A Treatise on Syriac Grammar by Mar Elia of Soba 9781463208936

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A T R E A T I S E O N SYRIAC GRAMMAR

rtuAcita ¿LLn^i ^ciST A TREATISE ox

SYRIAC GRAMMAR BY

MAR(I) klia OF SOBhA EDITED AND TRANSLATED FROM THE MANUSCRIPTS IN T H E HERLIN ROYAL LIBRARY

RICHARD J. II. GOTTHEIL.

M G o r g i a s PRESS 2004

First Gorgias Press Edition, 2003. Second Gorgias Press Edition, 2004. The special contents of this edition are copyright €> 2004 by Gorgias Press LLC. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States of America by Gorgias Press LLC, New Jersey. This edition is a facsimile reprint of the original edition published by Wolf Peiser Verlag, Berlin, 1887.

ISBN 1-59333-019-7

GORGIAS PRESS

46 Orris Ave., Piscataway, NJ 08854 USA www.gorgiaspress.com

Printed and bound in the United States of America.

TO MY DEAR PARENTS, IN FILIAL AFFECTION

THE EDITOR

CONTENTS. Page.

Preface

5

The Manuscripts

.

.

Ill

Translal ion: Introduction Chap.

1.

. . .

'-'4

The letters of the alphabet

•-'.r>

Chap.

II.

Chap.

III.

Radical and servile letters

28

Chap.

IV.

On the letters which are called case-letters

30

On Kukkalia and Kussaya

H3

Chap.

V.

Chap.

VI.

('hap.

VII.

Letters in motion and at rest

.

On the letters which ¡ire absorbed.

;)(> .

On the letters which are assimilated

Chap.

IX.

On the letters which interchange with each other

Chap.

X.

Chap.

XI.

Chap.

XII.

Notes

.'17 ¡¡8 .

.

40

On the S e yame points

41

On the pronounciation of the 8yriac letters

44

On the general points of punctuation List of nouns, together with the inllection of verbs

.

Additions and Corrections

44 .

.

46

1"—60*

Appendix Syriac 'JVxt

'27

Kukkalia and Kussaya with pi:

Chap. VIII.

Chap. XIII.

. . .

61*—67* .

68*—71* .11—

PREFACE. Some time ago Professor Sachau drew my attention to certain parts of the K c t h ab h a dhesemlie of Bar 'Eb h raya.

After a careful

study of that work, and after having gained a better insight into the manner, in which the author had composed his many other writings, I found it necessary, to search for all possible sources, from which the celebrated MapVyiin might have drawn his knowledge.

I felt certain, that

had any important grammatical trea-

tises been brought to light b. fore his time, he surely, to judge from his other works, would have .nade good use of them. For a native Syrian Grammarian, there are three sources, from which he may gather his information: from the works of his own native grammarians; from those of his Arabic teachers; and, indirectly from the Tey vYj of the Greeks.10 It was especially the first of these sources, which interested me in regard to Bar 'Eb h raya. To the end of being better informed on that point, I read and copied as many of the native Syrian Grammarians, as were to be found in the collections here. That of Professor Sachau—now the property of the Royal Library in Berlin—together with two Mss. from the Petermann collection, gave me all the material I needed. Very soon my attention was particularly drawn to two of the smaller grammatical compendia; very different from each other in the subject matter, but as similar in the brevity, and clearness, a) ZDMG. xxvi, p. 822. In what way these three can be combined (r), one can best see in the tur;'is mam(l)Ia of Elia of Tirhan, ed. Baethgen, Leipzig 1830.

G

PREFACE.

of their diction: the one—which I here publish—the 10

mam(l)la of Elia of Sob'Ti

tùràs

ho

(Nisibis), the other the nisà d gram-

h

matikut :\ (té/vr, YpajAjiaTix/,) of Jausep h Hùzàyà.b)

As Jausep1'

Iluztiyà flourished about the year 580 —a hundred years before Jakób1' of Edessa, and nearly 300 before Iionain bar Ishiik, I eagerly went to work, at what, I believed, would bring us one point further in understanding the relationship, in which the first Syrian Grammarians stood to their Greek teachers. 0

My hopes

were realized; but in a manner different to what I had expected. The nisà dhegrammatikùthà turned out to be the ~éyvrt ypapjiatixy;—the celebrated compendium of Dionysius Thrax.d' As I afterwards learned, Prof. Merx, who had discovered the same translation in two Mss. in the British Museum,*0 had promised an edition of the same. 0 I yielded to his prior rights. In the notes, however, I have cited several passages; partly, because we there reach the a) + after 1049. Seeltos in and Forsliall: Cat. cod. man. orient, qui in Museo Brittanico asservantur.

