21st Century Manual of Style [Reprint ed.] 0440220742, 9780440220749

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21ST CENTURY REFERENCE

CENTURY MANUAL OF STYLE EASY-TO-USE A TO Z DICTIONARY FORMAT

UP-TO-DATE MODERN USAGE

UNIOUE USER-FRIENDLY DESIGN

COMPLETELY COMPREHENSIVE— FROM CAPITALIZATION AND HYPHENATION TO TRADEMARKS, FORMS OF ADDRESS, AND NAMES OF PLACES

Edited byThe Princeton Language Institute Barbara Ann Kipfer,Ph.D 7 Head Lexicographer A

U

DON'T MISS THESE OTHEI 21

ST

CENTURY REFERENCE

WORKS Now Available: 21st Century Dictionary of

Acronyms and Abbreviations 21st Century Dictionary of Slang 21st Century Guide to Pronunciation 21st Century Dictionary of

Computer Terms The American Heritage Dictionary Roget's 21st Century Thesaurus

The Dell Crossword Dictionary 21st Century Guide to Building

Your Vocabulary 21st Century Guide to Increasing

Your Reading Speed

And Look 21st Century

For:

Guide to

Improving Your Writing June 1995

21st Century Robert's Rules of Order

November 1995 REFERENCE BOOKS FOR TODAY...

AND TOMORROW |a< kel

Design

©

lac kel Illustration

Designed To

©

Painters

Print

Forum

Spelling? Capitalization? Hyphenation? Titles?

Symbols? Usage? Possessives? Numerals? Punctuation? Pluralization? Abbreviations? Proper

2 1st

From

Nouns?

CENTURY MANUAL OF STYLE

the prestigious Princeton

Language

Institute

and the renowned lexicog-

Ann Kipfer, Ph.D., comes this remarkably accessible reference for people who need fast, definitive answers to questions about style and usage. Whether you're a journalist who relies on a style manual daily or a firstrapher Barbara

time user, this authoritative, easy-to-understand handbook will relieve the

agonizing process of deciphering the dense guides currently available leave

you with more time

to

do what you need

to

do

.

.

.

write.

— and

-21STCENTURY

MANUAL OF STYLE

— 21STCENTURY

MANUAL OF STYLE EDITED BY

The Princeton Language Institute Bardara Ann

KipfER, Ph.D.,

Head Lexicographer d

PRODUCED BY THE

PHILIP LIEF GROUP, INC.

as in de-escalate or de-

emphasize, or

A

appearance.

when second word begins

prefix

bones.

debt

current.

de-

To remove

debris

Abbreviation for direct

D day DDT

preceding a name.

list

decal

Decalogue or decalogue

Capitalized, this

dead heat

refers to the

Ten Commandments.

dead

Lowercase, means basic

adjective.

letter

dead load

decathlon

dead-on

deceased

dead

As noun

and singular.

set

45

in

rules.

both plural

understood. (Compare

Proper, suitable (Compare

decent

deductible.)

descent.) deci-

One-tenth. (Compare deca-

decibel or

decidua;

db or dB "to

Literally,

deductible every

kill

(Compare deducible.)

An

deduction

inference,

understanding by general

proportion of something.

deck chair

principle.

deckhand deckhouse

Compounds beginning with

deep-

deep- are often hyphenated, as

A

declarant

foreign person

who

fry, deep-sea, deep-seated, deep-

(Compare declarer.)

set.

Compounds

Declaration of Independence

A

person

who makes

(noun), deep space, deep structure.

Compounds ending

-deep

Low-cut clothing.

knee-deep).

Deep South

Attired in strapless or

low-cut clothing. (Compare

deer; pi., deer or deers

decolletage.)

deerskin

decor or decor decoration

def.

Capitalize the

names of

Abbreviation for definite,

definition.

decorations, medals, or awards

de facto

given by a government (e.g.,

defective

Ornamental. (Compare

defer

decorous.)

To

deficient.)

allow someone else to go

deferential or deferent

correct,

honorable. (Compare decorative.)

deferrable

decoupage or decoupage

deficient

decrepit

Lacking. (Compare

defective.)

decrescendo;

To

pi.,

decrescendos

definite

To

definitive

definitive.)

Complete, perfect,

(Compare

figure out, infer.

(Compare deduct, educe.) deducible

Certain, precise, decided.

(Compare

voice strong disapproval.

(Compare descry.)

deduce

Having imperfections.

ahead.

Good,

decorous

in reality; actually.

(Compare

Purple Heart). decorative

in -deep

are usually hyphenated (e.g.,

(Compare decollete.) decollete

two

freeze, deep fryer, deep six

(Compare

declarant.)

decolletage

written as

words include deep fat, deep

a

statement, especially a card player calling trump.

in

deep-dish pie, deep-freeze, deep-

states desire for citizenship.

decry

away.

Possible as a

subtraction.

tenth person" or to destroy a large

declarer

subtract, take

(Compare deduce.)

deciduae

pi.,

decimate

To

deduct

)

final.

definite.)

Defoe, Daniel

(1660-1731)

English journalist and novelist.

Possible to be

46

Degas, Edgar

(1

834- 1917) French

political party.

Compounds

dehydr- and dehydro-

word

are written as one

to

government

of social equality,

demode or demoded demographics As noun.

(e.g.,

dehydrator).

To

of the

Lowercase

indicate a believer in

degree-day

de-ice

A member

Democrat

Impressionist painter.

demonic or demoniac

melt frozen material.

demo

deign

demonstration or

deity;/?/., deities

demur, demurred To object or hesitate to do something.

deja vu

de jure delay

By right. To postpone

(Compare demure.)

demure

the start or

Capitalize only

delegate a formal

title

if

dengue

part of

preceding a name.

denizen

denote

delegate at large

Capitalized

when

dentifrice

denunciation

referring to the variety of apple.

department

delinquent

delirium tremens or Delirium

noun

d.t.'s or

Capitalize

if

part of

dependence or dependance

dependency

part of proper

dependent or dependant

River

depilate; depilatory

Delta).

A

mental state based on

deposit slip

depositary

false belief.

A

person

who

holds a

valuable for someone. (Compare

delusive or delusory

deluxe

depository.)

demagogue or demagog demagoguery or demagogy demarche demeanor demi-

if

Department).

DTs

(e.g., the Mississippi

delusion

Capitalize

proper noun (e.g., U.S. State

deliquesce; deliquescent

Tremens or

signify, indicate.

denouement or denouement

delicatessen or deli

delta

To

(Compare connote.)

delft or delftware

delicious

Quiet and modest.

(Compare demur.)

continuation of something.

A

prefix

meaning

depository

less than usual in size or

person or place for

depository.)

depot

Capitalize

if

part of proper

noun.

half, or

power.

Compounds with "demi-"

A

holding valuables. (Compare

deprecate

To

mildly disapprove.

(Compare depreciate.)

are

formed as one word: demigod,

depreciate

demijohn.

To lower

in

value or

believe to have lower value.

demitasse

(Compare deprecate.)

democracy

dept.

47

Abbreviation for department.

desperado;/?/., desperadoes

depth charge

deputy title

derby;

Capitalize

part of formal

if

anxious; filled with despair.

preceding a name,

Capitalize (e.g.,

A

derbies

pi.,

if

Without hope and very

desperate

depth perception

A

dessert

horse race.

part of proper

course consisting of

sweetened food

noun

Kentucky Derby).

dessert fork

derby hat or derby

dessert knife

de rigueur

dessert wine

Proper, suitable for the

occasion.

Ridiculous.

(Compare

dessertspoon

The

desuetude

Abbreviation for derivative.

familiar custom

with this prefix, which means skin, are not

hyphenated

of being no

had fallen

into

desuetude).

(e.g.,

desultory

dermatitis).

detente

The

dernier cri

state

longer in use (e.g., The once-

Words formed

dermat-, dermato-

latest thing.

determiner or determinator

derriere or derriere

Rene

Descartes,

(Compared

desert, dessert.)

derisive.)

deriv.

reward or punishment

that is fairly deserved.

derisory.)

derisory

A

desserts

(Compare

Scornful.

derisive

that follows a

meal. (Compare desert, desserts.)

detonatable or detonable

(1596-1650) detritus; p/., detritus

French mathematician and

deuces wild

philosopher.

deus ex machina

descendant or descendent descent

Derivation, or

descry

To

this prefix are not

or

DM A unit of German

currency.

(Compare desserts,

device

dessert.)

desideratum;

pi.,

devil

desiderata

Compounds ending

-designate

for.

mechanical thing.

Lowercase unless referring

the devil of the Bible, Satan.

in

devil's advocate

-designate are usually hyphenated.

Wished

A

(Compare devise.)

deshabille or dishabille

devil's food

(Compare

cake

devil-may-care

desirous.)

desirous

hyphenated.

Deuteronomy deutschemark or Deutsche mark

Desolate, arid geographical

desirable

meaning second

Words formed with

discover, detect.

desecrater or desecrator

region.

prefix

or secondary.

(Compare decry.) desert

A

deutero-

moving

downward. (Compare decent.)

devilry or deviltry

Wishful in thinking.

devise

(Compare desirable.)

To

formulate, invent.

(Compare device.)

desktop

48

to

A

deviser

person

formulates.

A

devisor

who

person

who

Abbreviation for diagonal;

diag.

invents,

diagram.

(Compare devisor.)

diagnosis;/?/., diagnoses

leaves

property in a will. (Compare

diagnostic or diagnostical

deviser.)

diagram, diagramed or

diagrammed

Duty. (Compare devour.)

devoir

dial, dialed

devotee

To

devour

dial.

eat voraciously.

(Compare devoir.)

or dialled

Abbreviation for dialect,

dialectical.

dewdrop

dialectical or dialectic or dialectal

dewfall

dialogue or dialog

dew

dial tone

point

dexterous or dextrous dextr-, dextro-

A

dialysis; pi., dialyses

prefix

toward or on the right-hand

Words formed with

diam. or dia.

meaning

diametric or diametrical

this prefix are

diamond

not hyphenated.

dharma di-

Words formed with

rough

diaphragm

this prefix,

diarrhea

"double," are not hyphenated:

diary

A

personal journal.

(Compare dairy.)

diatomic.

prefixes,

in the

diaper

which means "two of" or

dia-, di-

Abbreviation for

diameter.

side.

Words formed with these which mean "through"

dichotomy Dickens, Charles

(1812-1870)

or "across," are not hyphenated:

English novelist. Author of Great

diaphonic.

Expectations and

diabolic or diabolical

marks

a letter or symbol to

show

Dickinson, Emily

American

its

pronunciation or to otherwise it.

They include

diet.

(£).

macron

(e),

trademark name for

other documents.

dictum;

smorgasbord, facade. (See

also accent

A

purpose of typing transcripts and

in

borrowed from foreign languages

pi.,

dicta or dictums

did not or didn't

marks.)

diaeresis or dieresis; pi.

dido; pi ., didoes ,

830- 1 886)

words and plays them back for the

and breve

Marks may be omitted only

( 1

poet.

a machine that records spoken

commonly used English words like

pi.,

Abbreviation for dictionary.

Dictaphone

the

diaeresis or umlaut (u), tilde (n), cedilla (9),

Two

dickeys or dickies

Marks,

including accent marks, added to

distinguish

Tale of

dickey or dicky or dickie;

diacritical or diacritic

diacritical

A

Cities.

diaereses

die; pi.

or diereses

,

die-cast

49

dice or dies

die-cut

dinosaur

As noun. die-hard As adjective.

diphtheria

diehard

A

diphthong

vowel combination

within a single syllable that

diesel engine diesel-electric

indicates a speech

dietitian or dietician

glides

diff.

or

vowel sound, as

Abbreviation for

dif.

word joy. The

difference, different.

differentia; pi.

,

second

oy of the

adjective

is

The abbreviation

diploma

is dipl.

or dpi. or dip.

dilapidated

A

diplomat

dilatory

dilemma

person representing a

country in foreign affairs.

dilettante; pi.

,

(Compare diplomate.) Do not

dilettantes or

capitalize.

dilettanti dill

in the

that

to a

diphthongal.

differentiae

dug

dig,

sound

from one vowel

A

diplomate

pickle

person

who

passes

professional schooling and exams.

dillydally

(Compare diplomat.)

diluter or dilutor diluvial or diluvian

dipstick

dim.

diptych

Abbreviation for diminutive;

diminished; dimension.

Abbreviation for director.

dir.

diminuendo;/?/., diminuendos

Do

directions

word

dimwit

not capitalize a

indicating direction or

dim-witted

position

diner-out; pi., diners-out

capitalize only if a term denotes a

Diners Club

definite region, locality, or

Dinesen, Isak author.

(1

885- 1 962) Danish

East, but eastern).

director

formal

ding-a-ling

dingbat

Capitalize title

of

dirigible

pi.,

dinghies

dirndl

dining car

dirt bike

dining hall

dirt-cheap

room

dinner-

if part

preceding a name.

director's chair

dingdong

dining

not a proper noun;

geographical feature (e.g., the

Wrote Out of Africa.

dinette

dinghy;

if it is

dirt-poor

Compounds formed with

dirt

dinner that are written as two

words include dinner

bell,

road

dirty pool

dinner

dirty trick

dance, dinner jacket, dinner hour.

dirty

dinnertime

dirty

dinnerware

dis-

50

word work Words beginning with

the

which means "not,"

prefix dis-,

dishcloth, dishpan, dishrack,

dishrag, dishboard, dishwasher,

"opposite," or "excluding," are usually spelled without a

hyphen

dishwater, dishware, dishwashing. dishabille or deshabille

(e.g., disadvantageous).

disassociate or dissociate

dishevel, disheveled or dishevelled

disaster area

dish towel

disastrous

disinterested

disbar, disbarred

A

disbeliever to hold

person

who

something as

refuses

Short form for

disk or disc

true.

Not prejudiced or

(Compare uninterested.)

biased.

diskette.

(Compare unbeliever.)

A

diskette or floppy disk

thin

discernible or discernable

plate covered with magnetic

disciple

material used for recording and

disc jockey or disk jockey or

deejay or

storing

DJ

discombobulate

To

discomfit

data.

dislodgment or dislodgement

frustrate.

(Compare

disorient or disorientate

discomfort.)

disparate

discomfiture

Distinct, separate.

(Compare divers, diverse.)

To make

discomfort

computer

dislikable or dislikeable

uneasy, not

dispel, dispelled

comfortable. (Compare

disproved or disproven

discomfit.)

discontent or discontented

dissemble

discotheque or disco disseminate discount store

To

discover

A

dissent find something that

difference of opinion (as

noun) or to voice disagreement already exists.

with the majority (as verb). Careful, prudent,

discreet

secretive.

discrete

(Compare

diss, (e.g.,

Individually distinct.

dist.

discus; pi., discuses

distend

Capitalize only a proper

name

in the

(e.g.,

Alzheimer's disease,

German

,

district.

distaffs

To

stretch, extend,

distension or distention distill

measles, Parkinson's

or

distil, distilled

Separate, notable.

distinct

disease).

distinctive

Stylishly different.

distingul

disenthrall or disenthral

Compounds formed with

dish- as

is

(See also

expand.

a disease

disease; but measles, heart

dish-

diss.).

Abbreviation for

distaff; pi

discussable or discussible

name of

Ph.D.

Part 2, Titles of works.)

(Compare discreet.)

disease

The abbreviation

dissertation discrete.)

distrait

one word include

Absent-minded. (Compare

distraught.)

51

distraught

Very upset. (Compare

if

Capitalize only

preceding a

title

(e.g., District

ditty

bag

policy (e.g.,

Monroe

docudrama document title

Doctrine).

(See Part 2, Titles

of works.)

dodo;

dodoes or dodos

pi.,

doe;p/., does or doe

(Compare nocturnal.)

Compounds with -doer

-doer

Abbreviation for division or

usually written as one

divorced. dive, dived or

word

are (e.g.,

evildoer).

dove

does not or doesn't

dive-bomb divers

name of

a specific statement of government

occurring or active during the day.

div.

policy,

only as part of the formal

Attorney Peter

Happening daily or

diurnal

Government

principle, or position. Capitalized

name

ditchdigger

mark

(Compare

doctrinaire.)

doctrine

if part

Stinton).

ditto

do with

to

principles, beliefs.

district attorney; pi., district

attorneys

Having

doctrinal

part of

proper noun: District of Columbia.

of formal

dictatorial.

(Compare doctrinal.)

Capitalize only

district

Dogmatic,

doctrinaire

distrait.)

Several, various.

dog-

(Compare

Compounds formed with dog-

that are

two words include dog

disparate, diverse.)

paddle (noun), dog show, dog diverse

Differing, unlike. tag,

dog

biscuit,

dog

collar,

(Compare disparate, divers.) days. Capitalize only

divide

if

part of

dog and pony show

proper noun (e.g., the Continental

dogcatcher

Divide).

divine

dog-eared

Capitalize

when used

in the

dogface

theological sense referring to a

supreme being

(e.g.,

dogfight

Divine

doggerel

Host).

doggie bag or doggy bag

diving board

doggone or doggoned

D-major do;

pi.,

do.

doggy or doggie;

dos or do's

Abbreviation for ditto, "the

do-gooder

same."

Doberman pinscher

dog-tired

docile

dock-

doily;/?/., doilies

Compounds

one word

pi.

,

doggies

dogmatic or dogmatical

are written as

do-it-yourself

(e.g., dockside).

dolce vita

docket

dollar sign

doctor or Dr.

dollhouse

52

dog

dolman

double-digit, double-edged,

sleeve

domicile

double-faced, double-jointed,

dominion Capitalize only if part of proper noun (e.g., Dominion of

double-park, double-quick, double-ring, double-space, double-talk, double-team, double-

Canada).

domino;

dominoes or dominos

pi.,

time (verb).

donnee;/?/

,

double entendre;

donnees

Donne, John

Most

A

entendres

(1572-1631) British

others are

two words.

written as

doneness

pi.,

double

word or phrase

having two intended meanings.

Metaphysical poet.

donnybrook donor or donator

doubleheader

do not or don't

doublespeak

do-nothing

doublethink

doohickey

double take

doomsday door- Compound words formed

double-talk

double knit

with door- are usually written as

As noun. doughnut or donut

one word. Exceptions includes

doughty

door

lock,

double time

Fearless, valiant.

(Compare dowdy.)

door key, door chain,

Douglass, Frederick

and door prize.

American

do-or-die

(1

8 1 7- 1 895)

abolitionist.

door prize

dour

door-to-door

dovetail

dopey or dopy

Dow-Jones average dowdy Frumpy or old-fashioned.

Doppler dory

A

effect

(Compare doughty.)

type of small boat.

dowel

do's-and-don'ts do-si-do;

/>/.,

A

small

wooden rod or

stick

used for connecting.

do-si-dos

down-

dossier

Dostoyevsky, Fyodor

(1821-1881) Russian

Humorless, grim.

Many compounds

beginning

with down- are written as one

word, including downfield,

novelist.

Author of Crime and Punishment

downgrade, downhill, downplay,

and The Brothers Karamazov.

downright, downshift, downside,

dotted swiss

double-

downsized, downstairs, downfall,

Compounds formed with

downtrodden.

-down

double- are often hyphenated:

Compounds

(nouns,

adjectives) with this ending are

double-barrel, double-breasted,

double-check (verb), double-

usually written as one

chinned, double-cross (verb),

shakedown).

word

double-dealer, double-dealing,

down-and-out

double-deck, double-decker,

down-easter or Down-Easter

5J

(e.g.,

down-home

dress rehearsal

downlink

dress shield

download down payment

dress uniform

downsize

dried-up

Down's syndrome or mongolism

drier or dryer

dress shirt

Appliance for

taking wetness out of clothing.

down-the-line

down-to-earth

driftwood

down under

drink, drunk or drank

As adverb. Down Under The region Australia and

downward

or

New

drip-dry

including

drive, drove

Zealand.

downwards

As both

drive-in

doyen

drivel, driveled or drivelled

Doyle, Sir Arthur

Conan

drive shaft

(1858-1930) British author of The

driver's license

Adventures of Sherlock Holmes.

driver's seat

doz.

adjective and

noun

doxology

The abbreviation

DPAHC

for dozen

drivetrain

driveway

Abbreviation for durable

power of attorney for health drachma; pi. drachmas or drachma! or drachmae A

driving range

care.

Compounds formed with

drop-

,

drop- spelled as two words

unit

of Greek currency.

include drop cloth, drop curtain

draft age

drop front, drop

draft beer

drop

seat,

leaf,

drop pass,

drop shot.

As adjective. As noun. dropkick As noun. drop-kick As verb. drop-off As noun. dropout As noun. drop-dead

draftee

drop-in

dragonfly

drag race drainpipe

dramatis personae

Latin,

meaning

the cast of characters.

drape; drapabie or drapeable

drought

draw, drew

drudgery;/?/., drudgeries

drawing board

drugstore

drawing room

druid or Druid

drawstring

drum major

dream, dreamed or dreamt

drunk As noun. drunken or drunk

dreamworld

Drunken

dress circle

dressing

room

is

As

adjective.

the modifier used

before a noun.

dressing-down

drunkenness

dressmaker

dry-

54

Compounds formed with

dry-

dumbfound or dumfound

hyphenated include dry-

that are

clean, dry -dock (verb), dry -eyed,

dumbwaiter

dry-nurse (verb), dry-rot (verb).

dumdum A

dry cleaning

dumdum A

As noun. dry-dock As verb.

dump

dry dock dry

duo;

drywall

duo-

"two")

duel.)

W.

E. B.

(1868-1963)

duplex

NAACP.

dust bowl dust devil

call

duckfooted

dust jacket

duckpond duck soup duckwalk dudgeon due process

dust

mop

dust storm

Dutch elm disease Dutch oven dutch treat As adverb. Dutch treat As noun.

formal contest between two

Obedient. (Compare

duteous

people. (Compare dual.)

dueled or duelled

dutiable, dutiful.)

duet duffel

Responsible. (Compare

dutiable

bag

duteous, dutiful.)

duffle coat or duffel coat

dujour

French,

literally

day" or "today's"

dutiful

"of the

(e.g.,

soup du

duty-free dwell, dwelt or dwelled

DWI

In a bland manner.

(Compare duly.)

Abbreviation for driving

while intoxicated.

DUI

In a proper manner.

(Compare dully.)

Abbreviation for driving

under the influence (of alcohol or

Dumas, Alexandre, pere

(Compare duteous,

dutiable)

jour).

duly

Motivated to be

responsible.

dull-witted dully

Abbreviation for

duplicate.

American educator. Creator of

A

the

are written as one word.

dupl. or dup.

dual-purpose Bois,

duos Words formed with

pi.,

combining form duo- (meaning

Double, two. (Compare

duel

878-1927)

dunk shot

dry sink

duck

(1

American avante-garde dancer.

dry rot

Du

stupid person.

truck

Duncan, Isadora

mop

dual

type of bullet.

(Compare dum-dum.)

dry-cleanable

another substance that causes

(1802-1870) French

impairment).

dye, dyeing

author.

dumbbell

To change

of something.

55

the color

dyed-in-the-wool

Words formed with

dyestuff

not hyphenated (e.g., dyslexia,

dynamo;

pi.

,

dynamos

dyspepsia).

dysentery

dynasty dys-

this prefix are

Abnormal or malfunctioning.

dysfunction or disfunction

56

eau de cologne;

pi.,

eaux de

cologne eau-de-vie; pi., eaux-de- vie

Abbreviation for each.

ea.

eavesdrop

eagle eye

Thomas

Eakins,

American

ebb

(1844-1916)

eccentric

Most compound words formed

ear-

tide

ebullient; ebullience

realist painter.

with ear- are written as one word

ecclesiastical or ecclesiastic

(e.g., earmark).

echelon

Earhart, Amelia

American

echo; pi ., echoes

(1897-1937)

eclair

aviator.

eclat

early bird

earned run average or

Earth

Capitalize

ERA

when

eclectic

economic

referred to

good bargain;

Most compound words

ecru

Associated with physical

ecstatic

(Compare earthy.)

meaning "outside,

Simple or natural.

-ectomy

easel

Capitalize

if

Suffix

naming

eczema

entity rather than a general

ed.; pi., eds.

editions.

Eastern Hemisphere).

or

is

A

person

Edam who

eddy;

lives in

edema;

States.

As

pi.,

edemas or edemata

Eden As

edgeways or edgewise

adverb.

Edison,

easygoing

mark

A

Thomas Alva

(1847-1931) American inventor

eat, ate, eaten

eatery

eddies

edematous

adjective, adverb,

noun.

eastwards

easy

cheese pi.,

edelweiss

from the eastern United

eastward

Abbreviation for

editor/edition; plural, editors/

Middle East,

Easter, Eastertide

Easterner

meaning " surgical

procedure."

a specific part of a geographic

direction (e.g.,

external'*

pregnancy).

(e.g., ectopic

(Compare earthly.) east, eastern

Combining form

ect-, ecto-

earth science

earthy

(Compare

eco-rich

one word: earthworm.

life.

thrifty.

economic.)

formed with earth- are written as

earthly

Careful with money; a

economical

as ground/dirt.

earth-

Concerning finance.

(Compare economical.)

as astronomical body, lowercase

of telegraph, phonograph, and

place to eat, a restaurant.

electric

57

lamp.

editor in chief

formal

EDT

title

Capitalize

if

part of

French, meaning

egalitl 4

preceding a name.

'equality."

egg beater

or E.D.T. or e.d.t.

Abbreviation for eastern daylight

egg cream

time.

eggcup Capable of being taught.

educable

eggnog

(Compare educated.)

eggplant

Learned, knowledgeable.

educated

egg

(Compare educable.)

To

educe

(Compare deduce.)

EEG

roll

eggs Benedict

figure out, deduce.

eggshell

egomaniac

Abbreviation for

electroencephalogram or

egotism or egoism

electroencephalograph

egotist or egoist

.

egotistical or egotistic

eerie or eery

As

effect

a noun, means the result

ego trip

of influence or an

egret

accomplishment.

ei

As

effect

a verb, means to bring

(Compare

Eiffel,

Designed framework for the Statue of Liberty and the Eiffel

Conducting from or

tower.

outward. Used especially in relation to

body

eight ball

eighth

parts or organs.

(Compare afferent.)

eighty Einstein, Albert

effete

efficacious

Having the power

American

to

produce a desired impact.

(Compare efficient

Productive of desired

(Compare

adjective (e.g.,

ejection seat

eke, eking

EKG

Moving away from,

Abbreviation for

electrocardiogram or

flowing out.

electrocardiograph

effluvium; pi., effluvia Abbreviation meaning exempli

gratia,

As

either-or proposition).

efficacious.)

effluent

(1879-1955)

physicist, developed

theory of relativity.

either-or

efficient.)

effect without waste.

e.g.

Alexandre-Gustave

(1832-1923) French engineer.

effectual.)

impact. (Compare effective.) efferent

y

neighbor and weigh.

Producing the desired

effectual

and ie / before e except after c when sounded like ay as in

eiderdown

affect.)

Having an impact.

effective

As noun. heron.

or

about, cause, accomplish.

(Compare

A

elbow grease

M for example." Always

elbowroom

preceeded by a comma.

elder, eldest

58

an

elec.

Abbreviation for

or elect.

12, that

elicit

electricity, electrified.

Compounds ending

-elect

e/ementary school

is,

through high school.

electric, electrical, electrician,

To draw

which indicates a person who has

poet and

been elected but has not

Waste Land.

officially

taken office, are hyphenated (e.g.,

elite

governor-elect).

ellipse

Election

Day

or election day

elude

electric or electrical

Oval or closed plane

Compounds with

for combinations that

To

Emancipation Proclamation

embargo;

would

but electro-optics, electro-

embarrass embassy;

Using or working with

if

A

pi., embryos embryo sac emend To improve or

embryo;

computerized communication

system with an extensive network.

The branch of physics

electronic devices.

document or

and

(Compare

A

emerge

emery board emetic

fundamental. (Compare

emigrant

elemental.)

little

elhi

time

A

country to

person

settle

emigre or emigre

el

Near the end; with

reasons.

left.

A

person

who

(Compare emigrant,

immigrant.) 1

leaves a

leaves a country for political

elves

Concerning grades

who

elsewhere.

(Compare emigre, immigrant.)

elevated railroad or elevated

elf;/?/.,

of something.

emeriti

(1803-1882) American

Basic, introductory,

eleventh hour

rise out

pi.,

Transcendental essayist and poet.

(Compare elementary.)

railway or

(Compare

Emerson, Ralph Waldo

(Compare eulogy.)

Primal, integral.

elementary

To

emeritus;

mournful poem, often for

elemental

text

amend),

electronic.)

a dead person.

correct.

Usually used in reference to a

electroshock therapy elegy

Capitalize

emblematic or emblematical

(Compare electronics.)

that is involved with electrons

embassies

pi.,

part of proper noun.

embed

electrons, particles with negative

electronic mail or e-mail

embargoes

pi.,

embark

,

osmosis).

electronics

escape, avoid. (Compare

eluvial

electro-

double the o (e.g., electrolysis

electricity.

figure.

illude.)

are written as one word, except

electronic

Author of The

elopement

electoral college

electro-

critic.

ellipsoid or ellipsoidal

Optional.

elective

out, derive.

(1888-1965) British

Eliot, T. S.

in -elect,

eminent domain

through

59

(Compare immanent,

important.

end

imminent.)

line

end point

pi

end run

Emmys

.

end table

Soothing, something that

emollient

end zone

(Compare emolument.)

soothes.

emolument

end-all

Compensation, perks

endemic

from employment. (Compare

Local, native. (Compare

epidemic.)

emollient.)

endgame

emote

endmost

empathic or empathetic

emperor

Capitalize as formal

emphasis;

pi.,

which means within or written as

emphases

one word

endo-, inner, are

(e.g.,

endocrine).

emphysema

endpaper

empirical or empiric

endways or endwise enema; pi., enemas or enemata enervate To unnerve, make lose momentum. (Compare innervate.)

employee

emporium; pL, emporiums or emporia emprise pi.,

Compounds with

endo-

title

preceding a name,

empty;

British spelling

encyclopaedia.

is

emissary

Emmy;

The

encyclopedia

Outstanding, prominent,

eminent

empties

enfant terrible;

As noun.

pi.

,

enfants

terribles

empty-handed

enfold

empty-headed

eng. or engin.

empyrean

Abbreviation for

engineering.

emulsifiable or emulsible

enact

Laws

are enacted.

Eng.

(Compare

Abbreviation for English.

A

engine

adopt, approve, pass.)

enamel, enameled or enamelled

enamelware

its

England. (Compare Briton,

enamor

British, Britisher.)

en brochette

English muffin

enceinte

engr.

encephalitis

Abbreviation for engineer.

enigmatic or enigmatical

encephalogram

enjoin

enchilada

en masse

encircle

enmesh

enclave

enmity

encore ency. or encyc.

device that develops

own power. (Compare motor.) English As noun, people native

As a group.

ennui Abbreviation for

enroll or enrol

en route

encyclopedia.

60

On

the way.

to

ensconce

eon or aeon

ensemble

EPA

To make

ensure

Use

certain; guarantee.

(Compare insure.)

only after

in text

has been used on

entente

full

first

name

reference.

epaulet or epaulette

Compounds formed with

entero-

which means

entero-,

are written as

epee

intestine,

one word

epexegesis; pi, epexegeses

(e.g.,

ephemeral

enterotoxemia).

ephemeron;/?/., ephemera

enthrall or enthral

epi-

Designated, given a right.

entitled

Means

entomology insects.

Compounds with

epi-,

which

can mean on, over, outside,

the study of

besides or among, are written as

(Compare etiology,

one word

etymology.)

(e.g., epicenter,

epidermis).

entourage

Rampant

epidemic

entranceway

as a condition.

(Compare endemic.)

entree or entree

epigean or epigeic or epigeous

entrepot

epilepsy

entrepreneur entry

Abbreviation for

Environmental Protection Agency.

ensign

epilogue or epilog

word or headword

Of

episcopal

or governed by

enumerable bishops. Capitalize as the

enumerate enunciate

religious denomination.

To

say clearly or

make episodic or episodical

explicit.

The

epitaph

As verb. envelope As noun. environ To surround. (Compare

inscription

on a

envelop

grave.

epitome

eponym

regard in a certain

To

Epsom eq.

or other piece of literature.

A

named

whom

(e.g.,

The is

salts

or

Epsom

salt

Abbreviations for equipment.

equal, equaled or equalled

equal-opportunity employer

delegate, representative.

Equal Rights Amendment or

(Compare envoi.)

EOF

is

eqpt. or equip, or equipt. or

Explanatory remarks for a

(Compare envoy.) envoy

summary.

Huckleberry Finn.)

(Compare envisage.)

poem

short

person for

eponymous hero of the book

formulate in one's

mind, to mentally picture.

envoi

A A

something

way. (Compare envision.) envision

someone or

something. (Compare epitaph.)

One's location,

To

word or phrase

characterizing

surrounding. (Compare environ.)

envisage

A

epithet

environs.)

environs

(Compare epithet.)

ERA A

Abbreviation for end of file.

61

proposed amendment to

the U.S. Constitution outlawing

escapee or escaper

discrimination on the basis of sex.

escargot

equal sign

equator pi.

equerries

,

A

equestrian

person

(Compare escargot.)

who

rides

eschew

horses.

escutcheon

Compounds with

equi-,

Eskimo;

which means equal, are written as one word

(e.g., equidistant,

equilibrium;

few; private. (Compare exoteric.)

equilibriums or

pi.,

esp

Things that are esoteric.

Abbreviation for espressivo,

4 *

Abbreviation for equivalent,

with expression.**

ESP

equivalency.

Abbreviation for extrasensory

perception.

Questionable,

Abbreviation for especial,

esp.

undecided.

ergo

Eskimos

,

Understood by a special

esoterica

equilibria

equivocal

pi.

esoteric

equilateral).

equiv.

edible variety of

The herb endive.

escarole

equerry;

equi-

An

(Compare escarole.)

snail.

especially.

Therefore.

ergonomics or

espadrille

human

Synonyms

especial, especially

for

Study of the

engineering

special, specially.

interaction

between humans and

their tools

and environment and

Esperanto espionage

the enhancing of that interaction

esplanade

by design and arrangement. espresso; pi., espressos

erodible or erosible esprit

erogenous

de corps

French; team

Sexually sensitive. spirit.

erotic

Esq.

eroticize

erratic

common erroneous

Errata

is

essence

form.

essential

EST

A

spirit

of something.

essential.)

Absolutely necessary.

(Compare essence.)

(in the

past).

eruption

The

(Compare

Wrong. At one time

try out, attempt.

(Compare assay.)

the

ersatz

erstwhile

To

essay

errata

name of

and justices of the peace.

Ever-changing, not

pi.,

last

lawyers, architects, court clerks,

reliable.

erratum;

Abbreviation for esquire,

used after the

Wayward, wandering. (Compare arrant.)

errant

or E.S.T. or

e.s.t.

Abbreviation for eastern standard

burst outward.

(Compare irruption.)

time.

escape artist

est.

escape mechanism

or estab.

Abbreviations for

establish, establishment.

62

est.

history. Abbreviation is ety.

Abbreviations for

or estd.

(Compare entymology, etiology.)

estimated.

establishment

etymon

when

Capitalize

referring to a preeminent group or

eucalyptus;

a bureaucracy.

Eucharist

est'd

euclidean or euclidian

To spend

the

the

of hereditary factors.

summer.

eunuch

Abbreviation

e.t.

Abbreviation for et

aliae or et alia,

offensive or upsetting.

meaning "and

word

word considered (Compare

euphuism.)

et cetera or etc.

forth." Etcetera

euphony Pleasing sound. euphuism Elegant literary

Meaning "and so is

the noun.

artificial

Abbreviation for et

"and

sequentia,

ETA

less direct

substituting for a

or et

alii

others."

et seq.

A

euphemism

for eastern time. et ai.

speech given in honor of

a dead person. (Compare elegy.)

estrus or estrum

or E.T. or

A

eulogy

(Compare hibernate.)

ET

The study of improving human species through control

eugenics

Variants

of words formed with aesthet-. estivate

eucalyptuses

euchre

Contraction for established.

esthete; esthetic; esthetician;

estheticism; esthetics

pi.,

style or

elegance in language use.

(Compare euphemism.)

the following."

Eurasian Abbreviation for estimated

A

person of European

and Asian descent. time of arrival.

eureka

etagere or etagere

Eurodollar ether

The strong

liquid used as

European plan

Hotel or inn

anesthetic.

ethic

A

service that does not include a specific set of

(Compare

principles.

moral

meal (or meals)

ethics.)

ethical or ethic; ethically

ethics

eurythmic or eurhythmic

Moral principles generally.

(Compare

eustachian tube

ethics.)

euthanasia

ethyl alcohol

evacuee

ethylene glycol etiology

The study of

disease.

Evangelical the causes of

evaporated milk

(Compare entomology,

eve

etymology.)

Capitalize

noun

even break

Eton collar

evenhanded

Eton jacket

even keel

etude

even money

The study of word

evenness

6?

if

(e.g., All

etiquette

etymology

in the daily rate.

(Compare American plan.)

part of proper

Hallows' Eve).

As noun.

a boundary

or surpass. (Compare accede.)

evensong

To an extreme

exceedingly

even-steven

degree.

(Compare excessively.)

even-tempered

excel, excelled

eventide ever-

To go beyond

exceed

even-numbered

excellence

Compounds formed with

(Compare

Superiority.

excellency.)

ever- are hyphenated if used to

excellency

describe a noun (e.g., an ever-

Dignitary.

(Compare

excellence.) Capitalize

vigilant mother).

everglade

evergreen

Her Excellency Queen

everyday

Happening

A

accept.)

exceptionable

pronoun meaning

exceptional

(Compare

excerpt; excerpter or excerptor

Each and every person

excessively

(Compare everyone,)

every so often

Superior.

exceptionable.)

every one.)

involved.

Objectionable.

(Compare exceptional.)

people as a whole. (Compare

every one

(e.g.,

Elizabeth).

To exclude. (Compare

except

daily.

(Compare everyday.) everyone

part of

excelsior

Usual, ordinary.

(Compare every day.) every day

preceding

title

if

name

formal

Now

Too much. (Compare

exceedingly.)

and then.

exchange rate

every time every which

exchange student

way

excise tax evil; eviler

or eviller excl.

Abbreviation for exclude,

evildoer excluding, or exclusive.

evildoing excogitate evil

eye

ewe ex-

A

excrement

Compounds formed with

ex-

excrescence exculpate

former role or position (e.g., ex-

exec

husband, ex-president). ex.; pi., exx.

praise.

(Compare

clear of blame.

Horrible.

executioner

example, examples.

To

To

Slang for executive.

execrable

Abbreviations for

executor

exactor or exacter

exegesis; pi., exegeses exult.)

exemplum;

examination or exam exc.

think about deeply.

excoriate

female sheep.

are hyphenated if referring to a

exalt

To

excommunicate

evil-minded

exeunt

Abbreviation for except,

pi.,

exempla

In theatrical terminology, a

direction to leave the stage.

excepted, exception.

exhausting

Tiring, wearing.

(Compare exhaustive.)

Excalibur

64

participation in or perception of

Thorough, complete.

exhaustive

(Compare exhausting.) Capitalize

exhibit

document

title

if

part of

explainable or explicable

lawyer presented Exhibit A).

To

existential

Concerning the

To make amends.

expiate

part (e.g., the

exhilarate

(Compare

existential.)

or in reference to

document

specific

existence as a being.

An

expletive

excite, raise spirits.

exclamatory word or

phrase. Distinctly expressed.

explicit

experience of being. (Compare

exploitive or exploitative

experiential.)

expose or expose

ex

libris

Compounds beginning with

exo-

the prefix exo-,

one word

ex post facto

(e.g., exoskeleton,

the

book of the

take over property

or deprive of possession.

extant

Capitalize

To

expropriate

exosphere).

exodus ex

revelation of

exposition or expo

which means

outside or outer part, are written as

A

facts.

when naming

In existence.

extemporaneous

Bible.

Adverb

extempore

officio

extemporize

To remove

exorcise or exorcize

an

extendable or extendible or

evil spirit.

extensible

Understood by many.

exoteric

(Compare exotic

extended

esoteric.)

Prolonged, elongated.

(Compare extensive.)

Dramatically foreign,

extended family different.

extension cord

Things that are exotic.

exotica

extensive

expandable or expansible expatiate

To wander, do

something

at will.

extenuate

(Compare

To be

country; or one

who

light of,

extortioner or extorter extra-

does so.

Compounds formed with

extra- are often

(Compare expatiate.)

To

To make

extol or extoll

banished or to

withdraw from one's native

expect

great deal; large,

mitigate.

expatriate.)

expatriate

A

broad. (Compare extended.)

one word

extraterrestrial) except for

happen.

some

double adjectives such as extra-

expectancy or expectance

fine, extra-large, extra-wide.

expediency or expedience expediter or expeditor

extra-base hit

expel, expelled

extra point

expense account

extrasensory perception or

experiential

(e.g.,

extramural, extraordinary,

believe something will

Coming from

extravaganza

65

ESP

extrinsic

Not

eye bank

part of, originating

elsewhere. (Compare intrinsic.)

eye-catching

extrovert or extravert exult

To be

joyful.

eye chart

(Compare

eye contact

exalt.)

eye-

Many compounds

eye-opening beginning

eyelet

with eye- are written as one word,

eye shadow

including eyeball, eyebrow,

eyetooth

eyecup, eyelash, eyeliner,

eyewitness

eyeshade, eyesore, eyespot, eyestrain, eyewash.

66

an educational institution.

staff in

(Compare faculty;

the following one/page;

and

fade-out

the

Fahrenheit

following ones/pages.

FAA

first

faience or faience

To

a type

fail-safe

construct, invent.

French; a type of silk or

faille

facade

rayon fabric.

face card

faineant or faineant

facecloth

-faced

Italian;

of glazed earthenware.

reference in text.

fabricate

Abbreviations are F.,

Fah., Fahr.

Abbreviation for Federal

Aviation Administration. Spell oat

on

faculties.)

fadeaway

Abbreviations for and

f., pi., ff.

Compounds ending

(Compare

Idle, lazy.

faint, feint.)

in

To

faint

-faced are usually hyphenated

lose consciousness.

(Compare faineant,

feint.)

(e.g., two-faced).

fainthearted

facedown

fairground face-lift

fair-minded face-off fair play

face-saving fair

face-to-face

face

up

Use with

to.

fairway

face value

fair-weather

faceted or facetted

fairyland

facetious

fairy tale

facial

fairy-tale

To make

facilitate

easier to do,

fait

accomplish. (Compare felicitate.)

machine or fax machine

is

pi., fails

French;

literally,

already done and often not

reversible.

fact finder

faithful; pi., faithful or faithfuls

fact of life

faith healing; faith healer

Concerning a group.

(Compare factitious

accompli;

"accomplished fact," a deed that

fact-finding

factional

As noun. As adjective.

accomplis

facsimile or fax

facsimile

shake

fair trade

factitious.)

Artificial,

(Compare

faker

A

person

(Compare

sham.

fakir

factional.)

A

who

pretends.

fakir.)

wonderworker or

impostor. (Compare faker.)

factotum;/?/., factotums

fall

faculty; pL, faculties

fall, fell,

Ability,

Lowercase as the season. fallen

power. (Compare faculty;

fallback

faculty.)

falling-out; pi., fallings-out or

faculty; pi., faculty

The teaching

As noun.

falling-outs

67

far-reaching

fallopian tube

As noun.

fallout

farseeing far side

falsetto;/?/., falsettos

fanatic or fanatical

As

farsighted; farsightedness

adjective.

Far West

fan belt

fandango;

The Western region of

the United States.

fancy-free

fandangos

pi.,

Abbreviation for fascicle.

fasc.

fascicle or fascicule or fasciculus

fan letter

fan mail

fascism; fascist

fantasia or fantasie

An

fashion plate

and

unrestricted musical or literary

fast

composition.

fastback

loose

fantastic or fantastical

fastball

far, farther, farthest,

fast-break

farthermost

Refers to physical

(Compare

distance.

fast

fastener

far, further.)

As

fast-food

far, further, furthest,

furthermost

As verb. As noun.

break

Indicates

adjective.

fast-talk

continuing or adding in degree,

fat cat

manner, or time. (Compare far,

fat-free

farther.)

father

Capitalize only in direct

far

and away far and wide

address (when used as a name) or

faraway

name.

if

The

Father's

Day

fathom

Unlikely, hard to

fatigue

believe.

far-flung

fatuous

far-gone

faucet

farinaceous

Faulkner, William

Most compounds formed

American

(e.g.,

farmhouse,

(1897-1962) Author of The

the Fury.

faultfinding

farmhand).

faun

farm-bred

A

mythological figure.

(Compare fawn.)

far-off

fauna;

far-out

faux pas;

farrago; pi,

farragoes

novelist.

Sound and

with farm- are written as one

word

Variant of

father-in-law; pi., fathers-in-law

fare-thee-well

farfetched

preceding a

Santa Claus.

cost of transportation.

Far East

farm-

title

Father Christmas

far cry

fare

part of formal

pi.,

literally,

Hodgepodge.

blunder.

66

faunas or faunae

pi.,

faux pas

French;

"false step," a social

A

fawn

young

deer.

(Compare

faze

To

if

Abbreviation for Federal

on

Spell out

first

first

Abbreviation for female

f.

Having

femur;

femurs or femora

pi.,

fencepost

Food and

fender bender

Administration. Spell out on

fenestrate

ferment or foment

reference in text.

As noun. As adjective or verb. Compounds ending in

featherbed -feathered

incite or agitate.*'

Ferris wheel

Hot or

fervent

used for

intense.

Feverish.

fervid

Extremely hot or intense.

(Compare fervent.)

up

festal

Capitalize only

proper noun, formal

if part

title,

or

festive

Bureau of

Capitalize only

Concerning a

(Compare

of

Happy,

rejoicing.

fete or fete

part

fetid

American

fetish

Scientists.

Rank

in smell.

feed, fed

fettuccine

feedback

fettuccine Alfredo

feel, felt

fever blister

To pretend. To lure, deceive. (Compare

fever pitch

few, fewer, fewest

Refers to

number of individual (Compare less.)

faineant, faint.) feisty

To

(Compare

feta cheese if

of proper noun: Federation of

(Compare

festival.

festive.)

festal.)

Investigation.

felicitate

(Compare

fervid.)

February or Feb.

address: Federal

stick

punishment. (Compare ferrule.)

in

-featured are usually hyphenated

federation

A

ferule

Compounds ending

(e.g., under-featured).

federal

ferule.)

ferryboat

featherweight

febrile

cap on a stick or cane.

(Compare

(e.g., gray-feathered )

-featured

A

ferrule

-feathered are usually hyphenated

feint

These words

have a shared sense, meaning "to

feather bed

feign

characteristics

considered female.

fealty

fed

or

feminine

reference in text.

Abbreviation for

Capitalize only

ox feminine.

Communications Commission.

Drug

cats, or

part of a proper noun.

fern,

Abbreviation for Federal

FDA

do with

fellow; fellowship

disconcert, disturb.

Bureau of Investigation. Spell out on first reference in text.

FCC

to

catlike.

(Compare phase.)

FBI

Having

feline

faun.)

congratulate.

fey fez; pi., fezzes or fezes

facilitate.)

69

items.

A man

fiance

engaged

to

be

A woman

fiancee

fought

fight,

engaged to be

married. (Compare fiance

Abbreviation for figure.

fig.

married. (Compare fiancee.)

figuratively

fiasco; pi., fiascoes or fiaschi

literally, virtually.)

fiber or fibre

figure eight

fiberboard or fibreboard

figurehead

fiberglass

As adjective. As noun.

fiber optics

A

fibr-, fibro-

filet

or

steal, take unfairly.

mignon;

one word

Filipino; pi.

,

Filipinos

fiche; pi., fiche or fiches

Philippines,

Short

form for microfiche.

Not

true.

fiiler-in; pi., fillers-in

(Compare

slice

fillet

of sole

fillip

filmmaker

fiddlesticks

Compounds ending

are usually written as

hayfield

(e.g.,

y

filmstrip

in -field

one word

filterable or filtrable filter

ballfield).

paper

field

event

filter tip

field

house

fin

fielder's choice

,

literally

"end

the close of the 19th century.

Able

finable

fieldwork

A

French;

siecle

English in references concerning

As verb. As noun.

field test

fife; pi.

de

of the century." Usually used in

fieldstone field-test

fiend

thin piece of material or

of meat or fish with bones

removed.

factitious, fictional.)

Imaginary, hypothetical.

fiddle-faddle

-field

A

fillet

Imaginary, hypothetical.

fictitious

Inhabitant(s) of the

As noun,

fill -in

(Compare

factitious, fictitious.) fictitious

mignons

filigree

fibula; pi., fibulae or fibulas

fictional

pi., filets

filibuster

fibrositis, fibrovascular).

,

To

filch

in matter or

fibro- are written as

symbolic leader with

figure skating

Compounds of fibr-

structure.

A

power.

figure of speech

combining form

meaning fibrous

(e.g.

real

little

fiber-optic

In a representative or

analogous sense. (Compare

)

to

be charged a

fine.

finale

dastardly person.

finally

fifth

column

fifth

wheel

Ending,

(Compare

fifes

at the close.

finely.)

financier

Something extra or

find,

unnecessary.

found

fine art finely

fifty-fifty

Extremely well or minutely.

(Compare

fig leaf

70

finally.)

First Family, First

fine print

Lady

official appellations, but

heroes

fines

Not uppercase

before a proper name: First

finespun

Lady

Jacqueline Kennedy. Lowercase fine-tooth

when

comb

or

fine-tune

Compounds

finger-

word include fingerboard,

The

first-rate

first-string

finicky or finical or finicking

First

World War or World War

I

orWWI

finish line

finishing school

Concerning a budget or form

fiscal

Smoked haddock. Compounds formed with fire-

finnan haddie

that are written as

of accounting. fish; pi., fish

two words

department, fire

fish-and-chips

fighter, fire hall, fire irons, fire

fishbowl

sale, fire screen, fire station, fire

fishhook

tower, fire truck, fire wall.

fishmonger

word

word

(e.g., cuttlefish).

fire escape, fire extinguisher, fire

Most other compounds

in -fish

are usually written as one

engine,

drill, fire

or fishes

Compounds ending

-fish

include fire ant, fire brigade, fire

fishnet

are

fishpond

(e.g.,

fish stick

firebomb, firebrand, firecracker, firefly,

(e.g.,

families.)

bowl

written as one

meant

firsthand

finger painting

fire-

is

Lowells were one of Boston' s first

written as one

fingernail, fingerprint, fingertip.

finger

a socially prominent family

woman

firewood).

fishtail

firearm; pi., firearms fire-eating

fistful

fire-stop

fisticuffs

firing line

fit,

firing pin

fitful

firing

firm

squad

A

fitted

partnership.

Firm

is

not

first

As

adjective.

writer.

(1896-1940)

Author of The

five-and-ten

aid

As adjective and first-degree burn first-degree murder

fit

Great Gatsby.

two words.

five-star

firstborn first-class

fistfight. fit

Irregular, restless.

or

American

Most compounds with first-

arc written as

A or

Fitzgerald, F. Scott

synonymous with corporation. first-

fitted

fjord or fiord

adverb.

Not

flaccid

flack

A

flak)

71

firm.

press agent.

(Compare

A

flacon

flash in the

small ornamental bottle.

(Compare flagon.) Flag Day

flash point

June 14th.

note.

flag football

flatbed

Scandalous.

A

flagon

Hyphenated with musical

-flat

flagellate

flagitious

large vessel for wine.

flatboat

(Compare flacon.)

flat-bottomed

flagpole

flatfoot

flagrante delicto

flat-footed

Latin; in the act

of committing a crime or misdeed.

flatland

As As

flat-out

flag-waving flail

flat

To swing arms

(Compare flair

wildly.

style; talent.

adjective.

adverb.

flatware

flay.)

Flashy

out

flattop

Flaubert, Gustave

(Compare

Kidding or criticism.

(Compare

flout.)

flambeing

flambeau;

Madame Bovary. To show off. (Compare

flaunt

flambe, flambes, flambeed,

To

flay

pi.,

criticize harshly or lash.

(Compare

flambeaux or

flambeaus

flail.)

fleabag

flamboyant

fleabite; flea-bitten

flamenco;/?/., flamencos

flea-bitten

flameproof

flea collar

flamethrower flamingo;

pi.,

flea

flamingos or

flee, fled

Both

mean capable of catching on

fleet

Capitalize if part of proper

noun.

fire.

Lightweight flannel.

flannelette

market

fledgling

flamingoes

flammable or inflammable

fleet-footed

flapjack

A

fieshpot

flame or an outburst.

(Compare flare-up

fleur-de-lis or fleur-de-lys; pi.,

fleurs-de-lis

flair.)

As noun.

or fleur-de-lis or

fleurs-de-lys or fleur-de-lys

flashback

flexion or flection

flashbulb

flexor

flash

82 1 - 1 880)

school of French literature. Author

of

flack.)

flaky or flakey

flare

(1

Founder and master of Realist

flare.)

flak

pan

flashlight

card

A

muscle

that controls

extremity,

flash flood

flextime or flexitime

flash-forward

flick

72

A

movie

(slang).

an

fluky or flukey

or flyer

flier

As

flight-test

flunky or flunkey; pL, flunkies or

verb.

flunkeys

flimflam fling, flung flip

fluor-, fluoro-

Compounds of

this

combining form, which means

side

fluorine or fluorescence, are

flip-flop

floatage or flotage

written as one word: fluorocarbon.

As adjective. Many compounds beginning

floating-point flood-

fluorescent

Artificially

(Compare

radiation.

with flood- are written as one

flutist

word

flutter kick

(e.g. , floodgate, floodlight).

flutterboard

floorboard

fly;p/., flies fly, flies, flew,

floorwalker flophouse

flown

Compounds ending

-fly

usually written as one

floppy disk

in -fly are

word

(e.g.,

barfly\ mayfly, housefly).

flora; pi., floras or florae

flyaway

Flourishing, blooming.

florescent

emitting

or flautist

flood tide

floor-length

lit;

florescent.)

flyby;/?/., flybys

(Compare fluorescent.)

fly-by-night

Florida Keys

flycatcher

florist

fly-fishing

flotation or floatation

As noun.

flyover

flotsam

As

flounder

verb,

means

struggle or be clumsy.

flypaper to

flyspeck

(Compare

flyswatter

founder.) flyweight

flounder; pL, flounder or flounders

To mock

flout

flywheel

or scorn. (Compare

FM

flaunt.)

Compounds ending

-flower

foam rubber

in

-flower are usually written as

word

Abbreviation for frequency

modulation, a radio term.

flowchart

focal point

one

focus; pi.

(e.g., sunflower).

,

foci or focuses

flowerbed

focus, focused or focussed

flowerpot

fogbound

flower people

foghorn

flow sheet

fogy or fogey; pL, fogies or fogeys

flu

A

(Compare flue

foible

virus; short for influenza.

A

foie

flue.)

(Compare

gras

French; the fattened liver

of an animal served as a pate.

channel, pipe, chimney.

-fold

flu.)

7J

Compounds ending

in -fold

are usually written as one

word

forceps force.

(Compare

forceful.)

As As

fore-and-aft

folio; pi ., folios

fore

or folks

and

aft

forebear

dance

An

adjective.

adverb.

ancestor.

(Compare

forbear.)

folklore

foreboding

folk medicine

forecast, forecast or forecasted

folksinger

foreclose

folk song

forefinger

folktale

As

follow-up

forego, foregoes, forewent,

As noun.

follow -through

pL,

By

forcible

As noun

folk;/?/., folk

folly;

As noun.

force-out

nonsense or

foliage

folk

(Compare

force of habit

A

item.

foldout

effect.

forcible.)

foldaway folderol or falderal trivial

Having

forceful

(e.g., twofold, manifold).

To go

foregone

adjective, noun.

before, to

precede. (Compare forgo.)

follies

foregone conclusion

fondue

foreground

fontanel or fontanelle

forehand

foodstuff

forehead

foolhardy

foreign-born foolproof foreign

words and phrases

Many

fool's gold

foreign words or phrases, fool's paradise particularly Latin

and French, are

foot;/?/., feet

pluralized according to the rules

foot-and-mouth disease

of the original language.

foot-dragging footlocker

focus; pL, foci or focuses).

footnote

foot-pound

foremost

The

abbreviation

is

forename or

ft-lb.

first

name

forensic medicine

foot-pound-second

foreplay

footprint

foresaid

footrest

foresee, foresaw, foreseen

foot soldier

foreshadow

forasmuch as

foresight

forbear, forbears, forbore,

forborne

Some

also have an English plural (e.g.,

To

forest

hold back, abstain,

noun

be patient. (Compare forebear.)

Capitalize if part of proper (e.g.,

Forest).

forbid, forbade or forbad

forest ranger

74

Allegheny National

Two

fortnight

forestall

FORTRAN

foretell, foretold

in

An

foreword

Formula

or Fortran

translation

forethought

a computer-

,

programming language.

introduction, preface.

(Compare froward.)

Lucky, happening by

fortuitous

chance.

forfend

forgather or foregather

fortune cookie

forget, forgot, forgotten or forgot

fortune hunter

forget-me-not;/?/., forget-me-nots

fortune-teller

forgettable

forty winks

forgive, forgave, forgiven

forum;

forgo, forgoes, forwent,

forward-looking

To

forgone

foul

Bad

forklift

foul ball

forlorn

foul line

title

A

As noun.

foul-up

foundation

government, capitalized when

Capitalize

if

proper noun (e.g., The

used officially to identify a person

part of

MacArthur

Foundation).

