A Guru Nanak Glossary [2011 ed.]
 817026197X, 9788170261971

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C. SHACKLE Christopher Shackle is Professor of the Modern Languages of South Asia at SOAS in the University of London.


Other Books oflnterest


his is a glossary of the words found in the hymns ofGurii Nanak (14691539) contained in the Adi Granth, the Sikh scriptures compiled in the Gurmukhi script by the fifth Gurii Arjan in 1604. It also includes all additional words found in the couplets by Gurii Nanak's successor Angad, in those by the succeeding Guriis incorporated into some of Gurii Nanak's longer hymns, and in the compositions attributed to Shaikh Farid. There are about 6000 entries altogether, though not all are indepen~ent words, covering one-fifth of the Adi Granth. Words are given in both Gurmukhi script and romanized transcription, with English definitions, frequency-counts, and etymologies.

An Introduction to the Sacred Language of the Sikhs This book has been designed as a selfcontained introductory course for anyone who wishes to gain a knowledge of the original language of the Sikh scriptures. Those to whom it is addressed are naturally expected to have an interest in and a concern for the teachings of Sikhism, but it has not been assumed that they will necessarily possess any specialized linguistic knowledge. It is also hoped, however, that users who do possess some knowledge of the modem language will benefit from working through the book. The course is divided into three parts. Part I comprises a brief introduction to the Gurmukhi script, with the aid of a simple system of Roman transliteration. The aim has bean to teach the antique conventions of 17th century Gurmukhi spelling, which differs in some respects from modem Punjabi orthography. The script should be thoroughly mastered before proceeding further, since the use of the Roman script is later kept to a minimum.



The hymns of Gurii Nanak have a very special importance as the sole authentic record of the teachings of the founder of the Sikh religion. So his compositions continue to have a living spiritual significance, while much of the religious literature of medieval India is now of historical interest only. This significance is in itself the principal justification for the production of this glossary. Academically the principle purpose of the glossary is to further the integration of the study of the Sikhs with the mainstream of Indo-Aryan philology and linguistics. In practical terms the glossary will be useful to those who want to read Gurii Nanak in the original.






A Guru Nanak Glossary (Second Edition)

Compiled by

C.SHACKLE Professor ofModern Languages of South Asia in the University ofLondon



HERITAGE PUBLISHERS 19-A, Ansari Road, Darya Ganj, New Delhi - 110 002 www.heritagepublishers.in


Published by the School of Oriental and African Studies (University of London), Thornhaugh Street, Russell Square, London WClH OXG

Published is South Asia by Heritage Publishers, 19-A, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi - 110 002 India

© C. Shackle, 1981 and 1995



British Library Cataloguing in Publishing Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

ISBN : 8 l 7026197X

Printed in India


Preface this is a glossary ofthe words found in the hymns of Guru Nanak (1469-1539) contained in the Adi Granth, the Sikh scriptures compiled in the Gurmukhi script by the fifth Guru Arjan in 1604. It also includes all additional words found in the couplets by Guru Nanak's successor Ailgad, in those by the succeeding Gurus incorporated into some of Guru Nanak's longer hymns, and in the compositions attributed to Shaikh Farid. There are about 6000 entries altogether, though not all are independent words, covering one-fifth of the Adi Granth. Words are given in both Gurmukhi script and romanized transcription, with English definitions, frequency-counts, and etymologies. Quite apart from their great literary and linguistic interest, the hymns of Guru Nanak have a very special importance as the sole authentic record of the teachings of the founder of the Sikh religion. So his compositions continue tr have a living spiritual significance, while much of the religious literature 01 medieval India is now of historical interest only. This significance is in itself the principal justification for the production of this glossary. It also has a practical purpose. Movements of emigration in this century have brought about the spread of the Sikh community far beyond its homeland in the Panjab. There is therefore an increasing number of those who -whether within or outside the community -desire to read Guru Nanak's hymns in the original, but are more at home in English than in Panjabi. Of course Guru Nanak, like any major religious teacher, does really need to be studied in the original language. But this is no easy matter for those who do not have a sufficiently fluent reading knowledge of modern Panjabi to allow them easily to make use of the existing dictionaries of the Adi Granth. It is hoped that some of their difficulties will be eased by this work. While the glossary naturally relies heavily on the labours of Sikh scholars, it is not simply an English adaptation of existing Panjabi materials. This applies particularly to the etymologies, of such importance in determining the overall character of an old literary language, and sometimes of vital help in deciding the probable meaning of obscure words no longer in use. Here many fresh insights into points of detail have been made possible by Sir Ralph Turner's indispensable work, A Comparative Dictionary of the lndo-Aryan Languages [CD/AL: bibliography, no. 41). It is hoped that these will be found helpful by scholars concerned with the interpretation of Guru Nanak's language. The other recently published work without which the glossary could not have been compiled is Gurcharan Singh's index verborum of the Adi Granth [no. 2]. Although this gives numerical references only, without definitions or