1838, p. 89.

Steinschneider: Polemische und apolo-

getische Literatur etc. 1877, p. 51. B. 0. iii, 266. b) B. 0. iii, p. 257, note 2. Bar 'Eb h niyii. ^ni^i.i .-Uirtfo . » o n i a r i ^ a «A

r^oen

oeno

^»Tfl

iiva

^Acn

» S e i l b\jsn

rdfcsHa«

i^iütU.'Ua .^CVAri'

A»\n

^»JT-ur^ ^ i i r • ^ n w v o

ra.i

Cliron. eccl. ii, p. 78: ì à x s O

i n

K'.iorA

»soil:1

cpàv^G.i

p^iuaiioi^

Kllsit

on\

rdXr^a

See B. 0. iv, p. ccclxxix. Wright, Catalogue &c. 1026. 107. Pavne Smith, Catalogue p. 604. Ms. Sachau 306. fols. 18 a. 32 e. c) ZDMG. xxxii, p. 502. Steintlial, p. 25. d) I have used the excellent edition of Ulilig, Leipzig 1883. The Syriac translation has there already been used in the text-criticism. See Uhlig: "Zur Wiederherstellung des ältesten occidentalisclien Compendiums der Grammatik" Festschrift zur Begrüss. d. xxxvi. Philologenversammlung in Karlsruhe, p. 61 ff. e) Mss. add. 14658, 14620. f) See "Appendix artis Dionysii Tliracis ab. G. Uhlig recensitae" in Programm des Gymnasium zu Heidelberg, 1880—81, p. 1 note.

7

PREFACE.

last authority and starting-point for rules which the later grammarians propound, and partly to give some idea of this interesting translation. The reasons which induce me now to edit the other of the two works are: a) Elia wrote his grammar about the same time as his namesake, Elia of Tirhan; if the supposition in note 102 be right, still earlier. Whether this is so or not, Eliii of Sobha stands, as regards form and subject matter, much nearer Ja'kob1', than does Elia of Tirhan.

b) His style is clear and concise; the rules

are given in a d r y — a t times monotonous — manner, but, also, without ever attempting to force the Syriac into grammatical forms to which it is quite strange.

In both of these, he is the

direct opposite of Elia of Tirhan; who, however, for his part, as regards independence of judgement, stands far above Elia of Nisibis.

c) As representative of the school of S6b h a, and as starting-

point for a number of later grammarians,

he claims our full

interest. To this last point I have paid particular attention in the notes, even at the risk of their becoming unn Rurally long. What position does Elia occupy in the ristory of the native Syrian Grammarians?

Looking backwards, we have to enquire,

in what relation does he stand to his predecessors ? Here the answer can be very short.

Of all who wrote on grammatical subjects

before his time—Jausep 11 Huziiya, Ahudhe'mc, Juhanan Est any A , Ja'kob h Urliayu, Ilonain &c. we know next to nothing. Elia himself mentions two authorities: Ja'kob h of Edessa (from the turas mam(l)la p. o, 8, from his letter on Syriac Orthography—although not mentioned by name—p. 12, 4) and Ilonain (K e t h ab h a d he nukze Chap. V.).

I have reason to think that these are not the only

passages belonging here; pp. 6,4 and 28,14 have undoubted reference, the one to the grammar, the other to the Letter of Ja'kob h . a> a) Severus of Mar(i) Mattai and Jausep' 1 bar JIalkon cite these passage too; but, as 1 believe only at second hand, through Elia.

See notes 6. 23. 30. 81.

8

PREFACE.