Senator George Mitchell),

To

founder

lowercased when used as a

fail

or sink. (Compare

flounder.)

description (e.g., the senator from

foundry

Indiana).

fountain pen

formerly

(Compare fowl.)

foul tip

designation of a

position in an organization or

(e.g.,

or dirty.

foul play

In a structured,

methodical manner.

formal

brief sleep, a nap.

foulmouthed

letter

formally

A

forums or fora

pi.,

forward pass

relinquish,

renounce. (Compare forego.)

form

weeks. Singular

construction.

foretaste

fountainhead

Previously.

formatting

four-bagger

Formica

four-flush

formula; pi, formulas or formulae

4-H

forsake, forsook, forsaken

four-in-hand

forswear, forswore, forsworn

four-letter

forsythia

four of a kind

word

forte

Strong point.

four-poster

forth

Forward. (Compare fourth.)

fourscore

forthcoming

four-star

forthright

four-wheel

forthwith

fourth

fortissimo; pL, fortissimos or

A

quarter of something or

number four in (Compare forth.)

the

fortissimi

75

order.

Fourth of July or Independence

free-for-all

fowl

As

freehand

Day Poultry, bird.

free

(Compare

hand

free kick

foul)

As noun. As adjective,

fox; pi., foxes or fox

free lance

foxhole

free-lance

foxhound

free-lancer

fox terrier

free-living

fox-trot

free

fr.

market

fracas; pi., fracases

free ride

fractious

freestanding freestyle

framable or frameable

freethinker

frame of reference

free thought

As noun.

frame-up

free

framework

A

verb.

free rein

Abbreviation for from.

franc

adjective, adverb.

As noun.

throw

free trade

unit of French currency.

free verse

franchise; franchiser, franchisee,

freeway

franchisor

freewheel

Franciscan

As noun.

free will

frangible free world

Frankenstein

Democratic society,

governments.

frankfurter freeze, froze

frankincense Franklin, Benjamin

(1

American statesman, philosopher.

One of

freeze-dry; freeze-dried

706- 1 790)

scientist,

freeze-frame

and

french curve or French curve

the drafters

French dressing

and signers of the Declaration of

french fry or French fry

Independence.

french-fried or French-fried

Franklin stove

French-

frantically or franticly

frappe or frappe

words, with French capitalized

fraternity or frat

(e.g.,

freaked-out

Freon

show

Trademark

for a type of

gas or liquid used as an aerosol

free agent free

French doors, French

horn).

freak of nature freak

Compounds beginning

with French- are usually two

propel lant and as a refrigerant.

and easy

freq.

freebie or freebee

Abbreviation for frequent,

frequency, frequently.

free enterprise

fresco; pi., frescoes

76

Freud, Sigmund

(1856-1939)

fuel, fueled

Austrian neurologist and founder

fugacious

of psychoanalysis.

fugue

Freudian

slip

manner

To misspeak

that reveals

German; a

fuhrer or fuehrer

in a

unconscious

leader or a tyrant.

The

-ful

desires.

Crumbly. (Compare

friable

or fuelled

plural

words with

some can

fry able.)

form

this

is -fuls

also take a

form where

friar

the s precedes ful (e.g.,

fricassee

tablespoonful, but pi.,

tablespoonfuls or tablespoonsful)

friedcake

A

frieze

for

ending, although

decorative band or line,

fulcrum; or

pi.,

frijole; pi., frijoles

fulfill

fringe benefit

full

house

Frisbee

full

moon

frog kick

full-

fulcrums or fulcra

fulfil

Compounds

that are

frontcourt

hyphenated include full-blooded,

front-end

full-blown, full-bodied, full-dress,

frontier

full-fledged, full-length, full-out,

frontispiece

full-scale, full-service, full-size,

As adjective. front-page As adjective, front-runner As noun. frontline

full-time (adjective).

fullback

verb.

fuller's earth

frontward or frontwards

fulsome

frostbite, frostbitten

fun and games

excessive, overdone.

froufrou

As noun.

fun house

froward

Disobedient. (Compare

fund-raiser; fund-raising

foreword.)

funereal

frowsy or frowzy

fungus;

frozen food

fungal or fungous

pi.,

fruitcake

funlover

fruit fly

funloving

fruition

fryable

funnel, funneled or funnelled

Capable of being

(Compare

funny;/?/., funnies

fried.

fur coat

friable.)

fryer

frying

fungi or funguses

furbelow

pan

furlough

F-sharp

work or

A

f-stop

furtherance

fuchsia

furthermore

77

leave of absence from

military duty.

fuselage

t4

on the back of the page'* or "on

the back page of.*'

fussbudget fut.

Abbreviation {ox folio verso,

f.v.

fusillade

FYI

Abbreviation for future.

futz

Abbreviation for for your

information.

78

gambol, gamboled or

To

gambolled

skip, leap.

(Compare gambit, gamble.)

gabardine

gambrel roof gable roof

gamekeeper

gadabout

game plan

gadfly

gamma

gadget; gadgetry

gamut

gadzooks

gamy

or

gamey

Gandhi, Mahatma

gaga

(1869-1948)

Indian nationalist and spiritual

gaiety

gainsay, gainsaid gait

(Compare

Entire range.

gantlet.)

A blunder.

gaffe

ray

A

leader

manner of walking,

from

moving. (Compare gate.) gala

ganglion; pi.

Compounds

fought to free India

gangbusters

Festive,

galact-, galactothis

who

British colonization.

ganglia or ganglions

,

gangplank

using

combining form, meaning

A

gangrel

vagrant.

gangrene; gangrenous

milk or milky, are written as one

gangway

word. Galilean

gantlet

(1564-1642)

Galileo

The switching area on

railroad tracks.

Italian

mathematician, astronomer, and

gauntlet

physicist. Pioneered the use of the

garage sale

telescope to observe the skies.

garbage can garbage truck

gallbladder

garbanzo bean

galley proof

A

gallimaufry

garden apartment

hodgepodge.

gallivant or gala vant

Garden of Eden

gallon or gal.

garden- variety

gallows

(Compare gamut.)

humor

Ordinary, run-of-

the-mill.

gallows; pi., gallows or gallowses

gargantuan

gallstone

gargoyle

Gallup Poll

garlicky

galore

garrote or garotte

Plentiful (e.g.,

entertainment galore).

galosh or galoshe;

pi.,

garrulous

galoshes

Talkative.

garter belt

A

calculated

An

for strangulation.

galumph gambit

Colossal in size.

move.

garter snake

(Compare gamble, gambol.)

gas; pi., gases or

gamble To take a chance; wager. (Compare gambit, gambol.)

gas chamber

79

\

instrument

Gemini (see Zodiac Signs). gemstone genealogy The study or history of

gaseous gas-guzzling gaslight

gas

mask

family ancestry.

generalissimo; pi.,

gasoline

gas-operated

generalissimos

gas station

the

The

gastronomy

art

armed

of eating in an

way.

aesthetically satisfying

in chief

name.

GM

general manager or

gait.)

gate-crasher

general practitioner or

gatekeeper

general store

gateleg table

genesis;/?/., geneses

Crude, awkward.

gauche

Genet, Jean

(Compare gaucherie.)

writer

Crude behavior.

gaucherie

pi.

,

GP

(1910-1986) French

who

expressed his anti-

bourgeois morality in his poems,

(Compare gauche.) gaucho;

of the

forces. Capitalize only if

part of formal title preceding

Opening, entrance. (Compare

gate

In foreign usage,

commander

novels, and plays.

Genghis Khan

gauchos

(c.

1162-1227)

Mongol conqueror.

gaudy gauge

genie; pi., genies or genii

Gaulle, Charles de

(1890-1970)

genitalia or genitals

French soldier and statesman.

genius; pi., geniuses or genii

gaunt

genre

gauss; pi., gauss or gausses

genteel; gentility

Type, category.

gauze; gauzy

gentile

gavel, gaveled or ga veiled

gentry;/?/., gentries

gawky

genus;/?/., genera

gazelle; pi., gazelles or

geo-

\

Christian, non-Jewish.

Compounds formed with means

gazette

geo-, which

gazetteer

written as

gazpacho soup

geomorphology)

Gclef

geog.

gearbox

and

earth, are

one word

(e.g.,

Abbreviation for geography derivatives.

its

geographic or geographical

geographic terms

gee-whiz

Geiger counter or Geiger-Muller counter

An

instrument for

archipelago, area, arroyo, bank,

detecting radiation.

Means

to

become

if

part of a proper noun:

geisha; pi., geisha or geishas gel

Capitalize the

following and similar words

bar, basin, bay, bayou, beach,

bench, bend,

like jelly.

gelatin or gelatine

bluff,

branch brook, t

80

bog, borough,

butte, canal.

many Broadway

canyon, cape, cascade, cave,

scores for

cavern, channel, cove, crater,

musical comedies.

creek, crossroads, cutoff, delta, desert, divide,

Gestalt psychology

dam,

gestapo;/?/., gestapos

dome, dune,

gesundheit

escarpment, estuary, falls, fault,

get, got or gotten

ford, forest, gap, geyser,

flat(s),

glacier, glacis, glen, gorge,

getable

gulch, gulf, harbor, head,

getaway

hollow,

hill,

Reachable, accessible.

As noun. As noun.

get-together

inlet, island, isle, islet,

As noun,

lagoon, lake, landing, ledge,

getup

lowland, marsh, mesa, mound,

get-up-and-go

mount, mountain, narrows, neck,

geyser

notch, oasis, ocean, palisades,

ghastly

gherkin

park, pass, passage, peak,

ghetto; pi., ghettos or ghettoes

peninsula, plain, plateau, point,

ghostwrite, ghostwrote

pond, pool, port, prairie, range,

ghoul

rapids, ravine, reef, reservoir,

GI;p/.,

ridge, river, rock, run, sea,

(Compare jib,

thoroughfare, trench, valley,

taunt, tease.

jibe.)

gift certificate

volcano, waterway, woods.

gift

Abbreviation for geology and

geol.

To

gibe or jibe

stream, summit, swamp,

strait,

GI'sorGIs

gibberish

seaway, shoal, sound, spring,

of gab

giftware its

derivatives. gift

geologic or geological

geom. and

wrap

gigolo; pi., gigolos

Abbreviation for geometry its

Gila monster

derivatives.

To cover

gild

geometric or geometrical material.

georgette or georgette crepe ger.

Gilman, Charlotte P.

Abbreviation for gerund.

(1860-1935) American feminist

geranium

and

gerbil

writer.

Author of "The

Yellow Wall-Paper."

germ warfare

gilt

German measles germane

with gold or other

(Compare guild.)

Relevant.

guilt.)

gilt-edged or gilt-edge

germfree

gimlet

germproof

gimmick gimmickry gimp Plastic gin and tonic

gerrymander Gershwin, George

(1

898- 1937)

American composer. Composed

Rhapsody

Gold, or other, covering;

money. (Compare

in Blue, as well as the

81

string for braiding.

frame and played with small

gingerroot

in a

gingersnap

hammers.

words or language, are written as one word: glossographer

rummy

giraffe; pi.

glos., gl.

glossy; pi., glossies

gist

To frown glowworm glower

gave

give-and-take

A

name

person's

first

glycerin or glycerine

name.

glyph

gizmo or gismo; pL, gizmos or

A

gismos

G-major G-minor

gadget.

gizzard glace

at.

glue, gluing or glueing

As noun.

giveaway given

Abbreviations are gloss.,

glossary

giraffes or giraffe

,

Girl Scout

give,

this

combining form, which means of

Inflammation of the

gums. gin

Compounds of

gloss-, glosso-

tiam gingivitis

gnarled or gnarly

French; glazed.

glacier; glacial

glad rags

gnaw

As verb. As noun.

glad hand gladiolus;

gnat

Dressy, festive clothing.

glad-hand

gnome

pi gladiolus or ,

Gnostic gladioluses

gnu; gnu or gnus

glamour or glamor

go, goes, went, gone, going

glasnost

go-ahead

glassblowing goalie

glasshouse

goalkeeper

glassmaker

goalpost

glassware

goaltender

glasswork Glauber's

go-around or go-round salt or

Glauber's

Glauber

salt or

goatee

salts

gobbledegook

One who

sets glass.

Indecipherable

language.

glee club

go-between; pL, go-betweens

glen plaid

glimpse

As noun.

small, pointed beard.

gobbledygook or

glaucoma glazier

A

go-cart

A

brief look at something.

go-getter

glitz

go-go

globe-trotter

glockenspiel

god

A

instrument with

flat

Capitalize

name

percussion

for the

when used

monotheistic religion.

metal bars set

82

as a

one god of a

god-

good-humored

Compounds formed with god-

art usually written as

good-looking

one word:

good morning

goddaughter.

god-awful

good-natured

goddamned or goddamn or goddam As adjective.

good-neighbor

goddess

Good Samaritan

God-fearing

goodwill

godforsaken

goody-goody

God-given

gooey

Godiva godsend Godspeed -goer Compounds ending

goof-off

are usually written as

goose;

goose

one word

A

749- 1 832) German

helper

who

(Compare gofer.)

rodent.

and

seemingly un solvable problem.

runs errands.

gorgeous

Gorgonzola cheese

goings-on

An

gorilla

ape, or an ugly, violent

person. (Compare guerrilla.)

goiter

gold coast or Gold Coast

gormandize

gold digger

gospel

golden

A complex

Gordian knot

goings-over

pi.,

or goose pimples

As noun. As verb. Means the burrowing

gopher poet.

(Compare gopher.) going-over;

geese

goose-step

Author of Faust. gofer

pi.,

bumps

goose step

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang (1

adjective.

gooseneck

in -goer

(e.g., theatergoer).

von

As

good night

mean

To

eat greedily.

Capitalize

one or

all

when

referring to

of the Books of

golden retriever

Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John

golden rule or Golden Rule

of the

gold-filled

Bible,

Testament of the

gospeler or gospeller

goldfinch goldfish

New

bowl

gossamer

gold leaf

Gothic novel or gothic novel

gold-plated

gothk type or gothic typeface

gonorrhea

A

gouache

sexually transmitted

French; a painter*

method using opaque watercolor.

disease.

good, better, best

Gouda cheese

good-bye or good-by or goodbye

goulash

good day

gourd

good-for-nothing

gourmand

Good Friday

A

eat, drink.

gourmet

good-hearted

85

A

person

who

likes to

(Compare gourmet.) person

who

cultivates

knowledge of food. (Compare

grand

gourmand.)

grand-slam

Always lowercase.

government

governor or gov. if

Capitalize only

part of formal title preceding a

name: Governor Mario Cuomo.

grab bag small ornament or

Hyphenate forms

like third-grader

homework. But is in first

and fourth-grade

The student

write:

granny or grannie;

GPA

noun, but

grannies

,

,

grants-in-aid

A

type of public subsidy.

grapefruit

grape juice grapevine Capitalize only

document

grade school

specific

Graffito

pi

granola

graph

grade.

grade point average or

graffiti is the

form

title

if

part of

or in reference to a

document

part.

graphic arts

the singular

is

in

Compounds formed with

grapho-

grapho-, which means writing or

usage.

graham cracker graham flour gram grammar school

drawing, are written as one word.

graph paper grass roots

A

granary

local level.

storehouse for grain.

Compounds

(e.g., grandfather).

an adjective are written as two (e.g.,

or grande literally

grand duke). pi.,

French;

an older

A

cooking utensil for

French; covered with a crust

or with cheese. Usually used with (e.g., potatoes

of

great ability, fame, or fortune.

gratuity

Unwarranted or

A

gravamen,

/?/.,

gravamens or The main element

gravamina

grand

basis of a grievance.

grandiloquent

grave accent

grand jury

gravedigger

grand mal seizure epileptic seizure.

grand master

A

severe

graven image gravestone

graveyard

free.

tip.

grandeur finale

gratin).

Free.

gratuitous

woman

au

gratine or gratinee gratis

"great lady;'*

traditionally,

gratin

au

grandes dames

dames

grater

grinding.

Other compounds using grand as

grande dame;

grasshopper

describing

family relationships are written as

one word

Social or political

organization that originates at the

gram-negative, gram-positive

words

grand tour

granular

embellishment grade, -grader

grand-

grand slam

grant-in-aid; pi

A

grace note

graffiti

grand prix As adjective. As noun.

prix; pi.,

shift

or

greyhound

gravity; pi., gravities

gravy;

pi.,

A

gridiron

gravy train gray matter

A

griddle cake

gravies

Slang for brains.

grief

gray

grievance

gray-haired

grievous

greasepaint

griffin or griffon

A

greasy spoon

small, cheap, and

Hyphenate

compounds

all

Horrible, painful, serious.

stove for cooking.

(Compare

family

An

grille

grille.)

ornamental grating.

(Compare

(e.g., great-aunt).

Great Britain

A

grill

dirty restaurant or diner.

great-

grill.)

grillwork

England, Scotland,

grimace

and Wales. greatcoat

grind, ground

Great Dane

grindstone gringo; pL, gringos

Great Depression Capitalize greater

greater

referring to a

when

grip

major metropolitan

gripe

area.

Great Lakes

leader.

hold

To

(Compare

complain, harangue.

Flu virus. (Compare grip,

grippe

(1811-1872)

journalist

and

Co-founded The

gripe.) grisly

political

New

Gruesome,

(Compare

Yorker.

horrible.

grizzly.)

gristle

Capitalize

when

the environmental

gristmill

referring to

movement.

grizzly

greenback

Gray. (Compare grisly.)

grocer

greenbelt

grocery store

green-eyed

groomsman

greengrocer

Traditional.

Use

honor attendant.

greenhorn

grosgrain

greenhouse

Greenhouse

fast.

(Compare grip, grippe.)

Greeley, Horace

Green

To

gripe, grippe.)

greathearted

American

pancake.

football field.

gross national product or

GNP

grotesque

effect

greenhouse gasses

grotto; pi., grottoes or grottos

green onion

ground-

green pepper

greenroom

words.

Groundhog Day groundout As noun.

greens fee

green

Most compounds formed

with ground- are written as two

thumb

Greenwich time

groundsheet

greeting card

groundskeeper

85

groundwater

A

guest

person

home of

groundwork

at the

groupie

or, a

groupthink

club, etc.

grouse;

paying customer

in a hotel,

guidebook

grow, grew

Compounds ending

As noun. As adjective.

guided missile

in

-grower are usually written as one

guided -missile

word

guideline

(e.g., applegrower).

growing pains

guide post

grown-up

guide word

grubstake

guild

An

association.

(Compare

gild)

grueling or gruelling

gruesome

guile; guileless

grungy

guillotine

Gruyere cheese

guilt

G-sharp

A

feeling arising

from

self-

reproach or remorse. (Compare

guanaco;

guanacos or

pi.,

A

guanaco

gilt.)

guinea pig

camel-like animal

native to South America.

guaranty

Abbreviations are

gulf

Abbreviation

Capitalize if part of proper

noun

Abbreviations are

(e.g.

,

the Persian Gulf, the

Gulf of Mexico). is

gumbo

guar.

gumboil

Capitalize if part of proper

gumdrop

noun.

gumption

guardhouse guardian

Spunk, sensible

self-

motivation.

gumshoe A detective. gun- Compounds written

guardrail

Concerning a

gubernatorial

governor (e.g.

,

word include

The guber-

in

(Compare guesstimate

A

gunlock, gunmetal, gunplay,

soldier

gunpowder, gunrunner, gunship,

unorthodox warfare.

guns linger, gunshot, gunsmith.

gorilla.)

An

by surmising

as one

gunfight, gunfire,

gunpoint, gunboat, gunflint,

natorial election).

guerrilla or guerilla

engaged

costume, or

guitar

guar., gu., gtd., grd.

guarantor

style, a

a misleading appearance.

guar, or gu.

guaranteed

Outward

guise

guarantee or

guard

entertained

guestroom

grovel, groveled or grovelled

-grower

is

another, a visitor;

guesthouse

grouse or grouses

pi.,

who

gungho

estimate arrived at

rather than

gunk

by

gunnysack

analyzing hard data.

guesswork

gun-shy

86

gun room

stripped or bare, are written as

gunwale or gunnel

one word: gymnosophist.

gymnasium or gym; pi., gymnasiums or gymnasia gynec-, gyneco- Compounds of

guppy;/?/., guppies

gurney ;/>/., gurneys guru; pi ., gurus

this

gussy up

guttersnipe

A

gypsy;/?/., gypsies

status.

gypsy moth

guttural gynui-, this

gymno-

are written as

(e.g., gynecology).

person of extremely

low social or economic

combining form, which means

woman,

gusto; pi., gustoes

gyrate

Compounds of

gyro horizon

combining form, which means

gyroscope

87

one word

H

To compel

hale or,

sound

(Compare

ha-ha

habeas corpus

half; pi.

haberdasher; haberdashery habile

Skillful.

As verb. Compounds are

half-

Clothing, equipment

Compounds

written as

French; one

who

frequents

brother, half cock, half hitch, half

hour, half line, half nelson, half note, half past, half pay, half rest,

of place.

hacienda

Spanish; a plantation, or

half sister, half step, half title,

the plantationhouse.

hackneyed

Overused,

half volley.

half-and-half

stale,

halfback

clicned.

hack saw

half-breed; half-bred

hackwork had not or hadn't

half-cocked halfhearted

haiku; pi, haiku hail

To

Hail

Mary

yell for.

halftime

(Compare hale.)

halftone

halfway

Bad

hailstone

halitosis

hailstorm

hallelujah

Compounds

hallmark

hairbrush, haircut, hairdresser,

Hall of

hairpiece, hairpin, hairstyle,

Halloween

hairdressing, hairline,

halls of ivy

hairsplitter, hairstyling,

hallucinate

hairstylist.

hallway

Fame

halo; pi., halos or haloes

hair ball pi.,

breath.

Halley's comet

written as one

word include hairbreadth,

hairdo;

two

words include half boot, half

a certain place or a particular type

hair-

usually

(e.g., half-mast, half-

staff, half-truth, half-wit).

(Compare

habile.)

habitue

hail.)

halves

hyphenated

for an occasion.

go somewhere;

half, halves

(Compare

habiliment.)

habiliment

,

to

body, hearty.

in

hairdos

halogen

halvah or halva

hair follicle hair-raising

confection

As

adjective,

meaning

halyard

hamburger ham-handed or ham-fisted

responsive to the slightest stimulus.

halcyon days

Middle Eastern

sesame seeds and honey.

hair shirt hair-trigger

A

made of crushed

A

hamlet

time of happiness,

A

Hamlet.)

peace, or prosperity.

06

small village. (Compare

The Danish

Hamlet

hands-off

prince, subject

handsome

of Shakespeare's play. (Compare

Good-looking.

(Compare hansom.)

hamlet.)

hammer and

hand-tailored

sickle

As

hand-to-hand

hammerhead hammertoe

money

hammer throw hamstring, hamstrung

or food (e.g., living

hand

to mouth).

Crippled.

hand and foot handbag handbook Abbreviations

adjective.

With no surplus

hand-to-mouth

hand truck handwriting hang, hung or hanged

are hdbk.

hangar

or handbk. or hndbk.

hand copy

A

storage.

building for airplane

(Compare hanger.)

handgrip

hangdog hanged Suspended by the neck to die. (Compare hung.) hanger An instrument for hanging

handgun

items such as clothing. (Compare

handcuff hand-feed, hand-fed handful;

handfuls or handsful

pi.,

hangar.)

hand-holding

handicap

hanger-on;

handicraft

hang

hand hand

in glove or in

hangers-on

hangman

hand and glove

hand

handkerchief;

pi.,

glider

hangnail pi.,

hangout

handkerchiefs

As noun.

hangover

or handkerchieves

As noun.

handlebar

hang-up

handmade

hankie or hanky;

hand-me-down;/?/., hand-me-

hanky-panky

downs hand mower hand organ handout As noun. hand over fist Quickly and in large volumes (e.g., to make money hand over fist).

hansom

handpick

happy-go-lucky

hand puppet

hara-kiri

Hanukkah

or

Chanukah

haphazard happenstance or happenchance

happy hour happy hunting ground

handsaw luck, as

Transportation by taxi.

Japanese; a ritual

suicide.

harangue

A

present given for

on

New

hankies

(Compare handsome.)

handrail

handsel

pi.,

good

harass; harassment

harbinger

Year's.

handshake

harbormaster

89

hard-and-fast

harpsichord

hardball

harried or harassed

hard-bitten

hart

hardboard

hartebeest

hard-boil

harum-scarum

hardbound

harvester

hard copy

harvest

As adjective. hardcover book or hardback book

An

older male deer.

moon

The

full

moon

that

occurs around the time of the

hard-core

September equinox.

hard-earned

harvesttime

hardhanded

has-been

hardheaded

A

person whose success

has passed or declined.

hash browns or hash brown

hard-hearted

brown

hard-hitting

potatoes or hashed

hard-line

potatoes or hashed browns

hardliner

hash mark

hardly

hard-nosed

has not or hasn't

hard-of-hearing

hassock

hard-pressed

hasten

hard-shell

hasty pudding

hardstand

hatband

hard-surface

hatbox

hardtack

hatchback

hardtop

hatcheck

hardware

Tools or

fittings

made

hatchet job

of metal, or the physical

hateful

components of a computer.

hatha-yoga

(Compare software.)

hat in hand

Abbreviations are hdwe. or hdw.

hat tree

or hdwre. or hrdwre.

hat trick

hardwood

hausfrau

hardworking

haute or haut

hare;

pi.,

hare or hares

German; a housewife. French; classy,

sophisticated, fashionable.

harebrained

haute couture

Hare Krishna

French; high

fashion.

haute cuisine

harelip

harem pants

French; artful

cooking.

haut monde or haute

harlequin

monde

harmonica harmony;/?/., harmonies

hauteur

harness racing

have-not

90

French; high society.

haversack

hear, heard

havoc

hearing aid

Hawaiian

hearken or harken

Hawthorne, Nathaniel (1804-1864) American

hearsay evidence hearse

Wrote The Scarlet

writer.

written as

hay fever

heartwarming).

heart block

hazelnut

William

Hazlitt,

(1778-1830)

English writer and drama

heart condition heart disease

critic.

Author of The Characters of

H-bomb

or hydrogen

one word

(e.g.,

word

(e.g., kindhearted).

heart failure

are written

hearth

headache,

headband, headfirst, headgear,

heart-to-heart

headrest, headstrong,

heat exhaustion heat lightning

headwaiter).

head and shoulders

heat rash

head cold

heatstroke

Compounds ending

-headed

in

•hearted are usually written as one

bomb

Most compounds

Compounds ending

-hearted

Shakespeare's Plays.

heat wave

in

-headed are usually written as one

heathen;

word

heave, heaved or hove

(e.g., levelheaded).

head-hunter

heave-ho

head louse

heaven

head-on headquarters

abbreviation

if

Capitalize

when

heaven-sent

part of

is

hdqrs. or

heaven's sake

HQ.

heavy-duty

head start heads-up

heathens or heathen

concept. Capitalize

proper noun or address. The

heads up

pi.,

referring

to a place rather than as a

head over heels

heavy-handed

As As

interjection.

heavyhearted

adjective.

heavy

hitter

head-to-head

heavy metal

head wind

heavyset

health insurance

heavyweight

health maintenance organization

hebetudinous

or

are

(e.g.,

heart attack

haywire

as

one word

heartache, heartburn,

hay wagon

head-

Many compounds

heart-

Letter.

HMO

hectare

hedgehog

healthful or healthy

91

Lethargic.

hematoma; pi. hematomas or hematomata hemi- Compounds formed with

hedonistic

,

hee-haw heel-and-toe

Hegel, Georg

German

hemi-, which means half, are

(1770-1831)

one word.

written as

Idealist philosopher.

Hemingway, Ernest

Author of Die Phanomenologie

American

des Geistes.

Sun Also

hegemony Lowercase when

hegira or hejira

from Mecca.

Capitalize

heigh-ho

hemoglobin hemorrhage hemorrhoid

height; heighten

henceforth

Heimlich maneuver

henhouse

heinous

henna

heir apparent; pi., heirs apparent

hepat-, hepato-

heir presumptive; pi., heirs

this

presumptive

A

on.

reddish dye.

Compounds of

combining form, which means

one word:

hepatic.

theft.

helicopter helix;

A

From now

liver, are written as

holdup or

when

hemline

heifer

heist

hepatitis

A

heptagon

pL, helices or helixes

hell-bent

herbaceous

seven-sided figure.

hellfire

herbicide

hellhole

herculean task

hellhound

Herculean

Capitalize

when

hellion

referring to the mythical

hello;/?/., hellos

hero.

hell

or high water

here-

Compounds

Greek

indicating a

and spelled as

hell-raiser

relative position

helluva

one word include hereabouts,

helpmate helter-skelter

1

hemispheric or hemispherical

Muhammad's

flight

%

referring to a specific hemisphere.

escape a situation. Capitalize referring to

899- 1

Rises.

hemisphere

describing a journey taken to

when

( 1

Author of The

writer.

hereabout, hereafter, hereby, herein, hereinabove, hereinafter,

Scattered,

scrambled, hurried, and confused.

hereinbefore, hereinbelow, hereof,

hem-, nemo-, hemat-, hemato-

Compounds of

this

hereon, hereto, heretofore,

combining

hereunder, hereunto, hereupon,

form, which means blood, are written as one

word

herewith.

here and

(e.g.,

now

hemoglobin, hematinic,

here and there

hematogenesis).

hereditary

92

heresy; pi., heresies

hierarchical or hierarchic

herky-jerky

hieroglyphic or hiergly phical

hermetic or hermetical

hi-fi

hermit crab

high-

hero;

heroes or heros

pi.,

The

Compounds

that are

hyphenated include high-and-

heroic or heroics!

heroin

or high fidelity

mighty, high-class, high-count,

narcotic drug.

high-energy, high-flown, high-

hero-worship

flying, high-grade, high-handed,

herpes simplex

high-hat (adjective), high-level,

herpes virus

high-minded, high-pitched, high-

herringbone

power, high-powered, high-

hesitance or hesitancy heter-, hetero-

pressure, high-priced, high-rise,

Compounds of

this

high-sounding, high-speed, high-

combining form, which means

spirited, high-strung, high-

other or another, are written as

one word

tension, high-water (adjective).

(e.g., heterogeneity,

Compounds

heterosexual).

heterogenous or heterogeneous

To

hew, hewed or hewn fashion with, or as

if

split

high chair, high comedy, high or

fashion, high frequency, high

with, an ax.

gear, high horse, high jump, high

(Compare hue.)

noon, high place, high roller,

Compounds of

hexa-, hex-

that are written as

two words include high beam,

this

high schooler, high sea(s), high

combining form,' which means style,

six, are written as

one word

high tea, high technology,

(e.g.,

high tech (noun), high

tide,

high

hexagon). treason.

heyday

high and dry

hiatus; pi., hiatuses

high blood pressure

Hiawatha

To spend

hibernate

(Compare

High Church

the winter.

High Court

estivate.)

higher-up;

hiccup or hiccough hickey; pi.

,

pi.,

pi.,

higher-ups

highfalutin

hkkeys

highlight, highlighted

hickories

high mass or High Mass

hide, hid, hidden or hid

Use with

sing or celebrate.

hide-and-seek

high school

hideaway

Capitalize

if part

proper noun. Abbreviation

hidebound

high-tech

hideout hie,

States).

higher learning

hibiscus

hickory;

Variant for Supreme

Court (of the United

hibachi

As

is

of H.S.

adjective.

hightail

hying or hieing

highway

9J

Capitalize only

if

part of

proper noun. Abbreviations are

hit list

hwy. or hgwy.

hit-or-miss

parade

hyack; hijacker

hit

hijinks or high jinks

HIV

Abbreviation for

hilltop

hives

hinder; hindrance

HMO

A

rash.

Abbreviation for health

maintenance organization.

hindmost hindquarter

ho-hum

Hindu

hoagie or hoagy;

hinterland

hoard Slang for "in" or

hip or hep

"with

hoarse

hoary hippies

amount of

Scratchy in sound.

Aged; white or gray with

age.

hippo or hippopotamus;

hobby;/)/., hobbies

pi.,

hippos or hippopotamuses or

hobbyhorse

hippopotami

hobnob, hobnobbed hoboes or hobos

Hippocratic oath

hobo;

hireling

Hobson's choice

Compounds beginning

at all

with this combining form, which refers to tissue, are written as

because no alternative

hodgepodge Hodgkin's disease

hoedown

Very important, or

A

square dance or

bam

party.

historical.

histrionics

hog-tie

hit-and-miss

hogwash

hit-and-run

hog-wild

hitchhiker

hoi polloi

Adolf

(1889-1945)

hokey

concentration and extermination

hoi-, nolo-

to imprison political

brought on World

The general

Corny, or contrived.

hokum

and murder

Compounds beginning

with this combining form, which

enemies;

means complete or

War

written as

II.

population.

hoity-toity

German leader of the Nazi party who ordered the creation of

Jews and

choice of

hocus-pocus

Abbreviation for history,

camps

A

offered or nothing

hocus, hocussed or hocused

one

historical, historian.

Hitter,

is

exists.

word: histone, histoplasmosis.

historic

pi.,

taking what

Hispanic hist-, histo-

hoagies

pi.,

hold on to greedily,

something. (Compare horde.)

hip joint ,

adjective

stash a large

it."

hippie; pi

As

To

hipbone

hist.

human

immunodeficiency virus.

hillside

Author

of Mein Kampf.

total, are

one word

(e.g.,

holocaust, hologram).

94

Holy Ghost

hold, held

Compounds

hold-

word include

Holy Spirit

written as one

homage home- Many compounds formed

holdall, holdfast,

holdout (noun), holdover (noun),

with home- are written as one

holdup (noun).

Compounds ending

-holder

word

in

word

(e.g.,

holding pattern hole

An

opening, gap.

hole in one hole-in-the-wall; pi, holes- in- the-

wall

holey

Having openings, gaps.

(Compare holy, wholly.) holidays

Those

hometown,

home brew home economics home fries home front home plate home port home rule home run home stand home truth Homer (9th-8th?

mortgageholder).

company

holding

(e.g.,

homework).

-holder are usually written as one

to capitalize

include April Fools' Day, Arbor

Day, Armed Forces Day,

Greek

century B.C.)

Author of the Iliad

poet.

and the Odyssey.

Christmas Day, Christmas Eve,

Flag Day, Fourth of July,

homeward or homewards homey Comfortable, like home.

Columbus Day, Father's Day,

A

Halloween, Hanukkah,

homicide

Inauguration Day, Independence

homily;

Day, Labor Day, Lincoln's

homo-, homeo-, homoi-, homoio-

Birthday,

New

Compounds beginning with these combining forms, which mean

Memorial Day,

Mother's Day,

New

legal term; killing.

homilies

pi.,

Year's Day,

Year's Eve, Rosh Hashanah,

like or similar, are written as

Thanksgiving Day, V-J Day,

word

Veterans Day, Washington's

homograph, homologous,

Birthday,

Yom

(e.g.,

homeopathy,

homonym).

Kippur.

hollandaise sauce

Homo

holland fabric or Holland fabric

homogeneity

holler

homogeneous or homogenous

Hollywood bed Holmes, Oliver Wendall

homology;

(1841-1935) American Author of The

pi.

,

homologies

homosexual honcho; pi

jurist.

Common Law.

.

honchos

honeybee

honeycomb honeydew melon

holstein

holy

sapiens

Religious in nature. (Compare

honeyed or honied

holey, wholly.)

Holy Communion

honeymoon

95

one

horseplay

honeysuckle

When

honorable

name of

horsepower or

used before a

governmental office,

it

may

horse sense

either

horseshoe

be written out or abbreviated as

horse show

Hon., preceded by the word the (e.g.,

HP

horseradish

a person of high legal or

The Hon. Samuel Collier or

horse trade

horsey or horsy

The Honorable Sarah Olmstead). honorarium;/?/., honorariums

hosanna or hosannah

hoodlum hoodwink

hosiery or hose or stockings or

hoof; pi., hooves or hoofs

hospice

hoof-and-mouth disease

hospital

nylons

Capitalize only

if

part of

hook-and-ladder truck

proper noun: Massachusetts

line, and sinker hookup As noun. hooky or hookey

hosp.

General Hospital. Abbreviation

hook,

hostel

hoopla

cheap lodging for

travelers.

Nickname

Hoosier

for a native or

hootenanny

A

hostile

Lodging.

hostel.)

hot air

jump

Not

hot-blooded

far.

hope chest

hotbed hotcake

hopscotch

A

hostile.)

Mean, unfriendly.

(Compare

gathering for

singing folk songs.

hop, skip, and a

(Compare

hostelry; pi., hostelries

resident of the State of Indiana.

horde

A

hotdog

large group of people or

hot dog

animals. (Compare hoard.)

horehound

hot flash

hornet's nest

hotfoot

horn-rims

hothead

hornswoggle

hothouse

horny

hot line

horoscope

hot pot

horror-struck

hors d'oeuvre;

As verb. As noun,

hotelier

hornbook

hot potato pi.,

or hors d'oeuvre

hors d'oeuvres

hot pursuit hot rod

French;

hot seat

appetizers.

horse-and-buggy

hotshot

horse chestnut

hot spring

horsefeathers

hot tub

horsehair

hot water

96

is

interjection.

houndstooth or hound' s-tooth

hula

hourglass

hullabaloo; pi., hullabaloos

hour-long

human

Most compounds formed

house-

race.

humane

with house- are written as one

word

Concerning the human

(Compare humane.)

housecleaning, housecoat,

human

houseguest, household,

humble

housekeeper, housepainter,

humbug

house detective, house

house

house

Nature.

humidor

Compounds ending

humility

in

-house are usually written as one

word

house-proud house-to-house

housebreak, housebroke

housing development housing project Nevertheless.

a verdict.

hung up

informal greeting.

Howells, William

Dean

hunky-dory

(1837-1920) American man of Author of

letters.

hunt-and-peck

A Chance

hunter

Acquaintance.

hurly-burly

how-to

hurrah or hurray

hr. or h.

hurricane

Abbreviation for hour.

hubbub hubcap hue

A

Typing by

searching out keys one at a time.

howitzer

hubris

of being

hundred hung Suspended from something. (Compare hanged.) hunger strike hung jury A jury that cannot reach

house-raising

An

state

humongous Huge, tremendous. humpback; humpbacked Humpty-Dumpty

(e.g., outhouse).

howdy

The

humble.

house-poor

howbeit

historian.

humerus;/?/ ., humeri

sitter,

trailer.

•house

and

Author of A Treatise of Human

party, house physician, house seat,

(1711-1776)

Scottish philosopher

of cards, house organ, house

house

Boring, ordinary.

Hume, David

include house arrest, house call,

rule,

pie

humdrum

Those written as two words

cat,

(Compare human.)

nature

humdinger

housewares).

house

Compassionate,

considerate.

(e.g., houseboat,

Capitalize the

specific storm (e.g.,

Diane).

Unwarranted pridefulness.

hurry-up

shade of a color. (Compare

hush-hush

As

hush puppy

hew.)

hue and cry

hussar

97

name of a

Hurricane

adjective.

huzzah or huzza

A

hyperbolic or hyperbolical

shout or cheer

to express gratification or

finding.

hyacinth this

(e.g., hydrate,

,

hypnoses

hypnotism

combining form, which means water, are written as one

fault-

(Compare hypocritical.)

hypnosis; pi

Compounds of

hydr-, hydro-

Extremely

hypercritical

approval.

Compounds of

hypo-, hyp-

word

this

combining form, meaning under,

hydrogen,

beneath, or below, are written as

hydroplane).

one word

hydrangea

(e.g., hypochondria).

Pretending to be what

hypocritical

hyena

one

is

not.

(Compare

hygiene; hygienic; hygienically hypercritical.)

hymn; hymnal

Capitalize only

if

hypodermic needle

part of proper noun.

hypotenuse or hypothenuse

hype

hypothesis; pi., hypotheses

hyped-up hyper-

hyster-, hystero-

Compounds formed with

this

hyper- are written as one word.

hyperbola;

pi.,

Compounds of

combining form, which means

uterus or hysteria, are written as

hyperbolas or

one word

hyperbolae

(e.g., hysterectomy).

hysterical or hysteric

hyperbole

98

ideology or idealogy

I

An

idiom

iamb or iambus;

pi.,

meaning

iambs or

iambuses I

or ib.

Ibsen, Henrik

same

1 '

Someone who

idol

(Compare idyll

ice-

is

worshiped.

idle, idyll.)

A

or idyl

(Compare

(adjective), ice-skate

(verb).

pastoral scene.

idle, idol.)

Latin; abbreviation for id est,

i.e.

Those written as one word

"that is."

include iceberg, iceboat, icebox,

Write

-ie-

or

icefall,

i

before e except after c,

when sounded

like ay, as in

neighbor and weigh. Exceptions



Those written as two words

include either, height, leisure,

include ice age, ice bag, ice cap,

neither, seize, sleight,

IFR

ice field, ice storm, ice water, ice

ice hockey, ice

and weird.

Abbreviation for instrument

flight rules.

pi, igloos

pick, ice show, ice skater, ice

igloo;

pack, ice cap, iced tea, ice floe,

igneous

ice milk.

ignis fatuus; pi., ignis fatui

Ice

Age or

ice

age

ignitable or ignitible igniter or ignitor

icicle

Someone who

iconoclast

religion or

ignominious; ignominy

rejects

ignoramus

government or other

established institutions.

or idem

Latin; the same,

from

identification card or

ill-

worse, worst

Many compounds formed

///-are

Idaho potato

hyphenated, including

advised, ill-bred, ill-fated,

idee fixe; pi., idees fixes

"a

stupid, ignorant

iguana ill,

identity card

literally,

A

person.

something previously written.

ID card or

Latin;

an illusory goal or hope.

iceberg lettuce

id.

idol,

idolater or idolator

written

hyphenated include ice-cold,

cream (noun),

individual

idyll)

Author of A Doll's House.

icehouse.

parts (e.g.,

Not occupied. (Compare

idle

place.

Norwegian poet and dramatist.

icebound, icebreaker,

from the its

peculiarity.

(1828-1906)

Compounds

An

idiosyncrasy

Latin; abbreviation for

ibidem, "in the

cream

of

means "to die").

kick the bucket

ibex; pi., ibex or ibexes

ice-

different

literal definitions

beam

ibid,

expression whose is

French;

with ill-

ill-

favored, ill-gotten, ill-humored,

fixed idea," an

ill-mannered, ill-natured,

obsession.

tempered,

identical or identic

(verb).

identity crisis

ill

99

at ease

ill-

ill-treat (verb), ill-use

immune

illegal ill

Immoral and

illicit

or

or

illust.

impassable

or

ill.

A

false mental

intellectual deception.

impassive.)

image or

impasse

(Compare

impassible

Emotionally restrained

or incapable of feeling pain.

allusion.)

illusory or illusive

(Compare impassable,

Unreal,

impassive.)

deceptive.

impassive

illustrious

Unfeeling,

expressionless.

will

ILS

Blocked, not

(Compare impassible,

travel able.

illustration, illustrator.

illusion

ill

impatience

landing system.

A

imaginable

Restlessness.

(Compare impatiens.)

mental picture.

The

impatiens

Possible to be

Made-up, not

imaginative

impecunious

real.

Creative.

state

Consistently in a

impedimenta

imbroglio;/?/., imbroglios

impel, impelled

imper.

Immaculate Conception

Abbreviation for

imperative.

immanent

Existing, intrinsic,

inherent.

(Compare eminent,

imperceptible or imperceivaMe

imperiled or imperilled

impermeable

imminent.) immaterial

Not important.

immigrant

A

person

who

settle there.

impersonate impetigo

enters a

(Compare

impetus;

pi.,

impious

emigrant, emigre.)

impetuses

Irreverent, disrespectful.

implacable

Threatening, about to

happen. (Compare eminent,

Implied but not expressed,

implicit

immanent.) immiscible

Equipment.

impeller or impellor

Abbreviation for imitation,

imitative.

imminent

(Compare

of pennilessness.

imbecile or imbecilic

country to

flower.

impatience.)

conceived.

imaginary

(Compare

impassable, impassible.)

Abbreviation for instrument

imagery

imit.

to be divided.

(Compare immiscible.)

Abbreviations for illustrated,

il.

Unable

impartible

illegal.

illiterate illus.

Not susceptible; exempt.

immutable

health

outright.

Not mixable.

imply

(Compare impartible.)

To

suggest.

(Compare

infer.)

immoral Evil, unethical. (Compare amoral.) immortal Incapable of dying. immovable

import

As

a noun, implies

signification,

meaning

(e.g.,

The

action today carries import for the future).

100

Day

Inauguration

importune impr. or imp.

in-between

Abbreviations for

improved, improvement.

in

Not possible

impracticable

As adjective or noun. As adverb or

inborn

inbound

Foolish or inefficient

inbred; inbreeding

in approach.

impregnable impresario;

between

preposition.

to do.

(Compare impractical.) impractical

Inc.

pi.,

impresarios

Abbreviation for

incorporated.

Impressionist or impressionist

comma

imprimatur

punctuation

imprimis

among

Approval, permission,

Latin; in the

the

first

introduce a

things.

list.

first

inchoate

to

(Compare

incl.

improvised.

take in as part of a

compose, and constitute are used

when a

Lacking discretion.

(Compare impudent.)

full list

of items making

up the whole are given.

Cocky, brash. (Compare

includable or includible

imprudent.)

incognito; pi., incognitos

impugn

income tax

impuissant

French,

incommensurate

literally,

"without power," helpless, weak.

incommunicado

Function word indicating

There

is

in- as

in

words

incongruity or incongruence inconsequential or inconsequent

Compounds ending with

in absentia

Not

Latin; suitable.

contact,

incongruent or incongruous

a prefix

meaning "not."

hyphenated (e.g.,

Out of

deprived of communication.

no hyphen

formed with

Not adequate,

out of proportion.

location, position.

inapt

To

whole. The words comprise,

imprudent

-in

tooth.

Abbreviation for inclusive;

including, includes.

improviser or improvisor

in-

Just started, imperfectly

include

improvise

in

part of the

A cutting

incisor

Without preparation,

improvident

impudent

is

formed.

imprimatur.)

impromptu

not use a

inch-deep

place,

Used

Do

before Inc. unless the

company's formal name.

(Compare imprimis.)

license.

January 20 after

a U.S. presidential election.

impostor or imposter

incontrovertible

-in are

'

'

in

absence

Unquestionable.

inconvenience or incon veniency

sit-in). .

'

incorporated or inc.

(Compare

Capitalize

part of proper noun. (See also

inept, unapt.)

Inc.)

inasmuch as

incorporeal

inaugurate

form.

101

Having no physical

if

Hard

incredible

incredulous

incubus;

Unbelieving,

To

incunabulum;

writing.

pi.,

A

indentation

incunabula

circumstance.

in

Hardened, physically or

indurate

blank in typewritten

mentally. (Compare obdurate.)

from the

(Compare indentation.)

indus. or ind.

Abbreviation for

industry, industrial.

The

index finger

industrial arts industrial engineering

forefinger or

india ink or India ink

A

ineffaceable or ineradicable

Always

native of India.

ineffective or ineffectual or

inefficacious

capitalize.

Indian corn

result.

Indian pudding

summer

indie, or ind.

indifferent

iniquity.)

inexpediency or inexpedience

with a crime;

(Compare

infamous

indite.)

Not having an opinion

Very poor,

infant

deep blue dye, or the plant produces indiscreet

A

infarction

infectious

it.

Not careful or prudent.

Not separated

one year old or

Diseased tissue.

Disease-related and

communicable through microorganisms. infer

into parts.

(Compare indiscreet.) indistinct

child

(Compare infraction.)

that

(Compare indiscrete.) indiscrete

A

younger.

destitute.

indigo; pL, indigos or indigoes

Notorious, of very bad

reputation.

one way or another. indigent

Unfairness. (Compare

inequity

Distinctive marks.

To charge

ineffective.)

Lacking, not capable.

(Compare inapt, unapt.)

Abbreviation for

indicative; indicated, indicator.

accuse.

inefficient.)

Wasteful in execution.

(Compare inept

Not giving desired

(Compare

inefficient

india rubber

indicia

Unfit to be eaten.

inedible

pointing finger.

indict

inference,

understanding from particular

index; pi, indexes or indices

Indian

adjective.

An

induction

in-depth

Indian

As

indoor

notch, recess, or

work made by spacing left.

in

indolent; indolence

to be cured.

indention.)

A

compose indict.)

Indo-European

dent in something solid. (Compare

indention

up,

(Compare

distinct

indistinct.)

Abbreviation for individual.

indiv.

teach by repetition,

Not able

incurable

To make

indite

incubi or incubuses

pi.,

inculcate

(Compare

qualities.

(Compare incredible.)

skeptical.

Not having

indistinctive

to believe.

(Compare incredulous.)

To draw

a conclusion.

(Compare imply.)

Blurred, dim. (Compare

inferable or inferrible

indistinctive.)

inferiority

102

complex

A

infidel

person

who

does not

Wickedness,

iniquity

infield

initial, initialed

infielder

inkblot test in lieu of

infighting infin.

Abbreviation for

inflict

To

in

infinitive.

In

Plurals of

memory

made on

afflict.)

the

first

daughters-in-law)

in-flight

informant

A

person

who

innards

(Compare informer.)

inner city

information or info

A

person

inner tube

(Compare informant.)

innervate

A

(Compare infarction.)

innocuous innuendo;

(Compare ingenuous.)

to.

Harmless. pi.,

inpatient

innuendos or

A

person staying

at

a

hospital for treatment.

input, inputted or input

Cleverness,

though tfa lness. (Compare

in re or re

ingenuousness.)

Concerning, in the

matter of, regarding.

inroad

Natural, innocent.

(Compare ingenious.) ingenuousness

momentum

innuendoes

Clever, thoughtful.

ingenue or ingenue

ingenuous

give

innkeeper

infrastructure

ingenuity

To

(Compare enervate.)

violation of a law,

infrared

ingenious

(e.g.,

.

inner space

discloses

something about another.

infraction

word

As noun. As adjective.

inner-city

who

this

inmost or innermost

discloses

information sought by another.

informer

of.

words with

ending (e.g., daughter-in-law) are

often in a physical sense.

rule.

or initialled

Instead of.

memoriam

in-law

cause distress or pain,

(Compare

sin.

(Compare inequity.)

believe in a god or religion.

ins

Naturalness,

and outs

in-service

innocence. (Compare ingenuity.)

inset, inset or insetted

inglenook

inside out

ingrained

inside track

ingratiate

in-group

insignia or insigne;

inherent

Part of character, nature;

intrinsic.

inherit

(Compare

To come

insole or innersole

insomnia

(Compare inherent.)

insomniac

As

adjective and noun.

insomuch as

in-house

inhuman

insignia or

insofar as

inherit.)

into possession of

something through another's death.

/?/..

insignias

Savage, brutal.

insouciant; insouciance

105

if

part of a formal

IPA

preceding

title

The abbreviation

a name.

International Phonetic Alphabet or

Capitalize only

inspector general

is

International Scientific Vocabulary

Insp.

Gen. or IG.

or

instant replay

or

Capitalize only

if

Interpol or International Criminal

part of

Police Organization

number

Abbreviation for

inst.

instrument, instrumental;

To

interregnum;

secure.

(Compare ensure.)

interrobang

The knowledgeable

intersession

A

punctuation mark

Highly concentrated,

done with

force.

(Compare

?

).

states.

Capitalize if part of proper noun.

(Compare

which means between or are written as

unless the second

one word

word

is

intervenor or intervener

interweave, interwove or

a proper

interweaved

interdepartmental, interdependent,

intestacy

intergovernmental, interplanetary,

a will.

interracial, interscholastic

intercession

intl.

.

(Compare inter session. )

fact

or intnl. or

into

of dying without

int.

Abbreviation

A

function

word

indicating

entry, introduction, motion.

Abbreviation for

in toto

interjection.

(Compare

intr.

internment.)

interminable

The

for international.

Intervention.

Burial.

intrastate.)

interstice;/?/., interstices

(e.g., intercollegiate,

interment

Between

interstate

Compounds formed with

among,

(

intercession.)

intense.)

inter-,

mark

Period between

academic terms. (Compare

intensive.)

interj.

interregnums or

point and question

Extreme, severe. (Compare

intensive

noun

,

combination of explanation

that is

elite.

intense

inter-

pi.

interregna

intake intelligentsia

(Compare

interpretative or interpretive

make

protect,

insert estimated

values.

interpellate.)

instruction, instructor.

insure

To

interpolate

Institute.

or

question formally.

(Compare interpolate.)

proper noun: the Brookings

instr.

To

interpellate

instil

institute

Holding during

wartime. (Compare interment.)

installment or instalment

instill

ISV

internment

Thickened.

inspissated

Entirely.

Abbreviation for introduced,

introducing, introduction,

Seeming never

introductory.

to

end.

intra-

Compounds formed with which means within or

internal-combustion engine

intra-,

international date line

inside of, are written as

104

one word

unless the second

word begins

ipse dixit

intramural).

assertion.

intrans. or intr.

Abbreviation for

ipso facto

intransitive.

(Compare

IQ or

IUD

A

contraceptive.

words

meaning "non-"

r,

iris; pi., irises

extrinsic.)

which means

Rainbowlike.

iridescent

from

or irides

Irish coffee

Compounds formed with

Irish potato

into, within,

Irish setter

or inwards, are written as one

Irish stew

word.

ironclad

The

introduction or intro abbreviation

is intr.

Iron Curtain or iron curtain

or introd.

ironfisted

introvert

iron

To flood or overwhelm. To become used to

inundate inure

I.Q. or intelligence quotient

irascible

An

essential part of, originating

(Compare

the

or "un-'\

intrinsic or intrinsical

intro-,

"by

by the nature of

beginning with

intriguer or intrigant or intriguant

intro-

facto.)

Prefix often used before

ir-

device inserted in the uterus as a

within.

(Compare ipso

something. (Compare ipse dixit.)

state.

interstate.)

intrauterine device or

"he

Latin; literally,

fact itself,"

Within a

intrastate

Latin; literally,

himself said it," an unproved

with an a (e.g., intra-arterial, but

hand

ironhanded ironside

something unpleasant

(e.g.,

The irons in the fire

football players were inured to

ironwork pain).

Unable

irradicable inv.

to

be wiped

Abbreviation for invented, out or destroyed.

invention, inventor.

invaluable

To complain

inveigh

(Compare

irreg. or irr.

harshly.

irreligous

lure, seduce.

To

irruption

A

burst inward.

(Compare eruption.)

Abbreviation for input/output.

IRS

ion t

fixable or

retrievable.

inward or inwards

IOU; pl. IOUs Abbreviation for owe you in an informal written

Not

irreparable

think up, create

something new.

I/O

Indifferent or hostile

toward religion.

(Compare inveigh.) invent

Abbreviation for

irregular.

inveigle.)

To

inveigle

irrefragable or irrefutable

Precious, priceless.

Abbreviation for Internal

Revenue Service. In most cases,

/

use in text only after the

full

name

has been used.

statement of debt.

ipecac

Irving,

10$

Washington

(

783- 1 859)

American author. Wrote

iterate or reiterate

the

"Legend of Sleepy Hollow."

Compounds beginning mean

is-, iso-

To

Abbreviation for itinerary.

itin.

itinerancy or itineracy

"equal" or "uniform," are

itinerant

Capitalize

island

noun

if

Traveling. (Compare

iterate.)

part of proper

itinerary

(e.g., Staten Island).

A

its

island-hop isle

say or do

itinerant.)

with these forms, which

written as one word: isotope.

is

(Compare

again.

The

Island.

possessive pronoun (e.g., bottle is missing its lid).

Does not take an apostrophe.

not or isn't it's

A

contraction of

it is.

isosceles itty-bitty or itsy-bitsy

isthmus

IV

Abbreviation for intravenous,

Italian dressing italics

to

with possessives

make an

possessive

italicized is

intravenously. 's

word

usually written in

roman typeface Year

The

as in "Life's

ivory-tower

As

ivory tower

As noun.

>vy;p/., ivies

The

Ivy League

in Pictures issue."

106

adjective.

improvised performance by a

group of musicians.

A name

Jane Doe /John Doe

jabot jackal

given to a

jackanapes

actual

woman

name

not

is

man whose known (as

or

Jack Frost

used in hospitals or in court

jackhammer

proceedings).

japan black

jack-in-the-box

Japan wax

jack-in-the-pulpit; pi., jack-in-the-

jardiniere

pulpits or jacks-in-the-pulpit

An

jargon

jackknife

expression or body of

language that

jack-o'-lantern

is

either strange

and

obscure or special to a domain or

jackpot

occupation.

jackrabbit

jaundice

jacquard

Coffee (named after the

Java

jaguar

Indonesian island where coffee jai alai

beans are grown).

A

jail

local facility for confinement

jawbone jawbreaker

of lawbreakers or people awaiting

(Compare prison.)

trial.

jaybird

jailbait

jaywalker

A

pedestrian

who

jailbreak crosses a street carelessly or jailer or jailor

without obeying

jalapeno jet.

jalopy: pL, jalopies jalousie

A

type of slatted

window

(Compare jalousie.) jeep

posts or frame around

Army (1843-1916)

novelist.

Author of The

vehicle.

jejune Jekyll

(1842-1910)

split

American psychologist and one of

and Hyde

A

jelly

jam-pack

bean

jellyfish

An

informal,

jelly roll

107

personality evil.

trademark name for

flavored gelatin.

philosophy.

A

between good and

Jell-O

the founders of pragmatic

session

referring to the

Jehovah's Witness

Bostonians.

James, William

if

refers to the general-purpose

jamboree

jam

Capitalize

trademarked vehicle. Otherwise

an opening such as a door.

James, Henry

quality or condition

of being resentfully envious.