distinctions between homonyms, it made it possible to compile an initial comprehensive selection of words. These were tfien checked for context against the most reliable edition ofthe standard text of the Adi Granth [no. 8], as well as the other principal commentaries [nos. 10, 17, 18], and the main dictionaries [nos. 3, 16]. After reference to the CD I AL and to dictionaries of other languages [bibliography, part B]. the existing entries were eventually obtained. A full entry begins with the head-word in Gurmukhi and romanized transcription, with noteworthy inflexions and variant forms following in round brackets, and grammatical labelling. This is followed by the English definition. Derivative phrases and idiomatic uses are then listed and defined, and problematic contexts discussed. Next the frequency-count is given. Finally the etymology is explained in square brackets, together with cross-references in small capitals to immediately related words or close synonyms. This full pattern is only sometimes encountered, since entries have been kept as brief as possible [see also the list of signs and abbreviations below]. The Gurmukhi head-words are arranged in the order explained in the following section on transcription. They are written with the maximal pointing which actually occurs. This wili not necessarily be the form most commonly .encountered in the text of the Adi Granth, which makes sparing use of the subscript letters and marks of nasalization. Nouns are given in the commonest form of the singular direct case, and adjectives in the masculine singular direct. Verbs are given in the absolutive (normally ending in -i). This has the advantage over the infinitive, the normal citation-form in the modem languages, of being more frequent in occurrence and standard in form. It is also alphabetically closer to the stem-form, which cannot itself be used as the citation-form without violating one of the most characteristic features of the Gurmukhi script, the lack of distinction between simple consonants and consonants + -a. Other words appear in their commonest form. The inflected forms of pronouns are so varied that they are listed as separate words. Otherwise only those inflected forms which are widely separated in alphabetical order from the head-word have been accorded separate entries. The romanized transcription in bold type includes the maximum number of features which etymology, together with the metre, allows to be read into the Gurmukhi, including doubled consonants, aspiration of sonants, and nasalization of vowels. The dagger used before transcriptions indicates an additional word not found in Gurii Nanak. There are about 350 of such entries. Alternant vowel-endings of the singular direct of nouns and adjectives are given in brackets, together with extended forms and unusual inflexions. Similarly, only irregular or unusual conjugated forms of verbs are given in the brackets. Any attempt at a more comprehensiv~ listing could only be done in a separate systematic account of the grammar of Gurii Nanak's language. vi


The English definitions have been kept as brief as possible. They are omitted altogether from the less common of alphabetically close pairs of synonyms, like the many pairs differing only by a single consonant. Here it has been thought sufficient to give a cross-reference to the commoner form. Terms relating to classical Hinduism, including names of gods and others, are given in their standard form, as if transliterated from Sanskrit. This makes it unnecessary to give a separate etymology for most names. Nominal compounds are written inconsistently as one or· two words in printed editions of the Adi Granth. Compounds of fresh meaning or special importance are entered here as separate single words, other compounds · appearing as two words under the head-word with separate definitions. Words appearing only as the second member of compounds are listed separately, and marked with an initial hyphen. The emphasis of the glossing is on linguistic rather than theological definition. Idiomatic phrases are fully glossed, but predictable or untranslatable phrases, like nominal conjunct verbs or intensive compounds, are often simply listed. Problematic verses and contexts are quoted in full with references [see table below], with an English translation of the disputed phrase, though not necessarily of the entire quotation. Fresh interpretations are sometimes suggested, usually on etymological grounds. These re-interpretations are for the most part tentative only, so the most important or the least unlikely suggestions of the commentators are also given in English. No attempt is made to distinguish between commentators, but most references are to the standard commentary of the Sabadiirath [no. 8). Since an index verborum of the Adi Granth now exists, there was little point in adding enormously to the bulk of this glossary by providing full textual references for each word. Instead, frequency~counts have been given for each entry. These will be found to provide many interesting insights into Gurii Nanak's choice of vocabulary, and into the overall character of his language. Large numbers have been rounded out to avoid giving a false impression or' precision. It is not always possible to be precise in assigning forms to homonyms, and here approximate figures have been given. Frequency-counts for irregular past participles usually appear in brackets, indicating that they have also been included in the total given for the verb under its absolutive. Some compositions of Guru Nanak are given in more than one place in the Adi Granth, and such repetitions have been disregarded in establishing frequencycounts. No counts are given for the additional words not found in Gurii Nanak, where a siglum instead indicates the author. Nearly all such words are used once or twice only. The superscript letters written after the frequency-counts, sometimes earlier in the entry after unusual forms or phrases, indicate the use of the head-word in pariicular contexts only. These include the rare instance of acrostic verses and vii


