A History of the German Baptist Brethren in Europe and America

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A HISTORY OF

The German Baptist Brethren IN

EUROPE AND AMERICA

\v^

Martin Grove Brumbaugh,

-

A. M., Ph. D.

Professur of Fedagogii in the Unh'eisiti/ of Pennsijhdnia, President of Juniata Colleye, uf the Fennsijirania Historical Soiiety, a-iil of the Pennsylvania German Society

Elgin, III.

Brethren Publishing House 180Q

Member

Copyright,

iSgg,

i;v

M.'VRTiN

Grove Brumbaugh.

TO

BROTHER ABRAHAM

H.

CASSEL,

GREAT-GREAT-GRANDSON OF

Christopher Sower AND great-great-grandson of

Peter Becker,

WHOSE life-long DEVOTION TO THE HISTORY OF THE CHURCH, AND W'HOSE UNEQUALED

COLLECTION OF ORIGINAL MANUSCRIPTS

MAKE THIS VOLUME THIS

WORK

IS

POSSIBLE,

DEDICATED AS A TOKEN OF LOVE AND GRATITUDE.

nSTTZE^^OIDTJOTIOIsr. To

write the history of a religious

lowing

it

through

all

dinary task, though

movement be easy

of

its

stages of growth,

data

the

all

movement, is

pertaining

fol-

no

or-

to

the

But when the material

of access.

has to be taken from the forest, so to speak, and then

reduced to shape, so as to make

it

an object of beauty,

as well as the source of reliable information, the task

becomes the more

difficult.

information here for the

first

In quest of the valuable

time brought together

in

one volume, the author has been compelled to travel an unbeaten path.

For the data the old

libraries of

Europe and America have been searched.

Years have

been spent collecting, arranging and simplifying material so as to place

it

within the comprehension of

the ordinary reader, and

now

the public in a form that must

judgment of every student

Though made up

of

this

volume

commend

romance. pleasing to

it

is

given to

itself to

modern church

the

history.

of facts relating wholly to the ex-

periences and incidents of past generations,

such as to render

this

as interesting

its

style

and fascinating

is

as a

This feature of the book we think will be all

classes of readers.

Concerning the competency of Brother Brumbaugh to

produce a volume of such rare

only to glance at his busy

life.

one has

qualities,

He was

born

in

(vii)

Hunt-

.

V

Introduction

i i i

ingdon County, Pennsylvania, the age of nineteen in the

in

1862,

graduated at

Normal English Course

at

Juniata College, and in the Scientific Course in 1885.

same

In the

in

institution he taught

from 1882 to 1884.

He was County Superintendent

of Public Instruction

Huntingdon County from 1884

to 1890.

He

has lec-

tured at Teachers' Meetings and Institutes in Pennsylvania,

New

land,

Ohio,

Jersey,

Indiana and Kentucky.

Brethren

election to the ministry in the

curred in

1

He was

His

church oc-

891.

a graduate student at

1891-1892; took the A.

Pennsylvania

in

1893,

In this institution he 1895,

Mary-

Massachusetts, Delaware,

Louisiana,

Harvard University

M. degree

and the Ph. D. degree

became Professor

which position he

still

in

at the University of

of

in

1894.

Pedagogy

in

Since 1894 he has

holds.

also been President of Juniata College.

He

is

widely known as the author of the "Juniata

Bible Lectures,"

"The

Stories of Pennsyl\-ania

"

Dr. Walton), and the "Liberty Bell Leaflets."

(with

Asa

teacher he has had an extensive experience, having

taught in every grade, from the country school to the University.

The summer

of

1896 was spent

in

Europe studying

educational work, gathering material for his book, and

looking up the data of the Brethren church part of

Germany where our

rated their reformator}'

in that

ancient Brethren inaugu-

movement.

has l)een a favorite as well as

n

History with him

delightful study, espe-

ix

Introductiott.

On

cially that relating to the ancient Brethren.

subject he has delivered a

number

of lectures at the

Annual Meeting and elsewhere.

Those

these lectures urged him to publish

them

fit

up

led

to

who heard fo.r

the bene-

upon the part of those

of others, and this desire

who heard him

this

the preparation of this

volume.

We

take pleasure in

ing confident that

it

recommending the work,

history of the Brethren church yet written, and certain that

it

will

church and out of

fill

a

long

We

it.

felt

want both

we

are

in

the

pray that the same Spirit

that so directed our ancient Brethren as to lead into the

way of all make it

good, as to of like

feel-

contains the most complete early

them

truth, will so overrule this book for

the

means of strengthening those

precious faith, and leading others to accept

the doctrine the

work

is

meant

to emphasize. J.

H. Moore.

I^I^^IBFJ^OIE!. History at best is a beggarly gleaner in a field where Death has gathered a bountiful harvest. If one could lift the veil and see the past: see the pious Eight

1708 at Schwarzenau; the storm-swept voy-

in

1719 and

agers of

1729;

the solemn

the Wissahickon on the doubly

day of 1723; see the

first

procession

baptismal scene

in a wilder-

ness; see the sainted twenty-three at the feast the

Mack the

in

first

to

memorable Christmas first

love

same day; see the welcome given Alexander 1729 at Germantown; see the ordination of Martin Urner,

Elder,

in

rapid spread of the people of

many

during the

America; see the

God over

this

land

years that followed; see the gradual

transformation to the church of to-day; and learn from the actors themselves at each stage of development

the wonderful story of the church's growth, the duty of recording

it

would be a rapturous pleasure, not

unlike that which seized the holy spirit of John on

Patmos.

But Death has sealed the spoken and

stilled the

sel,

in

that

could

have

hand that might have written

Fragments alone remain. wide area

lips

These are scattered over a

two continents.

Bro.

Abraham H.

Cas-

of Harleysville, Pa., three score years ago, began

the great task of collecting these fragments, and, with (xi)

Preface.

xii

knew no quenching, and an

a zeal that

has almost

cost

him

his

and

sight

industry that

his

hearing, has

clearly earned the right to be called the Historian of

To him

the church.

some years ago

the writer of these lines turned

him

to urge

to prepare a history of the

whom

people he loves and among Alas!

life-long

dimmed his upon me as

He

cannot do the work.

a sacred duty to

made

energy and industry

dulled his ear and

has

devotion

eye.

he worships.

make

It

fell

actual what

his

The

possible.

The old manuscripts were

undertaken.

task was translated,

their facts tabulated, and the results are herein set forth.

Perhaps no religious sect

is

so

German

so persistently misrepresented as the

Their name,

Brethren.

unknown to scholar who fails

are

course

the general reader and even to the to consult ultimate sources.

the

notice

statements of scholars

who

faithfully

the truth are so wide of the

sound

of

mis-

But the

endeavor to state

that

it

is

necessary

a note of warning.

Among statements ''Aiuials

mark

It is

malicious

statements of prejudiced and bigoted zealots.

to

Baptist

their belief, their history, all

necessary to

not

understood and

little

the I

many examples quote

one,

of incorrect

selected

at

of PJiiladelpJiin and Pomsylvania,

Time,'' an extt'nded

John F. Watson, of Pennsvlvania,

work

Member

New

in

historic

random, from i?i

tJie

olden

three large volumes, by

of the Historical Societies

York, and Massachusetts.

The



Preface.

work was published a

as

says,

in

1709

Holland emigrated

Germantown. in

/?r.y/

meetings

at

were

in

front of their present stone

Alexander Mack was then

Cresheim, gave

all

He was

his

with eight or ten to

and

Watson

Beggarstown.

their principal leader.

old;

II,

Germany and

and settled

collected

first

held in the log house

church

from

to Pennsylvania,

Their

Vol.

23,

Tunkards

the

generally regarded

It is

On page

standard work.

"In

1857.

xiii

his son

property

a very rich miller in in

Germantown

Alexander lived

common, and came in

1708.

He

died

to be near ninety-one

years of age." All of which that no

is

current history and valuable save

Tunkards emigrated from either Holland or

Germany

in

1708; nor did they hold their

ings in the log house ; nor was

first

meet-

Alexander Mack then

their principal leader, since they did not then exist in

America; nor did he come with eight or ten to Ger-

mantown

in

Alexander

1709; nor did he die old; nor did his son

live

"to be near ninety-one years of age."

In belief they have been even

more widely misrep-

They have been confused with Mennonites, the Ephrata community

resented.

the

Day

Baptists, the

New

Anabaptist societies and

volume

of Seventh

Amish, the Wissahickon Hermits,

the Separatists, the

this

the Pietists,

Born, and

sects.

will dispel all

Brethren in their true

It is

all

sorts of

new

hoped

that

to be

such errors and show the

light,

a

body

of

Christian

people with a definite body of doctrine based upon the

xiv

~

Preface.

New

'

Testament, and a consistent and faithful observ-

ance of

same.

tlie

name,

In

too,

church has been

tlic

They

variously designated.

they

because

immerse

"duck" under the water;

known

are

with

of

\alidity

the

who

baptism;

infant

cause of their belief

immersion; as

in

and

reject as

Taiifcrs,

and Dippers, be-

Tidikards, Du/ikcis, Diinkards,

Th/ikcrs,

or

action,

because thc\'

as Anabaptists,

belong to that larger class of people

deny

as DonipcUjcrs,

forward

a

and

stranj:^el\'

Wittgenstci)i

or

Sclncarzomii Baptists, in reference to their origin; as reference to the place of their

Genna/itozi'/i Baptists, in

lust organization in

among

America; and

as Bret/ur/i, largely

themselves, as a designation of their intimate

fellowship.

They

are best

known

as

They

Taufcrs.

should never be called Dunkards, which word

is

English vulgarism with absolutely no meaning.

church has Bretlireii

since

officialh'

CJnircli,

declared

and

designation

this

character of the

itself

such

as

most

it

writer frequently uses the

the Genua?! Baptist

properly named,

is

accurately figures

Brotherhood.

In

this

in

the

volume the

word Tanferxn order

the histor}- of the church with records in

an

The

to link

Germany and

Colonial America in which they are so designated.

No Our

history of the Brethren has ever been attempted.

[)ast

torical

We

is

to us a sealed record.

We

have no

his-

precedent for any part of our present practice.

are iviisrepresented

and misunderstood not alone

because we have nc formulated Creed but also because

xv

Preface.

record of our growth and our beginning.

we have no

We

own practices for we do not know what our early pracThere has resulted much confusion and

are not always consistent in our

the reason that tice

was.

many

needless decisions in our church polity from the

absence of definite records as to what our forefathers

Next

did.

to the Bible the

of the church

is

most valuable possession

a careful record of

its

own

activities.

Our policy as a church needs the fibre and strength that comes from a clear perspective into a well-known Were we able to line up the whole church from past. the

beginning

and study our development from a

simple beginning to the present clearly indicate the lines of

No

we could

all

development yet

one should attend Annual Meeting

tion that dates as early as 1742

making

— and

the

more

to be.

— an institu-

participate in the

who is ignorant The Bible and the of these same people. and no new honored, should be church the

of history for Christ's people,

of the past practice of

decision advocated or announced until these essential

records have been consulted.

Then would we have

not only a consistent faith but also a consistent practice in Zion.

At

the outset

limited

by

the

it

seemed that the work would be

scarcity

of

data.

But

exhaustive

search has developed such a wealth of matter that

only a part can be presented here. selection before the author, he has

confine

his

treatise

largely to

the

With the task

deemed early

it

of

best to

and

least

x\i

Preface.

known and perhaps most important epochs growth of the church. The hiter history enough preserved

in

more care

that

and depositing of

all

not

is

some

shown

well

It in

is

to be

in

the

ret^retted

preserving carefully

central place complete records

congregational activities.

The date

tion, election of officers, erection of

time and attendants at love tisms, of deaths

and

Meetint,''s

Brotherhood.

in

is

the

the minutes of conf^reg'ations, the

records of Annual and District literature of the

in

of organiza-

houses of worship,

feasts,

records

of

bap-

and of marriage, together with action

on Missions, Colleges, and Sunday Schools should be carefully noted at length

congregation. this

is

The

by the proper ofBcer

elder in charge should

in

each

see

that

carefully done.

The aim has been not merely

to

give a relatively

complete record of the early church, but record as a defense of primiti\e lieved, interpreted

German

to

use this

Christianity as be-

and practiced by the church of the

Baptist Brethren.

Without

in

any way per-

verting history the writer has aimed at making history

defend doctrine and indicate future

activities

by the

church.

The

collating of this material has been a labor of in-

creasing interest.

To

find a

new

fact,

lost record,

to gain an additional link in

events has

been the

weary hour's search.

sustaining It

is

power

to

uncover

a

the chain of in

many

a

to be regretted that, with

one exception, no member has aided

in

the work, al-

xvii

Preface.

though repeated appeals were made to some, whose will not enrich and whose giving would

withholding

The one exception

not have impoverished. er

Abraham H.

With the

Cassel.

is

true spirit

Brothof the

scholar and philanthropist he gave fully of his wealth

of knowledge and to him only

indebtedness ac-

is

knowledged.

The

available data have

all

There may be omissions due which the reader

will

much

been carefully collated. to the absence of data, regret.

There may be

here and there valuable matter in print and in manuscript which should be incorporated in the text.

If

the owners of such matter will inform the author of the

same

it

will

be gratefully

acknowledged

and

used to further advance the interest of the church.

With the prayerful

desire

that

volume may

this

quicken our love for the church; that

it

may

be the

means, under God's blessing, of doing some good for the cause of the Master

it

is

now given

to the public.

Martin Grove Brumbaugh. Philadelphia, Pa., i8gg.

——

Table of Contents. CHAPTER

Influences Dominating Germany at I. THE Opening of the Eighteenth Century,

CHAPTER n.— The

Pietistic Pathfinders

Philip Jacob Spener

Gottfried Arnold

— August

— Jeremias

12-28

Hermann Francke

Felbinger

i-ii

— Ernst



Chris-

toph Hochmann.

CHAPTER

— The

HI.

Mother Congregation

in

Germany Account

CHAPTER

29-44

of Organization.

IV.

gregation

CHAPTER

V.

— Branches

—A

THE Church

CHAPTER

of the Mother Con-

Germany,

in

45-53

List of the

Members who Joined

Europe,

in

54-70

VI.— The Leaders



in

Germany,

71-154



— — —

Alexander Mack SteJohn Naas Christian Libe Abraham Duboy phen Koch John Henry KalckAndreas Frey Other glasser John Hildebrand





German

CHAPTER



Pioneers.

The Germantown Congregation,

VII.

The Poor Book

of the

Congregation

155-190

— Deacons and

Deaconesses.

CHAPTER

VIII.



Some

Leaders

in

Colonial

America, .

Peter Becker

Two

191-288

— The Second Alexander Mack — The

Martin Urners. (xix)



——

XX

Tabic of Contents.

CHAPTER

IX.— Colonial Congregations

289-337

The Coventry Congregation— Great Swamp Congregation — Oley Congregation — Conestoga Congregation — Michael Frantz — Michael Pfautz — Jacob Sontag Members who Joined the Church under the Eldership of Michael Frantz — White Oak Congregation Great Swatara Congregation — Little Swatara Congregation — Northkill Congregation — Codorus Congregation — Little Conewago Congregation — Conewago Congregation — Bermudian Congregation — Stony -

Creek Congregation.

CHAPTER

X.

The Two Christopher Sowers,

33S-437

The Elder Sower — Trials of Early German Emigrants — The Second Christopher Sower, Elder of the Brethren Church

— Hymn by Christopher Sower.

CHAPTER XL — The Ephrata

Society, and Its Relation to the German Baptist I^rethren,.

CHAPTER Xn. —

Origin and Early History

op-

Annual Meeting, The

First

Synod



438-470

471-508

— The



Second Synod The Third Committees Where Held before 1830

Synod





Council Meeting.

CHAPTER



XHI. On the Doctrine and Growth OF the Church

The Philadelphia Church and Elder Peter Keyser



Elder George Miller Churches in Maryland and the Germantown Early Meetings in Baltimore South Peter Change in the Lord's Supper Love Feasts





— — Two Unknown Volumes — Catharine Hummer — As Others See L^s — Influence of Emigration —

Leibert





Some Pioneer Events Far Western Brethren Christopher Sower on Going to Law On War On ChangThe Dress Question The es in the Ordinances Mode of Baptism Baptism in a Tub A Sad Separation The Davidische Psaltcrspiel Unwritten Chap-









ters

— — On





Doctrine.



509-5 5Q

ii_.i_.TJSTi^.^Tionsrs. The Germantown Meetinghouse in 1899, Scene near Hochmann's Home — Schwarzenau, Typical Schwarzenau Home, The Valley of the Eder — near Schwarzenau, Schwarzenau, House and Barn Combined

Hochmann's Confession

Fro7itispiece.

24 27 31

37

— Schwarzenau,

of Faith,

41 75, 77, 79, 81

Signatures of Alexander Mack and Others, Gravestone of Alexander Mack, Autograph of Jacob Wilhelm Naas, Autograph of John Naas, Autograph of John Hildebrand

93, 91

loi

108 124 147

Page of Andreas Frey's Declaration, Wissahickon Creek, Place of First Baptism, Residence of Minister at Germantown, Meetinghouse of the Brethren, Germantown, Pa., Election of Deacon at Germantown, 1761, Ordination of Deacon at Germantown, 1766, Election of a Deaconess at Germantown, 1769, The Germantown Burying Ground, Original Stone over Peter Becker's Grave Stone over Peter Becker's Grave Erected by A. H. Cassel, ... Autograph of Alexander Mack, Letter of Alexander Mack to Valentine Mack, 221, Letter of Alexander Mack to John Price, 229, 231, Remarkable Events at Germantown in 1791, Remarkable Events in Germantown in 1792 Letter of Alexander Mack to John Price, Alexander Mack's Birthday Hymn in 1800, Alexander Mack's Birthday Hymn in 1801, Hymn Composed by Alexander Mack Dec. 27, 1801, Alexander Mack's Last Birthday Hymn, 1802, Gravestones of A. Mack, his Son Alexander and Son's Wife,. Alexander Mack's Epitaph in his own Handwriting, Title

Gravestone of Martin Urner, Sr., Entrance to the Coventry Burying Ground, Autograph of Martin Urner,

151

157

163 167 175

176 177 185

196 199

213

223 233 241

244

247 259 260 261

262

269 271

277 281 283, (xxi)

.

xxii

Illustrations.

Gravestone of Martin Oner, Jr Coventry Brethren Church Title Page of Michael Frant/.'s Book Autograph of Michael Pfautz, Autograph of Jacob Stoll Title Page of Jacob Stoll's Book, Autograph of Jacob Donner, Autograph of Daniel Letterman Baptism Scene from an Old Print (1770), Laasphe, Germany, Home of Christopher Sower, Castle Witgenstein, Home of Prince Henry, Church near Laasphe, Germany, where the Sowers Residence of Christopher Sower,

285 2

305 315

316 322

326 333

339 343 \\"orshi])ecl,

347 355

Sower Printing Press, Page of First German Hymn Book First German Newspaper in America, 361, 363, 365, Title Page of Saur Bible, 1743, Anvil on which Matrices were Forged for TyiJC, Desk and Bench used in Christopher Dock's School, Autograph of George Schreiber Articles from Sower's Apothecary Shop Autograjih of Christopher Sower, Jr., and Catharina Sower,. Memorial Tablet of Christopher Sower, Autograph of Abrm. H. Cassel, The Antiquarian, A. H. Cassel, and the Three Sower I^ibles,. Methacton Meetinghouse, Burial Place of Elder C. Sower, Gravestone of Christopher Sower Grave of Peter Miller, Autograph of Peter Miller, Brother House [Bethania] at Kplirata, Interior of Meetinghouse [Saal] at Ephrata Graveyard, Sisters' House and Meetinghouse at Ephrata,. House of Conrad Beisstl at l-".plirata, Minutes of Annual Meeting, 1726 Minutes of Annual Meeting, 1789, 493, 495, 497, Record of Monthly Council Autograph of Peter Keyser, Title

.

.

.

.

.

Autograjih of Peter Leibert, Grave of Peter Leibert Autograi)li of Catharina Hiimmerin,

>i

302

.

.

.

357

359 367 371

373 389 392 395

397 405 408

409 423

427

447 449 451

453

457 461

489 499 507

510 516 517

522





A

History of the Brethren.

CHAPTER

Influences Dominating Germany at

I.

THE Opening of the Eighteenth Century.

From

the da)'s of the Luther Reformation

Germany

became the centre of religious agitation. After a thousand years of unchecked control the Catholic Church found

in

the spirit of Protestantism a worthy rival.