Jamaica rum

American

The

jealousy

Jamaica ginger

The

Abbreviation

for junction.

covering. (Compare jealousy.)

jamb

traffic rules.

or jctn. or June.

it

joie

jeopardy

To

jerry-build

A

joule

joyride

jetsam

joystick

jet set

judge

if

part of

preceding a name:

judgeship

A

judgmatic or judgmatical

believer in Judaism, or a

judgment or judgement Judgment Day

descendent of the Hebrew people.

jujitsu or jujutsu

Abbreviation for junior high

sail

(noun); to cause to

jukebox sail

julep

or shift (verb); or to balk (verb).

(Compare gibe,

To

Japanese; an art

of weaponless self-defense.

school.

jibe

title

Judge Leslie Fields.

stream

jettison

A

Capitalize only

formal

jet-setter

jib

unit of energy storage

measure.

jet propulsion

JHS

"joy

being

jostle

cow

jet-propelled

Jew

literally in

jonquil

jet lag

jet

French;

alive.

and cheaply, jersey;/?/., jerseys

jersey

de vivre

of living." Pleasure

rig together quickly

julienne jibe.)

agree, coincide.

jumbo;

(Compare

jumbos

pi.,

jumbo jet

gibe, jib.)

jump-off

As noun.

jiffy

jumpsuit jigsaw puzzle

June bug or June bug

jinx

Jung, Cart Gustav

job action

(1875-1961)

Swiss psychologist and

job-hopping psychiatrist.

job

lot

jungle

jock itch jockstrap

Capitalize

of proper noun.

jocular

when

part

A comma may

be used before the designation

jocund

when Hank

jodphur

John Hancock or John Henry

A

it

follows a surname (e.g.,

Williams, Jr.).

junketeer or junketer

signature.

junkie or junky;

johnnycake Johnson, Samuel

gym

junior or jr.

(1

pi.,

junk mail junkyard

709- 1 784)

English writer, lexicographer, and

junta

critic.

junto;

108

pi.,

juntos

junkies

jurisprudence

jury-rig

juror justice of the peace

only as a formal

To

set

up a makeshift

arrangement. Capitalize

title

juvenile delinquent

preceding a

person

name: Justice of the Peace

who

A

young

habitually engages in

antisocial or illegal behavior.

Hopkins.

109

kelly green

A

Kelvin scale

German; a

kaffeeklatsch

zero

get-

kennel, kenneled or kennelled

(1883-1924)

kerchief; pl.

writer.

kerosene

(1866-1944)

Kerouac, John

Russian nonfigurative painter.

Author of Uber das Geistige

American Beat

in

On

der Kunst.

Kant, Immanuel

novelist.

Author of

the Road.

kettledrum kettle of fish

kapok

keyboard

kaput or kaputt

The

keyhole

unit of

keynote

measure

keypunch

indicating gold content of alloyed

gold objects. (Compare carat,

key ring

caret, carrot.)

keystone

A

Japanese

art

of

keystroke

self-

key word

defense.

KGB

katydid

kayak kayo or KO, kayoed or KO'd Keats, John poet.

(1922-1969)

ketchup or catsup

(1724-1804)

philosopher. Author of

Critique of Pure Reason.

karate

kerchiefs or

kernel

kamikaze Kandinsky, Wassily

karat

t

kerchieves

kaleidoscope

German

Nicely kept (e.g., a kempt

hairstyle).

sharing gossip.

German

approximately -273°C.

is

kempt

together for drinking coffee and

Kafka, Franz

scale that measures

extreme cold, on which absolute

kabob or kebab or kebob

Khrushchev, Nikita

keep, kept

Soviet

Compounds

kibosh

formed with these endings are usually written as one

word

Union

khaki

(1795-1821) English

-keeper, -keeping

intelligence agency of

(analogous to the CIA),

Author of Endymion.

Communist

A

(1894-1971) politician.

stop to something,

usually used in the construction

put the kibosh on.

(e.g.

innkeeper, beekeeping).

kickoff

keepsake keeshond;

The

the former Soviet

As noun,

kicks tand pi.,

Keller, Helen

keeshonden

kid glove

(1880-1968)

American author and

the blind. She, herself, blind, deaf, and

kidnap, kidnapped or kidnaped

lecturer

was

mute by

on

kidney stone kid stuff

left

kielbasa; pi., kielbasas or kielbasi

illness at

a young age.

Kierkegaard, Seren

110

(1813-1855)

Danish founder of

knave; knavish; knavery

existentialist

knead

philosophy.

kneecap

killjoy

kilogram or kg

knee-deep

kilohertz or

kHz

kilometer or

km

kilowatt or

kw

kW

kwh

knee jerk or

kWh

kneel, knelt or kneeled

kneepad

kimonos

pi.,

As adjective. As noun.

knee-jerk

or

kilowatt-hour or

kimono;

knee-high

knickerbockers

kindergarten

kindhearted

knickknack

kindred

knife, knived

kinesiology

knife; pi., knives

kinetic energy

king

knight-errant; pi ., knights-errant

Capitalize only

formal

if part

of

knit, knit or knitted

knob knock

preceding a name:

title

King Henry

VIII.

(1

929— 1 968) American clergyman

and

knockdown

The next world.

king-size or king-sized

knock-down-drag-out

knock-kneed

Larger

knockoff

than the usual standard.

As noun. Slang term

meaning a copy or

kiosk Kipling,

adjective or noun. adjective or noun.

knock-down-and-drag-out or

civil rights leader.

kingdom come

As As

knockabout

King, Jr., Martin Luther

Rudy ard

( 1

865- 1 936)

especially a

English writer. Author of The

more expensive.

As adjective or noun. knock wurst or knackwurst A

knockout

Jungle Book. kiss-off

As noun. Slang term

meaning an abrupt dismissal.

type of sausage.

kitchenette

knoll

knothole

kitty-corner

Klee, Paul

(1

879- 1 940) Swiss

know, knew, known

painter and co-founder of the

know-how

German

know-it-all

abstract group Blaue

knowledgeable

Reiter.

Kleenex

imitation,

copy of something

A

trademark name for

know-nothing

Know-Nothing

tissues.

kleptomaniac

An

ignorant person.

Capitalize as the

secret U.S. political party of the

klieg lights

1850s whose attitude was hostile

klutz; klutzy

to

knack knapsack

and foreign influence as perceived

Roman

threats.

in

Catholics, immigrants,

Short form for sauerkraut.

knucklebone

kraut

knucklehead

Kriss

koala

krypton

kohlrabi; pi .. kohlrabies

A

kudos

type

Koran or Qur'an

The sacred

organization

Sanctioned by Jewish law;

who espouse kumquat

appropriate or proper.

demonstrate extreme

deference.

kraft paper

An

KKK A

secret is

American-born white Christians

used generally to mean

To

or

whose membership

understood to be limited to

scripture of Islam.

kowtow

Santa Claus.

Public honor.

Ku Klux Klan

of cabbage.

kosher

Kr ingle

k vetch

Yiddish; to gripe.

KWIC

Abbreviation meaning

keyword

especially strong

kyrie

paper.

K ration

white supremacy.

A

in context.

prayer beginning with the

words "Lord, have mercy."

112

A

laguna

small lake or pond.

(Compare lagoon.) I.,

U.

Abbreviation for

laid-back

line, lines.

laissez-faire

label, labeled or labelled

lake

labellum; pi ., labella

laboratory or lab if

Capitalize

if

part of proper

noun. Abbreviation

labium;/?/., labia

is

L.

lakefront

Capitalize only

lakeshore

part of proper noun.

lama

Labor Day

A monk

practicing

Mahayana

Buddhism. (Compare llama.)

labor-intensive

lamasery;

laborsaving

lamaseries

pi.,

lambaste or lambast

Labrador retriever

lambent

labyrinth

lame

labyrinthine or labyrinthian

Shiny, metallic material.

As

lamebrain or lamebrained

lacework

adjective.

lachrymal or lacrimal

Related to

lame duck

the tear ducts.

lame-duck

Sorrowful, weepy.

lachrymose

lamella; pi., lamellae or lamellas

lackadaisical

Dispirited or

Lamentations

unconcerned,

lamina;

lackey; pi, lackeys

laminae or laminas

lamplight

Habitually terse in speech.

lampoonery

lacquer

Ridiculing.

lamppost

lacrosse

lacuna;

pi.,

lampblack

lackluster

laconic

As noun. As adjective.

lampshade lacunae or lacunas

pi.,

A

LAN

void.

Abbreviation for local area

network.

ladder-back

lance corporal

ladder truck

land-

Many compounds formed

lade, laded or laden

with land- are spelled as one word

la-di-da or la-de-da

(e.g., landfill, landlocked,

ladybug

landlubber, landmark, landowner,

ladyfinger

landscaper, landslide).

lady-in-waiting; pi.

,

ladies-in-

-land

waiting Laetrile or laetrile

A

drug used

in

in

-land

(e.g.,

land grant

lager

land office

A

one word

homeland).

cancer therapy.

lagoon

Compounds ending

are written as

small lake or pond near

land-office

a large body of water. (Compare

land-poor

laguna.)

lane

115

As noun. As adjective.

Capitalize only

if

part of

proper noun. Abbreviations are

lasagna or lasagne

La. or In.

lascivious laser

Abbreviation for language.

lang.

An

languid

adjective

meaning

lasso; pi., lassos or lassoes

As

weak, sluggish. (Compare

last-ditch

languor, languorous.)

last

hurrah

last

straw

languish

To

decrease in health and

Last Supper

vitality.

A

languor

noun meaning

last

word

weakness, sluggishness. (Compare

Lat. or L.

languid, languorous.)

latchkey

weakness, sluggishness. (Compare

obvious. (Compare manifest.) latex; pi, latices or latexes

lanolin

lanyard

lath; pi.

Lao-Tsu

(6th century B.C.)

Chinese founder of Taoist philosophy.

A

laths or lath

wood used

material.

(Compare

Means

thin

as building

lathe.)

to cut with a rotating

machine. (Compare lath.)

lap belt

Latin abbreviations

lapelled or lapeled

lapidary

As

punctuated, lowercased, and

Related to stones,

usually not italicized.

Latin American

engraving, or sculpting.

lap robe

Latitude, described

latitude

by

parallels, is written out in text

lapis lazuli

larceny; pi.

Abbreviations

of Latin words and phrases are

adjective.

especially in terms of cutting,

larcenies

,

Theft of

(e.g.,

and penates

45 degrees 45 minutes north

latitude or 45th parallel north),

personal property.

Household

and abbreviated

in tables (e.g.,

lat.45-45N). (See also

items.

largehearted

longitude.)

large-minded

latter

large-print

A

The second of two

things, or

the last in a series.

largess or largesse

Latter-day Saint or

musical direction to play

Mormon

latticework

an expansive, stately manner.

laudable

Praiseworthy. (Compare

laudatory.)

lariat

larkspur

laudatory

laughing gas

laryngitis pi.,

Expressing praise.

(Compare laudable.)

larva; pt.. larvae or larvas

larynx;

,

piece of

lathe

lapdog

in

Dormant, hidden, not

latent

languid, languor.)

largo

Abbreviation for Latin.

latecomer

Inducing or producing

languorous

lares

adjective.

larynges or larynxes

laughingstock

114

launchpad

lead poisoning

launch vehicle

lead time

launderette

lead-up

laundry room

leaf; pi., leaves

Noun

laureate

or adjective

describing the recipient of honor,

As

adjective or noun.

or leafs

leaflet

league

Capitalize only

Drippage, escape. (Compare

leak

lavatory

leek.)

lavender

lean, leaned or leant

law-abiding

lean-to; pi., lean-tos

lawbreaking; lawbreaker

leap, leapt or leaped

lawmaking; lawmaker

leapfrog

lawn mower

leap year

The

names of laws

official

and bylaws are written out on the first

mention and

may be

learn, learned or learnt

leaseholder least

common denominator

abbreviated in subsequent

leastwise or leastways

references.

leathery

lawsuit

leave, left

laxative

lo

lay, laid

leavening

As noun. As noun or

layabout

layaway

and behold

leave-taking adjective.

lecherous

layette

lecithin

As noun. layout As noun. layover As noun.

lectern

layperson

lecture or speech titles

layoff

As noun.

lay-up

lb or lb.

reading stand from to a

congregation.

LED Abbreviation for libra

"pound."

(See Part

of works.)

Abbreviation for

light-

emitting diode.

ledger

Abbreviation for liquid

Lee, Robert E.

(1

807- 1 870)

Confederate General. Served as

crystal display.

lead, led

military adviser to Jefferson Davis

lead glass lead-in

A

which a person speaks

2, Titles

lazybones

LCD

part of

League team).

with laurel." lavaliere or lavalliere

laws

if

proper noun (e.g., an American

from Latin meaning "crowned

As noun

at

or adjective.

leading edge leadoff

lead-pipe

As adjective or noun. As adjective.

leek

outbreak of the Civil War.

An

onionlike vegetable.

(Compare leak.) leeward leeway

left

left-wing

Italian painter, sculptor, architect,

left-winger

and

lefty; pi., lefties

Lisa and Last Supper.

scientist.

Painted the

Mona

leopard

legacy; pi., legacies

leotard

legalese

The person

legatee

property

to

through a

is left

leper

whom

type of

The person who

lesbian

lese-majesty or lese

Adroitness, trickery,

majesty

sleight of hand.

lesion

Abbreviation for this and

a bulk amount or a whole.

legitimate or legit

(Compare few.)

legitimate or legitimize or

As

Refers to quantity or degree of

less

variants is legis. or leg.

legitimatize

French; an offense

against an established power.

Legionnaire's disease legislate

Irish folklore; a

elf.

leprosy

writes a

(Compare legatee.)

legerdemain

From

leprechaun

will.

(Compare legator.) legator will.

its

Leo (see Zodiac Signs). Leonardo da Vinci (1452- 1519)

As adjective or noun. As noun. As adjective.

wing

plant or

seed.

left-hand; left-hander leftover

The leguminous

lentil

left field; left fielder

Compounds

less-, lesser-

are

verb.

hyphenated before a noun but leg-pull

two words

written as

legroom after

legume

it

(e.g.,

if

they

fall

a less-worn rug, a

lesser-known writer but the rug ,

legwork

was

leisure

leitmotiv or leitmotif

theme, as

in a

A

Compounds ending

-less

long piece of music

are written as one

in -less

word unless

combination would result

lemma; pi., lemmas or lemmata lemon yellow lemonade

double

/

(e.g.,

lessee

model- less, but

The person

property.

lend-lease

renting a

(Compare

lessor.)

The person renting out property. (Compare lessee.) letdown As noun lessor

length;/?/., lengths

lengthwise or lengthways lenient

let's (1 870- 1 924)

in a

cheerless).

lend, lent

Communist

worn, the writer was

lesser known).

dominant

or a novel.

Lenin, V.I.

less

Russian

or

let

us

letter carrier

leader.

letterhead

lens or lense; pi., lenses

letter-perfect

116

the

letterpress

librarian.

nouns are usually formed by adding an apostrophe and

capital letters

liberal arts

liberal-minded

causes the least confusion in

ABC's

and

or ABCs).

(Compare

person unconcerned

with morals. (Compare

leuk-, leuko-, leuc-, leuco-

Compounds of

this

libertarian.)

combining

Liberty Bell

form, which means white or colorless, are written as

libidinous

one word

libido; pi., libidos

(e.g., leukemia.)

Libra

leukocyte or leucocyte

Capitalize only

proper noun (e.g., the

honor or an embankment against

(Compare

Zodiac Signs),

(see

library

reception for a person of

river flooding.

libertine.)

A

libertine

A

who

person

advocates free will, liberty.

As noun.

levee

A

libertarian

q's, but

lettuce

letup

(Compare slander.)

libeled or libelled

depending on which form

context (e.g., p's

published defamatory

statement.

formed by adding

is

A

libel

s,

though sometimes the plural of

s alone,

Abbreviation for library,

lib.

Plurals of letters used as

letters

if

part of a

New

York

Public Library, but the local

levy.) library).

level, leveled

or levelled

Library of Congress

The

levelheaded abbreviation

is

Trade name for a type of

Levi's

denim

LC.

libretto; pi., librettos or

jeans.

Also called the book; the

libretti

Lightness, frivolity.

levity

A

levy

tax, imposition.-

text for

(Compare

lie.

an opera or musical.

Abbreviation for license,

levee.) licensed.

lewd

license plate

Lewis and Clarke Lewis, Sinclair

American

(1

novelist.

Author of

licit

Dictionary making.

Abbreviation for low

L, Ige., Irg.

(Compare

lickety -split

Quickly.

which candy

Abbreviations for

is

licorice.)

A

root

pi.,

Lhasa apsos

lie,

lay, lain

To

position

liable

horizontally, exist, extend.

liaison

(Compare

117

from

made. (Compare

lickerish.)

large.

Lhasa apso;

Greedy, desirous, or

lecherous.

licorice or liquorice

frequency. Ig.,

Legal or permissible.

lickerish

lexicon; pi., lexica or lexicons

LF

restraint.

lichen

Babbit.

lexicography

Lacking

licentious

885- 1 95 1

lie, lied.)

To

lie, lied

(Compare

light

a falsehood.

tell

light-handed

Liederkranz cheese

A

lien

personal property for

lieu of.

on

legal interest in or hold

light-headed lighthearted

value

its

(Compare

against debt.

light

lieu.)

heavyweight

Place. Chiefly used as in lieu

lighthouse

(Compare

light

lieutenant or

lien.)

It.

formal

title

title

Making

less in weight,

burden. (Compare lightning.)

used as

lighter-than-air

lightfaced

It.

Capitalize only

formal

if

preceding a name.

lieutenant governor or

gov.

meter

lightening

or

Capitalize only

lieut.

used as

if

An

lightning

preceding a name.

the

air.

electrical discharge in

(Compare lightening.)

lightplane

life;/?/., lives

Compounds formed with

life-

bulb

light-footed

lay.)

lie,

thai are written as

lightship

life-

one word

lights-out

include lifeblood, lifeguard,

lightweight

lifeline, lifesaver, lifesaving,

light-year

lifetime, lifework.

likable or likeable

Compounds

that are

hyphenated

include life-giving, life-size or

-like

Compounds ending

are written as one

life-

sized, life-support.

/ is

life-and-death or life-or-death

in -like

word unless

the

doubled or tripled or the

resulting combination appears

life

history

strange to the eye (e.g., girl-like,

life

insurance

cell-like, haiku-like,

life

jacket or

life

For the entire time of

lifelong

like-minded

one's existence. (Compare

likewise

livelong.)

lilliputian

An

life

of Riley

life

preserver

Life Savers

easy, carefree

span

lily-livered

Trademark name

for a

lily

The duration of existence

lift-off

or

lima bean

limb

-light

As noun.

appendage, such as an leg or a branch of a tree.

(Compare limn.)

Limburger cheese

lit

Compounds ending

are written as one

An

arm or a

lifestyle

light, lighted or

of the valley

lily-white

of a living creature. life-style

or Lilliputian

Miniature, very small.

life.

type of candy. life

but childlike).

likelihood

vest

word

limelight

in -light

limerick

(e.g.,

sunlight).

limited-access

116

highway

limn

To

outline, describe.

lion; pi.

(Compare limb.)

Limoges large automobile

lip-read

lipreading

driven by a chauffeur.

limpid

lip service

Clear, untroubled.

Number of

linage

lipstick

lines printed.

(Compare lineage.)

A

linchpin

something

lip-synch or lip-sync

that holds everything

liq.

first

word

in -line

lissome or lissom

(e.g.,

list

lit.

(Compare linage.) Outline or

listeners-in literal,

litany;/?/., litanies

(Compare

liter

liniment.)

or

linebacker

or

L

abbreviation

In the exact sense.

literally

littoral.)

Means

actually, exactly.

(Compare figuratively,

linguistics.

lingerie

literate

lingo; pi., lingoes

or unfamiliar or individualized

literati pi.,

virtually.)

who can

read

literati,

Educated people as a

group. (Compare literate,

lingua francas

or linguae francae

person

literatim.)

vocabulary.

lingua franca;

A

and write. (Compare

Jargon, slang,

is /

lit.

(Compare

Abbreviation for linguistic,

The

litre

or

literal

As noun.

A common

literatim.)

language.

literatim

Letter for

(Compare

linguine linguistic or linguistical

A

,

Abbreviation for

literally; literary, literature.

distinguishing feature.

liniment

(Compare

price

listener-in; pi.

Descent, ancestry.

lith-, litho-

letter.

literate, literati.)

Compounds of

this

combining form, which means

medicinal cream.

(Compare lineament.) linkup

strong (usually distilled)

alcoholic beverage.

online).

ling.

sweetened liquor.

liqueur.)

Compounds ending

are written as one

A

liquor

solo nonstop

transatlantic flight.

lineup

verb.

(Compare liquor.)

(1902-1974) American aviator

who completed

A

liqueur

Lindbergh, Charles A.

lineament

As

Abbreviation for liquid.

liquefy or liquify

else together.

lineage

As noun.

sync

lip

fastening element;

Lincoln's Birthday

-line

share

lion's

A

limousine

lions or lion

,

lionhearted

stone, are written as

As noun.

one word

(e.g., lithograph).

linoleum

lithe

Linotype

litigant

119

or lithesome

Flexible.

litmus paper

loan shark

litterateur

loan-sharking

litterbag

loanword

As adverb.

least

little, less,

little, littler

or less or lesser,

As

or least

Concerning

loathe

littlest

they

was

little

by

lobotomy

fall after it (e.g.,

lobster pot

a

loc.

known).

As

of particular event,

action; neighborhood.

location or locality position, place.

Whole. (Compare

"in the place cited."

citato,

and

lock, stock,

Completely

barrel

livery;/?/., liveries

outfitted the fishing

livestock

stock,

wire

American

and barrel with salvaged

physicist.

room

locker

lockjaw

Co-developed

lock nut

lockout

The camel-like pack animal

lockup

(Compare lama.)

loco

one word

As noun.

lockstep

native to South America.

Compounds ending

adjective.

As adjective. As noun.

locker-room

the cyclotron.

are written as

As

locked-in

the atom-smashing device called

-load

They

lock,

lockbox

room

As noun. living-room As adjective. Livingston, Stanley ( 1 905- 1 986)

llama

(e.g.,

camp

material).

livid

living

locale.)

Abbreviation for loco

loc. cit.

oak

General

(Compare

liverwurst

live

(Compare

locater or locator

adjective or noun.

lifelong.) live

site

location.)

literal.)

livelihood

livelong

The

locale

livable or liveable live-in

As noun.

local or localite

Concerning the seashore.

(Compare

Abbreviation for locative;

location.

little

littoral

(Compare

lobbyist or lobbyer are hyphenated

little-known desire, but the desire

little

verb: to hate.

loath.)

before a noun but written as two if

(Compare

)

As

loathe

adjective.

size, duration, or

Compounds

words

adjective:

unwilling, reluctant.

importance. little-

As

loath or loathe

litterbug

As noun.

Spanish; crazy.

locum tenens;

in -load

tenentes

(e.g.,

workload).

pi.,

locum

Latin; literally, "(one)

holding the place,*

loaf; pi., loaves

substitute,

loafer

locus; pi., loci

120

'

a temporary

A

lode

long-hair or long-haired

deposit of metal, ore.

longhand

lodestone

longhorn

lodgment or lodgement

Compounds of

log-, logo-

meridians,

this

word

longitude or 45th meridian west),

are written as one

and abbreviated

(e.g., logarithm).

logbook loggerhead(s)

latitude.)

long-playing

a covered balcony

long-range

overlooking a courtyard or (in a

long shot

theater) a stage.

The

logistics

details

long-sought

of doing

long-standing or longtime

something.

long-suffering

logjam

long suit

logo; pi., logos

log

on

also

long-lived

loggia; pi., loggias or Italian;

in tables (e.g.,

45-45W). (See

long.

loggie

written out in text

is

45 degrees 45 minutes west

(e.g.,

combining form, which means

word or speech,

Longitude, described by

longitude

Abbreviation for logarithm.

log

As

adjective.

lodestar

As

long-term

verb, log-on or logon

As

longtime

As noun.

adjective.

longueur;/?/ ., longueurs logroll

Trading votes for favors

in

long view politics.

long-winded loincloth

loofah or luffa lollipop or lolly pop

from the

fruit

A

sponge made

of a loofah plant.

lollygag or lallygag

look-alike

London

broil

looker-on; pi., lookers-on

loneliness

long-ago long ago

look-in

As adjective. As noun.

look-see

longbow

lookup

As

adjective or

As noun.

loony or looney

adverb.

long distance

As noun.

lookout

long-awaited

long-distance

As noun.

looking glass

loony bin

As noun.

loophole

long-drawn-out

loose or loosen

longevity

Longfellow, Henry

(Compare

Wads worth

loose

end

(1807-1882) American poet.

loose-jointed

Author of Tales of a Wayside

loose-leaf

Inn.

lopsided

121

To make

lose.)

less tight.

log.

loquacious

LORAN

low-pressure low-spirited

Abbreviation for

lox; pi., lox or loxes

long-range navigation.

lozenge

Lord's Prayer lose, lost

To

possession.

adjective.

low-lying

Talkative

or loran

As

low-life

Abbreviation for loquitur,

"he/she speaks."

fail to

(Compare

lothario or Lothario

LPG

loose.)

A

A

LP

keep

long-playing record.

Abbreviation for liquefied

petroleum gas.

seducer of

LSD

women. Lou Gehrig's disease loudmouth

Lysergic acid diethylamide, a

psychedelic drug. ltd.

or Ltd. or lim.

Do

Abbreviation

comma

loudspeaker

for limited.

lounge lizard

before Ltd. unless the punctuation

loungewear

is

louse; pi ., lice

name.

part of the

louver or louvre

luau

lovable or loveable

lubricious

not use a

company's formal

Lecherous. (Compare

lugubrious.)

love affair

lovebird

Glowing, very

lucent

(Compare

love-in

lovelorn

lucid

Transparent, lighted, clear.

(Compare lucent.)

lovemaking lovers' lane

Lucite

love seat

A

brand name for a

transparent plastic.

lovesick

lucre

lowborn

lugubrious

lowboy

Mournful, dismal.

(Compare lubricious.)

lowbred

lukewarm

lowbrow lowdown As noun. low-down As adjective. low-end As adjective. lower class As noun. lower-class As adjective.

lullaby;/?/., lullabies

lowercase

lumberjack

lowest

clear.

lycid.)

lulu

lumbar

Relating to vertebrae.

(Compare lumber.)

lumber from

common denominator

Building material milled logs.

(Compare lumbar.)

lumberyard

low-grade

luminary

low-key or low-keyed

luminescent

lowland or lowlands

lunacy

low-level

lunar

lowlife; pi., lowlifes or low lives

lunch counter

122

satisfying; self-indulgent.

lunchtime

(Compare luxuriant.)

lupine

lyceum

A

luscious

lye

luster or lustre

lynch

Luther, Martin

(1483-1546)

German founder of

harsh chemical.

lynx; pi., lynx or lynxes

the

lyonnaise

Reformation and Protestantism. luxuriant

Very pleasurable,

luxurious

luncheonette

lunchroom

lyricist

Profuse, fertile, lush.

A

musical

(Compare luxurious.)

12?

person

lyrics.

who

writes

M

madcap Madeira wine

macabre macadamia nut macadamize

madeleine mademoiselle;

macaroni

packaged that

Abbreviation

A

trademark name

combines nerve gas and

tear

As

verb.

if

maestro;

Machiavellian

Mafia

machinable or machineable

machine gun

verb.

pi.

maggot magic or magical

machine shop

magistrate

tool

Capitalize only

of formal

machismo Mach number pi.

,

maestros or maestri

,

magenta

machine-readable

mackerel;

Mile.; pi., Miles.

mafioso; pi ., mafiosi

As adjective or As noun.

machine-gun

is

maelstrom

machete

machine

Capitalize

made-up As adjective. madhouse Madison Avenue madras

in aerosol containers

gas to temporarily stun assailants.

mace

mademoiselles

made-to-order

chemical compound

a.

,

used preceding a name.

macaroon Mace As noun. for

pi.

or mesdemoiselles

title

if

part

preceding a name.

Magna Charta or Magna Carta magna cum laude Latin; with

mackerel or

great distinction, an honor at

mackerels

mackintosh or macintosh

graduation distinguishing an

The

academic degree.

waterproof coat or fabric.

magnate

(Compare Mcintosh.) macr-, macro-

Compounds of

magnet

long, large, or enlarged, are

word

metals.

(e.g.,

magneto;

macrobiotic).

macrame macro;

macron

or

A or

magnum

magnum

ma'am

preceding a name. Abbreviation or Mdme.\pl.,

magnetos

pi.,

A

champagne

large

wine or

bottle.

opus

Latin; an artist or

writer's greatest work.

madame; pL, mesdames or madames Capitalize if used

Mme.

iron alloy that attracts

(Compare magnate.)

magnolia

bar over a letter to

show long- vowel pronunciation.

madam

An

magniloquent

macrame

macro?

pi.,

very powerful person.

magnesia

combining form, which means written as one

A

(Compare magnet.) this

magpie

maharaja or maharajah

is

Mmes.

Hindu; a

prince ranking above a raja.

124

maharani or maha ranee

name: Majority Leader Steven

Hindu; a

princess ranking above a rani.

Hanley.

major league

teacher, sage, and poet.

major-medical

mah-jongg

make, made; makable or makeable

mahogany maid of honor

Traditional.

Use

make-believe

make-do

honor attendant.

best

As adjective. As noun.

major-league

Hindu; a mystical

maharishi

mailbag

make-or-break

mailbox

make-over

mail drop

-maker, -making

As noun. As adjective.

mail order

mail-order

written as one

makeshift

As

mainline

makeup

adjective or verb.

As noun.

line

mal-

As noun.

Bad, abnormal, or

mainstay

inadequate.

mainstream

mal-

d's or maitre d's

pi.

,

maitre

malapropism

maitres

malarkey American

Capitalize only title

Abbreviation

generals

part of

pi.,

title

Abbreviation

majordomo;

More

political

group

Muslim Mosque and

mal de mer

part

Seasickness.

malevolent

Maj. Gen.

malice

majordomos

malign

To speak

ill

of.

malignancy or malignance

than half of an

malignant

plurality.)

part of formal

and

religious

nationalism, and pride in race. if

amount, number. (Compare

majority leader

925- 1 965) African-

preached black separatism,

major

preceding a name.

is

/?/.,

called

( 1

spiritual

Formed

leader.

Maj.

is

Capitalize only

of formal

majority

if

preceding a name.

major general;

X

Malcolm

Corn. (Compare maze.)

formal

(e.g., maladjusted,

malaise

majolica or maiolica

major

which

malaprop or malapropian

d' hotel.

French; headwaiter.

d'hotel

in

maladroit, malapportioned).

Anglicized

form for maitre

maitre d'hotel;

pi.,

Compounds

a prefix are written as one

is

word

Street

maitre d' or maitre d';

maize

(e.g.,

makeready

mainframe

short

word

policymaker).

mainland

Main

Compounds

formed with these endings are

maillot

main

As noun.

Cancerous or with

tumor. Capitalize only title

mallard;

if

pi.

malleable

preceding

125

,

mallard or mallards

malodorous

manifest destiny or Manifest

Very bad smelling or

Destiny

very improper.

manifesto;

malted milk

manifestos or

pi.,

manifestoes

malt liquor

mama or mamma mammary gland mammogram

manila paper or Manila paper

managing

Mann, Thomas (1875-1955) German writer. Author of Doktor

manila or manilla

manipulate or manipulatable

editor

manana Spanish; tomorrow. mandamus; pi., mandamuses

Faustus.

mannequin or manikin or mannikin

mandarin collar mandarin orange mandibular or mandibulate

A

mandola

manque

small mandolin.

A

mandolin or mandoline

mansuetude

string

Gentleness.

mantel or mantelpiece

instrument of lute family.

above a

(Compare mandola.)

fireplace.

A

shelf

(Compare

mantle.)

mandrel or mandril

mantilla

French; the

training of a horse.

Manet, Edouard

Killing without

expressed or deliberate malice.

(Compare mandolin.)

manege or manege

Frustrated.

manslaughter

(1832-1883)

mantis;

pi.,

mantises or mantes

mantle

A

cape, cloak. (Compare

mantel.)

French painter and forerunner of

manual manuf.

Impressionism. Painter of

Abbreviation for

Dejeuner sur Vherbe. See Monet, manufacture, manufacturing.

Claude.

manufacture

maneuverable

(sometimes)

manuscript

bitters.

Manx

Excitement, a craze over

cat

many, more, most

something.

-mania

construct using

manumit manure

vermouth, whiskey, and

mania

To

labor, machinery.

mangoes or mangos mango; manhattan A cocktail made with pi.,

many-sided

Compounds ending

in

MaoTse-Tung

-mania are written as one word

(1893-1976)

Chinese Marxist. Developer of

(e.g., erotomania).

Chinese Communist party and

maniacal or maniac

leader of the 1966 Cultural

manic-depressive

Revolution.

manicotto;

manifest

pi.,

manicotti

Maoist

Obvious, apparent from

the surface.

(Compare

maple sugar maple syrup

latent.)

126

mapmaker

martin

marabou or marabout

A

swallow. (Compare

marten.)

maraschino or Maraschino

martinet

marathoner

martini

marble cake

Martin Luther King Day

marbling or marbleizing

martyr

Mardi Gras

marveled or marvelled

marg.

marvelous or marvellous

Abbreviation for marginal;

Marx, Karl

margin.

(1 818-1883)

political philosopher.

margarine

German

Author of

marginalia

Das Kapital and The Communist

margarita

Manifesto.

marijuana

Marxist

marinade; marinate

marzipan

Marine Corps or the

masc. or m.

Marines

Capitalize

if

referring

mascara masochism

to the specific branch of the

United States armed forces. marital

mason jar Mason-Dixon

Concerning marriage.

(Compare martial.)

markdown

Abbreviations for

masculine.

line

masquerade or masque or mask

As noun.

massacre

marketplace

masseur, masseuse

market research or marketing

mass medium;

pi.

research

As noun. marmalade marquee A canopy

mastectomies

Operation(s) to

remove a (usually cancerous) or tent. breast.

(Compare marquise.)

A gem

mass media

mastectomy; pi,

markup

marquise

,

mass-produce

market value

masterful

cutting.

Authoritative,

overpowering. (Compare

(Compare marquee.)

masterly.)

marsala or Marsala

master key

marshal or marshall

masterly

marshland

Knowledgeable,

skillful.

(Compare masterful.)

marshmallow

mastermind

marsupial

master of ceremonies or emcee or

marten

A

MC

weasel-like animal.

(Compare martin.) martial

masterpiece or masterwork

Concerning war, military.

master plan

(Compare marital.)

masterstroke

martian or Martian

masthead

127

A

mastiff

mausoleum;

breed of dog.

mat or matt or matte

match play match point

Compounds ending

are written as

one word

in

maybe Mayday

-mate

(e.g.,

A

soulmate).

May Day

Latin; literally,

Day.)

Celebration on the

first

day of May. (Compare Mayday.)

"medical matter," the study of

mayhem

drugs and remedies, materiel or materiel

distress signal.

May

(Compare

materia medica

mayonnaise

Supplies for

mayor

an organization.

Capitalize only

formal

Abbreviation for

title

if

part of

preceding name:

Mayor Jane M. Byrne.

mathematics, mathematical.

maypole

mathematical or mathematic

maze

mathematician

A

winding path or puzzle.

(Compare maize.)

mathematics or math

Mcintosh

matinee or matinee

A

variety of red apple;

also a brand

matinee idol matriarch

or

may, might mayapple

matchstick

math.

mausoleums or

mauve maven or mavin mawkish maximum; pi., maxima

glossy or shiny.

matchbook matchbox matchmaker

-mate

pi.,

mausolea

Dull, not

name of a computer.

(Compare mackintosh.) Mother, female head of

M.D.

Abbreviation for medical

group. doctor.

matrix;

pi.,

matrices or matrixes

M-day or mobilization day mea culpa Latin; literally,

matter of course matter-of-fact

"through

mature matutinal

Mead, Margaret

that oneself is to

ball

writer.

meadowland meadowlark meager or meagre

To beat up. maunder To grumble, mumble.

maul

(Compare meander.)

Maundy Thursday

(1901-1978)

American anthropologist and

maudlin

Thursday

fault,'*

blame.

matzo or matzoh; pi., matzoth or matzos or matzohs matzo

my

acknowledgment

meal

or Holy

ticket

mealtime

The Thursday before

mealybug mealymouthed

Easter.

128

The sum of a

Medal of Honor meddle To interfere. (Compare

series of

numbers divided by the count of those numbers.

(Compare

medal.)

Medfly or Mediterranean

median.)

mean, meant meander To wander. (Compare maunder.)

middle, are written as one word (e.g., mediacy).

meantime meanwhile

median

is,

Weights and measures

2

number measure

in the

when used

abbreviated

is

either side.

(Compare mean.)

median

lbs., 1 tbsp). If the is

number having an equal

the

number of values on

with numbers designating units (e.g.,

The number exactly

middle of a series of values; that

measurable or mensurable

may be

this

combining form, which means

mean-spirited

measures

fruit fly

Compounds of

medi-, medio-

strip

To

mediate

written out, the unit of

two

written out (e.g., four

parties

arguments of

listen to

and offer reason and

counsel from a more neutral

cups, ten miles).

standpoint.

Abbreviations for metric units are usually not punctuated (e.g.,

Medicaid or medicaid

10 km); standard units are usually

medical terms

punctuated (e.g., 10 mi.). conditions,

See Appendix 8, Weights and

Names of diseases,

symptoms,

and

tests,

so forth are lowercase except for

measures.

meat-and- potatoes

meat and potatoes

any proper nouns contained

As adjective. As noun.

Organisms described by

meatball

meat

Latin

loaf

mech.

names are lowercase;

medicinal or medicinable

Abbreviation for medium;

medico;

medical; median.

event, or awarded for

medicos

Compounds formed with

medico- are written as one word.

medieval or mediaeval

some

mediocre

distinguished action. Capitalize if part of proper

p/.,

medico-

usually a piece

of metal, made to commemorate

some

trade or

Medicare or medicare

mechanical drawing or mechanical

An emblem,

their

the guidelines

brand names are capitalized.

mechanism, mechanized.

medal

names follow

under scientific terms. Drug

Abbreviation for mechanic,

mechanics, mechanical,

med.

in a

name.

Mediterranean

noun or as name of

medium;

Medal for Achievement. (Compare meddle.) specific honor:

pi.,

mediums or media

medium-size or medium-sized medulla oblongata; pi, medulla

medalist or medallist

129

oblongata* or medullae

memorabilia

oblongatae

memorandums memoranda Memorial Day or Decoration Day memory lane memorandum;/?/

..

or

meet, met

meetinghouse meeting of minds

Compounds

mega-, meg-

menage a

of this

French;

trois

literally,

combining form, which means

"a household

large or great, or a million, are

domestic arrangement of three

written as one

word

people

(e.g.,

MB

megahertz or

menagerie

MHz

Mencken, H. L. American

Compounds of

megal-, megalothis

writer.

Begging. (Compare mendacity.)

megalomania).

meningitis

megalomaniac or megalomaniacal

menopause

Menorah

or megalomanic

A

nine-branched

candelabrum used during

megalopolis or megapolis

Hanukah.

meiosis

Meir, Golda politician

(1898-1 978)

who

menstruate

Israeli

mentor

helped form the

Labor party and eventually served

menu;

as prime minister of the country.

meow

pi.,

melancholia

mephitic

melange

mercenary

French; a hodgepodge.

meliorate

A

brawl.

Variant for ameliorate.

merciful

melodious or melodic melting point or

mp

mercurial

or

MP

Mercurochrome mercy killing or euthanasia

melting pot Melville,

Herman

American

writer.

( 1

menus

merchant marine merchant ship

toast

melee or melee

8 1 9- 1 89 1

Author of

meretricious

Moby

meridian

Dick.

meringue

membranous

merino;

memento; pL, mementos or mementoes

merit system

memo;

and

Deceptiveness, lying.

mendicancy or mendicity

(e.g.,

megalith

melba

880- 1 956)

(Compare mendicancy.)

large, great, or powerful, are

word

(1

journalist

mendacity

combining form, which means

written as one

are sexually involved

with each other.

megascopic, megabucks).

megabyte or

who

for three," a

pi.,

memos

pi.,

merinos

merry-go-round

merrymaker

Short form of

memorandum.

mes-, meso-

150

Compounds of

this

combining form, which means

methinks, methought

in

the middle, are written as one

methodical or methodic

word: mesolithic.

metier or metier

mesalliance; pi., mesalliances

mesmerize

m£tis or Mentis

A

mesquite

mess

Native American ancestry. Capitalize

when

metonymy

referring

me-too

to a religious figure.

mess

Compounds of

metr-, metro-

kit

mestizo;

French; a person of

mixed French-Canadian and

type of wood.

hall

messiah

French; talent,

vocation.

mestizos

pi.,

this

combining form, which means

Spanish; a

person of mixed European and

measure, are written as one word

Native American ancestry.

(e.g.,

Compounds of

meta-, met-

combining form, which means

changed

in position or

altered, are written as (e.g., metacarpal,

metronome, metropolitan).

metric or metrical

this

-metric, -metrical

Compounds

formed with these endings are

form, or

one word

one word

written as

metalanguage,

(e.g.,

isometric).

mettalize or metalize

metaphysics).

metaled or metalled

mettle

Vigor,

spirit.

metalware

To

metalwork

mewl

metamorphose

mezzanine

metamorphosis; pL,

mezzo-soprano

metamorphoses metaph. or met.

mezzotint

mfd.

Abbreviations for

metaphor, metaphorical;

A

expression

mfg.

comparison or

made

Abbreviation for

manufactured.

metaphysics, metaphysical.

metaphor

cry weakly.

Abbreviation for

manufacturing.

mfr.

in figurative

language, describing one thing in

Abbreviation for

manufacture, manufacturer.

terms of another. (Compare

mgr.

Abbreviation for manager.

simile.)

MIA

Abbreviation for missing in

metaphoric or metaphorical

action.

miasma;

metastasis;/?/., metastases

pi.,

miasmas or miasmata

Michelangelo Buonarroti

mete

To

(1475-1564)

dole out.

meteor, or meteoroL

Italian

Renaissance

and mannerist sculptor, painter, and poet. Painted

Abbreviations for meteorology,

architect,

meteorological.

the ceiling of the Sistine

meter or m.

Chapel.

methadone or methadon

Mickey Mouse

151

Compounds

micr-, micro-

mignon

of this

combining form, which means

microcomputer, microcosm,

(Compare

inch.

microeconomics, microorganism)

million.

microfiche or

mildew

microfiches

mile or mi.

microphone or mike

mileage

microscopic or microscopical

milestone

microwave oven Compounds formed with mid-

miliaria

mid-

are usually written as

except

when

is

word

is

A

resulting

one word,

the second

proper noun or

skin inflammation

from inflammation of the

sweat glands, as from exposure to a

heat.

a figure (e.g.,

milieu; pi., milieus or

midair, midday, midline,

milieux

midpoint, midsection, midsize,

French; setting,

surroundings, environment.

midterm, midtown, midway, but

militancy or militance

mid-Victorian).

mid.

of an

mill.)

Abbreviations for

mil. or mill.

microbiological or microbiologic ,

One one-thousandth

mil

(e.g., microchip,

microfiche; pi.

of beef.

migraine

or minute, are written as one

little

word

mignon, a choice

Filet

loin cut

academy

military

Abbreviation for middle. if

Middle Ages

Capitalize only

part of proper noun.

military or militaries

middle ear

To

militate

carry weight, have an

Middle East or Mideast effect.

middle ground militia

middle management

milk-and-water

middle name

milk glass

middle school

milk shake or milkshake

middle-aged middle- American

Middle American

milkweed

As adjective. As noun.

Milky mill

middle-class

middle-of-the-road

middle of the road

(Compare mil.) -mill

Compounds ending

are written as one

mid-life

word

in -mill

(e.g.,

lumbermill).

Twelve a.m. (Compare

Mill,

noon.)

John Stuart

( 1

806- 1 873)

English philosopher and

midriff

Midwest or Middle West

economist.

midwife

mien

a

dollar (0.1 cents, or $0,001).

As adjective. As noun.

middleweight

midnight

Way One one-thousandth of

Millay,

One's personality, demeanor.

Edna

St.

Vincent

(1892-1950) American poet and

152

Author of The Harp

dramatist.

mineral water

minestrone

Weaver and Other Poems.

A

millenary

group of one

mini-,

millennia or millenniums

Henry

Miller,

word

(e.g., minibike, minicar,

minicomputer, miniseries,

writer.

Author of The Tropic of Cancer. Compounds formed with

miniskirt).

miniature

milli-

which means a one-

milli-,

miniature schnauzer

thousandth part of, are written as

minimize

one word.

minimum; pi., minima or minimums minimum wage mink; pi., mink or minks

mg

milligram or

or

mgm or mgrm

or ml

milliliter

millimeter or

mm

Women's

millinery

minority;

hats.

(Compare millenary.)

pi.,

minor-league

minor league

millionaire

minorities

As adjective. As noun.

mill pond

mint julep

millstone

minuet

millstream

minuscule or miniscule

minus sign

millwork Milton, John

(1608-1674) English

minute, minuter, minutest

minute hand

Author of Paradise Lost.

poet.

milquetoast

minuteman;

mimeograph mimosa

minute steak

min.

MIPS

minable or mineable

A

mind-blowing

mirth

An

optical illusion.

mirror image

mind-boggling

Compounds ending

per second.

miracle drug

narrow tower.

mirage

mis-

When

this prefix is

mean "bad

in

-minded are written as one word (e.g.,

minutemen

Abbreviation for million

instructions

mincemeat mince pie

-minded

/?/.,

minutia; pi ., minutiae

Abbreviation for minute.

minaret

with

which means very small or

very short, are written as one

(1891-1980)

American autobiographical

Compounds formed

mini-

thousand. (Compare millinery.)

used to

or wrong,"

"opposite," "not," or

"unfavorable," compounds are

strongminded).

mind reader mind reading

misappropriate, misbegotten,

mind-set

miscast, misfit, misguidance,

mind's eye

mislay, mislead, mispronounce,

mineral

misquote, misread, misshapen,

written as one

oil

155

word

(e.g.,

m.m.

misspend, misstate, misstep,

being made," substituting

misanthrope misc.

Abbreviation for mutatis

mutandis, "necessary changes

misthink, misunderstand, misuse).

mnemonic A memory aid. moat A water-filled ditch

miscellaneous, miscellany.

miscarriage

surrounding something. (Compare

miscellanea

mote.)

miscellaneous miscellany; pi, miscellanies

mobile

mischief

moccasin

mocha

mischievous mixed.

mock-heroic

Unbelieving, or

mockingbird

Able

miscible

miscreant

to be

mock-up As noun. mod. Abbreviation

criminal.

misdeal, misdealt

misdemeanor

modern.

modeled or modelled

mise-en-scene; pi ., mise-en-

modem

French; a film director.

scenes

A

Modulator/demodulator, a

device that allows a computer user

stingy person.

mishmash misnomer missile

to

send computer data over

telephone lines.

An

moderate

exploding weapon.

modicum

(Compare missive.)

modular

missing link

modus operandi; missive

for moderate;

modify, modified, modification;

misdo, misdoes, misdid, misdone

miser

new

terms.

Abbreviation for

A

(Compare

letter

operandi

of communication.

modus

missile.)

vivendi; pi.,

mogul mohair

misspelled or misspelt

mistake, mistook

pi.,

modi

is M.O. modi vivendi

Abbreviation

The

hair of an

Angora

mistletoe

goat, considered a precious fiber,

mistral

or a fabric or yarn

misty-eyed

hair.

miter or mitre

moiety;

miter box

To

moire or moire soften, alleviate,

pattern

mitosis; pi., mitoses

on

One of two

French; a

cloth.

moisten

mitt

molar

mixed-up

molasses

mixture

mix-up

moieties

this

equal parts,

miter square mitigate

pi.,

made from

molding or moulding

As noun.

moldy

154

wavy

molehill

Mongoloid

molestation

mongoose;

mongrel

mollusk or mollusc

A homemade

Molotov cocktail

hand grenade made from a filled

moniker or monicker

monkey; pi., monkeys monkey bars monkey business monkeypod

bottle

with gasoline and a strip of

cloth as a wick for igniting

it.

molt mol. wt.

monkeyshines

Abbreviation for

monkey wrench

molecular weight.

moment of truth momentum; pi, momenta momentums mommy;/?/., mommies mon-, mono-

monochromatic monocle

or

Compounds of

monogamous

monotone).

monsieur;

monarchal or monarchial pi.,

(1

formal

840- 1 926)

include the water

lily

cathedral series.

formal

Concerning money

title.

,

monsignors or Capitalize

if

Abbreviation

Montaigne, Michel

de

supply.

money; the plural moneys or monies Means sums of money and are terms now used chiefly

part of

if

part of

is

Msgr.

monsoon montage

See Manet, Edouard.

Eyquem

(1533-1592) French

Monterey Jack Montezuma's revenge

essayist.

Traveler's

diarrhea.

in

month;

law.

moneybags

money changer moneyed or monied money-maker money market money order -monger Compounds ending

pi.

monsignori

painter.

monetary

Capitalize

preceding a name.

title

monsignor;

Premier French Impressionist

Works and Rouen

MSG

pi.,

messieurs

monasteries

Monet, Claude

mono

monosodium glutamate or Monotype Monroe Doctrine

monarchical or monarchic or monastery;

monogamic

mononucleosis or

this

one, are written as one word (e.g., monosyllable,

or

monologue

combining form, which means

is

pi.

mo.;

months

,

pi.,

monument

Abbreviation

mos. Capitalize only

if

part

of proper noun (e.g., The

Washington Monument).

mooch by

To

get something for free

stealing, begging, or cajoling

(e.g., to

in

mooch a

moola or moolah

-monger are written as one word (e.g.,

mongooses or

pi.,

mongeese

mollify

"money."

rumormonger).

155

ride).

Slang for

May

moon

be capitalized

with removable cushions and an

when

adjustable back.

referring to Earth's satellite.

Morse code

moonbeam As

moonlight, moonlighted

As

moonlit

morsel

verb.

mortal sin

adjective.

mortarboard

moonshine

moon

moon

shot or

mortgagee

shoot

mortgagor or mortgager

moonstruck

mortise or mortice

moony moose;/?/.,

mop To

mortuary

moose

mosaic

clean a floor with a long-

handled absorbent

tool.

mosey, moseyed

(Compare

Moslem

mope.)

mope

To be gloomy,

moped

mosquito;

A

mosquitoes or

mossback

lesson to be learned.

mot juste;

(Compare morale.) Mental

A

word or

moratorium;

pi.

,

moratoriums or

moth;

pi.,

moths

Mother Goose

The

fictitious

author of a collection of traditional English nursery

rhymes. mother-in-law;/?/., mothers-in-law

mother-of-pearl or nacre

adjective.

morning sickness morose Sullen, depressed.

A

Mother Teresa Mother's Day The second Sunday

linguistic unit.

in

(Compare morphine.)

May.

mothproof motif

narcotic drug.

(Compare morpheme.)

Theme. (Compare motive.)

motile

morphology morris chair

(Compare

moth-eaten

As

morning-after

A

phrase.

dot, speck.

mothball

incisive.

Mornay sauce

morphine

mots

moat.)

moratoria

mordant Biting, more and more more or less moreover morgue moribund

morpheme

A

mote

swamp.

pi.,

French; the most suitable

justes

state, spirit.

(Compare moral.)

morass

pi.,

mosquito net

moraine

morale

adherent

mosquitos

moppet moral

An

mosque

(Compare mop.)

dispirited.

Muslim

or

of Islam.

apathetic,

motion picture

A

motion sickness

large easy chair

156

mouthpiece

Reason, cause. (Compare

motive

mouth-to-mouth

motif.)

mouthwash

motley

A

motor

movable or moveable

device that uses power

from outside source. (Compare

moviegoer

engine.)

moviemaker movie

motorbike

(see Part 2, Titles of

titles

works.)

motorboat

mown

motorcar

mow, mowed

motorcycle

moxie

motor home

Mozart, Wolfgang

or

Courage, spunk.

motor inn

Amadaeus

motor lodge

Austrian musician and composer.

motor scooter

Composer of The Marriage of

motor vehicle motto;

pi.

Figaro.

mottoes or mottos

,

mount, mountain part of proper

Capitalize

noun

(e.g.,

mozzarella

MP

if

We

is

mpg

Mt.

Mr.,

MT or

or

MPH

pi.,

for a

Mountain daylight time

Mrs.,

is

Abbreviation for

Messrs.

pi.,

Mrs. title

women. Ms.

the Royal Canadian

or ms;

mss

Mounted

Traditional for married

pi.

,

MSS

or

Abbreviations for ,

manuscripts.

The courtesy title of preference for women, equivalent to Mr. for men.

mice creamy

woman,

generally

Ms.

mousetrap

A

now

is

manuscript; pi.

Police.

,

title

preferred.

MS

mourning dove mouse; pi

Courtesy

man, men.

courtesy

mountebank A deceiving person. Mountie or Mounty A member of

msg.

dessert; or, a

Abbreviation for message.

msgr. or msngr.

hair-styling product.

mousy or mousey mouth;/?/., mouths -mouthed Compounds ending

Abbreviations for

messenger.

msl or

MSL

Abbreviation for

mean sea level. much, more, most

in

-mouthed are written as one word (e.g.,

Abbreviation for

miles per hour.

mountaintop

mousse foamy

MPG

or

mph

lion

mountain time or mountain

MST. MDT.

,

miles per gallon.

mountainside standard time or

mounted police or

member of Parliament.

mountaineer

mountain

Abbreviation for military

police,

climbed Porcupine Mountain). Abbreviation

(1756-1791)

much

openmouthed).

157

as

mucilaginous

multiple-choice

muckamuck

multiple personality

muckraker mucous Means

multiplex

(Compare

mumbo jumbo

mucus.)

mummify

mucous membrane or mucosa mucus Slime from a gland.

mumps munchies

(Compare mucous.)

muddleheaded

mundane

mudguard

municipal

mudslinger

munificent

murky

Muenster cheese Arabic; a judge

mufti

MS

multiple sclerosis or slimy.

interprets the

murmur Murphy bed Murphy's Law

who

law of Islam;

or,

ordinary, civilian clothes (as

mus.

to a military uniform).

opposed

Abbreviation for museum;

mug shot mugwump

muscadet or Muscadet

mukluk

muscle-bound

music, musical.

Eskimo; an Eskimo

slipper or soft boot

made from

muscular dystrophy

museum

hide.

mulatto;

mulattoes or

pi.,

A

Capitalize only

ancestry includes both black and

Museum of Art. mushroom

white.

musical chairs

mulattos

person whose racial

A

musician

gardening technique that

musketeer

involves spreading a protective

muskmelon

ground cover. (Compare mulct.)

To

mulct

muskrat;

fine or swindle.

mullein or mullen

muslin

mulligatawny

mussel

Compounds formed with

multi-,

meaning many, are written

as one

word unless

with

is i

,

muskrat or muskrats Adherents of

the Islamic faith.

mulligan stew

word

pi.

Muslim or Moslem

(Compare mulch.)

multi-

part of

music box

mulberry

mulch

if

proper noun: Metropolitan

The

shellfish.

Mussolini, Benito

(

883- 1 945)

Italian dictator.

mustache or moustache

the second

mustached or mustachioed

a proper noun or begins

mutatis mutandis

(e.g., multi-industry, but

Latin; with the

necessary changes having been

multinational, multipurpose).

made

multiculturalism

mutt

multifarious

158

(as in drafts

of a document).

mutual

myrrh

mutually exclusive

myrtle

muumuu

myself

Muzak

mystic or mystical

muzzle

MVP

mysticism Abbreviation for most

mystique

valuable player.

mythical or mythic

myopia myriad

mythological or mythologic

159

N

narthex

NASA "born."

Administration. Spell out on

Abbreviation for note;

n.; pi., nn.

nasal

Abbreviation for not

nascency or nascence

applicable; not available.

NAACP

nascent

Abbreviation for National

nasturtium

Association for the Advancement

nat.

of Colored People.

novelist.

(1899-1977)

natatorium

Author of

national

Lolita.

nacho;

pi.,

Abbreviation for national;

natural.

Nabokov, Vladimir American

first

reference in text.

pi., notes.

NA

Abbreviation for National

Aeronautics and Space

Abbreviation for Latin natus,

n.

Capitalize only

if

part of

proper noun: National Security

nachos

Council.

nacre or mother-of-pearl

national

nadir

anthem

nationality

nagger or nag

Capitalize the proper

nouns describing

nailbrush

nationalities,

ethnic groups, or tribes (e.g.,

nail file

Pakistanis, Jews, Sioux).

naive or naive

nation-state

naivete or naivete or naivete

nationwide

naked

Native American

namby-pamby

NATO

nameable or namable

Abbreviation for North

Atlantic Treaty Organization.

name-calling

Naugahyde

name-dropping

name

of the

game

brand name for a

naught or nought

nameplate

Nothing.

naughty

namesake nanny goat napalm naphtha

nausea nauseating disgust.

Causing sickness,

(Compare nauseous.)

nauseous or nauseated

napoleon

Napoleon Bonaparte

A

type of imitation leather.

( 1

by sickness,

769- 1821)

disgust.

Affected

(Compare

nauseating.)

French Emperor.

nautical mile

naptime narcissism

nautilus; pi., nautiluses or nautili

narcissus; pi., narcissi or

Navaho or Navajo; pi., Navaho or Navahos or Navajo or Navajos

narcissuses or narcissus

naval

narcotic

narrow-minded

Concerning ships, shipping,

or navies. Capitalize

140

if

part of

with this combining form, which

proper noun (e.g., U.S. Naval

means death, corpse, or dead

Academy). navel or belly button

tissue, are written as

navel orange

(e.g., necrology,

necrophilia).

navigable

navy;

pi.

