar t icipat in ard g in Business discu ssions? —RobArAust Assist t Pr , Harv School s tsom eone r eg ly absent f romwe' d aily in gs? " This Iis he proj ect mular anagem en t book ve meet all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect Ar e t eaminmt hem being able eir com m itAgile m entm s?et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good m anagement is ber cu rrs ent w oraccou ld of nt it er at iv for e, int hcrem ent al r ead! " I set Ellen, he pr oject m anager icr omanaging? —Ly nn Sr . VP & CI O, m D TE Energ y Does h e tteam er st and and wof hyt he k eyAgile decisions w ere ad e ent dur in it er atdisciplines ion? " Finally a b took hat r und econciles t hehow passion Sof t war e mm ovem witght he t helast needed of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " The t eam m em bers assess t heir ov erall b eh av ior and develop ideas f or im pr ov em ent . For t eams t hat ar e —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. new t o usin g ag ile pr act ices, a qu est ionnair e t o help t h em measur e t heir "agilit y r at ing " could also be usefu l. or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by " The w r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h Finally , t he t eam sh ould ev aluat e pr ocesses an d pract ices t hat ar e r elat ed t o t eam behavior but not br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." exp licit ly cov er ed b y Figur e 8 .1 . While t he t eam m ay not want t o ev alu at e t he ov erall d ev elop ment —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e f ram ew or k at each m ilest one, it sh ould assess and ad ap t individual pr act ices t o bet t er fit t he t eam. For exam, ple, t eam w ould t oing elim s gat hereing , itresour m igh tces alt er t he lev el Now one wh of tile heaf ield 's lead ingn'texdecid pert se br s tinat ogetehrequ er allir ement t he k now ledg and y ou n eed t oofuse cerem ony and det ail of t he r eq uir em en t s docu ment at ion. Th e t eam might det erm ine t h at daily int egr at ion APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly m eet ings bet w een feat ur e t eams be ch an ged t o t w iceweek ly m eet ing s at t ended by t w o mem bers fr om addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces f eatphase u re t eam eam m ight e t hat t hree- week it ertat ion fsorare cauy sing t oo part mu ch teach he fiveAPM. The fr amtew or k, t hendecid present s specific, pr ov en ools ever pr oject icipov anerh t . ead. They could swit ch t o f our -w eek it er at ions an d ev aluat e t he imp act . Cov erage includes: Ther e are a m yr iad of w ay s in wh ich t eam s could adj ust t heir pr ocesses and pract ices. The cr ucial t hing is t hat tSix hey pr v iew pr ocesses anPr d oject pract ices as em adju inciples of Agile Man ag entst ab le and t h at t hey n ot f eel t he need t o cont inue act ivit ies t hat ar e n ot cont r ib ut ing t o t h e goals of t he p roj ect . How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er Project Status Reports

of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong

Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Pr oject st at us r ep ort s should h av e v alu e t o t he pr oject m an ag er , t h e pr oduct m an ag er , k ey st akeholders, and t he p rojpect eam ep ortAPM—an ing of in dforwm at ion should d rive act iv it ies aim ed at en hancin g Which roj tect s witillself. b enTh ef ite fr rom hich w on't per for m an ce. Dev elop ing t he repor t s sh ould help t he pr oject an d prod uct m anager s r ef lect on t he ov erall phases: e, Exp lor e,t heir Adapt , Close pr ogr APM's ess of fiv t hee proj ect —tEn o vision, separ atSpeculat e t he f orest fr om daily bat t le w it h t he t rees. The n um ber and f requency of repor t s and t h e in for mat ion in t he r epor t s need t o m at ch t he size, dur at ion, an d im por t an ce pract of t heAPM pr oject . ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

Part of t he proj ect m anager' s j ob inv olves managing st akeholders, part icular ly t hose in u pper < Day Day Up > m anagement , an d prov idin g inf orm at ion t o t hem . What st ak ehold er s ask f or m ay be v ery dif fer en t f rom w hat is needed t o m anage t h e pr oject , b ut t he pr oj ect m an ag er neglect s t his ot her in for m at ion, and per iodic int eract ions w it h t h ose st akeholders, at her per il. Managin g t he ex pect at ions of var ious st akeholder s can b e a d elicat e balan cing act . At t ending st at us meet in gs, giv ing m anagement pr esen t at ions, g at hering accou nt in g inf orm at ion , and a r af t of sim ilar act ivit ies can dr ain v aluable t im e fr om deliv er in g prod uct . At t he sam e t im e, managem ent and cust om ers ar e spend ing m oney f or a pr odu ct , and t hey aren' t r ecep t iv e t o bein g t old, "Ju st w ait six m ont hs unt il w e are f in ished. " Man ag er s h av e a fiduciar y r esp onsib ilit y , and t hey n eed periodic f ulfilloft hat dut y . Cu st om er s and spon sors need infor m at ion t o m ak e pr oject t radeof f •in for m at ion t oTable Contents decisions. St at u s r ep ort s m ust p rov id e in for m at ion t o assist in answ er ing quest ion s such as, " I s t he Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s pr ognosis f or t he prod uct su ch t h at it is no lon ger econ omically feasible?" and " Shou ld feat ur es be By Jim Highsmit h eliminat ed t o ensur e w e m ake t he p rodu ct r elease schedule?" Most st at u s Add r epison ort Wesley ing look s at wh at w as accomp lish ed w it h in t he prior r ep ort ing period an d focuses on Pu blisher: t he Pu t hr ee-e:legg b Dat Apr iled 0 6,st2ool 00 4 of pr oj ect m an ag em ent —scope, sch ed ule, and cost . The t r ad eof f m at rix in t rod uced in Chapt er 5 0-con I SBN: 32 1-t ains 219 77fou -5 r at t ribut es t o consider in analy zin g ch an ges and m ak ing decision s—scope, schedule, r esour ces, and st ab ilit y ( def ect lev els, on e aspect of t echnical qualit y ). I n ev aluat in g scop e, t he Pag es: 31 2 t eam needs t o exam in e not only feat ur es deliv er ed v er su s f eat u res p lanned, but also t he v alue of t hose f eat ur es deliv ered. Fin ally , since u ncer t ain t y and risk dr iv e m any agile proj ect s, t he t eam sh ould m onit or w het her risk and uncer t aint y ar e being syst em at ically r ed uced. While each of t he st at us repor t s or ch ar t s ident ified b elow pr ov ides useful inf orm at ion t o t he d ev elopm ent "t eam, Jim Highsm it hom is er on teeam, of a fand ew m odern w rit er, st hwho are ing helping us under an d t he n at u rev isual of wor k in t he cust managem ent e " park lot " graph ic prstovides annew ex cellent pict u re tof heany kn owled ge' seconom . "ogress. I n Chapt er 6 , Figur e 6 .7 sh owed a par k ing lot diagram used f or pr oject p roj ect ov erall ypr —Rob in, ilar Assist an tams, Pr ofessor plan ninAust g. Sim d iagr Figur ,esHarv 8 .2 ard an dBusiness 8. 3, ar e School used here as t he b asis f or st at us r epor t ing . I n t h e f igu res, t he bar ju st abov e each sch ed uled deliver y dat e indicat es t he p er cent age of t h e feat ur es t hat " This is t he com projpect m anagem encom t book allurbeen w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ectick iv ely com binofest he hav e been let ed ( par t ially pletwe' ed ve f eat es ar e excluded) . Color s enable a qu analy sis Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of pr oject ' s pr ogr ess, esp ecially as t he proj ect cont inues an d t he color s ch an ge f rom m ont h t o m ont hp .roj A ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an allar ound good w hit e box indicat es t hat n o w ork has begu n on t h e act iv it y , w hile a blue box (lig ht sh ad ing in figur e) r ead! " es w or k has b eg un on som e of t he f eat u res. A gr een box indicat es t hat t he f eat ur es w it h in hav e in dicat —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr .wVP O, box D TE(Energ been com p let ed, hile&aCIred heav yy shadin g in figur e) indicat es t hat at least one sch ed uled feat ur e has n ot b een deliv er ed in it s plann ed it er at ion . Figur e 8 .2 sh ows pr oject prog ress b y business act iv it y " Finally ookctt hat t he Figur passion of sh t he Agile Sofert war e m present ovem ent wit hoft he disciplines area, or ap brodu comr econciles ponent , and e 8 .3 ows an alt nat ive at ion t h eneeded st at us b y m ont h. of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by Fi gu r e 8 .2 . Pr oje ct Par k i ng Lot Re por t by Bu sin ess Act i vi t y ( ad apt ed f r om r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h 's w or k ) br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive tJef hat ff itD s eLuca t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Fi gu r e 8 .3 . Pr oje ct Par k i ng Lot Re por t by M on t h ( a dap t ed f r om Je ff De Luca' s w or k)



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " Scope and Value Status —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y I" n an agile pr oj ect e per for m an ce canofbet he m easur m easur in g fent eat ures let ed vdisciplines ersu s plan,of Finally a b ook t hat, scop r econciles t he passion Agile ed Sofbtywar e m ovem wit h comp t he needed by it erat ion, as sh own in Figur e 8 .4 . ( This ch ar t , and a d et ailed list ing of f eat u res and t heir st at us, can be pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " used as supp lem en t ar y d et ail t o t h e park ing lot repor t . ) I n general, since feat ur es can be ad ded or —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. delet ed by t h e cust om er t eam over t h e life of a pr oject , d ev elop ment t eams should be ev aluat ed b ased on t he n um berprof feat ur eselopm deliv er ed israt her t han t he specific eatand u resuncer delivter ed .Man I f tyhemtan eam deliv er se 1by 70 " The w or ld of oduct dev ent b ecom ing m ore d yn amf ic ain. ag er s cop of 17orcing 5 p lanned feat ur es, t hen docum it s perfent orm is vf ur ery good, ev encost if 50 of t hisn't ose feat urinesg.are dif feriten r einf pr ocesses, adding atance ion , or t her honing s. This w ork Highsm ht f rom t hose in t h eus original br illian t ly guides int o anplan. alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm y APM ould beminaever Fi gu r eit h8sh .4ows . Dwh el iv er y sh Pe r f or ncey m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Scope t ells us t he r aw volum e of f eat u re d eliv erables, but not how v alu ab le t h ey ar e. Since t he object ive of agile d ev elopm ent is t o d eliv er high- v alue feat ures ear ly , in som e cases t o achiev e early ROI , t h en one pot ent ially beneficial r ep ort is " feat ures an d v alu e deliv er ed, " as sh own in Figur e 8 .5 . For t his r eport , t he cust om er t eam need s t o appor t ion t he prod uct 's v alue t o in div idual feat ur es or t o t he b roader lev el of a com ponent or bu siness act ivit y . I f t he dev elopm ent t eam is bur dened w it h est imat ing t he " cost " of each f eat ur e, t hen t he cu st omer t eam ( includ ing t h e pr oduct m an ag er ) sh ould be bur dened wit h est im at ing t he "v alu e" of each one. As Tom DeMarco and Tim List er ( 200 3) say , " Cost s an d b en ef it s need t o be specif ied w it h Table equalofpr ecision ." Wit h in crem en t al cost and valu e in for m at ion for ev ery f eat ure, t he • Contents st akeholder s can m ak e m uch bet t er t radeof f decisions. Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Fi gu r e 8 .5 . Fea t u r es a n d V al ue De li ve r e d

Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. Let 's assum e t hat t he net pr esent v alue ( NPV) of t he r evenu e st ream f rom t he 1 75- feat ur e pr odu ct " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by m ent ion ed abov e is $1 5 m illion, an d t he dev elopm ent cost has been est im at ed at $3 m illion. The pr oduct r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h m anager wou ld appor t ion t he $15 m illion t o each of t h e 20 t o 30 comp onent s ( r at her t han t o all 175 br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." f eat ur es). Once t his analy sis an d allocat ion w as com plet ed, t hen a v alue p er for m ance char t lik e t hat in —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Figur e 8 .5 cou ld accomp an y t he scop e per for mance repor t . By recognizin g v alu e deliver ed, ev en using a cur sory valuat ion of feat ur es, t he p roj ect t eam, cust om er t eam , and ex ecu t iv es hav e bet t er in for m at ion Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s[ 5]br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use w it h w hich t o m ak e p roj ect decisions. APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest pr oject ant ag er sfeat r aise prvalue oach analysis es. He syst em at ically uces [ 5] An ex tension t o ion thissidea woul dmbe o use ure abou value tinAg an ile earap ned ( EVA) . Using feat in ur et rod v al ues can t he fivefr am t henmpresent tur nphase the " V"APM i n EVA intoew a ror ealk,value easur e. s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: For a sim ple v alue assessm en t , t he cu st om er t eam can rank order f eat u res u sing an inf or mal v alue assessm ent an d t h en indicat e it s sat isfact ion w it h t h e deliv er ed feat ures fr om each it erat ion on a f iv epr inciples Pr oject Manwit aghem point Six scale, as showofn Agile (in comb inat ion a ent t echnical qu alit y assessm en t ) in Figur e 8 .6 . Fin ally , as sy st em at ic r isk and un cer t aint y redu ct ion is a st r ong ind icat or of increasing v alue, a t echnical r isk and cap it alize emer ginn ginn ew preoduct developm t echnologies Figur 8 .7 , can be b enen efticial. un cerHow t aint yt oassessm en on t , as show Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em "