I can not find that the Arabian Grammarians have had much influence upon Eliii: at the most, only in the two chapters, on the pronunciation (rtiiasa,

S S I « ) of the letters, and in that

on the letters which interchange with one another. I f we now, however, ask, what was the fate of Elia's turns mam(l)lii among his contemporaries and successors, we have to note the following: Juhanan bar Zo'bi, a) monk in the monastery of Be(i)t h Koko (called that of Sabbariso') in the neighbourhood of Arbe(i)l, pupil of Sem'on Sank c lawi b ) composed a work containing grammatical and philosophical treatises, addressed to a certain Giwargis. 0 '

In

these he has made good use of our Elia. Had we not direct testimony to hand, the one fact would be convincing, that in all Mss. (sometimes without a heading of its own as in Ms. B.) the works of both are invariably found together, Elia always standing first. It would seem that Bar Zo'bi had taken the treatise of Elia up bodily, as the first of his own collection. Fol. 32 a, 80 a lie mentions him by name; fol. 75b, d ) he refers his readers directly to MAr(i) Elia.

At other times, he has taken the single rules, as

worked out bv E l i a ; and, without mentioning any name, enlarged them, and multiplied the examples.

See especially notes 41 and

95; in general comp. notes 47. 82. 86. 88 &c. More interesting is the relation in which Elia stands to Severus bar Sakkii, e) bishop in the convent of Mar(i) Mattai in the a) B. 0 . ill, ;i07. Bar 'Eb h ruya.

Clnon. Eccl. ii, p. 409, see p. 401.

b) Wright: Catalogue p. 10K7. c) Ms. Sachau 306, fol. 75 a. Julianan bar Zo'bi lived about the yeai- 1200. (1) See note 50. e) B. O. ii, p. 455.

evepi

»•isoi

rrtC^euaoao . c o l i c s .ICUsln i i ^ , w

Bar 'Eb h ruy;i, chron. Eccl. ii, 410: r d l _ 3 \

om&ri' a a n \ »

f^lcnja

K'oen

Ktoco r t ^ i u rdJcn . Q t y . i a r^ioKbo . c a u o Oco r C i i i i i ^

«t^'w

PREFACE.

9

neighbourhood of Niniveh. He studied under Bar Zobi, and through him was probably made acquainted with the grammar of Elia. From him he has taken whole passages bodily into the grammatical parts of his "Dialogues". They follow Elia so closely, that I have been able, at times, to make textual use of the same. See notes 23. 32. 41. 90. The dialogues are written in a peculiar manner. The same subject is treated of twice, sometimes three times. It so happens that passages from Elia are found—as disjecta membra—in different corners of the book. Such passages I have generally given in full. See notes 18. 23. 32. 41. 49. 58. 64. 81. 90. The same can be said of Jausep1* bar Malkon Bishop of Muridin. I have been unable to find any further information about his life.a) Assemani, B. 0. iii, 308. Wright, Catalogue p. 1177 do not mention a single date. I have the impression that, in point of time, he comes before the two last mentioned. He, too, has taken passages from Elia word for word, changing them only in so far, as it was necessary to fit them into his duodecasyllabic Metre. See notes 23. 41. G3. 79. 90. In note 48 I have given a passage, part of which is four 1, word for word, in Bar Zo'bi's metrical grammar. As regards Bar 'Eb h raya, the result is not quite that which I had expected. The K°t\\b h a dhesemhe stands so high above all its predecessors, is so much more worked out, that it is difficult to find out its single parts. And yet there is no doubt, that Elia U r C » n ^ o i i s p a ."A. r ^ i o i i i s M rni\«w - a i i ^

THE MANUSCRIPTS.

15

V. fol. 120 a . O n t h e f o u r c h i e f i n t e r p u n c t u a t i o n m a r k s .

Ful.

119 M a r ( i ) A b b a . k a t h o l i k a i s m e n t i o n e d . S u b s c r i p t i o n p a l * . Kta^pM.!

K'lnKU.

ftsaria

OlCDOflO r d a . i A a

^rf

pocus.

script:

.I^WKXt

Following

in

very

minute

¿ v - t ^ j a o a frv>cr>^nr> iviAOiW" •

.t^oicua.i r^ii^cul.1 v ^ r ^

*



»

*

*

*

>sX»t

_ ¿U^AlcA—=J _ At

¿tal^s ,cncu.TnCvao

cnLuoi

puL

>oocur»r^lo

.(^¿u.ioqto

TA^Acv ^ » r d a

ij.-i&ni'

caiis^

cnAo

.r o i c n c v o o

.o.icv^ rdi.TuOK'

i u a j

iujtii.1

Sub-

Ay (V) ( ^ ¿ u i »

paix. ^as

r t l i o a j ^ ivia

^lueu i^iuTn

^iSOri' r e ' A u j s t . V I I I . fol. 124a.