,

Capitalize only

navies

noun or

part of proper

necropolis; pi., necropolises or

if

necropoles or necropoleis

referring to

nectarine

specific organization.

navy blue

needlepoint

navy yard

needlework

Nazi

need not or needn't

Nazism or Naziism

ne'er-do-well

N.B.

nefarious

Abbreviation forj-atin nota

"mark well"

bene,

or "take

negator or negater negative feedback

Abbreviation for National

negligee or neglige

Basketball Association.

NC

neighborhood

Abbreviation for no change;

no charge. ne-, neo-

from

nemesis;/?/.,

Most compounds made

means new or

neo-impressionism

neomycin

different, are

written as one word, unless

neon

second word

neonate

is

a proper noun

The

Compounds

nephr-, nephro-

formed from

tide with the

smallest range, between the

this

combining form,

which means kidney, are written

first-

and third-quarter moons.

as

one word: nephrogenic.

nearby

nepotism

near-miss

nerd

nearsighted

nerve center

nebbish nebula;

beginner.

nephew

Neapolitan ice cream tide

A

neophyte

(e.g., neo-Nazi, but neologism).

Neanderthal

neap

nemeses

neoclassic or neoclassical

combining form, which

this

Abbreviation for negative.

neg.

careful note."

NBA

one word

necromancy,

nerve-racking or nerve-wracking pi.,

nervous breakdown

nebulas or nebulae

nebulous or nebular

nervous Nellie or nervous Nelly;

neck and neck

pi.

neckerchief; pi., neckerchiefs or

neckerchieves

nervous Nellies

Nesselrode

necklace

nest egg

necktie necr-, necro-

,

nescient

Money

future needs.

Compounds made

netherworld

141

put in savings for

newsroom, newsstand,

nettlesome

newsweekly, newswriting.

networking

news conference newspeak newt New Testament Newton, Sir Isaac

Neufchatel cheese neur-, neuro-

from

this

means of

Compounds formed

combining form, which the nerves or nervous

system, are written as one word

mathematician. Initiated the study

neuromuscular).

of universal gravity after seeing an

neural arch

apple

neuron Abbreviation for neuter;

garden.

America. (Compare Old World.)

neutral.

New

neuter

Year's

next door

bomb

Day As As

next-door

neutral

neutron

fall in his

new wave or New Wave New World North and South

neurosis neut.

(1642-1727)

English physicist and

(e.g., neurologist,

adjective.

adverb.

next of kin

never-ending

nexus;

never-failing

pi.,

nexuses or nexus

niacin

nevermore

nicety

never-never land

niche nevertheless nickel or

New Age

nkkle

As adjective. and dime, nickeled and dimed, nickeling and diming or nickel and diming

nickel -and -dime

newborn; pL, newborn or

nickel

newborns

newcomer new deal or New Deal

nickeled or nkkelled

New England

nickelodeon

newfangled

nicknack

new-fashioned

newfound

New

nicotine

Left

niece

newlywed

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm

new math new moon news-

Compounds

Variant for knickknack.

nickname

(1844-1900) German philosopher and poet. written as one

niggardly

word include newsbreak,

niggler

newscast, newscaster, newsdealer,

Miserly,

Someone who

constantly

gripes or finds fault over petty

newsletter, newsmagazine,

issues.

and day

newspaper, newsperson,

night

newsprint, newsreader, newsreel,

night blindness

142

compounds, are written as one

nightcap

word.

nightclothes

nightclub

nitric acid

night court

nitroglycerin or nitroglycerine

nightfall

nitty-gritty

nightgown

nitwit

nighthawk

nix

nightie or nighty; pi., nighties

n.m. or n.mi.

Abbreviation for

nautical mile.

night letter

Abbreviation for

no.; pi., nos.

nightlife

number;

night-light

pi.,

numbers.

nightmare

no-account

night owl

Nobel prize or Nobel Prize

night rider

nobody;

nightshade

nocturnal

pi.

,

nobodies Active or occurring

during the night or happening

nightshirt

nightstand

nightly.

(Compare diurnal.)

nightstick

nocuous

night table

nodule

nighttime

nodus;/?/., nodi

no-fault

nihilist

noggin

Nothing, zero.

nil

no-good

nimbostratus

nimbus;

pi.,

nimbi or nimbuses

no-hitter

Nimrod

no-holds-barred

Nin, Anais writer.

(1

903- 1 977) American

noisemaker nolo contendere

Author of her lifelong

nom

Minotaur.

nincompoop

de guerre;

nom

de plume;

plume

nineteen ninety;/?/., nineties

writer's

noms de

pi.,

noms de

pseudonym.

nom.

ninth

nomenclature

Abbreviation for nominative.

nominative case non-

Latin; taking effect at a

Compounds formed with non-

are usually written as one word,

specified time.

nitpicker nitr-, nitro-

,

French; a pen name, a

ninny; pi ., ninnies

nirvana

pi.

French; pseudonym.

guerre

ninepin(s)

nisi

Latin; a legal plea

of no contest.

Diary and Seduction of the

except

Compounds formed

when

the second

word

is

a

proper noun (e.g., non-Christian,

with this combining form, which

but nonalcoholic, noncommittal,

means containing nitrogen

nonconformist, nondescript,

145

nonentity, nonevent, nonexistent,

northward or northwards

noninvolvement, nonnative,

northwest; northwesterly

nonsmoker, nonstop, nonviolent).

Norway spruce

nonage

nosebleed

Youth.

nonce word

nosedive

nonchalant

nose-dive

noncommissioned

nosegay

officer

non compos mentis

nose job

Latin; literally

"not having control of one's

nosh

mind/' mentally unsound.

no-show

nonesuch

Peerless, without equal.

nostalgia

nosy or nosey

nonetheless

nonhero or anti-hero no-no;

non obs.

nota bene

no-no's or no-nos

pi.,

As noun. As verb.

Latin; take note.

abbreviation

notary public;

Abbreviation for Latin;

non obstante, "notwithstanding."

is

The

N.B. notaries public

pi.,

or notary publics

notebook nonpareil

notepad

French; unparalleled,

without equal. Also, a type of

notepaper

chocolate candy.

noteworthy

nonplus, nonplussed or

nonplused

To

notwithstanding

nougat

put in a

nous

quandary.

A

nouveau

nonprofit or not-for-profit

nonresidence or nonresidency

riches

non

rich,**

seq.

Abbreviation for Latin,

non sequitur,

"it does not

French;

a person

risen in

nouveaux 44

literally,

who

economic

newly

has suddenly

status,

nouvelle cuisine

follow.**

non sequitur noon Twelve

reason, purpose. riche; pi.,

novelette or novella p.m. (Compare

The

novitiate

midnight.)

state

of being a

novice, as in a convent.

no one noontime noplace normalcy northbound

Novocain or Novocaine

A

trademark name for procaine, a local anesthetic.

north-northeast

nowadays now and then noway or noways nowhere no- win

north-northwest

nth degree

north pole or North Pole

nuance

northeast; northeasterly

northerly

North Star

A

subtle difference, a

shade (as in meaning or color).

144

nucle-, nucleo-

Compounds made

The

plural of a written-out

from these combining forms,

number

which mean nucleus or nuclear,

(e.g., twos).

are written as

one word.

is

also

formed by adding

Possessives are formed the

nuclear

same

nucleus; pi., nuclei or nucleuses

written out: singulars add s (e.g.,

as if the

number were

nugatory

1990's car of the year), plurals

nuisance

add an apostrophe only

nuke As noun or null and void

verb.

numerical or numeric

null-space

numero uno

number one

nunchaku

It is

(e.g.,

Docket No. 053087).

In ordinary text, if space clarity permits, spell out

Japanese; a type of

nursery rhyme

also abbreviated in

and bibliographic matter

one.

weapon.

with figures to indicate rank or

tables

Number

numskull or numbskull

The word number is abbreviated as No. when used

number(s)

rating.

nursery school nurse's aide

nursing

and

home

nutcracker

whole

numbers from one through ninety-

nuthatch

nine, and any of these followed

nutmeg

by hundred, thousand, million,

nuts-and-bolts

As

use figures.

nuts and bolts

As noun.

etc. In other cases,

This rule applies to both cardinal

nutshell

and ordinal numbers.

nylon

Plurals of

numbers

by adding s alone

(e.g., the

1990s' most celebrated author).

are

formed

nymph

(e.g., 1960s).

145

adjective.

s

o

obsolete; obsolescent; obsolescence

obstacle course

oak;

oasis; pi.

obstetric or obstetrical

oaks or oak

pi.,

obstreperous

oases

,

pi.,

ob.

Abbreviation for Latin,

occasionally.

obiit,

occup.

"died."

ocean

(Compare indurate.)

unyielding.

Abbreviation for

occupation, occupational.

Stubborn, hardened,

obdurate

Abbreviation for occasional,

occ.

oaths

oath;

Capitalize only

part of

if

obeisant

proper noun (e.g., the Indian

obelisk

Ocean, but we took a swim

obese

ocean).

oceanographic or oceanographical

obey

OB-GYN

ocher or ochre

Abbreviation for

obstetrics- gynecology

in

OCR

passing," an

character recognition. octavo;/?/., octavos

obituary or obit

octopus;

Abbreviation for object;

French; an object that

To

obligated

Having a moral or

Compounds ending

in

-odd

are hyphenated (e.g., twenty-

(Compare obliged.)

odd).

Indebted, bound to do a

oddball

odd

favor for. (Compare obligated.)

lot

odds and ends

oblong

odds-on pi.,

ode

obloquies

odorous or odoriferous

oboe; oboist obs.

Variant for

Abbreviation for overdraft,

-odd

legal

oblique

obloquy;

ODed

overdrawn.

criticize harshly.

responsibility.

obliged

O/D

is

its artistry.

objurgate

octopuses or octopi

or

overdose, overdosed.

objet d'art; pi., objets

valuable for

pi.,

OD, OD'd

objective; objection.

d'art

Abbreviation for optical

character reader, optical

comment.

insignificant

our closing

time).

Latin; literally,

"something said

to the clock

(e.g., Six o'clock is

obiter dictum; pi., obiter dicta

According

o'clock

obstetrician-gynecologist or

obj.

in the

Abbreviation for obsolete;

odyssey;

OEM

obscene obsequious observatory

pi.,

odysseys

Oedipus complex

obscure.

Abbreviation for original

equipment manufacturer. Capitalize only if part

off.

of proper noun.

or

offic.

Abbreviation for

official.

obsessive-compulsive

-off

146

Compounds ending

in -off are

written as

one word

oftentimes or ofttimes

(e.g.,

ogle

takeoff). offal

off

ogre

Waste, by-product.

and on

oh well

offbeat

oilcan

As

Off-Broadway

adjective and

oilcloth

adverb.

color

oil

Off Broadway

As noun.

oil field

off-chance

oil

off-color or off-colored

oil slick

offense or offence

oil

offhand or offhanded

OK or okay, OKs or okays

off-hour office

paint

well

As

noun.

Capitalize only

if part

of

OK or okay,

proper noun: the Oval Office. officeholder

authoritative.

officious

Meddlesome,

(Compare

office;

(Compare

As

or okays

O'Keefe, Georgia

Concerning an

official

OK's

verb.

American

officious.)

(1887-1986)

abstract painter.

Known

for floral forms, desert terrain,

interfering.

and bleached animal

official.)

skulls.

Wife

of Alfred Stieglitz.

off-key

okeydoke or okeydokey

off-limits

okra

off-line

-old

Off-Off-Broadway

Compounds with

-old

designating age are hyphenated

off-peak (e.g., five-year-old )

offprint

A

old country

off-road vehicle

European

immigrant's country of origin. off-season

older or elder

offscreen

old-fashioned offset

old fogy

offshoot

old-fogyish

offshore offspring; pi.

,

old guard or

offspring or

old

offsprings

Old Guard

hand

old hat

offstage off-the-cuff

old-line

off-the-record

old-school

As

off-the-shelf

old school

As noun.

off-the-wall

old style

offtrack

Old Testament

off-white

old-timer

off year

old-world

147

adjective.

As noun.

As

adjective.

Old World

one-two punch

Europe. (Compare

one up

oleomargarine

branch Used mean a gesture of olive drab olive

olla podrida; pi.

ollas

,

ongoing onionskin on-line or online

onlooker

Spanish; a type

onomatopoeia

of spicy stew. Also used generally

from

sounds

like

(e.g., fizz,

one word

choo-choo

on-site

onslaught onstage

omniscient).

on-the-job

omnium-gatherum; pi omniumgatherums Latin; a

onus

.,

Burden, obligation.

onward or onwards

miscellaneous collection of people

onyx

or things.

oodles

Compounds ending

oompha

in -on are

or oompah-pah

oops

(e.g., hanger-on).

off- again

op.

Abbreviation for Latin,

cit.

on and off

opere

once-over

or opus citatum,

one-handed

cited."

OPEC

one-horse

one-on-one

citato,

Used

"in the work cited,"

"from

the

work

in scholarly writing.

Abbreviation for

Organization of Petroleum

one-piece

onerous

train).

onside kick

(e.g.,

omnipotent, omnipresent,

on-again,

that

describes

onshore

omnibus, omnifarious,

hyphenated

it

onset

omni-, a combining form meaning

-on

what

on-screen

light to dark.

Compounds formed with are written as

(as a

onrush

omelet or omelette

all,

Language

spoken word or expression)

mean a hodgepodge. Olympiad Olympic Games ombre French; colors that blend to

omni-

verb. adjective.

one-way

figuratively to

peace.

olla podridas or

podridas

into each other

As As

one-up

New World.)

Exporting Countries.

Burdensome,

op-ed page

The

section of a

newspaper where

troublesome.

comment,

oneself

letters

editorial

from readers,

and opinion pieces appear.

one-shot

As adjective. As noun.

one-sided

open-air

one-step

open

onetime

open-and-shut

one-track

open bar

148

air

OR

open-circuit

open door

Abbreviation for operating

room.

As adjective. As noun.

open-door

oral

By mouth

or verbal.

(Compare aural.)

open-end

orangeade

open-ended

open enrollment

orange peel

openhanded

orange pekoe

open-heart

orangutan

open house

order of business

open-minded

ordinal

ordnance

works.)

rule or regulation.

who

ordonnance.)

specializes in

diseases of the eye.

The proper or orderly

ordonnance

(Compare

arrangement of parts, as

optician, optometrist.)

(Compare ordinance, ordnance.)

opossum Oppenheimer,

J.

oregano

Robert

organ-, organo-

(1904—1967) American

Developed the atomic bomb.

meaning

oppugn

is

*

word

if

are

the

Organic" or

concerning body organs.

optical or optic

organdy or organdie

optical illusion

A

organ-grinder

person

who makes and

organism

deals with eye glasses and lenses.

organization

(Compare ophthalmologist,

pi.

optimum or optimal optometrist

An

if

organza

optima or optimums

,

Capitalize only

part of proper noun.

optometrist.)

As

refractory problems.

orgy;

adjective.

eye doctor

specializes in defects

who

Orient

and

Oriental

(Compare

opera or opuses

pi.,

orgies

orient or orientate

When

ophthalmologist, optician.) pi.,

Compounds

physicist.

written as one

opus;

in a

painting, literary material, etc.

opossums or

pi.,

Military supplies.

(Compare ordinance,

A

ophthalmologist or oculist

optimum;

that

or don nance.)

(See Part 2, Titles of

titles

optician

number

(Compare ordnance,

opera house

opossum;

A

ordinance

opera glass

physician

A

(e.g., twelfth).

open season

opera

number

indicates order in a sequence

openmouthed

Asia. Pertaining to the Orient. referring to a native of the

Orient, use the term Asian.

A

Oriental rug

work, used to describe a musical

orienteering

composition.

origami

149

original sin

outermost

oriole (compare aureole)

outerwear

A

Orion

trademark name for a

outfield

synthetic acrylic fiber resembling

out-front

nylon.

outhouse

ornith-, ornithothis

Compounds of

out-of-bounds

combining form, which means

bird, are written as

out-of-court

adjective.

out-of-door or out-of-doors

ornithologist.

orotund

out-of-pocket

orphan

out-of-print

orthodox

As

out-of-date

one word:

out-of-the-way

According to prescribed

out loud

form, traditional.

orthographic or orthographical

outpatient

orthopedic or orthopaedic

outpost

oscillate

outrageous

osmosis

outre

French; outside the norm,

bizarre, eccentric.

oste-, osteo-

Compounds of

outshine, outshone or outshined

this

combining form, which means

outsize or outsized

bone or bones, are written as one

outward or outwards

word.

outward-bound

ostensible or ostensive

ouzo

ostrich

ovary;/?/., ovaries

OTC

ovenbaked

Abbreviation for over-the-

ovenproof

counter.

otherworldly

over or o'er

otiose

over-

ottoman Should. (Compare aught.)

ought

(e.g., override, overseas,

Ouija board

overshirt).

ourselves

-over

ouster out-

Many compounds formed

with over- are written as one word

Compounds ending

are written as

Compounds formed with

arc usually written as one

one word

in

-over

(e.g.,

stopover).

out-

word

overalls

over and above

(e.g., outbreak, outdated).

outage

over and over

out-and-out

overbear, overborne or overborn

outback

overleap, overleaped or overleapt

outbid, outbid or outbidden

oversize or oversized

outdoor or outdoors

overt

outer space

over-the-counter

150

Obvious, manifest.

over-the-hill

-owner are written as one word

overture

(e.g.,

Ovid

(43

and

B.C.-17 A.D.) Roman

Author of Metamorphoses

poet.

pi.,

•owner

oxford cloth

oyster cracker

ova

Compounds ending

oxbow oxygen

Tristia.

ovoid or ovoidal

ovum;

landowner).

ox; pL, oxen or ox

overwrought

oz. in

Abbreviation for ounce,

ounces.

and writer. Author of The Rights of Man.

p

&

painkiller

Abbreviation for postage

h

painstaking

and handling. p's

paintbrush

and q's

pair; pi., pairs or pair

Abbreviation for page;

p.; pi ., pp.

pabulum pablum

of

pear.)

A

paisley

brand name for a cereal

pajamas or pajama

food for infants. Derived from

The roof of

palate

pabulum, and used interchangeably with

PAC

Two

something. (Compare pare,

pi, pages.

the mouth, or

sense of taste. (Compare palette, it.

pallet, pallette.)

Abbreviation for political

Magnificent.

palatial

action committee.

palaver

pace car

palazzo; pi ., palazzi

pacemaker

pale

Very

light in color.

pacesetter pale-, paleo-, palae-, palaeo-

pachyderm Pacific time or

Compounds of these combining forms, which mean ancient,

PT

pacifism or pacificism prehistoric, or primitive, are

pacifist or pacificist or pacifistic

written as one

package store

pack animal

A

palette

pack rat

painter's board, or

spectrum, range, especially of

Capitalize only

if part

of

(Compare palate,

color.

proper noun.

pallet,

pallette.)

paddleball

palfrey; pi., palfreys

paddle tennis

palimony

paddle wheel

paddy or padi;

palindrome pi.,

paddies or

the

padis

Something

(Compare palinode.)

An ode

palinode

padre

that reads

same backward as forward

(e.g., 1991).

paddy wagon

or song.

(Compare palindrome.)

A

paean

song of praise. (Compare

palisade

peon.)

pall

paella

A

heavy covering,

concealment.

pageantry

palladium;

pagoda

pallbearer

Paine,

(e.g.,

paleontological or paleontologic

packhorse

pact

word

paleontology).

Thomas

American

(1737-1809)

political

pallet

A

pi.,

palladia

movable platform, a small

mattress, or a temporary bed.

philosopher

152

(Compare palate,

A

Pandora's box

the pieces of a suit

source of

problems.

of armor. (Compare palate,

A

pandowdy;/?/., pandowdies

palette, pallet.)

type of apple dessert.

palliate

pallid

stoop to gratify

another.

One of

pallette

To

pander

palette,

pallette.)

Dull, pale.

pane

(Compare

pallor.)

A

pall-mall

(Compare pallor

ball -and- mallet

palmetto;

panel discussion

(Compare

panfry

pallid.)

panhandler

palmettos or

pi.,

panic button

palmettoes

panic-stricken

palmistry

panne

palm oil Palm Sunday

An

palooka

pannier or panier

silk,

One of

a pair of

bags or baskets strapped to a pack

easily defeated boxer,

animal or to the rear wheels of a

or an oaf.

To

give medical

bicycle.

exam by

panoply;

(Compare palpitate.)

To

palpitate

Heavy, lustrous velvet,

or satin.

palomino; pL, palominos

touch.

Elaborate praise.

panel, paneled or panelled

game.

pell-mell.)

Paleness.

palpate

Section of glass.

panegyric

pi.,

panoplies

panorama beat, throb.

pansy;/?/., pansies

(Compare palpate.) pantaloon palsy-walsy pantheistic or pantheistical

paltry

pantheon

pamphlet panacea

panther;

A

cure-all,

something that

fixes anything

panache

Great style, flamboyance.

Involving

all

of

papal

A

Concerning the pope of the

Roman

type of cigar.

Catholic church.

paparazzo;

pancake

pi.,

paparazzi

a photographer

A

brand name type of

Italian;

who doggedly

follows celebrities in order to take

makeup.

candid pictures of them.

pancreas

papaw or pawpaw

panda pandemic

panties

pantsuit or pants suit

both North and South America.

theatrical

/?/.,

panty hose or pantyhose

Pan-American

Pan-Cake

panthers or panther

pantomime

panama hat

panatela

pi.,

pantie or panty;

papaya paperback As noun. paperback or paperbound or paperbacked As adjective.

Occurring over large

area.

pandemonium

155

parameter

paperboard

A

set

of properties;

characteristic.

paper cutter

paperhanger

paranoia; paranoiac or paranoic

paper money

parapet paraphernalia

paper-thin

paper

Something or someone

tiger

parasitic or parasitical

parasol

that acts fierce or poses a threat

but

is

parboil

actually ineffective or

parcel, parceled or parcelled

powerless.

paperweight

parcel post

paperwork

Parcheesi

papilla; pi.

,

papillae

off.

parenthesis;/?/., parentheses

paprika

Pap smear or Pap papyrus;

the outer covering

(Compare pair, pear.)

paregoric

papoose

par.

To shave

pare

papier-mache

parenthetic or parenthetical

test

parenthood

papyruses or papyri

pi.,

Abbreviation for paragraph;

parent-teacher association or

para-, par-

Compounds of

PTO

this

combining form, which means

paresis; pL, pareses

beside or secondary, or a

Partial

paralysis.

par excellence

protection against, are written as

one word

44

(e.g., parachute,

French;

literally,

by preeminence," the best thing

paradigm, paradox, paragraph,

of

paralegal, paranormal,

teacher par excellence).

its

kind, unequaled (e.g., a

part ait glass

paraphrase, paraplegia,

pariah

An

parable

parietal

bone

parabola

pari-mutuel

paraprofessional, paratroops

.

outcast.

A

system of betting

on races, or the machine

paradisiacal or paradisiac or

paradisaic or paradisaical

PT A

parent-teacher organization or

parenthesis.

that

takes such bets.

Heavenly.

paring knife pari passu

paraffin

parakeet or parrakeet

parallelogram

side,

The two

parishioner

paralysis;/?/., paralyses

parity;/?/., parities

As

park

Capitalize only if part of

proper noun or address.

noun.

paramedical or paramedic

by

hurried along, pari passu).

parallel

paramedic or paramedical

Latin; side

stride for stride (e.g.,

As

Abbreviations are Pk. or P.

parka

adjective.

154

parking

particle physics

lot

parking meter

particleboard

Parkinson's disease

parti-color or parti-colored

particularly

parkland

parkway

Capitalize only

address. Abbreviation

To make

parlay

better; exploit.

into

is

if

parting of the ways

part of

Pkwy.

partisan or partizan

something

partly or partially

part of speech

parlay.)

partridge; pi, partridge or

Capitalize if part of

parliament

partridges

proper noun.

parlor car parlor

game

part-time or

PT

parturient

Bearing young.

partway

Dangerous.

parlous

(Compare partible.)

division.

Conversation. (Compare

parley

Dividing or denoting

partitive

(Compare parley.)

Parmesan cheese

party line

parmigiana or parmigiano

PASCAL A Pascal, Blaise

parodic or parodistic

parody; parol

pi.

,

parodies

Word

of mouth (e.g., The

A

intricate activity involving

pi.

paseo ;pl., paseos

sudden attack, action.

,

pass

adopt, approve, enact.)

parquetries

pass-fail

parsley

passable

passageway

Abbreviation for participle.

passbook or bankbook

partake, partook

that is

The

part of a theater floor

ball

A

under the rear balcony.

The temple

Parthenon

on the acropolis

in

to

Athena

large group.

passenger

Athens,

Greece.

passersby

passerby;

pi.,

passible

sensitive.

(Compare

passable.)

partiality

partible

Acceptable, okay.

(Compare passible.)

parsonage

parterre

Promenade.

Bills are passed. (See also

parsimony

part.

two

people,

parquet, parqueted

parquetry;

literally,

performers, or more; generally, an

conditional release of a

(Compare parol.)

paroxysm

French;

"step for two," a dance for two

prisoner before his or her term expires.

623- 1 662) French

philosopher.

pas de deux

(Compare parole.)

The

( 1

mathematician, and

scientist,

news spread quickly by parol). parole

computer

programming language.

parochial school

Able

(Compare

to

passim

be divided.

Latin; here

passing shot

partitive.)

155

and

there.

path-, patho-

passionflower

up of

passion fruit

Compounds made

combining form, which

this

refers to disease, are written as

passion play

one word

Noncooperation

passive resistance

(e.g., pathogenic).

pathetic or pathetical

with government or authority.

passkey

pathfinder

Passover

pathological or pathologic

passport

pathos

pass- through

pathway

password

patience

A

pitiable quality or state.

Means

Means people who

patients

pastel

contract a doctor for health-care

pasteup Pasteur, Louis

( 1

882- 1 895)

(Compare patience.)

services.

patinas or patinae

French chemist and

patina; pi.

,

microbiologist. Disproved the idea

patio; pi

patios

that

the ability to bear

events calmly.

pasta

minute organisms are

,

patisserie

produced through spontaneous

patois

generation.

patr-, patri-, patro-

Compounds

of these combining forms, which

pasteurize pastiche or pasticcio

A

work

that

borrows from or imitates a

number of pastime

French; jargon, dialect.

mean

father, are written as

word

(e.g., patrilineal).

patriarch

disparate other works.

Father, male head of

group. (Compare patrician.)

Leisure activity.

patrician

pastoral

pastrami or pastromi

Aristocrat.

(Compare

patriarch.)

patronage

pastry; pi., pastries

patchouli or patchouly

An

patron saint

East

Indian shrubby mint that yields a

patsy;/?/., patsies

fragrant essential oil used as a

patty or pattie; patties

perfume.

pattycake

patch

paucity

test

patchwork

pauperism

pate

The head. (Compare

pate

A

pave

pate.)

meat paste served as a

spread.

Goose

pave" or

liver pate.

pavilion

Pavlovian

pawnbroker

paths

156

Closely

with jewels.

(Compare pave.) prayer or

incantation, path;/;/.,

(Compare

paveed or paved

set together, as

patent leather

A

with a smooth

pave\)

Kneecap.

paternoster

To cover

surface for traveling.

(Compare pate.)

pate de foie gras patella

one

pawnshop

pea green

pay, paid

pea jacket

pay-as-you-go

peaked

payer or payor

peanut

payback

pear

Pale. oil

The

fruit.

Pearl Harbor

payday

pearl onion

pay dirt

To

payed out

pear-shaped

slacken or allow to

peasant

run out.

pay envelope

peashooter

payload

pea soup peat moss

payment payoff

As

payola

A

payout

As noun.

adjective and noun.

peccadillo; pi.

,

peccadillos

bribe.

peccadilloes or

A

pectoral muscle

pay station

peculate

pay-TV or pay-cable or

pecuniary

subscription

TV

Abbreviation for Public

mean

Compounds of these combining mean small, small

forms, which

Abbreviations for

animal or child, or ground,

Abbreviation for police

earth, are written as

department.

(e.g.,

pi.,

soil

or

one word

pedology, pedodontics).

pedagogical or pedagogic

Abbreviation for Pacific

pedagogue or pedagog

Daylight Time. pea;

(e.g., pedicure).

ped-, pedo-, paed-, paedo-

Abbreviation for

percent, percentage.

PDT

Compounds of

foot or feet, are written as

one word

polychlorinated biphenyl.

P.D.

do with

to

these combining forms, which

Abbreviation for personal

pet. or p.c.

Having

ped-, pede-, pedi-

computer.

PCB

To embezzle.

money.

Broadcasting Service.

PC

slight sin.

pecking order or peck order

payroll

PBS

(Compare pair,

pare.)

paycheck

peas or pease

pedal, pedaled or pedalled

Peace Corps

To

operate by pressing on a lever

with the foot. (Compare peddle.)

peacekeeping

peacemaker

pedal pushers

peace offering

peddle

peace pipe

To

offer for sale.

pedal.)

peace sign

peddler or pedlar

peacetime

pedestrian

peach Melba

pediatrician or pediatrist

peacock, peahen, peafowl

pedigreed or pedigree

157

(Compare

proper noun (e.g., the Gaspi

peekaboo peel

To

remove

cut or

Peninsula

the skin

penitence

peephole

An

Regret, sorrow.

(Compare penitent.)

peep show peer

Quebec).

in

penis; pL, penes or penises

from.

equal.

(Compare

penitent or penitential

pier.)

peevish

sorrowful.

peewee

penitentiary

pegboard

Regretful,

(Compare penitence.) Capitalize only

if

part

of proper noun.

penknife

peg leg

penlight

peignoir

Open

pejorative

pen name or

to negative or

nom

de plume

disparaging connotations.

Pennsylvania Dutch

Peking duck Pekingese or Pekinese;

penny; pL, pennies or pence

pi.,

As adjective. As noun.

penny-ante

Pekingese or Pekinese

pekoe

penny ante

pelerine

penny arcade penny-pinching

pelican

pen pal

Confused, disordered.

pell-mell

(Compare pall-mall.) Easy

pellucid

accepting of pelvis;

this

combining form, which means five, are written as

light.

pL, pelvises or pelves

one word

(e.g., pentathlete).

penal code

pentagon

penalty box

Capitalize

if

referring to

U.S. military leadership or

penance

headquarters.

penchant

A

Pentecost; Pentecostal

strong inclination.

pencil, penciled or pencilled

penthouse

pencil pusher

pent-up

pendant

Something

penuche or panocha or

that is

panoche

hanging, or a supplementary thing.

Compounds of

penta-, pent-

to understand, or

(Compare pendent.)

pendent

Overhanging

in the state

pendulum

penurious

penetrating or penetrative or

peon peony;

penicillin

people; if part

A

to

Stingy, frugal.

servant or a menial person.

(Compare paean.)

Pervading, acute.

penguin Capitalize only

The next

penumbra; /?/., penumbrae or penumbras

(Compare pendant.)

peninsula

fudgelike confection.

last in series.

of being suspended or pending.

penetrant

A

penult or penultima

pi., pi.,

peonies

people

people mover

of

158

peoples

common

Very passionate.

perfervid

Persons united in culture,

(Compare perfidy.)

tradition, beliefs, or other

Treachery. (Compare

perfidy

factor.

peplum

perfervid.)

pepper mill

Lacking enthusiasm;

perfunctory

pepper shaker

mechanical. (Compare

peppercorn

peremptory, preemptory.)

peppermint

perh.

pepperoni

peridot

Abbreviation for perhaps.

peppertree

peril, periled or perilled

pep

perimeter

pill

pep talk Maybe,

perad venture

possibly, by

limits,

periodic or periodical

chance.

periodic table

perambulate per

Boundary, outer

circumference.

annum

periodontal

Every year.

period piece

percale

Constantly moving,

peripatetic

per capita

Latin; literally,

"by

itinerant.

heads," for each individual.

percent or per cent;

pi.,

periphery

percent or

periphrasis; pi.

percents

periphrases

,

use of long words

perchance

when

The

shorter

ones would do.

percolator

On

per contra

way of

periscope the other hand, by

periwinkle contrast.

To

perjure percussion

By

per diem

the

day

(e.g.,

truthfulness.

took the job on a per diem basis).

perdu or perdue

perm.

French; out of

sent

who

is lost,

To remain

perorate

perp.

(Compare

long speech.

Abbreviation for

perpendicular; perpetual.

perpetrate

after year,

To commit,

carry out.

(Compare perpetuate.)

enduring. perf. or pf.

To make

peroxide

Urgent, decisive or

Year

major change or

pernicious

perfunctory, preemptory.) perennial

A

ordered arrangement.

in existence.

(Compare perjure.)

arrogant, haughty.

Optional, discretionary.

permutation

peregrination

peremptory

(Compare perdure.)

Abbreviation for permanent.

permissive

such as a soldier

on a dangerous mission.

perdure

a falsehood despite

permanence or permanency

sight, in hiding, or concealed; or

one

tell

taking an oath promising

She

perpetual calendar

Abbreviation for

perpetuate

perfect.

159

To

cause to go on

bourgeois

(Compare

indefinitely.

An

perquisite or perk

tradespeople.

extra,

petit four; pi., petits fours or petit

bonus.

frosting-covered confection.

personal.

per se

To

embroidery

stitch.

pet peeve

harass, annoy, or

petri dish

punish unjustly.

petrochemical

Perseids

persimmon

by

persnickety or pernickety

Compounds ending

-person

personas

Variant for gasoline, chiefly

British usage.

petroleum One's

who

petty officer

petulance or petulancy

personal effects

petulant

personal foul

pew

persona non grata

pg.

perspicuous

One's view, opinion,

measure used

phalanx;

phalanxes or

phallus; pi., phalli or phalluses

phantasmal or phantasmic

understood.

phantom

pertinacious

pharaoh

Stubborn, persistent.

pertinence or pertinency

Pharisaical or pharisaic

Whooping cough.

pharm. or phar.

Abbreviations for

pharmacy, pharmacist,

perverted or perverse pervious

pi.,

phantasm or phantasma

clear, easily

persuadable or persuasible

pertussis

to indicate

phalanges

Keen, shrewd.

Very

furniture: a bench,

(Compare phew.)

acidity or alkalinity measure.

mental approach.

perspicacious

seats.

Abbreviation for page.

pH A

group of people

with the same employer.

perspective

Rude, peevish.

The church

bank of

Latin; an

unwelcome person. Staff, a

petrolatum

pettifogger

Latin; a person

acceptable or welcome.

personnel

jelly or

petticoat

social personality.

persona grata

money made through

export sales.

(e.g., spokesperson). ,

oil-rich countries

petrol

in

-person are written as one word

pi.

Foreign

petrodollars

Foolish banter.

persiflage

is

An

petit point

Latin; as such.

persecute

persona;

French; a small, square

fours

Abbreviation for person,

pers.

French; the lower

middle class, shopkeepers and

perpetrate.)

Accessible, permeable.

pharmaceutical.

pestle

pharmacological or pharmacologic

pesto

pharmacopoeia or pharmacopeia phase

petaled or Detailed

Peter

Pan

A

transitory state or aspect.

(Compare

collar

phaseout

petite bourgeoisie or petit

160

faze.)

As noun.

Abbreviation for Doctor of

Ph.D.

sound, tone, or speech, are written as one

Philosophy.

pheasant;

phone or telephone phonemic or phonematic

pheasants

A

sigh of relief.

phonetic or phonetical

phony or phoney;

(Compare

A

Kappa

usually written as one

this

combining form, which means

Abbreviation for

photograph, photographer, photography, photographic.

Abbreviations for

phil. or philos.

philosophy, philosopher,

photo

philosophical.

photog.

philanderer

photo-offset

orchestra

photo-realism

As verb. As noun. phrase book photostat

tirade.

Photostat

Philippines

A

crass, materialistic,

shal lowly motivated person,

philodendron;

pi.,

phyllo or

philodendrons

phylum;

or philodendra

ed.

phlebotomy phlegm A bodily secretion, mucus. (Compare phloem.)

PE

or phy.

Abbreviations for physical

education. physi-, physio-

Compounds of

combining form, which

Sluggish.

this

refers to

nature or physicality, are written

Bodily tissue. (Compare

as one word: physiology.

phlegm.) pi.,

phyla

pi.,

phys. ed. or

phlebitis

phlegmatic

Greek; a very thin

fillo

pastry dough,

philosophical or philosophic

phlox;

Abbreviation for

photograph or photo

philharmonic or symphony

Philistine

finish

photography, photographic.

philanthropic or philanthropical

A

(e.g.,

photojournalism) phot.

(e.g., philology,

philosophize).

philippic

are

word

photocopy, photoelectric,

loving or liking, are written as

one word

Compounds

phot-, photo-

Compounds of

phil-, philo-

phobia

phonies

phosphorus

scholastic

honor society.

phloem

pi.,

phooey

pew.) Phi Beta

(e.g.,

,

phenomenon; pi., phenomena or phenomenon^ or phenom

phew

word

phonograph phonology)

pheasant or

pi.,

physician

phlox or phloxes

physique

Excessive fear of

something.

phyt-, phyto-

phoenix phon-, phono-

Bodily structure,

condition.

Compounds of

combining form, which

Compounds of

plants, are written as

this

combining form, which means

phytoxic.

161

this

refers to

one word:

P.I.

Abbreviation for private

piano;

pi.,

residence.

pianos

pied piper

piazza; pi., piazzas or

piazze

pie-eyed

Porch.

pie-faced

Concerning rogues.

picaresque

French; a secondary

terre

investigator.

Picasso, Pablo

pie in the sky

(1881-1973)

A

pier

docking place, wall.

(Compare peer.)

Spanish painter and sculptor.

Along with Braque, founded

pigeon-livered

Cubism.

pigeon-toed

picayune

pigeonhole

Trivial.

piccolo;/?/., piccolos

piggyback

pick and choose

pigheaded

-picker, -picking

ending

word

Compounds

in these are written as

(e.g., cherrypicker)

pig iron

one

pig latin or pig Latin

pigpen

.

pick-me-up

pigskin

pickpocket

pigsty

As

pickup

adjective and noun.

pigtail

piiaf or pilaff or pilau or pilaw

picnic, picnicked

picture-book picture book

As adjective. As noun.

A

pi lea ted

picturesque

pile-driving

Pidgin English

pileup

Made

colors.

(Compare pied.)

are written as one

to

word

settlers

pillow

referring

sham

pilothouse

pilot-in-command;

French; a

pi.

,

pilots-in-

command

showpiece item. piece-dye

pilot light

piecemeal

pilsner or pilsener

A

piece of cake

pilule

piece of eight

Pima cotton pimento;

piecework pie chart or circle

when

of 1620.

pillowcase or pillow slip

piece by piece piece de resistance

Capitalize

U.S.

pillbox

in -piece

(e.g.,

mantelpiece).

graph

tiny pill.

pl.

t

pimentos or pimento

pimpernel

PIN

piecrust

pied

bird,

As noun.

pilgrim

of different parts,

Compounds ending

-piece

on a

pile driver

pidgin

piebald

crested head

such as the pileated woodpecker.

Blotchy. (Compare piebald.)

Abbreviation for personal

identification

pina colada

pied-a-terre; pi., pieds-a-

162

number.

pinafore

pious

pinata or pinata

pipe cleaner

pinball

machine

Reverent.

pipe cutter pipe

dream

temples, which are kept in place

pipe

fitter

by a spring

pipeline

Eyeglasses without

pince-nez

that grips the bridge

pipette or pipet

of the nose.

pincer or pincher

As verb. As noun.

pinch-hit

pinch hit

A

little

syringe-

used for dispensing

like tube fluids.

pipe wrench

pin curl

piping hot

pincushion

pip-squeak

pineapple

piquancy or piquance

pinecone

pique

pine nut

A

momentary

Ping-Pong

feeling of

or resentment. (Compare

irritation

piqul.)

A

pique or pique

pinhead pinhole

fabric.

As

pink-collar

and dramatist.

pink elephants

Italian novelist

pinkeye

Developed the concept of

pinkie or pinky

within the theater."

pinking shears

piranha

pink

pirouette

pin

slip

money

pinnacle

To

turn the

The

top, peak.

(Compare

body

theater

fully

French;

pis aller; pi., pis alters literally,

The card game. (Compare pinnacle.)

resort.

pinochle

"to go worse," a

pistachio; pi., pistachios

pinpoint

pistil

pinprick

The reproductive

flower.

and needles

pistol

pinsetter

pinstripe

A

(Compare

part of a

pistol.)

weapon. (Compare

pistil.)

pistol-whip

As noun.

pit-a-pat

pin-striped

pitch-black or pitch-dark

pinto; pi., pintos or pintoes

pitchfork

pinto bean

pitchout

pint-size or pint-sized

pitfall

As

last

Pisces (see Zodiac Signs),

Pinot grape

pinup

4t

around.

pinochle.)

pins

nubby

(1867-1936)

Pirandello, Luigi

adjective.

strong,

(Compare pique.)

adjective and noun.

pithy

pinwale

As noun.

Concise and having

substance (e.g., a pithy

pinwheel

pitter-patter

165

letter).

pituitary gland

One

pixel that

combine

combining form, which

to

form a picture on

motion or

pixie or pixy; pi.

,

flatness, are written as

planchette

pixies

pixilated or

pixieish

Compounds ending

-plane

humor.

(e.g., biplane).

planeload

pizzeria

planetarium;

Shortened form for pajamas.

pkg. or pkge.

plane tari urns or

Capitalize only

part of proper noun:

if

Hayden

Planetarium.

package. Abbreviation for plural; place.

PLC

or Pic. or p.l.c.

for public limited

Mercury, Venus, Earth,

Planets

Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus,

Abbreviation

company.

Neptune, Pluto.

Abbreviated form for

plangent

programming language version

planned parenthood

1.

placate; placable or placative or

planter's

punch

plant food

placatory Capitalize only

place

pi.,

planetaria

Abbreviations for

pi.

PL/1

in

-plane are written as one word

Unbalanced, of

pizzazz or pizazz

pj's

this

refers to

one word: planography.

a screen or monitor.

pixillated

Compounds of

plan-, piano-

of the tiny units or dots

if part

plant

of

address or proper noun.

names

Common

horticultural-variety

or

names of

placebo;/?/., placebos

plants are usually lowercased,

placecard

though proper nouns and

placeholder

adjectives are capitalized (e.g.,

Virginia creeper, Golden

placekick place

mat

Delicious apple).

Some

place-name

horticultural varieties are patented

placenta; pi., placentas or

or registered as trademarks.

placentae

Scientific

names of

name

plants (that

place setting

is,

place value

genus and species) are

placket

with the generic

plagiarize

and the specific

plainspoken plaintiff

(e.g.,

The person who

weave

set italic,

name capitalized name lowercased

Acer rubrum).

plasma

Melancholy. (Compare

plaster cast plaster of paris or plaster of Paris

plaintiff.)

plain

indicating

plaque

instigates

a lawsuit. (Compare plaintive.) plaintive

the Latin

As noun.

plastic

surgeon

plain-woven

plastic surgery

plaiting or braiding

plateau; pi., plateaus or plateaux

164

plateful;/?/., platefuls

plead, pleaded or pled

plate glass

pleasure principle

platelet

pleb or plebe; pi. plebes

plate rail

nobody.

Plath, Sylvia

(1932-1963)

,

plebs or

A common

platen

plebeian

American poet. Author of The

Pledge of Allegiance

Bell Jar.

pledger or pledgor

plenary

platinum (c.428-347 B.C.) Greek

Plato

philosopher. in

plenteous

Fruitful, productive.

(Compare supply.

platterful

platypus; pi., platypuses or platypi

plenum;

plaudit

plethora

plentiful.)

Abundant, giving a great

plentiful

platonic

(Compare plenteous.)

plenums or plena

pi.,

pleurisy

plausible

Approving.

Compounds

A

Plexiglas

written as one

trademark name for a

lightweight, transparent, synthetic

used to make items such as

word include playact, playacting,

resin,

playback (noun), playbill,

lenses and

playbook, playgoer, playground,

windows.

pliable or pliant

playhouse, playland, playmaker,

plica; pi., plicae

playmate, playpen, playroom,

plicate

playsuit, plaything, playtime,

plie

play wear, playwright.

pliers

As

verb.

play-action pass

plow or plough

play-by-play

plug-in

player piano

plug-ugly

playing card

plumage

playing field

plumb

play-off

As noun

titles

address or proper noun.

plea-bargaining

The

highest percentage in

a contest between

more than two

candidates, which

may be

less

than 50 percent. (Compare

Capitalize only if part of

plea bargaining

adjective and noun.

line

plurality

(See Part 2, Titles of

works.) plaza

As

pluperfect

play therapy

play

a

plenipotentiary

ideals

discussed. (See Socrates.)

play-

complete (often used

plenary vote was held).

on the Western culture were

plausive

Full,

in respect to participation, as in

Wrote The Republic,

which the philosophical

person, a

majority.)

As noun. As adjective and

plurals are

verb.

Plurals of

common nouns

formed by adding s or

es:

books, telephones, watches,

16$

classes.

Words ending

in

pocket-size or pocket-sized

o

preceded by a vowel take the

pocket veto

s:

Words ending

portfolios, taboos.

pococurante

o preceded by a consonant take

in

heroes, tomatoes.

es:

end

in v that are

vowel take the

Words

that

preceded by a

s: pulleys,

For words that end

in

y

to

i

is

and adding

Podunk

A

small, unimportant,

American Gothic

tale.

Author of

(See Part 2, Titles of

titles

works.) poetic or poetical

individual entries (abbreviations,

poetic justice

compounds, plurals, numbers, etc.) for more information on

poetic license

poet laureate;

pi.,

poets laureate

or poet laureates

plurals.

plus; pi., pluses or plusses

pogo

plus sign

poignant

plutonium

poinsettia

Plymouth Rock p.m. or P.M. Abbreviation for post meridiem, "afternoon." The

point-blank

is

stick

pointUlism pointillistic

Compounds of

point of no return

combining form, which means

point of view

lung or lungs, are written as one

poison ivy

word: pneumectomy.

poison oak

pneumat-, pneumato-

or pointillist

point of departure

often small capitals.

pneum-, pneumo-

Compounds

poison-pen

of this combining form, which

poison sumac

means

poker face

air, spirit,

or breath, are

written as one word: pneumatic.

poker-faced

pneumonia

PO

1

4

poem

and

throughout this section. Also, see

this

809- 849)

The Fall of the House of Usher and 'Annabel Lee."

exceptions to these rules are listed

typeface

( 1

American poet and creator of the

es: allies, babies.

plurals

podiums or podia

Poe, Edgar Allan

ways.

that are

formed by changing the y

Examples of

interest.

pi.,

isolated town.

preceded by a consonant, the plural

Lacking

podium;

pokeweed or pokeberry poky or pokey

Abbreviation for purchase

order or post

As noun. As adjective.

polar bear

office.

pocketbook

Polaris or North Star or polestar

pocket edition

Polaroid camera

pocketful; pi., pocketfuls

polecat; pi., polecats or polecat

pocketknife

polemic

pockmark pocket money

polemical or polemic polenta

166

A

vicious attack, dispute.

As noun. As verb.

pole vault pole-vault

polo shirt

poltroon

policymaker

poly-

Abbreviations for

The executive

polygamy, polyglot,

polysyllabic, polytechnic,

decision-

polyunsaturated) polyester

party.

polyglotism or

politesse

Suave, shrewd. (Compare

politic

this

polygraph, polynomial, polysemy,

making body of a Communist

j

Compounds of

(e.g.,

political.

politburo

noisy ghost.

coward.

many, are written as one word

poliomyelitis or polio

or pol.

A

combining form, which means

policy-making

polit.

A

poltergeist

policyholder

polyglottism

Fluency

in

many

political, politick.)

polyp

Concerned with

political

pomade pomander

government policy. (Compare politic, politick.)

political

party

name of

organization, but the

do not

the

party designation for a

pommel, pommeled or pommelled pommel horse pom-pom or pompon A fluffy ball

capitalize

word party. Capitalize

(e.g.,

pomegranate Pomeranian

Capitalize as a

proper noun the

the

member

on clothing.

Republican party,

pompadour

Republican).

poncho;/?/., ponchos

politician or politico

To engage

politick

in political

ponderosa pine

politic,

ponderous

(Compare

activity.

pons;

political.)

An

polity

organization, usually

polka dot

A

Very heavy or

pontes

Nerve

The Roman Catholic Pope.

pontoon boat

pony express

vote, survey.

Pollock, Jackson

(1912-1 956)

ponytail

American Abstract Expressionist

pooh-bah or poo-bah

and Action painter.

pooh-pooh or pooh

A

Polly anna

person

who

poolroom

is

poolside

relentlessly optimistic.

pollywog or polliwog Polo,

Marco

pool table

who

served on

mission under Kublai Khan. is

poop deck poor boy

(1254-1324)

Venetian explorer

milione

lifeless.

fibers in

the brain.

pontiff

political.

poll

pi.,

A

or, a type

//

poorhouse

the story of his travels.

167

submarine sandwich;

of ribbed sweater.

As

poor-mouth

verb.

To speak

portentous

portfolio; pi., portfolios

popularly; population.

pop

or ominous

porterhouse steak

Abbreviation for popular,

pop.

Wondrous

(Compare portend, portent.)

badly of.

A

artist

performer engaged

porthole

in

commercialized, popular

portico; pi., porticoes or porticos

entertainment.

portiere

pope

French; a curtain across

doorway.

popcorn Capitalize

when

Portland cement

referring to

portmanteau;

the head of the Catholic church.

Pope, Alexander

pi.,

portmanteaux

(1688-1744)

English poet. Author of Essay on

portmanteaus

travel bag.

Portuguese

Man.

popgun

pos.

poplin

poseur

popover

positiveness or positivity

poppy seed

poss. or pos.

Abbreviation for positive.

An

insincere person.

Abbreviations for

possessive; possession.

Popsicle

population or populace

possibly.

posse

people.

pop-up or pop

Abbreviation for possible,

poss.

Crowded, inhabited by

populous

many

c

French; a large

to

fly

porcelain; procelaneous or

A

group of people organize

do a search or

assist in

an

arrest.

Abbreviation for person

posslq

porcellaneous

porcupine

qj

the opposite sex sharing living

pork chop

quarters.

porkpie hat

post-

pornography or porn

Compounds

are usually

written as one word, in both the

porpoise

sense of "after" and in meaning

porridge

referring to the U.S. mail service

port

Capitalize only

if part

of

except

when

the second

word

portable or portative

but postcard, postdate,

porte cochere

postdoctoral, postgraduate,

part of a

French; a roof over

driveway that shelters

postmark, postmortem,

people as they get out of the car

and walk

portend

postoperative, postpaid,

postpartum postprandial )

to the house.

A

verb.

To

,

postage meter

signify, act as

an omen. (Compare portent,

postage-stamp

portentous.)

postage stamp

portent

A

is

proper noun (e.g., post-Freudian

proper noun.

noun.

An omen,

As adjective. As noun.

poster paint or poster color

a sign.

(Compare portend, portentous.)

posthaste

168

pourparler

posthumous

French; conversation

prior to getting the official

postlude post meridiem or p.m. or

P.M.

discussion started,

or

pousse-caf^

P.M.

French;

drink.

post-obit

post office or P.O. part of proper

Capitalize

poverty line

if

poverty-stricken

noun or address.

POW

post office box or P.O.B. or P.O.

Box

Abbreviation for prisoner of

war.

powder blue

Variant for cottage

pot cheese

As adjective. powder puff As noun. -power Compounds ending powder-puff

cheese.

Safe or acceptable for

potable

drinking.

in

•power are written as one word

potash

potassium

waterpower).

(e.g.,

potato chip

powerboat

potato; pi., potatoes

potboiler

power broker powerhouse power of attorney

potency or potence

powwow

potbellied stove or potbelly stove

pother

literally,

"coffee chaser," an after-dinner

postnasal drip

Commotion, confusion.

pox;

pot holder

p.p.

pothole

pi.

,

pox or poxes

Abbreviation for past

participle.

pothook

ppd. or P.P.

PPS

potpie

potpourri

Abbreviation for post

postscriptum, pr.

potshot

practicable

potty-chair

Feasible, usable.

Reasonable,

practical

pouilly-fuisse

A

dry, white wine.

useful.

pi. pounds or pound pound cake Pound, Ezra (1885-1972) critic, editor,

realistic,

(Compare practicable,

practically.)

,

leader of the Imagist

practically nearly.

poet and

Reasonably or almost,

(Compare practicable,

practical.)

movement.

pragmatic or pragmatical

Author of The Spirit of Romance.

pragmatics

pound-foolish

pourboire

later postscript."

(Compare practical, practically.)

potter's clay

American

"a

Abbreviation for pair.

pot roast

pound;

Abbreviations for

postpaid; prepaid.

potluck

The study of signs and (Compare

linguistic expressions.

pragmatism.)

French; a tip for a

pragmatism

waiter.

169

A

philosophy of care,

balance, reasonability. (Compare

predecessor

pragmatics.)

predicable

dog

prairie

affirmed.

To speak

(Compare prey.)

(Compare predisposition.)

liking.

praying mantis

predisposition

second word

word unless

is

(Compare predilection.)

predominance or predominancy

the

predominant or predominate

a proper noun

preemie or premie

(e.g., pre-Christian, but

preregister, preschooler, presoak,

preeminent

preview).

preempt preemptory

precedence or precedency Immediately before.

A

peremptory, perfunctory.)

pref.

Teacher. (Compare

Abbreviation for preface,

prefatory; preferred, preference.

As

prefab

precept.)

precipitancy or precipitance

adjective and noun.

As

prefabricate

happening quickly. (Compare

preferred stock

precipitate, precipitous

prefix

precipitate

.

Causing to occur

abruptly; or, to condense and as

snow or

rain.

pregnable

steep or sheer.

(Compare

to be used for

grabbing and holding, or being

Very

perceptive.

(Compare

prehistoric or prehistorical prejudicial or prejudicious

French; a concise summary.

prelection

A

public lecture.

prelude

precise

precocious

Showing premature

prem.

development.

pred.

Able

prehensile

precipitant, precipitate.)

precis

Vulnerable.

pregnant

fall,

precipitant, precipitous.)

precipitous or precipitate

verb.

preface

Speeding, rushing,

precipitant

Exclusively or

pre-engineered

principle, order.

(Compare preceptor.) preceptor

prematurely

(Compare

privileged.

(Compare previous, prior.) precept

A

born baby.

preexistent, preflight, premarital,

preceding

Susceptibility or

inclination toward something.

with pre-,

which means before, are usually written as one

to be anticipated.

Favoring, strong

predilection

Compounds formed

be asserted or

(Compare predicable.)

to a higher being.

prayer book

pre-

to

Able

predictable

praline

pray

Able

(Compare predictable.)

Abbreviation for premium;

premier.

premedical or premed

Abbreviation for predicate,

premenstrual syndrome or

predicative.

predatory or predaceous or

premier or premiere

predacious

earliest.

170

PMS

First,

premiere or premier premise

As

Presidents'

verb.

presupposition.

America

(Compare

premises.)

1.

George Washington

2.

John Adams

3.

Thomas Jefferson 1743-1826

4.

James Madison

5.

James Monroe

6.

John Quincy Adams

7.

Andrew Jackson

8.

Martin Van Buren

9.

William Henry Harrison

1732-1799

Building, property.

premises

(Compare premise.)

pre-owned or secondhand

1735-1826

prep school Abbreviation for preposition;

prep.

prepare, preparatory, preparation.

1751-1836

Abbreviation for prepared.

prepd.

preponderance or preponderancy

To

prepossess early.

1758-1831

take, influence

(Compare prepossessing.)

prepossessing

1767-1848

Attractive,

(Compare

impressive.

1767-1845

prepossess.)

preppy or preppie;

pi.,

preppies

1782-1862

Abbreviation for

prereq.

prerequisite.

1773-1841

prerequisite 10.

John Tyler

11.

James K. Polk

12.

Zachary Taylor

13.

Millard Fillmore

prerogative pres.

Day

Presidents of the United States of

Proposition,

1790-1862

Abbreviation for present;

president.

1795-1849 prescience

Foresight.

To

prescribe

order, dictate,

1784-1850

(Compare

specify with authority.

proscribe.)

1800-1874

mind

presence of

A

presentiment something

is

14. Franklin Pierce

feeling that

1804-1869

going to happen. 15.

James Buchanan

(Compare

16.

Abraham Lincoln

Capitalize only if part of

17.

Andrew Johnson

18.

Ulysses S. Grant

19.

Rutherford B. Hayes

(Compare presentment.) presentment

The

1791-1868

act of giving,

setting forth something.

1809-1865

presentiment.) president formal

title

preceding

1808-1875

name or Thomas

proper noun: President

1822-1885

Jefferson.

president-elect; pi., presidents-

1822-1893

elect

171

20.

4

James Garfield 1831-1881

1

George Bush 1924-

21. Chester A. Arthur

42.

William Clinton

1829-1886 22.

1946-

Grover Cleveland

presidio;

1837-1908 23.

Benjamin Harrison

Grover Cleveland

press conference

press release

William McKinley

pressroom

1843-1901 26.

presidios

press box

1837-1908 25.

,

press board

1833-1901 24.

/?/

press agent

pressrun

Theodore Roosevelt

press secretary

1858-1919

pressure cooker

H. Taft 1857-1930

pressure group

27. William

28.

Woodrow Wilson

29.

Warren G. Harding 1865-1923

prestidigitation

1856-1924

presto

presume

To

take for granted not

having proof to the contrary.

30. Calvin Coolidge

(Compare presumptuous.)

1872-1933 31. Herbert C.

Sleight of hand.

prestige

presumptuous

Hoover

Overstepping

reasonable bounds. (Compare

1874-1964 presume.)

D. Roosevelt

32. Franklin

preteen

1882-1945 33.

34.

pretense or pretence

Harry S Truman 1844-1972 1890-1969 John F. Kennedy

36.