This influence may, indeed, be traced to the eleventh century and to the bold, defiant, scholastic leader, Peter Abelard^')

of

Paris,

pupil

of

William of Champeaux.

It

human reason

to church

as

opposed

the

celebrated

was Abelard's defense of

dogma

that led to

the creation of European Universities and the develop-

ment

of Scholasticism.

From

this

sprang the Luther

Reformation and the scholarly isolation of Erasmus. ^^^

These religion

men agreed

in

must be an appeal

one

essential

principle

to the individual

human

reason.

In due course of time this principle led to a

general

upheaval

of

religious

organizations.

supremacy of the Catholic church

in

The

Germany was

For an account of Abelard see Denlfle's Die Universitdteit des Mittelalalso Compayre's Abelard, and the Rise of Alediaval Universities. (2) For the relation of Erasmus to the Reformation see Works of Erasmus, by Le Clerc, 10 vols., 1703. (i)

ters

;

(I)

History of the Bnthrcti.

2

gone;

and,

the

as

monks

declared,

hatched the egg that Erasmus

When Germany

found

had

"Luther

liad laid."

itself disenthralled, all sorts

of religious organizations

began

From

to appear.

the

unyielding creed of Catholicism to the utter abrogation of all creed

of doctrine

ran

and its

all

gamut

organization, the whole

unchecked

way.

Each

faction '

became der,

intolerant of

all

and war followed

others and persecution, plunin swift

succession to compel

all dissenters to the acceptance of

another form of worship.

now

this,

The outcome

and now

of

all

this

was the fateful thirty years' war (1618-1648), which involved

all

continental Europe.

became the theatre of war, Germans suffered the horrors of continpersecution, rapine, and murder. The Treaty of

The

valley of the Rhine

and the pious ual

Westphalia (1648), sometimes called the Treaty of Miinster, ended the bloody struggle and leagued the Catholic, Lutheran, and

the

Great,

lasting

followed by the French wars,

from 1618 to 1748,

into a

new

Other wars, notably the Wars of

persecuting force.

Frederick

Reformed Churches

a

from

made

continuous

1620

to

1688,

the Rhine country

field of

carnage.

This

experience of generations made these Germans a war-

weary and a war-hating people.

The right

(1)

three state churches denied to to exist

Seidensticker's

in

the

all

German Empire.

The First German Emigration

to

(')

Ameriea.

others the

Whoever

Eighteenth Century I/iflnences in Germany.

found

his

these;

whose

in his

was of a

faith

Bible

preted his

God

convictions running

religious

Church and State vied dissenters.

life

inter-

who worshiped

zeal

to

The harmless Mennonites/')

ing Schwenkfelders, the

who

Pietists/^)

persecute

the God-fear-

and the Mystics

were alike reviled, persecuted, and regarded as subjects for insane

to

a burden and a cross.

their

in

counter

different sort;

another sense;

in

own way; found

3

What

asylums or prisons.

fit

hap-

to these in the closing years of the seventeenth

pened

century became also the fate of the Taufers

in

the

opening third of the eighteenth century.

These people were the most ardent product of the reformation.

They

on middle ground

did not stop

They

with Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli. spirit of protestation to the

"No

This was funda-

exercise of force in religion."

mental

German

in the belief

Baptist

and practice of the Taufers or

From

Church.

logically to define conclusions

churches,

state

carried the

acceptance of the maxim:

— conclusions

this

at

for

they were led

variance with

the

which they suffered

forms of irreligious persecution, but which they

all

heroically wrought

into

a

new and unique body

of

truth.

Let us see what this principle of non-coercion gave the church.

(1)

(?)

See D. K. Cassel's History of the Mennonites.

See Sich^e's Pietists of Colonial Pennsylvania, and Lio~raphical Sketches.

Historical

and Pennypacker"s

History of the Brethren.

4 (i) is

To

com[)cl anyone to join the church of Christ

an exercise of

Children are compelled, with

force.

no show of reason or desire on their

Hence infant baptism faith. The church is at

church.

is

their

the

part, to join the

at

with

\ariance

logically

outset

arra)'ed against infant-baptism.

(2) is

To compel by law an

individual to take an oath

not only contrary to the teaching of Jesus, but

a violation

of the

Hence the church

religious tenets decry all force. at the outset logically

War

(3)

others. It is,

is

(4)

opposed

opposed

The

and the church

injunction of Christ

is

one thing, the power

is

The might

of

the

no right to interfere with the religious belief

Hence

individual.

logically

at the outset

to war.

of prince or ecclesiastic another.

of the

with the rights of

imposes unwilling burdens upon people.

It

state has

is

to taking the oath.

a violent interference

therefore, wrong,

logically

it is

sacred rights of a people whose

opposed

conscience,

and

at

the outset the church

state religions, sustained

exalted

allegiance

to

freedom of

God

abc\'e

allegiance to rulers. (5) In matters of faith each

follow his

own

convictions.

individual

free

to

Hence they resented

all

is

persecution and themselves never persecuted a single soul. l^ullinger, their great reviler, says

they taught "thai

EigJitccnth Century Influences in

the government shall and

questions of religion or

Upon the

full

may

5

not assume control of

faith. "(')

these God-fearing,

conscientious

power of church and

were awful.

Germany.

state.

The flaming torch

people

fell

Their sufferings

of persecution nightly

lighted the valley of the Rhine for a hundred miles.

The agonized prayers

of burning saints were heard on

every

devout,

and

side.

women

Sturdy, these,

who

God-strengthened

men

heroically suffered and died for

the religion they loved. (2)

There were no cowards

the procession that marcned through howling

mobs

in

to

the stake. All these dissenters were

called

Anabaptists.

England they were called Quakers. (3) baptists

were

broken

into

many

sects,

In

These Anadepending

largely upon their interpretation of the Scriptures and their remove from Ecclesiasticism and civic control. The Taufers were among the latest sects to arise. The leaders in this movement were already Protestant in faith and in confession. They knew all the sects already organized, but found in none the sum of doctrines their study of the Bible compelled them to believe. They created a new denomination because they found nowhere a body of believers fully living

(i) Compare the Constitution of Pennsylvatiia, Art. i. Sec. 3: "No human authority can, in any case whatever, control or interfere with the right of conscience." Read Whittier's Quaker Ahimni. (2)

See Pennypaclcer's The Teutonic Race : an address delivered on Oct.

1891, before the (3)

German

Society of Philadelphia.

Hortensius" Histoire des Anabaptistcs, Paris, 1695.

6.



History of the Brethren.

6 the Christ

When

life.

they separated from prewiiling

tempted

no doubt

creeds they were

to

go

to

the

functions.

Had

they done so they would have found themselves

a part

extreme of denying

all

organized

of that great religion-in-life

movement known

swept the Palatine and drew into

tism, that

as Pic-

its

ranks

the most remarkable aggregation of religious zealots

produced

in

modern

times.

That the founders of the church of the Taufers or

German

some

Baptist Brethren did fraternize with

these Pietists Pietists

That any of the founders were

true.

is

not true.

is

any part or parcel

of

It

is

they had

also untrue that

the flagrant excesses that charac-

in

terized the Anabaptists of Miinster. It

may

groups

in

senters.

be well to consider briefly

gregational

and that

it

activity, is

teaching that religion

shown only by the

that all external forms

and useless, and even

The only text

It

Pietistic

life

at

authentic work.

life,

them

is in

Latin

This work of

Amsterdam in i6g6. at the founding of the German Ba])Schwarzenau in 1708 a new and

It

tion to the Pietists, distinct classes:

a

sinful.

Gerardi Croesi Historia Onakeriana.

Brethren

con-

all

is

dis-

of the indixidual,

really accurate account of

was, therefore,

all

and ceremonies are extraneous

Gerard Croese was published

tist

the

Germany at this time. They were They denied all creeds and opposed

in

deals with the Quakers, their rela-

and analyzes the

Pietists into three

Eighteenth "

Ce?ittiry Influences in

Moreover there were

One

Pietists:(i)

in

Germany,

who

consists of those

as

it

Germany.

7

were, three sorts of

sought, and pressed noth-

ing else, but sincere Religion and true Piety: and the greatest part of these are of the learned and better sort of men through

Saxony and

all

"Another

Germany.

sort of

them

cried that the church

is

much

corrupted.

were such as on the other hand stagger not a little in the Faith and True Religion, and these some are commonly less moderate and more violent in celebrating their

They loved

Piety; but they

assemblies, etc.

"The

third sort of

them may be

called Behmists or Teutonists.

were, Jacob Behman,i^) the shoemaker of Garlingen in Silesia, from the dead. They advocated the opin-

These

call

back, as

it

ions of Boehme [or Behman] and denounced the errors that had been falsely laid upon him, and ascribed to him; yea, and horrid and hellish blasphemy, and exalted his opinions as worthy of all esteem and glory."

The Anabaptists

of Miinster were an offshoot of the

second and third classes as outlined by Croese.

were given were

to

the

and

illiterate

wildest excesses. fanatical.

They

Their leaders

The}' at various times

advocated such doctrines as the following: {a)

Man

can unquestionably earn salvation by virtu-

ous conduct and by his own

efforts.

Christ

is

rather

our father and teacher than our redeemer. {b) This

was soon followed by the declaration of

Hans Denk, "God fied in Jesus of

is

love,

— love

supremely exempli-

Nazareth, Jesus never stumbled, never

Croese's Quakeriana, Vol. Ill, p. 555 et seq. A copy of the second Latin which is very rare, is in the library of the writer. Gerard Croese, a Protestant divine, was born at Amsterdam in 1642. He studied at Leyden, went to Smyrna, returned, became pastor at ."Mblasserdam, near Dort, where he died (i)

edition,

in 1710. (?)

They

are also

known

as Gichtelians.

History oj llw llntliroi.

8 lost

He

/i/iitv.

hence

forerunner of

the

is

must be sa\ed

all

b}'

all

the

saved,

Jesus."

Ludwii^ Ilatzer denied the divinity of Christ.

(c)

His records were burned by Ambrosius Blawrer. {d)

Hans Kautz

of

Bockenheim taught

our Savior inasmuch as he

may

left

tread and attain unto salvation.

more than

The

this,

all

is

we

\Vhoe\"er taught

he declared, made Jesus an

followers of these

rejected

that Jesus

footprints in which

idol.

men were poor people who

worship, lixxd in solitary places

in

groups

and were called the Gardener Brethren {Gdrt/icrbnidcr)

To them not the

Christ was a teacher of Christian of the

fulfiller

Many

law.

of

burned because they would not recant.

life

them If

but

were

they did

recant they were beheaded and their bodies burned.

A

beautiful

The

sixteen refused to recant.

of

girl

executioner took her to the place where horses were watered, drowned her and then burned her body.

They held

that onl)' the flesh sinned, not the spirit.

Christ restored

rendered

free.

sinful

They

from His mother was made

They

flesh

and the whole man was

insisted that Christ

at birth.

Him

took nothing

word

But

in

on

conduct and practice.

the pure

flesh.

differed

Some regarded

greatly

infant baptism as useless; others, as an

abomination.

Some

demanded

a

community

of

goods; others, the duty of mutual help; some segregated and held others declared

it it

unchristian to keep the Sabbath;

culpable to follow after singularities.

Eighteenth Century Influences in Germany.

Some

9

refused to take oath or to bear arms, holding

the oath to be sinful and forbidden and the taking of

under any circumstances

life

upon them the such

in

cities

This

brought

stern opposition of the state, especially as

citizens, the sole

by an oath

sinful.

Strasburg where once a year the

defense of the

{Biirgereid)

city,

bound themselves

of allegiance on the annual

swearing day {Schwortag).

Still

others were daft on

the marriage question, like the tanner, Claus Frei,

who

held that the only valid marriage was a marriage in the

He left his woman whom

spirit.

another

lawful wife and traveled with

he called his "only spiritual

wedded sister."^') They became intoxicated with license of speech and traversed Germany as wandering apostles, living a whitherless and purposeless life. When they met they saluted with the words, "The peace of the Lord be with you," to which the answer was,

same peace."

Among

have the

Miinster in 1534, Bernhard Rott-

the insurrection at

He undertook

man.

"We

these fanatics was the leader of

to reform the administration of

Holy Sacrament.

the

"He

broke white bread into a large wide dish; poured wine

thereon; and, after he had spoken the words of the Lord at the Last Supper, he told those who desired the Sacrament to take

and is

eat.

Hence he was

called Stuten Bernhard, for white bread

called stuten in their tongue. "(2) (i)

Rohrich, Vol.

II,

pp. 93 and loi.

Dorpius, Wahrhafftige Historie nne das Evangeliutn zu Miinster angefangeti, sheet C. For a fuller account of these Miinster Anabaptists see Leopold Ranke's History of the Reformation in Germany, Vol. Ill, London, 1847. (2)

History of the Bnthren.

10

Enough

lias

been cited

to

pro\e that

Pietism,

lis

had few

Gerard Croese, a contemporary, understood

it

of the elements that the founders of

church of

the

German

element did

in

ha\e

Baptist

the

The

Brethren accepted.

the Pietistic movement, Croese's

some

of

the doctrines

first

better class,

Brethren.

of the

But they had also many things which Alexander Mack

Prominent among the

could not accept.

Pietists

who

occupied a somewhat moderate ground were Philip

Jacob Spener; Johann Heinrich Horbius, P>nst Christoph

in-law;

his brother-

Hochmann,^') who

intimate friend of Alexander

was an

Mack; August Hermann

Francke; Gottfried Arnold; Dr. Johann Jacob Fabricius of

J. W. Peterson, Johanna von woman of ecstatic visions; Jeremias Feland many others. These dissenters were for

Helmstadt; Dr.

Merlau, the binger,

the most part earnest, moderate, and devout without

being foolish.

man

From them

the founders of the Ger-

Baptist Brethren learned much, and their writ-

ings were cherished and republished frequently on the of Saur at

press

Ephrata Society.

Germantown and It will

'2)

be seen that the new con-

gregation at Schwarzenau studied

knew

all

shades

of

faith,

the press of the

and

all

denominations,

then

turned from

Ecclesiasticism and Pietism alike to carve out a (i)

See pages

new

16-26.

list of these works consult Hildeburn's The Issues of the Press of Fcunsyhauia from ibS5—nS4; also. Seidensticker's The First Century

(2)

For a complete

of German Printing in America.

1

Eighteenth Century Influences in Germany.

and distinct order of debtors to

all,

faith

and practice.

They were

and followers of none.

In the light of two centuries that

1

it

is

significant to note

what they wrought endures; what they rejected

is for the

most part a memory for the

seems almost

just to assert that they

historian.

It

were divinely

.guided in selecting from a myriad of widely varying practices

and interpretations those few and simple

relements of the Christian faith and practice which are lincreasingly potential in shaping the religious thought

,and

life

of the Christian world.



CHAPTER

The

II.

Bro. Abraham Cassel

Pietistic Pathfinders.

is

fond of speaking of some

German we understand the term to mean men who broke away from dogmatic theoloi:,^y and exalted individual

Pietists as patiifinclers for the Brethren.

of the If

experience as the test of Christian excellence, he correct.

If

by the term we mean men whose

ings were instrumental in forming the

is

teach-

congregation

we have only a half truth. If by the term we mean men who shaped the purpose and directed the organNeither Catholic, nor ization we are wholly wrong. The church was the Protestant, nor Pietist, did that. joint

product of Bible study and protest against

all

existing forms of worship.

Among and

the Pietists

who

did yearn for a better day

combined with

a purer faith

a holy life

was

PHILIP JACOB SPENER.

He

was born

Berlin,

in

February

Alsace, January 5,

1705.

personal and practical tianity

truth

is first

of

its

of all

piet\'

life,

doctrine

He

is

13, 1635,

and died

in

advocated a system of

and taught that "Chris-

and the strongest proof of the to be found in the religious

experience of the belie\er."

Hence

to

Spener only

persons inspired by the Holy Ghost could understand (12)

The the

Pictistic Patlifinders.

His

Scriptures. (')

Mack was remote and

13

upon

influence

Alexander

indirect.

AUGUST HERMANN FRANCKE.

He June

was born 8,

He

1727.

March

Liibeck,

in is

chiefly

known

1663,

23,

and died

as the founder of a

education of

charitable institution at Halle for the

poor children and orphans, which early became widely

known as "das It is good work. Hallische Waisenhaus." The missionary department

known of this

for

its

orphanage sent Rev. Henry Melchior Miihlen-

berg, the founder of the to Pennsylvania.

American Lutheran Church,

Francke was

a successful pastor at

became Pro-

In 1694 he

Glaucha, a suburb of Halle.

fessor of Oriental Languages, and, later, of at

Theology

From Halle the Bible was German Language. Numerous editions

Halle University.^^)

issued in the

were published, one of which, the 34th, the text of the Saur Bible of

the basis of

is

Germantown

in

1743.

GOTTFRIED ARNOLD,

A

Lutheran clergyman and well known writer

Mystic Theology, born Sept.

5,

at

1666,

Saxony, was the author of numerous works that

enced the thought of the early Brethren. Theological student

at

Wittenber? and

in

Annaberg, influ-

He was

a

a follower of

A corresponding movement headed by Michael Molinos occurred in the The followers of Molinos were called Quietists. See Croese'sHistoria Qiiakeriana. Book II, p. 348. (1)

Catholic Church.

(2)

Halle University was founded by Frederic

I,

King

of Prussia, in 1694.



History of

14

He was

Spencr. sen,

and,

Professor of Church Ilistory at Giessuccessi\'e pastorates at

after

made

Berleberg, was

I'Jioi

Ufipartciischc Kir-

University.

This Impartial History of the

Kctzcr-Historic.

work,

Heretics,

of

Sophia,

published

in

and

1699,

the Mysteries of Divifie

or

more mystical

largely influenced the

German emigrants

the

I,

history of religious beliefs,

nnd

later

historian to Frederic

court

wrote a widely-

Church and

s/iip,'^^^

Werben and

He

founder of Halle

known

Ih-ctlircn.

tlic

America;

to

a

Jl'or-

part of

notabl}'

the

founder of the Ephrata Society, Conrad Beissel, who

was from

to

1724

Baptist Brethren

A

1728

Genuine Portraiture of

much prized by the the German Baptist ander Mack in A Plai?i

Elder

an

A

CJiurch

tJie

Pri)nitive

founders

to

show

Christians,

18,

it

was of

Alex-

and Ordinances

edition of 1888,

that infant baptism does not date

second century after the birth

church

From

Brethren.--)

Gerjuan

of Arnold's,

the

of

Viezv of the Rites

vf the House of God qnoiQs, on page

the

in

work

third

beyond the

of Christ; and again on

the question of laying the ban upon such as eat blood

Alexander Mack quotes from the same work of Arnold. (See above edition, p. 54.) Arnold advocated most of the doctrines held by Hochmann and adopted by Mack; such as non-swearing, trine immersion,

baptism of adults only, feet-washing, the saluta-

tion, anointing, (i)

Published

and non-resistance.

in 1700.

For a more extended account of .Xrnold and ard church history and the leading encyclopedias. (2)

his writings see

any stand-

5

The

Pictistic Patlifindcrs.

1

JEREMIAS FELBINGER.

Alexander Mack

"The command

in

discussing

immersion^')

ing to the Greek word,

to

immerse, and

has been so

it

by Jeremias Felbinger, and many others."

translated

He was

Felbinger was born in Brieg, Silesia, in 1616. fifty

years earlier than Arnold and largely influenced

He was

the latter in his interpretation of Scriptures.

Superintendent of Schools at Coszlin

and

says,

to baptize properly signifies, accord-

later

he farmed associations by

in

Pomerania, with

letter

Dr.

Grossen, Superintendent at Colberg, Dr. Pelargo and

Amsterdam he was

Later at

others.

notwithstanding

his

meager livelihood

New Testament versant with

learning,

early as

Brethren,

literally into

his

He was

con-

Greek,

German,

and

into these different far as relates to the

Hand Book

Christia/i

The volume

in

or

CJiristliches

seven chapters treats

of Man's Apostasy and Reconciliation; of the

sion of of

Immature Children

Holy Baptism;

ing

as

an

of

Rites

(2)

A.

and

into the

Visible

AdmisChurch;

Church Discipline; of Feet Wash-

ordinance of the Church; of the

Supper; and of the Problem (i)

a

German.

His principal work, so is

gained

he

the

Holland, Latin,

Ha)idbilchleifiM'>

that,

1660 he translated

Hebrew, and wrote or translated languages.

poor

as a proof reader in a large printing

As

establishment.

great

so

Ordinances, Edition

third edition. 12 mo., i2g pp.,

Holy

of the Oath.

iSSS, p. 23.

was published by Samuel Sower, son

the second Christopher Sower, at Baltimore, in 1799.

of

6

Hishvy of

1

He shows

the Brethren.