Fi gu r e 8 .6 . Pr odu ct an d Techni ca l Q ua l it y Asse ssm en t

Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h Fi is gu on er of f ew. m rit er s who are ust under d t hessm newennt at u re of wor k in e a8 .7 Teodern ch niwca l Ri sk a ndhelping Uncer ai nt yst an Asse t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM indeliv y ourer nex rojom ecter. Jim it hilitsh bet in ever ming anager' oolkits, , t hagoroug Since in g tcup st v aluHighsm e and ag y ows m ay wh beymAPM ore sh im ould por t an t h an myeet cost sbtudget ilit y hly addr essing t he ion sb pr oject l.mAt an aagf er aise about he t Agt eam ile apcan pr oach es.and He rsyst emon at ically in t rod uces m easur em en t s quest can also e usefu eats ur re level, t r ack eport changes each t he fivephase fr am ewporlanned, k, t hen original presentfeat s specific, pr ov f ored, ever y pr oject icipadanded. t . The it er at ion—or iginAPM al f eat u res ures delet edenort ools deferr and new f eatpart u res erage includes: tCov eam can also t r ack t he chang e r eq uest s f rom t he cust om er focu s gr oup s and repor t changes r equest ed, im p lem en t ed , delet ed, or defer red. Th ese repor t s sh owing t he t eam 's response t o cust om er -r equest ed changes can assist in exp lain ing v arian ces in schedu le or cost s. Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies

Schedule Status

Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Schedu le r eport s can t ak e a var iet y of shapes depending on t he or ganizat ion's st andard pr act ices. Figur e Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " 8. 8 is an exam ple t hat show s pr oject ed en d d at es ( in elapsed weeks) for a pr oject . Du ring t he r eplann ing f or each it er patroj ion, at es,APM—an based on ogr ess and feat ur e changes, t he pr oject ed num ber of Which ecttshew tilleam b enest ef itim f rom d wprhich w on't w eek s f or t he en t ir e pr oject . Figur e 8 .6 sh ows high, p rob ab le, and low sch ed ule est im at es. Not ice t hat t he range t hese est im at is w ider at t hee,beginning of t he, pr oject ( gr eat er u ncert aint y ) and narr ow er APM'soffiv e phases: Enes vision, Speculat Exp lor e, Adapt Close at t h e end ( great er cert ain t y) . A r ange t h at isn 't narr ow ing indicat es t hat u ncer t ain t y and risk are not bein gAPM reduced ely and t the h ePr product oject Vision m ay b eBox in dang er . ect Dat a Sheet practadequat ices, including and Proj Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

Dayoje Dayct Upe>d Sche du le Fi gu r e 8 .8 .

Phase: Close A proj ect close is bot h a ph ase an d a pr act ice. Or ganizat ions h av e a t endency t o spend t oo m u ch t im e in it iat ing pr oject s an d t oo lit t le t im e closin g t h em . Dur ing a client engagem en t , I encoun t er ed t he " f ailur e t o close" pr oblem ag ain. The cust om ers of an I T proj ect considered I T deliv ery t o be less t han st ellar , •par t ially because Tablet hofeyContents t hou ght t he pr oj ect had been un derw ay for years. I n r ealit y , t h e applicat ion in Agi le P r oj ect M a emin e nt: Cr e a tifor ng sev I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct qu est ion had bnag een st alled eral y ear s, bust t he init ial pr odu ct ion and ongoing en hancement r eleases w ereh not dif fer en t iat ed fr om each ot h er . So fr om t h e clien t 's persp ect ive, t he " pr oject " just w en t By Jim Highsmit on and on. Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Since r esou rces ar e alw ay s scar ce, people are m ov ed on t o t he next pr oject quick ly, oft en w it hou t t ak ing Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 t ime t o close up t he last pr oj ect and get cr edit for it s com p let ion . There ar e sev er al act iv it ies in volv ed in 0- 32 1-,219 77 -5 of w hich don 't t ake mu ch t im e but do pay of f. Fir st an d f or em ost is a celebr at ion. closingI SBN: a pr oj ect most Pag es:ion 31 2ser ves t wo pr im ary pur poses. On e, it show s an ap preciat ion for all t hose w ho wor k ed har d A celeb rat on t he p roj ect . I n clud ing k ey client s in t he celebr at ion help s declar e t h at t his pr oj ect is over , don e, f inalized, t h us p rov id ing a sense of closur e. Proj ect s t h at go on and on w it h out closur e ( or a series of pr oject s couched as one) are t err ible f or m orale. Anot er less-g orou s closing iv it y wisritt oerclean it emus s, funder inalizestdocu at ion d pofrod uctk ion " Jim hHighsm it hlam is on e of a f ew mact odern s whoup areopen helping an d tment he new n atan u re wor in or m anuf act u ring supp ort m at er ial ( I k now , it should have been d one by now , but w e k now w hat h ap pens t he kn owled ge econom y . " in r ealitAust y ) , in, andAssist pr epare required of ard - projBusiness ect adm in ist r at iv e and financial r eport s. [ 7] —Rob an t Pr ofessorend, Harv School [ 7]

Mik e Cohn r ecom m ends anot her activ ity for soft war e pr oject s that may also be v aluable t o hardwar e dev eloper s:

" This "is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es One ot her t hing I tr aditionally do w hen closing a pr oj ect is t o m ak e sure w e ar chive t he development envi ronm ent. Agile Imet hod st oo and r igor ous ect m anagem enthey t . Not ly deroes t his book m ak e of ation p roj ect 've seen many pr oj ectsproj w her e people t hought w eron e cov ed because t heyhelp had tus he code in sense a configur m anagement in t system. h is cu rrBut entt he w or of was it er at iv dable e, in crem Agilesom m et hods, it ' sC+ an+ allgood m anagem ent syld st em buil only frent omalinside et hing l ikebut Visual , or ar it ound r equir ed specific r ead! "ver sions of soft war e fil es t o build. I always burn CDs of al l that stuff at the end." —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y A final closin g act ivit y is cond uct in g a pr oject r et rosp ect ive. Team s u sing APM have done m inir" et r ospect es each erat ion. Th ese m inis help t hAgile e pr oject eam lear n abent outwit it sh own pr ocesses an d t eam Finally a bivook t hat riteconciles t he passion of t he Sof t twar em ovem t he needed disciplines of dy nam ics as t he p roj ect pr ogr esses an d as such ar e in t rat eam learn ing act iv it ies. The ret r osp ect iv e at pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " t—Neville he en d isR(f or t er- t eam , learn for one oy )inSingham CEO,ing Th,ought Worprkoject s, I nc.t eam t o pass along t o ot hers in t he or ganizat ion wh at w en t w ell and w hat w ent b um p in t he n igh t . As ref er enced earlier , t he best sour ce on condu ct ing Norm dev Kert h 's ( 2ent 001) oject Retdr ospect es: A Hand bookMan f ory Team Rev s .e by r" et r ospect espr isoduct The w or ldivof elopm is bbook ecomPring m ore yn am icivand uncer t ain. m an ag er siew cop r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h Com panies oft en us conf odu ct s and Pr oduct s are on goin g, w hile p roj ect s hav e a f in it e br illian t ly guides intuse o anpralt ernat ive t pr hatoject f it s s. t he t im es." lifespan ( at least t he good on es do! ) . Diff erent iat ing bet w een pr, oj ecteloping s an d prod uct s—ending —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor Dev Pr oduct s in Half tpr h eoject Tim se and get t ing recognit ion and closu re—is an im por t an t b ut of t en over look ed aspect of good pr oject m anagement agfile hering wise. Now , one of t,he ieldor's ot lead ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou Ag>ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces < Day Dayt Up t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Adapt and Close Summary Monit oring and ad ap t ing ( t r adit ionally r ef err ed t o as m onit oring and cont r ol) ar e par t of any good proj ect m anagement appr oach . While APM t eam s ut ilize some comm on pr oject managem ent pract ices, t heir at t it u des t ow ard m onit oring an d ad ap t ing are unique. For exam ple, rat her t h an cor rect iv e act ion, agile •t eams pr ef er adapt Table of iv eContents act ion. Alt houg h cor rect ive act ions ar e necessar y f rom t im e t o t ime, t h e Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: e a ti ng I nnect ov attieams ve Pr oduct pr edom inant at t it u de of Cr agile p roj is t os adapt and m ove for war d rat her t han t o blam e and w rit e except ion repor By Jim Highsmit h t s. Fr equent it er at ions t hat d eliv er w ork in g feat ures allow ag ile pr oject t eam s t o m ak e f requ en t adj ust m ent s Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley based on v erifiable result s r at h er t han d ocum en t at ion art ifact s. Th is can creat e an uncom f ort able Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 sit u at ion for som e m anager s and cust om ers wh o don 't want t o deal con st an t ly w it h eit her realit y or t h e 0- 32t 1219 77 f-5decision s. need t IoSBN: m ake radeof Pag es: 31 2

Finally , t he Adapt p hase pr ov ides a shor t r esp it e f r om t he int ensit y of shor t - cy cle it er at iv e d ev elop ment . I n a ser ial pr oj ect , in w hich a w or king pr oduct m ay be m ont hs or ev en y ear s in t he f ut ur e, it is v er y diff icult t o m aint ain h igh lev els of w ork int ensit y—t here is alway s t om or row . Ag ile pr oject s som et im es hav e t he opposit e pr oblem —t hey can be ov erly int ense. The brief rev iew , adapt , and r ep lan act iv it ies of phase eam mem s t ime o scat ch tare heirhelping b reat h,us and t heir m en al fnew acultnies, r ushing "t he JimAdapt Highsm it h isgive on e tof a f ew mber odern w ritter who under st an d tthe at u befor re of ewor k in of f t o t h e nex t deliv ery it erat ion. t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School < Day Day Up >

" This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Chapter 9. Building Large Adaptive Teams An Achilles' Heel? •

The Scaling Ch alleng e Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

A Scaled Ad ap t iv e Fram ewor k

By Jim Highsmit h

A Hu b Or ganizat ion al St ruct u re Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Self - Or ganizat ion Ext ensions

Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Team Self -D iscip line Pag es: 31 2

The Comm it m en t -Accou nt abilit y Prot ocol I s I t Wor king? St r uct ur e and Tools " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he knSum owled ge econom y . " m ary —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School < Day Day Up >

" This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

An Achilles' Heel? " I ' v e been t hin king, " Her man said as May a answer ed t h e phon e. " Danger ous b usin ess, t hin king, " May a lau ghed. •

Table of Contents

Agi le P,r oj ect fM em e Cr e antiew ng s. I nnI ov ve uPr oduct " Yeah but irastnag som ent: good 'ma tiact ally absout t o f inish u p t his Web pr oj ect , an d it 's really gon e w ell. Most ly I 'v e st r ug gled wit h m y m an ag em ent , but t hey 'v e com e arou nd—at least a lit t le." By Jim Highsmit h

" Gr eat ! These lit t le changes can lead t o bigger on es. " Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat Aprout il 0 6,m2anagem 00 4 " Howev er,e: ab en t issues. I 'v e been t ry in g t o r econ cile t his adapt ive organizat ion st uf f wit h w hat I I kSBN: now0- ab out ow 32 1219h77 -5 or ganizat ion s w ork , an d it j ust doesn't hang t oget her . For t he av erage com pany , I j ust Pag d on't t hink d ep en din g on self - discipline will w ork . I t ' s t he Achilles' heel of APM, " said Herm an. es: 31 2

" First of all, w ho said any t hing about aver ag e? We'r e st r iv in g t o be a gr eat comp an y—and I 'm st riving t o be a gr eat em p loy ee. " " That 's easy for y ou, " Her man said. " You'r e sm art , t alent ed, and sk illed. You k now t he old say ing : ' Half of " Jim Highsm is on e a f ew' "m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in all people ar eit hbelow avof erage. t he kn owled ge econom y . " Assist an t idu Pr ofessor "—Rob I ' v e k Aust now nin,som e indiv als w ho, Harv wer eard not Business t he sm arSchool t est or t he most sk illed, b ut t hey wer e per sist ent , cour ageous, and disciplined. Ev er y one h as a t alent for somet hing. Sur e, a cert ain n um ber of people ju st " This projyect anagem t book we' ve w ait ingt ofor —trhe hat ect iv elyr id com es and don 't is cart he e, but ou m can 't buildenan or ganizat ionallorbeen a pr ocess cont ol tbook he m tisf it s.effYou g et of bin t hem Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p bu ild f or t he ot hers. Comp an ies ar e aver ag e because t hat ' s w hat t h ey set t le f or—t hey don' t p ush roj ect anagement t h is em cu rr entees, w or" ldMay of ait er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good tmhem selv es orint heir p loy said. r ead! " e Ellen, Sr .Her VPm&an, CI O, TE tEnerg y iv e st uf f go t he w ay of emp ower ment —lot s of t alk , no act ion?" "—Ly But nn , " cou nt ered " wD on't his adapt Finally b ook hat r econciles passion of tdow he Agile Sof t war m ovem entOrwit h t heions needed " Em powaerm ent t failed b ecause tithewas p ushed n r at her hanepulled up. ganizat sent disciplines emp loy eesof managem . Jim' Now 's b ook rovpow idederaed. ser' vI tice t o tallw of " tpr o oject a w ork shop andent said, y ouhas ar epem didn' orkus. becau se y ou can' t d o eit h er —Neville R(en oyt) or Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k ts, nc.t im e, vision , coachin g, f ailing, an d t ry in g again. I t 's em power m self - discipline t hat w ay—it akIes har d w or k, wit h giv e and t ak e, success and failur e. But it ' s ex cit ing; at least t o m e. I w ant t o w ork in a " The wwh or er ld eofI pr is er b ecom m ore d yneram andcont uncer t ain. m an ag e yby place lovoduct e comdev ingelopm t o worent k ev y d ay ing . A place wh e Iiccan r ibu t e t oMan t hey best of er msy cop abilit , rt hat einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h values m y cont r ib ut ions, w here people want t o d eliv er high- qu alit y pr oduct s, w her e I f eel br illian guides o anand alt ernat com forttly able beingusmint y self speakive ingt hat out .f"it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e " Doesn't ever y one w an t t h at ?" asked Herm an. Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use p roj ect . Jimt oHighsm it ht eshorows y APM ouldask beed. in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly "APM Maybine.y our But nex ar e tt hey w illing cont r ibu j ustwh k ibit z?" sh Maya addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces "t he I don 't kn ow, " APM laughed an.t hen " My present h ead hur t s fr om tpr hink in gt ools t oo mf or uch. I also w ant ed letany tou fivephase fr amHerm ew or k, s specific, ov en ever y pr oject partt oicip . kn ow tCov haterage having finished u p t his pr oject , I 'm goin g t o cat ch u p on som e longaccum ulat ed v acat ion—nearly includes: t w o m ont h s. So I ' ll be out of t ouch. I t ' s been great t alking, and I really t hink t h ese ideas w e'v e discussed hav e help ed . " Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent " Same for m e, Herm an. I t hink I 'm m u ch b et t er of f on my pr oject b ecause of t hin king t hr ough and t o cap it alize onmemer gin gwh n ew en t t echnologies t alk in How g ab out agilit y . Let e kn ow en ypr ouoduct get bdevelopm ack . " Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong < Day Day Up >

Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

The Scaling Challenge On e m yt h abou t agile app roaches g oes som et h ing lik e t his: " APM ( or pick an y agile m et hodology ) w ork s w ell for sm aller pr oject s, bu t it d oesn 't scale t o larg er ones. " To com bat t he m y t h, I 'd of fer a cou ple of qu est ions: " At w hat pr oj ect t eam size d o t he core v alu es of creat in g inn ovat ive prod uct s and adapt ive •t eams based on Table Contents ion and self- d iscip line f ail t o b e im por t ant ?" or " I n t od ay 's econom y, wh at selfof- organizat Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: ti ng I nne ovst a ti oduct s ?" Lar ge p roj ect t eams and larg e com panies mu st b e size comp an y can af for dCrteoa becom atveic Prand rigid agile or derht o k eep up w it h com pet it or s. Lar ger pr oject s scale up by cont inu ing t o ap ply ag ile By Jim in Highsmit pr in ciples, creat in g a larg er self- or ganizing fr am ew or k, an d app ly in g add it ional pr act ices. Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Agilit y is a m indset , a w ay of t hink in g, n ot a set of pr act ices or pr ocesses. Th e lifecy cle fr am ew ork and Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 pr act ices out lin ed in t his book encou rage agile behavior; t hey r einf orce t he pr in ciples, but t hey d on't SBN: 0-The 32 1- cor 219 77 def ine IAPM. e -5 v alues an d g uid ing pr inciples of APM ar e k ey t o scaling . Pag es: 31 2

I n a pr oject m anagem en t d iscussion f oru m, Glen Alleman, VP, Pr ogr am Man ag em ent Of fice at CH2M Hill, described t he p ract ices he used on a m oderat ely sized p roj ect f or t he US Dep ar t m ent of Energ y. Because it w as a gov er nm en t cont r act , a n um ber of specif ic pr act ices w er e r equired. As he descr ib ed t h e t eam ' s pr act ices, t he list appeared t o define a h eav y weig ht , n ot an ag ile, pr oject m anagem en t f ram ewor k . er, t heit ht eam agile pr in ciples pr are act ices t h ey us used, t r ysting k eep ple kasin "How Jim ev Highsm is onapplied e of a f ew m odern w rit tero st he who helping under an dt ot he newt hem n at uas re sim of wor possible giv en t he nat u re of t he agency and cont r act ing r equirem en t s. They u t ilized sh ort it er at ions an d t he kn owled ge econom y . " f—Rob eat ur ebased plan nin g. Th ey used a cust om ized ver sion of ear ned value analy sis. They adj ust ed b ased Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School on feedback each it erat ion. This w as an agile pr oject t eam , ev en t h ough it w as using wh at m igh t app ear t heissu rf ace o b emnonagile pract ices.we' Allem an'been s t eam illu st rat he book poin t tthat h at eff APM m orcom e about "on This t he projt ect anagem en t book ve all w ait ing fores —tthe ect is iv ely bin es at t it u de an sprand act ices, or e ect pr ecisely , t hatenag t eam eir guiding pr inciples shapeoft he Agile mett hhod r igor or ousmproj m anagem t . ile Not on lys duse oest ht his book help us m ak et osense p roj ect pr anagement ocesses an dinp ract o t hweorjob at ither anat d.iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good m t h is ices cu rr tent ld of r ead! " Manynnofe tEllen, h e m isconcept scaling —Ly Sr . VP & ions CI O, abou D TE tEnerg y t o larg er p roj ect s com e f rom manager s w ho focus first on or ganizat ional st ruct u re (m at r ix , hierar ch y) , pr ocess (p hases, t ask s, ar t if act s) , an d d ev elop ment act ices. endr econciles t o build scaling mechanism basedSof ont war h ierar , cont ent s, and "prFinally a bThey ook tthat t he passion of t hesAgile e mchy ovem entr ol, wit hdocum t he needed disciplines of cerem ony —w hich slow ly but sur ely cause com pliance act ivit ies t o dom inat e deliv er y act ivit ies as each pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " hier arch ical lev) el j ust ifies, CEO, it s exist On tkhis rift t owar d comp lian ce- based managem ent , Dee Hock —Neville R( oy Singham Thence. ought Wor s, Idnc. ( 199 9) com m ent s, " Managem en t ex pert ise has become t he cr eat ion an d con t rol of const ant s, unifor m it y , and iciency hile t he has e t hing e und er stdanding d coor dinat ion Man of vyariab , com plex it y, " Theeff w or ld of ,prwoduct devneed elopm entbecom is b ecom m ore yn am icanand uncer t ain. m anilit agy er s cop e by ect ivpr enocesses, ess. " rand einfeff orcing adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." Agileest t eam s bSm alance f lexibilit y New and st ct ure.DySo as ics/ p rojcoau ect tsize st rPr uct ur e—of —Pr on G. it h, pr incipal, Prruoduct nam hor ,incr Deveases, eloping oduct s in Half t h e Tim e necessit y —in creases also. Bu t w e don 't have t o r ever t t o an aut h orit arian , hier arch ical st ru ct ure. Lar ge or ganizat canf ield be 's adapt e, ex flex ible, and —tthey ust hav o ex pand ruct u rest oinuse Now , oneions of t he leadiv ing pert s br ing ex s t plor ogetat h ory er all he kj now ledgeet and resourt heir ces ystou n eed concert it h nex agile rincip abandon APM in ywour t pproj ect .les, Jimnot Highsm it h sht hem ows .wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces e is phase a plet hora orgew anor izat al st r uct ur es, pr ocesses, p ractf ices t hat can be used onan larg tTher he fiveAPM of fr am k, ion t hen present s specific, pr ovand en t ools or ever y pr oject part icip t . er pr oject s, b ut t hey are b ey ond t h e scope of t h is book . What I w ant t o con vey in t his chapt er is how to Cov erage includes: t hink abou t scaling t hese st r uct ur es, pr ocesses, and pr act ices in an agile w ay, in a w ay t hat incr eases st r uct ur e bu t r et ains t he essen ce of flexibilit y and sem i-aut onom y at t h e in div id ual an d su bt eam lev el. Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent But befor e launching in t o a d iscussion abou t scaling, t here is an ot her issue t hat ar ises w hen comp an ies cap itdalize on ment emer: gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies beginHow usingt oagile ev elop Team sizes f requ en t ly d ecr ease, ob viat ing t h e need f or m ore st ru ct ure. The right small t o m edium -sized t eam ( 25 or f ewer people) ut ilizing an ag ile fr am ew or k and pract ices can t ing plish cust om cen t er of tyou r pr oject , w. here t heye belong of t en Put accom m orers e t at hant he a significan ly larger t eam So befor f igu ring out how t o scale up t o a lar ger pr oject t eam , con sider t he possib ilit y of d ep loy in g a scaled - down t eam using agile pr oject m an ag em ent Cr eat ing ent ad ap e t eamlish s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " and dev elopm t ot ivaccomp y our g oals. Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't < Day Day Up >

APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

A Scaled Adaptive Framework Ot h er t han t he cor e id eology and pr in ciples t hat rem ain const ant regar dless of proj ect t eam size, t he com ponent s of lar ger adapt iv e t eam s are: •

Table of Contents

Agi le PAr oj ect M nag em e nt: a tirng hub ora ganizat ionCr alest uctI unnreov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Self - org an izat ion ext en sions

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Team selfd iscip line Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

Add it ional I SBN: 0- 32 1-pract 219 77ices -5 Pag es: 31 2

A proj ect t eam consist s of individuals—quasi- independent agent s—w ho int er act w it hin a st r uct ur e of t eam and self- d iscip lined r ules of engagem ent ( h ow people int er act w it h each ot h er ) . I ndiv idu als ar e given f lexibilit y and a degr ee of aut onom y w it hin t his loose st r uct ur e, and t hey, in t ur n, ex ercise self -d iscipline t o be account able f or result s and behav e as r esponsib le and t h ought f ul m em bers of t he t eam . Lar ger t eams, t hose consist ing of m ult ip le su bt eam s, op er at e t he sam e w ay —ind iv id uals ar e t he ag en t s in Jim Highsm h is eam on e sofare a f ew odern w rit who under st an t he new u remon of wor k in t" eams, wh ileitsubt t he m agent s in a er larsger pr are oj ecthelping . A " hu us b" st r uct ur e rdeplaces t h ne at com t he arch kn owled y." hier ical ge st rueconom ct ure, organizat ional disciplin e encom passes ad dit ional r espon sibilit ies, and t eam —Rob Aust in,lect Assist an t of Pr ofessor , Harv ardong Business disciplin e ref s r ules engagem en t am t eam s School ju st as it d oes amon g indiv idu als. " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es < Day Day Up > Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

A Hub Organizational Structure I f we ar e t o fost er t h e core values of an ad ap t iv e w ork place, t hen t he or ganizat ional st ruct u re of t he pr oject t eam need s t o reflect t h ose values—an d h ier ar chical st r uct ur es f ail t his t est . Hier archical st r uct ur es fost er m any p rob lem s, as colleag ue Bill Ulr ich r elat es: •

Table of Contents

Agi le PThe r oj ect M a ical nag em e nt:da Cr ewaas ti ngf urt I nnhered ov a ti veby Pr toduct s archy polit agen h e hier

chart , wh ich had lit t le t o do wit h dy nam ic, h ighly f unct ional inf orm at ion m anagem ent t eam s. Hierar ch ical I T in fr ast ruct u res est ablished an By Jim Highsmit h at m osphere wh er e polit ics f lou rished and collabor at ion flound er ed. Hier archies also led t o an em bedded cult u re t hat f ost er ed ad ver sit y and encour aged t h e consolidat ion of individual pow er Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley bases, as opp osed t o deliver ing qu alit y inf orm at ion t o t he ent er pr ise. As p ower b ases enlarged, Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 st r uggles en su ed and adv ersit y grew . You soon had an env ir onm ent wher e 80 % of w or ker s' t im e SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 wI as dedicat ed t o w or king ar oun d t h e sy st em , an d on ly 2 0% was f ocused on d oing t heir job. Pag es: 31 2 Hier ar chical m anagem ent st r uct ur es are also a classic w ay t o punish t hose t h at ref use t o play t he gam e and t o r ewar d t h ose w ho k now how t o m anipulat e t he polit ical m ach iner y (Ulr ich 200 3) . A "h ub" mod el f or pr oj ect org an izat ion s, as show n in Figur e 9 .1 , r eflect s aspect s of bot h hierar chical and net w ork st ruct u res. Each nod e repr esen t s a t eam w it hin t he lar ger pr oject or ganizat ion. Wit hin each node iv id ualit ht eam bers. t he figur er e m ayusbeunder sev eral ur enew t eam s,u arecust om kerin "are Jimind Highsm is onme em of a f ew As m odern w riteerindicat s whoes, aret hhelping st anfdeat t he n at of wor tt he eam, an ar ch it ect ur e t eam, and ev en a cent er of excellence or com m unit y of pr act ice t eam ( not show n) . kn owled ge econom y . " Team s m ay be r eal, v ir t ual, or a com bin at ion. The int egr at ion an d b uild t eam , w hich h as a specific r ole —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School and m eet s periodically , could be a v irt ual t eam m ade up of select ed part - t im e m em ber s of t h e ot her archect it ectmuranagem e t eam en mtigh t h av e avecomb inat ion f ulld p artthat - t ime mem ber com s. bin es "t eams. This is The t he proj book we' all been w aitofing fort ime —t heanbook eff ect iv ely Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " Fi gu r eEnerg 9 .1y. H ub Or g an iz a t ion St r u ct u r e —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet The proj m anagem t t skills eam (in w hich ig htir onm con sist Levect er agin g you r en PMI Agilemenv ent sof t he pr oj ect and pr oduct manager s and leads fr om

subt eam s) pr ov ides leadership an d coor dinat ion and facilit at es proj ect decision m ak ing. Th e hub < Day Day Up > or ganizat ional st ruct u re focuses on t h e collab orat ion and coor din at ion bet ween au t onom ous but link ed gr oups. Wit hin a subt eam , self -or ganizat ion and self- disciplin e are eq ually im por t ant in creat in g h igh per for m an ce. As t he pr oject t eam size in cr eases t o encom pass sev eral subt eam s, t her e is also a crit ical com bin at ion of self -or ganizat ion an d t eam self- discipline. I nd iv id uals have responsibilit ies w it h in a t eam st r uct ur e, and t eam s h av e r esponsibilit ies w it hin an ov erall proj ect st r uct ur e. This hu b st ruct u re isn' t a hier ar chically con t rolled one, bu t n eit her is it a pu re net wor k st r uct ur e in w hich all cont r ol is delegat ed t o t h e nod es. A hu b m ight be labeled a " m odif ied net w ork " st r uct ur e in which a sig nif icant amou nt (b ut not all) of t he pow er and decision m ak ing ar e dist ribut ed t o t h e t eam s. The dev elopm ent tTable eam sofat each node wor k t og et h er in a w ay sim ilar t o t h at of cust om ers and developers, • Contents w it h a b it of for m alit y as defined lat er in t his chapt er . The pr oject m anager r et ains f in al aut h orit y , Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s in clud ing t h e pow er t o m ake unilat eral decisions if need be, bu t her p rimar y st y le is st eering, not By Jim Highsmit h cont r ollin g. Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