Lyndon B. Johnson

An

preternatural

Extraordinary.

omission.

A

pretend

or state. (Compare pretense.) pretzel

M. Nixon

prev.

1913-

Abbreviation for previous,

previously.

Ford

preventable or preventible

191339.

ik

purpose that hides the real inter

1908-1973

38. Gerald R.

pretermission

pretext or pretension

1917-1963

37. Richard

claim

(Compare pretext.)

Dwight D. Eisenhower

35.

A

supported by facts, a false show

preventive or preventative

Jimmy Carter

previous

1924-

Reagan 1911-

40. Ronald

earlier.

prior.)

172

Existing or occurring

(Compare preceding,

prey

A

victim, something that

assumption or

is

being stalked. (Compare pray.)

price-earnings ratio

printer's ink

price tag

printout

pricey or pricy

prior

prie-dieu; pi.

prie-dieux

,

A

The leading

if

prisoner of first

privately.

(Compare primitive.)

private investigator or private eye

Capitalize only

or private detective

if

privy

part of formal title preceding a

name. Abbreviation

is

war or POW; pi, war or POWs

Abbreviation for private,

priv.

First, principal, basic.

prime minister

(Compare

prisoners of

glance.

primal scream therapy

primary

part of proper noun.

jail)

in a ballet

Latin; at

facie

or

correctional institution. Capitalize

company.

prima

A crystal. A penitentiary

prison

resting at reading height.

female dancer

As noun.

Existing or occurring earlier.

prism

upon with a prayer book

prima ballerina

(Compare

(Compare preceding, previous.)

piece

of furniture designed for a person to kneel

rule.

principal.)

P.M.:

Secret, special.

prix fixe

French;

literally,

"fixed

Prime Minister Margaret

price," a meal served by an

Thatcher.

establishment to

prime mover primer

guests at a set

other choices from a menu.

prime rate

prizefight

prime time primeval

prize

pro forma

Original, primary.

Latin; standard,

prescribed in advance,

(Compare primary.)

pro; pi

,

prob.

First.

primogenitor; primogeniture

primordial

money

prizewinner

Primitive, ancient.

(Compare primordial.) primitive

primo

all

no substitutions or

price, with

pros

Abbreviation for probable,

probably.

probate court

First created, earliest;

fundamental. (Compare

probation officer

primeval.)

probative or probatory

primrose path prin.

probity

proboscis; pi.

principally.

prince, princess

principal

proc.

(Compare

proboscises or

Abbreviation for

proceedings; procedures; process.

proceed

principle.)

A

,

proboscides

The most important

thing; an authority.

principle

Uprightness.

problematic or problematical

Abbreviation for principal,

fundamental

along.

175

To come

forth,

move

(Compare proceeds.)

Money made

proceeds

The workers or wage

proletariat

proceedings

laborers in an industrial society.

after

deductions. (Compare proceed.)

pro-life

process cheese or processed cheese

prolific

processible or processable

prolix

proces-verbal

prologue or prolog

pro-choice

promenade promised land

procure

procurement or procurance

promissory note

To

pron. or pr.

get posssession; achieve.

pron. or pro.

produced, producer, product,

prone

Extravagant, luxurious.

An omen,

A

pronoun

or something

for a noun,

amazing.

word used which

to substitute

refers to the

noun but does not name

Abbreviation for profession,

prof.

Lying facedown. (Compare

supine.)

Strange, amazing.

prodigious

prodigy

Abbreviations for

pronoun.

production.

prodigal

Abbreviations for

pronounced, pronunciation.

Abbreviation for produce,

prod.

long, wordy.

promisor or promiser

Bent, predisposition.

proclivity

Fruitful, productive.

Too

specifically (e.g., him,

it

it).

professional.

The possessive of

Abbreviation for professor.

Prof.

when

Capitalize only

pronouns

is

directly

adding

sombodys). Other

's (e.g.,

preceding a name.

profit

indefinite

To

proffer

and

pronouns take the word

present for acceptance.

of before them

to

profiteer

of each).

Possessive pronouns have no

profit-sharing profit sharing

As adjective. As noun.

apostrophes (e.g., hers,

pgm.

pronto

Abbreviations for

-proof

program. progenitor

Right away.

Compounds ending

in

-proof are written as one word

An

ancestor in direct

(e.g., foolproof).

(Compare progeny.)

progeny

his, its,

mine, ours, theirs, yours).

Very extravagant.

profligate

line.

show possession

loss (e.g., the duties

prog, or

indefinite

often formed by

proofread

Children. (Compare

propaganda

progenitor.)

Information

disseminated with the intent of

program, programmed or

influencing public opinion.

programed

propellant or propellent

prohibitive or prohibitory

propeller or propeller

projectile

proper name or proper noun

projection booth or projection

noun

room

A

that designates a particular

being, group, place, or thing and

174

is

capitalized (e.g.,

Pam

by adding

spoken language, without rhyme or meter, as opposed to poetry.

s or es (e.g., the

prosecutor

Smiths, the Wellses) and those

title

if

part

preceding a

name.

A

proselyte

Grammy s).

converted person.

(Compare proselytize.)

property tax

prophecy or prophesy;

As

To

proselytize

pi.,

prosodic or prosodical

verb.

The study of

prosody

prophetic or prophetical

prospective

prophylactic

propinquity

prospectus;

appease, pacify.

pi.,

A

prostate

(Compare propitious.)

prospectuses

muscular gland

surrounding the urethra

Auspicious, favorable.

in

most

male animals. (Compare

(Compare propitiate.)

prostrate.)

propjet engine

To

versification.

Anticipated, expected,

likely.

Kinship, proximity.

To

convert or recruit.

(Compare proselyte.)

prophecies or prophesies

propitious

Capitalize only

of a formal

ending in y usually retain the y and add s (e.g., the winners of

propitiate

Ordinary form of written or

prose

Plurals of

proper names are usually formed

propone

prohibit, restrain.

(Compare prescribe.)

proper name plurals

prophesy

To

proscribe

Smith,

Canada).

prosthesis; pi, prostheses

argue in favor of

something. (Compare propound.)

proportion or proportionate

Lying

prostrate

As

An

limb.

artificial

(Compare

flat.

prostate.) verb.

prostrating

Moving

proportionate or proportionable of lying

To

propound

discussion.

put up for

prostration

protagonist

Appropriateness,

politeness.

the

(Compare

proprietary.)

To

in

a situation.

Versatile, changeable.

(female)

French; someone under

the protection of a person of

proportionately.

higher knowledge, authority, or

To

prestige.

postpone.

prosaic

leading character,

protege (male), protegee

distribute

prorogue or prorogate

A

main actor

protean

propylene glycol prorate

Exhaustion. (Compare

prostrating.)

(Compare propriety.) propriety

into a position

or humbling oneself.

(Compare prostration.)

(Compare propone.) Exclusive, by rights.

proprietary

flat,

protein

Ordinary, dull.

protester or protestor

proscenium

proto-

prosciutto; pi., prosciuttos

Compounds formed

proto-,

175

which means

with

first in

time,

original, or primitive, are written

as one

word

fictitious

or counterfeit, are

word

written as one

(e.g., prototype).

(e.g.,

pseudomorpha pseudoscience )

protocol

,

pseud.

prototypical or prototypal

protozoon;

pi.

,

(1871-1 922)

Proust, Marcel

psoriasis

PST

French novelist. Author of

Remembrances of Things prove, proved or proven

Abbreviation for Pacific

Standard Time.

Past.

psych or psyche

Food. (Compare

provender

Abbreviation for

pseudonym, pseudonymous.

protozoa

psych-, psycho-

provenience.)

this

As verb. Compounds of

combining form, which means

mind or mental process,

provenience or provenance

one word

are

Origin, source. (Compare

written as

provender.)

psychoanalysis, psychosomatic,

psychotherapy).

proverbial

provident

psych, or psychol.

Frugal, careful.

(Compare providential.)

psychologist.

psychedelic

provident.)

province

Capitalize only

if part

psychiatry

of

psychic or psychical

proper noun.

proving ground

proviso; pi.

psycho;

Temporary.

provisional ,

psychosis; pi., phychoses

provisos or provisoes

p.t.

provolone cheese

pt.

prox.

PTboat

Abbreviation for Latin, '

in

proximate or proximal

A

pub. or publ.

proxy;

pi.,

pr.p.

Abbreviation for present

pub crawler public-address system or

Discreet, wise.

(Compare

puddle jumper

prurient.)

pueblo

something. (Compare prudent.)

in .the

southwestern United States.

Abbreviation for post

puerile

scriptum, postscript.

Childish.

(Compare

puerperal.)

psalm this

Spanish; a village or

community of Indians

Unhealthily interested in

puerperal

pseud-, pseudo-

PA

system

prurience or pruriency

P.S.

Abbreviations for

published, publisher, publishing.

stand-in.

participle.

prurient

Abbreviation for past tense. Abbreviation for part; pint.

ptomaine poisoning

the next month.'*

proxies

psychos

pi.,

psychological or psychologic

provocateur or agent provocateur

proximo,

Abbreviations

for psychological, psychology,

Lucky. (Compare

providential

prudent

(e.g.,

Compounds of

Relating to childbirth.

(Compare puerile.)

combining form, which means

puffball

176

pugnacious

purgatory

Belligerent.

puritanical

pug nose puisne

Inferior in rank.

purloin

(Compare

Purple Heart

puny.) puissant

Neighborhood.

purlieu

pug-nosed

purposely or purposeful or

Powerful.

purposive

Pulitzer prize pulley;/?/., pulleys

purr

Pullman

purse strings

As noun. pullover As noun. pulmonary

pursuant to

pullout

Following upon,

in

accordance with.

As adjective. As noun.

push-button

push button

pulverizable or pulverable

pumice stone

pushcart

pummel, pummeled or pummelled

pushover

As noun.

push-pull

pumpernickel

As noun.

push-up

punch bowl

pusillanimous

punch-drunk

Cowardly.

pussycat

punching bag

pussyfoot punctilio;/?/., punctilios

putative

To poke a

puncture

Generally considered or

Careful, exact.

punctilious

reputed.

hole

in.

As noun. As adjective As noun.

put-down

pungent put-on

punk rock puny

putout

Weak

or tiny.

(Compare

putrefy

puisne.)

pupa;

pi.,

putrescent

pupae or pupas

putting green

puppy dog

put-upon

puppy love

Pygmalion

pup

or noun.

tent

pure blood

pyr-, pyro-

As noun.

pure-blooded or pure-blood

Compounds of

this

combining form, which means

As

or heat, are written as one

adjective.

(e.g.,

pyromania).

purebred

pyramid

puree, pureed

python

177

fire

word

quart or

qt.

Abbreviation for quarterly.

quart.

Q. and A. or

Q&A

or

Q-A

quarterfinal

Abbreviations for question and

quarter horse

answer.

quarter hour

Q.E.D. quod

quartet or quartette

Abbreviation for Latin,

demonstrandum,

erat

"which was Q-Tips

A

to

quarto;

quartos

pi.,

quartz battery

be demonstrated."

trademark name for a

quasar This word, which means

quasi

cotton swab. qty.

Abbreviation for quantity.

seemingly, or

qua

Latin; as, in the capacity of

with an adjective

(e.g., Politicians

qua

,

A

modifying a noun,

trademark name for a

hyphenated

happening every four years. pi.,

quadrenniums

is

not

landing place at water's

queen-size

quencher

Com-

quadri, quadr-, quadru-

querulous

pounds of these combining forms,

query;

which mean four times or fourfold, are written as

quadrille

it

(e.g., quasi student).

edge.

or quadrennia

(e.g., quadrilateral,

A

quay

Lasting four years or

quadrennium;

combined

hyphenated

quatrain

sedative drug.

quadrennial

is

(e.g., quasi-judicial). If directly

politicians

tend toward insincerity).

Quaalude

in part,

pi.

Complaining, whining. ,

queries

quesadilla

one word

question

quadrupled).

mark

questionnaire

To

queue

Decorated with squares

get in a waiting line.

queuing or queueing

or rectangles.

quaff

quiche lorraine or quiche Lorraine

quagmire

quick bread

quahog or quahaug

quick

quail; pi., quail or quails

quick-freeze, quick-froze

Quaker qual. or qlty.

fix

quickie

quick-lunch

Abbreviations for

quickset

quality.

qualify

quicksilver

quality control

quick-tempered

quandary

quick-witted

quantify

quidnunc

quantum;/?/., quanta

A

busybody, a nosy

person.

quid pro quo

quarantine

Latin; literally,

quarrel, quarreled or quarrelled

"something for something," an

quarry;/?/., quarries

equal trade.

178

quietude

Silence, peace.

quiz show

(Compare

quondam

quietus.)

(Compare quietude.)

,

required to conduct business or

Twenty-four or twenty-five

make

sheets of paper, one twentieth of a

quota

quit, quit or quitted

quotation

quitclaim

vive,

decisions.

Abbreviation for quotation.

quot.

ream.

qui vive

quotidian

Paying off of a debt. French; used as on the qui

on the

a

now

reformed).

quintet or quintette

quittance

criminal,

quorum; pi. quorums The minimum number of people

quinine water

quire

Latin; former (e.g.,

quondam

Settlement, or death.

quietus

mark Everyday, ordinary.

quotient q.v.

alert.

quixotic or quixotical

Abbreviation for Latin, quod

vide,

179

"which see."

radix; pi.

radices or radixes

,

root, or a

A

rabbet

A

radon

groove, recess.

radioactive gas formed by

the disintegration of radium.

(Compare rabbit.) rabbet joint

raffia

rabbi

ragamuffin

ragbag

The long-eared small mammal. (Compare rabbet.)

rabbit

rag doll

ragged or raggedy

rabbit punch

rabble-rouser

raglan sleeve

rabies; pi., rabies

ragout

raccoon or racoon

ragtag

racecourse or raceway

ragtime

racehorse

ragtop

race riot

ragweed

racetrack

rah-rah

racket or racquet

A

raclette

railcar

Swiss cheese and potato

railroad or railway

A

A

raiment

word derived from radio

rain

and ranging, a system of using radio waves to detect and

rain-

Most compounds word (e.g.,

are

radioisotope)

Compounds

rainstorm, rainwash, rainwater,

.

rainwear.

radiance or radiancy

rainbow trout

radical

rain check Part of plant or root.

rain forest

bread

radio, radioed

raisin

radio;/?/., radios

raison d'etre

radio beacon

radiobroadcast

written as one

raincoat, raindrop,

rainproof, rainspout, rainsquall,

radial tire

radicle

(Compare

rainmaker, rainmaking,

rainfall,

written as one ,

Clothing.

Precipitation.

word include

locate the position of an object.

radioactive

if

reign, rein.)

detecting

radi-, radio-

Capitalize

part of proper noun.

storyteller.

racquetball

radar

Ridicule.

raillery

dish.

raconteur

A

primary source.

French; reason for

being, justification for existence.

As

rake-off

verb.

As noun.

Raleigh, Sir Walter

radio car radio frequency

( 1

554- 1618)

English courtier, navigator,

radio spectrum

historian,

and poet.

radio telescope

rally; pi., rallies

radio wave

RAM

radius; pi., radii or radiuses

Abbreviation for random

access memory.

180

ramekin or ramequin ramie The fiber, fabric.

aves

ramjet engine

rarity,

rabbit

ramshackle

cheese over crackers or

rancher or ranchero Foul in smell or

rancid

rarefy or rarify

taste.

raring

(Compare rancor.) rancor

Hate,

ill

will.

rasher

Abbreviation for rhythm and

slice

or

R&D

rat-a-tat or rat-a-tat-tat

Abbreviation for

ratatouille

Abbreviation for rest and

recreation, rest

and

ratchet rat fink

relaxation,

and recuperation,

rest

and

German; a basement

rathskeller alehouse.

rehabilitation.

random-access

ratio; pi., ratios

randy

ratiocinate

Lecherous.

range finder

rational

rank and

rat race

file

ransacker

rap

To

rhyming song

lyrics are

meant

rattlebrained rattlesnake

to

rattletrap

of a heavily rhythmic beat.

rattrap

rapacious

raucous

Greedy, preying.

movement or

REM

ravage

rapid transit

A

Someone who

rapprochement

ravine

gives

A

narrow, deep valley.

ravioli; pi., ravioli or raviolis

ravish

Reconciliation.

rapscallion

To

plunder.

Engrossed.

violate, rape, or

(Compare ravage,

ravishing.)

Inducing passion,

ravishing

Very

beautiful, striking.

(Compare ravish.)

ecstasy. pi.,

Variant

of unravel.

the report at a meeting.

rara avis;

severe damage.

ravel, raveled or ravelled

two-edged sword.

rapporteur

rapturous

To cause

(Compare ravish.)

rapid-fire

rapt

think, reason.

rattan

be spoken to the accompaniment

rapid eye

To

Using reason.

rattail

or (slang) to talk; or a

hit,

type of popular music in which

rapier

of bacon or ham.

ratable or rateable

D

research and development.

rest

A

raspberry

blues.

R&R

Enthusiastic (e.g., raring to

go dancing).

(Compare

rancid.)

and

toast.

rare earth

ranch house

R

Welsh rarebit or Welsh A dish made with melted

rarebit or

ramrod

R&B

Latin; literally, "rare

bird," a unique person or thing, a

rawboned

rara avises or rarae

161

To spring back, get back. To argue back. (Compare

raw deal

rebound

rawhide

rebut

raw material

refute.)

recalcitrance or recalcitrancy

rayon razor

A

shaving tool.

recapitulate or recap

razorback

Abbreviations for

reed, or red.

razor blade

received.

razzle-dazzle

receipt

razzmatazz

receivable or receptible

RBIsor

RBI;/?/.,

RBI in; pi.,

re-

Received Pronunciation or

Abbreviation for run batted

runs batted

Received Standard

in.

the

or

computer memory

critical revision, as

of

religious writing.

ROM A

French;

French; intensely sought

after;

over.

or overblown, forced.

recidivist

cannot be changed by the

warmed

rechauffe

recherche

that contains a

special-purpose program and

A

repeat offender, such

as a criminal.

computer.

reading

A

recension

(e.g., realignment,

memory

lightweight

baby blanket.

rebuild).

read-only

A

receiving blanket

M one word when meaning again"

"back"

or

spoken by the upper-class English.

Compounds beginning with

prefix re- are usually written as

or

RP

English as

recipe

room

To

reclaim

As noun. ready-made readout

take back or subdue.

(Compare re-claim.)

To

re-claim

claim again.

ready-to-wear reagent

A

(Compare reclaim.) chemically or

An

recognizance biologically active substance.

pledge.

real estate or realty

obligation,

(Compare

reconnaissance.) real-life

real-time

As

recollect

adjective.

realm realpolitik

To remember. (Compare

re-collect.)

German;

politics

on expedience rather than

re-collect

based

To

(Compare

ethics.

recompense

realtor or real estate agent or

recondite

realty broker

gather again.

recollect.)

Compensation.

Hidden, obscure.

reconnaissance

rear end

exploration.

rearguard

A

survey,

(Compare

recognizance.)

rearview mirror

reconnoiter or reconnoitre

rearward or rearwards

make

rebel yell

a reconnaissance.

record player

rebel, rebelled

182

To

recover

To

(Compare

recuperate.

red-letter

red light

re-cover.)

To cover

re-cover

redline

again.

redolent

(Compare recover.)

Fragrant, aromatic.

redoubtable

Abbreviations for

recpt. or rec.

Formidable,

awesome.

receipt.

Cowardly

recreant

To overflow

redound

(adjective),

or accrue, to

coward (noun). (Compare

have a

recreate.)

or discredit of something, or to

To

recreate

come back

refresh or to enjoy

sports or exercise.

(Compare

To

red-pencil

form again,

create or

To form

redshirt

(Compare

again.

red tape

redux

reform.) recreational vehicle or

recreation

recrudesce

RV

room To become

Brought back.

red wine

red-winged blackbird

redwood

active;

reecho or re-echo

renew. rectory

Compensation, remedy.

redress

anew. (Compare recreate.)

re-form

A

reed organ

religious leader's

A

recursion

Slang for marijuana.

reefer

residence.

reel-to-reel

return.

ret;

recyclable

red alert

pi.

,

reff.

Abbreviation for

reference, references.

redbird

To mention

refer

As

redbrick

red-carpet

red carpet

referendum;

As adjective. As noun.

refl.

reflex arc

A

Abbreviation for reflexive.

reform school

football term.

overnight plane

reform

flight.

To amend, improve,

redeye gravy

change for the

red flag

re-form.)

red-handed

re-form

redheaded or red-haired red herring

A

referenda or

refinery; pi, refineries

Red Cross

An

pi.,

referendums

redcoat

red dog or blitz

specifically.

(Compare allude.)

adjective.

red-blooded

red-eye

or react upon

something.

re-

create, recreant.)

re-create

result or effect to the credit

better.

To form

(Compare

again.

(Compare

reform.)

reformative or reformatory

false or deceptive

refried beans

clue.

red-hot

refugee

red ink

refulgent

187

Brilliant, shining.

To deny and prove wrong.

refute

relic

(Compare rebut.) reg.

relief

Judaism, Episcopalians.

regalia

reluctance or reluctancy

regatta

A

regime

political

system or a

act.

remake, remade

form or manner of government

remand To send or order back. Rembrandt van Rijn ( 606- 669)

(Compare regimen,

rule.

regimental.)

A

regimen

1

Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp and The Nightwatch.

Authoritative.

remediable

(Compare regime, regimen.) regnant

pi.,

regna

remedial

A

Fixing, helpful.

reminisce

remiss

privilege of reentry, a

Negligent, careless.

(Compare remissible.)

return, or to return to an earlier

Capable of being

remissible

state.

regret, regretted

rehabilitation or

To

forgiven.

rehab

rule, control.

removable or removeable

remunerate

Straps of leather attached to a

revival

and

flourishing of art, literature,

(Compare rain, reign.)

and

the sciences that began in Italy in

reindeer; pi., reindeer

the 14th century and spread

rejecter or rejector

through Europe.

Renaissance person

reply.

A

who

person

has a wide variety of talent and

Abbreviation for related,

relating, relative, relatively.

relative

revival or rebirth.

The

Renaissance

animal; or, to control, check, or

A

A

renaissance

horse's bit and used to control the

rejoinder

(Compare remiss.)

remodel

(Compare

rain, rein.)

restrain.

to be fixed.

(Compare remediable.)

Latin;

kingdom. regress

Able

(Compare remedial.)

Reigning (as royalty, e.g.,

the regnant king).

regnum;

1

Dutch painter and etcher. Painted

plan, course, rule.

(Compare regime, regimental.) regimental

cultural interest.

humidity

A

rencontre

To put down again. relayed To pass along.

rend

relay, relaid

relay,

Hesitant, unwilling to

reluctant

reggae

rel.

names of

organizations and adherents:

regulator.

rein

Capitalize the

religion

regularly; regulate, regulation,

reign

map

relief pitcher

Abbreviation for regular,

To

tense

conflict or meeting.

split, tear apart.

released time

rendezvous;

released-time capsules

rendezvous, rendezvoused

relevance or relevancy

verb

184

The

past

is rent.

pi.,

rendezvous

As

To go back on

renege

reprieve

a promise.

Renoir, Pierre Auguste

Relief.

reprisal

Retaliation.

(1841-1919) French Impressionist

repro;p/., repros

painter.

reprobate

renown

Acclaim, fame.

reproof

rent-a-car

worthless.

(Compare

reprove.)

As

rent-controlled

adjective.

representative.

A

republic

witty reply or

Capitalize

if

to the political party or

repay, repaid

To

repudiate

repel, repelled

part of

referring

member.

refuse to accept.

(Compare reputable.)

repellent or repellant

The

repugnance or repugnancy

or stock of

list

things that a person or group

reputable or reputed is

An

requester or requestor

adjective referring to

Complete,

replica

A

A

requiem mass

a theater company. replete

Esteemed.

(Compare repudiate.)

able to perform.

repertory

if

China.

republican

meal.

repertoire

Capitalize only

proper noun: People's Republic of

conversation.

A

(Compare

scold.

reproof.)

repairable or reparable

repartee

To

reprove

Abbreviations for

rep. or repr.

repast

Condemned, Criticism.

religious service

work honoring

or musical

the

full.

dead.

close reproduction,

Necessary. (Compare

requisite

copy.

To

replicate

requisition, requite.) duplicate.

A

requisition

reportage

request, something

Journalistic

(Compare requisite,

requested.

documentation of events. requite.)

report card

A

repose

requite

noun or verb meaning

repousse

res.

in relief.

Abbreviation for reprint,

reprehend

rescind

To

representative

As a

title

resentiment

politician's

preceding a

reservation

Tom Tom Andrews, the

reserve(s)

To

Cancellation.

Very deep resentment. Capitalize only

Capitalize only

proper noun: U.S.

if

part

Army

if

part of

Reserves.

reservoir

representative from Maine).

repress

cancel.

of proper noun.

name

(e.g., U.S. Representative

Andrews, but

To

rescision or recision

censure.

capitalize only if part of

formal

Abbreviation for residence,

residency, resident.

reprinted.

title,

repay, avenge.

rerun

Adjective describing

metalwork ornamented repr.

To

(Compare requisite, requisition.)

"rest."

hold back; check.

residence or residency

185

A

place for

living, or a period of activity,

retell, retold

dwelling.

rethink, rethought

Something

residue

that

reticence or reticency

is left

(Compare residuum.)

over.

residuum;/?/., residua

A

meaning ''residue," used

especially to speak.

veins, fibers.

retina; pi., retinas or retinae

resilience or resiliency

An

One who

(Compare (Compare

written as one

electrical control.

retroactive

resister.)

To end up having

resort

,

word

retrofit)

retroflexion or retroflexion

retrograde

to do.

Contradictory.

To

retrogress

decent.

revert to earlier

state.

Showing regard,

respectful

retro-rocket

An

retrousse

deference.

adjective (French)

meaning "turned up."

respecting

Concerning.

respective

Particular.

retsina

breathe.

Reuben sandwich

respire

To

respite

A

pause,

rev.

restaurateur or restauranteur

revise, revised.

(Compare

revealer or revelator

restless.)

Moving constantly; changeful. (Compare restive.)

A

revenant after

at

dawn.

person

who

returns

extended absence; or, a

ghost.

A

revenge

summary. (Compare

To

wrong or

get back at for a

injury to oneself.

(Compare avenge.)

resume.)

To

bugle call

reveler or reveller

retake, retook

retch

A

reveille

room

resume To take up again. (Compare resume.) resume or resume or resume career

Abbreviation for reverse,

revaluate or reevaluate

Contrary, uncontrollable.

restless

rest

Greek wine.

reversed; review, reviewed;

home

restive

A

rev, revved

relief.

resplendence or resplendency

rest

(e.g., .

retro-engine

Worthy of esteem;

respectable

refers to

back, backward, or behind, are

Decidedness of purpose.

resolve

this

combining form, which

Steady, faithful.

resolute

Compounds of

retro-

resists.

resistor.)

An

resistor

retractable or retractile

from plant

(Compare rosin.)

secretion.

resister

Shy.

retiring

organic substance,

especially that formed

Having

reticulate or reticular

in

technical contexts.

resin

Reluctant, hesitant,

reticent

word

reverberant or reverberative

vomit. (Compare

reverend

wretch.)

formal

186

Capitalize only title

if part

of

preceding a name. The

abbreviation Rev.

when

is

rhombus;

acceptable

church and should be preceded by

,

rhombuses or

Rh-positive

rhubarb

The Rev. Janet Ford).

the (e.g.,

pi.

rhombi

referring to the minister of a

reverie or re very; pi., reveries

rhyme rhythm and

Revised Standard Version or

rhythmic or rhythmical

reverent or reverential

A

RSV

modern

revision of the

Indulging in coarse humor.

ribald

,

American Standard Version of the

rib cage

English Bible.

rib eye

reviser or revisor

riboflavin

revision or revisal

rib roast

revocable or revokahle revolutions per minute or

revue

rice

rpm

Compensation or

paper

Richter scale rickrack or ricrac

Theatrical production.

reward

blues

ricochet, ricocheted or ricochetted

profit.

rewind, rewound

ricotta cheese

Reye's syndrome or Reye

rid, rid or

syndrome

RF

Abbreviation for radio

riffraff

frequency.

rhapsody;

pi.,

ridded

Riesling wine

riflery

rhapsodies

rigatoni

rhetorical or rhetoric

righteous

rheumatism

right-hand, right-handed

Rh

factor

Adjectives.

rhinestone

right hand, right-hander

Rhine wine

right-minded right-of-way;/?/., rights-of-way or

rhinitis

rhinoceros; pi.

,

rhinoceroses or

right-of-ways

rhinoceros or rhinoceri rhiz-, rhizo-

from

this

means

word

Nouns.

right-to-life

Compounds made

right-to-work

combining form, which

root, are written as

right

one

wing

right-winger

rigmarole or rigamarole

(e.g., rhizogenic).

rhizome

rigor mortis

To

Rh-negative

rile

Rhode Island Red Rhode Island White

Rilke, Rainer

upset someone.

German

Rhodes scholar

Maria

poet.

(

875- 1 926)

Author of Die

Aufzeichnungen des Malte Laurids

rhododendron

Brigge.

rhombic

ring,

187

rang

noun or address. Abbreviation

ring-around-a-rosy or ring-around-

ring binder

roadblock

ring finger

road hog

ringleader

roadhouse

ringtoss

road racing

roadrunner

rinky-dink

An

riot act

road show

emphatic warning or

reproach, often used in the

road

construction to read the riot act

roadwork rock and roll or rock

(to

someone).

test

rock music

riotous

rock and roller

Abbreviation for Latin,

R.I.P.

requiescat in pace,

"may

rock bottom

riposte

A

rocket ship

retort or swift response.

rocking chair

rip-roaring

rocking horse

rise, rose

rock

Funny, able to laugh.

Elaborate, florid; used

especially to describe a style of

of passage

art.

rodeo;/?/., rodeos

ritzy rival, rivaled

river

salt

rococo

risque rite

rodomontade

or rivalled

Capitalize only if part of

proper noun (e.g., the river was

A

roentgen

radiation, such as

River).

role-play

riverfront

X

rays.

roll call

The

resort area in

roller coaster

southeastern France and

roller skate

northwestern

roller-skate

Italy.

small stream.

or R.N.

Capitalize

if part

As noun. As verb.

roller skater

Abbreviation for

rollicking

registered nurse.

road

unit of

model

role

riverboat

A

A

rogue

riverbed

RN

noun.

quantity used to measure

riverbank

Riviera

Blustering

boastfulness.

half a mile wide, but the Ohio

rivulet

roller

rock crystal

adjective and noun.

ripple effect

risible

or

rock candy

rip current

As

roll

As adjective. As noun.

rock-bottom

rip cord

rip-off

V or rock V

or rocker

he/she

peace."

rest in

is

Rd.

the-rosy

rolling pin

of proper

roll-on

188

As

adjective and noun.

Roosevelt, Eleanor

As noun. As noun.

rollout

rollover

( 1

884- 1 962)

American author, diplomat, and

On My

rolltop desk

humanitarian. Author of

roly-poly

Own. Niece of Theodore

ROM

Roosevelt; wife of Franklin D.

Abbreviation for read-only

Roosevelt.

memory.

romaine

roman

root beer

lettuce

French;

a clef

literally,

"a

root canal

Roquefort cheese

novel with a key," a novel where real

Rorschach

people are portrayed under

fictional

Roman Roman

exam

names.

A

test

what

candle

tested tells

Catholic

him or her by a

Romanesque roman-fleuve; fleuves

romans-

suggested to

rosary; pi., rosaries

French; a novel that

roseate

generations of a family or

rosebud

community.

rosebush

Pink.

rose-colored

A

roseola

Part 2,

deep pink skin rash.

Rosetta stone

roman type or roman typeface

As adjective. As noun. Rosh Hashanah

Romeo and

rosin

rose water

rose water

romanticize

rondeau;

Juliet

rondeaux

A

resin for

French; a

rostrum;

type of verse or song with a fixed

rostra

form.

speaking.

pi,,

rondel or rondelle or roundel

ROTC

A

type of rondeau.

pi.,

A

rote

rotisserie

Routine.

rotogravure

rooftop

A

type of printing

press.

in

-room are usually written as one

rotorcraft

word

Rottweiler

(e.g.,

platform for public

Abbreviation for Reserve

roof garden

Compounds ending

making varnish.

rostrums or

Officers' Training Corps.

roof; pi., roofs

-room

are then

analyzed and interpreted.

chronicles the saga of several

Roman holiday Roman numeral See Roman numerals. Romano cheese

is

series of inkblot

The responses

designs. /;/.,

psychological

which the person being

in

elbowroom,

rotunda

bathroom).

room and board

rou£

rooming house

rouge

roommate room service

roughage rough-and-ready

189

rough-and-tumble

rubber cement

rough cut

rubberneck

As

rough-hewn roughhouse

adjective.

rubber-stamp

To gawk. As verb.

rubber stamp

As noun.

roughneck

rubber tree

roughrider

rubbing alcohol

roughshod

rundown

roulade

rubella

rouleau; roll

rouleaux

pi.,

A

(Compare rubeola.)

small

of something, such as coins

Measles (Compare

rubeola

in

a wrapper.

rubella.)

roulette

rubicund

roundabout

rubric

A

roundelay

As noun. German measles.

Rosy-complected, ruddy.

A

category.

ruby-throated hummingbird

song with a regularly

rucksack

repeated refrain.

An

round-robin

ruction

round steak

rudimentary

round table

ruffed grouse

round-the-clock

ruffian

rule of the road

round-trip

As noun.

roundup

rule of

roundworm rouse To awaken from

rumaki

A

rumba rumble

big crowd or disturbance.

A

(Compare rout.) Capitalize only router

A

if

noun or address.

machine for milling

wood.

rhumba sale

or noun.

routine

runcible spoon

rowboat rowdy;/?/., rowdies

rundown As noun. run-down As adjective.

row house

rune

royal blue

runic

RR

run-in; pi, run-ins

Abbreviation for railroad or

runner-up;

rural route.

R.S.V.P.

s'il

vous

plait,

pi.,

runners-up or

runner-ups

Abbreviation for French,

respondez

with

seat

rumormonger rumpus room runabout As noun. runaround As noun. runaway As adjective

course of travel.

part of proper

or

rummage

(Compare route.) route

thumb An appetizer made

pieces of marinated chicken liver.

sleep.

roustabout rout

uproar.

running mate

"please

running start

reply.

rubber band

runoff

190

As noun.

run-of-the-mill

Russian roulette

As adjective or noun. runover As noun. run-over As adjective. run-through As noun.

rustic or rustical

run-on

rusticate

To

live in the

country or

take on countrified mannerisms.

rustler

runway rush hour

rustproof

russet

Rx

Russian dressing

rye bread

rutabaga

191

sadism

sadomasochism s/a

sad sack

Abbreviation for subject to

SAE

approval.

Abbreviation for

addressed envelope. (Compare

As

sabbatical or sabbatic

SASE.)

adjective.

saber or sabre

safari jacket

saber-toothed

safe-conduct

safecracker

Black, very dark.

sable

safe-deposit box

sabotage

safeguard

saboteur sac

An

safe house

animal or plant pouch.

(Compare sack.)

safekeeping safety pin

sacchar-, sacchari-, saccharo-

Compounds of these combining forms, which mean sugar, are written as one

word

safflower

saffron

saga;

(e.g.,

A

saccharin

sage cheese

Sugary, sweet.

saggital

(Compare saccharin.) Concerning

sacerdotal

The

sachem

American

Sagittarius

chief of a Native

sack

A

sailor

German; chocolate

sailplane

Saint Bernard or St. Bernard Saint-John's- wort

potpourri package.

bag used for toting objects.

(Compare

Zodiac Signs).

sailcloth

cake layered with apricot jam.

A

(see

sailboat

priests.

tribe.

Sacher torte

Keen, perceptive.

sagebrush

calorie-free

sweetener. (Compare saccharine.)

saccharine

sagas

pi.,

sagacious

saccharometer).

sachet

self-

addressed envelope or stamped,

Sabbath

Saint Patrick's

Day Day

Saint Valentine's

sac.)

Saint Vitus' dance or Saint Vitus's

sackcloth

sack coat

dance

sack race

disorder that causes twitching of

sacred cow

Chorea, a nervous

the arms, legs, and face.

sacrifice fly or

SF

sacrifice hit or

SH

sake or saki

A

Japanese alcoholic

beverage made from fermented

sacrilege

rice.

salaam

sacroiliac

made

sacrosanct

Arabic; a very deep in obeisance.

saddlebag

salable or saleable

saddle shoe

salacious

192

bow

A

salad days one's

time of greenness

salve

in

A

healing ointment.

(Compare salver, salvo.)

a time of youth and

life,

A

salver

inexperience.

serving tray. (Compare

salve, salvo.)

salami sales

Army

Salvation

salad bar

discharge or attack from a

of weapons

salespeople

saline

Samaritan

Salisbury steak

samba samovar

Salk vaccine

salmagundi

An

pi.,

A

samurai

salmon or salmons

room or

living

sanatorium;

place for

A

bar.

sanctimonious

(Compare salon.)

sanctuary;

sanctum;

Abbreviation for Strategic

pi.,

pi.,

sandbar

saltine cracker

sandblaster

marsh

sandbox

As

saltpeter

sand-cast

saltshaker

sand casting

As adjective. As noun.

saltwater salt

water

salubrious

A

S and

Healthy, healthful.

or

S&L

and loan

Abbreviation for association.

sandlot

S&M or S-M or S/M

Middle Eastern hunting

Abbreviations for sadism and

salutary or salutiferous

masochism sadomasochism

Curative,

,

sandman

(Compare salubrious,

sandpapery

salutatory.)

salutatory

L

savings

dog.

remedial.

verb.

As noun.

sand dollar

(Compare salutary, salutatory.) saluki

sanctuaries

sanctums or sancta

sandbagger

adjective.

saltbox

salt

Hypocritical,

sandalwood

Limitation Treaty.

As

sanatoriums or

pretending piousness,

salsa

salt-and-pepper

pi.,

sanatoria

(Compare saloon.)

business.

tea.

Samoyed or Samoyede

entertaining; also a hair-styling

saloon

Russian; a large metal

urn for boiling

assortment, or

potpourri.

Arms

dishonest

evasion.

salience or saliency

SALT

A

mental hesitation, a quibbling

sales tax

salon

number

once,

at

salvo;/?/., salvos

sales slip

salmon;

A

salvo; pi., salvos or salvoes

check

salesclerk

Welcoming. (Compare

sandpiper

salubrious, salutary)

sandstone

sandstorm

salvageable or salvable

195

sandwich

wrapped

Trademark

sarsaparilla

for a type

Sanger, Margaret H.

especially tailored.

(1879-1966) American leader of birth control

Sartre, Jean-Paul

movement.

le

Bloody or

sanitarium;

/?/.,

1

905- 980) 1

philosopher. Author of L'Etre et

self-

possession.

sanguine

(

French Existential writer and

French; composure,

sangfroid

Relating to clothing,

sartorial

of preshrunk fabric.

neant and La Nausee.

SASE

red.

Abbreviation for

self-

addressed, stamped envelope.

sanitariums or

(Compare SAE.)

sanitaria

sanitary napkin

San Jacinto Day

sashay

A

Texas holiday

sassafras

SAT

celebrating the battle by which

independence from Mexico was

Abbreviation for Scholastic

Aptitude Test.

won.

Satan

French; without.

satanic

Sanskrit

satanism

sans serif or sanserif

satchel

Santa Claus

sateen

Santayana, George

( 1

863- 1 952)

A

cotton fabric with a

lustrous, satiny finish.

Spanish-American poet and

satellite dish

philosopher.

satiny

sapid

(Compare

skirt.

sari.)

Sanforized

sans

A

sarong

sand trap

satiric or satirical

Agreeable, flavorful.

sapiens

Relating to

human

Saturday night special

beings.

sapient

Wise. (Compare sapiens.)

A

sapodilla

that bears

saturnalia

saturnine

fruit.

A

sapphire

satyr

sapsucker

sauceboat

saran wrap

saucepan

sarcolemma sarcoma;

pi.,

lecherous person,

German; a marinated

sauerbraten pot roast.

pi.,

sauerkraut

sarcophagi or

sarcophaguses

German; cabbage

fermented in

A

that

has been chopped, salted, and

sarcoplasm sari or saree

Unrestrained revelry. Taciturn.

saucy

sarcomas or

sarcomata sarcophagus;

small,

homemade).

tropical evergreen tree

an edible russet

A

inexpensive handgun (usually

(Compare sapient.)

wrapped Indian

its

juice.

saute, sauted or sauteed

garment. (Compare sarong.)

panfry in

194

oil

or butter.

To

sauternes or sauterne

A

scarf; pi., scarves or scarfs

type of

sauvignon blanc

A

To make

scarify

sweet white wine.

white California wine.

scarlet fever or scarlatina

savanna or savannah

scarlet letter

savable or saveable

scathe

savant

A

knowledgeable person.

scatological

save-all

scatterbrained

saving grace

scene-stealer

savings account

scenic

savior or saviour

scent

French; adroitness in

savoir faire

small marks or

loosen up a surface.

type of dry,

A

smell, an odor.

(Compare

cent.)

dealing with any situation

scepter

tactfully.

Scheherazade

savor or savour

schema;

savory or savoury

scherzando

savvy

pi.

,

schemata or schemas Playful; used as a

direction in music.

saw, sawed or sawn

schismatic or schismatical

sawbones

schiz-, schizo-

sawbuck

Compounds of

this

combining form, which means

sawdust split

sawed-off

or division, are written as

one word

(e.g., schizocarp,

sawhorse schizophrenia).

sawmill

sawtooth or saw-toothed

schlemiel or schlemiehl

As

Yiddish;

chump. adjective.

schlepp or schlep or shlep or

saxophone

shlepp

Yiddish, to drag or haul.

say-so s.c.

or sm. cap.

schlock or shlock

Abbreviations for

small capitals.

scabrous

Rough or

shoddy

quality.

indecent.

schmaltz or schmalz

scalawag or scallywag

Yiddish,

indicating something overly

scaloppine or scallopini

sentimental.

scampi

schmear or schmeer

scandalmonger

schmo or schmoe Yiddish; a dolt. schmooze or shmooze Yiddish; to

scapegoat ,

scapulae or scapulas

scaramouch or scaramouche

Yiddish; the

whole works.

scandal sheet

scapula; pi.

Yiddish,

indicating something of

A

gab or gossip, st

buffoon.

h muck

scarecrow

schnauzer

scaredy-cat

schnitzel

195

Yiddish; a jerk.

schnook

meek

Yiddish; a pitifully

general sense are not capitalized

person.

amoeba).

(e.g.,

schnorrer

who

Yiddish; a person

All generic and specific Latin

wheedles to get something.

names of

(Compare snorer.)

italicized.

schnozzle

plants and animals are

Genus terms

are

capitalized; species, subspecies,

Yiddish; nose.

races,

and varieties are lowercased

"school of singers," a church-

(e.g.,

Acer rubrum).

choir school.

name's

schola cantorum

Latin; literally,

Capitalize only

school

if

first letter

second reference

Technical High School, but the

rubrum)

Compounds

compounds

written as one

compounds.)

schoolbook, schoolboy,

Computer languages, data

schoolchild, schoolchildren,

bases, and services that are

schoolgirl, schoolhouse,

trademarked or copyrighted are

schoolmate, schoolroom,

capitalized (e.g.,

schoolteacher, schoolwork,

COBOL,

FORTRAN).

schoolyard.

As

are lowercased. (See

chemical elements and

word include schoolbag,

school-age

(e.g., A.

Chemical elements and

day of school).

school-

genus be

abbreviated (with a period) in a

part of

proper noun (e.g., Brooklyn

first

A

may

See individual entries for adjective.

spellings of particular

school board

computer

languages.

school bus

The names of

planets are

school year

To

schuss

capitalized (e.g., Venus, Mars); ski fast

and

straight

earth,

down

a very steep slope.

A

schwa

symbol

indistinct

sciatic

(a) designating

an

context of other planets. Other

nerve

scientific

terms

meteorological terms are sci-fi

or

SF

The New

names of phylum,

lowercased (e.g., aurora borealis).

Latin

scilicet

class, order,

intermediate groupings)



scion

used

are capitalized and not

A

twig from a

woody

plant

in grafting; or, a descendant,

offspring.

italicized (e.g., the class

scissors or scissor

Arachnida).

scissors kick

Adjectives and nouns derived

from Latin names but used

Latin; namely, or to

scimitar

— which

more general than genus

terms

or ss

wit.

and family (and sub or

are

are

are being written about in the

vowel sound.

science fiction or

moon, and sun

generally lowercased unless they

in

scler-, sclero-

Compounds of

this

combining form, which means

a

196

hard, are written as one

word

screed

screenplay

(e.g., sclerosis).

A

sconce

screen-test

candleholder affixed to

wall; or, a small fort.

(Compare

screenwriter screwball

scone.)

scone

A

pastry.

screwdriver

(Compare sconce.)

A

scrimshaw

combining form, usually

A

combining form, not

Capitalize

to the Bible (e.g.,

scoreboard

when

referring

Holy

Scriptures).

scriptwriter

scorecard

scrivener

scorekeeper (see

scrod

Zodiac Signs).

scrollwork

Scotch egg Scotch tape

A

trademark name for

scrub brush scrutable

cellulose adhesive tape.

scuba

Scotch whisky or Scotch

Understandable.

Self-contained underwater

breathing apparatus.

scot-free

scuba diver

Scottish terrier

To

clean roughly. (Compare

Affliction, pain.

An

scull

oar.

(Compare

skull.)

scurrilous or scurrile or scur-

scourge.)

(Compare

Given

ril

to using vulgar,

abusive language.

scour.)

scowl

scuttlebutt

Rough, unkempt.

scraggly

scythe

(Compare scraggy.) scraggy

in a

manuscripts.

scripture

observation (e.g., laparoscopy).

scourge

room

monastery for viewing or writing

hyphenated, that indicates

Scorpio

A

scriptorium

instrument for observing (e.g., stethoscope).

-scopy

Elaborate decoration on

a bone or ivory article.

not hyphenated, that indicates an

scour

As noun.

screwup

scoopful

-scope

As noun. As verb.

screen test

scofHaw

s.d.

Rough, jagged. (Compare

Abbreviation for same day or

Latin sine

scraggly.)

sea-

daw, M without date."

Compounds

written as one

scrapbook

word include seabed, seabird,

scrap heap

seaboard, seacoast, seafarer,

scrap iron

seafaring, seafood, seafloor,

scratch pad

seagoing, seaplane, seaport,

scratch paper

seascape, seashell, seashore,

scratch test

seasick, seawall, seaway,

screaming meemies

seaweed.

screech owl

sea gull

197

sea horse

secretary -general;

sea level

general

sealskin

a formal

A

seance

who

gathering of people

of state

from the

a formal

spirits

title

of the dead.

(e.g., Secretary

Dugan).

treasurers

time of year. (Compare

seasons of the year: autumn,

To

secrete

Lowercase the names of

give off, or to hide.

Abbreviations for secretary.

fall,

securityholder

season ticket

sedan

seat belt

sedentary

seat-of-the-pants

seder or Seder

seaward or seawards

sedition

seborrhea; seborrheic

sedulous

sec. or s.

see

Abbreviation for second;

Resistance to authority.

Very

vid.

s.

(from Latin, vide).

The abbreviation

see above

leave an organization.

(Compare succeed.)

careful, diligent.

Abbreviations for see are

and

secondary.

The abbreviation

Jewish Passover

feast.

sebaceous gland

is v.s.

(vide supra).

The abbreviation

see below

is

2b.

is v./.

(vide infra).

As adjective. As noun. second-class As adjective. second class As noun. second-degree burn second-best

seed-

second best

Compounds formed with

seed- that are written as one

word

include seedbed, seedling,

seedpod, seedtime.

Seeing Eye dog seek, sought

second-guess

secondhand

if

preceding a

secty. or sec'y* or sec.

summer, winter.

second base

title

name.

seasonable.)

To

of State

Capitalize only

part of a formal

seasoning or seasoner

secede

name James

treasurers or secretaries-

Occurring or related to a

spring,

part of

if

secretary-treasurer; pi., secretary-

Appropriate, timely.

(Compare seasonal.)

seasons

secretaries

preceding a

title

search warrant

seasonal

pi.,

Capitalize only

searchlight

seasonable

part of

if

preceding a name.

secretary of state;

are attempting to receive messages

pi., secretaries-

Capitalize only

As

seersucker

adjective or

adverb.

seesaw

second-rate

seethe

second sight second-string

second string

see-through

As adjective. As noun.

segue

To

slide gracefully

from one

thing to another, as in music or

second thought

conversation.

198

Compounds of

seism-, seismo-

semiotics or semiology

this

semiprofessional or semipro

combining form, which means earthquake, are written as one

Semitic

word

semiweekly

(e.g., seismic, seismologist).

selected, selection, selector.

sen.

self; pi., selves

with

self-

formal

addressed, self-confidence,

self-

self-

send, sent

selfsame sold

send-off

As noun.

send-up

As noun.

senescent

market

Old, or in old age.

senior citizen

selling point

senor or senor;

As noun.

sellout

part of a

name

the senator from Maryland).

respect, self-sufficient).

seller's

if

preceding a

title

Senator Gillian Cole, but

(e.g.,

conscious, self-defense, self-

employed, self-important,

Capitalize only

senator

are hyphenated (e.g., self-

sell,

Abbreviation for senator,

senate.

Compounds formed

self-

Twice a week.

(Compare biweekly.)

Abbreviation for select,

sel.

senores

seltzer

for a

selvage or selvedge

Edging,

pi.

title

in reference to fabric.

title

man.

senora or senora

border, or outside part, especially

senors or

,

Spanish courtesy

Spanish courtesy

for a married or older

woman.

semantic or semantical

senorita or senorita

Spanish

semaphore courtesy

semasiology

Semantics.

sensible

semen

Compounds formed

semi-,

which means

with

sensitive.)

partly, or

begins with

i

is

readily and acutely, receptive,

sensorium; sensoria

sensual

colon, semifinal, semiprecious,

pi.,

sensor i urns or

The sensory system.

Indulgent of the bodily

senses, especially in a sexual way.

semiretired, semisoft, semisweet,

(Compare sensuous.)

but semi-informed).

sensuous

semiannual or biannual or

Twice a

(Compare sensible.)

attuned.

a proper noun or

(e.g., semiauto-

biographical, semicircle, semi-

semiyearly

Responding or feeling

sensitive

one word, unless the

second word

Reasonable, practical,

having good judgment. (Compare

twice in a specific period, are written as

for a young,

unmarried woman.

semblance semi-

title

semimonthly or bimonthly

Appealing or gratifying

to the senses.

year.

sententious

Twice

few words;

a month.

(Compare sensual.)

Expressing or, trite

much

in

and

moralizing. (Compare sentient.)

semiotic or semiotics

199

Aware. (Compare

sentient

serous

serum;

poisoning or sepsis. septic tank

Related to serum.

serums or sera

pi.,

A

animal

person in his or

fluid.

service-connected disability

her seventies.

A

septum;/?/., septa

thing, as in the

in a living

human

A

serviette

partition

between two cavities

table napkin (British

usage).

sesame

nose.

sepulcher or sepulchre

oil

Compounds formed with

sesqui-

Abbreviation for sequel;

("one and a half times**)

sesqui-

one word

sequence; (Latin, sequitur; "it

are written as

follows'*) or sequens, sequentes,

sesquicentennial)

sequentia (Latin, "the

As noun. As adjective and noun. setout As noun. set-piece As adjective. As noun. set piece setback

Abbreviation for series.

serape or sarape

worn

in Latin

A

set-in

woolen cloak

America.

seraphim or seraph;

pi.,

seraphim

or seraphs

setscrew

Serbo-Croatian sergeant at arms;

arms

settee pi.,

sergeants at

Capitalize only

formal

title

if

settle

part of a

preceding a name.

or sergeant majors if

part of a formal

setup

seventh

title

Seventh-Day Adventist

is

Maj.

seventy; pi., seventies

Occurring as a

Seven-Up or 7Up

series.

Arranged

Seven Wonders of the World in

sew, sewn or sewed

a series.

make

serifed or seriffed

seriocomic

Sermon on the Mount sero- Compounds formed

To

repair or

using thread, needle, and

fabric,

sewage

serious-minded

sero-,

Trademark for a

type of soft drink.

number

seriatim

As noun.

seventeen

(Compare cereal.) serial

wooden bench with high

set-to; pi., set-tos

Capitalize

preceding a name. Abbreviation

A

back.

sergeant major; pi., sergeants major

serial

(Compare

cession.)

sequoia

Sgt.

(e.g.,

.

meeting, or a planned

part of an event.

sequined or sequinned

only

A

session

following**).

ser.

The

watery part of blood or other

septuagenarian

seq.

(e.g.,

serotype).

Variant for blood

septicemia

word

written as one

sententious.)

Waste

in a

sewer or

sewerage.

sexagenarian

with

which means serum, are

her sixties.

200

A

person in his or

sextet

shareable or sharable

sextuplet

sharecropper

SF

shareholder

Abbreviation for square foot;

sharkskin

science fiction.

Abbreviation for shipping and

s/h

who

person

cheats.

sharp practice

shade tree

shadowbox As shadow dance

sharpshooter

verb.

sharp-sighted

shaggy-dog story

A

sharp-tongued

long, drawn-

out story or joke that ultimately

shatterproof

has no point.

shave, shaved or shaven

Shaw, George Bernard

Lowercase as descriptive

shah

noun, but capitalize when used as a

name

(i.e.,

(1856-1950)

for a sovereign of Iran

the

shakedown shakeout

Shah of Iran).

shawl collar

As noun. As noun.

Shawnee;

pi.,

Shawnee or

sheaf; pi, sheaves

sheath;/?/., sheaths

or Shakesperean or Shaksperian

verb.

sheath knife

shebang

Used

in the phrase the

whole shebang to mean the entire

Hebrew; a greeting

meaning "peace," or used as a

situation or a

greeting or farewell.

things.

shamefaced

sheepdog

shampoo, shampooed shamrock

sheepherder

shanghai, shanghaied

As

sheathe or sheath

As noun.

should

complete

set

of

sheepshead

To kidnap

someone and force him or her

sheepskin sheer

into

Utter; pure or transparent.

(Compare shear.)

service.

Shangri-la

An

sheet glass

earthly paradise, a

sheet music

Utopia.

shantytown

Sheetrock

shapable or shapeable

Compounds ending

Trademark

for a type of

plasterboard.

sheikh or sheik

in

-shaped are hyphenated.

shape-up

cut,

or to cut across. (Compare sheer.)

Shakespearean or Shakespearian

-shaped

To

shear, sheared or shorn

and poet.

shalom

playwright and

Shawnees

(1564-1616) English dramatist

shake-up

Irish

Author of Pygmalion.

critic.

Shakespeare, William

shall,

A

sharper or sharpie or sharpy

handling.

(Compare

As noun.

shelf; pi., shelves

shard or sherd

shelfful

201

An Arab

chic.)

leader.

shelf

shirttail

life

shelflike

shirtwaist

shellac, shellacked

shish

shellback

shivaree or charivari

Shelley, Percy Bysshe

shock absorber

kebab or shish kabob

(1792-1822) English Romantic

shocking pink

poet and dramatist.

shockproof shock wave

shellfish

shell

game

shoe, shod or shoed

shell-shocked

shoehorn

shenanigan

shoelace

shepherd's pie

shoemaker shoeshine

sherbet or sherbert sheriff

Capitalize only

formal

title

if

part of a

shoestring

preceding a name.

shoe tree

Shiatsu or shiatzu

Hebrew; a

molasses or brown sugar.

feature,

shoo-in

distinguishes a particular group.

shook-up

key

shillelagh or shillalah

Pennsylvania Dutch

pie with a filling of either

custom, idea, or saying that

shift

A

shoofly pie

applied to acupunture points.

shibboleth

extremely powerful

Japanese military leader.

Japanese; a type

of massage where finger pressure is

An

shogun

Shetland wool

Agitated.

shoot, shot Irish;

shoot-'em-up

a club

or cudgel.

television

A

Western movie or

show with a

great deal

of gun fighting.

shilling

As noun. Compounds ending

shilly-shally

shoot-out

shinbone

•shop

shindig

are written as

shine, shone or shined

one word

in -shop

(e.g.,

bakeshop).

shinsplints

shopkeeper or storekeeper

shipboard

shoplifter

shipbuilder

shopping center

shipload

shopping mall

shipmate

shoptalk

shipshape

shorefront

shipwrecked

shoreline

shipyard

short-

Compounds formed with one word

shirtdress

short- that are written as

shirt jacket

include shortbread, shortcake,

shirt-sleeve or shirt-sleeves or

shortchange (verb), shortcoming, shortcut, shortfall, shorthaired

shirt-sleeved

202

Confession.

(adjective), shorthair (noun),

shrift

shorthand, shorthanded, shortlist

shrimp;

(noun), shortsighted, shortstop,

shrink, shrank or shrunk

shortwave.

shrinking violet

shrimps or shrimp

pi.,

As verb. short circuit As noun. short-haul As adjective. short-list As verb.

shrink-wrap

short-lived

Shrove Tuesday

short-circuit

shrive, shrived or shrove shrivel, shriveled or shrivelled

Shropshire sheep

short order

The Tuesday

preceding Ash Wednesday, set

As adjective. As noun.

short-order

aside as a day to go to confession

and be shriven from

short-range

sin.

shtick or shtik or schtick

short ribs

Yiddish;

a method of doing something, or

short story

an idiosyncratic attribute or

short subject

A

shunpike

short-term shorty or shortie;

talent.

shuffleboard

short-tempered

secondary road taken

to avoid tolls

pi., shorties

shotgun wedding

shush

shot put

shutdown

shot-putter

shut-eye

shoulder bag

shut-in

shoulder blade

shutoff

on a major highway.