the very frequent context of rhyme, which accounts for many unusual words an< distorted forms. Quite a number of words are restricted to the three specia literary styles which we have discussed elsewhere [nos. 13-15].· Metrica alterations of vowel-quantity are not normally indicated as such, since the patterns of adjustment to the metrical scheme, of which the most obvious is the lengthening of pre-tonic short syllables, are mostly evident from the etymology as well as often from the parallel use of unadjusted pairs. Except for the specia case of proper names, full entries conclude with an etymology, a cross-reference or both, written in square brackets. These may seem a little confusing at firs1 sight, but the system adopted has been designed to serve two functions. Ir practical terms it should help the user sort out some of the superificia: complexities of Guru Nanak's language, chiefly caused by the use of so man) synonymous or closely related variant forms. It is also designed as a simple analysis into its chief constituent elements of Guru Nanak's poetic idiom, which is of great importance linguistically. Not only did it set the pattern of the classical sacred language of the Sikhs, employed in much of the rest of the Adi Granth and in later works of the 17th century, like the Vars of Bhii Gurdis and the prose janamsiikhis, but it also - if by a somewhat roundabout route helped to determine not a few of the distinctive features of the modern standard Panjabi of India. Like most literary languages, especially those of medieval India, the idiom ot Guru Nanak's hymns is a complex creation, made up of elements from many different local areas and historical periods. Its core consists of words from the two closely related languages of his time perhaps best described as Old Panjabi and Old Western Hindi (Khari Boli). Words from neighbouring contemporary languages also appear, one of the most important sources being Old Siraiki (Multani). All these early New lndo-Aryan languages had a fair number o~loan­ words from the Muslim languages, principally Persian or Arabic through Persian. Then there are words preserved in forms belonging to the earlier stage of Middle Indo-Aryan, including Apabhra1Ma -itself often indistinct from the contemporary languages - and Prakrit. There is also a very large number of words that appear in Sanskritic form, including many technical terms of religion, as well as literary loans. Finally, it has Jo be remembered that all these types of word are subject to minor literary alterations, especially to fit the metre or the rhyme, and that fresh forms are liable to be created by fusions between different local or historical variants. Since there is such a wealth of possibilities to choose from, difficulties often arise in the assignment of forms to particular areas or levels. It would clearly be impractical to enter into all these possibilities, and only the most likely has usually been given here. In order to keep the description of etymologies within reasonable bounds, words have been treated as belonging to one offourclasses: viii


Perso-Arabic loans; contemporary New Indo-Aryan words (whatever their probable local origin); Middle lndo-Aryan forms; and Sanskritic words. Three types of etymology are given for words from Muslim languages: a)

loan-words from Persian:

gora b)

[Pers. gor]

loan-words from Arabic, unchanged in Persian:

kharibu [Ar. khariib] c)

loan-words from Arabic, borrowed in Persian form:

gairati [Ar.> Pers. ghairat] Contemporary New lndo-Aryan words are related where possible to the numbered head-words in the CDIAL, reference to whose entries will usually suggest the local origin of the particular word, or variant form of a set. The CD I AL head-words are Sanskrit, unless they are askerisked, in which case they are hypothetical Sanskrit forms reconstructed from later stages of Indo-Aryan. A similar system has been adopted where possible for New Indo-Aryan words not covered by the CDIAL. Etymologies for these words may therefore appear in the following forms: a)

see the Sanskrit word in the CDIAL:

kapiiru b)

see the hypothetical Sanskrit form in the CDIAL:


bilattas:au c)

(2880 karpiira-] [9218 *balatvana-]

derived from an attested Sanskrit word (not in CD/ AL):



[ma1J4ura-] hypothetical Sanskrit form (not in CD/ AL):

haivaru e)


words of doubtful origin, attested only in modern languages: ~habbu

[r?; cf. H.P. qhab]

Words from different historical levels of Indo-Aryan are treated separately, since they are frequently specialized in different senses, but cross-references are given in each case. So the different forms related to the Sanskrit word /okaappear as: a)

contemporary New Indo-Aryan word (see CD/AL):


[11119 loka- 1: cf.





preserved Middle Indo-Aryan form: logo


[Sk. /oka- >Pk. loga-: cf. LOA, LOKU]

Sanskritic form: loku

[Sk. /oka-: cf. LOA, LOGU]

Etymologies are usually given once only for each historical level, with the usual cross-references. So the following pattern is adopted in the very common case of triplets of an Old Panjabi form, the synonymous Old Hindi form, and a Sanskritic form: a)

Old Panjabi form: hatthu


Old Hindi form: hithu


(14024 hasta-: = HATHU; cf. HASATU]


Sanskritic form: hasatu

[Sk. hasta-: cf. HATTHU]

Most etymologies will be found to fall into one or other of these patterns. Only three other relatively frequent types need to be illustrated: a}

New Indo-Aryan word, perhaps a Sanskrit loan: tarangu


unchanged loan-word: nidhi


[5699 (or Sk.) taratiga-] [Sk.]

peculiarly distorted Sanskritic form: baisantaru

[for Sk. vaiAvanara-]

These conventions are sufficient to provide a com,prehensive initial characterization of Gurii Nanak's language, although a more systematic account must be reserved for another occasion. Contaminations, derivative forms and extensions (other than -ka- extensions, which are indicated only where a difference of meaning is involved) are indicated by the customary shorthand notation [see table of signs below]. As the relative abundance of question-marks in the etymologies will show, there are many words for which it is difficult to provide certain historical explanation, and some for which it is impossible. I should like to record my gratitude to Professor J. C. Wright for his expert assistance in reducing their number. x