A few lines f r o m E p i p h a n i u s on W e i g h t s

and

16

THE MANUSCRIPTS.

measures*' commencing:

t Beginning: bxa .rCisaribea

KUji

riilrnr«' Kjj.iio i a

A*. ni'i»9rVx. ^iSOr^ K'iojri' r O i s a o i ntf&Aa&iaXa r ^ t a a x . nifcnlrdlo. II. fol. 9b—56b.

Grammar of Eliii of S6bha. On fol. 51a

a) Extract from Lagarde: Praetermissorum libri duo p. 93, 91 — 98. 2

18

THE MANUSCRIPTS. on t h e m a r g i n , in a stiff a n d i n e l e g a n t h a n d : (sic) r£iA\!u>

aiiTM

itcA^

v^ia^X

... A

«Si

rdi.taaxsn

»1 (R. .sen)

Subscription: r t ^ o j e a

« ^ S u .

rdiQ.io

am

t.v«» V*wo r i

.KluiCLfio rt'irVi

THE MANUSCRIPTS. •

^uieu ^ s i iüa

r^iiso^ KlmiojiiirA

i I ^

rdiiai

O l ^ A^CLSa.1

.(^¿UI&OLM* c n l i a h a

KlJIU)OKbl » ^ i

rdil^o »ist

A*

neiAr^ > T » o

^sa

oieiasa-vA

» a e u a ¿abvSkb\r*

.in

liü

rciAr«'

r < , \ i \ a a i \ > * » i CYoCoAK' oocAsa jTv'iO . K i Ö e i i

^gCOiui

fol. 242 a :

M a »

ni'VTSO

r^A^coo ^loAr^ o a * .

a^raiKXl^CUL.1

rt&Äu A a

"aii^iiU^

V3QXS0

i ^ c & ' i o i^HaJ^

rl as nun in medi(n)tà (city), sVi(n)tà (ship). So also, if before the nun a letter with p e t h àhà; as zebha(n)tà (time), sa(n)tà (year)b). When we say y(h)ùdbàyè, r(h)ómàyè, par(h)esià,r>6 we suppress the he. And when we say ye(h)beth, ya(h)bhte(i)n &c. in all the forms of the perfect in which 30 this word is used we suppress the hé. As also the he is suppressed a) Read e(b)bànè as in Payne-Smith, col. 7. b) B and C add: and when we say 'nàsà &c.6S

40

TRANSLATION.

in the forms of met h iheb h , 'et h iheb h , net h iheb h (i. e. of the 'Ethp^el) when it is vowelless; as we say: met h ya(h)bin, methyii(h)bii &c. When, however, the tau has a vowel, then (the pronunciation of the he) is required; as 'et h iheb h t, 'et h iheb h &c. Liimad'1 of (the verb) 'ezal, 'azel, ne'zal, is suppressed wherever it is necessary according to the .r> inflection of this verb; (that is) where liimad h has a vowel, the zain before it being vowelless. liiraad'1

In such cases the vowel of the

is thrown upon the zain, and the lamad h is suppressed;

as we say 'eze(l)t h &c. If the zain naturally (i. e. not having received it from the lamad1') lias a vowel, and the lamad h is vowelless—or 10 both letters have vowels, the lamad h must then be pronounced, as: 'ezal, 'ezalt &c. In short" 7 —one must know, that a letter is neither absorbed in reading, nor assimilated, nor suppressed, except it be vowelless. Let this, too, suffice on the letters which are assimilated.

15

CHAPTER IX. WE WILL NOW SPEAK OF THE LETTERS THAT INTERCHANGE WITH EACH OTHER, ss

One must know, that where a kap h or kop h with a vowel follows a vowelles zain—such a zain is pronounced as semkatA^o as the zain in z e k b arya, z e kip h a (cross), z e kip h ut h a, (crucifiction), 'ezkat h a 69 (rings), z e k h a (he was victorious). semkat h

Where a vowelless

is followed by a letter with a vowel and kussaya, it is

pronounced as zain; as the semkat11 in 'esba (herbs); 'asgii (make increase), nesge; nesbet'1 (I have taken), nesbat b ; mesdar (to order), 25 nesdor; mesgar (to close), nesg 6 ri(h); kusbart h a (coriander) ;70 and all that are like these.