As noun.

should not or shouldn't

As adjective and noun. As noun. shutout As noun.

shovel, shoveled or shovelled

shutterbug

shovelful; pi.

,

An

enthusiastic

amateur photographer.

shovelfuls or

shuttlecock

shovelsful

show, shown or showed

shuttle diplomacy

show-and-tell

shut up

showboat

shy; shier or shyer

show business or show

shy lock

biz

showcase

who

showdown

rates.

show-off

As noun.

A

loan shark, a creditor

loans

shyster

An

money

unscrupulous lawyer.

showpiece

Siamese twins

showplace

sibilant

showroom

sibling

showstopper

sic

shpmt. or shipt. or ship, or shipt.

An

at extortionate

s or sh sound:

To

or sick, sicced or sicked

chase or to set upon.

Abbreviations for

sic

Latin; so, or thus.

word

shipment.

shredded wheat

indicate that the

20?

Used

after a

(in printed material) to

word

is

intended

to appear exactly as

it

does. Sic

sidewinder

is

usually put in parentheses and

sienna

italicized.

sierra

sick

and

sightboard

tired

gag

sickbed

sight

sickie or sicko

sight-read

sick leave

sight reader

anemia

sickle-cell

sightseer sight-seeing

sick-out sick

pay

signal, signaled or signalled

sickroom

signer or signee

SID, SIDS

signet ring

Abbreviations for

sudden infant death, sudden infant

significance or significancy

death syndrome.

sign language

side-by-side side

by side

As

sidearm

As As

sign-off

adverb.

signor or signior or signore; pi.

adjective, adverb, and

Italian courtesy title for

arm

As noun.

a man,

men.

sidebar

signora; pi., signoras or

sideboard

signore

sideburns

a married or older

Italian courtesy title for

woman.

signorina; pi., signorinas or

sidecar side dish

signorine

side effect

for an unmarried

side-glance

signpost

sidekick

sign-up

sidelight

Sikh

Italian courtesy title

As

An

woman.

adjective and noun.

adherent of a

monotheistic Hindu religion.

sideline

silence or silentness

sidelong sidereal

,

signors or signori or signiors

verb.

side

As noun.

adjective.

Relating to the stars.

silent

partner

sidesaddle

silhouette

sideshow

silicon

sidestep side step

A

naturally abundant

non metal lie chemical element.

sidesplitting

As verb. As noun.

(Compare silicone

A

silicone.)

polymeric silicon

compound. (Compare

side street

silicon.)

sideward or sidewards

As noun. silk-screen As verb. silk-stocking As adjective. As noun. silk stocking

sideways or sidewise or sideling

silkworm

sideswipe

silk

sidetrack

sidewalk

204

screen

sank or sunk

silo;/?/., silos

sink,

silverfish

sinkhole

silver screen

sinuous

silver-tongued

sinus

silverware

sinusitis

A

simile

Nasal cavity.

Sioux;

phrase using like or as to

Sioux

pi.,

make a comparison. (Compare

siphon or syphon

metaphor.)

siren song

A

similitude

likeness or image; a

metamorphosis)

simpatico

sisal

simpleminded

of

simpleton

bag

A

hemp

native to Mexico.

simplexes or

si

m pi ices

Sistine chapel

simulacrum;

As

sit-down

or simplicia pi.,

simulacra or

A

site

simulacrums

(Compare sit-in

sincereness or sincerity

Sitting Bull

Latin; without a date set

or indefinitely.

qua non

Latin; essential item.

1831-1890)

duck

sitting

room comedy or sitcom As noun,

sit-up

Abbreviations for

sitz

bath

six-gun or six-shooter

singular.

sing-along

six-pack

Abbreviations include sing., or

s.

abbreviation

sixteenth sixth sense

In baseball, the

is

lb.

sixty;/?/., sixties

single-action

sizable or sizeable

single-breasted

skateboard

single-handedly

skedaddle

single-hearted

skeg or skag

single-minded single-space

skein

As

A

wound bundle of

skeleton key

verb.

sketchbook

singleton

skew

single-track

lines

ski boot sinistral

leader.

sitting

situation

sang or sung

sing, or sg.

sgl., S.,

(c.

American Indian

sinecure

single

cite.)

As noun.

simultaneousness or simultaneity

sing,

adjective and noun.

location or place (noun) or

to locate, place in position (verb).

simulcast

sine

bag made from a type

sister-in-law; pi., sisters-in-law

pi.,

sine die

meaning "process,"

suffix

or "action" (e.g.,

simon-pure

simplex;

A

-sis

comparison. (Compare simile.)

Left, or left-handed.

skid

205

row

yarn.

skiddoo or skidoo ski

jump

ski

lift

To

defamation or misrepresentation.

depart.

(Compare

libel.)

slantways or slantwise slapdash

or skilful

skillful

skill-less

slaphappy

or skilless

skim milk

slap shot

skin-deep

slapstick

As

skin-dive

slash-and-burn

verb.

skin diver

slash pocket

skin diving

slate black

skinflint

slave driver

skinhead

slaver

skinny-dipping

To move by

fast

(Compare slaver,

or skim.

skirt steak

slavish

skiwear

(Compare slaver,

slavery.)

skulduggery or skullduggery

The skeleton of (Compare scull.)

slavish.)

Subservient; laborious;

imitative.

Abbreviation for Sanskrit.

skull

skull

(Compare

slaves; domination; hard work.

skintight

Skt.

drool.

The owning or keeping of

slavery

skin test

skirr

To

slavery, slavish.)

slay, slew

sled dog sledgehammer

the head.

and crossbones

sleep, slept

As

sky blue

sleep-in

skycap

sleeping bag

adjective.

sky diver

sleepwalker

skydiving

sleepwear

sky-high

sleepyhead

skyjack

sleigh bell

skylark

sleight of

skylight

slenderize

skyline

slew

skyrocket

slice-of-life

skyscraper

slide rule

skywalk

sliding scale

skyway

slime

skywrite

slingshot or slungshot

SL

slink, slunk or slinked

Abbreviation for sea level.

slab-sided

A

large number.

Mud,

or a sticky substance.

slipcover

slalom

slipknot

slam-bang

slip-on

slander

hand

Spoken or indicated

As noun.

slipover or pullover

206

small-time

slipped disk

A

slipper

smarmy

lightweight shoe for

smart aleck or smart alec

indoor wear.

smart-alecky or smart-aleck

slipshod

smart money

slip stitch

smarty or smartie;

As noun.

slipup

slit, slitted

A

sliver

or

smashup

splinter, or a scrap.

As noun.

smell, smelled or smelt

dark eyes.

smelling salts

sloe gin

To move

slog

smarties

smegma

Having almond-shaped,

sloe-eyed

pi.,

smarty-pants

slit

smidgen or smidgeon or smidgin

along trudgingly.

To

smirch

(Compare slough.)

dirty, or to discredit.

(Compare smirk.) smirk

Drunk.

sloshed

slot

smile smugly. (Compare

smite, smote

machine

To

slough

To

smirch.)

slotback

sluff, shed.

(Compare

smithereens Smithlield

slog.)

As noun. slow-motion As adjective. slow motion As noun.

ham

slowdown

smokable or smokeable

slow-pitch or slo-pitch

slow-witted

smoke bomb smoke detector smoke-filled room smokehouse smoke screen

SLP

smokestack

slowpoke Abbreviation for super long

smoky or smokey

play.

sluiceway

smolder or smoulder

slumberous or slumbrous

smoothy or smoothie;

slumber party slush fund sly, slier

,

smorgasbord

SMV

or slyer

sm. or sml. or S or

pi.

smoothies

Abbreviation for slow-

moving

s

SN

Abbreviations for small.

smack-dab

vehicle.

Abbreviation for serial

number.

small-claims court

snack bar

small-fry

snafu

small-minded

snaggletooth

smallmouth bass smallpox

snaillike

small-scale

snakebite

small talk

snake charmer

snail-paced

207

As verb. As noun.

snake-dance

snake dance snake

so-and-so; pi.

soap bubble

snake

soap opera

pit

snakeskin

soapsuds

snaky or snakey

soar

snap bean

To move up

fast, to glide

snapdragon

Soave wine

snapshot

so be

drum

A

worn

be

To

stifled

that, if

it

should it.)

French; a

so-called sociability or sociality

snivel, sniveled or snivelled

socialist, socialism

snob appeal person

Abbreviation for

society.

(Compare snip.)

Capitalize

socialist if referring to the

who wheezes

political party or

during sleep. (Compare

social security

Compounds formed with that are written as

one of

its

members.

schnorrer.)

snow-

so.

(Compare so be

soc. or socy.

To cut. (Compare snipe.) snipe To shoot at, or to attack.

snow-

be

it

sob story

laugh in a

manner.

snip

A

let

sobeit.)

nickname.

snicker or snigger

snorer

in the air.

sobriquet or soubriquet

for athletic activity.

and partly

that.

or along very

high

Provided

sobeit

casual shoe, a shoe

sneak preview

sly

Then

it

(Compare

sneak, sneaked or snuck

sneaker

so-and-sos or so-

soapbox

in the grass

snakelike

snare

,

and-so's

when

one word

Can be

capitalized

referring to the U.S.

government program.

worker

include snowball, snowbank,

social

snowbelt, snowbird, snowblower,

society

Capitalize only

if

part of

proper noun (e.g., Society of

snowbound, snowdrift, snowdrop,

Friends).

snowfall, snowfield, snowfiake,

snowmaker, snowman, snowplow,

socio-

Compounds formed with which means

snowscape, snowshoe, snowshoer,

socio-,

snowstorm, snowsuit.

society, or sociological, are

one word

snow-blind or snow-blinded

written as

snow cone or sno-cone snow fence snow job

socioeconomic). sociol.

snowmobiler or snowmobilist

Socrates

social,

(e.g.,

Abbreviation for sociology.

socket wrench

(c.470-399 B.C.) Greek

snow pea

philosopher.

snow-white

establish a philosophy of ideas

snub-nosed

the foundation of Western culture.

208

Worked with

Plato to

on

solid-state

Socratic

soda jerk

solitaire

soda pop

soluble

soda water

solvable

sofa bed

solvent

Dissolvable.

Explainable.

Able

to pay, financially

stable.

softball

somata or somas

soft-boiled

soma;

soft-core

somat-, somato-

softcover or softbound

Used

to

pi.,

Compounds of

combining form, which means

this

body, are written as one word

describe a paperback book. soft-focus

(e.g.,

somatoplasm).

somber or sombre some- Compounds formed with

softheaded softhearted

As

soft-pedal

some-

verb.

that are written as

one word

soft-shell or soft-shelled

include somebody, someday,

soft-shoe

somehow, someone, someplace,

As

soft-soap

something, sometime, sometimes,

verb.

someway, somewhat, somewhere.

soft-spoken

somersault or summersault

Computer programs, or

software

programmable or interchangeable

sometimes

recording components used with

sommelier;

hardware. (Compare hardware.)

At times. sommeliers

/?/

French; wine steward.

To

softy or softie; pi., softies

somnambulate

soigne or soignee

somnolence or somnolency

maintained or

French; carefully

sonar

first-rate.

An

soiree or soiree

evening party

sleepwalk.

Sound, navigation, and

ranging.

song and dance

or reception.

sojourner solder

To

songbook

melt metals together;

song

unite.

soldering iron

titles

soldier of fortune

songwriter

sold -out

sonic

A

solecism

blunder in speaking.

God God when

son of

solicitor general; pi., solicitors

a formal

Capitalize only title

if part

of

man Man when

son of

solidity.)

solidity

Son of

Capitalize as Son of referring to Jesus

Christ.

Hardness, compactness.

(Compare

Capitalize as

referring to Jesus

Christ.

preceding a name.

Unity. (Compare

solidarity

boom

son-in-law;/?/., sons-in-law

solicitation or solicitude

general

(See Part 2, Titles of

works.)

sooner or later soothsayer

solidarity.)

209

SOP

soupspoon

Abbreviation for standard

operating procedure.

sour ball

sopaipilla or sopapilla

Spanish;

source language

sweetened, deep-fried dough.

sourcebook

sophistic or sophistical

sour cream

sophistry or sophism

sourdough

(c.496-406 B.C.)

Sophocles

Greek

tragic playwright.

sour grapes

Author

sour mash

of Antigone and Oedipus Rex.

sourpuss

sophomore or soph

A

-sophy

sousaphone

combining form meaning

Southeast Asia

" knowledge," or "science"

southerner

(e.g., theosophy).

southmost or southernmost

soporific or soporiferous

soprano; sorbet

pi.

,

South Pole

sopranos

souvenir

Fruit-flavored ice.

souvlakia or souvlaki

sorehead

Greek; shish

kebab.

sore throat

sow, sown or sowed

sorghum

soybean

sorority; pi.

,

sororities

soy sauce

sorrowful sp.

A military raid. SOS A signal of distress.

Abbreviation for

spell, spelled,

sortie

spelling.

space-age

so-so

spacecraft souffle or souffleed fluffy

French; a

spaced-out or spaced

baked dish made with

spaceflight

beaten egg whites, egg yolks, and

space heater a flavorful puree.

spaceship

soul kiss or French kiss soul

space shuttle

mate

space suit

soul music

space-time

soul-searching

space walk

sound barrier sound

spacey or spacy

bite

Roomy.

soundproof

spacious

soundstage

spackle

sound track

spaghetti western

sound truck soupcon

French; a tiny amount, a

soup du jour

in the

made by

Italians.

spandex

trace.

Soup of

spaniel

the day.

soup kitchen

Spanish rice

210

A

cowboys

movie about

western U.S.

spar

To

box,

fight.

(Compare

To

spare

speed-read

speed trap

spare.) refrain.

(Compare spar.)

As noun.

speedup

spareribs

speedway

sparkling wine

speedwriting

spark plug

spelling bee

sparring partner

spelunker

spate

Someone who explores

caves.

Spartan

A

flood, or a bunch.

spendthrift

sperm-, spermo-, sperma-,

speakeasy

speakerphone

spermi-, spermat-, spermato-

spearhead

Compounds of

spearmint

forms,

spec, specced or spec'd

are written as one

spec, or sp. or spl.

Abbreviation

all

these combining

of which

spermatic, spermatozoic).

SPF

special or especial

Abbreviation for sun

protection factor, used as a guide

special delivery

to the strength of sunblocks

specially or especially

specialty or speciality

Distinctive

feature, point, activity, or

sphere of influence sphincter

pi species

sphinx;

,

specif, or spec.

Abbreviations for

specific, specifically, specification.

Deceptively attractive.

spectacles or specs

spiderweb spiel

German;

which means of radiant

spill, spilled

spinnaker

word

spin-off

(e.g., spectroscopy).

spectra or

spin off

spectrums

spinout

speech and lecture 2, Titles of

titles

works.)

speechwriter speed, sped or speeded

(See Part

or spilt

the beans

spill

spectrum), are written as one

pi.,

to talk at length

As noun.

Spillover

energy (as exhibited in a

spectrum;

sphinxes or sphinges

give a sales pitch.

Compounds formed with

spectro-,

pi.,

spick-and-span or spic-and-span

extravagantly, to persuade, or to

specter or spectre spectro-

and

tanning lotions.

characteristic.

specious

seed,

(e.g.,

sperm whale

for special.

species;

mean

word

As noun. As verb. As noun.

Spinoza, Benedict

(1

632- 1 677)

Dutch philosopher of

rational

pantheism. Author of Tractatus Theologico-Politicus

speedball

spin the bottle

speedboat

spiral binding

speedometer

spiral-bound

spiraled or spiralled

sportscaster

sportswear

Alcohol.

spirits

spirituous or spiritous

sportswriter

Containing

spot-check

alcohol. spit, spit

spit

or spat

spotlight

and polish

spot test

spitball

spray gun

spit curl

spread-eagle

spiteful

sprier or spryer

adjective or verb.

spring, sprang or sprung

spitfire

image

spitting

springboard

As noun.

splashdown

spring chicken

splash guard splay

As

To

young,

spring-cleaning

spread out.

splendent

A

inexperienced person.

springer spaniel

Shiny.

splendid or splendiferous

spring fever

splendorous or splendrous

springform pan

splenetic

spring-load

Spiteful.

split-brain

springtime or springtide

split decision

springwater

end

spruce pine

split

spumoni or spumone

split-level

spoil, spoiled or spoilt

spun

spoilsport

spun sugar

spokesperson spoliate

An

Italian

ice-cream dessert.

split-up

To

glass

spurious

Falsified, deceitful.

spur-of-the-moment

plunder.

sponge bath

sputnik

Russian;

literally,

companion"

sponge cake

"traveling

spoon bread

Earth), a satellite.

(of the

spy; pL, spies

spoon-feed, spoon-fed spoonful; pi., spoonfuls or

sq. or sqr.

spor-, spori-, sporo-

Compounds

Abbreviations for

square.

of these combining forms, which

squad car

refer to seeds or spores, are

squalid

Sordid, dirty.

square

Capitalize only

written as

one word: sporogenesis

sport or sports sport fish

As

As

Harvard Square).

verb.

square dance

sportfisherman sportive

if part

address or proper noun (e.g.,

adjective.

square one

Playful.

square root

sports car

212

of

stakeholder

square shooter squash;

pi.,

squashes or squash

squash racquets doubles

As noun.

stakeout

Singles or

Calcium carbonate,

stalactite

hanging down.

game played with rubber

Calcium carbonate,

stalagmite

ball.

squash tennis with inflated

Singles

game played

pointing up.

stalemate

ball.

squeegee

Stalin,

Joseph

(1879-1953) Soviet

squeeze bottle

political leader; close associate

squeeze play

V.

stamen;

squirrel, squirreled or squirrelled

squirt

family name; follows surname (e.g.,

SRO

Harold Pope,

stand, stood

stand-alone

Sr.).

standard of living

Abbreviation for standing

room only or

single

room

standard time standard-bearer

occupancy.

SS

standby

Abbreviation for shortstop;

As

adjective, adverb, or

noun.

Social Security.

SST

stamens or stamina

Endurance, energy.

stamping ground

Abbreviation for senior in a

Sr.

pi.,

stamina

gun

Abbreviation for supersonic

stand-in

standoff

transport.

As noun. As adjective and noun.

standoffish

staccato staff; pi., staffs

or staves

As noun, As adjective. stand pat As verb.

standout

Club,

stand pat

stick,

staff; pi ., staff

Personnel.

Staffordshire terrier

standpoint

stagecoach

standstill

stage fright

stand-up comedian

stagehand

Stanford-Binet test

stage-manage stage

manager

stagestruck

star-crossed

stagflation

stardom Stardust

Serious.

stained-glass

test

staphylococcal or staphylococcic

starboard

stained glass

A

designed to measure intelligence.

stage set

staid

of

Lenin.

I.

As noun. As adjective.

starfish

starflower

stainless steel

stargazer

staircase

starlight

stairway

star-of- Bethlehem

stairwell

star of

215

Bethlehem

A

type of

lily.

In the Christian

guided the

tradition, the star that

Magi

newborn

to the

Star of David or

Magen David

six-sided star that

is

statue, statuary, statuette

A

Representative sculpture.

a symbol for

Statue of Liberty

statuesque

Judaism.

Stars and Stripes

The

flag

of the

United States of America.

status; pi.

status

star-spangled or star-studded

statuses

,

quo

Latin; the existing

A

statute

As noun.

(Compare stature.) The standard

law.

statute mile

measurement of the mile, 5,280

Equilibrium, or

stagnation.

feet.

statable or stateable

statutory or statutable

Capitalize only if referring to

stave, staved or stove stay, stayed or staid

a specific state (e.g., the State of

New

Hampshire, but the Middle

stay-at-home staying

Atlantic states).

power

std. or stan.

statehouse

Abbreviation for

standard.

state line

state-of-the-art state of the art

As adjective. As noun.

steadfast

steady; pi.

,

steadies

stateroom

steak knife

state's attorney

steak tartare

state's evidence

steamboat

states' rights

steam engine

stateside

steamer trunk

statewide

steamfitter

static or statical

steam

station

Capitalize

if

steamship

steam table

WTNH).

stationary

steel-trap

Immobile, fixed.

steel

(Compare stationery.) station

stationery

A

wool

steelworker

break

stationer

As noun.

steamroller or steamroll

(e.g.,

station

fitting

steamroller

part of proper

Grand Central Station), but not when referring to media (e.g., radio station WPLR, noun

(Compare

situation.

starting block

stasis; pi., stases

status.

statute.)

star sapphire

state

Height or

stature

starry-eyed

start-up

wagon

station

Jesus.

steelyard seller

of paper goods.

steeplechase steering committee

Paper goods for writing

or typing. (Compare stationary.)

steering wheel

station house

stein

214

A

large

mug.

As

verb.

Stein,

(1874-1946)

Gertrude

leave as

stevedore Stevens, Wallace

Relating to the stars, or

American

very important, outstanding.

Compounds of

sten-, steno-

American

word

American

or stencilled

Compounds with

(1900-1965)

Stevenson, Adlai

(e.g., stenographer).

stencil, stenciled

(1835-1914)

politician. Vice-

president of the United States.

narrow, thin, or small, are written

politician.

Democratic

candidate for U.S. president.

step-

Grandson of Adlai Stevenson.

designating family are written as

Stevenson, Robert Louis

one word: stepbrother, stepchild,

(1850-1894) Scottish

stepdaughter, stepfather,

writer.

Author of Dr. Jekyll and Mr.

stepmother, stepparent, stepsister,

Hyde.

stepson.

stickball

step-by-step

step-down

stick-in-the-mud

As noun.

stickpin

As noun.

step-in

(1879-1955) Author of The

Stevenson, Adlai

this

combining form, which means

step

poet.

Blue Guitar.

stemware

as one

stand/*

Stetson

Author of

Tender Buttons. stellar

it

is.

stethoscope

experimented in using Cubist theories in literature.

Latin; literally, "let

stet

American writer who

A

stick shift

stepladder

manual transmission.

stick-to-itiveness

stepped-up

stickum stepping-ofT place

stfckup

As noun.

Stieglitz,

Alfred

stepping-place stepping-stone

step-up -ster

A

As noun. that

who does

Secession Group. Georgia or

O'Keefe's spouse.

uses (e.g., trickster).

stiff-arm or straight-arm

Compounds of

this

stiff-necked

combining form, which means

stiff

solid, firm, or three-dimensional,

are written as one

editor,

and founder of the Photo-

combining form

indicates a person

stere-, stereo-

(1864-1946)

American photographer,

word

upper

stigma;

(e.g.,

stigmata

stereophonic).

lip

pi.,

stigmas

Marks on

the

body

corresponding to and resembling

stereo; pi., stereos

the

stereotypical or sterotypic

sometimes associated with

sterling silver

sternum;

pi.,

wounds of

the crucified Christ,

religious ecstasy.

sternums or sterna

stiletto; pi., stilettos

stern-wheeler

stillborn

215

or stilettoes

stovepipe

still lifes

still life; />/..

stowaway

Stilton cheese

stimulus; pi.

,

As noun.

Stowe, Harriet Beecher

stimuli

(1811-1896) American author and

sting, stung

ant i si a very abolitionist.

stingray stink, stank or

U nemotional

stir-crazy

stolid

stir-fry

stoma;

stirrup

stomachache

Random, chance.

stochastic

Author of

Uncle Tom's Cabin.

stunk

stoma ta or stomas

pi.,

stomat-, stoma to-

Compounds of

combining form, which means

stockbroker

this

stock car

of, like, or relating to the

stockholder

are written as one

stocking cap

word

stomatitis).

stock-in-trade

Stone Age

stockpiler

stone-blind

stockroom

stone-broke

stock-still

stone-cold

stocktaking

stonecutter

stockyard

stone-deaf

stogie or stogy; pi., stogies

stone's

stoic or stoical

stone wall

stopwatch

stonewaller

store-bought

stoneware

throw

As noun.

storefront

stony or stoney

storehouse

stool pigeon or stoolie

storekeeper

stop-and-go

storeroom

stopgap

storied or storeyed

stoplight

storm door

stopover

storm window

stop payment

story or storey; pi., stories or

stop sign

storeys

A

mouth,

(e.g.,

-storm

floor or a level of a

Compounds formed with

-storm are usually written as one

building.

story; pi., stories

As noun.

An

word

account, or

(e.g.,

Stradivarius

narrative. (See also Part 2, Titles

snowstorm).

A

violin

made by

Antonio Stradivari (1644-1737).

of works.)

As or straight A's and narrow straight-arrow As adjective.

storyboard

straight

storybook

straight

story line storyteller

straightaway

stouthearted

straightedge

216

As

straight-line

A

stricture

straightforward

narrowing, a

restriction, or

adjective.

a criticism.

straight-out

stridence or stridency

straight razor

strident

A

strait

bad

situation. Capitalize if part

Harsh, loud. (Compare

stridulous.)

narrow passageway, or a

stridulous

of

Shrill-sounding.

(Compare strident.)

proper noun (e.g., the Bosphorus

strife;/?/., strifes

Strait).

straitjacket or straightjacket

strike, struck or stricken

straitlaced or straightlaced

strikebreaker

As noun. The is K (SO for

strikeout

stranglehold

A

straphanger

regular

abbreviation

subway

"strikeouts").

rider.

As noun.

strikeover

A trick,

stratagem

strike zone

deception.

string

(Compare strategy.)

A plan.

strategy

strategem

bean

stringent

strategic or strategical

Tight,

strict.

string quartet

(Compare

strip-cropping )

To make lines As noun. strip-mine As verb. stripe

stratosphere

stratum;

pi.,

strata

Stravinsky, Igor

A

strip layer.

(1882-1971)

on.

mine

stripped-down

American composer. Composed

strive, strove or strived

the ballet Rite of Spring.

strobe or strobe light

strawberry

strong-arm

straw boss strawflower

stronghold

straw vote

strong-minded

streamline

strong point or strong suit

stream of consciousness street

Capitalize only

if

struct, or struc. part of

address (e.g., 5 Water Street, but

a

Abbreviation for

structure.

German; a pastry made by

strudel

tree-lined street). Abbreviation

rolling

is St.

dough around a

filling,

strychnine

streetcar

stucco;

pi.,

street-length

stuck-up

streetlight

stud.

strength; pL, strengths

studhorse

strep throat or septic sore throat

studio; pi.

strew, strewed or strewn

study;

stuccos or stuccoes

Abbreviation for student.

pi.,

,

studios studies

stuffed shirt

217

stumblebum

sub rosa

stumbling block

subs, or sub.

Tremendous, amazing.

stupendous

subsidiary.

subs, or subst.

In a dull state.

(Compare stupendous.)

A

sturgeon

type of

Sturm und Drang

Symbol

subscript

fish.

German;

movement

literary

Abbreviation for

substitute; substantive.

written

below

and adjacent to another. (Compare

"storm and stress," a

literally,

Abbreviations for

subscriber, subscription;

(Compare stuporous.) stuporous

As adverb.

superscript.)

subsequent

celebrating the

Following, succeeding.

individual's struggle against

subservience or subserviency

society. Individual turmoil,

substand. or substd. Abbreviations for substandard.

(See Nietzsche.)

volatility.

substantive

stylebook

Essential, enduring, or

stylus; pi., styli or styluses

a considerable amount (as

styptic pencil

adjective), or a

A

Styrofoam

trade

name

type of polystyrene plastic.

suasion

sub-

substratum;/?/., substrata

beneath, or inferior, are written as

subterranean or subterraneous

subcommittee,

subtile

subculture, subdivide, subhuman,

subnormal, subordinate, subplot,

appended

ingenious.

subjective, subjectively;

subvert

subjunctive.

succeed

Lying under; lower.

goal.

(Compare subjugate.)

succor

suff

Exalted, grand.

As

(Compare

subtile.)

corrupt or ruin.

achieve or attain a

(Compare secede.) Help.

crib death

Abbreviation for sufficient;

suffix.

submachine gun subpoena sub-rosa

To To

suede or suede

deny.

sublease or sublet

sublime

title

title.

sudden infant death syndrome or

control, conquer.

(Compare subjacent.)

To

main

such and such

subject matter

sublate

explanatory

to the

Delicate, obscure or keen,

subtle

Abbreviation for subject;

To

An

subtitle

subtotal, subzero).

subjugate

Cunning, discerning.

(Compare subtle.)

subservient, subset, substructure,

subjacent

or include

in a larger group.

subconscious, subcontractor,

subj.

To encompass

subsume

which means under,

(e.g.,

put something in the

place of.

Compounds formed with

one word

To

substitute

Persuasion.

sub-,

group of words

used as a noun (as noun).

for a

suffuse

To

sugarcane sugarcoat

adjective.

216

fill,

spread.

sugarhouse

sundown

As adjective. sugarloaf As noun. sugar maple sugarplum

sundries

sugar-loaf

sundries.)

sunflower sunglasses

suggested, suggestion. sui generis

Latin;

Latin; literally,

own

having

right,' '

sunlamp

one of a kind.

sui juris

manage one's own

Various. (Compare

sundry

Abbreviations for

sugg. or sug.

Various items. (Compare

sundry.)

"of one's

sunlight

sunny-side up

full ability to

sunroof

legal affairs.

suitcase suitor

A

person

who

courts

sunshine

another.

A Japanese

sukiyaki

sunspot

dish of meat

and vegetables cooked quickly

suntanned

in

sunup

soy sauce, sake, and sugar. sulfur or sulphur

sup.

Abbreviation for supra,

"above".

sulfuric acid

sumac or sumach

sum ma cum laude

Compounds formed with

super-

super- are written as one

Distinguishes a

word

university degree as being of the

(e.g.,

highest honors.

superhighway, superhuman,

superannuated, superego,

summerhouse

supermarket, supernatural,

summer

superpower, superstar,

school

summertime summing-up

superstructure).

super, or sup.

summit meeting

Abbreviations for

superior.

sumo wrestler sump pump

superciliary

sumptuous

supercilious

Relating to eyebrows.

(Compare supercilious.)

Excessive, expensive,

Cool, haughty.

(Compare superciliary.)

extravagant.

sunbaked

super-duper

sunbather

supererogatory

sunbeam Sunbelt

Not needed;

extra.

(Compare supernumerary.)

The southern and

superfluous

Wasteful, extra.

superintendence or

southwestern United States.

sunburn, sunburned or sunburnt

superintendency

sundae

superintendent

Sunday school

superintendent

sun deck

title

sundial

or proper noun.

superior court

219

Capitalize if part

of formal

any references

Lying above.

superjacent

Supreme Court

or excessive (as adjective), or the

Supreme

Justices

Members

of the court should be addressed

utmost degree (as noun).

supernumerary

to the

Court of the United States.

Unsurpassed, excellent

superlative

as

Exceeding,

Mr. /Madam Justice

who have

served the court

numerous. (Compare

Justices

supererogatory.)

(an * denotes chief justice):

Symbol

superscript

*John Jay

written above

1789-95

and adjacent to another, as when indicating a footnote.

John Blair

(Compare

1789-%

subscript.)

supersede

To

William Cushing

take the place of or

1789-1810

force out.

supine up.

Robert H. Harrison

Lying on one's back, face

1789-90

(Compare prone.)

John Rutledge

supper club or nightclub

1789-91

suppertime

James Wilson 1789-98

suppl. or supp. or

sup.

Abbreviations for

James Iredell 1790-99

supplement, supplementary.

suppliant or supplicant supplicate

To be humble

Thomas Johnson

or ask

1791-93 humbly. William Paterson suppositious or suppositious

1793-1806 Spurious, counterfeit, or

*John Rutledge hypothetical.

(Compare

1795 (Congress rejected

suppository.)

suppository

appointment)

Medicine inserted into

*Oliver Ellsworth

a body cavity such as the rectum,

where the

it is

1796-99

melted or diffused by

Samuel Chase

body temperature. (Compare

1796-1811

suppositious.)

supr. or sup.

Bushrod Washington

Abbreviations for

1798-1829

supreme.

supra-

Alfred

Compounds formed with

supra- , which means above or

*John Marshall

over, are written as one word, unless the second

1801-35

word begins

William Johnson

with an a (e.g., supramolecular).

supreme court

Capitalize

proper noun or formal

if

title

1804-34

part of

and

Moore

1799-1804

Brockolst Livingston

1806-23

in

220

Noah H. Swayne

Thomas Todd

1862-81

1807-26

Stephen

Joseph Story

Field

* Salmon P.

Gabriel Duval

Chase

1864-73

1812-35 Smith Thompson

Joseph P. Bradley

1870-92

1823-43

Wiliam Strong

Robert Trimble

1870-80

1826-28

Ward Hunt

John McLean

1873-82

1829-61

^Morrison R. Waite

Henry Baldwin 1830-44

1874-88

John M. Harlan

James M. Wayne 1835-67

1877-1911 Stanley Matthews

*Roger B. Taney

1881-89

1836-64 Philip P.

J.

1863-97

1811-45

Barbour

William B.

Woods

1881-87

1836-41

Samuel Blatchford

John Catron

1882-1903

1837-65

Horace Gray

John McKinley

1882-1902

1837-52 Peter V. Daniel

*Melville

W. Fuller

1888-1910

1841-60

Samuel Nelson

Lucius Q. C.

1845-72

1888-93

Levi Woodbury

Lamar

David J. Brewer 1890-1910

1845-51

Henry B. Brown

Robert C. Grier

1846-70

1891-1906

George

Benjamin R. Curtis

1851-57

Shiras, Jr.

1892-1903

John A. Campbell

Howell E. Jackson

1853-61

1893-95

Nathan Clifford 1858-81

Edward D. White

David Davis

Rufus W. Peckham

1894-1910

1862-77

1896-1909 Joseph McKenna

Samuel F. Miller 1862-90

1898-1925

221

Oliver W.

Holmes

William R.

1938-57

Day

William O. Douglas

Moody

Felix Frankfurter

1903-22 William H.

Reed

Stanley F.

1902-32

1939-75

1906-10

1939-62

*Edward D. White

Frank Murphy

1940-49

1910-21 Charles E. Hughes

* Harlan F. Stone

1910-16

1941-46

Horace H. Lurton 1910-14

James F. Byrnes 1941-42

Joseph R. Lamar

Robert H. Jackson

1911-16

1941-54

Van Devanter 1911-37

Willis

Wiley B. Rutledge

Mahlon Pitney

Harold H. Burton

1943-49

1912-22

1945-58

*FredM. Vinson

James C. McReynolds

1946-53

1914-41

Tom

Louis D. Brandeis

Sherman Minton 1949-56

John H. Clarke

1916-22

*Earl Warren

*William H. Taft

1953-69

1921-30

John Marshall Harlan

Pierce Butler

1922-39

1955-71

George Sutherland

William H. Brennan, Jr.

1922-38

Edward

T.

1956Charles E. Whittaker

Sanford

1923-30

1957-62

Harlan F. Stone

Potter Stewart

1925-41

1958-81

*Charles E. Hughes

Arthur

1930-41

Owen

J.

J.

Goldberg

1962-65 Byron R. White

Roberts

1930-45

1962-

Abe Fortas

Benjamin N. Cardozo

1932-38

Hugo

C. Clark

1949-67

1916-39

1965-69

Thurgood Marshall

L. Black

1937-71

1967-91

222

* Warren E.

Burger

a formal

Harry A. Blackmun Lewis F. Powell,

Jr.

1972-87

Clandestine.

surv. or svy.

Abbreviations for

survivor or survivalist

1972-

A

sushi

John Paul Stevens,

Japanese dish made by

rolling flavored cold rice in

III

1975-

fish

Sandra Day O'Connor

suspended animation susurrous

Antonin Scalia

1986-

s.v.

Anthony Kennedy

Whispering.

Abbreviation for sub verbo or

sub voce, "under the word."

1988-

svelte

Clarence Thomas

Slim-figured.

Svengali

1992-

svgs. or savs.

supt. or supr.

Abbreviations for

swaddling clothes

swag curtain

Abbreviation for

Swahili;

supervisor.

Compounds formed with

SWAK

this

which means above, over,

discontinue.

As As

sure enough

Swahili or Swahilis

Abbreviation for sealed

with a kiss.

(e.g., surcharge, surtax).

To

pi.,

swami swampland swan dive swank or swanky swan song

or up, are written as one word

sure-enough

Abbreviations for

savings.

for superintendent.

supvr. or super.

adjective.

adverb.

surefire

swastika

surefooted

SWAT

sure-handed

Weapons and Tactics. swath or swathe A cut row. swayback As noun. swearword

sure thing surety

A

guarantee.

surface structure

Abbreviation for Special

surface-to-air missile

sweat, sweat or sweated

surfboard

sweatband

surfeit

surg.

An

sweatpants

excess.

Abbreviation for surgeon,

sweatshirt

sweatshop

surgery, surgical.

surgeon general; general

raw

or seaweed.

suspendable or suspensible

1981-

surcease

surreptitious

survey.

*William H. Renquist

prefix,

preceding a name:

surplus

1970-

sur-

title

Surgeon General Antonia Novello.

1969-86

pi.,

surgeons

Capitalize only

if

sweat suit sweep, swept

part of

225

sym.

sweepstakes sweet-and-sour

Abbreviation for symbol,

symbolic.

sweetbrier

symbiosis; pi

sweet corn

symbol

symbolic or symbolical

sweetie pie

As verb. As noun.

sweet- talk

sweet talk

symmetrical or symmetric

symposium;

swelled head

swept-back

swam itch

swimmingly

Easily and with

syn.

swimming pool

Abbreviation for synonym,

synagogue or synagog

swimsuit

swing

symposia or

synonymous, synonymy.

success.

swingby

pi.,

symposiums syn-, symCompounds of these prefixes, which mean with, or at the same time, are written as one word (e.g., synchronize).

sweet tooth

swimmer's

that represents

another thing. (Compare cymbal.)

sweetheart

swim,

symbioses

,

Something

A

meeting

place, or a congregation of people

As noun.

gathered for Jewish worship.

sync or synch

shift

sync, or synch, or

Swiss cheese Swiss steak

syn.

switchblade

synchronize and variants.

Abbreviations for

synchronic or synchronous or

switchboard switcheroo; pi

,

switcheroos

synchronical

switch-hit

synd.

swivel, swiveled or swivelled

synecdochic or synecdochical

swivel chair

synodal or synodic or sy nodical

swivel-hipped

synoptic or synoptical

swizzle stick

syrup or sirup

swordfish

sys. or syst.

swordplay

system.

SY

Abbreviation for square yard.

sybarite

A

systaltic

systemic

syllabication or syllabification ,

Abbreviations for

Pulsing.

systematic or systematical

sensuous person.

sycophantic or sycophantish

syllabus; pi.

Abbreviation for syndicate.

Relating to the body's

system.

systems analysis

syllabi or syllabuses

224

As noun.

tagalong tag sale t.

Tahitian

Abbreviations for ton.

or tn.

TA

tailback

Abbreviation for teaching

tail

assistant.

Tabasco sauce table d'hote

French; a

meal served

end

tail fin

communal

tailgater

to all guests within

given hours and

at

taillight

a fixed price.

taillike

table-hopper

tailor-made

table linen

tail

pipe

tail

wind

table talk table tennis or Ping-Pong

tableau; pi.

,

take, took

tableaux or tableaus

As

tablecloth

takedown

tablemate

take-home pay

tablespoonful; pi ., tablespoonfuls

take-in

As noun. As noun. take-out As adjective. take-up As noun. takeoff As noun. takeover As noun. talcum powder takeout

or tablespoonsful table top

tableware

taboo or tabu

A

tabor or tabour played by a

lifer

accompaniment

small

drum

as an

talisman;/?/., talismans

to his or her fife.

French; a low

taboret or tabouret

talking-to talk

stool.

tabula rasa;

tabulae rasae

pi.,

adjective, noun.

Latin; a state of the

show

tallyho

Talmud

mind as a

hypothetical "blank state," before

tamable or tameable

receiving any outside impressions

tamale

Compounds formed with

tachy-

tachy-,

tam-o'-shanter

one word

tamperproof

tandem bicycle Tao Mandarin Chinese; literally, 44 the Way," a philosophical and

(e.g., tachycardia).

Implied, indicated,

taco; pi., tacos

tadpole tae

kwon do

hot, highly seasoned dish.

tambourine

which means rapid or

swift; are written as

tacit

A

Mexican

or experience.

religious principle that is the basis

or Tae

Korean martial

taedium vitae

K won Do A

of the teachings of Lao-tse, dating

from the sixth century B.C.

art.

tap dance

Latin; an exhaustion

or despising of

tap-dance

life.

225

As noun. As verb.

tap dancer

T

tbsp. or

tap dancing

or tbs. or tb.

Abbreviations for tablespoon,

tape deck

table spoonful.

tape measure

tea

tape player

tea cake

tapestry or tapis

teach, taught

tapeworm

teachers college

tapioca

teacher's pet

tap pants

teacup

taproom

bag

teahouse

tarantula;

pi.,

teak or teakwood

tarantulas or

tarantulae

teakettle

tarmac or Tarmac

teammate

Short for

tarmacadam, a pavement often

teamster

used on airport runways. tarot cards

labor union.

tarpaulin or tarp

A

type of

teapot tear, tore

fish.

tarsus;/?/., tarsi

teardrop

tartar sauce or tartare sauce

tear gas

task force

tearjerker

tasseled or tasselled

tear-jerking

tatami

tearoom

Japanese; a straw floor mat.

tear sheet

tattersall

tearstain

tattletale

tattoo;

when

teamwork

tar paper

tarpon

Capitalize only

used to refer to the Teamsters

pi

Taurus

teaspoonful;

tattoos

,

(see

Zodiac Signs),

tax-exempt taxi, taxis

pi.,

teatime

or taxies, taxiing or

tech.

taxying

Abbreviation for technical,

technically; technician.

tech. or technol.

taxicab taxi stand

Abbreviations for

technology, technological.

technical knockout or

Abbreviation for taxonomy,

taxon.

teaspoonfuls or

teaspoonsful

Technicolor

taxonomic.

taxpayer

A

TKO

trademark for a

motion-picture-coloring process.

tax shelter

technological or technologic

Tay-Sachs disease

teddy bear

TB TBA

teenage or teenaged

Abbreviation for tuberculosis.

teenager or teen

Abbreviation for to be

teensy-weensy or teeny-weeny

announced.

T-bone steak

teenybopper

226

temp, or tmp.

teeter-totter

temp.

teetotaler or teetotaller

TEFL

tempera paint

English as a foreign language.

Trade name for a type of

temperate

tempo;

Abbreviation for telephone.

tele-, tel-, telo-

Compounds of

A Japanese

vegetables are dipped in batter and

distance, are written as one word,

deep

(e.g., telecommunications,

paint.)

To

(Compare tendentious.)

broadcast via

(Compare

television.

tenebrific.)

Adhering, cohesive.

tenacious

telethon).

(Compare tempera

Reasonable, maintainable.

(Compare

telekinesis, telepathy, telescope,

tenant

televise.)

A

person

who

rents or

occupies a habitat. (Compare

Telecopier telegrapher or telegraphist

A

telephoto

fried.

tenable

teleconferencing, telegram,

telecast

method of

preparing food, in which fish and

over, from, or to a

at,

Mild; restrained.

tempi or tempos

pi.,

tempura

these combining forms, which

mean

Poster paint.

(Compare tempura.)

non-stick cooking surface. tel.

Abbreviation for temporary;

temporal; template.

Abbreviation for teaching

Teflon

Abbreviations for

temperature.

teething ring

camera lens

tenet.)

ten-cent store

that

magnifies the photographed image

Ten Commandments

of a distant object.

tendentious or tendencious

A

Telephoto

machine

brand name for a

Biased. (Compare tenacious.)

tender loving care or

that transmits photos

TelePrompTer

TLC

tenderfoot; pi., tenderfeet or

electrically.

A

trademark for a

tenderfoots

type of cuing device that displays

tenderhearted

magnified

tenderloin

script,

telesis, pi., teleses

tendinitis or tendonitis

Teletype

tendriled or tendrilled

televise

To

electronically pick

and broadcast on

(Compare television

up

tenebrific or tenebrous

tenement house

telecast.)

show

titles

(See Part 2,

tenet

Titles of works.)

Doctrine, principle.

(Compare tenant.)

telex or Telex tell,

Gloomy,

obscure. (Compare tenable.)

television.

ten-gallon hat tennis elbow

told

tennis shoe

telltale

temblor

Earthquake.

temerity

Rashness. (Compare

Tennyson, Alfred Lord (1809-1892) English poet. Author

timorous.)

of "Lady of Shallot."

227

tenpin

test pilot

Ductile, stressed.

tensile

test

ten-speed

Temporary, uncertain.

tentative

As

tetherball

tequila

Compounds

tetra-, tetr-

To

equivocate, to

are written as one

Japanese dish of meat

Texas leaguer

then broiled or grilled.

Tex-Mex

or

trail,

(e.g.,

Having

do with

to

Mexican- American culture, as

Abbreviations for terminal.

trai.

terminal

word

tetrapod).

or fish marinated in soy sauce and

term, or

with this

combining form (meaning "four")

desert a cause or party.

A

meeting

held in private.

Lukewarm.

tergiversate

"head

literally,

to head,*' a face-to-face

tepee or teepee

teriyaki

adjective.

French;

tete-a-tete

tenterhooks

tepid

As noun.

tube

test-tube

exemplified in southern Texas on

Station for travel arrivals

the

and departures (noun), or the end

Mexican border.

textbook

or conclusion of something (adj).

T formation TGIF Abbreviation

terminus; pL, termini or

terminuses it's

term paper

God

for thank

Friday.

Thackeray, William Makepeace

terpsichorean

Pertaining to

(1811-1863) English

novelist,

dancing.

and humorist.

journalist,

terra-cotta

Thanksgiving Day

terra firma

As noun.

thank-you Land, ground.

terrain

terrarium;

pi., terraria

that

or

terrariums

abbreviation

terrestrial

Earthly.

Compounds with

the-, theoprefix,

Capitalize territory only part of a proper

if it is

noun

the Northwest Territory).

abbreviation

is terr.

or

this

meaning "God," are

written as

(e.g.,

one word

(e.g.,

theology).

The

theat.

ter.

Abbreviation for theater,

theatrical.

terror-stricken

theater or theatre

Third.

tertiary

i.e. (id est).

thaumaturgist or thaumaturge

terrier

territory

in

scholarly writing with the Latin

terrazzo

TESL

Sometimes replaced

is

theatergoer

Abbreviation for teaching

theatergoing

English as a second language. test

ban

theater-in-the-round

test

case

the following

Sometimes replaced

in scholarly writing with the Latin

test-drive

228

abbreviations seq. or sq. (sequens

thespian

or sequentes or sequentia).

the

work already

cited

Sometimes

themselves

replaced in scholarly writing with

then and there

the Latin abbreviation op.

thenceforth

(opus citatum).

THI

thenceforward or thenceforwards

Abbreviation for temperature-

humidity index.

Abbreviation for theology,

theol.

thi-, thio-

theologian, theological.

theological or theologic

prefix

Compounds with

" sulfuric**

theoretician or theorist

word

Compounds

are written as

one

(e.g., thiocyanate).

thickheaded

written as one

word include thereabouts or

thickset

thereabout, thereafter, thereat,

thick-skinned

thereby, therefrom, therein,

thief; pi., thieves

thereinafter, thereinto, thereof,

thimbleful; pi., thimblefuls

thereon, thereto, theretofore,

thingamabob

thereunder, thereunto, thereupon,

thingamajig or thingumajig

therewith.

thing-in-itself;

therefor

In return; for

For

that reason;

think tank think, thought

because

of; consequently; hence.

thinking cap

(Compare therefor.)

thin-skinned

therm-, thermothis

Compounds of

As adverb. The abbreviation is 3b. third-class As adjective or adverb. third class As noun. third-degree burn third or thirdly

combining form, which means

heat, are written as (e.g.,

third base

one word

thermometer, thermostat).

-therm

Compounds formed with

-therm indicate an animal with a certain

body heat

third-rate

thirdhand

(e.g.,

third world or Third

poikilotherm).

thermal blanket

same

Sometimes replaced

thirty; pi., thirties

thirty-three

in

Thomas, Dylan (1914-1953) Welsh poet. Thoreau, Henry David

scholarly writing with the Latin

abbreviations

id.

{idem) or ead.

(eadem).

the

same as

Sometimes replaced

(1817-1862) American

in

scholarly writing with the Latin

abbreviation

i.q.

World

thirteenth

thermos or vacuum bottle the

pi, things-in-

themselves

it.

(Compare therefore.) therefore

this

meaning " sulfur** or

theoretical or theoretic

there-

cit.

Transcendental st writer. Author of Walden and "Civil

(idem quod).

thesis;/?/., theses

Disobedience.*'

229

thoroughbred

throw rug

thoroughfare

throw, threw

thoroughgoing

throwaway throwback

As adjective and noun. As noun. throw-in As noun. thruway or through way

thoughtfulness

thought-out

thought-provoking thousand;

pi.

K and

thousands or

,

The

thousand

Capitalize only if part of an

abbreviations are

address.

thumbhole

thou.

thumb index

Thousand Island dressing

To

thrash

beat,

flail at,

thumbnail

or defeat

thumbprint

soundly. (Compare thresh.)

thumbs-down; thumbs-up

threadbare three-bagger or triple

A

thumbtack

hit in

thunderbolt

baseball that allows the batter to

thundershower

reach third base.

3-D or three-dimensional

thunderstorm

three-decker

thunderstruck

three-legged race

thyme

three-mile limit

thyr-, thyro-

three of a kind

The

prefix

spice.

Compounds with

meaning " thyroid** or

three-piece suit

"thyroidal** are written as one

three-point landing

word

three-quarter

(e.g., thyrotoxicosis).

thyself

three-ring circus

ticker tape

three R's

ticker-tape

Reading, writing, and

tick off

arithmetic.

threesome

ticky-tacky or ticky-tack; pi.,

To

thresh

ticky-tackies or tick-tacks

harvest grain or strike

repeatedly.

(Compare thrash.)

tic-tac-toe or ticktacktoe

threshold

tidal

Three times,

thrice

thromb-, thrombothis

word

Compounds of

tiddledy winks or tiddly winks

clot, are written as

tidewater

one

tieback

Sometimes shortened

tie-dye

to

thru in informal writing.

tie-in

through and through

tiepin

throughout

tiered

throughput

As noun.

tiebreaker

(e.g., thrombosis).

through

wave

tidbit

combining form, which means

blood

As noun. As adjective.

Output of a machine.

As noun.

tie silk

through street

tie

250

tack or

tie tac

the

As noun.

tie-up

tinderbox

ear

tiger cat

tin

tiger lily

tinfoil

tight

end

To

tinge

tightfisted

tight-lipped or tight-mouthed

damn

tinker's

tightrope or tightwire

or tinker's

dam

worth noting.

Wood, woodland.

timber

Tinkertoy

(Compare timbre.)

Tin Pan Alley

timberland

tinplate

timberline

tin-plate

timbre or timber

An

overtone in

As noun. As verb.

tintinnabulary

sound.

Pertaining to bells

or their sounds.

Most compounds formed

tip-off

(e.g., time sheet, time

warp, time zone). written as one

As noun. As noun.

tip-in

with time are written as two

words

change the color

Something of no value or hardly

tightwad

time-

slightly

or character of.

tip of the iceberg

Compounds

tip-top

word include

paper

tissue

timekeeper, timekeeping, tit

for tat

timepiece, timesaver, timesaving, title

page

timetable, timeworn.

titleholder or

titlist

time-consuming titmouse;/?/., titmice

time-honored titular

time immemorial or time out of

TM

mind

In

name

only.

Abbreviation for

transcendental meditation.

time-lapse

TNT

time-out

Abbreviation for

trinitrotoluene, used as an

time-sharing

explosive.

time-tested

time zones

-to-be

Abbreviations are

toadstool

usually uppercase, unpunctuated,

to-and-fro

and unspaced: Pacific standard time (PST), mountain standard

tobacco road or Tobacco Road

time (MST), central standard time

Tocqueville, Alexis de

(CST), eastern standard time

(1805-1859) French writer and

(EST).

politician.

timorous

Fearful.

today

(Compare

to-do; pi., to-dos

temerity.)

timpani

A

set

toehold

of kettledrums of

toenail

different pitches tin

can

toffee or toffy

2J1

A

tofu

soybean curd rich

rearmost seating area

in protein

used in cooking. toggle switch toilet

toilet

tool-

Related to grooming.

Compounds formed

that are written as

water

toolmaker, toolmaking, toolroom,

Sometimes replaced

to infinity

toolshed.

in

scholarly writing with the Latin

abbreviation

ad

tooth; pi., teeth

toothache

(ad infinitum).

inf.

Tolkien, J. R. R.

tooth and nail

(1892-1973)

British fantasy writer.

Author of

toothbrush

The Lord of the Rings. toUbooth

toothpaste

toothpick

toothsome

bridge

toll call

too-too

tollhouse cookies

top-, topo-

tollway

prefix,

Leo

Tolstoy,

novelist

(1828-1910) Russian

Compounds with

word

War and

(e.g., topographical

top billing

Peace.

pi.,

topcoat

top dog

tomatoes

tombstone or gravestone

top-down

tomfoolery

top drawer

tomorrow tom-tom tonearm

top flight topflight

Top 40

tone-deaf

As adjective. As adjective or noun.

Refers to the forty best-selling

tone deafness

songs of a given period.

tongue and groove

Lumber

top hat

milled

so that the edges of the boards

top-heavy

can overlap.

topknot

tongue-in-cheek

tongue in cheek

As As

adjective.

top-notch

adverb.

toponym

tongue-lashing tongue-tied

top secret topspin

Sometimes spelled

topstitch

tonite

topsy-turvy

in informal writing. pi.

.

tonneaus

A

topsail

tongue twister

tonneau;

)

top banana

tomahawk

tonight

this

which means "location"

or "place," are written as one

and philosopher. Author

of Anna Karenina and

tomato;

with tool

one word

include toolbox, toolholder,

toilsome

toll

an

Related to barbering.

tonsorial

paper

toilette

in

automobile.

Torah

French; the

252

place-name.

torchlight

touch-me-not

torch song

touchstone

toric lens

touch-type

tornado;

pi.,

tornados

tornadoes or

toughie or toughy;

A

rapidly rotating

toupee;

extending

tour de force

column of

air

downward

as a funnel,

narrow, path.

tournedo;

torrid

Hot, steamy.

dullness.

strips

towelette

towheaded

rich

Italian;

town car town hall town house

ring-shaped or

filled

with meat or

vegetables.

A

Mexican

flatbread

made

townie or towny;

township

tortoiseshell

An

Italian

Capitalize

if part

of

Township 30, but an unorganized Twisted, winding.

township). Abbreviation

(Compare torturous.) Causing

torturous

tow truck toxemia

A

trache-, tracheo-

deep-fried

this

tortilla.

total, totaled

twp.

towrope

torture.

As noun.

tostada or tostado

is

townspeople

(Compare tortuous.)

or totalled

Compounds of

combining form, which means

of the trachea or windpipe, are

total eclipse

written as one

total recall

tracheid).

tote

townies

,

proper noun or address (e.g.,

ice-cream

dessert

tortuous

toss-up

pi.

townsfolk

of cornmeal.

tortoni

Namely.

to wit

cake.

tortilla

French;

towel, toweled or towelled

or

German; a type of

round pasta

tournedos

towboat

around an axis.

tortellini

pi.,

of beef tenderloin.

toward or towards

twisting

torso; pi., torsos or torsi

torten

feat.

(Compare tornado.)

The process of

torte;/?/., tortes

French; a great

tournament or tourney

tournedo.)

Numbness,

toughies

tourist class

its

(Compare

torpor

pi.,

toupees

pi.,

touring car

which

usually destroys everything in

torsion

As noun.

touch-up

tormentor or tormenter

bag

word

(e.g.,

tracing paper

totem pole

track-and-field

touch and go

track record

As noun. touchdown As noun.

tractable

touchback

Easily taken care of;

malleable, or docile.

255

fractional or tractive

transcendence or transcendency

tractor pull

transduce

To

convert to another

form.

tradable or tradeable

transf. or trans, or

As noun. As noun. trademark or TM trade-in

Abbreviations for transfer,

tr.

trade-off

transferred.

tradespeople

transferable or transferable

trade union or trades union

transfusible or transfusable

trading stamp

transgress

To go beyond

transitory

Temporary.

An

tragedian

actor in or a writer

translucence or translucency

of tragedies.

(Compare transparent.)

bike

transmittable or transmissible

trailblazer

Allows

transparent

park

all light

through, like glass. (Compare

train case

translucent.)

camp

training

light

through, like frosted glass.

tragicomic or tragicomical

trailer

Allows some

translucent

tragic or tragical

trail

limits.

trapdoor

trainload

trapshooting

tram or tramcar

trapunto; pi

trammeled or trammelled

,

A

trapuntos

quilted

design.

trampolier or trampolinist trash can trancelike

trauma;

pi.,

traumata or traumas

tranquillity or tranquility travel, traveled or travelled

tranquilize or tranquillize trans-

traveler's check

Compounds formed with

trans-,

travelogue or travelog

which means across, above

traverse rod

and beyond, or on the other side of, are written as

the second

word

tread, trod or treaded, trodden or

one word unless is

trod

a proper noun

treadmill

(e.g., transcontinental, transcribe,

treas. or treasr.

transformation, transfusion,

Abbreviations for

treasurer.

transmigration, transplant,

treasonable or treasonous

transsexual , but trans-Siberian

treasure hunt

journey).

treasury note or Treasury note

trans, or tr.

Abbreviations for

treasury

transitive; translator, translation.

trans, or transp.

Capitalize only

if

part of

proper noun.

Abbreviations

treaty

for transport, transportation;

Capitalize only

if

part of

proper noun: Treaty of Versailles.

transparent.

treble clef

tree

transatlantic

2M

farm

Trotsky, Leon

tree house

trefoil

A

type of plant whose

Organized Bolshevik seizure of

leaves are divided into three

power

leaflets.