I also wish to express my gratitude to the Publications Committee of the School of Oriental and African Studies for meeting the full cost of publication of this book. Finally, my thanks are again due to Martin Daly, without whose professional expertise and advice it would hardly have been possible to produce this work in its present form. Christopher Shackle

London, October 1978




Preface to the Second Edition I have taken the opportunity of the second edition to add as an appendix my paper 'The non-Sanskritic vocabulary of the later Sikh Guriis', which was first published in the Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, XLVII, 1, 1984, and is reprinted with pennission. To this paper's various minor corrections should be added the solution of one long-standing puzzle (Glossary, p.7), which I owe to my colleague Simon Weightman, viz. aiihathi (-a), num '31,,i': aiiha!hi lmsata 'three and half cubits, i.e. the body' (not as conim. f. 'the heart']. 3. (649 ardhacat11rtha-J

Christopher Shackle London, December 1994




Contents v

Preface Preface to the Second Edition





xxi xx vii

Signs and Abbreviations


Table of References GLOSSARY







-Bibliography The following lists include only works which have actually been used in the preparation of the glossary. Abbreviated references in the text are indicated in square brackets. A. Works specifically to do with the text, language, and content of the Adi Gran.th [AG]. 1. Gopal Singh, Sri Guru-Granth Sahib, English translation of the AG, 4 vols., Delhi, 1962. 2. Gurcharan Singh, Adi Granth Sabad-anukrama1Jikii, index verborum of the AG, 2 vols., Patiala, 197L 3. Kanh Singh Nabha, Gurwabad Ratanakar Mahan Ko§, Encyclopaedia of Sikh literature, 2nd ed., Patiala, 1960. 4. Macaulilfe, M.A., The Sikh Religion, 6 vols., Oxford, 1909 (repr. Delhi, 1963). 5. Mcleod, W. H., Guru Niinak and the Sikh Religion, Oxford, 1968. 6. Mahitab Singh, Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji vie ditte N avam te Thavam da Ko§, 3rd ed., Amritsar, 1959. 7. Pi~ra Singh Padam, Guru Granth Viciir-ko~, thematic index to the AG; Patiala, 1969. 8. Sabadiirath Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji, text of the AG with partial commentary, 4 vols., 4th ed., Amritsar, 1959-69 [S]. 9. Sahib Singh, Gurabii1Ji Viakara1J, grammar of the language of the AG, Amritsar, n.d. 10. Sahib Singh, Sri Guru Granth Sahib Darapa1J, text of the AG with full commentary, 10 vols., Jullundur, 1962-4. 11. Selections from the Sacred Ktitings of the Sikhs, tr. Trilochan Singh, et a1., London, 1960. 12. Seva Singh Sevak, Guraba1Ji Sankhia-ko~, Amritsar, 1971. 12. Shackle, C., "'South-western" Elements in the language of the AdiGranth', BSOAS, XL, I, 1977, 3&-50. 14. Shackle, C., 'Approaches to the Persian loans in the Adi Granth', BSOAS, XLI. J, 1978. 73-96. 15. Shackle, C., 'The Sahaskriti poetic idiom in the Adi Granth', BSOAS,.XLI, i, 1978, 297-313. xvii


· 16. Sri Guru Granth Ko~. dictionary of the difficult words in the AG, 3 vols., 4th ed., Amritsar, 1954-67. 17. Taran Singh, Gurii Nanak Ba'Ji Prakili, text of the compositions of Guru Nanak in the AG with full commentary, 2 vols., Patiala, 1969. 18. Vir Singh, Santhya Sri Guru Granth Sahib, text offirst part of AG with full commentary, 7 vols., Amritsar, 1958-62.

B. Other works 19. Briggs, G. W., Gorakhnath and the Kiinphata Yogis, Calcutta, 1938 (repr. Delhi, 1973). 20. Burrow, T., and Emmeneau, M. B., A Dravidian Etymological Dictionary, Oxford, 1961. 21. Dowson, J., A Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology, 10th ed., London, 1961. 22. Hava, J. G., Al-Faraid Arabic-English Dictionary, Beirut, 1964. 23. Hindi Sabdasagar, ed. Shyam Sundar Das, et al., 4 vols., Varanasi, 1916-28. 24. Jukes, A., Dictionary of the Jatki or Western Punjdbi Language, London, 1900 (repr. Patiala, 1961). 25. McGregor, R. S., The Language of lndrajit of Orchii, a study of early Braj Bha~a prose, Cambridge, 1968. 26. Maya Singh, The Pa.njdbf Dictionary, Lahore, 1895 (repr. Patiala, 1961). 27. Monier-Williams, M., A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Oxford, 1899. 28. Paiijiibi Ko~. vols. 1-4, Patiala, 1955-. 29. Pischel, R., Comparative Grammar of the Priikr;it. Languages, tr. Subhadra Jha, 2nd ed., Delhi, 1965. 30. Platts, J. T., A Dictionary of Urdu, Classical Hindi, and English, London, 1884. 31. Po{hohari Sabad-ko~. Patiala, 1960. 32. Rjjjasthani Sabad Kos, ed. Sitaram Lalas, et al., vols. 1-4, Jodhpur, 1962-. 33. Rattan Singh Jaggi, Wiram Bhal Guradiis, Sabad-anukrama1Jikll ate Ko~, Patiala, 1966. 34. Shackle, C., The Siraiki Language ofCentral Pakistan, a reference grammar, London, 1976. 35. Sheth, H. T., Piiia-sadda-mahatJtJavo, Prakrit-Hindi dictionary, Calcutta, S. 1895. 36. Sindhi-Urdu Dictionary, ed. N. A. Baloch, Hyderabad Sind, 1959. xviii