Kingdom all who will

that the

by Christ reconciles

Grace established

of

to be reconciled; that

children are sa\'ed by the death of Christ and do not

need to be baptized; that baptism means immersion; that feet-washing tures;

and

fails in

commanded

is

He

Scrip-

discussing the Hol\- Supper to dis-

tinguish between the Lord's ion.

Holy

the

in

argues against

touches most of

Supper and the Commun-

the

Oath; and,

fundamental

the

general,

in

doctrines

of

the

Church of the Brethren.

ERNST CHRISTOPH HOCHMANN.

More than

Hochmann

all

others combined did Ernst Christoph the

influence

mind and conduct

of the

founder of the Church of the German Baptist Breth-

Mack and Hochmann were friends. They held much in common. They were companions in missionary enterprises. They lived in the same religious refuge — Schwarzenau. Hochmann preached what Mack practiced. The Church of the German Baptist ren.

Brethren owes to him a debt of gratitude surpassed only by the devotion due to friend

— Alexander

Mack.

wise to consider his

,

careful study of his life

For

career

and

inspired and heroic

his

this

reason

somewhat

in

it

seems

detail.

A

his teachings will unques-

tionably reveal the atmosphere in which the spirit of

Mack was

stimulated and guided

of a separate and unique also

show how

far

band of

from the truth

in

the organization

believers. is

It

will

such an eminent

TJie Pictistic Patlifielders.

authority as Dr. Benjamin Rush,

who

17

asserts that the

Tunkers are a branch of the Mennonites.(')

Hochmann von Hochenau was He was the son of a custom's

Ernst Christoph

born about 1670/2)

of Sachsen-Lauenberg.

officer

family,

settled at Niirnberg,

where as

War

tary of

His father was of a

who,

distinguished noble

in

his later years,

and as Secre-

a citizen

{Kricgs-Schreiber) he passed

closing

his

years.

The was

his

elder brother of Ernst, Heinrich (born

man

guardian and a

1661),

of prominence, represent-

ing his native city, Lauenberg, as deputy at the Im-

He was

perial Gourt.

also Imperial Councillor in 1702

and Gothic Privy-Gouncillor.

him

Leopold

consulted

affairs,

and raised him to the rank of

Under the

influence

the

I.,

Em-

on many public and private

peror,

FrciJierr.

and prestige of

his

brother,

Ernst was, as early as 1698, urged to become Attorney

Ernst refused saying he

of the Gity of Niirnberg.

served a greater master, namely, the Lord Jesus, the

King

of kings.

gave up

all

Irritated

hope

for his

by

his obstinacy his brother

advance and cast him

adrift

as a fantastic man.

The young man was brought up faith.

His mother and

Catholics. (i)

At an

in

the

his god-fathers were,

Lutheran however.

early age he went to Halle to hear

Manners of the Pennsylvania Dutch, Dr. Benjamin Rush,

edited by Dr.

Rupp. (2)

Seidensticker in First Century of

German Printing i)i America

says 1661.

8

History of the Brethren.

1

At Halle Hermann

the celebrated Thomasius^^) lecture on law.

Hochmann was "awakened" by August

In 1693 he was arrested

Francke, a pupil of Spener.

and expelled from Halle because of his testimony Jesus Christ and

The him

his strictures

incident that confirmed a

pronounced

separatist

When

he was out hunting.

manner

his

breaking through a hedge, in

a twig in such a

sword and twig formed a

that

made One day

position and

the following:

is

sword was caught

the hilt of his

for

upon the state religions.

This

cross.

incident confirmed his previous scruples against hunt-

He

ing. "

threw away his sword-belt and sword saying,

Now, henceforth never

ly pleasures;

God and

again!

I

renounce

Jesus Christ, firmly resolved to risk

body, good and blood for Christ's sake. neither

all

fire

world-

and surrender wholly and decisively

I

life

to-

and

shall fear

nor swords, neither gallows nor wheel for

Christ's sake. "(2^

In

1697,

Hochmann came

associated with

minded drawn

Gottfried

emphatic

in

new

hostility

his

Frankfurt.

this

other

like-

all

and became more the

creed-centered

The next year he removed time his

life

was rich

in

to

piety.

wrote to a friend at Giessen, "I gladly confess that

(t) liis

At

to

and

and became

Here Hochmann was

religious order

churches of the State.

He

Arnold

ones, notably Dippel. into a

to Giessen

was expelled Irom Leipsic University on account of then removed to Halle. M. Gocbel, Chrrst.lc/ics Lchr,, W'.l. H. p. Mi. Thomasiiis

in i6go,

pietistic teachings. (2)

He

Pictistic PatJifindcrs.

'I'lic

if

Divine

Wisdom

who

great glory of those

then

my

spirit

continue the

trifle

with Christ on His throne,

if

them

had

I

a

thousand

Him.

for

Alas!

lives,

it is

I

but a

to suffer in this world," etc.

While in

that

risk

sit

to feel an inflow of the

be to such a degree inspired to

will

fight,

would willingly

me

grants

19^

at

Frankfurt he issued an earnest exhortation

an open letter to the Jews, urging them to seek

conversion

in

of the Lord.

view of the immediate second advent the

In

Synagogue he delivered such

earnest and impassioned prayers that the Jews

fell

weeping and moaning, and some took Hochmann be a Jew.

Many

them followed him, and

of



"

Wenn

Hochmann, however, soon learned sion

Christian

dear

Gichtel

charity. ^^^

Hochmann

will

at

last

in

that the conver-

1702

come

hymn

cndlicli, ctcy^^^

was the hardest of

of the Jews

to

for their

approaching conversion they sang with him a he composed for the occasion

to

to

all

works of

wrote:

know

"The

himself.

Good intentions often deceive us. Without the spirit God we cannot accomplish anything before the

of

appointed time.

Jews and our own." (i)

I

I

know

have also labored to convert the that God's time

Freylinghausen Gesangbuch,

is

different

from

p. 1346.

many of them. A foreign Jew who happened to hear Hochmann at this time met him in Prague years later. He requested Hochmann to grant him a favor. Hochmann consented, whereupon the Jew gave him a bag of gold. Hochmann took it and then begged the Jew to grant him a favor. The Jew agreed and Hochmann returned tiie bag of gold saying: "Give it generously and to the glory of God to the poor and wretched of your own people." (2)

He

did

make

a powerful impression on

History of the Brethren.

20

Then he turned

his

whole attention to the destruc-

He

tion of the organized sectarian churches.

regard-

ed them as Babel, and labored to gather the believing ones into closer unity.

If

he did not absolutely

insist

upon the awakened ones leaving the church, he yet always preferred that they should, from a most pronounced inward that had

connection com-

desire, sever their

pletely from the state churches.

He warned

gone forth from Babel not

to return to

when just out of prison at some lukewarm ones in the

it.

he

Niirnberg,

In 1709,

wrote to

those

all

Palatine,

"Do

not blame me, beloved Brethren and Sisters, that

I

with such great and loving zeal wish to draw you away

from human organizations, and instead, urge you

go

Almighty God

to the

you

will

shall

himself.

am

I

to

certain that

not find any peace for your soul until you

have both outwardly and inwardly done with

Babel, and surrender yourselves to Jesus.

my

give yourselves up entirely to Jesus, will learn in ficient

deed and

in truth that

King, and you

is

your

all-suf-

Redeemer."

Driven from Frankfurt

found refuge Wittgenstein.

renounced fast in

he

Therefore,

all

in

in

1798 by persecution, he

Hesse-Cassel; and the next year

Here he lived

a solitary, ascetic

in

life,

earthly callings, and even endeavored to

the desert for forty days, after the .manner of

our Lord.

His pious zeal resulted

in

the "awaken-

ing" of the Count and the Countess von Wittgenstein,

and especially

of the Countess

Widow, Hedw ig Sophia

21

TJie Pietistic Pathfinders.

von Berleberg.

This aroused the bitter enmity of the

Count Rudolf zur Lippe-Bracke.

latter's brother,

count

in July,

The

had Hochmann beaten almost

1700,

to

Soon thereafter he was

death and thrown into prison.

released from prison and expelled or driven from the city in a

lowed close upon

He was

haste.

his heels

in

immediately after

Count August

this,

my

in

obliged

horseman who

fol-

and lashed him into greater

no wise subdued,

August

at Berlin these

heretofore strengthened

and

He was

most disgraceful manner.

to run for hours in advance of a

me

5,

for

we

1700, addressing to

"The Lord had

words,

so powerfully in

persecutions, that

am

I

even the most horrible and

him

find

my

ways

resolved to endure

humiliating

treatment

without any resentment or bitterness."

From

1700 to 171

1

ing spirit, homeless

Hochmann

is

literally a

and persecuted.

into almost every part of

wander-

He wandered

Northern and Western Ger-

many, preaching, protesting, and suffering imprison-

On

ment. pious

these journeys

friends

Among Christian

these

Erb,

co-workers

Count

houses, farm-buildings,

accompanied by

he was

who aided

in

religious

this

were

revival.

Alexander

Mack,

Lippe-Biesterfeld.

zur

and the open

air these

In

devout

men

prayed, exhorted, sang, and witnessed for a holier

life,

a closer fellowship

and

spiritual union with

Holy Trinity. For these bold and unlawful upon the state churches he was imprisoned mold, 1702;

at

Hanover, 1703;

at Niirnberg,

the

assaults at

Det-

1709-10;

History of the Brethren.

22 at Halle, district;

171 1;

and

and also

Mannheim;

at

the Bergish

in

He was as common saying

other places.

in

scourged; so that

was a

it

frequently of his that

"to suffer a sound thrashing for Jesus' sake frequent occurrence that

On one

I

do not mind

occasion as he was sitting lonely and pra)'er-

by the wayside, he noticed a worldly

ful

Hochmann

valet riding by.

man

the

of such

is

any more."

it

to

repentance.

at

at the

Hochmann thanked

his

once began to exhort

This so angered the

man

whip Hochmann.

The

that he ordered his valet to

servant obeyed and

man and

end of the cruel thrashing

the valet kindly,

whereupon the

servant was so humiliated that he humbly begged

Hochmann

to forgive him.

The imprisonment of 1702 Count zur Lippe-Detmold

German

is

Castle

at

to

Detmold by

the church

of the

Baptist Brethren especially important.

His

persecutor refused to release him until he wrote out confession

his

of

faith.

This

Hochmann

did,

and

most im-

that confession^') next to the Bible was the

portant influence in the genesis of the church.

The subsequent

history of this remarkable

man

is

a

continuous record of arrests, imprisonments, persecutions, preachings,

and prayers.

In the Bergish land occurred an incident typical of his career.

by

trade,

(i)

A

came

wild, to

For the influence

drunken young

fellow, a barber

Hochmann's meeting

of this confession

a literal translation, see pages 75-88.

and the

at

Grafewrath

ori^-jnal text.

to::ether with

The

23

Pictistic Pathfinders.

But Hoch-

order to annoy this "Quaker-Devil."

in

so powerfully that the man began to way home he exclaimed, "Oh! what a wicked fool I have been. This man teaches the right way to God." The young man reformed, became a follower of Hochmann, and after his death, his poor widow found her richest comfort in hearing again and

mann preached

pray and on his

again of

Hochmann and

his friend Peter Lobach.(^)

Dr.

In the midst of his trials his life-long friend.

Johann Conrad Dippel, the famous living in Holland,

came

In a bitter satire

to his aid.

he accused the Wesel ministers for sitting nest,

living

and posturing

unfit to rise into

at ease

Hochmann, recites the story own resolute refusal of ligion's sake,

in this

and concludes

walking on the path where

in a

warm

world, and

He

heaven with Christ.

his

then

separatist,

defended

of his honorable ancestry,

preferment for

state in

God

these words: is

to

"He

reis

be found; while

you, even in the best of your deeds, seem to be run-

ning ever farther away from him.

you by your

own

writing,

you seem

If

I

am

to judge

to be putting out

your

eyes so as never to see his Light, his Savior and

his Glory."(2)

This polemic only embittered the already unhappy career of

Hochmann and hastened

the date of his re-

tirement to Schwarzenau. (i) Peter Lobach was a member at Creyfelt who endured four years' im;prisonment for becoming a member of the Brethren church.

(2)

The

letter in full is in Vol. II of Goebel's Christliches

Lcben.

History of

24

At Schwarzenau "huts" or of "peace lonely

paces

little

in

house.

in "

a

llic

Brctlircn.

valley, called

to this day,

built a

This hut of his was only a few

length and width.

It

He

"

sleeping room.

the valle\- of

Hochniann

called

it

had

a kitchen

Friedensburg."

and a Here,

Scene near Hoc/unanivs Homc—Sch-warzcnaii.

as a neighbor to

Alexander Mack, they were

in

close

communion, and "Friedensburg," no doubt, was the of many solemn conferences between these

scene

noted men. sentatives of

Here Hochmann was all

\isited

the non-state religions.

was he so intimately attached as to the

by repre-

But to none little

band of

Tlic Pictistic Patlipndcrs.

25

They held much

refugees under Mack.

Mack, however, was always anxious

common.

in

to

organize

a

congregation in which the ordinances of God's house could be honored and observed. to separation

Like Erasmus lieved

it

This led eventually

and painful regrets on the part of both. days of Luther,

in the

Hochmann beMack with

better to reform from within, but

and a resolute

a fearless spirit

will

broke from every

entangling alliance, accepted only the logic of events, relied

upon God

him

to guide

aright,

and boldly

or-

ganized a new congregation with the Bible as the rule

and guide

From

in all things.

Hochmann never rallied. His were now with the new congrega-

this separation

strongest supporters tion,

and he spent

his old

days

in solitude

and sorrow.

That Hochmann ever joined the church of the Brethren

is

that he

an open question.

was immersed

Mack, and the writing a

list

at

Schwarzenau by Alexander long years afterwards,

latter's son,

of persons

was currently reported

It

whom

in

who had Hochmann von Bishop Mack does not call he knew and

died before himself names "Brother

Hochenau."

In that

list

any one "Brother" who was not of the church of the this

one example

is

German

in the

communion

Baptist Brethren, unless

an exception

in

a list of nearly

two hundred names. If not a

fied

member, he was

with the

first

them, endorsed

at least so closely identi-

members

that he

their views, loved

worshiped with their

fellowship.

26

History of the Brethren.

and gave them as aid

the)' ga\'e

Moreover he preached

and sympathy.

Brethren

in

him hearty and consistent

Switzerland

the

to

the presence of Alexander

in

Mack. During

his

days he was visited by the later

last

Frau Taborin, then a child of seven years, her mother

and

people of the nobility.

Hochmann

ran

nothing

store

in

guests?" old

man

They were

and an aunt and daughters.

sister,

to

The

visit

servant

his

that

I

was unexpected,

"Hast

saying,

might

set

my

before

The servant could bring only what had,

— a piece

dear

the poor

When

of gingerbread.

thou

he was

about to distribute this humble fare to his guests the

Countess of Berleberg, who lived near by Christianseck,

sent cake and wine.

Hochmann and he eat the Lord's

said,

"Who

in

the Castle

This

delighted

will forbid us

The Lord

Supper together?

now

to

will surely

be with us here according to his promise."

About a year

later,

same }'oung

1721, the

went with her mother

to

When

ill

he

was

All vanishes,

and

him.

see

was

Hochmann was

Schwarzenau, and learning that

in

girl

asked how he was he answered,

"

nothing but Jesus remains light

the darkness."

The

Liebesbrockcn,

says,

in

next day he quietly passed away.

Week, "Those

much

edified

course." .su,

the

collector

of

the

Hochmann in his last his meek patience and

that visited b)'

He was

especially fond of the

meine Zuversichtf "Jesu,

illness

were

loving dis-

hymns: "/r-

tnci?ier Seelen

Leben^'

by

Tlie Pietistic Pathfi?iders.

Scriver;

and

''

Es gldnzet dcr

27

Christen inweiidigcs Lcbc/i,'"

by Richter.

Among Hochmann's Tersteegen, of

devoted followers was Gerhard

who was converted by Hofmann,

Hochmann.

Tersteegen

in

a follower

1736 visited the grave

Typical Schwarzenau Home.

of

Hochmann

to find

at

Schwarzenau and was much pained

no stone to mark the place.

dowager Countess

to erect to his

He begged memory

a

the

monu-

ment, which she gladly consented to do

pro\'ided

Tersteegen would compose the inscription.

This he

did as follows:

History of

28

tlic

Brethren.

" IVie hoch

ist nun der Mann, der Jiicr cin Kindlein gar, Herzinnig, voller Lieb, dock auch voll G/aubetis war, Von Zions Konigs Pracht cr seiigte tend drum litte ; Sein Geist flog endlich hinimd /tier zerfiel die Hutte."^^)

In 1785 Jung-Stilling w.rote a description of

mann

with which

we must conclude "

record of this friend of the truth:

dressed

in

He was

of the

a quiet,

neat,

the remarkable

Hochmann was

and middle-class manner.

most excellent character,

Everywhere he sought

imagine.

Hoch-

he drew few people or many,

to

as one can

teach,

— whether

— as opportunity

offered,

and taught them the purest mysticism; entire change of heart; perfect moral improvement; according to the

example

of Christ, perfect love of

God and mankind;

he spoke with astonishing enthusiasm and with indescribable

fire,

admixture,

in

he animated

and over

in his

own

degree, he

won

life.

the hearts of

In a word,

was a rare man.

'

Er

all

all

in

who came

"

(2)

From Theobald Oder

"(2)

die

the highest in

contact

zvar cin hcrrliclicr j\Iann^

How high is now the man. who here was like a child, Sincere and full of love, yet also full of faith. Of Zion's Kingdom's fame he spoke and for it suffered, His spirit rose to it and here decays the hut."

(i)

fanatic

he taught

Master of his own heart

humble and meek

his passions,

with him.

He

but free from bombastic and the popular speech; and

Sch'!iiidr}7iery\']'i'~i.





CHAPTER



The Mother Congregation

III.

IN

1708

man

is

a

Germany.

memorable year

to the church of the Ger-

Baptist Brethren.

In that year at Schwarzenau, Province of Wittgenstein,

Hesse-Cassel,

in

Eight pious

scene.

was

souls,

enacted

after

a

remarkable

careful

prayer and

prolonged study, relying only upon to

the Bible

solemnly- and heroically from the house of

slowly,

Alexander Mack

wound

thread,

to the river Eder, which, like a silver

its

varied landscape.

way through

the heart of a rich and

Here the pious

surrounded

morning,

by

Mack

eight, in the early

many

knelt in prayer, and then one of

in

God and

guide them and their followers forever, walked

curious

them

led

witnesses,

Alexander

and immersed him three times, the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the into the water

Holy Ghost.

Then Alexander Mack baptized the

other seven, and these eight, perhaps the

first

to re-

ceive trine immersion in the history of the Protestant

Church, then organized a new

new congregation chose one

congregation.

of their number, Alex-

ander Mack, as their leader, and Taufcrs or distinct

German

This

began

the

Baptist CJmrch, as a separate

and

organization.

thus

These eight members, the

ginning of the church, were, (29)

be-

History of the

30

Brcilirc/i.

Alexander Mack, His Housekeeper,

5.

John George Hoening,

2.

6.

Luke

3.

A Widow

7.

4.

Andreas Bone,

Kippinger, A gunsmith, name urknown^^'

1.

The

list

Noethiger,

which

ander Mack:

8.

is

perhaps correct

1.

Alexander Mack,

5.

Anna Margaretta Mack,

6.

4.

Joanna Noethiger, or Bony, Andrew Bony,

A

third

list,

terials toivard

1.

3.

4.

as given

will

I,

rendering of the 1.

3. z;.

7. 8.

Part IV,

George Grebi, Lucas Vetter, John Kipping, Joanna Kipping.

list

7.

George Grevy, Lucas Fetter, John Kipin,

8.

His wife.

5.

list,

in

the hope

names may lead of these

Alexander Mack, Anna Margareta Mack, Joanna Noetinger, Alexander Bony,

first

5.

to the

pub-

that a

proper

members. (3)

George Grebe,

6.

Luke

7.

John Kipping, Joanna Kipping,

8.

''Ma-

in

Baptists,''

as follows:

is

6.

add one additional

careful study of the

2.

by Alex-

by Morgan Edwards,

Alexander Mack, His wife, Joanna Nethegeim, Andreas Bhoney,

I

gi\'en

a History of the America /i

lished in 1770, Vol.

2.

is

(2)

2. 3.