Where a vowelless te(i)t h is followed by sin

having a vowel, it is pronounced like tau; as te(i)t h in netson (they will hide), netse, matsait h . 71 Where a vowelless kop h is followed by a letter, having a vowel and kussaya, it is pronounced as gamal; 72 30

TRANSLATION.

41

as kop1' in yak da (burning); yakdanii; ne'kdun; pukdana; ekbor (I will bury); wal e mekb e ran(i)—and all that are similar to these. Where a vowelless dalat' 1 with kussaya is followed by kop h with a vowel, it is pronounced like te(i)t h ; as the dalat 1 ' in protd'ka

it is pronounced like dfilat h ; as te(i)t h in neht e p h unak h7J (they will tear thee away); nelit®phan(i); nutp h et h a (drop); where a vowelless kop h is followed by a pe having a vowel, it is pronounced like 10kaph;75 as the kop h in 'esk 0 p h a (oxo'^o;); k e p h asa (knee); ethk0phes (it was assembled); nezk e p h on (they will hang). semkat'1

If a vowelless

is followed by a pe saggi m*kassaita—as pe in z o p a — i t

is pronounced as sad h e; as the semkat h of sephra7B (book) (!); s e p h ar ja(m)ma (sea-shore) (!); where a vowelless gumal m'raki5kak h t h ii is followed by pe m e kassaita, 77 it is pronounced like kap h ; as the gamal of g e p h etta (vine); g e p h ip h t h a 73 (enclosure); g e p h ip h a (crooked).

Vowelless sin followed by a letter with a vowel and

kussaya, is pronounced as the gamal of the Arabs; 7 9 as the sin in nesbon (they will carry into exile): nesgon (they will go astray); 2onesdon (they will throw). In short—every

letter that interchanges with another is

vowelless. Let this, then, suffice on the letters that interchange with one another.

25

CHAPTER X . IT BEHOOVES US NOW TO TBEAT OF THE TWO POINTS WHICH ABE CALLED SHYAME," AND WHICH ABE PLACED OVEB PLURAL WORDS, IN ORDER THAT WE MAY DISTINGUISH THEM FROM SINGULAR ONES.

I will now s a y — t h a t these two points are placed over all nouns

42

TRANSLATION*.

in the plural number, be they masculine or feminine; as we place them over (the words): gab h re (men); nese (women); li'lime (healthy); h'limat b a (fem.) ;zaddike (righteous), zaddikat h a (fem.); liamsa gab h rin (five men);

7 (cities), hemrii (asses), taira (bird), s°yiime are placed. Upon all words that are written in only one form, and 10 from the pronounciation of which we understand that they are of the plural number*—as'iké'(eìx^), deyàth6(i)kó' (SiaO^xr,), anankè' (avdrpc*))—, s°yiimé are not placed. Upon all personal pronouns in the plural number—as hàlè(i)n, henón &c., seyàmc are not placed. All words, which are neither nouns nor verbs, when the is personal suffixes are attached to them—as'al, am, metul. sctiJdV 9 lewàth, h e d b ar, (the letters) bé(i)th, làmad1'—do not receive s'yàmè; for we say: kulhón, kulhè(i)n, 'amhón, 'amhé(i)n &c. &c. In short—all words, which, when the personal suffixes are wanting receivc scyàmè, (receive them) likewise when these suffixes 20 are added, as (from) bàttè and dàrA,thà we say bàttain, daràt h àn, bittaik h òn, dàràt h k h ón, dàràt h k h 6(i)n, and the like. If, without the additions, they do not receive seyàmè, then, when these are added, they (likewise) do not receive them; as (from) baita, dartà we say: baitùn, baitk h ón, baithc(i)n &c., and others similar 25 to these. This, also, suffices, on the two points called s°yàmé. a) |}| 96, 11,

b) ».

c) •>..

44

TRANSLATION.

CHAPTER XI. WE WILL NOW TREAT OF TIIE SPELLING OF THE WORD (COMPOSED) OF SYRIAC LETTERS.»«

Every letter which is spoken with z e kap h a and occurs in the middle of a word, is pronounced in spelling with z°kap h a; and so 5 every r°b h istii (is pronounced) with r°b h asa, every p°t h ihta with z e kap b a, every letter before a r°wihta with r e waha, every letter before an 'allista with ' c lasa, every letter before a massakta with 'assaka, every letter before a li*bhista with h e b h asa. If a letter with h°b b asa occurs at the beginning of a word—as yud h in id b a, iso, 10 izep h , i m a — i t is pronounced in spelling with r"b h asa. A vowelless letter which occurs at the beginning of a word is pronounced in spelling with z e kap h a. Every vowelless 'iilap h which occurs in the middle of a word, is pronounced in spelling with the same vowel as the preceding letter.