37. Smith, J. D., The Visa{adevarasa, a restoration of the text, Cambridge, 1976 (SV], rev. Burrow, T., BSOAS, XU, 1, 1978, 178-9. 38. Steingass, F., Persian-English Dictionary, London, 1892. 39. Tagare, G. V., Historical Grammar of Apabhramsa, Poona, 1948 [HGA]. 40. Turner, R. L., A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of the Nepali Language, London, 1931 [ND]. 41. Turner, R. L., A Comparative Dictionary of the Jndo-Aryan Languages, London, 1966, 1969, 1971 [CDIAL]. 42. Vaudeville, Ch., Kabir, vol. I, Oxford, 1974.




Transcription Head-words are arranged in the order of their Gurmukhi spellings. The order and transcription of independent vowels and unmarked consonants is:

g @

u ii




~ aii ~ ai


k kh












c ch


a a




ai au]







[ 'ilr


'R ~

s h




t th d dh n p ph



j jh ii




b bh m y

















se sai so sau]


s H

But the order of vowels written with a consonant is:


saii [ Rfe sai] sa R





si si



ll ::::




Ft Jt

A metrical shortening of -o to -u (rarely the reverse) is sometimes indicated by a double pointing, as:

!} su Such spellings are grouped alphabetically with -11. The inherent vowel -a is here transcribed after all unmarked consonants. In this and in various other features, such as the writing of all final short vowels. nasalization wherever possible, and so forth, our transcription is at variance xxi


with the usual modem reading pronunciation, which is a compromise between minimal interpretation of the Gurmukhi spellings of the Adi Granth and tt. norms of modern Panjabi. Even after the writing of inherent -a wherever possible, several kinds c consonant-group occur in the transcription. These are marked in different way sometimes irregularly only or not at all, in the original script. The alphabetici placing of words with such groups or with nasalized vowels is far from bein standardized in Gurmukhi dictionaries. Attempts are sometimes made to folio• the standard Nagari system, but the differences of organization between tb scripts generally lead to awkward results. The following system is adopted her• a) consonant + -n -y -r -v The second element is written as a subscript in the Gurmukhi:

[ Jf.


[ JI


JI sra [



Such groups are placed after simple consonants with vowels, in the usu; fashion of Nagari dictionaries, thus: ~

sovai sravai:-u Jf~ svidu Only groups with -rare at all common. Spellings with and without-rare give separate entries. ~

b) consonant + -h The second element may be written with subscripts in the Gurmukhi: ~ ~ Iha But the subscript is very frequently omitted in the script where the transcriptio has an etymologically justified -h. So the groups [~h] nh mh rh lh r (aspirate phonemes rather than true clusters) are placed alphabetically with th corresponding unaspirated letters, thus:

o10l nithi xxii


Similarly: ~fu

~~ ~

vari varhi varu

c) doubled consonants All consonant~, other than h l'J r ~" may be doubled in the transcription, where justified on etymological or metrical grounds. The Gurmukhi never marks doubling, except in the special case of nasals, explained in d) below. So doubling affects the alphabetical order only in the case of pairs written alike in the Gurmukhi, thus:

ma ti matti ma tu

l-1;1 Doubled aspirates are similarly grouped with the single consonants:

vadhii vaddhi vadherai d) nasal groups Groups with a nasal as first member occur in accented syllables with a short vowel. These are regularly written in the Gurmukhi, non:nally with the nasal sign {ippi, since they mark a metrically long syllable. .The transcription of the nasal sign depends on the following consonant: ~ sanka similarly it before kb g gh n ~ saiica ii ch jh ii j sai:ii.a i:i ~h 4 c;lh santa n th d dh n s 'R'u sampa m ph b bh m The nasal groups tiri m1 n11 mm are the only doubled consonants written as such in the original Gurmukhi. The nasal very seldom seriously affects the order f words, which is determined by the written second consonant. not by the nasal sign. Words with a nasal group immediately follow those with a single or

'R'c ~

xx iii


doubled consonant, thus: H3

sata satta




e) nasalization Nasalization may be marked in the transcription, as -m, after all long vowels, after short vowels in unaccented syllables, or after accented short vowels before h :· [1] v. lt may be written in the Gurmukhi by either of the two nasal signs, typically as: ~

sarh [with !ippi]


sarh [with bindi]