Vetter,

Vetter,

These eight members of the pioneer church were not a group of local enthusiasts, nor were they (i)

List as given in Chronicon Ephratcnse, p.

(2)

A

(3)

irre-

2.

Plain Vic^' of the Rites and Ordinances cf the llonse of God, Genealogy of the Uriier Family, p. 8.

p. 9.

The Mother Congregation the

ligious prior to

Geriiiet/iy.

i/i

organization

of the

33

Taufers or

Alexander Mack Luke Vetter and George Grebi were from Hesse-Cassel; Andrew Bony was from Basle in Switzerland; and John Kipping was from Bareit in Wiirtemberg. They was

Tunkers.

from Schriesheim;

were refugees from intolerance and persecution, temporarily

in

Wittgenstein, because

it

was

living

at

that

time ruled by the mild and humane Count Heinrich

von Wittgenstein.

They were fore

all

members

Kipping was

1708.

of a Protestant church bea

Bony, and Grebi were

Lutheran, Mack, Vetter,

bred

Presbyterians/')

But

they were by no means satisfied with the formalism

and ritualism with which

On

their spirits

were oppressed.

the other hand they could not fully and unreserv-

edly adopt the faith of the Pietists whose utter hatred for all

church organization had led them to abandon Rejecting on the

the ordinances of the house of God.

one hand the creed of man, and on the other hand the

abandonment for guidance.

of ordinances, they turned to the Bible

From God's Word they

learned that

ordinances were vital and creed unnecessary.

Adopt-

ing the Bible as their rule and guide they organized a church with no creed, and with as taught

the

New

have

(i)

no

by Jesus and

Testament. counterpart

The word

all

the ordinances

his followers, as recorded in

Their position in

history,

" Presbyterian " in this connection

is

unique.

They

save the mother

means Reformed.

History of the Brethren.

34

They

churches established by Paul and the disciples. Protestant

are

They

are

without a formed Protestant creed.

spirit doctrines of It

without

Pietists

was much

the

Spener and

in their

ultra

church-in-the-

his followers.

favor as a body of believers

be able, as they were, to protest against formal

to

religion

and not go to the extreme of utter disorgan-

ization.

They believed Jesus had given them a creed and had likewise given them the necessary ordinances to keep the body of believers steadfast for him. Abandoning all precedents among denominations, stud3nng zealously to

the right, living in an atmosphere

heavy with religious agitation, surrounded

that was

by men

know

of

all faiths,

and

carx'ing out of the confusion

and turmoil of a turbulent age the simple

faith

and

practice so precious to their followers, they proved,

by

their actions, that they

ing,

and

were men of no mean

train-

that they were possessed of a courage

heroism that mounts almost

and

to the sublime.

ACCOUNT OF ORGANIZATION.

A

most accurate account of the process of organiza-

tion of the church of the

German

Baptist Brethren

is

given by Alexander Mack, the founder of the church,

and Peter Becker, the

for

many

years the active Elder of

Germantown congregation.

given

in full.

It

was printed

at

The account

is

here

Germantown, January

TJic

30th,

1774,

Mother Congregation

by

Alexander

Germany.

in

Mack,

Jr.,

35

son

the

oF

founder. It

pleased the good

God

his

in

mercy, early

in

the

beginning of this [last] century to support his "grace, that bringeth salvation, and which hath appeared all

to

men," by many a voice calling them to awake and

repent, so that thereby

many were aroused from

sleep and death of

These began

them

for the truth

Jesus, but

had soon

great decay place.

From

were pressed truth,

sin.

(of

and righteousness, to see

true

this

with

to look

as they are in

sorrowful

lamentable state of

to deli\'er

many

eyes the

almost

Christianity)

the

around

in

things

every

they

a faithful testimony of

and here and there private meetings were estab-

lished besides the public church organization, in which

newly-awakened souls sought their this the hearts of the rulers

were embittered by an

envious priesthood, and persecutions were in

Upon

edification.

commenced

various places, as in Switzerland, Wiirtemberg, the

Palatinate,

To

Hesse and other places.

those persecuted and exiled persons the Lord

pointed out a place of refuge, or a

" Pella,"

little

in

the land of Wittgenstein, where at that time ruled a

mild count, and where some pious countesses dwelt.

Here

liberty

enau,

which

And

from

of conscience is

was granted

within a few miles

this cause,

at

of

though Wittgenstein

Schwarz-

Berleberg. is

a

poor

and rough country, many people, and those of various kinds, collected at Schwarzenau,

and

this place,

which

History of

36

been

had

but

changed that

tlic

became

esteemed,

little

few years

in a

Brctlircn.

became

it

much

so

a place exten-

known. Those who were brought together there from the

sively

persecutions, though they were distinguished opinions,

ferent

customs, were

and

still,

at

among themselves soon

ver\-

Matthew

it

18,

also

differed

first, all

where he

says,

trespass against thee, go and

But

other brother.

words of

the

that

tween thee and him alone,"

and

manners

in

dif-

called Pietists, and they

each

called

appeared

b\'

Christ,

"If thy brother shall

him

tell

his

be-

fault

could not be reduced

etc.,

to a proper Christian practice, because there was no

regular order yet established

in

There-

the church.

fore some returned again to the religious denomina-

from which they had come

tions

would not be subjected and

cipline;

liberty

to others

was carried too

more dangerous than had

to a it

more

out,

because they

strict

Christian dis-

appeared that the

far,

to be

the religious organizations they

left.

Under these circumstances, some drawn powerfully itive

spiritual

which was thought

Christians,

faith the

felt

themselves

to seek the footsteps of the prim-

and desired earnestly

to

receive

in

ordained testimonies of Jesus Christ accord-

ing to their true value. internally

At

the

same time,

the}-

and strongly impressed with the

were

necessit)'

of the obedience of faith to a soul that desired to be sa\-ed.

And

this

impression also led them

at the

time

TJic

to the

Mother Congregation in Germany.

37

mystery of water-baptism, which appeared unto

t'lem as a door into the church, which was what they

Baptism, however, was spoken

so earnestly sought.

of

among

manner

in

the Pietists in very different ways, and the

which

it

was sometimes spoken of caused

pain to the hearts of tl\ose that loved the truth.

Schwarzenau.

Finally, in the year 1708, eight persons consented

together to enter into a covenant of a good conscience with God, to take up

all

the

commandments

of Jesus

Christ as an easy yoke, and thus to follow the Lord Jesus, their

good and

faithful

shepherd,

in

joy and

sorrow, as his true sheep, even unto a blessed end.

These eight persons were

as

follows,

namely,

five

History of the BrctJircn.

38

brethren and three

The

sisters.

five

George Grebi, from Hesse-Cassel, the

brethren were, first;

Lucas Vet-

likewise from Hessia, the second; the third was

ter,

Alexander Mack, from the Palatinate of Schriesheim, between Mannheim and Heidelberg; the fourth was

Andrew Bony,

of Basle, in Switzerland; the

Kipping, from Bareit, ters were,

in

Wiirtemberg.

fifth,

The

Joanna Noethiger, or Bony, the

John

three

first;

sis-

Anna

Margaretha Mack, the second; and Joanna Kipping, the third.

These eight persons covenanted and united together as brethren

and

sisters into the

covenant of the cross

of Jesus Christ to form a church of Christian believers.

And when

they had found,

in

authentic histories, that

the primiti\e Christians, in the turies,

first

uniformly, according to the

and second cen-

command

of Christ,

were planted into the death of Jesus Christ by a threefold

immersion into the water-bath of holy baptism,

they examined diligently the finding

all

New

Testament, and

perfectly harmonizing therewith, they were

anxiously desirous to use the means appointed and practiced by Christ himself, and thus according to his

own all

salutary counsel, go forward to the fulfillment of

righteousness.

Now

the question arose,

work externally unto ber,(')

(i)

who was

a leader

This, of course, was

Mack

who should administer the One of their num-

them?

and speal^er of the

himself.

Word

in

The Mother Congregation their meetings,

had

Germany.

in

39

visited, in sincere love, different

congregations of Baptists

in

(7l??/7^£'^z>;«/^;/)

Germany,

most of which admitted that holy baptism, when performed by an immersion

was indeed

Christ,

water and out of love to

right; but they

might also do very

would

also, besides

pouring of a handful of water

maintain that

this,

in

well,

provided

all

else

would be

right.

The

manded

of him,

who

this.

They

therefore de-

led in preaching the

immerse them, according itive

them (the brethren)

conscience, however, of

could not be satisfied with

to the

example

and best Christians, upon their

Word,

to

of the prim-

But

faith.

considering himself as unbaptized, required

first

he,

to be

baptized of some one of them before he should bap-

So they concluded

another.

tize

and prayer, founder of

all his

wanted

and the

rest

fasting

order to obtain of Christ himself, the ordinances, a direction and opening

matter; for he

in this

other,

in

to unite in

who was

to be baptized

had the same

requested to baptize the

by the church of

In this their difificulty they were encouraged

words of

Christ,

who

has said so faithfully,

two or three are gathered together

'am

I

in the

midst of them."

the precious and fasting

in

my

by the

"Where

name, there

With such confidence

in

sure promise of God, they, under

and prayer, cast

lots to learn

brethren should baptize that brother •desired to

Christ,

desire.

which of the four

who

so anxiously

be baptized by the church of Christ.

They

History of

40

tJic

Brctliroi.

mutually pledged their word that no one should ever divulge

who among them had

baptized

first

(according

to the lot), in order to cut off all occasion of calling

them

after

any man, because they had found that such

foolishness had already been reproved

by Paul

in

his

writing to the Corinthians.

Being thus prepared, the Eight went out together one morning,

in solitude, to a

stream called the Eder,

whom

the lot had fallen, bap-

and the brother, upon tized first that brother

who

the church of Christ, and

baptized him by

remaining three these Eight were

whom

when he was

baptized, he

he had been baptized, and the

brethren all

desired to be baptized by

and

three

sisters.

Thus

baptized at an early hour of the

morning.

And

after all

changed time

had come up out of the water, and had

their garments,

made

they were also at the same

to rejoice with great inward joyfulness,

and

by grace they were deeply impressed with these sigThis nificant words, "Be ye fruitful and multipl)-!" occurred the

in

month

the year above mentioned, 1708. of the year, or the day of the

week, they have

left

But of

month or

no record.

After this the said eight persons were more and

more powerfully strengthened in their obedience to the faith they had adopted, and were enabled to testify publicly in their meetings to the truth; and the Lord granted them his special grace, so that still more became obedient to the faith, and thus, within seven.

The years' time,

only

in

I\

lather Congregation

namely

Schwarzenau

i:i

to the year 171 a large

Germany 5,

church,

41

there was not but,

here

and

there in the Palatinate, there were lovers of the truth,

and especially was a

this the case in

Marienborn, where

church was gathered; for the church

nate was persecuted, and IMarienborn.

'^Jak

And, when

its

the

in

the Palati-

members then came to church here became

History of the Brcthroi.

42

Ebstein; John Nasz and several others from Norten;

And

from Dillsheim.

Peter Becker,

to

these were

added also John Henry Trout and his brothers, HeinThe most of rich Holsapple, and Stephen Koch.

came during those seven years to Crefeld; John Henry Kalkleser, however, and Abraham Duboy came

these

George B. Gansz, from

to Schwarzenau; so did also

Umstatt, and Michael Eckerlin, from Strasburg.

But

as they

found favor with God and

men on

the

one hand, so (on the other hand) there were also enemies of the

truth,

and there arose here and there

persecutions for the Word's sake.

who

others encountered bonds and for a

years 1

There were those

suffered joyfully the spoiling of their goods, and

imprisonment;

some

few weeks only, but others had to spend several in

prison.

Christian Libe was

some years

fas-

tened to a galley, and had to work the galling oar

among

malefactors; yet, by God's special providence,

they were

all

delivered again with a good conscience.

Since the persecutions

in

the form of poverty, trib-

and imprisonment, by which

ulation,

pressed,

made them only

tried in another

the

manner, by

more

men

the)^

joyful,

were opthey were

of learning seeking

to confound them with sharp disputations and subtle questions, of which the forty searching questions of

Eberhard Ludwig Gruber, which, with will be

annexed

their answers,

to this treatise, will sufficientl}- inform

the reader.

About

this

time

it

was deemed expedient by the

Tlic

Mother Congregation

church of the Lord the

lication,

for

persons

who

are

in

Schwarzenau

instruction

Germany.

reader,

introductory remarks,

if

43

to issue this pub-

those

of

pure-minded

And

seeking after truth.

work every impartial these

in

he will read

and without

in

this

it

with

prejudice,

can find what has been the cause and object of publishing

it/'^

inasmuch as those which then stood

But,

work

of

truth

with great simplicity and honesty, have

Lord so cheerfully, and confessed the

the

departed

all

the

in

now

the desire has arisen in those

in peace,

churches which bear the

same

testimony

here

in

America, and which have likewise given themselves to the

Lord

to

walk

the truth, to have this simple

in

testimony again published, more especially for the benefit of our dear youth, that they

may have

and simple exposition of the truth

in

instructed,

and chiefly

a plain

which they are

for the glory of

God, who has

so wonderfully preserved his truth even to these latter times.

This simple testimony of truth

good and wise God

we

lay

it

at his feet of

mercy.

the kind reader such a state of

him it is

to love the truth,

to the

And may mind

he give to

that will cause

and be acceptable

to him, for

only when we are in such a state that the truly

divine Spirit (i)

we commend

for protection, and, as an offering,

who

will

enable us to prove

This ends the original document, printed Mack, Jr.

-was written by Alexander

at

Schwarzenau.

all

things

What

follows

History of the Brethren.

44

and hold

fast that

which

is

good and

useful, will

forth and lead us as the lambs of Christ into

Blessed

is

the

man who does

wmII bring all things to his

not oppose him, for he

remembrance whatsoever

Jesus, the eternal truth, himself has said

Now, away

to that innocent

Lamb

and taught.

of God, which taketh

the sin of the world, be glory, honor and adora-

tion in the congregation of the Firstborn

and on

Holy

communion Amen.

Spirit.

— This

simple record

in

of the Father

earth, in the

N. B.

some

come

all truth.

taken

is

in

heaven

and the

part from

papers which were left by two brethren, namely,

Alexander Mack and Peter Becker, who have already,

some considerable time ago, fallen asleep in the Lord; and, in part, some things were inserted which were related to me orally by my parents, as well as by some other brethren,

Lord, and

who have

also

who were themselves

fallen

eye-witnesses of that

our consolation and

which they have

testified to us, to

encouragement.

This he witnesseth

this

asleep in the

who

has written

the 30th of January, 1774, as one called to the

marriage of the Lamb, and to that great supper pre-

pared for that glorious marriage.

[Signed] A. M.



CHAPTER

Branches of the Mother Congregation in Germany. IV.

The Schwarzenau beginning.

Its

congregation flourished from the missionary spirit led to the found-

ing of a second congregation in the Marienborn district.

After their persecutions

A

third congregation

many members were

Marienborn

in

new congregation found refuge

in

Creyfelt

was established

at

in

this

171

5.

Epstein, and

living in Switzerland of

whom we

have no record.

The Schwarzenau congregation in 1720 was bitterly persecuted and its members under Alexander Mack fled for protection to

Westervain

in

West

Friesland.d)

This congregation flourished for nine years in Friesland and then owing to the promising outlook in

Pennsylvania the Allen, James

congregation

Craigie,

chartered

the

ship

and sailed July 7, 1729, from Rotterdam, touching at Cowes, for Pennsylvania. They landed at Philadelphia, and qualified Sept.

15,

1729.

The

the ocean in the Allen

dred

and

twenty-six

Master,^^)

entire is

list

of

members crossing

fifty-nine families,

souls.

Only

one hun-

males above the age of sixteen were required to qualify. (i)

Sometimes

called Surestervin,

West

History of the Baptists in America, Vol. (2)

Pennsylvania Archives, Second

(3)

See page

(3)

I,

those

Friesland; see

Morgan Edward's

Pt. IV.

Series, Vol.

XVII,

p. i8.

93.

(45)

History of th:

46

By

this qualification these

Brctlircii.

Germans became

subjects

of the British Crown.

The following is the declaration Brethren made affirmation:

to

which

these

& sincerely promise & debe true & faithful to King George the Second and do solemnly, sincerely and truly Profess Testifie and Declare, that I do from my Heart abhor, detest & renounce as impious & heretical that wicked "I,

A.

clare that

B., I

do solemnly

will

Doctrine & Position that Princes Excommunicated or deprived by the Pope or any authority of the See of Rome may be deposed or murthered by their subjects or any other Prelate, State, or Potentate hath or ought to have any power, whatsoever. And I do declare that no foreign Prince, Person, Jurisdiction, Superiority, Pre-eminence, or Authority Ecclesiastical or Spiritual within the Realm of Great Britain or the Dominions thereunto belonging. "I, A. B., do solemnly sincerely and truly acknowl-

edge profess testify & declare that King George the Second is lawful & rightful King of the Realm of Great Britain & of all others his Dominions & Countries thereunto belonging, and I do solemnly & sincerely declare that I do believe the Person pretending to be Prince of Wales during the Life of the late King James, & since his Decease pretending to be taken upon himself the Stile and Title of King of England by the Name of James the Third, or of Scotland by the name of James the Eighth or the Stile and title of King of Great Britain hath not any right or title whatsoever to the crown of the Realm of Great Britain, nor any other the Dominions thereunto belonging. And I do renounce & refuse any Allegiance

Branches of the Mother Cojigregation.

&

or obedience to him

47

do solemnly promise, that

I

& &

be true and faithful,

bear true Allegiance to King George the Second to him will be faithfull against all traitorous Conspiracies & attempts whatsowill

ever which shall be

&

Dignity,

&

made

will

I

& make known

close

doe to

against his Person,

my

Crown

best Endeavours to dis-

King George the Second

&

Treasons and traiterous Conspiracies which I shall know to be made against him or any of them. And I will be true and faithfull to the his

Successors

all

Crown against him the said James other Persons whatsoever as the same is & stands settled by An Act Entitled An Act declaring succession of the

&

all

& Liberties of the Subject, & settling the Succession of the Crown to the late Queen Anne & the Heirs of her Body being Protestants, and as the the Rights

same by one other Act Entitled An Act for the further Limitation of the Crown & better securing the Rights & Liberties of the Subject is & stands Settled Entailed after the Decease of the said late Queen, for Default of Issue of the said late Queen to the late Princess Sophia Electoress & Duchess Dowager at Hanover the Heirs of Her Body being Protestants

& &

and all these things I do plainly & sincerely acknowledge promise & declare, according to these express words by me spoken, & according to the plain & common sense and understanding of the same Words, without any Equivocation, mental Evasion or Secret Reservation whatsoever. And I do make this Recognition, Acknowledgement, Renunciation & Promise heartily willingly and truly. "(^^

At Marienborn John Naas was the Elder (i)

Pennsylvania Archives, Second

Series, Vol.

XVII.

in

charge.

History of the Brctliroi.

48

At Epstein Christian Libe was the Elder, assisted by Abraham DuBoy. These congregations soon withdrew to Creyfelt, where John Naas was the senior Elder and Christian Libe was Peter Becker, tized

who

He

an

ordained

man

of great

not

organized the

first

to

him

in love

emigration of

bers to America, and landed with a goodly

Germantown

in

and

mem-

number

The Germantown members

1719.

were, therefore, at the

in

not a good speaker, and

drawing many

life,

He

was

was, however, a

He was

congregation.

led a very quiet

at

too,

learn, bap-

and the leader of the singing

in prayer,

sympathy.

Becker

Peter

Europe.

in

fervency the

Here,

we can

Epstein by Elder Libe, ministered to the

at

congregation.

Elder

second.

was, so far as

first

branch of the Creyfelt

a

congregation. In

addition

the

to

ministers

named

heretofore,

who joined the congreHenry Kalkleser, of FrankJohn Henry Trout, Heinrich Holzapple,

should be added the following gation before 171 enthal;

John

5:

Stephen Koch, and others. In this congregation at Creyfelt ister b)' the

name

of

and

full

ed with a young

a

young min-

Hacker (Hager) who was

friend of Peter Becker. arly man,

was

Young Hacker was

of holy zeal.

woman whose

He became

a

warm

a schol-

acquaint-

father was a merchant

and, although he had been baptized into the Creyfelt fold,

he

still

preached to the Mennonites,

service the Mennonites paid

him 800

for

which

guilders.

This

Branches of the Mother Congregation. father was glad to have

and

in

young Hacker

due course of time he

riage of

Hacker and

member

of the church.

his

as a son-in-law,

officiated at

mar-

the

She was not a

daughter.