1917.

tremulous or tremulant

October Revolution of

in

Was

troublemaker

Clear, sharp.

troubleshoot

trendsetter

Compounds formed with

troublesome or troublous

tri-

one word

A

troupe

(meaning "three") are written as

group of entertainers.

(Compare troop.)

(e.g., triad, triangular,

trousseau; pi., trousseaux or

tricolor, tricot, tricycle, triennial, trilateral, trimester, tripartite,

trousseaus

triplex, tristate, triweekly).

that a bride

and error

trick-or- treat

French; the wardrobe

assembles for her

marriage.

As

trove

verb.

Treasured collection.

trickle-down

truant officer

tried-and-true

truancy or truantry

trigger-happy

truckload

triple-header

truculence or truculency

jump

truculent

Cruel.

triple-space

true-blue

As

triple

troche

A

troglodyte

small medicinal lozenge.

A

cave dweller,

adjective.

true-false

truehearted

or, a

recluse.

troika

true-life

Russian; a triumvirate.

truelove

trolley car

trump card trumped-up

trolley or trolly; pi., trolleys or

trundle bed

Trojan horse

trunk

trollies

trompe Poeil

From French,

line

truth; pi., truths

As noun.

meaning "to deceive the eye," a

try out

painting or a painted surface that

tsetse fly

reproduces an image or texture

T-shirt or t -shirt or tee shirt

with photographic realism.

tsp. or tspn.

troop

An

soldiers.

organized group, as

Compounds

Abbreviations for

teaspoon, teaspoonful.

T

(Compare troupe.)

trop-, tropoprefix

I.

troubadour

trenchant

trial

associated with V.

Lenin.

trench coat

tri-

(1879-1940)

Russian Communist leader.

treetop

with the

square

tubaist or tubist

meaning "turn," "change"

Tudor house

or "reflex" are written as one

tugboat

word

tug-of-war

(e.g., troposphere).

255

Pennsylvania Turnpike).

tulip tree

A

tulle

stiff netting

used for

Abbreviations are tpke. or tnpk. or

special clothing such as veils or

tpk.

ballet costumes.

turnstile

tumbledown

turntable

tumbleweed tundra The

turquoise or turquois treeless, level plains of

where the subsoil

the Arctic

turtleneck

is

tutti-frutti

permanently frozen.

tuxedo;

As noun.

tune-up

A

tungsten

metallic chemical

Twain, Mark

element used in electric contact

lamp

points and

American

filaments.

January 5, before the Epiphany

wrapped head covering.

(the twelfth

(Compare turbine.)

A

after Christmas).

twenty;/?/., twenties

(Compare turgid.) turbine

day

Twelve Step

Muddy, dense, or confused.

turbid

Author of The

The evening of

Twelfth Night

tunnel, tunneled or tunnelled

A

(1835-1910)

writer.

Adventures of Tom Sawyer.

tuning fork

turban

tuxedos or tuxedoes

pi.,

TV TV dinner

tuned-in

twice-told

rotary engine.

(Compare

twilight

turban.)

TWIMC

turbojet it

turbo-propeller or turboprop

Abbreviation for to

may

whom

concern.

twin bed

turbulence or turbulency twin-size

Swollen. (Compare turbid.)

turgid

two-bagger or double

Turkish bath Turkish towel

A

two cents .

two-faced

turned-on

in

pi.,

Two

twofer

turning point

turnkey;

turnkeys

purchase

The person

turnoff

As noun. As noun. turnout As noun. turnover As noun.

two-piece

turn-on

two-ply

turnpike

two-tone

two-step

two-time

Capitalize as part of a

name

things available for

at the price

two-handed

charge of the keys of a prison.

proper

adjective.

two-by-four

traitor.

As noun.

As

two-bit

As noun.

turnaround turncoat

hit in

reach second base.

turnabout

turndown

A

baseball that allows the batter to

two-way

(e.g., the

256

street

of one.

typewrite

tying or tieing

tyke

A

typo;/?/., typos

small child.

typeface

tyrannical or tyrannic

typeset

tyro;/?/., tyros

2*7

A

novice.

unapt

u

Unlikely or not suitable.

(Compare inapt, inept.)

unaware As adjective. unawares As adverb. unbeknown or unbeknownst

A river in central Africa. A German submarine from

Ubangi U-boat

World War

or World

I

War

II.

u.c.

Abbreviation for uppercase.

UFO;

pi.

UFOs

,

not

uncalled-for

unchristian or un-Christian

interjection expressing

Uncle

displeasure or distaste.

Sam An

unction

ugly duckling

ointment, an

anointing, or an exaggerated

uh-huh U/I

who does

disbeliever.)

Abbreviation for

An

person

hold something as true. (Compare

unidentified flying object.

ugh

A

unbeliever

UFO'sor

manner. (Compare unctuous.)

Abbreviation for unidentified.

unctuous

ukulele or ukelele

ultimatum;

pi.,

Oily, greasy, or

exaggerated

ultimatums or

in

manner,

false.

(Compare unction.) ultimata

Most compounds formed

underLatin; in the preceding

ultimo

with under- are written as one

month.

word

Compounds formed with

ultra-

ultra-,

which means beyond or

to

one word unless the second word

noun

is

of formal

(e.g., ultrasonic, ultrasound,

ululate

underway As adjective. under way As adverb.

type of diacritical mark

undulate or undulated

German

(e.g., a, 6,

uneconomic or uneconomical unexceptionable

umpteen un- Compounds formed with un-, which means not, lack of, or is

unexceptional.)

unexceptional

Common,

ordinary.

(Compare unexceptionable.)

a

unfocused or unfocussed

An

proper noun (e.g., un-American,

unguent

but unadulterated, unapproach-

unheard-of

(Compare

Honorable,

beyond reproach. (Compare

opposite of, are written as one

word unless second word

As

adjective

").

able).

part

under-the-table

placed over a vowel used especially in

if

preceding a name.

under-the-counter

UHF

To howl.

A

title

undersized or undersize

umbilical cord

umlaut

Capitalize only

secretary

a proper

ultraviolet, but ultra-acidic).

ultrahigh frequency or

underage, underbelly,

underhand or underhanded under secretary or under-

an extreme degree, are written as

begins with an a or

(e.g.,

underclothing, underwrite).

UNICEF

in-.)

258

ointment.

Abbreviation for United

Nations Children's Emergency

upgrade

Fund.

uphill

upkeep

unidirectional

uppercase

unilateral

Not wanting

uninterested attention.

to

upper

(Compare

class

upper-class

disinterested.)

adjective and verb.

As noun.

As noun. As adjective.

upper crust

Organized by a labor

unionized

As

uppercase or upper case

pay

upper hand

union.

uprightness

union shop

uprise

ups and downs

But Unitarian when

unitarian

United Nations or

upside-down

UN

As As

adverb. adjective.

upstate

United States of America or

uptight

U.S.A.

uptime

United States or U.S. univ.

down

upside

referring to the church.

up-to-date

Abbreviation for university

up-to-the-minute

(also U.)\ universal, universally.

uptown upward or upwards As adverb. upward (adjective) urban Concerning a city.

universal joint Capitalize only

university

if

part

of proper noun (e.g., a university student; but

New

unkn. or unk.

York University).

(Compare urbane.)

Abbreviations for

urbane

Suave, polished. (Compare

unknown.

Unknown

urban.) Soldi r

usable or useable

unwritten rule

USDA

up, upped or up

up-and-coming

up and down up-and-down

Department of Agriculture

user-friendly

As As

adverb.

USPS

adjective.

Abbreviation for United

States Postal Service.

up-and-up

util.

upbeat

Abbreviation for

Utopia or Utopia

upcoming

A

utility.

concept or a

place (respectively) representing

update

upend

Abbreviation for United

States

social or political perfection or

To

set, turn,

or stand on

both.

end.

Utopian

up-front

U-turn

2J9

.

value judgment

VAT

value-added tax or

V v.

Abbreviation for

or vb.

Abbreviations for verb.

The abbreviation

intransitive verb (one that has

The

wind

Works

vacuum; pi, vacuums or vacua

vanilla

handbook, or a useful thing

People commuting to

vanpool

work together

a

vapid

Dull, uninteresting.

Abbreviation for variable;

var.

variant; variety, various.

varicolored

vein.)

varicose veins

vainglorious

A

short drape.

(Compare

Compounds with

vas-, vaso-

valence.)

the

meaning "blood vessel" or

prefix

"vascular" are written as one

valley.

word

Degree or capacity of

valence

pesty creature.

(Compare vermin.)

valued.

valance

A

varmint

Abbreviation for value,

(e.g., vasodilator).

elements to combine with other

vas deferens;

elements and form molecules.

Vaseline

(Compare valance.)

pi.,

vase deferentia

Brand name

petroleum

for

jelly.

Vatican

valentine

Valentine's

Day

or Valentine

Day

vaulted

valiance or valiancy or valor

VCR

Valium

V-day

Trademark

for a type of

VDT

tranquilizer.

Capitalize if part of proper (e.g.,

Death

Arched.

To

vaunt

parking

noun

a van rather than

vantage point

vaginae or vaginas

Overly concerned with

valley

in

using separate vehicles.

that

appearance. (Compare vane,

valet

personalized

license plate.

carries constantly.

A

A

vanity plate

vacuum-packed vade mecum; pi., vade mecums Latin; literally, "go with me/'

vale

painter.

include The Potato Eaters

and Starry Night.

vacuum bottle vacuum cleaner

pi.,

(1853-1890)

Dutch post-impressionist

vacuity or vacuousness

val.

(Compare vain,

direction.

Van Gogh, Vincent

Administration.

vain

adjective.

vanguard

Abbreviation for Veterans

one

As

instrument indicating

vein.)

is v.t.

vagina;

An

vane

no

abbreviation for a transitive verb

VA

closely-trimmed,

pointed beard.

vandyked

for an

direct object) is v.i.

A

Vandyke

volt, voltage.

brag about, to boast of.

or videocassette recorder Victory day (as in a war).

Abbreviation for video

display terminal or visual display terminal, the screen for visually

Valley).

240

monitoring work being done on a

"abdomen"

computer.

word

V-8

A

Abdominal

ventral

Abbreviation for vegetable.

veg.

are written as one

(e.g., ventricle).

venture capital

type of internal-combustion

venue

engine with two opposing rows of

The place where a cause of

four cylinders, in which the rows

action or a crime occurs (in law);

are slanted toward each other to

or, the

form a V-shape.

(for a concert, sporting event,

vein

A

scene of a local gathering

etc.)

blood vessel that carries

blood toward the heart. (Compare

VenusVflytrap

vain, vane.)

ver.; pi

Trademark

Velcro

for a nylon

veracious

fastening material.

An

velleity

inclination that

A

special strong paper or

A

velodrome

,

infinitive.

velours

Word

verbatim

Animate membrane.

pi.,

verbiage

venae cavae

noun derived from

a verb; in English, a gerund or an

(Compare vellum.) vena cava;

A

verbal noun

cycling track.

velour or velours; pi.

velum

speech.

(Compare velum.)

binding.

Relating to words or

verbal

acted upon.

vellum

Truthful.

veranda or verandah

not

is

Abbreviation for

vss.

.,

version; pi., versions.

Wordy.

verbose

The

for word.

Wordiness.

German; forbidden.

verboten vein that returns blood to the

Green. (Compare vernal.)

verdant heart.

True, genuine.

veridical

venal

Buyable, corruptible. verily

Truly.

(Compare venial, venous.) verisimilar

vendible or vendable

For

veritable

vending machine

verite

vendor or vender

To

venerate

regard highly.

vermicelli

Venetian blind

vermicular or vermiform

Wormlike.

Pardonable, excusable.

vermilion or vermillion or

(Compare venal, venous.)

venous

vermeil

Deer meat.

venomous

vermin

Poisonous.

Relating to veins.

this prefix

Bright red.

An

offensive animal.

(Compare varmint.)

vermouth

(Compare venal, venial.) ventr-, ventro-

French; realism, especially

vermiculate or vermiculated or

Venetian glass or Venetian glass

venison

Real, actual,

in visual art.

venereal disease or V.D.

venial

Plausible, likely.

sale.

vernacular

Compounds with

vernal

meaning "belly" or

Local dialect.

Having

to

do with

(Compare verdant.)

241

spring.

verso; pi., versos

The

vice chairperson

lefthand

page of an open book, or the back

Against. Abbreviation

vice-chancellor

is v.

(in legal context) or vs. (in

vice-consul

general context).

vice president

vert.

name.

vertebrae or

pi.,

vertebras

States of 1

VHF 2.

evening.

3.

Aaron Burr

4.

George Clinton

5.

Elbridge Gerry

6.

Daniel D. Tompkins

7.

John C. Calhoun

8.

Martin Van Buren

9.

Richard M. Johnson

1739-1812

Abbreviation for veterinary,

veterinarian.

1744-1814

veteran or vet

Veterans Day

1774-1825

Abbreviation for visual flight

rules.

1782-1850

Abbreviation for Veterans of

Foreign Wars.

1782-1862

Abbreviation for very high

frequency.

VHS

Abbreviation for video

home

1780-1850

system. v.i.

via

10.

John Tyler

1 1

George M. Dallas

12.

Millard Fillmore

13.

William

1790-1862

Abbreviation for Latin vide

infra,

"see below."

By way

1792-1864

of.

viaduct

1800-1874

vibrancy or vibrance vice

An

evil habit.

vice admiral

Jefferson

1756-1836

vest-pocket

VHF

Thomas

1743-1826

vested interest

VFW

America

John Adams

1735-1826

In Christian religious, a

prayer or service said in the

VFR

consistent,

government.

spinning.

vet.

is

also be capitalized in

Vice Presidents of the United

everchanging; dizzying; or

vespers

treatment

if

preceding a

executive in the U.S.

the

Inconstant,

very high frequency or

If

title

references to the second highest

The summit,

topmost point, the apex, vertiginous

may

it

vertex; pi., vertices or

vertexes

Capitalize only

part of a formal

Abbreviation for vertical.

vertebra;

if

name.

side of a single page.

versus

Capitalize only

part of a formal title preceding a

(Compare

Capitalize only

vise.)

R.King

1786-1853

if

part of a formal title preceding a

14.

name.

242

John C. Breckinridge 1821-1875

15.

Hannibal Hamlin

36. Richard

1809-1891 16.

M. Nixon

1913-

Andrew Johnson

37.

Lyndon B. Johnson

38.

Hubert H. Humphrey

1808-1875

1908-1973

17.

Schuyler Colfax

18.

Henry Wilson 1812-1875

39. Spiro T.

William A. Wheeler

40. Gerald R.

1823-1885

19.

1911-1978

1819-1887

41. Nelson A. Rockefeller

1829-1886

1908-1979

Thomas A. Hendricks

42. Walter

1819-1885 22. Levi P.

F.Mondale

1928-

Morton

George Bush

43.

1824-1920

1924-

23. Adlai E. Stevenson

44. 7. Danforth Quayle

1835-1914 24. Garret A.

Ford

1913-

20. Chester A. Arthur

21

Agnew

1918-

1947-

Hobart

Gore

45. Al

1844-1899

1948-

25. Theodore Roosevelt

vice

squad

1858-1919 vice versa

W. Fairbanks 1852-1918

26. Charles

27.

James

28.

Thomas R. Marshall

vichyssoise

and served cold.

Victorian

1854-1925

victual

VCR

videodisc or videodisk

Dawes

video display terminal or

1865-1951

video

31. Charles Curtis

VDT

game

videotape

1860-1936 John N. Garner

video tape recording

1868-1967

videotex or videotext

video verity

Henry A. Wallace

A

candidly filmed

television documentary.

1888-1965 34.

Food.

videocassette recorder or

1872-1933 30. Charles G.

33.

French soup made

vicious circle

29. Calvin Coolidge

32.

A

with leeks, potatoes, and cream,

Sherman 1855-1912 S.

Vienna sausage

Harry S Truman

1884-1972

Vietnamese

W. Barkley 1877-1956

viewfinder

35. Alben

viewpoint

24 J

VIN

Abbreviation for vehicle

identification

that are essential, in small

number.

amounts, for the normal growth

and functioning of the human

Conquerable.

vincible

vindictive or vindicative

body. They are A,

Hateful,

B complex, B 6

revengeful.

A

vintner

wine producer.

vinyl

violoncello or cello

VIP;

VIPs

pi.,

viz.

V

practical

neck

V-necked

literally.)

voc.

virtuoso; pi., virtuosos or virtuosi

vocal cords

Malignance,

virulency

An

trunk.

vodka voice box or larynx

Gummy,

A

voila or voila

organ within one's body

place.

voile

worked on

vol.

in

it

is!"

very sheer fabric.

Abbreviation for

volume, volumes (also

vv.).

Abbreviation for volunteer;

voluntary.

vice.)

vol-au-vent

visual acuity vital signs

filled

Complex organic

French; a pastry shell

with fish or meat.

volition

vital statistics

vitamins

A

vol.; pi., vols.

type of tool used to hold

(Compare

French; an

exclamation meaning "here

(Compare viscous.) The

the object being

(As noun)

voice-over

sticky.

vise us.)

plural is viscera.

vise

shout, call out.

(Compare vituperate.)

Appearance.

viscus

To

vociferate

to.

Abbreviation for visual.

(Compare

occupation, career.

(Compare avocation.)

French; face to face, or

viscous or viscid

An

vocation

poisonousness.

visage

Abbreviation for

vocabulary.

virulence or

vis.

As noun. As adjective.

Abbreviation for vocative.

vocab.

virtual reality

compared

animate.

Abbreviation for videlicet,

purposes. (Compare figuratively,

vis-a-vis

by word of

Latin; orally,

"namely."

Zodiac Signs), all

abuse, berate.

To renew,

vivify

For

To

mouth.

Mary (see

Like glass.

viva voce

poet.

virgin wool

virtually

K.

make

(Compare vociferate.)

Greenish.

(70-19 B.C.) Roman

Virgo

G

(biotin),

impair, to

vituperate

Author of the Aeneid. Virgin

H

vitreous

viperous or viperish or viperine

Virgil

C, D, E,

(riboflavin),

To

(thiamine),

B2

,

ineffective.

very important person.

virescent

B

B, 2

(riboflavin),

vitiate

Abbreviation for

,

One's personal choice.

volleyball

substances found in most foods

Voltaire

244

(1694-1778) French

writer and satirist. Author of

Le

vortex; pi., vortices or vortexes

Siecle de Louis XIV.

whirlpool or whirlwind.

votary

volte-face or about-face

voluble

Talkative, or rolling.

volume

Capitalize

document voluminous full,

if

Enthusiast, devout

worshiper, or one bound by a

solemn

part of

(as religious)

Long and winding,

vouchsafe

vox populi

numerous.

To

grant a favor.

Latin, "the voice of

volunteer or voluntarist

the people," or a

voodoo

sentiment.

VOR

vow.

vote-getter or votegetter

title.

common

vroom

Abbreviation for very-high-

frequency omnidirectional radio

v.s.

Abbreviation for Latin vide

supra, "see above."

range.

245

w

in thin slabs for

making or

covering walls and ceilings.

w

wallflower

Abbreviations for water.

w. or aq.

wallpaper

Abbreviation for watt.

w. or wdt. or wth.

Wall Street

Abbreviations

wall-to-wall

for width.

w.

wampum

Abbreviations for with; within.

wanderlust

want ad

waffle iron

war

wage earner waggish

Capitalize only

if

part of

War Money accumulated

proper noun (e.g., World

Playful clowning,

war

mischievous.

wagon

Money, taken from

North American Indian usage.

wacko wading pool

chest

I).

to

fight a military or political

train

campaign.

wainscoting or wainscotting

Wood

lining or paneling

ward

on the

Capitalize only as part of a

proper

name

for a geographical or

walls of a room.

waist

The

part of the

between the

ribs

political division (e.g., the Fifth

body

Ward

ward).

war game war horse warhead Warhol, Andy

waistband waist-deep waistline

waiting

game

waiting

list

Pop

room waive To forgo, put off. wake, woke or waked Waldorf salad

A

salad

Art.

Known

paintings of

especially for his

Campbell soup cans.

warlock

warm-blooded

made with

warmed-over warmhearted

diced raw apples, celery, walnuts,

and mayonnaise.

As

(19287-1987)

American founder and leader of

waiting

walk-in

School, but the psychiatric

and the hips.

(Compare waste.)

warmonger warm-up As

adjective or noun.

noun.

walkie-talkie

warpath

walk-on

As noun. As noun. walkover As noun. An

warplane

walkout

warrantor or warranter

won

easily

warship

wartime

victory.

As noun.

walk-through

walk-up

As

war zone wash- Compounds formed

adjective or noun.

walkway wallboard

wash-

A

fibrous material

made

that are written as

with

one word

include washbasin, washboard,

246

washbowl, washcloth, washhouse,

water moccasin

washout (noun), washrag,

water-repellent or water-resistant

washroom, washstand, washtub,

watershed

was hup (noun).

wash-and-wear

As noun. As verb.

water ski

washed-up

water-ski

washing machine

water-skier

Washington, Booker T.

waterskiing

856- 1915) American educator.

Chosen

waterspout

and head the

watertight

a school

dedicated to the practical training

waterway waterworks

of African Americans.

WATS

to establish

Tuskegee

Institute,

Washington's Birthday

WASP or Wasp Saxon waste

White Anglo-

watt-hour

Waugh, Evelyn

use carelessly or throw

away without

regard.

Abbreviation for wide-area

telecommunications service.

Protestant.

To

area drained by a

affecting action or opinion.

washed-out

( 1

The

river, or a crucial turning point

(1903-1966)

English satirical novelist. Author

(Compare

of Brideshead Revisited.

wave band

waist.)

wastebasket

wavelength

wasteland

wax bean

wastepaper

waxed paper or wax paper waxwing A type of fruit-eating

wastewater or sewage

watchband

bird.

watchdog

-way

watchmaker watchtower

wayfarer waylay, waylaid

As adjective. ways and means way-out

with water- are written as two (e.g.,

roadway).

(e.g.,

watchword A password or slogan. water- Most compounds formed words

Most compounds formed

with -way are written as one word

water bed, water

watercolor

way station wayward

watercooler

wea. or wthr.

glass, water meter).

watercress

weak

waterfall

waterfowl;

Abbreviations for

weather.

pi.,

waterfowl

Not strong. (Compare

week.)

watering hole

weakhearted

waterline

weak-kneed

waterlogged

weakling

watermark

weak-minded

247

wear, wore

with well- are hyphenated (e.g.,

wear and tear

well-advised, well-appointed,

weather-beaten

well-being, well-bred, well-

weather bureau

conditioned, well-disposed, well-

map

weather

defined, well-done, well-founded,

weatherproof

well-groomed, well-informed,

weather station

well-intentioned, well-known,

As noun. As verb.

weather strip weather-strip

well-mannered, well-meaning, well-nigh, well-off, well-read,

weather vane

well-rounded, well-spoken, well-

Hyphenate as adjective meaning " skilled

weather-wise

taken, well-thought-of, well-timed, well-to-do, well-wisher, well-

in

predicting weather."

wishing, well-worn).

weave, wove or weaved

Wellington (boot) or Wellie

webfoot

wellspring

Webster, Daniel

(1

782- 1 852)

Welsh rabbit or Welsh rarebit

American lawyer and statesman.

welterweight

Served as U.S. senator from

werewolf;

Massachusetts and U.S. secretary

weskit

of

western omelet

state.

A

Wedgwood

pi.,

A

western saddle

trademark for a fine

English pottery depicting

westerner

neoclassical figures in relief

westernize

against a colored background.

wet bar wet blanket

wedlock

week

Capitalize only

if

wet dream

part of

proper noun (e.g., National Bike Safety Week).

wet

suit

As noun. As verb.

wet nurse

(Compare weak.)

weekday weekend

wet-nurse

weeknight

whacked-out

wh.

weeping willow

A

weevil

weigh-in

weight

upon

wharf;

As noun.

novelist.

whatever

A

whatnot

type of hunting dog

whatsoever

with a smooth, gray coat.

wheat bread

weirdos

wheat germ

welfare state well-

wharves or wharfs ( 1 862- 937)

Ethan Frome.

weimaraner

,

,

American

lifter

pi.

pi.

Wharton, Edith

weight-watcher

weirdo;

Abbreviation for which.

whaleboat

beetle that feeds

and grains.

fruits

werewolves

waistcoast or vest.

Most compounds formed

wheelbarrow

248

1

Author of

The distance

wheelbase

whirlpool bath

in inches

from the center of the hub of a motor vehicle's

front

whirlwind

wheel to the

A

whirlybird

center of the hub of the

corresponding back wheel.

whisk broom

wheelchair

whiskey or whisky;

wheeler-dealer or wheeler and

pi.,

whiskeys

or whiskies

dealer

whiskey sour

whenever

whistle-blower

whensoever

Whistler,

Compounds formed with

where-

slang term for a

helicopter.

McNeill

where- that are spelled as one

James Abbott ( 1 834- 1903) American

painter and etcher.

word include whereabouts or

white-

Most compounds formed

whereabout, whereat, whereas,

with white- are written as two

whereby, whereof, wherever,

words

wherefrom, wherein, whereinto, whereon, wheresoever,

white slave).

whereunto, whereupon, wherever,

whitecap

wherewith, wherewithal.

wherefor

adjective.

whitefish

wherefore.)

Whitehead, Alfred

Why. (Compare why.)

North

whew whey

As

white-collar

For which. (Compare

wherefore

(e.g., white hope, white

lightning, white flag, white sale,

(1861-1947) English

mathematician and philosopher.

Watery

part of milk.

white-hot

whichever or whichsoever

White House

The abbreviation is q.e. quod est). which see The abbreviation is

which

is

whitening or whiting

(for Latin,

quae

qq.v. (for Latin, q.v. (for Latin,

quod

white-tie

whitewash

vide).

whither

which was to be demonstrated is

Q.E.D.

quod

Where;

to

what place.

(Compare wither.)

The abbreviation

(for Latin,

As noun.

whiteout

vide) or

Whitman, Walt

erat

American

demonstrandum).

(1819-1892)

poet.

Author of Leaves

of Grass.

whimsy or whimsey whipcord

whiz or whizz

whiplash

whizbang

whippersnapper

whiz-bang

whipping boy

whiz kid

whippoorwill

whodunit or whodunnit

whipstitch

As noun.

As

adjective.

mystery.

whir or whin-

whoever or whosoever

249

A

murder

An

whole

entire entity.

(Compare

wildflower wildlife

hole.)

wholehearted

wild oats

As adverb or noun As adjective.

whole hog whole-hog

wild pitch wild rice willful or wilful

wholesaler

wholesome whole wheat

Williams, Tennessee

whole- wheat

As noun. As adjective.

wholly

entirely.

In

its

Named

Streetcar

(Compare

will not or

willpower

whoop-de-do or whoop-de-doo

willy-nilly

whoopee whooping cough whoopla whoosh

win,

whsle. or whol.

1

Desire.

won't

won wound wind- Many compounds formed with wind- are spelled as one

word

Abbreviations for

windbag, windblown,

(e.g.,

windbreaker, windburn, windchill,

wickerwork

windfall,

Compounds formed with

windjammer, windmill,

windpipe, windshield, windstorm,

-wide are written as one word

windswept).

windchill factor

(e.g., citywide).

wide-angle

wind chime

wide-awake

wide-open

window dressing windowpane window seat window shade

wide receiver

window-shop

widespread

windowsill

wide-eyed

widemouthed

wind sock or wind sleeve

wiener or weiner or wienie

German; a

schnitzel

breaded veal

open

cutlet.

Windsor

wildcat

( 1

854- 1 900)

show wind

tie

A

direction.

wide necktie

tied

a loose double bow.

in a risky

windup

business scheme.

Wilde, Oscar

long,

both ends and attached to

at

a mast to

One engaged

A

cloth, cone-shaped instrument

wigwam wildcatter

9 1 - 1 983)

wind,

wholesale.

Wiener

1

will-o'-the-wisp

holey, holy.)

whomever or whomsoever

•wide

(

American playwright. Author of A

As

wine cellar

Irish

poet and dramatist. Author of The

wine cooler

Importance of Being Earnest.

wineglass

wild-eyed

wine taster

wildfire

wingback

250

adjective and noun.

ii

wingding

woebegone

winglike

wok

wingspan

wing

A

bowl-shaped metal pan

used in Chinese cooking. wolf; pi., wolves

tip

winner's circle

wolf dog

winter or wintertime or wintertide

wolfhound

wintry or wintery

wolf pack

woman; pi, women woman's rights or women's rights women's liberation or women's lib wonder drug

As noun.

wipeout

wirehaired wiretap

wisdom tooth Compounds formed with

wonderland

-wise

-wise are written as one

wonder-worker

word

wood carving

(e.g., clockwise).

wiseacre

woodchopper

wisecrack

woodcut

wishbone

wood engraving

wishful thinking

woodland woodlot

wishy-washy wisteria or wistaria

shrub whose

A

woodpecker

vine or

fruit is clusters

woodpile

of

woodshed woodwind woodworking

blue, pink, purple, or white flowers.

witchcraft

woolen or woollen

witch doctor

A

witch hazel

Woolf, Virginia

disinfectant or

lotion used to soothe bruises

novelist

cuts.

witch-hunt

As noun

To droop

wither

woolgatherer

The abbreviation (espressivo) when used as

woolgathering woolly or wooly

woolly-headed

a musical direction. with-it

Worcestershire sauce

witness-box

word-association test

witness stand

wordbook word for word

wk.

Abbreviation for week.

wkg.

Abbreviation for working.

wkly.

Abbreviation for weekly.

wkr. w/o

Group"

Room

wool-gather

or shrivel.

with expression esp.

Author of A

One's Own.

or verb.

(Compare whither.)

is

(1882-1941)

English "Bloomsbury

and

word-for-word wordlist

wordmonger

Abbreviation for worker.

word-mongering

Abbreviations for without.

251

As As

adverb. adjective.

of

word of mouth word-of-mouth

As noun. As adjective.

would-be

would have or would 9 ve

wordplay

would not or wouldn't

word processor The abbreviation is WP. work- Compounds formed with

WP

Abbreviation for word

word processing.

processor,

wpm

Abbreviation for words per

work- that are written as one word

minute, for instance as a measure

include workaday, workaholic,

of typing speed.

,

A

workbag, workbasket, workbench,

wraith;

workbook, workday, workhorse,

workout (noun), workplace,

wraparound As adjective wrap-up As noun.

workroom, workshop,

wreak havoc

workstation, worktable, workup

wretch

Compounds word

or noun.

miserable person.

Wright, Frank Lloyd (1869-1959) American

of these combining forms are written as one

A

ghost.

(Compare retch.)

(noun), workweek.

-work, -worker

wraiths

pi.,

architect.

Founded and practiced "Prairie

(e.g.,

school" architecture

woodworker).

in

such

Water"

worker's compensation

buildings as "Falling

work work

Pennsylvania. Also built the

ethic

Guggenheim Museum

force

working

class

working-class

As noun. As adjective.

York

wristband wristwatch

work-study program

write-off

world-class

writer's block

worldly-wise

writer's

World Series World War; World War

write-up

write-in

I;

World

As noun. As noun.

cramp As noun.

wrongdoer wrongdoing

II

world-weary

wrongheaded

Perverse.

worldwide

wrought iron

A

worm-eaten

wormwood in

kind of iron

resistant to corrosion

A

used in

fences and gratings.

strong-smelling

wt. or wgt. or

plant that yields a bitter-tasting oil

used

New

City.

work load work of art

War

in

in

making absinthe.

P

Abbreviations for

weight.

wunderkind;

worn-out

pi.,

wunderkinder

worry beads

German;

worrywart

child," a child prodigy or a

worship, worshiped or worshipped

precocious talent.

252

literally,

"wonder

proper noun (e.g., International

Geophysical Year).

yearbook

X-C

Abbreviation for cross-

year-end

country.

year-round

X chromosome

Yeats, William Butler

x-coordinate

(1865-1939)

xenophobia

Irish poet

and

Fear or hatred of

people foreign to one's

playwright.

own

yech or yecch

An

interjection

used

culture. to express distate or repulsion.

xerography yellow jacket

Trade name of a type of

Xerox

yellow pages

photocopying machine. xi

or

XL

yest. or yday.

Abbreviation for

Abbreviations for extra yesterday.

large; extra long.

yesterday

Xmas

Variant for Christmas.

yesteryear

X-rated

X

x-ray or X-ray

XS

As

Abbreviation for Young

Men's Christian Association. verb.

yodel, yodeled or yodelled

As

X-ray xs or

YMCA

As noun.

ray

adjective.

yoga Abbreviations for extra

yogi or yogin

A

person

who

small.

xxl or

practices yoga.

XXL

Abbreviations for

yogurt or yoghurt

extra, extra large.

A

yoke xylophone

frame or bar for carrying a

(Compare yolk.)

load.

The yellow of an egg.

yolk

(Compare yoke.)

Yom

Kippur known

also

A

Jewish holy day

as the

yak or yack, yakked or yacked

yoo-hoo

Yankee or Yankee-Doodle

Yorkshire pudding

yard goods

Material sold by the

flour, eggs,

yard sale

Yorkshire terrier

yardstick

your

Y chromosome One who

you're

says

"yes"

batter of in the

possessive adjective

A

to

contraction of

are." (Compare your.)

to

anything.

yeah or yea

A

meaning "belonging

Abbreviations for yard.

yea-sayer

year

A

and milk baked

drippings of roasting meat.

yard.

yd. or y.

Day of

Atonement.

yacht club

yourself;/?/., yourselves

youth;

Variants for yes.

Capitalize only

if part

of

pi.,

yo-yo; pi.

255

,

youths yo-yos

you."

"you

Abbreviation for year.

yr.

The

yuletide or Yuletide

The Twins

May

Christmas season.

A

yuppie

20-May 20

Apr.

Gemini

Yule log

term derived from the

abbreviation for young, urban

The Crab

professional or young, upwardly

June 22-July 22

mobile professional.

YWCA

Leo The Lion

Abbreviation for Young

Women's

21 -June 21

Cancer

Christian Association.

July

23- Aug. 22

Virgo

The Virgin Aug. 23-Sept. 22

Libra zaftig or zoftig

Yiddish; plump,

The Scales

having an ample figure.

Sept. 23-Oct. 23

Zen

Scorpio

zero; pi., zeros or zeroes

A

zero gravity

The Scorpion

condition in which

Oct.

weightlessness occurs.

The time

zero hour

set for the

The Archer

beginning of a military operation; or,

Nov. 22-Dec. 21

any crucial moment.

zero-zero

24-Nov. 21

Sagittarius

Capricorn

Having weather

The Goat

conditions in which ceiling and

Dec. 22-Jan. 19 visibility are zero.

Aquarius

Zeus

The Water

zigzag, zigzagged zilch

Jan.

Zero, none.

A

zinfandel

dry, red wine

made

Pisces in

The Fishes

California.

zip code or

ZIP code

delivery number; the

A

Feb. 19-Mar. 20

postal

name

Zola, Emile

is

(1840-1902)

French naturalist writer. Author of

derived from the 1963 zone

Les Rougon-Macquart.

improvement plan.

zombie or zombi

ziti; pi., ziti

zone

Zodiac Signs

Capitalize only

if

part of a

proper noun (e.g., the Canal Zone

Aries

The

Carrier

20-Feb. 18

Ram

in

Panama).

zookeeper

Mar. 21 -Apr. 19

zoom

Taurus The Bull

lens

zoot suit

254

A

suit

with high-waisted

baggy trousers and a long, draped

"twice-baked," a sweet, toasted

coat.

bread.

zucchine;

zuppa

pi.

.

inglese

zucchini or zucchinis

zyg-, zygo-

Italian; literally

"English soup," a creamy rum-

yoke or

flavored dessert, a

word

zwieback

German;

Compounds of

this

combining form, which means

trifle.

literally,

255

pair, are written as

(e.g.,

zygomorphic).

one

2 DESCRIPTION

ACADEMIC DEGREES AND TITLES

Bachelor of Arts or B.A. or A.B. (artium baccalaureus)

Bachelor of Chemical Engineering

Academic degrees

are often

or B.C.E. or B.Ch.E.

abbreviated, and always capitalized

and

set off

Bachelor of Divinity or B.D. or

with a

D.B.

comma, when used following a person's name. The abbreviation is

Bachelor of Engineering or B.E.

Hope, M.S.W.).

or B. Engr.

a degree

referred to

is

Bachelor of Fine Arts or B.F.A.

generally (e.g., bachelor's degree,

Bachelor of Letters or B.L. or

master's degree, doctorate) , the

B.Lit. or B.Litt. or Lit.B. or

terms are not capitalized.

The

rules for

Litt.B.

academic degrees

Bachelor of Literature or B.Lit. or

also apply to professional ratings,

B.Litt. or Lit.B.

except that abbreviations of three or more

letters are written with

An academic a

title is

used as a formal

MB.

name

(e.g.,

B.M.E. or B.M.Ed.

preceding

Bachelor of Philosophy or B.Ph.

Chairman Reinhard

R. K. Hartmann) and abbreviated.

Bachelor of Music Education or

capitalized

title

A

title is

may

or B.Phil, or Ph.B.

be

(philosophiae baccalaureus)

spelled out

Bachelor of Sacred Theology or

and lowercased when used as a

STB.

modifier (e.g., linguistics

Bachelor of Science

Ann Kipfer). are some

professor Barbara

titles

and

in

Nursing or

B.Sc.N. or B.S.N.

The following commonly encountered degrees and

or Litt.B.

Bachelor of Medicine or B.M. or

no

punctuation, (e.g., CPA).

if

baccalaureus)

B.Ed, or Ed.B.

punctuated (e.g., Barbara

When

(divinitatis

Bachelor of Education or B.E. or

Bachelor of Science or B.S. or B.Sc. or S.B. or Sc.B.

their abbreviations:

dean Doctor of or D.

Assistant Professor or Asst. Prof.

Doctor of Arts or D.A.

Associate in or A.

Doctor of Chiropractic or B.C.

Associate in Applied Science or

Doctor of Dental Medicine or

A.A.S.

D.M.D.

Associate in Arts or A. A. Associate in Science or

Doctor of Dental Science or

AS.

D.D.S. or D.D.Sc.

associate professor or Assoc.

Doctor of Dental Surgery or

Prof,

D.D.S.

baccalaureate

Doctor of Divinity or D.D.

Bachelor in or B.

(divinitatis doctor)

Bachelor of Arts in Education or

Doctor of Education or D.Ed, or

B.A.E. or B.A.Ed.

Ed.D.

259

Academic Decrees/Titles

Doctor of

Humane

Master of Science or M.S. or

Letters or

M.Sc. or Sc.M or S.M.

L.H.D.

Master of Social

Doctor of Humanities or D.H. or

Work or M.S. W.

Master of Theology or M.Th. or

H.H.D. or L.H.D. (litterarum humaniorum doctor)

Th.M. Ph.D. or doctorate.

Doctor of Juridical Science or J.S.D. or D.J.S. or S.J.D. or

Professor (Prof.)

D.Jur.Sc.

Professor Emeritus

Doctor of Jurisprudence or D.J.

ADDRESSES

or D.Jur. or J.D. (jwrfo doctor)

Doctor of Laws or Dr.LL. or J.D. Post office designations and

or LL.D. (legum doctor)

their abbreviations for street

Doctor of Letters or D.Lit. or

addresses are: Alley (Aly), Arcade

D.Litt. or Lit.D. or Litt.D.

(Arc),

(litterarum doctor)

Avenue (Ave), Boulevard

(Blvd), Branch (Br), Bypass

Doctor of Medicine or M.D.

(Byp), Causeway (Cswy), Center

Doctor of Music or Mus.D.

(Ctr), Circle (Cir),

Doctor of Optometry or O.D. or

Court (Ct),

Crescent (Cres), Drive (Dr),

Opt.D.

Expressway (Expy), Extension

Doctor of Osteopathy or D.O.

(Ext),

Doctor of Pharmacy or Phar.D. or

Freeway (Fwy), Gardens

(Gdns);

Pharm.D.

Grove (Grv), Heights (Hts), Highway (Hwy), Lane (Ln), Manor (Mnr), Place (PI), Plaza (Plz), Point (Pt), Road (Rd),

Doctor of Philosophy or D. Ph. or D.Phil, or Ph.D. (philosophiae

doctor)

Doctor of Psychology or Psy.D.

Rural (R), Square (Sq), Street

Doctor of Public Health or

(St),

D.P.H. or Dr.P.H. Doctor of Science or D.S. or

Vista (Vis).

D.Sc. or Sc.D. or S.D.

Compass points are when they come after

Doctor of Veterinary Medicine or

D.V.M. or V.M.D. Juris

Doctor or J.D.

in

abbreviated

names Hawthorne Blvd. SW), but written out when used street

(e.g.,

are

Master of or M. Master of Arts

Terrace (Ter), Trail (Trl),

Turnpike (Tpke), Viaduct (Via),

internally in an address (e.g.,

Education or

South Allen

M.A.E. or M.A.Ed. Master of Arts or A.M. or M. A.

St.).

AIRCRAFT NAMES

(artium magister)

Master of Business Administration or

Capitalize

MBA.

(e.g.,

Master of Education or Ed. M. or

and hyphenate between

M.Ed.

Addresses

names of planes

Air Force One, Boeing 747,

numbers

260

(e.g.,

letters

and

DC-W, L10U).

Department of Transportation

formed by adding an names of aircraft that end with a number (e.g., Boeing Plurals are

(DOT)

s to

707s);

by adding

end with a

's to

Department of the Treasury

those that

COMPANIES

CSA's).

letter (e.g.,

The names of companies and

ARABIC NUMERALS

other institutions are capitalized

Numbers formed using

the

and spelled out as proper nouns.

symbols 0, 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8, 9. Used except for sequence of

used for company (Co.),

wars or family descendants, which

corporation (Corp.), incorporated

use

Roman

Abbreviations are sometimes

numerals.

and so

(Inc.), limited (Ltd.),

forth.

AUTOMOBILES Capitalize brand

Mazda

Company names names

should be

styled as they appear (e.g.,

on

documents or company

official

letterhead.

Miata); lowercase generic

references (e.g., a

Montero

Firms that capitalize the as the jeep). first

CABINET OF THE UNITED STATES Capitalize

therefore fall alphabetically under

T

in the following listing:

names of cabinet

A&P

departments serving a head of state (e.g.,

word of their official name The Frankin Mint) may

(e.g.,

Department of

&

Pacific

Inc.)

A& W Restaurants AAMCO Transmissions

Defense, the State Department).

The departments of

(Great Atlantic

Tea Company

the U.S.

cabinet are:

Incorporated

Abbott Laboratories

Adolph Coors Company

Department of Agriculture

(USDA)

Aer Lingus

Department of Commerce Department of Defense

Aeroflot

(DOD)

AeroMexico Aetna Life and Casualty Company

Department of Education Department of Energy (DOE)

Department of Health and

Air Canada

Human

Air France

Services

Air-India

Department of Housing and Urban

Air Jamaica

Development (HUD) Department of the Interior

Alberto-Culver

Department of Justice

Alitalia Airlines

Department of Labor

Allied-Signal Incorporated

Department of State

Allis-Chalmers Corporation

Company

Alco Standard Corporation

261

Companies

Company

Allstate Insurance

Avianca-Colombian Airlines

(a

Avon

Roebuck

subsidiary of Sears,

Aluminum Company of America or

ALCOA

Amax

Ameritech, Bell Atlantic, Bell South,

Incorporated

American

Products, Incorporated

Baby Bells or Bell Operating Companies (They are

and Company)

AMR

of

(a subsidiary

NYNEX,

Pacific

Telesis, Southwestern Bell, and

Airlines, Incorporated

US

West.)

Baker Hughes Incorporated

Corporation)

American Brands, Incorporated

BankAmenca Corporation

American Cyanamid Company

Bantam Doubleday

American Express Company

BASF

American Financial Corporation American

Home

Baskin-Robbins Incorporated

International

Bausch

Group,

American Stores Company American Telephone

&

Bayer

AT&T

Company or

subsidiary of Beatrice

Company)

American

and

is

Company)

the rail

by the National

Bell

Bergdorf

Apple Computer, Incorporated

Goodman

(a subsidiary of

Incorporated

Neiman

Marcus)

Arby's Incorporated

Company

Bergen Brunswig Corporation Berkshire Hathaway Incorporated

Incorporated

Armstrong World Industries

Bethlehem Steel Corporation Bic Corporation

Incorporated

Big Boy Family Restaurants

Asarco Incorporated

Group Incorporated

Black

Ventures Enterprises

Decker Corporation

&

Blue Shield

Association

Boise Cascade Corporation

Incorporated) Atlantic Richfield

&

Blue Cross

(a subsidiary of General Sports

Company or

Bonanza Restaurants

Arco

Companies

Howell Company

Bell South Corporation

Incorporated

Athlete's Foot

&

Bell Atlantic Corporation

Anheuser-Busch Companies,

Archer-Daniels-Midland

(a

subsidiary of Raytheon

Railroad Passenger Corporation)

Armco

Company

Beech Aircraft Corporation

(stands for

line operated

&

Becton, Dickinson

Corporation

AMR Corporation travel by track

AG

Beatrice/Hunt- Wesson Foods (a

Telegraph

Ameritech Corporation

Amtrak

& Lomb

Baxter International Incorporated

Incorporated

Amoco

Corporation (a subsidiary

of Basfin Corporation)

Products

Corporation

American

Dell

Publishing Group, Inc.

Borden, Incorporated

262

Bristol-Myers Squibb British

Airways

Company

Holdings, Incorporated)

PLC

Consolidated Edison

New

British Broadcasting Corporation

or

CIGNA

(a subsidiary of

Borg- Warner Corporation

Company of

York, Incorporated or Con

Ed or Con Edison

BBC Company

British Petroleum

Consolidated Rail Corporation or

p. I.e.

Conrail

Budget Rent-A-Car Corporation Burlington Holdings Incorporated

Continental Airlines Holdings

Campbell Soup Company Campeau Corporation

Control Data Corporation

Incorporated

Corning Incorporated

Capital Cities/ABC Incorporated

Carson

Pirie Scott

&

Company

Cosmair, Incorporated

Carvel Corporation

CSX

Caterpillar Incorporated

Cummins Engine Company,

CBS

Incorporated

Incorporated

Dairy Queen

Century 21 Real Estate

Dayton-Hudson Corporation

Corporation

Champion

Corporation

Deere

International

&

Company

Delta Air Lines, Incorporated

Corporation

Chem-Dry Cleaning

Diet Center Incorporated

Chevron Corporation

Digital

Chrysler Corporation

Diners Club

Church's Fried Chicken,

Dollar Rent

Incorporated (a subsidiary of A.

Equipment Corporation

A

Car Systems

Incorporated

Copland Enterprises

Dominion Resources, Incorporated

Incorporated)

Domino's Pizza Incorporated

CIGNA

Dow

Corporation

Citibank N.A.

City University of

New York

Company,

Dr Pepper/Seven-Up Company

or

CUNY

Dunkin' Donuts Incorporated

Eastman Kodak Company

Company

Colgate-Palmolive

Communications

Company

Eaton Corporation

Econo-Lodges of America

Satellite

Corporation or Comsat

Compaq Computer

Incorporated

Corporation

CompuServe Incorporated subsidiary of

&

Dresser Industries, Incorporated

Citicorp

Clorox

Jones

Incorporated

H&R

E.I.

du Pont de Nemours

&

Company

(a

El Al Israel Airlines

Block,

Incorporated)

ComputerLand Corporation ConAgra, Incorporated

Eli Lilly

and Company

Emerson

Electric

Company

Equitable Life Assurance Society

Connecticut General Corporation

of the United States

265

Companies

ESPN

Hartmarx Corporation

Incorporated

Exxon Corporation

Hasbro, Incorporated

Faberg, Incorporated

Hershey Foods Corporation Hewlett-Packard

Federal Deposite Insurance

FDIC

Corporation or

H.

Fieldcrest

Mae

subsidiary of Hoechst

(a

AG)

Holiday Inns, Incorporated (a

Cannon, Incorporated

subsidiary of Bass

Fleming Companies, Incorporated

Home Box

Fluor Corporation

Ford Motor

Company

Heinz Company

Hoechst Celanese Corporation

Federal National Mortgage

Association or Fannie

J.

PLC)

Office Incorporated

Honda Motor Company,

Company

Ltd.

Honeywell Incorporated

Fruehauf Trailer Operations (a subsidiary of Terex

Hospital Corporation of America

Corporation)

Houghton Mifflin Company

Loom, Gannett Company, Fruit of the

Incorporated

Hyundai Group

Incorporated

Icelandair

Genentech, Incorporated (a subsidiary of

Ingersoll-Rand

Roche Holdings

Incorporated

Incorporated)

General Dynamics Corporation

General Electric

Company

Inland Steel Industries,

Company or

International Business

GE

Corporation or

General Mills, Incorporated

International Paper

General Motors Corporation or

ITT Corporation

GMC

Virginia

Company

Jazzercise Incorporated

Grand Metropolitan Great Atlantic

Company

&

PLC

Pacific

J.C. Penney

Tea

Incorporated or

Grumman

Company,

Incorporated

A&P

Jiffy

Greyhound Dial Corporation

GTE

Company

James River Corporation of

Georgia-Pacific Corporation Gillette

Machines

IBM

Lube

International

Incorporated

John Hancock Mutual Life

Corporation

Corporation (formerly the

Insurance

Company

General Telephone and

Johns Hopkins University

Electronics Corporation)

Johnson

Halliburton

Company

Hallmark Cards Incorporated

J.

Hammacher Schlemmer

H&R

Johnson

P.

Morgan

&

Company

Incorporated

Block, Incorporated

Kellogg

Company

Kellwood Company

Harcourt Brace Jovanovich,

Kentucky Fried Chicken

Incorporated

Hardee's Food Systems

Corporation (a subsidiary of

Pepsico Incorporated)

Incorporated

Harley -Davidson, Incorporated

Companies

&

Johnson Controls Incorporated

Kimberly-Clark Corporation

264

KLM K

Meineke Discount Muffler Shops

Royal Dutch Airlines

Incorporated

mart Corporation

Knight-Ridder, Incorporated

Merck

Kwik-Kopy Corporation

Merrill

Incorporated

Lafarge Corporation

La-Z-Boy Chair Company

Metropolitan Life Insurance

Company

Caesar* s Enterprises

Little

& Company Incorporated Lynch & Company,

Midas

Incorporated

International Corporation

Minuteman Press

Litton Industries, Incorporated

International

Incorporated

Liz Claiborne, Incorporated

Lloyd's Bank Pic

Mister Donut of America

Lloyd's of London

Mobil Corporation

Lockheed Corporation

Monsanto Company

Loews Corporation

Morgan Stanley Group

& Taylor (a subsidiary of

Lord

Incorporated

The May Department Stores Company)

LTV

Motorola, Incorporated

Mutual Broadcasting System Incorporated (a subsidiary of

Corporation

Lufthansa

Mack

German

Westwood One,

Airlines

Incorporated)

Nabisco Brands, Incorporated (a

Trucks, Incorporated

Mail Boxes Etc.

subsidiary of

Manpower PLC

Incorporated)

Manufacturers Hanover

RJR

Nabisco,

National Broadcasting

Corporation

Company,

Incorporated (a subsidiary of

General Electric Company) or

Manville Corporation

NBC

Marine Midland Banks, Incorporated

National Steel Corporation

Mars Stores, Incorporated

Navistar International Corporation

Martin Marietta Corporation

NCR

Massachusetts Institute of

Neiman Marcus (a subsidiary of General Cinema Corporation) New York Life Insurance

Technology or

MIT

Mattel Incorporated

Mazda Motor Corporation

MCA

Company North American Philips

Incorporated

McDonald's Corporation

Corporation

McDonnell Douglas Corporation McGraw-Hill, Incorporated

MCI

Northrop Corporation Northwestern Mutual Life

Telecommunications

Insurance

Corporation

Company

Nutri/System, Incorporated

NWA Incorporated (a subsidiary

McKesson Corporation Mead Data Central, Incorporated (a subsidiary of

Corporation

of the Alfred Checci Group)

NYNEX

The Mead

Corporation)

Corporation

Occidental Petroleum Corporation

265

Companies

Olsten Corporation

Realty World /Metro

Hour Martinizing Dry Cleaners Orange Julius of America

Reebok

1

RE /MAX

Reuters Holdings P.L.C.

Owens-Corning Fiberglas

Revlon Group Incorporated

Corporation

Group

Pacific Telesis

Am

subsidiary of the

&

Corporation

USA

Bailey

Rite

Incorporated

Rockwell International

Petroleum

Company

Corporation

Heusen Corporation

Company

Roto-Rooter, Incorporated (a

Chemed

subsidiary of

(a subsidiary

of Gramet Holdings

Corporation)

Royal Dutch /Shell Group

Corporation)

PIP Printing Corporation

Bowes

Aid Corporation

RJR Nabisco

Companies

Incorporated

Pitney

R.R. Donnelly

&

Sons Company

Rubbermaid Incorporated

Incorporated

Polaroid Corporation

Ryder System, Incorporated

Popeye's Famous Fried Chicken

Saatchi

&

&

Incorporated)

Dodge Corporation

Pillsbury

Inc.

Kenneth Feld Productions,

Pfizer Incorporated

Phillips

&

Combined Shows,

(a subsidiary of Irvin Feld

Pepsico, Incorporated

Phillips- Van

Company,

Ringling Brothers-Barnum

Incorporated)

Company

Philip Morris

&

Incorporated

Pearle, Incorporated (a subsidiary

Phelps

Forbes Group, Incorporated)

R.H. Macy

Incorporated

Parker Hannifin Corporation

of Grandmet

(a

MacAndrews

Reynolds Metals Company

Paramount Communications

Pennzoil

International

Incorporated

Outboard Marine Corporation

Pan

Group

International Ltd.

&

Saatchi

Company

p. I.e.

Biscuits Incorporated

Sabena Belgian World Airlines

Industries, Incorporated

Safeway Incorporated

Premark International Incorporated

Salomon Incorporated

PPG

Procter

&

Gamble Company

Sara Lee Corporation

Scandinavian Airlines System or

Public Broadcasting Service or

PBS

SAS

Qantas Airways

Schering-Plough Corporation

Quaker Oats Company

Scott Paper

Ralston Purina

Ramada of

Company

Sears,

ServiceMaster Limited Partnership

Incorporated (a subsidiary

New World

Hotels [USA],

7-Eleven Stores

Incorporated)

RAND

Shell Oil

Corporation

Company

(a subsidiary

of Shell Petroleum

Raytheon Company

Companies

Company

Roebuck and Company

Incorporated)

266

Sherwin-Williams

The Henley Group, Incorporated The Hertz Corporation (a

Company

Sir Speedy, Incorporated (a

subsidiary of

KOA

subsidiary of Park Ridge

Holdings

Corporation)

Corporation)

The Kroger Company The Leslie Fay Companies

Sizzler Restaurants International

Incorporated (a subsidiary of

subsidiary of

Collins Foods International

Corporation & Goldome) The May Department Stores

Incorporated)

SmithKline Beecham

p. I.e.

Company

Southland Corporation

The Mead Corporation The New York Times Company The Prudential Insurance

Southwestern Bell Corporation

Subaru of America, Incorporated

Heavy

(a subsidiary of Fuji

Company of America The Seagram Company Ltd. The Stanley Works The Stride Rite Corporation The Stroh Brewery Company subsidiary of The Stroh

Industries, Incorporated)

Subway World Headquarters Super 8 Motels Incorporated Super Valu Stores, Incorporated Swissair Transport

Company

Ltd.

Sysco Corporation

Taco Bell Corporation

Companies, Incorporated)

Enterprises Incorporated

Teachers Insurance

&

(a

The Times Mirror Company The Travelers Corporation The Walt Disney Company

Tandy Corporation

TCBY

(a

New LEFCO

Annuity

3M Company

Association of America

Mining

Textronix, Incorporated

&

or Minnesota

Manufacturing

Company

Teledyne, Incorporated

Tennecc Incorporated

Thrifty Rent-A-Car System,

Texaco Incorporated

Incorporated (a subsidiary of

Texas Instruments Incorporated

Chrysler Motors Corporation)

Textron Incorporated

Time Warner Incorporated

The Associated Press or AP The Atchison Topeka and Santa

Tootsie Roll Industries, Incorporated

Fe Railway Company

Toys

The B.F. Goodrich Company The Boeing Company

51

Us Incorporated

Trans World Airlines or

Tribune

The Chase Manhattan Corporation The Coca-Cola Company The Dow Chemical Company The Dun & Bradstreet Corporation The Franklin Mint The Goodyear Tire & Rubber

Company

TWA

TRW

Incorporated

20th Century Fox

UAL

Corporation

Unilever United States, Incorporated

Union Carbide Corporation

Company

Union

267

Pacific Corporation

Companies

Uniroyal Goodrich Tire

&

W.R. Grace

Company

Company

Xerox Corporation

Unisys Corporation

&

Young

United Parcel Service of America,

Rubicam Incorporated

Zenith Electronics Corporation

Incorporated

United Press International or UPI

COURTESY TITLES

United Technologies Corporation

United Telecommunications,

These include Ms., Miss,

Incorporated

Mrs.

Unocal Corporation

USAIR Group

US

Mr.

the preferred form of

women,

equivalent to

men. Miss, the

for

title

traditional

for unmarried

women, should no longer be used it is the known preference

unless

Corporation

of a specific individual. Girls and

Volkswagen A.G.

young women may

Waldenbook Company

also be

addressed as Ms.

Incorporated

Mrs.

Walgreen Company

Wal-Mart Stores, Incorporated

title

is

the traditional courtesy

women. Unless

for married

(a

an individual's preference

subsidiary of Walton

is

known, use Ms.