< Day Day Up >

Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Self-Organization Extensions As t he nu mb er of subt eams w it hin a pr oject t eam incr eases, t he org an izat ion al f ram ewor k needs t o b e exp an ded fr om a t eam f ram ewor k w it h in wh ich in div iduals operat e t o a p roj ect f ram ew or k w it hin wh ich m ult iple t eams operat e. Th e basics of self- or ganizing t eams fr om Chapt er 3 ap ply t o lar ger t eams, but Table of t• her e are ex t ension s Contents t o t hose ideas t hat also app ly . Cr eat ing a self - org an izin g f r am ew ork f or a larger Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s t eam ent ails: By Jim Highsmit h

Get t in g t he r igh t lead er s

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Pu b e: Apring il 0 6,t h2 e 00wor 4 ArDat t iculat k

b reakd own and in t eg rat ion st r at egies

I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

En t he int er act ion an d inf orm at ion f low b et w een t eam s Pagcou es: raging 31 2 Fr am ing pr oj ect - w id e decision m ak ing The organizat ion, t hr ough t he proj ect m anager, is responsible for st af fing t he p roj ect w it h t he right people. At t he t eam lev el, g et t ing t he right people m eans finding t hose w it h app rop riat e t ech nical and " Jim Highsm h is At onteheofpra oj f ew odern s who are helping steant hdet he n at usreare of assigned wor k in behav ior al skitills. ect mlev el, t hwe rit prer oject manager w ork us s t ounder ensur r ighnew t leader heeach kn owled econom " idual t eam m em ber s, t he proj ect m anager should have t he aut h orit y t o reject tt o t eamge . As w it h iny .div —Rob Aust in, Assist t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School any p roposed t eam an leader. "The Thisproj is tect he proj ect m anagem enhas t book veonsib all been ing for —t he book hat eff ect ivt he ely pcom bin es m anagem en t t eam t hewe' r esp ilit y twoait ensur e ever yon e untderst ands rod uct v ision Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of roj ect and his or her sub t eam ' s assign ment w it hin t hat ov erall vision . For larg er p roj ect s t he subt eams mp ay m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an allar ound good even go t hr ough a v isioning ex er cise—vision box , elev at or t est —for t heir individual piece of t he p rod uct . rAn ead! " archit ect ur al ov erv iew , com pon en t descr ipt ions, and int erf ace definit ions can h elp each subt eam —Ly nn Ellen, VPbig & CI O, ur D eTEand Energ un dersteand botSr h .t he pict it s ypiece of t he pr odu ct . "I n Finally a b ook t hat r econciles passion of t hesibilit Agile Sof t warsu em ent wit h tshet oneeded of add it ion t o un derst anding it st he pr oduct r espon ies, each bt ovem eam also need under stdisciplines an d it s roles pr managem Jim 's b ook For hasex p rov ser t o all of us. w itoject h r esp ect t o ot hent er . subt eams. am pided le, faeat urveice t eam s need t o" un derst and how t hey are ex pect ed —Neville CEO, ought Wor k s,prI oject nc. s ar e alm ost alway s, in som e f ashion , dist ribut ed t o int er actR(woy it h) Singham t he ar chit, ect u reTh t eam . Lar ger pr oject s. Obv iou sly nex t - door b uildin gs f acilit at e m or e fr equent face- t o- face m eet ings t han a Chicag o"Bom The bay w or separat ld of pr oduct dev entnot is bobv ecom yn am ic er and uncer t ain.issues Man y relat m aned ag er e by ion, b ut t helopm is does iat eing t hemfore act dt hat larg t eam s f ace t osdcop ist ance, rcult einfurorcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h e, an d ex per t ise. Defining subt eam r oles and r esp onsib ilit ies wit hin t he hu b or ganizat ion is an init ial br illian guides us ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." st ep in t ly dealin g wit h int distor an ib utalt ion issues. —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e As I was wor k ing w it h one client , a v ery larg e I T or ganizat ion , sever al people lam en t ed t he lack of Now , one of ion—a t he f ield 's lead ex pert ingev s ter, oget erher all in t he now ledg y ouh naveed to m use com m unicat com m oning comp lain st . br How anhot divkidual sawe itand dif fresour er ent lyces : "We e t oo uch APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug com m unicat ion. Just look at m y em ail in box each m or nin g. " He w as r ig ht . What t his org an izat ion lack edhly addr t he quest oject m an r aise abou t ,Ag aptpr es. He em at t rod uces ion ofilej oin ly oach w or king on syst issues ratically her t in han slinging w as essing not " comm un ication ions,"prbut a cult urag e er of scollaborat tem he ails five-anphase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . d d ocum en t s at each ot her. Team s need t o figur e out new and creat iv e w ay s t o collab orat e. For Cov erage exam ple, tincludes: eam s can use t he concept of t r av eling pair s fr om soft war e dev elopm ent . As I ' v e recom m en ded elsew here, " Ev ery ot her it er at ion, a pair f r om one f eat ure t eam cou ld t r av el t o t he second sit e w her e t hey t hen pair w it h d ev elop er s f r om t he second t eam . Trav eling pair s t r ansfer k now ledg e about t he t eam 's Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent f eat ur es at a wor k ing lev el. No m at t er how good t h e archit ect ural decom posit ion of a p rodu ct , t w o dist ribut edt ot eam wor k on ing emer on t he e p pr rod uct n developm eed a certen aint tam oun t of w ork ing- lev el conv er sat ion and How cap sit alize ginsam g n ew oduct echnologies collaborat ion" ( Hig hsm it h 200 2) . Ex chang ing people w ill be m uch m or e eff ect iv e t han ex chang ing paperPut wort ing k . cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong On e im ant ad intap ert-ivt eam t ask is managing a t ask ed st t oem t he" proj ect Crpor eatting e t eam s t hat respon d qdependencies, uick ly t o ch an ges in yf requent our p rojly ectr elegat 's " ecosy m anager. All t oo oft en dependency m anagem ent f alls int o t h e same t rap t hat ser ial dev elopm ent does—m anagement at ionAPM—an rat h er tdh an convwer sat ion. Wit hin a t eam , t he t eam mem ber s Which p roj ect s by w illdbocum en ef itenftrom w hich on't t hem selv es m an ag e depend en cies bet w een f eat ur es. They ident ify d ep en dencies in plan nin g m eet ing s APM's fiv eon phases: vision, Speculat e, alt Exp lor e, , Close w hen t hey ant icipat e pr oblems. They and not e t h em feat ur eEncar ds, suggest ing ernat iveAdapt scheduling also ident ify dependencies dur in g daily t eam int egr at ion m eet ings. These discu ssions not only ident ify t he APM pract ices, Pruroduct Box and Proj Dattao Sheet depend en cy , but alsoincluding t h e exactt he nat e of tVision hat dependency andect how assig n w or k t o allow f or it . Leveerdagin g you sr PMI in Agile ir onm ent The sam iscussion occurskills at t he int er -tenv eam lev el wshen f eat u re t eam m em bers ( oft en t eam leads and

senior en gin eer s) get t oget her t o ident ify d ep en dencies an d d et er m ine how t o handle t hem . The pr oject < Day Day Up > m anager may k now ab out dependencies, b ut t he t eam m emb er s h av e t he det ail inf orm at ion r eq uir ed t o f igu re ou t h ow t o w or k w it h t hem . Conv ersat ions b ack ed up by infor m al not es can be eff ect iv e and m uch qu ick er , ev en in fair ly larg e t eams, t han r ely in g on f orm al docum ent at ion and appr ov al processes. Alt hough t h er e are pr act ices t hat creat e t eam - t o- t eam in t er act ion ( e.g . , in t eg rat ion m eet ing s), t here is no sm all set of pr act ices t h at cov er s all t he sit uat ions encount er ed in larg er proj ect s. Each pr oject t eam is un iqu e, an d t h e pr oject managem ent t eam w ill need t o ex perim en t w it h int eract ion p ract ices j ust as it does w it h t echn ical ones. [ 1] That said , t her e are sev eral k ey pract ices t hat can help cr eat e t he r igh t k inds of r elat ionsh ips and int er act ions am ong v arious t eam s. I n t his env ir onm en t t h e pr oject manager 's role should be t o facilit t he in t eract ion s bet ween t he t eams, not t he specific act iv it ies each t eam uses t o • Table at ofeContents pr oduce deliver ab les. On e pr act ice is t h e com mit m en t - accoun t abilit y prot ocol d escr ib ed lat er in t his Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s chapt er . Anot h er su ch p ract ice is t o est ablish int er - t eam r ules of engagem ent and account abilit y . As an By Jim Highsmit h exam ple, Ex t rem e Pr ogr am m ing prop onent s have develop ed a set of right s t hat gov er n t he int er act ions bet w een cust om ers and prog ram m er s. Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley [ 1] For one such pr actice, wor k- state inform ation m anagement, see ( Highsm ith 2000) , Chapt er 9. Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

Ma na ge r a nd Cust om e r Righ t s ( a sa m ple ) Pag es: 31 2

You hav e t he r ig ht t o an over all plan , t o ex pect an est im at e of w hat can be accom plished, wh en , and at w hat cost . You hav e t he r ig ht t o see pr ogr ess in a r unning sy st em , prov en t o w or k by p assing repeat able t est s " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t hat you specify . t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School P rogr am m e r Rig ht s ( a sa m pl e) " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile You met hod igor anagem . Not hav se and t he rrig ht ous t o prproj oduect ce m qualit y w oren k tat all ton imlyes.d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! "You hav e t he r ig ht t o m ake an d updat e y our own est im at es ( Jeff ries et al. 200 1) . —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y Anot h er ex am ple would be t h e ru les of eng ag em ent bet w een archit ect ur e and feat ur e t eam s wit hin a " Finally pr oject . a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) sSingham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. Fea t ur e Te am " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by Team sprshall hav e adding input t o, inv olv em t he honing right t o cost v ot es. on any ar chit ectinug. ralHighsm decision r einf orcing ocesses, docum ent aten iont ,in, or and f ur t her This isn't w ork it ht hat imt ly p act s t heir or ok.an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." br illian guides uswint —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Team s shall hav e t he right t o assess t h e im pact of an y arch it ect ur al ch an ge and adju st est im at es dingly . pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use Now , and one schedules of t he f ieldaccor 's lead ing ex APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly Team st he shall havion e t sheprright e pr oduct ojectes. m He anagers r ev any addr essing quest oject t om request an ag er s trhat aiset habou t Ag ileand ap prproach syst em atiew ically in t rod uces arch it ect ur al d ecision in w hich t h e t eam' s v et o is ov err id den. t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Ar ch it e ctu re Te a m s Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent Team s shall r eceive prom p t infor m at ion about an d feedback on pr oposed ar chit ect ur al plan s. How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Team s shall ex pect pr om pt not if icat ion of prob lem s t hat feat ur e t eams encount er in im plem ent ing arch it ectcust ur alom d ecisions. Put t ing ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong TheseCrr ules of ad engagem t, w olv e dovqer t im t he in intyegr eam s witst hin eat ing ap t iv e ten eam s hich t hat ev respon uick lye,t ogu chide an ges ouratpion roj of ectt's " ecosy ema" proj ect . Rules of engagem ent p lace a con t ex t ar oun d ov erall collab orat iv e ef for t s and specif ic docum ent s. Wit hout r ules Which of en gagement eam s ef will ant ly ddrwag gin gw ton't h e pr oject manager int o decision s t h at t hey p roj ect s ,wtill b en it fbe romconst APM—an hich should wor k ou t am ong t hem selves. APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close Part of t eam self -d iscip line is dev eloping t hese r ules of en gagem en t and t hen wor k in g w it hin t hem . Wit hin APM pract ices, t he Pr oduct Vision Box and on Proj Dat a Sheet a t eam t her e are alw including ay s con flict s wh ose resolu t ion r elies t hect e leader' s coaching skills. Similar ly , conf lict s arise bet w een t eams; any t ime t here is int er act ion an d coor dinat ion , conf lict s are inev it able. er agin g you PMImskills in Agile env ent st h e t eam s in r esolving conf lict s, solidif y ing h ow t he Again,Lev one of t he p rojr ect anager' s r oles is irt onm o coach

r ules of en gagement act ually w ork . < Day Day Up >

Fr am ing decisions becomes mor e d if ficu lt , an d m or e imp ort ant , as pr oject organizat ions gr ow t o m u lt iple t eams. Decision m aking should be dist ribut ed . For ex amp le, f eat u re t eam s d ecide on t he det ails of f eat ur es assign ed t o t hem ; t he ar chit ect ure t eam decides on plat for m issues; t he int egr at ion t eam decid es on t he int egr at ion t ools. How ev er , t h e dist ribut ion sh ould also be app rop riat e. Team s shou ld not m ake unilat eral decisions on it em s t hat im pact anot h er t eam w it h out en gagin g t h at t eam in t h e decision pr ocess ( a r ule of en gagem en t ). So, f or exam ple, a t eam could n ot chang e an int er face desig n w it hout coor din at ing it w it h ot her t eams t hat use t hat int er face. Fram ing d ecisions—d ecidin g which decision s ar e w it hin t he p urv iew of an individual t eam, wh ich decisions ar e lef t t o t he proj ect m anager and leadership decision s r eq uir e eng ag ing w it h ot her t eam s—is a crit ical piece of build ing lar ge adapt iv e •t eam, an d w hich Table of Contents pr oject t eam s. Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

< Day Day Up >

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Team Self-Discipline Just as in div iduals have respon sibilit ies t o t he t eam s t h at t hey b elong t o, t eam s t hem selv es hav e t o be self - disciplined t o w ork wit hin a lar ger self- or ganizing f ram ew or k. The b eh av ior s required of t eams closely par allel t hose for individuals: •

Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

t h e rhigh t By Jim Be Highsmit

t eam.