Every wau r e wihta or 'allista, yud''i5

e b

massakta or h b ista which occurs in the middle of a word, is pronounced in spelling with r e b h iisa. Furthermore, every vowelless letter which occurs in the middle of a word, and every letter at the end of a word is pronounced in spelling with r"b b asa. This, too, suffices on the spelling of the letters.

20

CHAPTER XII. W E 9 0

W1LL

N0W

SPEAK OF GENERAL POINTS" OF PUNCTUATION.

These are four (in number): zauga, t a h t a y a , ' eliiya and pasokii. (We will further show) in what manner it is proper t h a t each one of them be used. Zauga is put between the members of the commencement (of a sentence), when the protasis is long; 92 as kad h de(i)n 'et b iled h

25

TRANSLATION.

45

iso bh*bhe(i)th lchem daihud h a: b'yaumai herddes malk;V°. Because the protasis is long, zauga is put in the middle of it; that is, after the noun daihudha. In the first place on account of the breath, that the reader be not hard pressed because of the length of sthe sentence; secondly because it is more fitting to place zauga after 'ihucVYi than in any other place. Tahtaya is put when the protasis is ended and the apodosis commences; as: kad h de(i)n 'etha iso lat h ra d h9 kesraya d he p h ilipos.. mcsa'el(h)wa l e t h almid h au(hi) w'emarb). Because the word dcpl,ilipos 10 is the end of the protasis, and the word m°sa'el the beginning of the apodosis, it is proper that tahtaya be put after p h ilipos, in order that it be known that the protasis is at an end and the apodosis commencing. 'Elayii is put between the legs'", i. e. the members of the 15apodosis, when the apodosis is long, as: hadhe dhe(i)n kula(h) dhahewath denetbmalle medem detVmar (marya) b be yad" n'b h ia . i r d i u c n

rclheiiiKìl r ù i » v^pì* .KÌvu-ÌA» K'ètoètK'.l K'ìì l'ai . r d i i i c u » r d l x l a è u r é i rOn>\ Coo ^ f l n i T < \ v ^ j s m

A&o

.«jpa

âri

1

¿A.io

. i ^ j a

Ï3tp.i

,(Doiu{^ l O i u r ^ r(!iiiux*

iua

,ocn

Asa\o

^»Tn*ai

èua

A^-ai

,ocp

.i^juioi

^ u a a

5

. ^ u x o

rdrC rfocn

iiiutâgo

rtfaco i t ' a y i e a

soitla

h rdAsaa». With this compare Bar 'Eb râyâ i,212,19:

àljiui^ p i

^Ut* ^iè»

.KiltUZuO Ktit^Al^ .«LLAOO K l u o i l 10

ft? i s ^ r ?

f^Ato&rds »soAxsa.-i ,cira

K'àxlx. . . . ^cuc-i^àu Ki^sa.i r e b u KLisa* enao .i^i&JDi)

cA

k'i n I

b

W\ n wo

»cb

ouiurC

.r^i'iur^ i^iuuxa

b^JLàèxrfa èA.i i m i i t K ' cAr^ »«nsnx..ia i^Msaso t u p f i ^ c a i d K'ù.cuc.o K'ikflaai «^èicui». 15 8. Compare Amira: Gramm. Syriaca, Rome 1596, p. 7if. where this passage is to be found, almost word for word ; comp. further what the Arabic Orthoepists have written on this subject: De Sacy in Notices et Extraits vol. viu. ix. Wallin ZDMG. ix, p. 18 ff. xii, p. 599 ff. Zamahsari, Mufassal p. Ua and for the Hebrew, 20 r Derenbourg, Manuel, p. 18. Harikma of Ibn Gannâh (ed. Goldberg) p. 5ff. Dikduke Hat'âmîm ed. Baer and Strack p. 6. 9. Ms. B has * .as; but so is reckoned among the sibilants."' .m-HT

rCocn

^ôzi

cd

i^iuiaat

»coaaf* yaxa KLsox. SiOUOsa

¿uao

4 1 ^

A o ^ . ^ . The passage

is from the 'Ausar (')râzê to Hath. 27,16 (ed. J. Spanutb, Gotting. 1879, p. 63,14). a) Comp. El. Tirhân 34,4. b) Comp. El. Tirhân 37, 10 and note 1. c) K * i u i a i u a rfè»oè\r•«" Vjî» 50.-JI Ji-

G*

NOTES.