This marriage raised a storm

Some

Creyfelt congregation.

in the

49

members

said the

objected because Hacker married out of the church; others,

he

because

married

contrary to

Whatever the cause Elder Libe and ren rose up and excommunicated

I

Cor.

7.

four single BrethHacker,(i)

though

John Naas and others wished only to suspend him from the communion. seems, after

The

effect of this action,

not to hinge upon

all,

which

the question of

marriage outside the church, but upon the right to

excommunicate

member,

a

was

disastrous

to

the

Elder John Naas said that above 100 persons

cause.

who were convinced join the church

of believer's baptism refused to

on account of

excommunications followed

this controversy.

until

Other

the church was so

badly wrecked that part came to America and others fell

away.

Hacker took the matter to heart and he fell sick died. Peter Becker was steadfastly his friend, and to the end gave him spiritual comfort. Thus the

and

spirit of intolerance

and

strife

was early sown among

the members, and Peter Becker with ers(2)

in

1719

carried along. (i) (2)

came It

to

America.

a few follow-

The controversy was

saddened the voyage, and kept the

Chronicon Ephratense, pp. 3 and 249. Goebel says "40 families, 200 persons.

History of the Brethren.

50

congregation of Germantown from being organized for four years.

Creyfelt was

Mecca

a

for

all

sorts of persecuted

many

persons and the Creyfelt congregation had

markable experiences. reformed congregation

at

1714 six

on the question of infant-baptism,

its

lawfulness and.

This resulted in their joining the Crey-

necessity.

its

congregation through holy baptism.

felt

These

were Wilhelm Grahe, Jacob Grahe, Luther

Wilhelm

Lobach,

Johann

re-

members of the Solingen became concerned

In

Kneppers

six.

Stetius,

and

Johann

The youngest, Wilhelm Grahe, was twentyone years old. They were immersed in running water in the river Wupper. Henkels.

The synods

This raised a great storm.

of the

Berg

Province and the Reformed general synod heard of this

with deep regret.

The

secular

government called

these six Brethren as well as the landlord of

Grahe, Johann Carl, before the judge, olic.

On February

26,

171

7,

they

Diisseldorf and thrown into prison. (i)

Wilhelm

who was

a Cath-

were taken to

Here they had

to endure great hardship, digging trenches, wheeling dirt,

performing

all

sorts of menial services. (2)

imprisonment lasted four years.

In their misery they

were visited by Stephen Koch who gave them consolation.

ual

(i)

The

(2)

For a

Vol.

They became

This

spirit-

quite sick in prison

prison of Giilch. full

account of their suflerings see Goebel's Christliches Leben,.

Ill, p. 23S et seq.

1

Branches of

and

in their suffering

the

Mother Congregation.

5

they were also visited by Gosen

Gojen and Jacob Wilhelm Naas. This Gosen Gojen was a Mennonite preacher of the Creyfelt congregation.

He

afterwards became con-

vinced that immersion was the only Christian baptism,

and

in

September, 1724, he was immersed

after the Apostolic

the Rhine

in

manner.

The Jacob Wilhelm Naas named above was a son of at Creyfelt, and a member of the

John Naas, Elder

congregation of Taufers or Brethren. This activity of the Creyfelt congregation became the subject of ecclesiastic censure: 144, held at Solingen,

ad

acta Montensis,

"The Synod General must

learn

with regret that several heretofore reformed church

members have been by Dompelaers, felt,

living at Crey-

rebaptized in rivers and other running waters."

Acta Synod Genera/, lyig, 21 ad 44, "The preachers of the

Meuro

classe have received the confession of

faith of the so-called

Dompelaers staying

and they have sent their 'remonstration' cious

Majesty the King of Prussia.

Fratres Mcursa?tae

Synodi report with

these Dompelaers,

who have been

church, have betaken themselves

v/ho

ecclesiasti^cal

this

pleasure

that

so injurious to our

away by water and This

farewell to the pious

came with Peter Becker

The

to his gra-

However,

are said to have sailed to Pennsylvania." official

at Creyfelt,

is

the

members

in 17 19.

report of these Brethren from an unprejudiced

History of the Btrthrcn.

52 ruler,

shows that they were the type of men

whom

posterity can well love.

"The Count's administrator

Schwarzenau could

at

well send in an official report in 1720 to the Imperial

Treasurer von Emmerish at Wetzlar and say: 'that for a while pious people have been living here, of whom we never heard anything evil. They kept themselves very quiet and retired and no man ever made any complaint of them. Lately forty families of them, about 200 persons, have moved out of the country. "(1)

John Naas removed to America. Here Alexander Mack reconciled Elder Naas, and Finally,

in

1733,

he organized the congregation

at

After that Christian Libe was in

Amwell, full

New

Jersey.

charge at Crey-

The congregation dwindled away and finally went to ruin. Libe became a merchant and married as Hacker had done, and in violation of his own rules, felt.

outside the congregation.

This was the

last

organized activity

the recent mission work

And

since

all

in

in

Europe

until

Sweden and Denmark. Europe

the leaders of the church in

came to America, excepting Elder Christian Libe, it has seemed best to treat of the details of activity in Europe under the chapter on "The Leaders i?t Pioneer Days,'' the reader

discussion of the

is

referred to that topic for

work

in

Germany.

After an exhaustive search cure a fairly large (i)

list

fuller

of

Goebel's Christliches Lebcii, Vol.

I

have been able to

members Ill, p. 776.

in the

se-

European

Branches of the Mother Congregation. congregations.

but

it

to

the

is

vastly

53

This list is by no means complete; more complete than any list yet given

public,

and

will

not be without value and

whose hearts warm towards the firs'members of the church of the Brethren and whose

interest to those

spirits

are athirst

for

the

truth.

I

best to give in connection with the as

I

have thought

name such

it

facts

have been able to glean concerning each one.

The sources

of this information are so diverse and, in

many

cases, inaccessible, that

facts,

however, have

in

I

have cited none.

The

each case ample justification.

CHAPTER v.— A

List of the

Joined the Church

in

Members Who Europe.

Albertus, Brother, lived at Falckner's in

1724.

On

the

Germantown members begun

October

Swamp,

Pa.,

great visitation of the

first

to

all

their Brethren,

they stopped at Brother Albertus' house and held a communDoubtless came to ion or love-feast service. America with Peter Becker. *Amwigh (Amweg), Leonard. *Amwigh, Magdalena, wife of Leonard. *Amwigh, John Michael. Son of above and came with them. Arian, Peter, a Hollander, who joined the church in West Friesland. Did not come to America. Augustin, a brother in Westervain known to Alexander Mack. *Bayly, Nicholas. Becker, Peter, first minister in America. See page 23,

1724,

191.

Becker, Dorothea, wife of Peter.

*Becker, Valentine. *Becker, Stinkee, wife of Valentine. *Bender (Benter), Hisbert. *Bender, Catharine, wife of Hisbert. Bender, a sister at Creyfelt for whom John Naas had the highest regard. *Bony, Andrew, one of the original eight at Schwarz*Came

to

(54)

America with Alexander Mack

in 1729.

List of Manbcrs.

enau,

thence

went to

with Mack Pennsylvania

to

55

West Friesland, him in 1729.

with

Died October 8, 1741. *Bony, Joanna Margaret, wife of Andrew, and formerly the Widow Noethiger, one of the original number at Schwarzenau, afterwards married Andrew Bony and accompanied him to America in 1729.

*Bosserdt, (Possert) Jacob, Sr., came to America with his sons and second wife in 1729, with Alex-

ander Mack. *Bosserdt, Jacob, Jr., son of Jacob Sr. *Bosserdt, John, son of Jacob, Sr. Bosserdt, Susanna, first wife of Jacob,

Sr.,

died

in

Germany. *Bosserdt, Marilis, second wife of Jacob, Sr. *Bosserdt, Eva, wife of one of the sons.

*Bradford, Matthew.

*Brunner, Joseph.

*Campbin, Maria Magdalena, Gate, Den, one of the Hollanders, who joined the church in West Friesland. The spelling be wrong. It may be Sister Kate

may (?),

mentioned by Alexander Mack, Jr. Glemens, a brother beloved at Greyfelt in 1733. Gharitas, a sister at Schwarzenau, whose death noted by Alexander Mack, Jr. Christina, a sister

who

is

joined the church at Schwarz-

She was taken from the foundlings' home, never married and "triumphantly enau.

passed away at Schwarzenau." *Gontee, Hans.

Came

to

America with Alexander Mack

in 1729.

History of the Brctlircn.

56 *Crist,

*Cri3t,

John Martin, came with Mack and was perhaps a brother of Anna. Anna Catherine, sister(?) of John Martin Crist.

*Cropp

(Kropf, Crolf) Daniel,

*Cropp, *Cropp, *Cropp, *Cropp, *Cropp,

1

Jacob,

This family ander Mack

of six

came with

in 1729.

.\lex-

Father, moth-

They may be same as the modern family of Krupp, in the eastern part of Pennsylvania. Daniel was sick on the er,

Andrew,

and four sons.

the

Christian,

Christina,

voyage.

Christian, Jr.

Jacob was also sick on

ar-

rival at Philadelphia.

*Dieter, George. *Diehl (Dihll), Alexander. Du Boy, Abraham, a minister of note. See page 144. *Durster, Philip Michael. Eckerlin, Michael. See page 349 for a discussion of the Eckerlin family.

Eckerlin, his wife.

Eckerlin, Samuel. Eckerlin, Israel.

Eckerlin, Imanuel. Eckerlin, Daniel, a friend of Alexander Mack,

Jr.

Eckerlin, Gabriel.

*Eley (Ellen, Elee), Ulrich. *Eley, Eve Tabatha, wife of Ulrich. Eicher, Daniel. -Whether the Eichers joined in Europe or Pennsylvania is not known. On the first missionary journey, 1724, the third lovefeast was held at Martin Urner's on the

persons" were baptized. Schuylkill; "two This may have been Eicher and his wife. Daniel was a leading man in the church, and two of his daughters were the first women to put themselves under Beissel's care. They *Came

to .America with

Alexander Mack

in 1729.

List of Members. left

home

for

Ephrata

57

The}' were re-

1726.

in

ceived and a house built for them on the Mill

Creek

Lebanon County,

in

close to Beissel's

{Chro/iicofi EpJiratcnsc, pp. 24, 34, 45).

at a ripe old age,

February

1,

1773.

He

died

His son

member, died February i, 1773. youngest daughter, Naomi, lived in Ephrata with her sisters, was a writer of spiritDaniel, also a

His

ual

hymns

September

of 14,

considerable merit.

aged

1757,

33

She died and 3

years

months.

Died

Ephrata in 1737. She and Maria entered, in 1726, the celibate life under Beissel. Died at Ephrata in 1748. She is said to have proposed marriage to Conrad Beissel and up-

Eicher, wife of Daniel.

at

Eicher, Anna, daughter of Daniel.

on his refusal preferred scandalous charges These she finally confessed were untrue. She soon after married and died the evening of her marriage. Eicher, Maria, daughter of Daniel. She, with Anna, against him.

removed

Ephrata

She was PriorShe was a woman of strong character, and died Dec. 24, 1784, aged to

in

1732.

ess of the Sister house.

74 years. *Fiersler, Philip Michael.

Maria Catherine, came to America with her husband, Philip.

*Fiersler,

Fischer, Johanna, lived and died at Altoona in Ger-

many. *Flickinger (Fluckiger) Johannes. and died in America. *Came

to

America with .Alexander Mack

in 1729.

He was

unmarried

History of the

58

Frantz. Michael, an active

Died December, Frantz,

BrctJu'C7i.

member

in

Pennsylvania.

1747.

wife of Michael.

,

daughter of Michael, and a member on statement of Alexander Mack, Jr. Frey, Andreas, first Elder of the Falckner's Swamp congregation, appointed March 8, 1728, by Conrad Beissel. Congregation then had eight members. Five more joined in May. He was Frantz,

,

one of the three trustees of Zinzendorf's Church He was, moreover, a in the Spirit in 1742. man of moral energy and Christian rectitude. Daniel, a member of the congregation at Schwarzenau.

Fritz,

Fritz, Lisz, wife of Daniel, also a

member

of the con-

gregation at Schwarzenau. *Galler, Samuel. *Galler, Dorothea, wife of Samuel.

George

Gansz,

America.

Balser,

attended first love feast in beloved. Came from church in Germany before

He was much

Umstatt, joined 1715-

Gansz, Angenes Joanna, wife of Balser. first

Attended

love feast in America.

Gomerry (Gommere), John, came

to America in 1719 with Peter Becker. In his house in Germantown the first love feast was held, Christmas

See page 156. eve, 1723. Gomerry, Anna, wife of John, a

faithful

and zealous

sister.

Gorgas,

,

a widow.

Gosen, Gojen, a Mennonite preacher at Creyfelt, *Came

to

America with Alexander Mack

in 1729.

who

List of

was

Members.

59

September, 1724, rebaptized by immer-

in

sion in the river Rhine.

Grau (Grahe), William, married a daughter of John Naas by his first wife, member at Creyfelt. He joined with five others in 1714, when he was For this he and his compan21 years of age. ions were thrown into the Giilch prison for four years.

Grau,

,

wife of William, daughter of John Naas.

Grau, Jacob, joined the Creyfelt congregation in 1714, and with his brother Wilhelm was set to

hard work in Giilch prison. a member at Creyfelt to whom John Gramo, Naas sends greeting from Germantown in 1733 Grebi, (Graben), George, known to Alexander Mack, Attended a great meeting in Holland and Jr. debated against Alexander Mack on the tendency to form too close a congregational unit and too rigid a sect. Grebi plead for a more liberal spirit and was content simply to be against ritualism. Mack urged the need of a bond of union, based upon the Bible's teachings. He was one of the original eight at ,

Schwarzenau. Grebi, wife of George.

*Gundi (Gunde), Hans, a member from Creyfelt, who was living in Germantown in 1733. Hacker (Hager, Hoecker), Henry. In 1733 he lived in Germantown in half a house; the other half was occupied by Valentine Mack and wife. With Hacker, Alexander Mack, Jr., made his home. It was here that A. Mack, Jr., hospita*Came

to .\merica with

Alexander Mack

in 1729.

6o

History of

tJic

Brethren.

Henry Hack-

bly entertained Stephen Koch.

ended

er

his

days as a

solitary,

i.

e.,

unmarried,

at Ephrata.

Hacker (Hoecker), a member at Creyfelt, whose marriage was the occasion of the first ,

division in the church.

Hacker,

wife of above, also a

,

Her

felt.

father was a

member

at

Crey-

Mennonite preacher.

Hacker.

Hageman, John Henry,

An

in his

Swamp. house

in

{Eplirata Chronicles, p. 41.)

1728.

*Hammer, Hammer,

lived at Falckner's

important meeting was held Rinehart.

Susan.

Hendrickson, Dirck, a Hollander who joined the church in West Friesland. Henkle, Johann, joined the Creyfelt congregation in He suffered for this by imprisonment in 1714. Giilch prison for four years.

*Hinschle (Hisle), Valentine Gerhart, same, no doubt, as Hissle, as given next below. *Hissle

(Hisle),

John,

arrived in

Philadelphia

too

sick to leave vessel at once. Hissle,

Susannah Catrina.

Hildebrand, Johannis, attended first love feast in America. Father-in-law of Valentine Mack. A preacher of some note, a man of good repute, who with his son-in-law and Henry Kalckglasser joined the Ephrata Society. He died in 1765. Hildebrand, Maria, wife of John. Attended first love feast in America. Died, 1757. Hirsch, a single brother in Schwarzenau. ,

*Cr.mc

to

America

willi

Alexander ^!ack

in lyrQ.

List of Members.

6i

*Hoffart, Christian. *Hoffart,

Anna

Margaret.

*Hoffart, Jorick. *Hoffart, Anna Margaret,

Jr.

*Hopbach, John Jacob. *Hopbach, Magdalena. *Hoitzstein, Heinrich.

Hoening, John George. Holzapple (Holzapfel), Henry, attended first love feast in America, joined at Creyfelt before 1715.

Holzapple, Lena. Hochmann, Ernst Christian, claimed as a Brother by Alexander Mack, Jr. He died at Schwarzenau See page 26. 1723. Hoheim, a brother living in Altoona in Germany, whose death is noted by Alexander ,

Mack,

Jr.

Hubert, Jerrich. John Naas mentions him as a member at Creyfelt in 1733. Huisinga, Jacob Dircks, joined the church in West Friesland. Was a Hollander. *Iller,

Conrad. Margaret.

*Iller,

Maria.

*Iller,

*Iller, Elizabeth.

Jans, Albert, a Hollander

West

who

joined the church

in

Friesland.

*Kalckglasser (Kalklieser, Kalckloser), John Henry, a minister of note in the early church. He was born in Frankenthal, Germany, and was called to

*Came

to

the

ministry in Schwarzenau before

America with Alexander Mack

in 1729.

171

5.

.



History of the Brctlircn.

62

He ended

his days at Ephrata. Of him it is he was not rebaptized on joining the said, and Ephrata Society, likewise, later on, some of the Ephrata Society were admitted to the Tunker Church without rebaptism iChroiiicon In 1835 Henry KlackglasEphratc?isc, p. 52).

was the oldest minister of the Germantown had baptized many. He died February 29, 1748, aged 52 years. "He led in his doings and life a lowly, retired, fervent course; what he experienced gave he never unto day. His death was also as if he only his outer shell had cast off." From Register of the Ephrata Community Kalckglasser, Anna Margareta, wife of John Henry. She died at Ephrata in 1757. ser

congregation, and

Kalckglasser, Kalckglasser,

.

.

Emanuel, known personally by Alexander Mack, Jr., who records his death. Kalckglasser, Katharine, wife of Emanuel. *Kalckglasser, Christophel. Alexander Mack, Jr., records his death in America. Kalckglasser, Marie Liesel, wife of Christophel. Kalckglasser,

*Kalkglasser, Jacob. *Kalckglasser, Agnes. Kalb (Kolb, Kulp, Culp), Conrad.

*Kalb, Hans Gasper.

*Kalb (Kulp), Anna Kempfer, Johannis. America. and gifted *Came

to .America with

PhiUis.

He in

He attended first love feast in was both edifying as a speaker prayer. Was proposed as min-

Alexander Mack

in 1729.

List of Members. ister

63

over Conestoga congregation, but did not

go, Beissel being in charge.

Kebinger, Will, was a member in Holland. He served sentence in the prison of Giilch for his religion.

Kitzinger, Johannis, probably joined church in Creyfelt,

but did not

come

to

America.

Kitzinger, Johanna, wife of Johannis.

*Kitzintander,

Anna

Barbara.

*Kitzintander, Christian.

*Kipping, Johannis, one of the original eight at Schwarzenau. *Kipping, Johanna, wife of above, and with him joined at

Schwarzenau

in 1708.

*Kipping, Sivilla. *Kipping, Anna. *Kissle (Kessell), John Jacob. *Kissle, Hans Urick. *Kissle, Christina Margaret.

Anna Barbara. Hans Jacob. *Klauser, Anna Maria. *Klauser, Hans George. *Kissle,

Kiebel,

*Knipper (Knepper), Veronica, wife of Wilhelmus. *Knipper (Knepper), Wilhelmus, joined the Creyfelt congregation in

1714.

Served four years

in

Giilch prison for his religion's sake.

*Knight, John Jacob. *Knecht, John Jacob. Kocker, Peterde, a Hollander, converted by Alexander Mack, a member in West Friesland. Kocker, Yellis de, one of the twelve Hollanders

Came

to

America with Alexander Mack

in 1729.

History of the Brethren.

64

known to Alexander Mack, West Friesland.

Jr.,

'

as

members

in

Kocker, Michael de, a Hollander, joined the West Friesland congregation.

*Koch, Hans Georg, a friend of Alexander Mack, and a faithful, active member. a faithful member, wife of Hans Georg. Koch, Koch, Stephen. See page 133. ,

Koch, Jacob, attended first love feast in America. He married in America. His wife was Anna Elizabeth. She and their daughter Catharine, who died single, were also members. Koster, John Peter. *Kress, John Martin. *Krolf, John Christian. *Latrine, Anna Marie.

Libe (Liebi, Levy), Christian. See page 131, a member at Creyfelt in 1733. Lingen, *Lisley (Leslie), David. His death is noted by Alexander *Lisley, Peter. ,

Mack,

Jr.

*Lisley, Jacob. *Lisley,

Anna

'*Lisley,

Maryles.

Catharine.

*Liskes, Paul.

*Lipkip (Lipekip), Paul.