Accept accoun t ab ilit y f or t eam r esu lt s. Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b e: Aprcollabor il 0 6, 2 00at 4 iv ely EnDat gage

w it h ot her t eam s.

I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

Work Pag es: wit 31 2hin t h e pr oject self- or ganizing f ram ew or k. Balance p roj ect goals w it h t eam goals. A t eam t hat is un willing t o wor k w it hin t he est ablish ed f ram ew or k disru pt s t h e w ork of t he lar ger pr oject in t h e same way t h at in div iduals wh o ar e unw illing t o wor k w it h in t he t eam f ram ewor k d o. " Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in Basket b all play havey .a" sig n—a ligh t ly closed f ist t apping against t heir ch est —t hat signals " my bad. " t he kn owled ge ers econom They ar e t aking r espon y f or ,aHarv m istard ak e,Business adm it t ing t he m ist ak e t o t heir t eam m at es and im plying a —Rob Aust in, Assist an t sibilit Pr ofessor School com m it m ent t o do bet t er nex t t im e. Team s t h at are accoun t able st rive hard t o deliver on com mit m ent s t o " This t he sproj m anagem book we' ve been w ait —t he book hatofeff ect iv ely com bin es ot her is t eam andect adm it failur een w then it occu rs.all But t here ising an for im por t ant asp tect Agile met hody—assignm s and r igor ent ous vproj m anagem Not onines ly d oes help us ymw akille tsense ofeprroj account abilit er suect s signon—t hen att .det erm w hett his her book account abilit ruly t ak ootect . m anagement t h isoan cu rraent w or of an it erind at iv in cremseem ent alinAgile et hods, but it ' sy an all- arlook oundf irgood Managers wh oinbem t eam ' sld( or ive, id ual's) g lackmof account abilit should st t o ead! selv " tr hem es. Did t hey assign a deliv er able an d a dat e t o t he t eam , or did t he t eam sig n on and accep t t h e —Lye? nnManager e Ellen, sSrof . tVP CI O,n D Energ dat en &assig imTE possib leyt ask s and t hen w onder w hy t h e t eam doesn't accep t r esp onsibilit y . On e of t he pow er fu l asp ect s of t he com m it ment - account abilit y pr ot ocol ( w hich I descr ibe in "t he Finally b ook t hat econciles he Agile Sof t twar m ovem entt hwit t he needed nextasect ion) is tr hat it d ef int he es apassion com m itofmtent bet ween wo et eam s t hat ey heach ent er in disciplines t o f reely . of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville ) Singham , CEO, Th ought s, Ipart nc. icip at e in t heir t eam 's act iv it ies, t eam s have a sim ilar Just as in R( divoy iduals have a r esp onsibilit y Wor t o fuk lly r esp onsibilit y t o part icip at e wit h ot her t eam s wit hin t h e lar ger pr oject . For exam ple, wh en a t eam " The of prmoduct devures elopm b ecom yn am uncer t ain. Manory in m an cop edin byat e est imw ator esldhow any feat it ent can is deliv er ining an mit ore eratdion, it sicmand em bers mu st f act t imag e er t os coor rweinf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h it h ot her t eam s. Team mem ber s w ill undou bt edly ser v e on coord inat ion t eam s ( e. g. , t he ar chit ect u re or brtillian us. Feat int o ur ane alt ernatw ive t heeract t im es." in egratt ly ionguides t eam s) t eams ill ht hat av ef it t os int n ot on ly w it h t h e cust om er t eam , b ut also w it h —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau , Dev Pr oduct in Half the e tTim e , or ot her t eam s. For inst ance, a t eam m ay ut ilize a com pon en tt hor or inf ormeloping at ion f rom anotsher feat ur eam it m ay supp ly a comp onent or inf orm at ion t o anot her f eat ur e t eam . The sam e t r ust an d respect t h at f orm Now , one of tfor he findiv ield 'sidu lead ingeract ex pert br ing s t oget er allint t he now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use a f ound at ion al int ionsalso apply t o ht eam er kact ion. APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t hes quest ionand s pr oject m an er s r aise abou t Ag ileg ap prfoach emincreases at ically in tt rod ucesput Most m anager un derst t he roug h ag guidelin e t hat doublin st af sizees. on He a p syst roj ect hr ough t he 25% five- phase fr am or k, s specific, ov en t oolsivf or y prWhy oject part dinat icip anion t. , by t o 5 0%APM . [ 2] Lar geewproj ectt hen s canpresent have ap palling ly pr low pr oduct it y ever r at es. ? Coor Cov erage m eet ings, includes: docum ent at ion, appr ovals, rew ork due t o m iscom m unicat ions, an d m or e add act iv it y an d t im e t o an y pr oject . Capers Jones ( 19 91) , a consult an t and aut hor on sof t war e m et rics, repor t s t hat on lar ge soft war e pr oject s, one- t hird of t h e cost cou ld be at t r ib ut ed t o paper wor k . Unm an ag ed , t he collabor at iv e Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent pr act ices of APM can b low up in a t eam ' s f ace. Th e lar ger t he p roj ect t eam, t he m or e need t here is f or collaborat ive int er act ion, but also t he gr eat er p ossibilit y of collaborat ive paralysis. The p roj ect m anager in How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies par t icular mu st const ant ly t ak e t he pulse of t he organizat ion as t o t he ef fect iv eness of ev er y t y pe of in t eract . For exom amers ple,atmt he eetcen ing st er t hat ser vred t h e t eam wellt hey in t he ear ly it erat ion s m ay not be n eeded as Pution t ing cust of you pr oject , w here belong t he proj ect p rogr esses. A collabor at iv e st r uct ur e isn 't somet hing t o be set u p and t h en ignor ed ; it needs t o be Cr const ant ly ad just ed. d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " eat ing ad m aponit t iv eored t eamand s t hat respon [ 2]

Thi s per centage sizeAPM—an of t he initi the percent age w ould be higher for a team that w ent fr om 2 Which p roj ect s wdepends ill b en efonit the f rom dalwteam hich (w on't to 4 t han for one that w ent from 25 to 50) and the ty pe of w ork being done.

APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close Finally , t eam s have t o align t heir own goals w it h t hose of t he p roj ect . There will alw ay s be t oo m uch t o do and t oo lit t le t im e, an d t h e t endency will be t o w or k on one's t eam g oals r at her t han on proj ect goals. APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up > < Day Day Up >



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

The Commitment-Accountability Protocol As St ephan Haeck el ( 1999 ), d ir ect or of st rat egic st udies at I BM' s Adv anced Busin ess I n st it ut e, h as obser ved, "Org an izat ion al r esponsiveness com es f r om giving in div iduals an d grou ps t h e f reedom t o behav e in ad hoc way s t o respon d t o unf or eseen cir cu m st an ces. For t his r eason , or ganizat ion al r oles ar e • Table Contents def ined in t erm s of ofaccou nt abilit y for com m it m ent s t o p ar t icu lar out com es, r at her t han in t erm s of Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e at o ti ng I nn ov ti ve or Pr oduct s ional st ru ct ur e and manage out com es r at h er t han act iv it ies." I f w e ar e going b uild a ahub ganizat act iv itHighsmit ies, t hen By Jim h t here need s t o be a mechanism f or t eam s wit hin t h e pr oject st ruct u re t o m anage t h eir com m it m ent s t o each ot h er . Rat her t h an hav e t he pr oject m anager k eep up w it h and m an ag e all int ert eam dependencies, t he t eam s need t o accept t hat r esp onsib ilit y t h em selv es, j ust as developm en t t eam s Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley com m it t o cust om er t eams on feat ur es. How ev er , as p roj ect size incr eases, a slight incr ease in for m alit y Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 and docum ent at ion is necessar y t o help t eams handle t h ese d ep en dencies. A com m it m ent - accou nt abilit y I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 pr ot ocol ( CAP) , w hich is based on Haeckel's com m it ment m anagement pr ot ocol, can assist wit h t his t ask. Pag es: 31 2

The CAP addr esses t w o k ey issues in m an ag ing lar ge proj ect t eam s: " How do we manage comm it m en t s?" and " How do we m anage t he w ork it self ?" We can t hink b ack t o t he small pr oject m odel f or clues. Fir st , t he ex ecut ive sp onsor , w it h t he adv ice and consent of t he pr oject m an ag er and t h e pr oduct m an ag er , agr ees t o ov erall p roj ect plan b oundar ies—scope, schedu le, and cost s. Second, t he d ev elopm ent t eam and he cu st it omer t eam erodern at ion- w t o-rititer ersatwho ion com m en tus s t ounder eachstot The prod anager can " Jim tHighsm h is on e ofmaake f ew itm are mit helping anher d t.he new n atuct u remof wor k in add, mod if y, or cancel f eat ures wit hout going up t he m anagem en t ch ain for appr ov al, as long as t h e t he kn owled ge econom y . " pr ojectAust st ayin, s wit hin an it st agr eed - upon boun TheSchool d ev eloper s and cust om ers agree on f eat u res—a —Rob Assist Pr ofessor , Harv arddaries. Business com m it m ent f or t he it er at ion—and t hen t he cu st omer s p ut t h e f eat ur es t hr oug h accept ance t est ing at t he end eratect ion.m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es " Thisofist he t heitproj Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect Wit h a f ew feat requ ir ement descript and m al m n ot small s kalleep he good m anagement inurt he iscard cu rrs,ent w or ld of it er at iv e, ions, in crem entin alfor Agile et es, hods, but titeam ' s an artound com r ead!m" it m ent s and t h e wor k int eract ions r elat iv ely inf or mal. As p roj ect size incr eases, w e n eed sim ilar m echnn aneism s t oSrallow t oEnerg wor k yt og et h er wit h minimal m anagement in volv em ent . A pr act ice —Ly Ellen, . VP subt & CIeam O, DsTE sim ilar t o feat ur e car ds will b e used t o m anage t h e w ork . Th is p ract ice, t he com m it m ent - account abilit y pr ot ocol,a is a brtief t en agr eem bet w of eent he subu nit sSof of t twar he eorganizat ion. wit Rath her han having wor k of " Finally b ook hatwrrit econciles t he ent passion Agile m ovem ent t he t needed disciplines assign s flow ent f rom t he's pr oj ecthas m an ag er down , t he s tof hemselv pr ojectment managem . Jim b ook p rov ided a ser v icet eam t o all us. " es d ecide on how t hey are goin g t o w ork t oget alt houg h , t CEO, he pr oj m an ag er —Neville R(her oy ) ( Singham Thect ought Wor k s,d Ioes nc. facilit at e an d inf luence t he agr eem ent s) . Th e obj ect iv e of t he CAP is t o enable grou ps t o m anage t heir wor k f or each ot h er w it h t h e least am oun t of m anagem en t " The or ld oductassist dev elopm entf olio is b m ecom ing menore d yn am icing andintuncer t ain.dependencies. Man y m an ag er s cop e by in volvwem entof . Ipr t also s in p ort anagem t by clarify er - t eam r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h A CAP tident ifies auscont r elative ion ship eent im t wes." o t eam s. Rat her t han hav e a pr oj ect m an ag er say , br illian ly guides int roact an-lik alteernat t hat fbet it s wt he "—Pr Do est t hisonbyG.t hSm is dat " incipal, t he t eam s cont r act wDy it h nam eachics/ otcoau h er an d d, ocum en t t h eir com mit en t on CAP it h,e,pr New Pr oduct t hor Dev eloping Pr oduct s inm Half t h ea Tim e card , as show n in Figur e 9 .2 . ( An aut om at ed v ersion of t he card m ay be used w hen addit ional f orm alit y is , one t he ieldple, 's lead s ment br ing soft oget h er ronic all t heinst k now resour t o use rNow eq uir ed. ) of For exfam in ting he dex evpert elop an elect r umledg en t ,e aand CAP card ces m ig yhtoustnateed e t hat the APM ourd nex t p ag rojrees ect . Jim Highsm shotows y APM inen ever y m anager' t h oroug cir cuitin byoar t eam t o deliver a itphrot y pe wh board t o sh t heould instbe r um t d esign t eam sbyt oolkit a cer,t ain dat e.hly addr essing t he quest s ect pr oject m an ag er s rhave aise abou t Ag ileent ap pr emarchit at ically in talrod uces Or t he pr odu ct line arion chit u re t eam m ight an agr eem t ooach d elives. er He platsyst f or m ect ur tr he fivephase amrew t hen present pr ovdat en e. t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . eq uir ement s t oAPM t he frinst umorenk,t design t eam sbyspecific, a sp ecified Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Man agi tem Fi gu r e 9Pr .2oject . Comm ment en t - Accoun t a bi li t y