Nasalization generally does not affect the metrical length of the syllable, and is marked only sometimes in the script, the signs themselves often being irregularly placed. In the transcription an historically justified -m is written where appropriate; it has been thought best to avoid graphically awkward placings of -m- between short vowels, so ium, bhaiim, rather than imu, bhamii. Nasalization, whether or not written in the·script, does not affect alphabetical order, thus:






bhirilti bhitiji


Transcription of words in etymologies. The usual system of transcribing Sanskrit words is followed. The only signs which do not appear in the durmukhi table above are:

Persian and Perso-Arabic words are transcribed according to the norms of Indo-Persian. The following additional signs are employed:

xx iv













t .i















Two further conventions may be noted:


when 'silent': post-consonantal:



v elsewhere omitted




Signs and abbreviations Signs

• t > < x

+ '! ?'!


hypothetical form not in Gurii Nanak (has) become (is) derived from contaminated or affected by extended by, used with is etymological doublet of doubtful very doubtful (Sanskrit) root

Numerals (in grammatical definitions) 1 first person 2 second person 3 .third person Superscript letters (after references and frequency-counts) a only as alliterative form d only in the Qakhal)i (South-Western) style [based on Sir.] r only· in rhyme s only in the Sahaskriti style [based on Sk. forms] t only in the Torki style [based on Pers.] General a. abs. adj. adv. ag. AG. anal. Ap. app.

ablative absolutive adjective, adjectival adverb, adverbial agent, agentive Adi Granth formed by analogy Apabhra~

apparently xxvii


Ar. Brj. BSOAS c. cf. cj. comm. d. denom. der. dim. dist. e.g. emph. encl. ep. equ. esp. ext. F. fp. freq. fs. fut. gen. ger. H. i.e. imp. impers. incl. ind.

Arabic Braj Bulletin of the School of Oriental and Ajrican Studies circa, about confer, compare conjunction commentaries direct case denominative derivative, derived form diminutive distinct, distinguished exempli gratia, for example emphatic enclitic epithet equivalent to especially extension, extended as feminine, feminine noun Farid feminine plural frequent, frequently feminine singular future genitive gerundive Hindi (Khari Boli) id est, that is imperative impersonal including indeclinable



inn. instr. int. intj. inv.

innected, innexion instrumental intensive, intensive compound interjection invariable


xx viii



I. lit. m. M2 met. MIA. mp. ms. neg. nom. num. o. on om. opp. p. P. P. poth. part. pass. pd. perh. Pers. Pk. pl. po. poss. pp. ppn. pr. pref. prepn. pres. prob. ptc. pv. q.v. Rj.

Kashmiri locative(-instrumental) literally masculine, masculine noun Guru Ailgad metathesis Middle Indo-Aryan masculine plural masculine singular negative nominative numeral oblique case onomatopoeic . opposite, opposed to plural Panjabi (Majhi standard) Panjabi (Pothohari dialect) particle passive plural direct perhaps Persian Prakrit plural locative plural oblique possessive past participle postposition pronoun prefix preposition present probably participle plural vocative quod vide, which see Rajasthani xx ix



s. sa. sd. sim. Sir. Sk. sl. so. suf. sv. syn. trad. Turk.

u. ult. usu. v. v.c. v.i. v.p. VS.

v.s. v.t.

singular Sindhi singular ablative singular direct similarly Siraiki (Multani) Sanskrit singular locative singular oblique suffix singular vocative synonym traditionally Turkish Urdu ultimately usually vocative causative verb intransitive verb passive verb versus substantive verb transitive verb



Table of references This explains the abbreviations used in references, and gives the corresponding page numbers of the Adi Granth. Numerical references are to complete hymns, stanzas (pau(i) or couplets (saloka), so AslO=Asa Ml 10; AsVlO=Asa ki vara MI, paiiri 10: AsVlO.l =Asa kivara Ml, paiiri 10,saloku Ml, l. Verse-numbers follow after a comma, but are cited only where necessary to avoid confusion. In the list of titles, as. =asa!apadiam, and ch. =chanta. Authorship is shown by the conventional sigla, i.e. Ml =Guru Nanak; M2=Guru Angad; M3 = Gurii Amar Das; M4 =Guru Ram Das; M5 =Guru Arjan. Compositions not by Gurii Nanak are marked with a dagger. As As A AsC Asf AsP AsSd AsSh AsSp AsV Ba BaA BgV Bh BhA Bl BIA BlC BIT BIV Oh DhA DhC DhSh DO Ga

Asa Ml l-39 Asa Ml as. l-22 Asa Ml ch. l-5 tAsa Sekha Pharida jiu ki ba~ l-2 Asa Ml paHi Asa Ml so daru 1-3 Asa Ml sohila 2 Asa M 1 so purakhu 3 Asa ki vara M 1 [tsaloka M2] Basantu M 1 1-3, 5- 7, 9-12 Basantu M 1 as. 1-8 Bihagare ki vara M4 [saloka Maradana, Ml] Bhairaii M 1 1-8 Bhairaii M 1 as. 1 Billivalu M 1 1-4 Billivalu M 1 as. 1-2 Bilavalu Ml ch. 1-2 Bilavalu M 1 thitirh Bilavala ki vara M4 [salo.ka Ml] Dhanasari Ml 1-9 Dhaniisari Ml as. 1-2 Dhaniisari M 1 ch. 1-3 Dhanasari Ml sohila 3 Ramakali Ml dakha~ oarhkiiru Gauri Ml 1-20