OjjäJI

soLo ^j!

Jots! I o ^ - w

^

0

iuLuoJI

^jjCJ LÓJI j - i y i

v^La.

LÀ9 ^xääI J ^ l t X J ! (JJO w ^ o J I I JUJO (jLS^ .ijàJi ÄJLsüü.^ S j i

Comp. Steintlial p. 580: Apollonios meintauch, dass die Buchstaben eine bestimmte und vernünftig begründete Reihenfolge 5 (T0t;iv £•; }.óy«o) haben, der gemäss das a voran geht, das ¡3 folgt. a) 17. Comp. Severus fol. 35 b. b>

'. «0jAfl9.i r e v o i

r£iat ^

rCàùLlaA .ttuoa&Xa ^ t ^ ä t a o

¿ t o s a v a ^ » l A t t a a i o . i ^ s o l ^ i la r s n o .K'io

"WAüiLo (fol. 3Ga) r d j j c u Àvis.i t

.toA

A * A ^JSOxsox r ^ v ö c u r^wrC pi&a^pi' f p

imiA iur^tiii

i ^ ö i AsA

p^vnöl

(fol. 4 b ) ^tiii

.vi ^ixflo.i pfvocu iuiiA

su

K'vacü

a o K ' n - w s v o n f a A « A yuso&bcx* .00

Autoes'

»cnoAur^

1^.-111

pi'moj

^sa i u i i i \

.p:ilo

.K^-«

^utt^ioo.i

19. C o m p . A c c u r e n s i s , c i t e d P a y n e S m i t h . 20. F o r t h e t e r m s A*A.i r e d x x . a n d

.iitiiA

i^vaAl

aoit

Col. 4 0 9 . «Axx. compare

t h e e x c u r s e of H o f f m a n n , O p u s c u l a N e s t o r i a n a , p . x v i .

a) Comp. Payne Smith, col. 409. b) Ms. . O l t . l . c) Bead. «L^-Ü»! comp. Martin, Journ. Asiat. 1872, p. 440. d) Erase! e) Compare Duval, Gramm. Syr., p. 75.

NOTES.

s* 21. Comp. 3 3 , 1 1 &c.

A m i r a , p. 32.

Arabic

Grammar ,

i, 9,

2

Bacher:

Die

Elia, o f T i r h ä n

if^sSJüc Rem.

and

a.

Hebrew:

Grammatische

21, 7; o^a.

n?:

m s

Terminologie

and

des

London,

1870),

nfijw

ynre

Elias

of

Tirhän

(K&l&sa), 34,

12),

p.

4:

rrisn

u m

(21,

rem

y:n

irn

n*:n

-ros

13)

and

for

the

p.

17.

c o m p a r e p.

(ibid,

131.

oa*floth»n n m s ,

rC&>'»' 1

755)

of

our

1863, p.

208, 25) cit.)

J^aüll

one

rid

r*

can

say:

»n\

'WAnnii-n

(Comp. Jacob of Edessa ed. Wright, pp. 4b. 5b). In

another part of the Dialogues (fol. 41a) Severus speaks of the s same subject in a somewhat different form. Fol. 42a, bottom, he proceeds, nearing Elia of Nisibis again: m l (fol. 42 b)

rdaLu&x.

.n£xàia.i rtoa

¿uK* i » ^ r«Lieuo .K'à>cu5ioore' r^.icrA

^xx.icutao.1

Kllsao

r ^ t c f i l i l & a .rfr »AO i ^ i v L

f^cóau.[i]

rcd.i rdx.oi K l i n v y » r d o

ì o r ù u A o k i w r ^ p d l i k a u a t i ©r^ . ( ^ A l x i i i i rdX v y ^

•:• K'èv-jLicO^A

ft?

w

mlAo .ni'èAx. asnat r d l o .»lxiaoo „juiuLKbo i ü a o .^Lu f i l i n o .^Lu ^ a Q

b,t

rïano ,-u^.o

•.