Pr ot ocol Car d

How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies [ View full si ze image]

Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

The com eit is negot t w owtrit eam in t hare e same wayus t h under at a f eat u re w ould iatk ed " Jim out Highsm h is on eiat ofed a fbet ew wmeen odern er ss who helping st an d tcar he dnew n at ube renegot of wor in bet w een a d ev elopm ent t eam an d t he cust om er t eam ( alt hou gh a CAP car d will usu ally be f or a lar ger t he kn owled ge econom y . " chun of w in, ork Assist t han aanfeat e) . And ju stard as aBusiness feat ure School car d ack now led ges a r elat ion ship bet w een cust om er —Robk Aust t Prur ofessor , Harv and dev eloper and assu mes a set of oblig at ions an d r esponsibilit ies on each par t y' s p ar t , a CAP car d " Thisowledges is t he proja ect mionship anagemand en t abook we'part ve all ait ing for —t hebet book t hat eff( ect iv ely bin es ackn relat set of n erbeen ship rwesponsibilit ies w een two or m or e)com pr oject Agileeam mets.hod r igor proj ectside m anagem en t . t Not on ly om d oes his book help agreem us m ak en e sense ectt o subt Ass inand cont r actous s w it h out sup pliers, he " cust er" tside in a CAP t h as tof heprroj ig ht m anagement in t hhe is w cuork rr ent w or ld it er atent iv e,edin accept crem ent al Agile et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good accep t or r eject based onofdocum ance crit ermia. r ead! " CAP careds get schedu er at ions yju st lik e f eat ur e car ds. They st at e ex plicit ly t h e cost of t eam - t o—Ly nn Ellen, Sr . VP led & CIint O,o DitTE Energ t eam coord inat ion, and m ost im por t an t ly , t h ey en gage t he t eam s w it h each ot her in w ays t hat a pr oject "mFinally anager–d a b ook raw nt hat d epr en econciles dency art he rowpassion on a n et ofwtor hek Agile diag ram Sof tcann war eot m. ovem Whileent t h ewit prhoject t he needed managerdisciplines shou ld of par t icipat e ( so t h at u nder an ds he t eams g of andus. can pr oject managem enthe . Jim 's bst ook hasw hat p rovt ided a ser vare ice doin t o all " prov ide infor m at ion t hey m ight not hav e) w it R( h toy he) tSingham eam s in ,est ablishing t hese —Neville CEO, Th ought Wordepend k s, I nc.en cies and dev eloping t he CAP, t he fun dament al agr eem ent is b et w een t eam s—an d t he pr oj ect m an ag er cann ot ar bit r arily break such agr eem ent s. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by Neit can pr a ocesses, pr oject manager f orce ent a t eam accept an honing agr eemcost ent s. . As a t isn't eam w dev comm ititmhen t s r einfher orcing adding docum at iont,oor f ur t her This orkelops in g. Highsm britillian ly guides intm o em an bers alt ernat f it st rtack he tof im w es." w h otther t eam s,ust he havive e t ot hat k eep hat t h ey can r ealist ically com m it t o, and —Pr est on gG. it h, car pr incipal, NewofPran oduct nam hor , s. Dev Pr oduct s in Half t h ewTim schedulin t h Sm e CAP ds as part it er atDy ion' s wics/ orkcoau load t help Aseloping is t he case w it h feat ur es, henean it er at ion is fu ll, it ' s f ull. At t hat point , adding addit ion al com m it m ent s t o ot h er t eam s r equires d rop pin g Now e, one of block t he f ield 'sork lead som ot her of w . ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly Coor din at iont he amquest on g su s is m cr an it ical t os large oject s, ile andapjuprstoach as tes. eamHeleader s shou ldn 'tincoord inat e addr essing ionbt s eam pr oject ag er r aise pr abou t Ag syst em at ically t rod uces bet t he wfiveeen phase in div iduals APM frinam t heir ew or t eam k, t hen s, p roj present ect msanagers specific,shouldn' pr ov en tt ools coor din f or at ever e—at y prt he oject d et part ail level—am icip an t . on g subt Cov erage eam s.includes: A pr act ice lik e a CAP has sev er al ad vant ag es: ISix t mpr akes inciples coordinat of Agile ion Pr w or oject k v isib Manleag soem t eam ent s can act ually see w hy t h ey ar e less pr oduct ive t han w hen t hey wor k independ en t ly . How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies I t helps b uild cooperat iv e r elat ionship s bet w een t eam s. Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong I t pu shes t he coord inat ion load t o t he people who hav e t he det ail in for m at ion. Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " I t r aises t he subt eam s' sense of accou nt abilit y , since t h ey decide on t h e com mit m ent . Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't While som e m ight ar gu e t hat CAP card s are t oo st r uct ur ed an d t im e consum ing ( an d t h ey m ay becom e APM's efiv phases: En vision, Adapt bu rdensom if et hey ar e creat ed f orSpeculat m in or ite, emExp s) , lor in e, p ract ice, tClose hey redu ce ov er all coor din at ion t im e and eff ort . Not u sing som e f orm of int er - t eam com m it m ent - account abilit y agr eem ent wou ld be analogous t o APM including he Pr oduct Vision and a hin Sheet eliminat in gpract feat ices, ure car ds. Featture car ds creat e a Box m inim al Proj st ru ect ct urDat e wit which t eam mem bers can w or k w it h cust om ers. CAP car ds cr eat e a m inim al st r uct u re w it hin w hich sub t eam s can in t eract w it h each ot her Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

in t h is sam e w ay. < Day Day Up > < Day Day Up >



Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s By Jim Highsmit h

Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Is It Working? Lar ge and sm all t eam s alik e h av e similar cr it er ia f or success—a w ork ing prod uct , m odel, or sim u lat ion . Com ponent s m ust fit t oget h er . They m u st w ork . Th ey mu st p ass accept ance t est s. The longer a t eam , lar ge or sm all, goes wit hout deliv er in g an int egrat ed pr oduct t o a rev iew pr ocess, t he g reat er t he •pot ent ial for f ailu Table Contents re.ofFor lar ge t eam s, shor t it erat ion s ar e used t o deliv er an d int egr at e com ponent s, while Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a tier ngand I nn ov ti ve at Preoduct m ilest on es are used t o deliv inta egr t he sent ire pr oduct . I nt egr at ed com pon en t s t hat wor k in e t hat ht he t eam ' s or ganizing st ru ct ur e and dy namics ar e w ork in g w ell. Sy nchr onizat ion pr oblem s Bydicat Jim Highsmit in dicat e t hat or ganizat ion or process issues n eed adju st ment . Reviews for large t eam s need t o focus on t he Pu sam e t op ics t hat t h ose for sm aller t eam s d o: t he cust om er ' s evaluat ion of t he pr oduct , a t ech nical blisher: Add ison Wesley evaluat ion of t he pr oduct , t eam p er for m ance, and proj ect st at us. I n addit ion , t he su ccess ( or failur e) of Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 pr oduct in t eg rat ion m easures how w ell lar ge p roj ect t eams are w or king. Adapt at ion s f or lar ger t eam s will I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 cov er a wider r an ge of issues and pr oblem s, b ut t h e pr ocess is sim ilar t o t hat f or sm aller pr oject s. Pag es: 31 2

We all k now t he saying " Don' t f ix t hin gs t h at aren' t b rok en. " For lar ger t eam s, w e n eed t o g iv e t h is adv ice a t w ist : " Don' t alw ay s f ix t h ing s t hat ar e b rok en. " While sm aller t eam s ar e not im m un e t o ex cessiv e adapt at ion , t his t end en cy becomes mor e p rev alent as t eam s g et bigger . Let 's say t hat at t he end of a m ilest on e t he int egr at ion of sev er al mod ules cau ses a couple day s of ex t r a wor k . The im m ed iat e r eact ion, par h eon people ho hmad t o clean t he mare ess, m igh t us b e under t o f ix st t he inst it ut " Jimt icularly Highsmby it ht is e of a wf ew odern w rit erup s who helping an dp roblem t he newbyn at u re ofing wor k in addit ion al coor dinat ion m eet ings. Unf ort unat ely , t w o t h ing s m ay happ en . First , t he m eet ing s t hem selv es t he kn owled ge econom y . " m ay t ake mor e t im e t han fixing t he prob lem d id. Secon d, t h er e are alw ay s dif fer en t , un an t icipat ed —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School pr oblem s t hat ar ise. Just as agile t eams don' t t ry t o ant icipat e f ut ur e r equirem ent s or d esign, choosin g in st ead o let t h ect em m emer ge oven ert tbook im e, twe' h eyveshall ould n't w atait t emp t o —t anthe icipat e ev er yeff p roblem " This is t he proj anagem been ing t for book t hat ect iv ely and comput bin es pr ocesses or sprand act ices place p rev ent t h em ' s ofon t enlych eaper and fasthelp er t ous fixmon actsense u al f ailur t han Agile met hod r igorinous projt oect m anagem en. t I. t Not d oes t his book ak e of peroj ect tmo anagement spend ex cessiv an t icipat res t hat m ayent nev occumr et again. in t heist ime cu rr ent w or lding of fitailu er at iv e, in crem alerAgile hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y < Day Day Up > " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Structure and Tools By t h eir v er y n at u re, larger p roj ect s requ ir e m ore st ru ct ure, an d w het her w e lik e it or n ot , som e of t hat st r uct ur e w ill inv olve ad dit ional com plian ce w ork . Th e obj ect iv e isn' t t o elim inat e com pliance wor k bu t t o m in im ize it an d of fload it f r om t he proj ect t eam t o t he ex t ent p ossible. Howev er, as t his chapt er has • Tablest ofruContents show n, add it ional ct ure doesn't hav e t o mean hier ar chy , con t rols, st r ict processes, and volum es of Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a tisom ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s ment at ion will be requ ir ed . Yes, som e addit ional up f orm al docum ent at ion . Yes, e addit ional docu fBy ront plan nin gh will be requ ir ed . Yes, som e addit ional cont r ols w ill be r eq uir ed (f or ex am ple, on lar ge Jim Highsmit gov ern ment pr oject s, som e t y pe of ear ned value analy sis m ay be m andat ed) . Pr oject m an ag er s w ill need t o scr oun geAdd in ison t h eir pr oject m an ag em ent t oolbox es—t r ad it ional, agile, and ot h er w ise—t o assemb le t he Pu blisher: Wesley r igh t set of pract ices for larger p roj ect s. Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

I SBN: 0- 32 177t-5 For larg er t eam s,219 par icularly t hose wit h far- f lu ng subt eams, suppor t ing t ools will also be n ecessary . es: 31 ThesePag t ools w 2ill fall int o t hr ee general cat egories: collaborat ion, t echn ical inf or mat ion sh ar in g, and pr oj ect m anagement . Collab orat ion t ools at t em pt t o b ring people t oget her as if t hey w er e in t he sam e room —an im p ossible goal, but one t h at t echnology g et s bet t er at each y ear. Collabor at ion t ools inclu de em ail, discussion gr oups, t eleconfer en ces, inst ant m essaging, an d t hat old st and by , t he t elephone. Techn ical in for m at ion sharing t echnology r an ges w id ely—fr om com plex p rod uct d at a m an ag em ent syst em s f or dustHighsm r ial pr oduct obileswand r onics t o d ist r ibu ed sofstt w and egrof at ion "inJim it h is sonsuch e of as a f aut ew om m odern rit erelect s who are helping us tunder anardet bu he ild new n atint u re wor k in sy st em s. Pr oj ect m an ag em ent t ools, including por t als t h at dr aw t oget her div er se pr oj ect in for mat ion, can t he kn owled ge econom y . " be ef fect ive for lar ge, d ist r ibu t ed t eam s. And as Ly nn e Nix rem ind ed m e, on lar ge pr oj ect s good —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School adm in ist r at iv e person nel ar e essent ial f or bot h eff ect iv e t ool usage and sup por t ing t h e pr oject anagement t eam "mThis is t he proj ect .m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y

" Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Summary All of t he pr act ices and t ools j ust ment ioned can be accom m odat ed w it hin t h e APM f ram ewor k . The ag ile pr in ciples st ill apply. The need for self- or ganizing, self- disciplin ed or ganizat ional st ru ct ures st ill ap plies. Shor t , f eat u re- based it erat iv e d ev elop ment st ill applies, as d oes t he n eed f or fr equent , com pr ehensiv e •f eedb ack and Table adaptofivContents e adju st ment s. Scalin g t o lar ger pr oject s requir es ad dit ional t hou ght , an d p ract ices, Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em eprod nt: Cruct e a ti I nncard ov a tisveprPr oduct f or bot h people and . ng CAP ov ide sa m ech an ism f or scaling t he self - org an izin g pract ices of sinJim gleHighsmit t eam s ht o t eams of t eam s. Comp onent - lev el plann ing and repor t ing ( using a park in g lot g raph ic) By pr ov ide a m ech an ism f or scaling feat ur e- based plann ing t o lar ger pr oject s. Ther e are ot her t ools t hat pr oject manager s Wesley w ill br ing t o bear on larg er p roj ect s, w hile st ill adher ing t o t he v alues an d p rincip les of Pu blisher: Add ison Agile Proj ect Management . Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4

I SBN: 032 1- s 219 Lar ge agile t eam w77 ill -5not be as n im ble as sm all ones, bu t t h en t h ey prob ab ly d on't need t o be. Th ey ju st 31 2t he f un dament al pu rp oses of APM—deliver in g v alu ab le p rodu ct s t o cust om er s an d cr eat ing need tPag o fes: ulf ill sat isf ying w ork env iron ment s.