Loback (Laubach), John, member at

Creyfelt as

late

mersed

in the river

Wupper

tion

as

of the congrega1739. in 1714.

Was

four years imprisonment in Giilch prison his religion.

*Caine

to .America

He was

with Alexander

a

Mack

warm

in 1729.

im-

Served for

friend of Stephen

List of jMciiibcrs.

Koch

with

whom

65

he regularly corresponded

Koch came to America. a member known to Alexander Mack,

after

Loser,

,

His mother also was a member.

Jr.

Loser,

first

,

wife of the above.

second wife of above. Mack, Alexander, founder of the church, came to America in 1729. See page 71. *Mack, Anna Margaretha, wife of founder, one of the original eight. Died August ii, 1758. *Mack, Alexander, Jr., a noted writer and preacher. See page 211. *Mack, John Valentine, son of founder. Died 1755. *Mack, Johannes, son of founder. Mack, wife of Valentine and daughter of John HildeLoser,

,

brand.

Mack, wife of John. Mack, wife of Alexander,

Jr.

*Matten, Christopher. *Matler, Christian.

His death is noted by Alexander Mack, Jr., who calls himi "Brother Christopher Martin."

Martin, Christopher.

Martin,

member in Germany. mother of Christopher, and a member Germany. ,

Martin,

wife of above, a

,

in

*Meinterfeer, (Mickinterfer), Johannis. *Meinterfeer, Phronik. Miller,

,

a

member

at Creyfelt as late as 1733.

*Mittledorff, Heinrich Peter.

Mum_ertin, Maria, a

Naas, John,

Came

to

member

See page

at Creyfelt in 1733.

100.

America with Alexander Mack

in 1729.

66

History of the Brethren.

Naas, first wife of above, died in Creyfelt. Naas, Margaret, second wife of above, came to

Amer-

ica in 1733.

Naas, daughter of John, by his

first wife. Married William Grau at Creyfelt. Naas, Jacob Wilhelm, son of John. Came to AmerHis wife, Mary, came with him. ica in 1735. Naas, Mary, wife of Jacob Wilhelm. Noethiger, Joanna, a widow; one of the original eight Later she married Andrew at Schwarzenau. Bony.

*Perger, Johannes. *Perger,

Anna

Ursella.

member

Peterson, Pardoldt, a

Germany.

He

living at

Altoona

in

died at that place.

See

(Petenkoffer) John, congregation, page 166.

*Pettikofer

Germantown

Pettikofer, wife of John,

who

Pfau, Adrian, a Hollander

West

joined the church at

whom

Alexander Mack, Jr., calls "The wonderful and by-God-called Almoner, who gave annually 100,000 Dutch guilders out of his fortune in Amsterdam." Brother Pfau was a deacon of the church and a man of high rank, perhaps a nobleman. Friesland,

Pfau, Michael.

wife of Michael. Pfau, *Ponne, Andreas. *Ponne, Joanna Margaret. ,

Price (Priesz), Johannis, a minister of note at Creyfelt.

Attended

Price, Jacob, *Came

to

Sr.

first

love feast in America.-

He and

America with Alexander Mack

his

wife were

in 1729.

members

List of Members.

67

known

to Alexander Mack, Jr. Jacob Price accompanied John Naas in 1715 on his missionary tour in Germany. He came to America and is buried near the Indian Creek meet-

inghouse

in

Montgomery County,

Pa.

It

possible that the Johannis Price above noted

is is

same as Jacob Price. If so, this Jacob came to America with Becker in 1719. the

*Prunder, Johannis. *Prunder, Joseph. *Prunder, John. *Prunder, Catharine Lisbet. Daniel,

Ritter,

living

in

Germantown

in

October,

Attended first love feast in America, He was called by Alexander Mack, "the beloved brother." His wife was also a member, but probably joined in America, as she was 1733.

not at

first

love feast.

*Rafer, Feltin.

*Rafer,

Anna M.

Barbara.

Rose, Livi, a Hollander, converted in

West Friesland

by Alexander Mack. Rohr,

,

a

member

at Creyfelt.

*Schneider (Snyder), Matheis. ^Schneider, Jacob. *Schneider, Christian. Schneider, Heinrich, a

Schneider, Heinrich, a

member member

at in

Conshohocken, Germantown.

*Schneider, Magdelin.

*Schneider, Susanna. Schneider, Peter, died *Came

to

November

America with Alexander Mack

in 1729.

2,

1741.



History of the BrctJircu.

68

member in Germany, whose wife woman elder. of Jacob, the first woman elder of the

Schreder, Jacob, a was the first .

Schreder, wife

"After her husband's death she seven )-ears and served the congregaAlexander Mack, Jr. tion." *Schlachter (Slaughters), Hans. Schmit, Hans George, a member of the congregation ''

Gcmcine!'

lived

at Creyfelt.

member at Cre\'felt. member at Creyfelt, to whom John Naas was much attached. Stetzius, Luther, a member of the congregation at

Schmit, wife of George, also a

Schmit, Jacob, a

John

Creyfelt.

Naas

sends

him

fraternal

greeting in October 1733. He endured untold hardships in Giilch prison with fixe other Brethren, for his religion's sake.

He was

tized in 1714, "in running water in the

bap-

Wupper

river."

a Polish nobleman, a member Schwarzenau, known by Alexander Mack,

Strizka,



,

who

at Jr.,

notes his death.

Sweitzer, Lorentz. Sweitzer, *Till,

,

wife of Lorentz.

Alexander.

member who never marJoined church in Schwarzenau before with his brothers, Jeremiah and Balser. 1 71 5 Came to America with Peter Becker in 1719, attended first love feast in America, was active in the first great missionary tour and seems to

Traut, Johann Heinrich, a ried.

have had next to Peter Becker power and *Came

to

America with Alexander Mack

in 1729.

in-

List of Members.

fluence in organizing

69

new congregations.

He

Germantown, and died January 4, 1733. Stephen Koch says of him, "He was an important brother and when I saw Brother Traut pass from time to eternity my heart was sorrowful and deeply grieved and it made such a deep impression upon me that I continually lived at

sighed unto God." Traut, Jeremiah, attended

love feast in America.

first

Never married. Traut, Balser, attended

first

love feast in

America,

was twice married. Traut,

,

first

wife of above.

second wife of above. Traut, Magdalena, attended first love feast

Traut,

,

in

Amer-

ica.

*Ulland, Matthias. *Ulland, Johannis. *Vetter, George.

Vetter

(Fetter), Lucas, a member known by Alexander Mack, came to America. He was one

in Jr.

Germany,

He

never

of the original

eight at Schwarzenau. Vetter,

,

wife of Lucas and a

member

of the

church, but joined at Schwarzenau after 1708. *Weiss (Wiss), Jacob. His death is recorded by

Alexander Mack, Jr. *Whitman, Maria Phillis. *Wichtman (Whitman), Johannis. Wintersee, Johannis. Zettel, Philip, a brother whose death Brother Mack. *Came

to

America with Alexander Mack

in 1729.

is

lamented by

History of the

70 Zettel,

,

Brct/irefi.

wife of Philip.

Zwingenberg,

.

John

Naas

sends fraternal greeting to Creyfelt from Germantown.

in

October 1733 Brother at

this



CHAPTER

The Leaders

VI.

/.

the church must ever turn with

gratitude and reverence. in

men

Germany

Alexander Mack.

To Alexander Mack and

in

In the midst of persecutions

an age of religious fanaticism, surrounded by

of all shades of belief, he heroically stood for

the truth as he saw

Around him, no doubt im-

it.

pressed by his piety and honesty, gathered faithful followers religious

truth of

— men

and women who abandoned former and stood with him

organizations

God

as revealed in Christ.

indebted for our church

for the

To him we

organization

and

for

principles that bind into a Christian unity the

are

the

mem-

bers of God's visible church.

He was born in 1679 at Schriesheim an der Bergstrasse. He was a wealthy man, owning mills and vineyards. He was bred of pious parents and in the Presbyterian (Reformed) faith. He early became dissatisfied

with the ecclesiastic

and

became

state

religions

wife,

Anna Margaretha,

his conscience's sake

leave

home and

put

friendly protection of

domination of

a Separatist.

With

the his

he endured persecution for

and eventually was obliged to himself and family under the

Count Henry of Schwarzenau.

This was prior to 1708.

At Schwarzenau he became (70



History of the Brctlwcn.

72

with

identified

the

On

Rhine.

of

ious rest

the

frequently preached the

time

own dear ones might have

relig-

for

and a church home.

During

Mack was

time Alexander

all this

student of the Bible and of

knew

journeys along

and longed

to the persecuted people, his

his

Mack

these journeys

when they with

Hochmann, and accom-

Pietist,

many

panied him upon

all

a careful

theological works.

age to his own time.

Convinced

impossible to

the organized churches^')

live

in

equally impossible to please a Separatist he resolved

He

from the apostolic

the history of the church

at last that

it

was and

God by remaining simply organize a

to

new church,

based upon primitive Christianity and honoring the ordinances as tion of

that

it

commanded by

Christ.

Upon

the ques-

baptism he took advanced grounds, insisting

should be "in flowing water and with complete

submersion."

Hochmann was

He

inclined to be content witli the milder

But Mack,

pouring. for

at this time in the Niirnberg prison.

his

immersion.

trine

most

Concerning

Hochmann wrote, "Such baptism serve if God would 'awaken' some favor of

it,

and

if

I

trine

immersion

would surely ob-

of his witnesses in

such souls out of the grace of

also were willing to suffer

and to

God

risk all for the sake

have said to Cardinal Bembo. " .\11 the world has been to us and to ours." D''Atiof the Rcfor)iiatwii, Book I Chapter -.

(i) Pope Leo X. is reported knows how profitable this lable

/'ignj's IIiy

form of

faithful friend, declared

to

of Christ

,



The Leaders

GernuDiy.

in

73

it, and yet remain faithful to Christ; for such things nowadays are followed by nothing but crosses and

of

tribulations, as antichrist will rage yet fiercely against

members

the

and hence one must well

of Christ,

count the cost beforehand, follow

to

tism, even

the

if

one wants to be able

performed on adults

in

He

things.

water-bap-

avail

example little

or

letter treats of the

which he had omitted entirely on

Supper,

account of the abuse of nected with

same

also in the

all

after the

would

Christians

primitive

nothing. "(^)

Lord's

if

Lord Jesus

the

this true following of Christ the

Without of

willingly

it, (2)

and the hypocrisy con-

it

and which Mack and

were resolved to introduce

as

his

followers

an ordinance of the

"The foundation of it must be in the love of Jesus and in the real communion of Brethren. Wherever the love of Jesus unites the hearts inwardly new church.

and has urged them in

the

memory

their life to be

and

to hold the

of the

changed

Lord

Jesus,

his congregation, thus professing with heart

not stand, since

it is

in

of Christ, against that

any man

I

and zvill

accord with the Scriptures."

In a subsequent letter he says, "

I

have no objection

for the sake of conscience

completely immersed [eindiunpeln) (i)

feast

and also allows

for the sake of Jesus Christ

mouth and deed the death

if

outward love

Goebel's Christliches Leben. Vol.

wants to be

.''

III.

Luther says an Augustine Monk at Rome in the sacramental service said, " Bread thou art, and bread thou shalt remain: wine thou art and wine tfiou shalt remain."' Painter s Liiiher on Edmation. p. 15. (2)

History of the Brctliroi.

74

be seen that

It will

Mack upon

the

ordinances.

He

ment

them

of

lead to the

Hochmann

scriptural

did not differ from

right

observe

to

these

simply feared that an acknowledg-

as necessary to a religious life

sham and formalism he

so

much

would

detested.

Formal religion had so persecuted the pious old man that he even hesitated to reestablish apostolic meth-

Mack

ods.

this crisis

in

consequences were was, what

Upon spend to

is

hero. To him The one question

real

two friends parted, Hochmann to

days

his last

in

sorrow and

become the founder and is

it

in

poverty;

perhaps

Mack

new church.

director of a

true, as cited in the life

Hochmann did eventually become Mack and accept immersion. Goebel

Hochmann,

that

the disciple of says

the

is

with God.

right?

this these

In spite of this of

left

he "upheld the bond of brotherly love" with

the Brethren, and at one of the meetings in Switzer-

land he preached to the

Mack was

present.

He

Alexander

congregation. did

not

approve of Hoch-

mann's discourse and publicly protested against teachings,

and

{Irrg'cist).

To

Hochmann an Hochmann made no

called this

at the close of the

Mack, kissed him

also,

art

in

his

spirit

response, but

meeting he arose, embraced Bro. in a

hearty and brotherl)' manner

and said to him smilingly,

sometime

erring

"When

thou, dear Brother,

heaven and seest

me

arrive there

then thou wilt feel glad and say, 'See! there

Cometh

also our dear Brother

Hochmann.'

"

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50.

History of

98

tJic

Brctliren.

Brethren were faithfully following the true practices

But

of the church.

and

had withdrawn, rebaptized them-

followers

his

Conestoga country Beissel

in the

formed a new community, observed Saturday

selves,

and began

as the Sabbath,

to proselyte in the faithful

Concerning Mack's reception,

congregations.

Miller says, "This reverend

man would have

Peter

well de-

served to be received with arms of love by pious

in

common

had suffered

after all that he

Germany, especially from was a firm believer

in

his

in

own people;" but Mack

the doctrines of the church

He

and could not countenance innovations.

Germantown

the

all

learned at

of the strange conditions in the Cones-

toga country and his heart was saddened.

He

prayer-

own people and to suspend Germantown congregation had pre-

fully resolved to visit his

fellowship, as the

viously done, with the followers of Beissel. In October of 1730 Brother bers

at

Mack

visited the

mem-

Swamp, accompanied by several Beissel, it seems, came to the same

Falckner's

of the Brethren.

place at the same time and conducted services in the

house of John Senseman.

To

his

meeting went Alex-

ander Mack, evidently for the purpose of opening the

way

for a reconciliation.

to the people

in

Mack made

peace of the Lord be with you." replied,

(t)

pious.

"We

an address

which he piously exclaimed, "The

To which

Beissel:

have the same peace. "(')

This was the common snhitation used in Germany Sco Leopold Ranko's //;s/ory of the Reformation,

at all

meetings

\'ol. 111.

of the-

The Leaders

Mack proposed

in

GermiDiy.

both

that

99 should

parties

betake

themselves to prayer to ascertain which of them was

Then Mack and

guilty of the separation.

upon

ers fell

their knees

his follow-

and he offered up a fervent

At the conclusion of the prayer Mack en-

prayer.

quired

the

Beissel

replied,

reason

for

the

To which

separation.

Brethren for coming

censuring the

to the meeting, and refusing to consider their differ-

ences.

At another time a visit was made to Ephrata in the hope of a reconciliation. But Beissel hid himself

away and from

the meeting did not occur.

this that the influence of

It

will

be seen

Bishop Mack was ex-

erted for a reconciliation on the ground of a confession and a return to the faith and

church.

would

Beissel

not

practices of the

accept

proffered

the

terms.

He

and

fellowship with the Brethren; but this could

to

on did offer to drop

later

not be done

the

for

reason

that

all

differences,

no confession of

wrong was proposed, and hence union was impossible. That

ened the

He

Alexander Mack

of

life

died February

What from

a

his

life

persecution

secuted and exiled

found a refuge 1729,

he

fled

he

home and

found refuge

he

is

doubtless true.

19, 1735.

of

prosperous

Schriesheim,

in

saddened and short-

this unfortunate division

at

Driven

endured! his

property

Schwarzenau.

from Schwarzenau,

in

1720,

West Friesland; from which to America only to find here,

in

at

Per-

he

place, in

the

History of the Brethren.

100

land of religious

discord and

liberty,

In

disunion.

he exemplified the doctrine his followers love,

his life

founded a church that has steadily grown to splendid proportions, and

lowers

the admiration and

In his death, he

persons.

all

won

closer

still

drew

death

his

let

On

his

fol-

his

the anni\ersary

and rededicate themselves

which he lived and died. JoJin Naas.

2.

Among

to

of

Brethren recount his services,

retell the story of his life,

to the cause for

sorrowing

him and bequeathed

to

people a rich legacy of truth. of

his

respect

the great preachers of the church in Ger-

name

many

the

Naas

was, next to Mack, the most influential and suc-

of

John Naas stands equal

to the best.

cessful defender of the faith.

He ones

early in

settled

identified

himself

with

the Marienborn district and

finall)-

Here he was active

at Creyfelt.

persecuted

the

with them in the dis-

charge of his duties as elder of the congregation.

was born about 1670, was twice married.

By ter,

this

His

Norten first

in

He

Westphalia, and

wife died in Germany.

marriage he had at least one child, a daugh-

who became

at Creyfelt. ter,

at

the wife of Brother William Grau

His second wife, Margaret, and a daugh-

Elizabeth, accompanied

him

to

America

a married son, Jacob Wilhelm, remained

in

in

1733,

Germany

until 1735.

August

26,

1735,

forty-five

emigrants, late inhab-

Gravestone of Alexander Mack.

Leaders in Germany.

TJic

canton of Bern, in Switzerland,

itants of the

ship

Billander

landed

at

103

Merchant,

Samuel

Oliver,

Philadelphia.

In

this

in

the

Master,

number was Jacob

Wilhelm Naas and his wife Mary/') John Naas was

a liberal

man, and

in

the office of elder at Creyfelt, greatly self

to

With

members.

the

the

administering

endeared him-

congregation,

he

opposed Christian Libe and four single brethren in their efforts to expel the young minister Hocker at This led to a controversy between Naas Creyfelt. (-) which the former called the latter a pill-monger and withdrew from Creyfelt and lived in great pain and retirement, perhaps in Switzerland,

and

Libe

until

he was urged by

George

in

Adam

Mack

Martin

to

calls

come

to

America.

him "the incomparable

teacher," and again "the blessed teacher."(3)

John Naas was a man of commanding figure. In the year 171 5, accompanied by Brother Jacob Priesz, he traveled through the country from Creyfelt to Marienborn and Epstein, proclaiming the Gospel of

At

our Lord. trol

of the

ofifiicers

for the

time Creyfelt was under the con-

this

King

of

Prussia.

The

king's recruiting

were canvassing the country to secure recruits Prussian army.

Every one of sturdy appear-

ance was compelled to enter the service. (i)

Rupp'sjo.ooo vV(7W«,

Vol. XVII, p.

p. 100,

and Pennsylva7iia Archives, Second

119.

(2)

Chronicon Ephratense,

(3)

Ibid, pp. 247

and

249.

The king

p. 247, et seq.

Series,

IC4

Jlistorv

was especially anxious his

own body

or

life

of the

P);rflnrii.

to secure tall, strong-

He was

John Naas was just such a man. taller

than any other jjerson

was possessed of

a

men

for

guard. a

head

the communit\', and

in

constitution,

stout, athletic

com-

bined with such grace and nobleness of demeanor as

almost to strike a stranger with awe.

Priesz,

on the

contrary, was a small, feeble man.

One day they met

king's

the

recruiting

officers,

whereupon Naas was seized and urged to enlist. He They tortured him to compej him to subrefused. mit.

These tortures consisted of pinching, thumb-

screwing,

But

etc.

he

steadfastly

refused.

then hung him up with a heavy cord by his

and right great

toe, in

left

They thumb

which painful and ignominious

position they meant to leave him suspended until he

should yield to their demands. This did not

cause

that they would their

barbarous

kill

him

him

torture,

consent, and, fearing

to if

they longer continued

they

cut

him

down

and

dragged him by force into the presence of the king.

They explained

to the king

what

the)'

had done

and told the king how resolutely and stubbornly he

The king eyed "Why, yes! we would me why you refuse to

withstood their efforts to enlist him.

Elder Naas closely and

much

like to

ha\e

"liim.

said,

Tell

enlist."