0

.^ITW A M I ^ l i ù Bar 'Eb h rùyii i, 209, 10. ^ w

iuu

^li-Tg.

fileno pdix-iosAa

^isaiV rdiiuKb

jSp â & a o rtx^ ^ a i a

^Ju\óo

^UÙ

a Ci co

5

Ibid. p. 200, 21.

pdiiaiLCUj Auc-iaso cu» i o ¿ c o l ci

Compare ibid. i, 13,16. Metrical Grammar ed. Bertheau 20,162. Duval, Gramm. Syr., p. 175. o

24. Comp. Jacob of Edessa, Wright Catalogue, p. 1170. Bar Zû'bî, fol. 52 a: k & s q c u o o rc*ï>>> rc'eneox. rdixiA rûvoaa .rdiiLire'

KÛièA^- i - * - ^ ri'öjöox. •:• ^ x a ^ i à c o .rd^-iri" ^JS) r ^ i ^ - i r ^ v ^ r ^ ^ o ç n * è u r i .rt^saOJLaO rdä^ire*

ri'-iLsJCUn p a o

K'iflosi ¡SB

. r ^ j j j o i çSp r d i i u o i a .rC-ivoa ^sn r^ilifioso

KOTES.

12*

KliJCUO .^.Ofa .rtfsooooi

p8 r^CUCiO «üäocoio

.rdxiTM

.^»i^sa

^

C o m p . D u v a l , p . 403. H o f f m a n n , D e H e r m e n c u t i c i s a p u d S y r o s A r i s t o t e l e i s 2 , p . 197. B a r Zo'bi i n h i s M e t r i c a l G r a m m a r , fol. 105 a. . « l ü & v V v . .cd .r-

Ms

-

Sachau v

xoxu7tov xat Tzapayuiyov, irpiu-

226, f o l . 43B. is ' (-».l « ¿ ¿ L i t * v

rdfloaa^ xoxozov

(lev ouv eaxi x& x a x a

T /¡v z pr w x r .1v Oeoiv Xeyöev, otov 1 ^

r^macuy • _ ^ pa

T t j , 7rapd T 0) T 0V oe t o a(r^

r t o a x . iCTJoàv.ìri' ^>.1

rilx-iK" r & c n

^».i

•:•

rixì\=3

à \ _ » r < j io-Co

a)

. .*-Ì&S9 r d \ o Ibid. 0 7 , 3 on the p r o n o u n . :

»cb

. \~>\-ira

Ms.

Sachau

p i ' ò r M M ìu 226,

fol.

48b:

b

r T t ó o e i ; xpwTOTÓroy ¡xèv òpfJr,; , , , , „ . - t eyu) ou i, '(vny-r^ ejiou oou ou, SoTixij; è(ioi ooi ol, a Ì T i a T i x r i ;

txri p > WèA.

Bar

vis

^ i v a ^ f t l c n o ..to

Jlxs

r d n A v . i . 1 10

P a y n e S m i t h , col. 873. N o l d . , S y r .

E b \ i i , 35, 3 1 7 ( B e r t h e a u 3 1 , 1. 279 m u s t be

corrected), c o m m e n t ,

^.ixi

. K ' A v i i . A x ^sraj

. [rdlOJLB O j . i a A - KvL^. ri o i *i x rr ci 'd^rj ^k . ^ i

«Ci^cn.i

^-lAcn ^ c u r i "

r e d .t^. ^ u i u ( j u d i r C l i i o

cdi.'io^^tti

r dala^ c n

rcbA&sn*

t\rto\;

so i n the A u s a r raze* to IIos. 12, 2 (ed. M o r i t z ) r i d * . cUj-icv^aM

5

.ri'AuSa.-us A x i s . « » ¿ i & a orcto

ori'o j i a

C o m p . i b i d 234, 2.

arta\

kLd&I.i

.ix.O. » a A u i s r d l ^ c n o . r i ' K L S O i l K l i S J . n r V ^ A x .

JlZS

fo-rdiain.

.^CUJL^SH

v^p^ m^ivaii

t

b\

>cb

r f a .«¿AHAA A P « 1 K l ^ - i r C '



r^Atiasn.-tAvi

^ o

»^j'i'o

rcuA^Air^

(sic!)

.r^oon

•:• r ^ A x i a s a . i A t o

^i&Am

Q\

,cp.i

rtlija

•V)

r ^ A t o A t r ^ Au=>

.r

.(