< Day Day Up >

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Chapter 10. Reliable Innovation The Agile Vision •

I mp lem en t ing t h e Vision Table of Contents

Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s

Reliab le I nn ovat ion

By Jim Highsmit h

The Value- Adding Proj ect Manager Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Conv ict ion

Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5

< Day Day Up >

Pag es: 31 2

" Jim Highsm it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in t he kn owled ge econom y . " —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School " This is t he proj ect m anagem en t book we' ve all been w ait ing for —t he book t hat eff ect iv ely com bin es Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect m anagement in t h is cu rr ent w or ld of it er at iv e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. " The w or ld of pr oduct dev elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly guides us int o an alt ernat ive t hat f it s t he t im es." —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Now , one of t he f ield 's lead ing ex pert s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now ledg e and resour ces y ou n eed t o use APM in y our nex t p roj ect . Jim Highsm it h sh ows wh y APM sh ould be in ever y m anager' s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

The Agile Vision I n t h e end, t he posit iv e answ ers t o t w o quest ion s f orm t he essence of Agile Proj ect Management : " Are y ou deliv er ing innov at iv e pr oduct s t o you r cust om er s?" an d " Ar e y ou ex cit ed about going t o w or k ever y day ?" Ag ilist s want t o b uild inn ovat ive pr oduct s—pr oduct s t hat t est t he lim it s of ou r ab ilit ies as individuals •and pr oject t eam Table of Contents s—and creat e a w ork en vir onm en t in w hich people, as ind iv id uals and in t eam s, can Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s t hr iv e. By Jim Highsmit h Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley The Changing Face of New Product Development Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 1- 219 77 -5en t —be it f or indust r ial pr odu ct s, consum er pr oduct s, or int er nal business New prI SBN: oduct0- 32 developm Pag es: 31 2being driv en by t wo r esolut e f orces: t he cont inuing dem an d f or innov at ion and t he p lun gin g pr ocesses—is cost of ch an ge ( low- cost ex plorat ion) . As t he u ncer t ain t y about t he ou t come of a dev elopm ent ef for t in creases, as t he com plexit y of t h e in t er act ions of desig n v ar iables daunt s cau se- and- ef fect analysis, exp lor at ion t hr ough ex periment at ion becomes t he m ost ef fect iv e and r eliab le m ode of discov ery . When w e can con duct 1, 000 ex periment s a day f or $1 0 apiece, creat ing elabor at e designs t hat w ould t ak e a m ontHighsm h t o com nowsense. On t are he ot her h anus d, under cond uct indg t5he ,0 00 er iment " Jim it hp let is eonoteher of wise a f ewmmakes odern rit er s who helping st an newrand n atom u re exp of wor k in s m akes n o sense eit her. Good ex per im ent s r equire good ex per im ent al design . t he kn owled ge econom y . "

—Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School I t is har d t o ov erst at e t h e im pact of low - cost ex plor at ion on pr oduct dev elopm ent or t he com pet it iv e adv anis t age hat ect will m accr ue t o en t hose comwe' panies can adj ustfor t h—t eirhe dev elopm enteff anect d iv mely anager " This t he t proj anagem t book ve allt hat been w ait ing book t hat comial bin es pr ocesses ap prop riat ely . A significant elem ent of t his st r at egy will inv olv e sof t war e and t he m anipulat Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ion ect of bit s r at her tinhan oms, driv ingld aoflow -cost exp at ion developm t har at ound should st rive m anagement t h isatcu rr ent w or it er at iv e, in lor crem entpr al oduct Agile m et hods, en butt pitrocess ' s an allgood tr o: ead! " —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y Fill p rod uct s w it h " bit s" " Finally a b ook t hat r econciles t he passion of t he Agile Sof t war e m ovem ent wit h t he needed disciplines of pr oject managem entient . Jim ook has rov ided ser v ice t (oi.all us. " and/ or simu lat e pr odu ct s in Cr eat e a bit -or ed'sprboduct devp elopm enta lifecycle e. , of m odel —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. soft war e as f ar int o t he lif ecy cle as possible) " The w or ld of pr oduct elopm is of b ecom yn am ic and Relent lessly dr iv edev d own t h eent cost ch aning gin m g bore it s d(low -cost it er uncer at ion)t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian t ly elop guides us intano dan alt ernat ive t hat f itof s tt he he abov t im es." Dev people p rocesses capable e st r at eg ies ( agile p eop le and p rocesses) —Pr est on G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coau t hor , Dev eloping Pr oduct s in Half t h e Tim e Em bedd ed sof t war e has r apid ly b ecom e a crit ical piece of ind ust r ial pr oduct s. Cell phones now boast a Now , one of t he f ield 's ingAut ex om pertobiles s br ing s t oget h er all t he k now e and resour y ou n eed m illion or mor e lines of lead code. have microp rocessors forledg ev ery t hing fr omces f uel in ject iont ot ouse in y our nex t ing. p roj ect Jim Highsm ows wh APM shcom ouldplet beely in elect ever yronically m anager' tAPM r an smission shift Air.planes ar e f lyit- hbysh - wire, conyt rolled . s t oolkit , t h oroug hly addr essing t he quest ion s pr oject m an ag er s r aise abou t Ag ile ap pr oach es. He syst em at ically in t rod uces t he t fivephase APMedfr am ewof or k, t hen present pr ovhard en t ools pr ast oject partshor icip an . Sof war e—d ev elop w ell, cour se—is m or es fspecific, lex ible t han war e.f orI never f acty, dr ically t ent ing t he Cov eragedev includes: pr oduct elopm ent lif ecycle f orces h ar dw are eng ineer s t o lock in hardw are design s earlier t han t hey w ould lik e. Sof t war e' s f lex ibilit y is of t en u sed t o corr ect har dw ar e pr oblem s or add new feat ur es aft er har dw ar e designs ar e f ix ed. So t he m or e " bit s" t her e are in a pr odu ct , in gener al, t h e bet t er. As bit s Sixatpr inciples of prod Agileuct Pr oject Mancan ag em r ep lace om s, m ore f eat ures beent developed f ast er and w it h g reat er flex ib ilit y . t o cap ginone, g n ew oduct en tball. t echnologies But wHow e can't dr ivitealize a b iton , oremer sit on or pr use on e developm t o hit a golf At som e point , at om s m ust be assem bled int o pr oduct s t hat w e can use. The cr it ical quest ion is, w hen d o w e assem b le t h e at oms? Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Ther e is a f urn it u re m anuf act ur er in West Vir ginia t hat com plet es it s ent ir e pr odu ct design process in soft war e end he d sesign softlyw are g an en ges er at es ions t o" m anu fact ur" ing r obot s, Cr e. eatAt ingt had ap t ivof e tteam t hat phase, respon dt he q uick t o ch in yinst ourrupct roj ect 's ecosy st em and t he f ur nit ure part s are cu t and assem bled. Th e m ore ch em ical com pou nd an d b iological r esp onse in for mWhich at ion pt here ailab ge APM—an dat abases, he f ur her in t o t h e dr ug dev elopm ent p rocess roj ectiss av w ill b enleefin it flar rom d wthich wton't com panies can go befor e lengt hy an d ex pensive act iv it ies such as anim al t est ing hav e t o begin. Simu lat ion s,fiv meodeling, p rot ot ySpeculat ping, fore,aExp wide of pr odu ct s, are all incr easingly being done in APM's phases:and En vision, lor ar e, ray Adapt , Close soft war e pr ior t o any ph ysical assem bly . Once p hy sical assem bly begin s, f lexibilit y suf fer s. APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet The poin t is t hat t he longer t eam s can m anipulat e bit s r at h er t han at om s, t h e m ore ef fect ive t he pr odu ct dev elopm Lev erent agin process g you r can PMI be. skills Soint wAgile o st r env at egiries onm arent e crit s ical: in crease t he n um ber of bit s in prod uct s and

m anip ulat e b it s rat her t han at om s as d eep in t o t he developm en t p rocess as p ossible. < Day Day Up >

Agile People and Processes Deliver Agile Products Ther e is, how ev er, a caveat t o t he ab ove st rat egies. A com pany 's developm en t and pr oj ect m an ag em ent pr ocesses, and it s ex ecu t iv e sup port and perf or mance measur em ent s, mu st encour age ex perim en t at ion, exp lor at ion, an d low -cost it er at ion. Aut hor s Moshe Ru bin st ein an d I r is First enber g (1 999 ) of t he Univ ersit y of Califor nia w rit e about " m ind ing " or ganizat ions, a t er m t hat coincides w it h " adapt ive. " " Th e m in din g or ganizat ion behaves like a living or ganism , in wh ich adapt in g is cent r al t o v it alit y an d su rv iv al. … • Table of Contents Ov erly r ig id and det ailed plan nin g m ust give way t o a st r at eg y t hat comb ines less planning an d m or e Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ng I nn ov a ti ve Pr oduct s adapt ing. " By Jim Highsmit h