348-60 411-22 435-9 488 432-4 8~10

12-13 12 462-75 1168-72 1187-91 553, 556 1125-7 1153 795-6 831-2 843-4 838-40 854 66(}-3 685-6 687-9 13 929-38 151-7

xx xi


GaA Gae GaSh Gj GjA JP MjA MjV Ml MIA MIV Mr MrA MrS MrV Pr Pr A Ra RaA RaV Sa SaA SaV SG SI SIF SIS So SoA SoV Sr SrA SrP SrV Su SuA Sue

Gaiiri Ml as. 1-18 Gaiiri Ml ch. 1-2 Gaiiri M 1 sohilii 1 Giijari Ml 1-2 Giijari Ml as. 1-5 Japu Miijha MI as. I Miijha ki viira Ml [tsaloka M2, M3, M4] Malara Ml 1-9 Malara Ml as. 1-5 Malara ki vara Ml [tsaloka M2, M3, M5] Marii Ml 1-12 Miirii Ml as. 1-11 Miirii Ml solahe 1-22 Marii ki vara M3 [saloka Ml, tM2] Prabhiiti M I 1-9 Prabhati M 1 as. 1-7 Ramakali Ml 1-11 Ramakali M 1 as. 1-9 Riimakali ki viira M3 [saloka Ml, tM2] Siirarhga M 1 1-3 Siirarhga Ml as. 1-2 Siirarhga ki vara M4 [saloka Ml, tM2] Ramakali M 1 siddha gosati Saloka vararh te vadhika Ml 1-33 tSaloka Sekha Phaiida ke 1-130 Saloka sahasakriti M 1 1-4 Sora!hi Ml 1-12 Sora!hi M 1 as. 1-4 Soralhi ki viira M4 [saloka Ml, tM2] Sririigu Ml 1-33 Sririigu Ml as. 1-17, 28 Sririigu Ml pahare 1-2 Sririiga ki vara M4 [saloka Ml, tM2] Siihi Ml 1-9 Siihi Ml as. 1-5 Siihi Ml ch. 1-5

220-9 242-3 12 489 435-9 1-8 109

137-50 1254-7 1273-5 1278-91 989-93 1008-16 1020-43 1086-93 1327-32 1342-5 876-9 902-8 951-6 1197-8 1232-3 1236-46 938-46 1410-12 ·13i7-84 1353 595-9 634-7 642, 648, 653 14-26 53-64, 71-3 74-6 83-5, 89, 91 728-31 750-2 763-7



SuF tSiihi bliift Sekha Pharida Ji ki 1-2 SuK Siihi Ml kucajji 1-2 SuV Siihi ki vlira M3 [saloka Ml, tM2] Ti Tilanga Ml 1-S TiA Tilanga M 1 as. 1 TuB Tukhari M 1 ch. l birahamihli Tue Tukhliri M 1 ch. 2-6 VaQahansu Ml 1-3 Va VaA Va4ahansu Ml allihal}ilim 1-5 VaC Va4ahansu Ml ch. 1-2 VaV Va4ahansa ki vlira M4 [saloka Ml]

794 762-3 786--92 721-3 724-5 1107-10 1110-13 557-8 578-82

565-1 590, 594




@u 9H


usa (emph. usahi), pr. 'that, him'. 2. [usu. form of usu before ppn.]


usatti, v.t. 'throw, cast away'. 1. [ < 1890 utsma-] usatati, f. 'praise' ( + kari). 4. [for Sk. stuti-]


usatidu, m. 'teacher, guru'. 1. [Pers. ustad]


usanu, adj., m. 'hot; heat, hot season'. 1. [for Sk.


ussari, v.i. 'be built'. 1. (1874 utsarati: = OSARI] miri, v.t. 'build, construct'. 9. [1881 utsiirayati] usu, pr. 'that, him, for him'. 2. [972 asau: so. of *uhu, which does not




occur (but see OHU): related forms are so. USA; sl. UTA 2, UTU, UNI; po. UNHA, UNHA.M] uggavi, v.i. 'shoot, spring up, grow; rise (of the sun)'. 7. (1947



ugihi, f. 'evidence, witness' (+de). l. [Pers. gaviih"i: cf. tooAHU]

tugghap, v.i. 'open (of door)'. M2. (1968 *udgha{ati] uccari, v.t. 'utter, pronounce, recite'. 4. [1641 uccarati: = OCARI] ucci (ext. fsl.-ariai SuC3), adj. 'high; loud (of voice)'. 3. (1634 ucca-: =OMCA.]