"Because," answered the noble Christian, "I cannot,

Tlic

as

Leaders in Gcnnany.

have long ago enlisted

I

army; and

"And who

"My

the noblest and best

in

cannot become a traitor to

I

is

ICJ

my

King."

your captain?" asked the king. Prince

Captain," answered he, "is the great

Immanuel, our Lord Jesus Christ. and cannot and

his cause,

"Neither

will

I

I

have espoused

will not forsake him."

then ask you to do so," answered

the noble ruler, handing him a gold coin as a reward

The king then released him. may be of interest to know that the

for his fidelity. It

historic

The

Rhine was the scene of a remarkable baptism. record of the event ogy''^^'>

title

in

made.

is

found

Alexander Mack,

of

full

He

in Jr.,

the printed in

which,

reveals, a defense of trine

''

as

Apol-

the

immersion

is

adds personal testimony as follows:

"I have to testify before God that in these cold. Western countries, in the short time of my pilgrimage here, over a thousand people, of various natures, have been baptized by immersion, and, indeed, many of

them

in the cold winter".

single one

that

had caused

I

to

have not heard of a

him the

harm

least

body. On the conthat they testimony bear men conscientious trary, the Word through them lost and infirmities had had or affliction to the health of his

in

water baptism. " I

shall

relate only

one example from among a

Apology, /or a Scriptural Answer /of Certain Truths / Brought about Article, under the name/ the / Refuted Anabaptist./ In a Dialogue / written for the Common People.' The whole conv:rsation, word for word, / is given in these pages, and the / Apology / as an answer t» (i)

by a recently published

the

Perverted

ta/ Published

Theophilus (Alexander Mack) added by Expense of the Brethren in the year 1788./

Truth

at the

/

Ephra-

io6

History of the BrctJiren.

number. Something more than 66 years ago (hence before 1722), there was in Europe in Chur Pfaltz in Rheindecken, in a little village close to the Rhine, not far from Mannheim, a sister who had long been sick and bedfast so that her friends did not believe that she could get well.

large

"It

now pleased Providence

a teacher of

came

to visit

to let it so happen that Anabaptism, by the name of John Naas,

some

friends at this

place.

He

dwelt

with godly conversation in order to edify the friends

gathered there, and at the same place where the sick sister was, so that she would be able to hear with them. In this way he caused the sick woman to give ear; and she made known how that she had a strong desire to be baptized after the manner of the early Christians. " Her friends that were present made objections and expressed their doubt of the advisability of attempting such a thing, because she was so very weak that she could not be taken to the Rhine; and even if she could be gotten there with a great deal of trouble and pain, she might die in the hands of the baptizer, which would be the cause of a great wrong.

"John Naas, however, went to the sick woman's spoke with her and said: 'Have you faith (do you believe) that this work of the Lord can yet be performed to your sick body?' She answered, 'Yes.' Thereupon he said, 'I also believe it, so let it be bed,

undertaken with

thee.'

"At this the friends withdrew their objections and made preparations to satisfy the sister and her faith. They took her up, dressed her for baptism, and led or carried her by both arms, with much suffering,

The Leaders

in

Germany.

107

There she knelt down in the name and was by John Naas immersed in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. After this there was the laying on of hands, and prayer offered over her, and she was healed. She went up out of the water with great rejoicing before all the others, and when she came home she minisinto the Rhine.

of Jesus

tered to them."

Alexander Mack also held Brother Naas

in

high

esteem and urged him to come to America, forget the unfortunate affair at Creyfelt, and join heartily in

the

Lord's work

in

America.

Glad

to

be

near

those of like precious faith and parting with his chil-

dren and grandchildren, accompanied

and one daughter, he

sailed

by

his

wife

on the brigantine Penn-

sylvania Merchant, John Stedman, Master, from Rotter-

dam, touching phia

in

at

Plymouth, and landing

September, 1733.

They

qualified

in Philadel-

September

18, I733.(')

This voyage was

and

trials that

so characteristic of the dangers

beset the early Brethren on the At-

lantic that a record of

only of interest

in his

experience of

all

it

at length will

be found not

own case, but as typical of members who braved the

the

the sea

to find a refuge in the peaceful Province of William

Penn.

Through the research

of Dr.

Oswald Seidensticker,

late of the University of Pennsylvania, (i)

Rupp's jo.ooo Names,

p. 8q.

we have been

Uutory of

I08

the Brethren.

copy

so fortunate as to secure from German}' a

from

letter

who was

Elder Naas

then living

in

his

to

of a

son Jacob Wilhclm,

The

Switzerland.

letter

is

dated:

Germantown,

the 17th of Oct., 1733.

Heartily Beloved Son, Jacob Wilhclm Naas, I greet thee and thy dear wife Margareta, together The with her dear children, very heartily. eternal and almighty God give you all much light of grace and faith so that you may not only choose the .

.

good in time true and active like

obedience

God through and

in

all

of

grace,

but

may you Would

that the great

work

this within us

Jesus Christ might

who

love his

win the and child-

also

faith, in true sanctification

in Christ Jesus.

.

appearance.

Amen. As I have been requested by some

Amen,

yes;

to describe our ha\e not been able to refuse it entireh', therefore I will do it in as short a way as possible. [He then refers to a letter of September 15th, from Germantown, announcing their safe arrival, and also to a letter from Plymouth, England, in which he describes the journey from Rotterdam to that place, but which letter is not now believed to be in exist-

journey,

ence.]

I

TJic

The

Leaders in Gcnnany.

109

we went from Rotterdam to within from Dort, where we lay still, the wind being contrary. On July 3rd we started and the ship was drawn by men several times on the 24th of June

half an hour's distance

Maas, as far as the neighborhood of HelvoetThere the wind became favorable so that we sluys. sailed into the sea on July 5th, near Helvoetsluys. Then the seasickness began among the people, that river

and

dizziness

is,

after

The

vomiting.

greatest

number

haxnng vomited could begin to eat again.

On

the

13th of July, early in the morning,

rived in the port of Plymouth, which port

lies

we

ar-

in the

midst of rocks. We had to lie in the middle of the harbor until the ship was released by the custom officers arid provisioned.

On

July 2ist we sailed into the big ocean and on we lost the land, France and Spain. The 24th

our

left

we

also lost

25th a

little

it

on our

child died.

namely England. The came upon the ship very

right, It

day about 8 o'clock it was buried in the body fell from the plank into the water I saw with great astonishment that a large number of big iish appeared and darted quickly away in front of the ship, as if they wished to flee from the sick; the next

sea.

When

the

corpse.

For ten days we had steadily a good breeze, so that we sailed a long way on the big ocean. The 28th of July, before daylight, a French man-ofwar by the name of Elizabeth, came near us. This Captain examined our Captain in French. After having made themselves known to each other, they wished one another a happy trip and each went on his course.

^

1

History of the Brctliroi.

10

After this day we had very changeable weather so weeks we made only sixty hours [about miles], which m ver)- good wind wc could have 1 80

that in three

done

one day.

in

On August 3rd, I got up how it was going,

order to see

an hour before clay as

I

watch the compass during the entire

mind

to

see

there would be a change in our course.

if

in

had made up m\trip,

to

When

I reached the ladder, all the people were still asleep and a bedstead was under the ladder, and the coverlet of the people lay high up against the ladder, and during the night it had been raining a little so that it was slippery under the trap-hole, and while I was standing on the top step of the ladder and was about to climb on deck, the people in their bed stretched themselves and unwittingly knocked the ladder from under my feet; then I fell down from the top and with my left side I struck upon the ladder, that I was almost unconscious and lay there a long time before I could get up. Then I had to lie on my back about two weeks till I could get up again and walk a little. At first I feared that I would remain

lame, but to the great

who

plaster, so that

The fish

me

has caused

I

be

all

the glory

in

his Son,

feel but little of

it

any more.

4th the crew early in the morning spiked a big

with a harpoon.

man and shaped and insides

The

God

to get well again without herbs or

was as long as an ordinary head like a pig, also in bod\-

It

in

its

like a pig.

August during the night again a little and in the same hour a little boy was born, and the dead child buried at sea on the 8th. 7th of

child died

The nth and

12th

we had

a storm,

which was not

Tlic

very

strong;

so that

all

Leaders in Germany.

however,

it

lasted

iii

forty-eight

tened, and the portholes boarded up, so that

while the force

darkness,

sitting

in

struck

through

the

porthole

Some people always have storm and strong,

On

hours,

the sails had to be reefed, the rudder fas-

stiff

the 13th again a

we had another

glass

to

of

into

we were

the

waves

the

beds.

vomit during every

winds. little

boy was born.

storm, which was

much

The

17th

stronger than

and blew the sea very one and one-half days and one and one-half nights, but towards the end was the

first

for six or eight hours

high up.

It

lasted

not so strong.

for

rudder, holes, everything was up and left to wind and sea. After that it grew so calm that we did not get much from the spot during several days. During this time the people got well again from dizziness and vomiting. Then we got again strong wind from the side by which we made good headway.

hurriedly

On

Sails,

fastened

the 23rd of August" again a child died and was

buried at sea that evening.

The 26th, about 5 o'clock P. M., we passed by a mast standing fast, the point of which showed a half yard above the water, quite immovable and with ends of rope still on it. By good fortune our ship passed it at about a rod's distance. The Captain had just been drinking tea. Many people were very much frightened by this sight, because it was impossible for this mast to be standing on the bottom and it yet was immovable. The child

30th,

and

it

the last mentioned man again lost a was buried at sea that night. Then we

History of the Brethren.

112

saw the first little fish with wings for two or three rods.

On September

flying over the sea

6th in the morning the First

Mate

spiked a dolphin, which are quite different from what in Germany. This day we had much heat and little breeze. The 7th, another big fish was caught by the crew, which is called shark. The crew took a hook, which

they are pictured

was very large and strong and of about a finger's thickness; to this they fasten one and one-half pounds of bacon. When they saw the fish near the ship's side they threw the hook with the bacon to him, which he swallowed at once and since the fish was very thick and five feet long and of great strength

in

his

tail,

as well in as out of the water,

they drew him into the ship with a very hard pull, and drove back all the people, so that it should not hurt anybody, as he struck the deck so powerfully with his tail that if he should have hit any one against the legs, those would certainly have been struck in But after the ship's carpenter had cut off his two. tail with his axe after ten strokes, his strength was His mouth was so big that he might have all gone. swallowed a child of two years. The flesh the Captain ordered to be distributed to the delighted people.

On

the

nth again

a little child died, without any-

body having noticed if until it was nearly stiff, and the I2th it was buried at sea. The 13th a young woman, who had always been in poor health, died in childbirth and was buried at sea on the 14th, with three children, two of them

Tkc Leaders before and

now

in

Germany.

113

the third the one just born, so

that

the husband has no one left now.

On the i6th in the morning about four woman fifty years of age died; she had

o'clock a

not

been

well during the entire trip and always repented hav-

ing

left

She was buried

her native place.

at sea that

same day.

And since the trip owing to the many changes of wind had lasted somewhat long and the greater number of the people had all consumed their provisions and their conception (imagination or expectation) was always set upon six weeks from land to land, they had gone on eating and drinking hard, from morning until late at night. Then at last they found a great hardship to live

it

thus the greater

number

on the ship's fare alone;

so entirely lost courage that

they never expected to get on land again.

On

the 17th a small landbird, which they call the

yellow

little

wag-tail

in

Germany,

perched

down

several times on our ship, that the people could have

good look

a

among them,

On

at

him.

This caused great rejoicing hands with joy.

that they clapped their

Rhode Island came up to had a cargo of sheep and other things, in order to sail to the West Indies, which our Captain spoke through a speaking tube; after they had made their arrangements they reefed their sails on both the ships, since there was but little running anyhow and our Captain had a boat lowered into the water and rowed with four seamen to their ship. When they had drunk the welcome together, he returned and brought with him half a bag of apples, a goose, a duck, and two chickens and distributed the beautius.

the i8th a ship from

It

History of the Brethren.

114

among

That caused great rejoicing to get such beautiful American apples on the high sea, and those which were still left over he threw among the people to grapple for them, and they fell in heaps over one another for the beautiful ful

apples at once

the people.

apples.

On

fish came upon the was shaped like a large round table and had a mouth like two little shallow baskets. The same evening a large number of big fish came from the north towards our ship and when they had

ship.

the 19th, a strange looking It

reached the ship they shot down into the deep, in front, behind and under the ship, so that one could not see one any more on the other side of the ship. On the 20th again a young married woman died and was buried at sea the same night, and on this evening again came a large number of countless big fish from the north which one could see from high above the water and which did just like the former, that one could not see one on the other side of the ship. Thereupon we had a very heavy fall of rain that some people caught half kegs of water, only from the sails and from the Captain's cabin. This was followed by a powerful windstorm from the northwest. The sea rose up so high, that when one

looked into it, it was just as if one were sailing among high mountains all covered with snow; and one mountain-wave rose o\'er the other and over the ship so that the Captain and First Mate and the Cookwere struck by a wave that they kept not a dry thread on them; and so much water poured into the ship that many people's beds, which were near to the

holes were

quite

filled

with water.

The holes

The Leaders

in

Germany.

115

were hastily boarded up, the rudder bound

fast,

the ship was, with a very lowly-reefed

set side-

sail

and

ways to the wind, so that it should not roll so hard on both sides. The storm lasted the entire night with great violence, so that without any fear one could well see that it was not alone the seaworthiness of the ship that

but that

it

it could weather such powerful blows, was preserved in the Almighty hand of

the Lord, in order to

To him

be above

make known

to

man

his might.

and for all the glory. Amen. Not a human being remained on deck, but one sailor who was tied fast in order to watch by the rudder;

all

all

the rest, the Captain, the mates, the sea-

men crawled

into their beds in their wet clothes, and the ship lay sideways to the wind always on its side so that it drew water all the time, which however, poured out again. At midnight the waves struck so hard against the portholes aft, that two boards sprang away from the windows where part of the people lay in sleep and slumber, and the water rushed in through the window, as big as it was, and straight into the beds, which caused a great terror to those who lay near the window. The water took away a board together with the rope; we all sprang up because the friends who lay near the window had not tied the board fast enough and the misfortune might have become a very great one. We took a woolbag, which was handy, and stopped the window up and the other one with the board, that was made fast again.

The ship's carpenter the next mornmg made a new window board. The storm also abated a little and thus the anxiety of the people grew a

little less

and

History of

Il6

towards two o'clock

wind ceased, opened, and

and

in

tJic

BrciJircn.

the afternoon

it

cleared, the

the shij) were was beautifully calm weather. Then the Captain quickly ordered a kettle of rice to be boiled, in order that the people might get something

warm to eat The 22nd

the

portholes

in

it

day and night for noon the ship lay

that

their supper.

at

as

still

as a house,

then the people dried their clothes again.

breeze sprang up at dinner time and blew

A

good

all

night,

and so steady that one did not know in the ship that it was moving and yet made two miles and a half in one hour. At midnight the first soundings were made, 150 rods deep, and no bottom found. The 23rd at nine o'clock another sounding was made and at 55 rods ground was struck, at eleven o'clock at 35 rods; shortly after, 20 rods; and yet we did not see any land, but were nearing the river [Delaware]. Then the people became very joyful on account of the good breeze and the ground being found. But the Captain did not trust himself to reach the river by daylight; since one could not see any land even, and at four o'clock in good wind he reefed the sails, and had the rudder tied fast, because there are many sandbanks in front and inside of the so

stiff

river. in

the morning

we headed

for the river

Early

all sails were set again and although the breeze was not

very favorable and there was a heavy fog. Then again they made soundings and found 15 rods, and an hour later 7 rods. At tweh'e o'clock we saw the land with great rejoicing. Towards half past four we neared the river, for one is still six hours away from Meanwhile, I and it when one gets in sight of it.

The Leaders the

Captain

caught

sight

Germany.

in

of

towards us; then the Captain

three cried,

117 boats

sailing

"These are the

One could hardly see them among the waves. Then he had all the sails set and was very glad that the pilots came to meet him The first one who came he did not accept, but when pilots

or

steersmen."

the second came,

whom

he knew, he took him into

the ship at once, intending to sail into the river that

same

night,

however, when we were on both sides

against the land just in front of the river, suddenly

from the southwest a storm broke loose such as we had never had yet. Then all had to help reef the sail, and the anchor was thrown out for the first time. There we lay fast, and the water had no longer such a great power because it had not more than 7 rods of depth. So we lay at anchor all night and the storm soon ceased. The 25th, early in the morning, we weighed anchor, set sail, and tacked into the river. We saw there on both sides with so much joy as can easily be imagined, the land and the beautiful trees near the shore just as if they had been planted there. On the 26th the before mentioned last born baby died and was buried in the river. That same day during the night we sailed into the narrows of the river, which is indeed very delightful to see, as wide as the Rhine where it is the widest, and on both banks are the most beautiful woods and groves and here and there houses stand on the banks which have fish nets hanging to dry in front of them. The following day, the 27th, we passed New Castle with little breeze and in a very dense fog. This town Since we lies forty miles distant from Philadelphia.

History of

Ii8

had very

little

tlic

wind we had

Bn't/iren.

to sail

tide or with the current of the

sailed during the 28th,

29th

we

We

arrived safely

in

we

and on the afternoon of the Philadelphia.

were met by brethren and

who brought

mostly with the

water, therefore

sisters in small boats

us fine bread, apples, peaches and other

we gave thanks Highest publicly on the ship near the city,

refreshments of the body, for which to

the

with singing and ringing' shouts

many

tears

we

With Lord for Father's hand, and having of

delight.

praised and glorified the

having preserved us

in his

on the wings of the eagle so that we all could meet again in love on this side of Eternity. See, dear children, brethren and friends, this is in carried us as

short the description of our journey across the very big sea.

were to relate everything how things went people on the ship, there could be much more to write and it grieves my heart, when I remember that I so often told them when on the ship, I did not think that with all the unclean spirits of Hell there could be worse going on with cursing, swearing, blaspheming and beating [fighting], with over eating and drinking, quarreling day and night, during storm and weather, that,'the Captain often said he had taken many people over to this country already but had in all his days never yet seen anything like this. He thought they must have been possessed by the demons [devils]. Therefore they made such a good picture of Hell, although to us they were all very kind, friendly and helpful and they held us all in great fear. The Captain often threatened he would order some of them to be bound to the mast and to If

with

I

the

Iig

Leaders in Gcrjiiany.

Tlic

be whipped by his sailors from head to foot,

still

they

remained bad.

Now

I

will report

ro the great

some more experiences

in

regard

danger and hardships of the journey to

Pennsylvania.

The danger

of this journey

is

this; if

God should

be against one and were willing to work His revenge and justice against us, no one, of course, could escape from him, as little as on land. Another danger would be if one went in an old bad ship upon the big sea, or with a ship master who was a tyrant or ignorant of sailing. But, if the Lord is not against us, which must first be settled, and one has a good ship and good sailors then the danger is not half so great as one imagines it. The Lord sustains Earth and Sea and one in and on the other, therefore also the \'essels upon the sea and those who have gone up on high or down into the deep, and the eternal Jehovah has rescued them, they all shall come to him and shall praise the name of the Lord who does great wonders to the children of men.

The hardships, however,

many

of this journey consist of

kinds and things; but for myself

I

have not to

say of many, on the contrary of but few hardships on this trip; but others

have seen and experienced a great when people start on this trip

deal, especially firstly

who

are not obliged to enter upon so great a journey. Secondly, when people start this enterprise without

any reason, and

sufficient

deliberation

sake of material purposes. Thirdly, when people break especially

and

for

the

up to move and married people when they are not fuTy

1

20

History of

agreeing

with

one

tJic

BrctJircn.

another

to

begin such a long

journey.

These three things are the main reasons of all difon this long journey, for I can say with full truth that on six or seven ocean vessels I have heard ficulties

of

few

people

who

did

not

repent their journey,

although according to the declaration of the greatest

number only extreme

had driven them good number of educated people among them, yet it was with them too, to

it.

necessity

Although there were

a

on account of the sad decline in their business affairs by the hard oppression of government, that caused them to Iea\'e or to become poor, and as poor people they could no longer help themselves from getting into debt and becoming beggars. Nevertheless they so much regretted ha\'ing started on this journey that some became sick of it and were so furious that often they did not know what they were doing. Neighbors accused one another. Husband, wife, children fought bitterly. Instead of helping one another, they only added to the burden of each and made it every hour more unendurable, seeing that such people are obliged to be pent up together for thirteen, fourteen or fifteen weeks, what an amount of trouble must follow with such natures! Then one can never do what one wants on a ship. Then there are some who will consume all the food the}' have taken with them while the ship's fare is still good; this they will throw into the water. But later on when the ship's fare has long been lying in the salt, the water grows foul smelling, so that rice, barley, pease and such can no longer be boiled soft in it, tnen the people have devoured and drunk everything

The Leaders

in

Gcrmajiy.