Agile, adapt iv e pr oject managem ent and d ev elopm ent pr ocesses su ppor t ex plorat or y pr oduct devPu elopm ent . Manager blisher: Add ison Wesleys and execut iv es need t o und er st and t he k inds of pr oject s in wh ich t hese pr ocesses can best be used and how t o en cour ag e emp loy ees in t heir use. As Har var d Busin ess School Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 pr ofessor St efan Thom k e ( 200 3) wr it es, " Ex per im ent at ion m at t ers becau se it is t hr ough lear nin g equ ally I SBN: 0- 32 1- 219 77 -5 w hat w or ks an d what doesn't t hat people develop g reat n ew prod uct s, ser vices, an d ent ir e businesses. Pag es: 31 2 But in spit e of t h e lip ser v ice t h at is paid t o 't est in g' and 'lear ning fr om f ailu re, ' t oday' s or ganizat ions, pr ocesses, and m anagem en t of innov at ion of t en imp ed e exp er im ent at ion. " I mp lem en t in g a low - cost exp lor at ion st rat egy will r eq uir e a subst ant ial cu lt ur al change w it hin t he developm en t st af f, p roj ect m anager, and ex ecu t iv e r ank s of m any or ganizat ions. Ex plorat or y pr requir e adapt iv e w p eop ive orgus an izat ions. e individuals hok in " Jim Highsm it hocesses is on e of a f ew m odern rit erle s and who adapt are helping under st anThere d t he ar new n at u re of w wor excel p rodge ucteconom ion env yir.onm ent s, t h ose wh o st r iv e f or r ep eat abilit y and pr ecision t hr ough t he use of t he knin owled " pr escr ipt iv ein, p rocesses perf orm anceard m easur es. Ev er y or ganizat ion r equires prod uct ion p rocesses for —Rob Aust Assist an tand Pr ofessor , Harv Business School a p ort ion of it s operat ion s. But ever y or ganizat ion also needs ex plorat ion p rocesses, t hose t h at excel in " Thiserisintghenew projpr ect m anagem all been w aitbu ing for —tinit heiat book iv ely ,com esect deliv oduct s, n ew en sert vbook ices, we' andvenew in t ernal siness iv es.t hat Unf eff ortect u nat t he bin p roj Agile hod managem s and r igorent ouscon proj ect fm enion t . Not d oes helpatus m akwit e sense roj ,ect cult ur met es and t rols oranagem exp lor at and on pr ly oduct iont his ar ebook usually odds h eachofotpher m anagement in t hional is cu schizop rr ent w or er eat at iv or e, ganizat in crem ion entsalwAgile hods, s itan all- h ar ex ound causin g or ganizat hrld enof ia. itGr ill findm aetw ay t obut d ealit ' w h bot plorgood at ion and r ead! " ion pr ocesses. Ot hers will lan guish b eh ind . pr oduct —Ly nn e Ellen, Sr . VP & CI O, D TE Energ y So how do org an izat ion s deal w it h t w o dist in ct pr ocess m odels t hat h av e seem ing ly incom pat ib le " Finally a Ib ook econciles t hein passion of "adapt t he Agile Sof war meovem ent h tst het oneeded disciplines of cult ur es? t hinkt hat t her answ er lies t he wor d at ion. " tAd apet iv cult ur es wit adju t he sit uat ion , w hile oject ion managem enth.av Jim ook yhas p rov ided a en sert vhe icebusiness t o all of env us. "ir onm ent was m or e st able, pr oduct cult u res e d'sif bficult changing. Wh —Neville R( cult oy ) uSingham ThHow ought k s,t he I nc.pace of change has accelerat ed, t h e m ix of ex plorat ion pr oduct ion res cou ld, CEO, t hr iv e. ev Wor er, as v er sus pr oduct ion act ivit y in or ganizat ions has shift ed, creat in g a comp et it iv e adv ant age f or t hose "com Thepanies w or ld wit of pr dev elopm ent isivbeecom ing h oduct pr ed ominant ly adapt cu lt ur es.m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h br illian guides int o iveoft hat it s t hev ision, t im es." Cult ur et lyt hen id enus t if ies a an critalt icalernat piece t he fagile which might be ex pr essed w it h a sim ple ax iom : —Pr it h, New Pr oduct ics/ t hor Dev eloping s ine Half Don'est t won or kG.in Sm Dilb er tpr 's incipal, com pany , and don' t bDy e nam Dilber t . coau Dilber t 's , comp an y is tPr heoduct epit om of t h e Tim e aut hor it ar ianism—t he ex act opposit e of self - org an izin g. Dilb er t comp lain s, but he t ak es no r esp onsibilit y Now , one of this he fenv ieldir'sonm leaden ing ex pertt sand br ing s tcoh oget h serlack all tself he k- discipline. now ledg e and y ouect n eed use f or changing t . Dilber his ort Ag ileresour socialces archit ur est ohave APM y our roj ect Jim Highsm it h uct sh ows whcry eat APM ould be in tever y km. anager' s t oolkit t h oroug bot h in and t hernex eb yt pdeliv er . innov at iv e p rod s and e gsh reat p laces o wor As And rew Hill (, 200 1) hly t he quest ion s John pr oject m an er s UCLA r aise abou ile "ap pr oach es. wer He esyst at ically in tqu rodick uces raddr elat essing es in his b ook about Wood enagand b ask tetAg ball, The Bru ins bu em ilt on speed, ness, t he phaset oAPM ew or k,a tw hen present s specific, pr ovaen t oolsless f or fast everbyreak. pr oject part icip anmay t. be a t oufivegh manm anfr am defense, it hering zone pr ess, and r elent Now, t here Cov erage includes: som e k id in Am erica w ho grow s up dr eam in g of p lay ing slow- dow n, hig hly st ruct u red, Princet on- st y le bask et b all, but I ' v e nev er met t hat k id. Ther e w as som et h ing int ox icat in g and capt ivat ing about t he p ace and at t ack ing st yle of t he Bru ins. " I t hin k m ost p rodu ct d ev eloper s w ant t o w ork on UCLA- st y le " ag ile" Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent pr oject s. How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies A grand v ision? A u t opian v ision? An im pr act ical vision? Possib ly . I on ce receiv ed an em ail respon se t o a m essage I post ed on an online for um in wh ich I arg ued t h at t r ad it ional pr oject m anagem en t is of t en Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong aut hor it ar ian and hig h cer em ony . "Jim , y our sent ence imp lies t hat au t horit arianism an d h igh cerem ony are 'bad' t hing ing ad s. ap Dot iv we ew het herd or n otlysom et an hinges g is inaut horitparian or " shou e "ju dge it solely Cr eat e treally eam s car t hat respon q uick t o ch y our roj ect, 's ecosyldstwem by it s ab ilit y t o deliv er v alu e t o t he cust om er?" My r esp onse w as, " I care d eeply ." Deliver ing v aluable pr oduct s is im por t ant and 's itcrit ical APM—an t o p roj ect mhich anagement Which p roj ect s w, ill b enitef f rom dw w on't success. No p roj ect t eam can ex ist for long w it hou t d eliv ering v alue t o it s cust om ers. But in t he long ru n, h ow we deliver , how we int er act at w ork , and how w efiv tre eat each otEn her as hum an b eings are m or,eClose imp ort ant . APM's phases: vision, Speculat e, Exp lorev e,en Adapt APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision BoxDay and ect Dat a Sheet < Day Up Proj > Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Implementing the Vision Possib ly t h e gr eat est barr ier t o becoming agile is dealing w it h t he illusions of causalit y and cert aint y . I n a pr oduct ion en viron m en t in w hich requirem ent s an d t echn ology ar e r elat iv ely st able, w e are bet t er ab le t o pr edict t he f ut u re—t o plan and ex pect confor m ance t o t hat p lan. As uncer t aint y in t he ex t ern al w or ld • creases, t houg Table in h, of m Contents anagers wh o hav e been successf ul in st able env ir onm ent s at t em pt t o app ly t he Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e am ti ng I nnm oveasur a ti ve Pr s same pr ocesses ande nt: perCr for an ce esoduct t o unst able env ir onm ent s. Their cer t ain t y—and t h e belief tBy hat t h ey just Jim ifHighsmit h push har d en ough t hey can " cause" t he r igh t r esult s— is lik ely t o result in f ailur e rat her t han success. Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley

Causalit y is easier t o b eliev e in t h an em er gence; it 's m ore t ang ible. Yet n at u re t hriv es on em er gent Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 r esu lt s. Evolut ion it self —ad ap t ing t o ecosy st em chang es—is an emer gent pr ocess fueled by I SBN: at 0- ion. 32 1- 219 77 -5 exp er iment Ever y in div idual act ion changes an ecosyst em and f ost er s ot her changes in response. Pag 31 2 r e play em erg es fr om t h e in t eract ion of act or s, play w right , dir ect or, an d t he audience, a Just as aes: t heat pr oduct emer ges f rom t he int eract ion of proj ect t eam m emb er s, t h e pr oduct and proj ect m anagers, cust om ers, an d com pet it ors. But t he illusion of cert aint y cont inues becau se in m any or ganizat ions it 's considered poor f orm t o be ot her t han cer t ain . The cer t aint y should b e in t he vision and t he broad goals, not t he sp ecific p at h t o reach t hat v ision. When w e conf use v ision an d p at h , w e conf use causalit y and em gence. it h is on e of a f ew m odern w rit er s who are helping us under st an d t he new n at u re of wor k in " Jimer Highsm t he kn owled ge econom y . " New oduct isn't Plan -D oard bu tBusiness En vision -Exp lor e. Where t here is n o un cer t ain t y, no r isk , —RobprAust in,developm Assist an ten Prtofessor , Harv School t her e is no oppor t unit y . Pr oduct ion p roj ect s are cont rolled by p redict in g schedu le, cost , an d scope. NPD oject ar eproj const by sch ule anwe' d cost or derw tait o ing delivfor er—t onhev ision rest rictcom iv e, bin v ision "prThis isst he ectr ained m anagem ened t book ve allinbeen book. Scope t hat effisect iv ely es exp anmet siv e, y et v ision isn'ous t " any Poor inglyleads uncont ex perim t at ionof inp roj t heect Agile hod s and r igor projt hing ect mgoes." anagem en t v. ision Not on d oes ttohis bookr olled help us m ak e en sense same way t h atinov ailed r eq lead t o r igid com pliance. m anagement t herly is cudet rr ent w or ld uir of em it eren attivs e, in crem ent al Agile m et hods, but it ' s an all- ar ound good r ead! " I t 's im t ant tSr o .r em ber o p rodu —Ly nnpor e Ellen, VPem & CI O,t hat D TEnEnerg y ct , and no organizat ion, can be inf in it ely ag ile in all d im ension s. Agilit y alw ays occur s w it h in cer t ain bou ndar ies—plat f orm ar chit ect ures for p rodu ct s, or ganizat ion al ew or for tpeople. I t balances st r uct urof e and flexibilit dependence andwit aut . A r est r ict iv e of "f ram Finally a ks b ook hat r econciles t he passion t he Agile Sofy, t war e m ovem ent h on t heomy needed disciplines arch it ect ur e r ed uces a pr odu ct 's ab ilit y t o respon d t o t he pr oduct vision and m ar k et ecosyst em , w hile t oo pr oject managem ent . Jim 's b ook has p rov ided a ser v ice t o all of us. " lit t le archit ect ure incr eases t he lik elihood of incr eased cost , du plicat ion, an d su bopt im izat ion. A r est rict iv e —Neville R( oy ) Singham , CEO, Th ought Wor k s, I nc. or ganizat ional fr am ew ork r educes a t eam ' s abilit y t o r espond t o ch an gin g con dit ions, while t oo lit t le orldk of causes chaos conf usion. "f ram The ew w or pr oduct devand elopm ent is b ecom ing m ore d yn am ic and uncer t ain. Man y m an ag er s cop e by r einf orcing pr ocesses, adding docum ent at ion , or f ur t her honing cost s. This isn't w ork in g. Highsm it h The mar art s are alloab alance. ing or at t ack ing , m art ial ar t ist s keep t heir b odies br illian t lyt ial guides us int anout altbernat ive Whet t hat fher it s t defend he t im es." centest ered in balance. Pr oj ect m an ag em ent ar t ist s shou also b e eloping in b alanPr ce. Finding t hat tbhalance —Pr on and G. Sm it h, pr incipal, New Pr oduct Dy nam ics/ coauld t hor , Dev oduct s in Half e Tim eis k ey t o agilit y , and it isn' t easy ; t her e isn 't a for m ula. The balan ce point f or ev er y pr odu ct , for ev ery pr oject t eam is df ield if ferent . Finding t hats bbralance pointh er requ es tkechnical cellence, ecause builds Now , one of t, he 's lead ing ex pert ing s t oget all irt he now ledgex e and resourb ces y ou itn eed t o bot useh qu ickin ness and agilit y . ect Sk .ill,Jim t alent , an dit hk now led ge eed qu ness—com pelling peoples t ooolkit go f ,ast APM y our nex t p roj Highsm sh ows wh br y APM shick ould be in ever y m anager' t her oroug hly br eedessing s hu rr tyhe ingquest . Agilit y scan on ly bmean achiev t h rou gh tanAgun ering onsyst t ech nical ex cellence. addr ion pr oject ag er sed r aise abou ilewav ap pr oachfocus es. He em at ically in t rod uces t he five- phase APM fr am ew or k, t hen present s specific, pr ov en t ools f or ever y pr oject part icip an t . Cov erage includes: < Day Day Up > Six pr inciples of Agile Pr oject Man ag em ent How t o cap it alize on emer gin g n ew pr oduct developm en t t echnologies Put t ing cust om ers at t he cen t er of you r pr oject , w here t hey belong Cr eat ing ad ap t iv e t eam s t hat respon d q uick ly t o ch an ges in y our p roj ect 's " ecosy st em " Which p roj ect s w ill b en ef it f rom APM—an d w hich w on't APM's fiv e phases: En vision, Speculat e, Exp lor e, Adapt , Close APM pract ices, including t he Pr oduct Vision Box and Proj ect Dat a Sheet Lev er agin g you r PMI skills in Agile env ir onm ent s

< Day Day Up >

Reliable Innovation I n t h e end, just lik e Br oad way plays alw ay s deliver on opening night , APM deliv er s on t im e and t o t h e cust om er' s v ision mor e r eliab ly t h an any ot her ap pr oach f or hig h ex plorat ion- fact or pr oject s. Giv en t h e high degr ee of uncer t aint y on m any n ew p rod uct ef for t s, giv en t he changes in t ech nolog y, giv en t he ebb •and flow of st aff Table of Contents , r eliable r esu lt s ar e st ill ob t ainable. Giv en all t he " m ayb es, " ag ile pr oject m anagem en t Agi le P r oj ect M a nag em e nt: Cr e a ti ngwh I nn ov is a ti a vet rPr oduct and dev elopm ent st ill d eliv er, ich ibu t e tso t he passion, dr iv e, p er sist ence, and ingenuit y of pr Jim oject t eam hmem bers. By Highsmit When ex ecut ives can art iculat e a pr oduct vision , agile t eams deliv er . When execut iv es can est ablish Pu blisher: Add ison Wesley r easonable cost and schedu le b oundar ies, agile t eam s d eliv er. Wh en cust om er s and pr oduct m an ag er s Pu b Dat e: Apr il 0 6, 2 00 4 can accept t he consequ en ces of t heir own dem ands on t h e pr oduct , ag ile t eam s deliver . When all I SBN:s0-can 32 1-deal 219 77wit -5 h t he am big uit y of st ru ct ur e and flex ibilit y , w hen t hey can focus on result s and par t icipant Pag 31 2agile t eams deliver . not act iv es: it ies, Aut h or Ed Your don ( 199 9) wr it es ab out f our k inds of deat h m arch pr oject s: kam ik aze, suicide, ug ly , and m ission im possib le. Kam ik aze pr oject s ar e doom ed fr om t he st ar t , b ut ev ery one ag rees t hat t he r id e m ig ht b e enjoy able, as in " t echnically int er est ing ." On suicide proj ect s, ever yon e in volv ed , f rom t he s t o itt h heispron oject , k nowwsrit t he w ill fail an d at it w able w ork on.k in "engineer Jim Highsm e of m a anager f ew m odern er sproj whoect are helping ust hunder still anbe d tm heiser new n att o u re of wor Thr eat ened job loss is t he only reason t o w ork on su ch a proj ect . Ugly pr oject s ar e t hose in wh ich t he t he kn owled ge econom y . " pr oject manager is w illing t o sacr if ice ot h er s f or his ow n glory . Lon g h our s and a m iser ab le w or king —Rob Aust in, Assist an t Pr ofessor , Harv ard Business School env ir onm ent ar e sur e t o en sue. Mission im possib le p roj ect s are doable, b ar ely , w it h luck and except ional ort .isBut ission ossibleen prtoject ar eve also h he ey ar e highh igh - rew ar dbin pres oject s. "eff This t hemproj ect imp m anagem books we' all usually been w ex ait cit inging—t for —t book t hatr isk eff,ect iv ely com Agile met hod s and r igor ous proj ect m anagem en t . Not on ly d oes t his book help us m ak e sense of p roj ect I f anagement you r pr ojectinf alls ofort he first eee,cat ik aze, icide, or itug proj ect good m t h isint cuorron ente w ld of it ert hr at iv in egor cremies—k ent al am Agile m et su hods, but ' s ly an—no all- ar ound m anagement pr oce