ucii, v.t. 'raise, lift'. 1. [ < 1634 ucca- (Pk. ucciivei)] ucipati, f. 'goods taken on credit'. 1. [ < 1643 •ucciipyate?] uchihi~i, adj. 'merry', in kiiru miire kiilu uchiihiirii MrS6' 'death merrily strikes down the false'. 1'. [ext. of 1882 utsiiha-]

~rn ~Tf'a

ujjali (-u), adj. 'bright, clean, beautiful; white· (of hair)': mukhu ujjalu hoi 'face to be bright, i.e. be honoured, unsmirched'. 9. (1670 ujjvala-: = OJALU] ajja~, v.i. 'be uprooted, laid waste, ruined'. I. [1661 *ujjafati] ujiri, v.t. 'make (lamp) shine'. 1'. [1669 *ujjviirayati]


ujili, m. 'light, shining, dawn'. 2'. [1673 *ujjviilaka-:




~fnl>lw ~ _.,.


v.t. 'uproot, lay waste, ruin'. 1'. [1661 *ujjiifayati] ujiiri, m. 2'. [ = UJIALA]

ujiiilii, m. 'light, shining, dawn'. 2'. [1673 *ujjviilaka- ( x 386 andhakiira-): = UJALA, UJIARA] tujii, m. 'Muslim ritual ablution' ( + siiji). F. [Ar. vuiu]


ujjhari, v.i. 'be scattered, ruined, destroyed'. 1. [1675 •ujjharati] ujjha~. m. 'trackless country, wilderness' : sl. ujjhari as adv. 'astray', sim. ujjhara piii 2 MIV16 'having caused to go astray'. 7. [1660b •ujja!a- (with -jh- < 1674 ujjhati'?); =S. ojharu: = OJHA~u]

U!hii, v.t. 'lift, take up (burden)'. 2. (1903 •ut-sthiipayati:=VTHAL( u!hili, v.t. 'lift, raise: rouse (sleepers)'. 3. [ v.c. < UTfHt: = U'fHAI] U!Jhi (abs. also l!Hhi), v.i. 'rise, get up': uHhijiii, uHhi ca Iii 'get up and go, die, depart'. 31. [1900 •ut-sthiiti] u_,4ari, v.i. 'fly'. 3. [1_697 ul] u4ii, v.t. 'cause to fly; waste, squander'. 4. [1697 uf/f/iipayati] u~~i. v.i. 'fly, ny up, ny away' (int.

=Ut;>J?ARI, ODI)


+ jiii).

10. [1697 u44ayate:

adj. 'sad, fearful', in viifa hamiiri khari ut!iTJi SuFl. F'.

[ < 2001 •uddriiti 'flees'] uta 1, adv. 'there', only as ita uta 'everywhere'. 8. [see JATA] uta 2 (as emph. utahi), pr. 'that, in that, it,' by it'. 3. [=urn] uttaiagi, adj. 'tall, long-limbed', in uttangi paiohari Sil. 1. [1794 uttunga- 'lofty'] utapati, f. 'creation, birth, production'. 3. [Sk. utpatti-: cf. OPATI] utabhuju, m. 'creative power': in p. 'plants (which sprout from the earth): the vegetable kingdom, one of the four types of living creature'. 7. [for Sk. udbhijja-] uttamu, adj. 'high, exalted: excellent, best'. 6. [ 1765 (or ~k.) uttama-: =OTAMU)


~ ~rfu

93TQ' ~rfu

uttari (imp. 3s. -asu JP20), v.i. 'cross, pass over; alight, descend: be removed, come off. 13. [1770 uttarati] uttaru, m. 'answer', as uttaru de 'answer, account for, dismiss'. 3. [1767 uttara-] utiimhi, adv. 'upwards, up'. [uttamasmin: cf. tuTTAI] utiri, m. 'passage across, deliverance'; 5. [1791 uttiira-] utiri, v.t. 'take across, deliver: remove, get rid of. 10. (1770 uttarayati] utivali, adj. 'quick, swift'. l'. [1788 •uttiipala-] utu, pr. 'that, iii that'. 1. [ = UTA2: see usu] tuttai, ppn. 'on'. F. [uttamasmin: cf. UTAMHI]



~ uthipi, v.t. 'remove', only as thiipi uthapi 'establish and remove, create and destroy (of God)'. 11. (1904 •ut-sthapyate] udaku, m. 'water'. 2. [Sk. udaka-] udaru, m. 'belly; womb'. 5. [Sk. udara-] udisi (-ii, -u 1), adj. 'indifferent, turned away from the world, detached': m. 'yogi who is detached from the world'. 19. [Sk. udiisin-] udisu 2 , m. 'detachment'. 1 (RaV12.4'). [Sk. udiisa-] udiini, m. 'forest, jungle'. 4•. [Sk. udyiina- 'park'] udai, m. 'rising (of the sun)'. 1. [Sk. udaya-] udosihi, m., in udo,siihai Ida nisiiniSl29, comm. 'what is the mark of breathlessness?'. [2433 urdhvaAviisa- (cf. UBBHX) with ud- perh.