121

they had and then necessity compels them to begin with the poorer stuff and they will find that very hard;

and because the people then

will

begin

to

whatever

steal

of

quantities

on the

lice

they

Then

especially things to eat and drink.

such

together some

live so closely

people,

can get, there

that

are

many

persons are compelled to louse for a whole day at the time, and

if

one does not do

they might devour one. ship for

Now

all

this

the people and for

me

as well.

we have safely arrived have been met by our own people that

friendship

all

the

very frequently

This was a very great haid-

rest

been

has

land and

in this

in

great love and

forgotten

in

a

moment (so to speak), for the sake of the great joy that we had in one another. This hardship has lasted about nineteen weeks; then it was over, wherefore be all the glory to the Highest: Amen, yea; Amen! For it does not rue us to have come here, and I wish with all my heart that you and your children could be with us; however, it cannot be and I must not urge you as the journey is so troublesome for people who are not able to patiently submit to everything, but often in the best there are restless minds, but if I could with the good will of God do for

you children

all,

I

assure you that

hesitate to take the trip once

I would not more upon me for your

sake; not because one gets one's

lix'ing in

this land in

Oh! no; this country requires diligent people, in whatever trade they may be but then they can make a good living. There are, however, many idleness!



people as it

here,

who

are

not

particularly

seems that if some people were would go badly with them. Some it

successful; in

Paradise

are

to

be

History of

122

blamed this

for

it

tJic

Brethren.

they come to

themselves; for when

country and see the beautiful

plantations; the

number of fine cattle; and abundance in everything; knowing that they only just have come here

and, too,

then they want to have

and

will

not

listen

any

to

tracts of land with debts,

These must ent.

toil

it

like

advice

borrow

that

cattle

at

once

take

large

and so

forth.

but

miserably until they get independ-

Well, what shall

I

say,

so

it

is

in

the world,

where always one is better off than the other. If a person wants to be contented here with food and shelter, he can under the blessing of God and with diligent hands get plenty of it. Our people are all well off; but some have more abundance than others, yet nobody is in want. What I heard concerning the people who do not have the money for the passage, surprised me greatly, how it goes with the )'Oung, strong people and artisans, how quickly all were gone, bricklayers, carpenters, and whatever trade they might have. Also old people who have grown children and who understand nothing but farm-labour, there the child takes two "freights" [fare for two] upon itself, its own and that of the father or of the mother for four }-ears, and during that time it has all the clothing that is needed and in the end an entirely new outfit from head to foot, a horse or a cow with the calf. Small children often pay one freight and a half until The people are they are twenty-one years old. obliged to have them taught writing and reading and in the end to give them new clothes and present them with a horse or a cow. There are few houses to be found in cit\- or country

Tlie

Leaders in Germany.

123

where the people are at all well off, that do not have one or two such children in them. The matter is

made

legal

There

at

the city hall with great

parents

and

children

earnest-

be separated 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 hours [in distance] and for many young people it is very good that they cannot pay their own freight. These will sooner be provided for than those who have paid ness.

often

will

and they can have their bread with others and soon learn the ways of the country. I will make an end of this and wish patience to whomsoever reads this. God be with you all, Amen. theirs

Johannes Naas.

— Now

beloved children what more shall I perhaps arrange itself that you should come over here, then the writing would have an end, but if you do not come I shall some other time know more to write. Therefore, I will close for this time and commend you all with your dear children to the infinite love of God, who may lead and guide you himself that you do not enter upon the path of the sinners and do not sit where the scoffers sit, for that would not be good for you. N. B.

write?

It

might

The acquaintances. Brother Settlers, outside of Gundrich, are in eternity; the others send hearty greetings: Brother Becker, Brothers Gantz, Gomrey, Ritter, Paul, sen., with Brother Mack, the old and the young

Zeiglers, and his people, all send greetings and many other brethren and sisters who do not know you, and whom you do not know all greet very heartily those who fear the Lord at Creyfelt.



Your

in-love-faithfully-united father,

John Naas.

History of the Brethren.

124 P.

S.

they

— The mother and Elizabeth greet you heartily,

will

do so yet

to greet heartily all if

own hand. Do who ask news of us in

in their

not forget love,

even

names were not mentioned.

their

When

the vessel carrying Brother Naas arrived at

Philadelphia he says they were sisters,"

head of

at the

Alexander Mack.

"met by brethren and

band of welcomers was

this

Whate\-er differences

may have

existed at Creyfelt between Brother Naas and Brother

Libe were here

prayer and contrition dropped; and,

in

accompanied by four

New

Amwell,

to

Jersey,

congregation from

its

Brother Naas went soon

where he was elder of the

inception

till

his death,

his direction

number is

12,

of

and was the means of sending a large Brethren into the Lord's vme)'ard.

able

Amwell by

buried at

twent)' children.

the side of his wife and

| il' .

ii

h

i

V

'

t)L

Page of Andreas Frey' s Declaration.

active part that he was finally chosen one of the three trustees of the

New

Church-in-the-spirit.

For a

full

History of the Brethren.

152

account of this see the chapter on the "Origin of Annual Meeting."

Zinzendorf used his persuasive powers upon Frey

and eventually won him over

Frey

to the

Moravian cause.

Europe with other Moravians and was

sailed to

active in his efforts to advance their cause.

He was

not long with them until he began to ques-

tion their faith

and

their practices.

He

left

them and

returned to the Brethren and after humbling himself

he was again received into fellowship. 1748 he issued from the Saur press a volume of

In

88 pages, the

title

of

which

Declaration oder: Erkldning unter

die

sogenatinte

*'

is:

A?idreas Freyeii seine

anf ivelche Weise

Herrnlmter

tind wie er

Gemeine gekommen,"

etc.(i>

In this work he denounces the Moravians unmercifully.

The work caused

a sensation.

It

was rumored

that Frey had repented his declaration against them;

and, in 1750, he published a notice in Saur's paper in

which he says he has not revoked

his

declaration

against the Moravians nor would he do so.

g.

Lack

Other German Pioneers.

of space precludes a fuller discussion of

of the earliest Brethren,

who have

many

largely influenced

the development of the church.

Among (i)

Copy

in

the

first

members

the libU'V of the .Author.

at

Germantown was John

Tlie

Henry was

He was

Traut.

the

active in

Leaders in Gcnnany.

work

member

a

153 Creyfelt,

and

He came

with

at

of the church.

Peter Becker's party in 1719.

On

the

missionary tour

first

Traut was a leading

He

spirit.

Henry

America

in

next to Peter

was,

Becker, the leader of the members, from which fact,

combined with other evidences,

am

I

inclined to be-

lieve he was a deacon of the church.

Koch on an important

panied Stephen

for an account of

godly

quiet, 4,

which see rich

life,

in

life

mission

in 1727;

He

of Koch.

lived a

deeds of love, and died Jan.

His loss was deeply

1733.

He accom-

by the

felt

entire con-

gregation.

Heinrich Holsapple, George Balser Gautz, Jeremiah Balser Traut, and John Jacob Price are also

Traut,

among Price

the worthies

of

the

was an active preacher

early church. in

Brother

Germany, traveling

They were successful missionaries. came to America with Peter Becker's

with John Naas.

Brother Price

party, was at the

first

on a large

on Indian Creek in Lower SalMontgomery County, Pennsylvania.

ford

tract of land

Township

in

This Jacob Price

Brotherhood.

Many

of

is

the father of

all

the Prices in the

His family has been a remarkable one

them have been and are preachers

in the church.

activities of the fuller

love feast, and, in 1721, settled

Their history

is

Brotherhood from

its

account of them will be found

chapters of this volume.

of ability

interwoven with the beginning. in

A

subsequent

History of the Brethren.

154

All in

all,

able men.

these early leaders were godly, fearless,

Most

of

them were not only preachers

of

power but writers of important works and composers of

fervent

hymns,

They took

their hearts, transported

and planted

vania, li\'es

it

it

far

to the free soil of Pennsyl-

and wide

of their children and of as

limited

opportunities in

a

in

the hearts and

many

others as their

wilderness would permit.

The}' did their work, and did ashes!

the infant church to

it

well.

Peace to their



>oJnAPTER

VII.

— The

Germantown, what

a history

is

Germaxtowx Congregation.

mother

congregation

America,

in

thine!

There's a stormy voyage in 17 19, a landing at Philadelphia, a procession to Germantown, a of the twenty families of

and

German

in 1722 a revival spirit; public

Baptist Brethren,

preaching collects

the scattered souls; in 1723, a strange

membership

the

at

quence had made him famous

meeting visit is

this

is

is

enraptured

country travel

of Philadelphia to hear this

cit)'

thrill

news of the coming of Elder

Libe; people from the Schuylkill the

dispersion

in

man whose

to elo-

two continents; a

held at Peter Becker's house; a missionary

undertaken; and six souls ask for baptism the beginning of the church in America.

Doubly memorable Christmas Day,

1723!

Christ's

anniversary and the date of the birth of His church in

America!

house

in

the voice

There

is

Germantown. of praise

is

an activity at Peter Becker's

The

spindles

raised.

Urner, his wife Catherine,

still;

and

Six persons, Martin

Henry Landis,

Frederick Lang, and John Mayle,

now

are

all

his

wife,

from what

is

the Coventry district, were in the midst of seven-

teen members, and they were preparing to hold the first

immersion

in

the church

no ordained minister

this

in

America.

There was

side of the Atlantic. (155)

The

1

History of the Brcthre?i.

56

members hold

a council.

act as elder.

The preliminary examination

prayer

is

offered,

Peter Becker

The group

— are

strangely

stilled.

solemn

breaks

voice

Becker's

ended.

The

Curious

the

utters

from

eyes

the

Peter

The prayer is membership in God's

stillness.

six candidates for

family are led

pines and

upon the group.

reverently

Kelpianites rest

— the

The ice-bound stream

music.

file,

to the Wis-

Overhead the

kneels.

solemn sentinels of the forest fastness

single

in

They journey

headed by Peter Becker.

hemlock

tO'

h^M

'"?

and then these twenty-three souls

walk out into the winter afternoon, sahickon Creek.

chosen

is

one by one into the water and are

The procession returns in the house of assembled They to Germantown. John Gomorry. It is evening now. The old-time tallow-dips are lighted. They gather around a long baptized by trine immersion.

table, a

hymn

is

sung, and in the silent evening hour,

with no witness but God, and curious children, these

people begin the observation of the

ordinances

God's house on Christmas evening, 1723.

on one

side,

wash one another's

The

on the other,

the brethren

Then they

feet.

of

sisters

arise

and

eat the Lord's

Supper, pass the kiss of charity with the right hand of fellowship, partake of the holy a

hymn, and go

out.

It

is

night!

communion, sing But under God's

guidance their acts have been repeated

in

a

thousand

twilights, in all parts of this country in all the years

that have

come and gone;

and, please God,

we

will

Gcrmantozvji Congregation.

TJic

them again and again

repeat 13

Come up

enough.

Let

until

He

159

shall say,

look yet more closely at this

us

"It

higher."

company.

Who

are they?

Six are already named.

babes

in Christ.

But the other seventeen are warriors

They had

of two continents.

At

head

the

He

and Naas. the

told

is

music that

sacred

fills

quent and overmastering.

Him

in

meetings

not a gifted preacher, but he leads the dimly-lighted

with echoes of heaven's choir.

with

of blessed

and of sermons by Elders Mack, Libe,

Creyfelt

in

could have

are

remarkable career.

a

Peter Becker, pioneer preacher

sat

He

America.

They

the

in

He

faith of

full

room

His prayers are eloloved

God and

talked

an expectant child of

the King.

To

his right sat

John Jacob

and preached

in

He was

large

not

Price,

who had prayed

the Rhine Valley with Elder Naas. in

body, but fervent

in

spirit.

There was Stephen Koch, John Hildebrand, Henry Traut and Henry Holsapple, of whom the reader has already heard.

with

God's

people

Gomorry,

in

Jeremiah

and

They were in

Germany.

whose house they Balser

rich

sat,

in

experiences

There was John near him were

Daniel Ritter, John Kempfer, Jacob Koch, and George Balser Gans, all

sterling

men

Traut,

of God.

To the left of Peter Becker sat Maria Hildebrand, whose daughter was destined to wed a son of founder Mack. By her side sat Magdalene Traut, Anna

History of

i6o

Brctliren.

tlic

Gomorry, and Joanna Gans. Seated in their mid

u

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letter of Alexander

.^^i^^czA^

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Mack

to

dwstyj

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John Price.

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Letter of Alexander

Mack

'^'^-/^ -^^^ t^- H*'^nXt

to

John Price.

Letter of Alexander

Mack

to

John

Price.

Some Leaders

in

Colonial America.

(March

235

ii, 1775.)

In Jesus the Lover of Our True LJfe,

Hearf s-m7ich-bcloved Brother:



I have duly recannot know yet if I shall be able to come to the next Great Meeting. I have been speaking to Brother Christopher Sower to enquire if he meant to go. He then had no mind to go, but if I should succeed to persuade him I would gladly stay home myself this time, according to the body, but according to the spirit I would be there in heartfelt lo\'e and "well-wishing." But if it should happen nevertheless, that he insisted on his refusal to go along, and if it should be convenient for me to go, I would first like to have his own and the Brethren's consent before starting on the journey; therefore I cannot yet say with certainty whether I

ceived thy dear

shall

come

What

little letter,

but

I

or not.

concerns Brother Cornelius Nice,

state that he has

had

his

name

I

have to

registered for drilling

to withdraw as much as possible Communion and does not like to hear called Brother. To Brother Christoph Sauer refused the kiss when he spoke to him, and

and that he seeks from

the

himself

he has

when

I heard of it and also spoke to him, I did not him the kiss so as to indicate that he were as good as expelled already; yet I wanted to show him some patience in case he should perhaps feel repentance. I have asked him if he would resent

offer

when

should pray for him, but he said no, he to do it. Then I advised him to try for himself if he still could pray. My impression of this period is, that it indicates the beginning of the time of trouble of which Christ it

would

I

like

me

History of the

236

Brctlircti.

speaks: That we must indeed not be frightened, but yet must be on our guard before men. Yet I am not sure the best guarding consists in our trying to walk with a good conscience, both before God

and man, and that we show our gentleness to everybody, for the Lord is near. He was, as the Scripture says, not in the wind, nor in the earthquake, nor in the fire, yet he was near, and in still, soft, gentle rustling; when this was heard Elias covered his face with his mantle and went out to meet the Lord. And since we are not able to know the hour of our departure

from

this

sphere,

may

so

the merciful

good God give us to watch and pray that we may become worthy to escape from all that is to come, and to stand before the Son of Man. It is indeed near at hand, the great blessedness of the last time; but I do not expect it fully in this life w^hich is subject to so many deaths, but I hope for a better The beginnings of the trouble life which is eternal. and the travail are in this life, and the hour of temptation ends

then

in

and

fulfills itself in

the other

life

we

the break of this

shall see

what

life,

but

sort of a child

has been born to us. Therefore Christ says we shall not fear those who may kill the body but can do no more than that.

What With

concerns

thee to

God and

ful to edify us

those

me and

a hearty greeting

who

the

word

mine,

we

are

and loving

all

kiss

of his mercy,

pretty well. 1

who

commend is

and to give us the inheritance

are sanctified in Christ Jesus,

powerw^ith all

Amen.

F'riendly greetings to thy dear parents and brothers, and also to the beloved members whom thou mayest meet on thy journey in case they should ask for me,

Some Leaders

in

Colonial America.

237

might be that to-morrow I should write a little more my Brother Johannes, yet I cannot tell if I shall be able. My dear wife and children send friendly it

to

greetings, I

remain your humble yet

faithful fellow-brother,

Sander Mack. Creyfclt, the

nth March,

ly/j.

To

the beloved Brother Johannes Preisz, To open with his own hands.

The tender nowhere more

solicitude of this old saint of

God

is

plainly and touchingly set forth than in

two

letters written in

1772 to John Price concerning

the

baptism

latter.

reached Elder

of

the

Mack he

When

the

good news

wrote:

The name of the Lord is an outpoured unguent, In the same lovely and gracious name of Jesus I wish peace, and hail my dear Brother Johannes

Preisz.

have received thy writing and read it rejoicing Lord is so friendly and has so lovingly invited thee to his heavenly Feast. Alas, my dear one in the Lord, do not think a trifle the chastisement of the Lord, especially since he regards thee so lovingly and leads thee to see the misery of thy sins, and at the same time comforts thy heart by good purposes to penetrate to a better life through the grace of God. I can well say that I have no greater joy than to see and hear that men are invited in their youth. O what a glorious thing it is when one then really comes and b}' the grace of God becomes faithful, then the joy is still greater. I have read the lines of thy hand with tears of joy and wish with all my heart that when the Lord will have completel)' restored thee and made I

that the

History

238

of

flic

llntliroi.

thee well again, that thy i:)urpose will be again framed

with a healthy heart and may be renewed. Much more I pray and wish that the Lord may accomi)lish in thee the work that He has begun to thy own and

thy dear parents' joy and to the joy and comfort of all who lox'e the works of the Lord. I do not intend to write much until some other time, after thou hast written me again a few lines, or perhaps I may come to see thee soon if the Lord allows it and we live, then we can talk together by word of mouth. Meanwhile I wish heartily the blessing of God and a rich abundance of his divine power to strengthen thy purpose in thee; besides a hearty greeting for thee, please to greet thy dear parents as well. I am thy humble Brother and fellow-pilgrim,

Sander Mack. Crcyfclt, the

24th of November, I7'J2.

My

dear wife sends her greetings and also vay two This was written in haste with a ruined pen; thou wilt have difficulty in reading it. children.

Sickness and doubt delayed the baptism of John Price.

True

Mack

But delay did not cause Elder to his

to forget.

holy calling and to his noble Christian

solicitude, he answers Price's letter with

one so

full

of

the spirit of courteous admonition and tactful allaying of

perplexing problems

candidate that

it

is

given

in

at

the

mind

length.

of

May

the it

young

serve to

the elders of the church as a model of Christian corre-

spondence.

Note how lovingly and yet how

clearly

he touches on the question of complete forgi\-eness before baptism;

how he

expresses

surprise,

almost

Some Leaders

i/i

Colonial Anteriea.

pain at the postponement of the and, finally,

ordinance;

with what good sense he greets and

making him

the candidate,

that awaits him

welcome

sacred

239

in

feel

a

foretaste

tJie

of

the

God's family.

Creyfelt, the 29th December, In Jesus

kisses

1772.

Cnicified, Mticli-beloved Brother: —

same our Immanuel I wish with all my comfort of love, according to the pleasure and the goodness of our God in the acknowledgment of our Savior who has died for our sins and has risen again for our righteousness. In this

heart

all

I have received thy beloved letter and read it in compassionate love and have found in it first thy loving solicitude that no one of us some day should be found a wicked servant; because, as thou so well remarkest, the day approaches on which we all shall

become manifest before the

To escape from

tribunal of Jesus Christ.

this great misfortune

we have much

cause to implore Jesus, the true Light of the world, to give us a single eye so that our body be light and we may follow Him, the true Light of the world, so that

we need not walk in darkness. For he who has a wicked eye, his body will be in darkness, speaketh the mouth of truth, and in such darkness man loses his

God and can no

longer find any delight nor which consists all spiritual growth and increase. Therefore sayeth the Lord: He who will be my disciple, let him deny himself and take my cross upon himself and follow me. trust in taste

in

self-denial,

in

Oh, my dear one, who walks thus in simplicity, he walks safely. May the Lord give light to the eyes ot

History of the

240

Ibrt/irc/i.

our understanding that we may not miss the footprints of our Good Shepherd in anything whatsoever.

What

else thou reportest, that thou hast

ance yet of being forgi\-en for a bad

sign, for

God

all

thy

no assur-

sins, that is

not

reserves this privilege for Himself

in His own lo\-ing power, so full of wisdom, \\hcn, where, and how He will give to a repentant sinner the assurance that his sins are fully forgiven to him. It is a certain sign of God's willingness to forgi\e us our sins when He grants us to feel a deep repentance foi

everything wherewith we have insulted the eyes of His High Majesty. Especially when such repentance is accompanied by a disgust against the ex'il and with an ardent desire to do the will of God, I think this a better sign than if a visible angel would come down from Heaven and sa}' to some one who has not }'et tasted the bitterness of sins,

— Thy sins are forgiven.

It must indeed be accepted gratefully when the Lord by the inward joyful strength and the comforting voice of the Good Shepherd gives to a soul a sure marrow- and bone-penetrating assurance that his sins are now forgiven and that his name is written down in Howex'er, it seems to me that our prater heax'en. should be more to the effect that the Lord may keep us from sin and may lead us into the pleasure of His will, in order that our will, our desire, and our entire

pleasure

may become

a

daily burnt-offering to the

pure love of God. When Saul was converted and had been fasting and praying for three days Ananias spoke to him: Dear Brother Saul, why tarriest thou, arise and be baptized and ha\e thy sins washed away, etc. If

now

the

Lord should not be willing

an entire assurance of the forgiveness of

to gi\'e thee th)- sins

until

;

^

—,

7

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