Enterprises, Incorporated)

Wang

is

courtesy

Corporation

West, Incorporated

USX

and Mr.

address for

Incorporated (owns

USAir)

USF&G

,

Ms.

Upjohn Company

A

courtesy

title is

dropped

if

Laboratories, Incorporated

another

Warnaco Incorporated

title,

such as Jr. or an

academic degree,

is

used.

Warner-Lambert Company

Waste Management, Incorporated Weight Watchers

FORMAL TITLES

International

Incorporated (a subsidiary of H.J. Heinz

Wells Fargo

Wendy's

Military, nobility,

Company)

organizational, religious, and

& Company

other formal designations of

International

position are capitalized

Incorporated

as a

Westinghouse Electric Corporation

title

But when used

West Point-Pepperell,

is,

Incorporated

when used

before a person's name. in apposition

along with the

name

in

American president Thomas

Weyerhaeuser Company

Jefferson or

Whirlpool Corporation

staff), the title is

Jr.

Company

off by

Incorporated

Titles

Miller, chief of

lowercased.

acknowledgment or introduction, a title following a name and set

Industries,

Woolworth Company

Zourtesy

Ann

In formal usage, as in an

Winn-Dixie Stores, Incorporated

Winnebago

that

explanatory sense (e.g., the

Wetterau Incorporated

William Wrigley



an

commas

(e.g., /

268

is

capitalized

wish to thank R.R.K.

Hartmann, Professor of

capitalized

Linguistics, University of Exeter).

nouns or

Titles

used

in direct

is

as proper

an address (e.g., the

Washington Monument, Prospect

address are

also capitalized (e.g.,

when used

in

Your table

Park).

Popular and legendary names of

ready, Professor).

Windy

places are capitalized (e.g.,

FRATERNAL ORGANIZATIONS

City, or the Street for

Wall

Street).

Capitalize the proper nouns

Compass

points and directions

referring to fraternal

are capitalized

organizations, service clubs, and

a specific region (e.g., the

their

members

(e.g.,

American

when they

American South) or are

Legion, Legionnaire, Kiwanis

refer to

part of an

address. But a descriptive term

Club, Kiwanian).

used to denote direction or position

GEOGRAPHIC TERMS

is

not a proper noun and

is

not capitalized (e.g., western

Connecticut). Derivative nouns

Words or phrases

that identify

and adjectives of compass points

distinct areas, regions, places,

that refer to a particular region are

divisions, or districts of continents

usually capitalized (e.g., the

and countries are capitalized when

Western Hemisphere).

used as proper nouns or in an

Words or phrases

that designate

address. Derivatives are also political divisions are capitalized

capitalized.

Other guidelines

when used

State, Third

geographic features are

The word Saint

See Appendix 7 for resident names, and

state

Appendix 5

for a listing of nations with their capitals

and resident names.

Names of

countries are usually

abbreviated only in closely set

geographical place (e.g., the

rivers)

often

abbreviations, capitals, and

names of more than one

Ohio

is

(e.g., St. Louis).

terms used in the plural following

Allegheny, Monongahela,

Congressional

abbreviated in geographic names

as part of a

proper noun (e.g., Pacific Ocean, Hudson River). Generic terms are also capitalized when preceding a proper noun (e.g., Lakes Michigan and Huron). Generic

the

in

District).

capitalized, including generic

when used

nouns or

an address (e.g., Washington

rivers,

oceans, islands, and other

terms

as proper

are:

Names of mountains,

material such as tables, but United

and

and generic terms

States

used alone are lowercased.

is

often abbreviated

when

used as an adjective (e.g., U.S.

Buildings, public places (as

military action). Countries

monuments, parks, landmarks), and names of streets are

whose

abbreviations are formed by the initial letters

269

of the constituent

Geographic Terms

words may be unpunctuated

Way

Appian

(e.g.,

Appomattox, Virginia

USA).

The following

list is

Arc de Triomphe

an

extensive sampling of place

Arctic Circle

names:

Arctic

Ocean

Arlington National Cemetery

Aberdeen, Scotland

Armenia

Abidjan, Ivory Coast

Abu Dhabi, United Arab

Aruba Emirates

Asia Minor

Acapulco de Juarez, Mexico

Atchison, Kansas

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Athabasca, Canada

Adelaide, Australia

Athens, Greece

Adirondack Mountains

New

Atlantic City,

Adriatic Sea

Atlantic

Aegean Sea

Auckland,

Afghanistan

Jersey

Ocean

New

Zealand

Auschwitz, Poland

Ahmedabad, Akron, Ohio

India

Avenue of Avenue

Alamo

the Americas or Sixth

Azores

Albania Alberta

A

Baghdad, Iraq

Canadian province.

Albuquerque,

Baku, Azerbaijan

New Mexico

Balkans or Balkan States

Aleutian Islands

in southeastern

Algeria

Europe:

Romania, Bulgaria, Greece,

Allegany County, Maryland Allegany County,

Albania, the former Yugoslavia,

New York

and part of Turkey.

Alleghany County, Virginia

Nations on the

Baltic States

Allegheny Mountains

eastern coast of the Baltic Sea:

Amarillo, Texas

Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia.

Amazon River Amman, Jordan

Baltimore, Maryland

Amsterdam, the Netherlands Andes Mountains

Bandung, Indonesia

Andorra

Bangkok, Thailand

Anguilla

Bangladesh

Ankara, Turkey

Barbados

Antarctica, Antarctic Ocean,

Barcelona, Spain

Bangalore, India

Barranquilla,

Antarctic Circle

Colombia

Antigua and Barbuda

Beijing, China

Antigua, Guatemala

Beirut,

Formerly Peking.

Lebanon

Appalachia

Belgrade, Yugoslavia

Appalachian Mountains

Belize

Geographic Terms

The

nations on the Balkan Peninsula

Alexandria, Egypt

270

between the southern end of

Belo Horizonte, Brazil Refers to the economic

Benelux

Florida to the northern part of

union formed in 1947

South America, including

comprising Belgium, the

Antigua and Barbuda, the

Bahamas, Barbados, Belize,

Netherlands, and Luxembourg.

Cuba, Dominican Republic,

Bering Sea Berlin,

Germany

French Guinea, Grenada,

Bern, Switzerland

(Grenadines), Guyana, Haiti,

Birmingham, England

Jamaica, (Montserrat), (Puerto

Bogalusa, Louisiana

Rico), St. Kitts and Nevis,

Bogota, Colombia

Suriname, Trinidad and

Bombay,

Tobago, (West Indies

India

Bophuthatswana

Casablanca, Morocco

Botswana

Casper,

Brainerd, Minnesota

Central America

Columbia

A

Canadian

The region

including Belize, Costa Rica, El

Salvador, Guatemala,

province.

Honduras, Nicaragua, and

British Virgin Islands

Brussels,

Wyoming

between Mexico and Colombia

Brisbane, Australia British

Panama.

Belgium

Romania Buckhannon, West Virginia Budapest, Hungary

Champaign,

Buenos Aires, Argentina

Charleston,

Cairo, "Egypt

Chattanooga, Tennessee

Calcutta, India

Chicago,

Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Chicopee, Massachusetts

Colombia Cambodia or Kampuchea Cameroon Canal Zone or Panama Canal Zone

Chile

Cannes, France

Chungking, China

Bucharest,

Charleston, South Carolina

Chittagong, Bangladesh

Christmas Island

Cincinnati,

Ohio

Cleveland, Ohio

Cocos (or Keeling) Islands Cologne, West Germany

F.

Congo River Continental Divide

Caracas, Venezuela

The

watershed of North America

Caribbean Sea

The ocean

Ohio

China

Scotia,

Canada Cape Canaveral or the John Kennedy Space Center Cape Town, South Africa

West Virginia

Illinois

Chillicothe,

Canton, China

Cape Breton, Nova

Illinois

Champs-Elysees

Cali,

Caribbean

islands).

formed by the

crests of the

Rocky Mountains.

islands

271

Geographic Terms

Eastern Hemisphere

Copenhagen, Denmark

The Chesapeake Bay region of Maryland,

Eastern Shore

Corsica Corvallis,

Oregon

Virginia, and Delaware.

Costa Rica Court of

Africa,

Asia, Australia, and Europe.

C6rdoba, Argentina

James's or

St.

James's Palace

The

East

St.

Germany or German

Democratic Republic

royal

Now

court of Britain.

incorporated in united

Germany.

Curasao

East North Central states

Dairy Belt

Dakar, Senegal

Indiana, Illinois, Michigan,

Dallas, Texas

Ohio, and Wisconsin. East South Central states

Damascus, Syria

Alabama, Kentucky,

Dardanelles

Dark Continent Africa

as such by Europeans because

was

Mississippi, and Tennessee.

Described

Edinburgh, Scotland

it

Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

largely uncharted until late

Eglin Air Force Base

in the 19th century.

Dayton, Ohio

El Salvador

Deep South

Central American

country whose capital

Deauville, France

The region of

United States encompassing

Elkhart, Indiana

Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi,

England

and South Carolina, sometimes

Essen,

also used to

mean

is

San

Salvador.

the

Germany

Euphrates River

the entire

southeast including Florida and

Faeroe Islands

Louisiana.

Faneuil Hall

Part of

Denmark.

In Boston

Massachusetts.

Delhi, India

Des Moines, Iowa Detroit, Michigan

The easternmost

Far East Asia:

part of

Burma, Cambodia, China,

Dhaka, Bangladesh

Hong Kong,

Dien Bien Phu, Vietnam

Laos, Malaysia, North Korea,

District of

Columbia (D.C.)

Indonesia, Japan,

Philippines, Siberia, South

Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam.

Djibouti or Jibuti

Djkarta or Jakarta, Indonesia

Fiji Islands

Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine

Florida

Donetsk, Ukraine

Flushing Meadows,

Down Under The Australia New Zealand area.

and

Keys

Fort Lauderdale, Florida

Dresden, Germany

Fort

Dublin, Ireland

Frankfort, Kentucky

Duluth, Minnesota

Frankfurt,

Dusseldorf

,

Germany

Geographic Terms

New York

Fontainebleau, France

Wayne, Indiana West Germany

Fredericksburg, Virginia

111

Hattiesburg, Mississippi

Fribourg, Switzerland Fuji or

Havana, Cuba

Fujiyama or Mount Fuji or

Maui, Molokai, Niihau, and

Part of

Galapagos Islands

Oahu.

Ecuador.

Genoa,

Himalaya Mountains

Turkey

Hiroshima, Japan

Italy

West

Gloucester, Massachusetts

Gorky, Russia

Ho

Governors Island, Massachusetts

Hollywood

New York

Honolulu, Hawaii

Houston, Texas

Lake Superior,

Hyannis Port, Massachusetts

and Lake Ontario.

The region of

Great Plains

Hyderabad, Pakistan Indianapolis, Indiana

the

United States from North

Indochina

Dakota south to Texas and from

Istanbul,

Rocky Mountains.

Turkey

Formerly called

Constantinople. In

New York

city in

Mexico; a

Greenwich Village

Cambodia, Laos, and

Vietnam.

the Missouri River west to the

Jerusalem

Johannesburg, South Africa

City.

Guadalajara

A

John F. Kennedy Space Center

At Cape Canaveral, Florida.

province in Spain.

Guadalupe, Mexico

Kanpur, India

Guadeloupe, West Indies

Kansas City

Guam

in

The name of

Karachi, Pakistan

Guatemala City, Guatemala

Ketchikan, Alaska

Guayaquil, Ecuador

Kharkov, Ukraine

The region of South

Kiev, Ukraine

America including Surinam,

Kinshasa, Zaire

Guyana, French Guiana, and

Kobe, Japan

parts of Brazil

Hague (The),

cities

Kansas and Missouri.

Guantanamo, Cuba

Guiana

Los Angeles,

Hong Kong

Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, Erie,

Part of

Holy See, Vatican City

England, Scotland,

and Wales.

Lake

Chi Minh City, Vietnam

California.

Grand Rapids, Michigan Great Britain

island in the

Indies comprised of Haiti

and the Dominican Republic.

Gloucestershire, England

Governors Island,

The

Hispaniola

Glasgow, Scotland

Great Lakes

islands are Hawaii,

Kahoolawe, Kauai, Lanai,

Fukuoka, Japan

Gallipoli,

Main

Hawaii

Fuji-no-Yama

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

and Venezuela.

Kuibyshev, Russia

the Netherlands

Haifa, Israel

Kuril Islands

Hamburg, Germany

Kuwait

Harbin, China

Labrador, Newfoundland, Canada

275

Geographic Terms

La Guardia Airport York City.

In

New

Madras, India Madrid, Spain

Lagos, Nigeria

Majorca, Spain

Lahore, Pakistan

Maldive Islands

La

Managua, Nicaragua

Jolla, California

New

La Paz, Bolivia

Manasquan,

La

Manila, Philippines

Porte, Indiana

Latin

America

The region

New

Maritimes

Brunswick,

Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island, provinces

where

(Latin-based)

languages are primarily spoken

in

Atlantic Canada.

Marrakech or Marrakesh or

including: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile,

Canadian province.

Maritime Provinces or the

in the

Western Hemisphere south of the United States

Romance

A

Manitoba

Laredo, Texas

Jersey

Marakesh, Morocco

Colombia, Costa

Rica, Cuba, Dominican

Marseilles, France

Republic, Ecuador, El

Marshall Islands

Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti,

Mason-Dixon Line or Mason and

The southern

Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua,

Dixon's Line

Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto

boundary of Pennsylvania,

Rico, Uruguay, Venezuela, and

separating

the French

West

Leaning Tower of Pisa Leicester,

Leipzig,

the South.

Germany

Matawan,

Now

USSR

from Maryland;

division between the North and

England

Leningrad,

it

sometimes regarded as the

Indies.

New

Jersey

Mayotte Island

St.

In the Indian

Ocean.

Petersburg, Russia.

Mecca, Saudi Arabia

Liechtenstein Lige, Belgium

Medellin, Colombia

Lima, Peru

Mediterranean Sea

Lisbon, Portugal

Melbourne, Australia

Liverpool, England

Memphis, Tennessee

Lodz, Poland

Meriden, Connecticut

London, England

Middle Atlantic

Los Angeles, California

Low

Countries

Jersey,

Belgium,

Middle East

Netherlands.

At Houston, Texas.

Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel,

Kuwait, Jordan,

Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi

Michigan

Madagascar

Geographic Terms

Southwest Asia and

northeast Africa, including

Macao Island,

New

region of the United States.

Lyndon B. Johnson Space

Mackinac

states

York, and

Pennsylvania. Part of Northeast

Luxembourg, and the

Center

New

Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Turkey,

274

Vermont. Part of Northeast

United Arab Emirates, and

region of the United States.

Yemen. Middle West or Midwest or North

Canadian

province comprising the island

Indiana, Illinois,

Central states

A

Newfoundland

of Newfoundland and part of

Iowa, Kansas, Michigan,

Labrador.

Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska,

Milan, Italy

New Orleans, Louisiana New South Wales, Australia New York City, New York

Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Norfolk Island

Minneapolis, Minnesota

North America

North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

The continent

Minsk, Byelorussia

including Canada, Central

Missoula, Montana

America, Greenland, Mexico,

Mogadishu, Somalia

the United States, and the

Monterey, California

islands surrounding these

Monterrey, Mexico

countries, such as

Montevideo, Uruguay

West

Montpelier, Vermont

North Central region

Moscow, Russia

Illinois,

Colorado, Idaho, Montana,

Nevada,

New

Indiana,

Michigan, Ohio,

eastern Wisconsin, Iowa,

Arizona,

states

Bermuda, the

and the Caribbean

islands.

Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Mountain

Indies,

Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri,

Mexico, Utah,

Nebraska, North Dakota, and

Wyoming. Mozambique Munich, West Germany Muscle Shoals, Alabama

western South Dakota.

New

Northeast region

England

and the Middle Atlantic

states.

North Pole

Muskegon, Michigan

Northwest Territories, Canada

Muskogee, Oklahoma

Nova

Mykonos, Greece

Scotia

A

Canadian

province.

Nagoya, Japan

Novosibirsk, Russia

Nanking, China

Nuremberg, Germany

Naples, Italy

Oahu, Hawaii

Nashville, Tennessee

Oakland, California

N'Djamena, Chad

Odessa, Ukraine

Nepal

Okinawa, Japan

Netherlands, the (Holland)

Omaha, Nebraska Ontario, Canada

Netherlands Antilles

New

Brunswick

A

Canadian

Orient

Osaka, Japan

province.

New

England

Oskaloosa, Iowa

Connecticut,

Maine, Massachusetts,

New

Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Hampshire, Rhode Island, and

Ozark Mountains

275

Geographic Terms

Pacific

Reykjavik, Iceland

Ocean

Rhodesia

Alaska, Hawaii,

Pacific states

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Oregon, and Washington. Paducah, Kentucky

Rio Grande

Palermo, Sicily

Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Panama

Rocky Mountains or Romania Rome, Italy

Panama

City,

Paraguay Paris, France

New

Jersey

Peking, China

Now

Paterson,

the Rockies

Rosario, Argentia

Rotterdam, the Netherlands

called

Saarbriicken,

Beijing.

Penobscot Bay

Sahara Desert

Persian Gulf

St.

Perth, Australia

St. John's,

John,

Germany

New

Brunswick, Canada

Newfoundland,

Canada

Petaluma, California

Phenix City, Alabama

Saint- Moritz, Switzerland

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

St. Petersburg,

Phnom Penh, Cambodia

Leningrad,

Phoenix, Arizona

A

Pikes Peak

mountain peak

St. Pierre

Salt

in

central Colorado.

Formerly

and Miquelon

Lake City, Utah

Salvador, Brazil

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Plattsburgh,

Russia

USSR.

Salzburg, Austria

New York

Samoa

Pocatello, Idaho

San Diego, California

Port-au-Prince, Haiti

San Francisco, California

Porto Alegre, Brazil

San Jose, California

Portobelo or Porto Bello or Puerto

Santiago, Chile

Panama

Bello,

Santo Domingo, Dominican

New York

Poughkeepsie,

Republic

Sao Paulo, Brazil

Prague, Czechoslovakia Pretoria,

Prince

A

South Africa

Edward

Sapporo, Japan Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Island

Canadian province.

Formerly Sarajevo, Yugoslavia.

Pusan, South Korea

Sardinia, Italy

Chad

Pyongyang, North Korea

Sarh,

Quad

Saskatchewan

Davenport, Iowa,

Cities

and Rock Island, Moline, and East Moline,

Quebec Quezon

City,

Marie, Ontario, Canada

Savannah, Georgia

Quito, Ecuador

Scandinavia

Denmark, Norway,

and Sweden, and sometimes

Recife, Brazil

New York

Geographic Terms

Canadian

Sault Sainte Marie or Sault Ste.

Illinois.

Quebec, Canada

City, Philippines

Rensselaer,

A

province.

Finland and Iceland.

276

New York

Schenectady,

including Argentina, Bolivia,

Colombia,

Schuylkill, the

Brazil, Chile,

Scranton, Pennsylvania

Ecuador, French Guinea,

Seattle,

Guyana, Paraguay, Peru,

Washington

Sun name, Uruguay, Venezuela.

Sedalia, Missouri

South Atlantic

Seoul, South Korea

The Arabian Sea, Ocean, Bay of Bengal,

Atlantic

North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and

Mediterranean Sea, Persian Gulf,

Red Sea, and South

Southeast Asia

Malaysia, Papua

The Egyptian

Guinea,

Thailand, and Vietnam.

pyramids, the hanging gardens

Soviet Union or

at

the former

Halicamassus, the temple of at

New

Philippines, Singapore,

of Babylon, the mausoleum

Artemis

West Virginia. Burma,

Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos,

China Sea. Seven Wonders of the

World

Delaware,

states

Florida, Georgia, Maryland,

Seven Seas

Ephesus, the

USSR

Refers to

Union of Soviet

Socialist Republics (see entry at

USSR).

Colossus of Rhodes, the statue of Zeus by Phidias at Olympia,

Spartanburg, South Carolina

and the pharos (lighthouse)

Spokane, Washington

at

Stamford, Connecticut

Alexandria. Seville, Spain

Staten Island

York

Seychelles

Borough

Shanghai, China

Stockholm, Sweden

Sheboygan, Wisconsin

Strait

Shenyang or Mukden,

Strasbourg, France

China

The major

of Gibraltar

Stuttgart,

Germany

Suez Canal

Sicily, Italy

Sierra

Leone

Surabaja, Indonesia

Sierra

Nevada, the

Surinam Suriname River

Sinai Peninsula

Singapore, Singapore

Susquehanna River

Sioux City, Iowa

Svalbard Islands

Smolensk, Russia

Sverdlovsk, Russia

Smyrna, Delaware

Sydney, Australia

Sofia, Bulgaria

Tacoma, Washington Taipei, Taiwan

In the United States this

refers to the sixteen states of

Tallahassee, Florida

the East South Central, South

Tallahatchie River

Atlantic,

New

Stratford-upon-Avon, England

city of

Manchuria.

South

in

City.

and West South

Tampa, Florida Tangier, Morocco

Central regions.

South America

The continent

Tbilisi,

277

Georgia

The

capital of

Geographic Terms

Warsaw, Poland

the former Soviet socialist

republic, and the

new

DC.

Washington,

republic.

Teheran, Iran

Waukegan,

Tel Aviv, Israel

Wellington,

Terre Haute, Indiana

Wenatchee, Washington

New York

Throgs Neck, Tianjin,

West

China

Illinois

New

Zealand

In United States, refers to

making up

the thirteen states

Mountain and

Timbuktu or Tombouctou, Mali

the

Tippecanoe River

regions.

Pacific

Tokyo, Japan

West Germany or Federal Republic of Germany

Toledo, Ohio

incorporated in united

Tokelau Islands

Toms

River,

New

Germany. West Indies

Jersey

Tooele, Utah

The region of

Toronto, Ontario, Canada

islands in an arc

Trinidad and Tobago

tip to

Tripoli,

Antilles,

Oklahoma

Grenada, Guadeloupe, Hispaniola, Leeward and

Turin, Italy Cities

Minneapolis and

Windward

St.

Paul, Minnesota.

USSR

Bahamas, Barbados,

Cuba, Dominica, Jamaica,

Tunis, Tunisia

Twin

from Florida's

Venezuela including

Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda,

Libya

Tucson, Arizona Tulsa,

Now

or Union of Soviet

Socialist Republics

Islands, Martinique,

Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, St. Lucia,

The

St.

and the Grenadines,

Vincent St. Kitts

and Nevis, Trinidad and

former Soviet Socialist Republics are the now-

Tobago, Virgin Islands.

West North Central

independent states of Armenia,

states

Iowa,

Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri,

Azerbaijan, Byelorussia (or Belorussia), Estonia, Georgia,

Nebraska, North Dakota, and

Kazakhstan, Kirgizia, Latvia,

South Dakota.

West Point, New York West South Central states

Lithuania, Moldavia, Russia,

Tadzhikistan, Turkmenistan,

Ukraine, Uzbekistan.

Arkansas, Louisiana,

Oklahoma, and Texas.

Valencia, Spain

White House

Vancouver, British Columbia,

Canada

The residence and

office of the President of the

Vermillion, South Dakota

United States.

Vienna, Austria

Wichita, Kansas

Wahpeton, North Dakota

Wichita Falls, Texas

Waikiki Beach, Hawaii

Wiesbaden, Germany

Wailuku, Hawaii

Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania

Walla Walla, Washington

Williamsburg, Virginia

Geographic Terms

278

Bureau of Land Management

Woonsocket, Rhode Island

(BLM)

Worcester, Massachusetts

Caribbean Community or Caricom

Yerevan, Armenia

Members

Yokohama, Japan Ypsilanti,

Dominica, Grenada, Guyana,

Yucatan, Mexico

Yukon

are Antigua,

Bahamas, Barbados, Belize,

Michigan

Jamaica, Montserrat,

Canada

Territory,

GOVERNMENT

Trinidad and Tobago.

ORGANIZATIONS

Centers for Disease Control Central Intelligence

Capitalize proper nouns referring to

Civil Aeronautics

government agencies,

Commission on

departments, offices for nations, states, counties, cities,

and so

Common

Civil Rights

Market or European

Economic Community (EEC) or

refer to foreign governmental or legislative bodies

European Community (EC)

and

Members

departments.

are Belguim,

Denmark, France, Germany,

In the following

list

of Greece, Ireland,

examples for styling and

Luxembourg,

names of

Italy,

the Netherlands,

Portugal, Spain, and the United

governmental organizations, those

Kingdom.

not identified by country are U.S.

Commonwealth of Nations

organizations:

Originally the British

Commonwealth. Air National Guard

States

recognizing England as

Arab League or League of Arab States

Agency (CIA)

Board (CAB)

(CCR)

proper nouns that

forth. Capitalize

abbreviating the

St. Kitts,

Lucia, St. Vincent, and

St.

symbolic head: Antigua and

Includes Algeria,

Barbuda, Australia, Bahamas,

Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq,

Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize,

Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon,

Botswana, Brunei, Canada,

Libya, Mauritania, Morocco,

Cyprus, Dominica, Gambia,

Oman,

Ghana, Grenada, Guyana,

Palestine Liberation

Organization (PLO), Qatar,

India, Jamaica,

Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan,

Lesotho, Malawi, Malaysia,

Syria, Tunisia, United

Emirates, and

Arab

(ASEAN)

Namibia, Nauru,

Members

Pakistan, Papua St. Kitts

Malaysia, Philippines,

St.

Singapore, and Thailand. Statistics

New

Zealand,

Nigeria, Northern Ireland,

are Brunei, Indonesia,

Bureau of Labor

Kiribati,

Maldives, Malta, Mauritius,

Yemen.

Association of Southeast Asian

Nations

Kenya,

New

and Nevis,

Guinea,

St.

Lucia,

Vincent and the Grenadines,

Samoa, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon

(BLS)

279

Government Organizations

Federal Energy Regulatory

Islands, Sri Lanka, Swaziland,

Commission (FERC) Highway Administration

Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad and

Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda,

Federal

(FHA)

United Kingdom, Vanatu,

Federal Housing Administration

Western Samoa, Zambia, and

(FHA)

Zimbabwe. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) Council of Economic Advisers

Federal Labor Relations Authority

(FLRA) Federal Mediation and

Drug Enforcement Administration

Conciliation Service

(DEA)

Federal Reserve System (FRS) or

Federal Reserve Board (FRB)

Energy Research and

Federal Savings and Loan

Development Administration

(ERDA)

Insurance Corporation (FSLIC)

Environmental Protection Agency

Federal Trade Commission (FTC)

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) An agency of the

(EPA) Equal Employment Opportunity

Commission (EEOC)

United Nations.

European Economic Community

(EEC) or

Common

Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

Market or

European Communities (EC) See the entry

at

Foreign Service (Department of

Common

State)

French Foreign Legion

Market.

European Free Trade Association

(EFTA)

Members

General Accounting Office General Assembly

are Austria,

The

(GAO)

principal

Finland, Great Britain, Iceland,

body of the United Nations.

Norway, Portugal, Sweden, and

General Services Administration

(GSA)

Switzerland.

Export-Import Bank of the United

Government

Federal Aviation Administration

(FAA)

Part of the

English Parliament.

House of Lords

Federal Bureau of Investigation

(FBI)

Part of the

English Parliament.

House of Representatives

Federal Communications

Commission (FCC)

Part of

the U.S. Congress.

Immigration and Naturalization

Federal Deposit Insurance

Corporation (FDIC)

Service (INS)

Federal Election Commission

Internal

(FEC)

Revenue Service (IRS)

International Court of Justice or

Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)

Federal

Government Organizations

Printing Office

(GPO) House of Commons

States

the

World Court

Under

the

auspices of the United Nations

280

National Weather Service

International Criminal Police

North Atlantic Treaty Organi-

Organization or Interpol Interpol or International Criminal

zation

Police Organization Interstate

the

Commerce Commission

France, Germany, Greece,

Joint Chiefs of Staff

Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, the United

The former Soviet Union's

secret police

and

Kingdom, and

intelligence

"Committee

NSB

for State

NSB

former Soviet

(see

KGB, which

coordinates and assists security

entry).

organization in the

Law Enforcement Administration

Assistant

(LEAA)

former USSR.

Nuclear Regulatory Commission

National Aeronautics and Space

Administration

(NRC)

(NASA)

Occupational Safety and Health

National Archives and Records

Administration

Administration

(OSHA)

Office of Administration

National Bureau of Standards

Management and Budget

Office of

(NBS)

(OMB)

National Foundation on the Arts

Office of Personnel

and the Humanities

Management

Office of Policy Development

National Governors' Association

Highway

now-

sovereign republics of the

Library of Congress

National

The Inter-Republican The

Council for Security.

Security" in Russian. Has been reorganized as the

the United

States.

agency; the abbreviation stands for

Luxembourg, the

Iceland, Italy,

Conference of the United

States

KGB

Members of

alliance are

Belgium, Canada, Denmark,

(ICC)

Judicial

(NATO)

NATO

(OPD)

Traffic Safety

Office of Science and Technology

Administration

Policy

National Institutes of Health

Office of the United States Trade

National Labor Relations Board

Representative

(NLRB)

Organization for Economic

National League of Cities National Mediation Board

Cooperation and Development

National Oceanic and Atmospheric

(OECD)

Administration

Members

are

Australia, Austria, Belgium,

(NOAA)

National Park Service (NPS)

Canada, Denmark, Finland,

National Science Foundation

France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan,

(NSF) National Security Council

Luxembourg, Netherlands,

(NSC)

New

Zealand, Norway, Portugal,

National Transportation Safety

Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Board

281

Government Organizations

System (SSS)

Turkey, United Kingdom,

Selective Service

United States, and the former

Small Business Administration

(SBA)

Yugoslavia.

Smithsonian Institution

Organization of American States

(OAS)

Members

are Antigua

Social Security Administration

(SSA)

and Barbuda, Argentina,

Southeast Asia Treaty

Bahamas, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile,

Colombia, Costa

Organization

(SEATO)

Command (SAC)

Rica, Cuba, Dominica,

Strategic Air

Dominican Republic, Ecuador,

Tennessee Valley Authority

(TVA)

El Salvador, Grenada,

United Nations (UN)

Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras,

Members

Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua,

are Afghanistan, Albania,

Panama, Paraguay, Peru,

Algeria, Angola, Antigua and

Kitts

and Nevis,

St.

St.

Barbuda, Argentina, Australia,

Lucia, St.

Bahamas, Bahrain,

Vincent and the Grenadines,

Austria,

Suriname, Trinidad and

Bangladesh, Barbados,

Tobago, United

Belgium, Belize, Benin,

States,

Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana,

Uruguay, Venezuela. Organization of Petroleum

Exporting Countries

Members

Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria,

(OPEC)

Burkina Faso, Burundi,

are Algeria,

Byelorussia;

Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,

Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada,

Cape Verde, Central African

Kuwait, Libya,

Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia,

Republic, Chad, Chile, China,

United Arab Emirates, and

Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba,

Venezuela.

Cyprus, Czechoslovakia,

Palestine Liberation Organization

Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica,

(PLO) Patent and Trademark Office

Dominican Republic, Germany,

Peace Corps

Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,

Politburo or Political Bureau of the

Communist

Party

Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia,

The

Fiji,

Communist

party.

Was

Finland, France;

Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Greece,

policy-making committee of a

Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea,

the

executive committee of the

Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti,

former Soviet Union, when

Honduras, Hungary, Iceland,

Communism was

India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq,

the state's

Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory

single party.

Reserve Officers' Training Corps

Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan,

(ROTC) Securities and

Kenya, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon,

Exchange

Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,

Commission

Government Organizations

Luxembourg;

282

Academy

Malagasy, Malawi, Malaysia,

At

New

London,

Connecticut

Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico,

United States Conference of

Mayors

Mongolia, Morocco,

Mozambique, Myanmar,

United States Court of Appeals

Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands,

United States Customs Service

New

United States Department of

Zealand, Nicaragua,

Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan,

Oman,

Panama, Papua

Agriculture or

New

United States Information Agency

Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,

(USIA)

Philippines, Poland, Portugal;

Qatar, Romania, Russia, St.

Rwanda,

Christopher and Nevis,

United States International Trade

Commission

St.

United States Marine Corps

Lucia, St. Vincent and the

Grenadines, Sao

(USMC)

Tome and

United States Merchant Marine

Principe, Saudi Arabia,

Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra

Academy

Leone, Singapore, Slovenia

New York

Solomon

USDA

United States District Courts

At Kings Point,

United States Military

Islands, Somalia,

At West Point,

South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka,

Academy

New York

Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland,

United States Mint

Sweden, Syria;

United States National Guard United States Naval

Tanzania, Thailand, Togo,

Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine,

United States Naval Reserve

(USNR)

United Arab Emirates, United

Kingdom, United

United States Navy (USN)

States,

Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela,

United States Postal Service

Vietnam, Western Samoa,

(USPS)

Yemen, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

United States Secret Service United States Supreme Court or

Supreme Court of

United Nations Children's

Emergency Fund (UNICEF)

Veterans Affairs (VA)

Warsaw

and Cultural

Organization

the United

States

United Nations Educational, Scientific,

Academy

At Annapolis, Maryland

Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,

(UNESCO)

Pact

Members were

Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia,

United Nations Security Council

Hungary, Poland, Romania, and

(USAF) Air Force Academy

USSR

United States Air Force

the

United States

abolished and the alliance

At Colorado Springs, Colorado United States

until the treaty

was

disbanded in July 1991.

Army

Women's Army Corps (WAC)

United States Coast Guard

World Health Organization

(WHO)

United States Coast Guard

2*1

Government Organizations

HISTORICAL EVENTS AND PERIODS

Wars

Arab-Israeli

Atomic Age

Began December

2,

1942.

Proper nouns for names of

Bronze Age

and

specific notable cultural

historical events are capitalized (e.g., Seattle

Stone

World's Fair, Great

Civil Historical

B.C.,

Age and

between the

the Iron Age.

Christian Era

Depression, the Crash).

and cultural periods

and movements

Approximately

3500-1000

War 1861-1865.

Crusades

Approximately the

that are widely

11th through the 13th centuries.

recognized in archaeology,

Dark Ages or Middle Ages

anthropology, geology, or other

Approximately the 5th

technical fields are capitalized (e.g.,

through the 15th centuries.

Middle Ages, Dark Ages,

Depression or the Great

Iron Age).

The

Began October 28

Depression

Earth's geological periods

are Early

and 29, 1929; continued

Precambrian (Archean),

through the 1930s.

Late Precambrian (Algonkian),

Age

Elizabethan

Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian,

Fall of

Devonian, Mississippian,

Rome

Gilded Age

Pennsylvanian, Permian, Triassic,

Approximately

1875-1900.

Jurassic, Cretaceous, Tertiary

Age

(Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene,

Ice

Miocene, Pliocene), and

Industrial Revolution

Approximately 1750-1850,

Quaternary (Pleistocene, in

Holocene).

Iron

Popular contemporary terms

England.

Age

Began approximately

1350 B.C., through 800-

such as nuclear age are

500

lowercased.

Proper nouns that numerically

Jazz

B.C.

Age

Began

describe a historical period are

Korean War

capitalized (e.g., Roaring

Lent

Means the forty days from Ash Wednesday through Holy

Twenties, the Third Reich).

Proper nouns for names of wars are capitalized (e.g., the

Saturday, the day before Easter,

American

excluding Sundays.

Revolution, the Gulf War). In addition to the

follows,

many

list

specific

appear throughout Part

in 1920's.

1950-1953.

Louisiana Purchase

that

1803.

Mardi Gras

examples

Middle Ages or Dark Ages Approximately the 5th

1

through the 15th centuries.

Age of Man Age of Reason

Norman Conquest

American Revolution 1775-1783.

Peloponnesian

Historical Events/Periods

Approximately 1066-1070.

284

War

43 1 -404 b.c

.

Amalgamated

Following the

Reconstruction

Began

Reformation

University Professors

(ACLU) American Federation of

in Italy; in Europe mid 17th century.

1400-1600

Government Employees

(AFGE)

Approximately

Restoration

American Federation of Grain

1660-1688.

Millers

1920-1929.

Roaring Twenties

Space Age

Began October

launching of Sputnik Spanish- American

Age

War

Earliest

4,

Congress of Industrial Organizations

1

(AFL-CIO)

American Federation of Musicians 1

898

(AF of M)

human

American Federation of

development, beginning

State,

County and Municipal

approximately two million years

Employees (AFSCME)

ago.

American Federation of Teachers

War 1618-1648. May 8, 1945.

Thirty Years

(AFT)

V-E Day V-J Day September 2, 1945. Victorian Age Approximately

American Federation of Television and Radio

Artists

(AFTRA)

American Nurses Association

1837-1901.

War

(AFGM)

American Federation of Labor and

1957, with the Soviet Union's

Vietnam

(AAUP)

American Civil Liberties Union

Reign of Terror 1792-1994. Renaissance Approximately

Stone

Union

American Association of

in the 16th

century.

to the

Transit

(ATU)

American Civil War, 1865-1877

American Postal Workers Union

1954-1975.

(APWU)

War

1812-1815. of 1812 World War I 1914-1918. World War II 1939-1945.

Associated Actors and Artistes of

America

(AAAA)

Bakery and Confectionery Workers' International Union of

LABOR ORGANIZATIONS Names of

America Bricklayers,

labor organizations

are capitalized.

Masons and

Plasterers' International

Union

of America

Brotherhood of Locomotive

Actors' Equity Association

Engineers (BLE)

Air Line Pilots Association

Aluminum, Brick & Glass Workers International Union

Brotherhood of Maintenance of

Way Employes (BMWE)

(ABG-WIU)

Brotherhood of Railway, Airline

Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union of America (ACTWU)

and Steamship Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and Station

Employees

2«5

Labor Organizations

Teamsters, Chauffeurs,

Communications Workers of

Wine

Distillery,

Warehousemen and Helpers of

(CWA)

America

International

&

America (IBT) or Teamsters

Allied Workers

Union

(DWU)

Fraternal Order of Police

International

International

Glass, Molders, Pottery, Plastics

&

Allied Workers International

Union (GMP)

International Ladies'

Union (GCIU)

International

(ILWU)

Union

International

&

International Typographical

(IUMSWA)

International

International Alliance of

Theatrical Stage

Moving

Picture

Telecommunication

Union

Shipbuilding Workers of

America

Longshoremen's and

Warehousemen's Union

and Bartenders International

Union of Marine

Garment

Workers Union (ILGWU)

Hotel and Restaurant Employees

Industrial

Labor Organization

(ILO)

Graphic Communications International

Chemical Workers

Union (ICWU)

(FOP)

Union

Union of Allied Workers of America

Industrial

(AIW)

Employes and Machine

International

Union of Bricklayers

and Allied Craftsmen

Operators of the United States

and Canada (IATSE)

International

International Association

Union of Electronic,

Electrical, Salaried,

Machine

and Furniture Workers

of Bridge, Structural

and Ornamental Iron Workers

(IUE)

Internationa] Association of Fire

International

Union of Novelty

International Association of

International

Union of Operating

Engineers (IUOE)

Machinists and Aerospace

Workers (IAM)

International

Union of United

Automobile, Aerospace and

International Brotherhood of

Boilermakers, Iron

Agricultural Implement

Shipbuilders, Blacksmiths,

of America or United Auto

Workers

Forgers and Helpers (IBBISB/

BF&H)

Plant

Workers (IBEW)

Workers

(UAW)

International

International Brotherhood of Electrical

&

Production Workers

Fighters

Union of United

Guard Workers of

America

International Brotherhood of

International

Woodworkers of

America-U.S. (IWA-U.S.)

Firemen and Oilers

Laborers' International Union of

International Brotherhood of

Painters and Allied Trades of

North America (LIUNA)

and Canada

Marine Engineer Beneficial

the United States

(IBPAT)

Association/National Maritime

Union

International Brotherhood of

Labor Organizations

286

(MEBA/NMU)

United Electrical, Radio and

National Association of Letter

(NALC)

Machine Workers of America

National Association of Postal

United Farm Workers of America

Carriers

(UFW)

Supervisors

United Food and Commercial

National Education Association

Workers

(NEA)

America

(UMWA)

National Treasury Employees

United Rubber, Cork, Linoleum

Union (NTEU)

and

Newspaper Guild, The (TNG) International

(USWA) United Textile Workers of

Workers International Union

America

(OCAW)

(UTU)

Internationa] Association of the

United Union of Roofers,

& Canada

Waterproofers

Wholesale and Department

Seafarers International

Allied

Upholsterers' International Union

Union of

of North America (UIU)

North America (SIUNA)

Utility

Service Employees International

Workers Union of America

(UWUA)

Union (SEIU) Sheet Metal Workers International

LANGUAGES

(SMWIA)

Transport Workers Union of

America

&

Workers

Union

Association

(UTWA)

United Transportation Union

and Cement Mason's

United States

Workers of America

United Steelworkers of America

Union (OPEIU)

Chemical and Atomic

Store

Plastic

(URW)

Employees

Office and Professional

Retail,

(UGWA)

United Mine Workers of America

Association

Plasterers'

Union

United Garment Workers of

Employees (NFFE) National Rural Letter Carriers*

Oil,

International

(UFCW)

National Federation of Federal

Always

(TWUA)

capitalize the

names of

languages and dialects.

Transportation Communications International

Union (TCU)

Afrikaans

United Association of Journeymen

Amharic

and Apprentices of the

Arabic

Plumbing and Pipe

Armenian Assamese

Fitting

Industry of the United States

and Canada

Azerbaijani

United Automobile, Aerospace

Bengali

and Agricultural Implement

Burmese

Workers of America

Byelorussian

United Brotherhood of Carpenters

Cantonese

and Joiners of America

Cebuano

287

Languages

Czech

Russian

Dutch-Flemish

Serbo-Croatian

English

Sindhi

Estonian

Sinhalese

French

Spanish

Fula

Sundanese

Georgian

Swahili

German

Tagalog

Greek

Tamil

Gujarati

Telugu

Hakka Hausa

Turkoman or Turkmen

Hindi

Turkish

Thai

Hungarian

Ukrainian

Igbo or Ibo

Urdu Uzbek

Italian

Vietnamese

Japanese

Wu

Javanese

Yoruba Zhuang

Kannada Kazakh

Khmer or Cambodian

MILITARY TITLES AND ORGANIZATIONS

Kirghiz

Korean Latvian

The proper nouns

Lithuanian

armed

for the

forces of the United States (and

Madurese

their

Malagasy

branches and units) are

capitalized, as are short forms

Malay-Indonesian

referring to specific organizations.

Malayalam

But terms such as army and navy

Mandarin

when

are lowercased

Marathi

standing

alone or used collectively and not

Min

part of a proper noun.

Moldavian

Military

titles

of rank are

Nepali

capitalized only

when

Oriya

part of a formal

title

they are

preceding a

Oromo

name. Military

Pashtu

abbreviated as indicated in the

Persian

below. In most contexts,

titles

of rank are list

when

Polish

abbreviations are only used

Portuguese

given with the

Punjabi

person and the abbreviation

is

Romanian

punctuated and written with

initial

Military Jitles/Orcanizajions

288

full

name of

a

gunnery sergeant (Gy. Sgt. or

(See Appendix

letters capitalized.

Gunnery

6 for a table of forms of address.)

general (Insp. Gen.)

branches and units (e.g., the 7th Fleet) are capitalized

Sgt.)

inspector general; pi. , inspectors

Abbreviations for military

and

(LC or LCpl or

lance corporal

Lance Cpl.)

unpunctuated.

lieutenant (Lt. or Lieut.)

Military medals and awards are

lieutenant colonel (Lt. Col. or

capitalized (e.g., Purple Heart).

LTC) adjutant general; pi.

,

lieutenant

adjutants

AG)

general (Adj. Gen. or

admiral (Adm. or Adml. or

AN)

first

marshal

or

class (Ale. or

A/1C)

(AM)

brigadier general (Brig.

LTJG or

Lt. j.g.)

major (Maj.)

master chief petty officer

Gen. or

or

B.Gen. or BG) captain (Capt. or Cpt. or

MCPO)

master gunnery sergeant (M. Gy.

CPT)

Sgt. or

(CG) officer (CPO)

Master Gunnery Sgt.)

master sergeant (M. Sgt. or

captain general

(CWO) COL)

petty officer

(PO)

colonel (Col. or

petty officer

first

commander (Cmdr. or Comdr. or

CDR)

petty officer third class

sergeant major

(CSM

platoon sergeant (Platoon Sgt.) private (Pvt. or Pte.) private

or

private

lieutenant (1st Lt.)

first

sergeant (1st Sgt.)

admiral

first

class (Pfc. or

R.Adm. or

ENS)

first

RA

PFC)

Adm. or or

RADM)

rear admiral lower half (Rear

Adm.) rear admiral upper half (Rear

(FADM)

flight lieutenant

(Pvt. 1)

rear admiral (Rear

corporal (Cpl.)

fleet

1

private 2 (Pvt. 2)

Sgt. Maj.)

ensign (Ens. or

class

petty officer second class

commander in chief; pi., commanders in chief commanding general (CG) commanding officer (CO)

Command

MSG

or Master Sgt.)

chief warrant officer

command

MG) (CPOM

major general (Maj. Gen. or

brevet (Bvt. or Bt.)

Cdr. or

Gen. or

lieutenant, junior grade (Lt. [jg]

airman basic (AB)

chief petty

Cmdr.

LTG)

airman (Amn. or

air

(Lt.

LCDR)

lieutenant general (Lt.

ADM)

airman

commander

or Lt. Comdr. or

Adm.) seaman (Sea.)

(FL)

general (Gen.)

seaman apprentice (SA)

generalissimo; pi. , generalissimos

seaman

first

general of the armies

seaman

recruit

289

class (Sic.)

(SR)

Military Titles/Organizations

second lieutenant (2d Lt.)

their titles rather than their given

senior airman

or family names.

senior chief petty officer

or

(CPOS

Honorific

M.

senior master sergeant (S.

Majesty, His Eminence, Your

Sgt.

Grace).

or Senior Master Sgt.) senior naval officer

The

(SNO)

orSG)

princess, duke, marquess or

marquis, earl, viscount, and

sergeant at arms; pi., sergeants at

baron. Honorary

arms first

or Sfc. or SFC)

See Appendix 6 for a table of

major or sergeant majors (Sgt.

Army

are baronet

forms of address.

sergeants

,

Titles of nobility are rarely

SM) the Army (SMA

Maj. or S.Maj. or sergeant major of

titles

and knight.

class (Sgt. 1st Class

sergeant major; pi.

or

royalty of Britain are, in

order of rank: king, queen, prince,

sergeant (Sgt. or Serg. or Sergt.

sergeant

and forms of

titles

address are capitalized (e.g., Your

SCPO)

abbreviated, although

abbreviations are given for

some

of the examples in the following

Sgt. Maj.)

specialist (Spc.)

list.

specialist third class (Sp3c.)

archduke (Archd. or

staff sergeant (Staff Sgt.) staff sergeant

AD)

baron (Bn.)

major (Staff Sgt.

baroness (Bnss.)

Maj.)

surgeon general; pl.

y

baronet (Bt. or Bart.)

surgeons

general (Surg. Gen. or

count (Ct.)

SG)

countess (Ctss.)

technical sergeant (T. Sgt. or

duchess (D.)

Tech. Sgt.)

duke (D. or Du.)

technician second grade (T2g.)

V.Adm. or

VA

warrant officer

earl

Adm. or

vice admiral (Vice

or

emperor (Emp.)

VADM)

her or his majesty

(WO)

(HM)

king

warrant officer junior grade

knight (Kt.)

(WOJG)

lady lord

NOBILITY TITLES

marchioness or marquise (March.) Titles of royalty are capitalized

when used

as a formal

marquess or marquis (Marq.)

title (e.g.,

prince

Prince Charles of England).

princess

Some

queen

British titles are also

capitalized (e.g.,

when

standing alone

queen mother

Prince of Wales) because

nobility are frequently

Nobility Titles

viscount (Vis. or Vise.)

known by

viscountess (Vis. or Vise.)

290

ORGANIZATIONAL AND

referring to a specific

TEAM NAMES

serving a U.S. president.

Agency for International Development (AID)

Administrative, legislative, judicial, educational, political,

special interest groups'

and

Aircraft

names

(including departments, bureaus,

when

Owners and

Pilots

Association

Al-Anon Family Groups

and offices) and abbreviations are capitalized

body

Alcoholics

they are used as

Anonymous (AA)

Alzheimer's Disease and Related

proper nouns. Disorders Association

Generic terms such as agency,

Amateur

bureau, or department are not

Athletic

Union of the

United States capitalized. Derivative adjectives

American Academy of Arts

and shortened or incomplete

Political parties'

national

American Association for the

(and other

Advancement of Science

and international

organizations)

names

(AAAS)

(e.g., the

American Automobile Association

Green Party) and designations of

members party,

&

Sciences

designations are lowercased.

or

are capitalized, though

AAA

American Bar Association (ABA)

movement, and similar

terms need not be. Political

American Booksellers Association

factions are usually lowercased

American Hospital Association

(AHA)

(e.g., conservative, right-winger).

American Legion

except for the Right and the Left.

only

if

noun

AMA

Marxism).

American National Red Cross or

Derivatives referring to organizations

1

members

the

are

Names of

Association

associations,

American Society

and

conferences are capitalized

when

Materials

used as proper nouns (e.g.,

for Testing

(ASTM)

American Society

LaPorte Historical Society).

for the

Prevention of Cruelty to

Abbreviations and nicknames of

Animals (ASPCA)

organizations are capitalized, (e.g.,

Red Cross

American Newspaper Publishers

capitalized (e.g., Kiwanian).

societies, meetings,

are

American Medical Association or

derived from a proper

(e.g.,

Members

called Legionnaires.

Philosophies are capitalized

American Society of Composers,

Big Brother for the U.S.

Authors and Publishers

government, Big Blue for IBM).

(ASCAP) American Society of Mechanical

Academy of Motion

&

Engineers

Picture Arts

Administration

(ASME)

American Stock Exchange or

Sciences Capitalized

Amex

when

291

Organizational/Team Names

Cleveland Browns

American Veterans of World War II. Korea and Vietnam or

AMVETS Amnesty

Cleveland Cavaliers

Cleveland Indians

Baseball

team.

Affairs

Confederate States of America or

Atlanta Braves Baseball team.

the

Atlanta Falcons Football team.

Hawks

Axis, the

Basketball

team.

International (AI)

Association of American Indian

Atlanta

Football

team.

Bureaus

Alliance between

Germany,

and Japan

Italy,

World War

Confederacy

Council of Better Business

Basketball team.

Courts

in

Names of

higher courts

are capitalized in

II.

all

Supreme Court

reference to the

Baseball team.

Baltimore Orioles

Black Panther Party

is

always capitalized.

References to lower courts,

Blue Angels Association

Boston Bruins

Hockey team.

even when

Boston Celtics

Basketball team.

lowercased (e.g.,

Boston Red Sox

traffic court).

4-H Club or Four-H Club Dallas Cowboys Football team.

Boy Scouts of America

Dallas Mavericks

Football team.

Hockey team. Calgary Flames Hockey team.

Basketball

team.

Buffalo Sabres

California Angels

specific, are

Cub Scouts

Baseball team.

Boys' Clubs of America Buffalo Bills

but very

general writing, and any

B'nai B'rith

Daughters of the American Revolution

Baseball

(DAR)

Democratic National Committee

team.

Cooperative for American Relief

Democratic party

(CARE) Chamber of Commerce of the

Denver Broncos

Football team.

Denver Nuggets

Basketball

Everywhere

Inc.

U.S.A.

team.

Charlotte Hornets

Detroit Lions

Basketball

team.

Chicago Bears

Football team.

Basketball team.

Detroit Pistons

Football team.

Chicago Black Hawks

Detroit

Hockey

Red Wings

Hockey

team.

team.

Detroit Tigers

Baseball team.

Chicago Bulls

Basketball team.

Edmonton

Chicago Cubs

Baseball team.

Elks of the U.S.A., Benevolent

Chicago White Sox

Hockey team.

and Protective Order of

Baseball

team.

Girl Scouts of the United States of

Cincinnati Bengals

America

Football

Golden State Warriors

team. Cincinnati Reds

Oilers

Baseball team.

Organizational/Team Names

Basketball team.

292

GOP or

Grand Old Party

Los Angeles Dodgers

The

team.

Hockey team.

Hartford Whalers

Houston Astros

Baseball team.

Houston Oilers

Football team.

Houston Rockets

Los Angeles Lakers Los Angeles Raiders

Basketball

Football

team.

Los Angeles Rams

Society of the U.S.

International

Mafia

Football team.

Indianapolis Colts

Bank

Mensa Miami Dolphins Football team. Miami Heat Basketball team.

for

Reconstruction and

Development or World Bank International

Midwest Stock Exchange Milwaukee Brewers Baseball

Monetary Fund

(IMF) International Satellite

team.

Telecommunications

Milwaukee Bucks

Organization or Intelsat

Republican

Ivy League

Basketball

team.

Army (IRA)

Brown

Football

team.

Basketball team.

Indiana Pacers

Irish

Basketball

team.

team.

Humane

Hockey

Los Angeles Kings

Football team.

Green Bay Packers

Baseball

team.

Republican party.

Minnesota North Stars

University,

Hockey

team.

Columbia University, Cornell

Minnesota Timberwolves

University, Dartmouth College,

Basketball team.

Harvard University, Princeton

Minnesota Twins

University, the University of

Pennsylvania, and Yale University.

Montreal Canadiens

Montreal Expos

School

Football

National Association for Stock

team.

Car Auto Racing Baseball

(NASCAR)

National Association for the

team.

Advancement of Colored

Kiwanis International

People

Knights of Columbus or K. of C.

Ku Klux Klan

Baseball team.

Moose, Loyal Order of Muscular Dystrophy Association

Junior Achievement

Kansas City Royals

Hockey

team.

John Birch Society

Kansas City Chiefs

Football

team.

Jaycees International

Juilliard

Baseball team.

Minnesota Vikings

or Klan

in

America

Intercollegiate Athletics

orKKK

(NAIA)

National Association of Securities

Ladies' Professional Golf

Association or

(NAACP)

National Association of

Dealers Automated Quotations

LPGA

Los Angeles Clippers

(NASDAQ) Basketball

National Association of Securities

team.

Dealers

295

(NASD)

Organizational/Team Names

National

team.

team.

Association

Phoenix Cardinals

(NCAA)

Phoenix Suns

National Geographic Society National Organization for

Women

PTA

Association or

team. Portland Trail Blazers

England

(NRA)

Professional Golfers' Association

Football

Patriots

(PGA) Radio Free Europe or Radio

team. Jersey Nets

Liberty

Basketball

Republican Governors Association

team.

Orleans Saints

Republican National Committee

Football

Sacramento Kings

team.

Islanders

Jets

Basketball

team.

Football team.

Giants

Hockey

team. Football team.

Hockey team.

St.

Louis Blues

St.

Louis Cardinals

Baseball

team.

San Antonio Spurs

Knickerbockers

Basketball team.

Basketball

team.

New York Mets Baseball team. New York Rangers Hockey

San Diego Chargers

Football

team.

San Diego Padres

team.

Stock Exchange

Baseball team.

San Francisco 49ers

(NYSE)

Football

team.

Yankees

San Francisco Giants

Baseball

team.

Baseball

team.

Oakland A's Orlando Magic Overeaters

Hockey team.

Quebec Nordiques

Hockey

Jersey Devils

New York

Basketball

team.

team.

New York

Football

Pittsburgh Steelers

Teachers National Rifle Association

New York New York

Baseball team.

Pittsburgh Pirates

or National

Congress of Parents and

New York New York

Hockey

team.

National Parents and Teachers

New

Basketball team.

Pittsburgh Penguins

(NOW)

New

Football

team.

National Easter Seal Society

New

Basketball

Philadelphia 76ers

(NBA) National Collegiate Athletic

New

Baseball

Philadelphia Phillies

Audubon Society

National Basketball Association

Screen Actors Guild

Baseball team.

Seattle Mariners

Basketball team.

Anonymous

Philadelphia Eagles

Seattle

Football team.

Seattle SuperSonics

Football

team. Philadelphia Flyers

Baseball team.

Seahawks

Basketball

team.

Hockey

Securities

Organizational/Team Names

and Exchange

Commission (SEC)

team.

294

Sierra

The word president

Club

is

Smithsonian Institution

sometimes capitalized even when

Society for the Prevention of

used alone, when referring to the

Cruelty to Animals

(SPCA)

Tampa Bay Buccaneers

highest elected officer of the U.S.

government.

Football

team.

Texas Rangers

adjutant general; pi., adjutants

Baseball team.

general

Baseball

Toronto Blue Jays

( ALJ) (Adm. or Admr. or

administrative law judge

team.

administrator

Hockey

Toronto Maple Leafs

Adms. or Admstr.)

team.

alderman (Aid. or Aldm.)

United Service Organizations

ambassador (Amb.)

(USO)

ambassador

Basketball team.

Utah Jazz

at large

assemblyman or assemblywoman

Hockey

Vancouver Canucks

associate justice (AJ)

team.

Wars (VFW)

attorney general; pi., attorneys

Volunteers in Service to America

general or attorney generals

Veterans of Foreign

(Atty.

(VISTA) Washington Bullets

Gen. or

borough president

team.

Washington Capitals

chairman/chairwoman or chair

Hockey

(Chmn. or Chm.)

team.

Washington Redskins

chairman of the joint chiefs of

Football

staff

team.

chancellor (Chanc.)

Hockey team. Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) Young Men's Christian

Winnipeg

Jets

Association

Association

chaplain (Chap.)

charge d'affaires;

chief judge (CJ)

chief justice (CJ)

Christian

(YWCA)

chief of staff; pi. (C. of S. or

professional, corporate, or titles

when they precede title is

phrase, set in

name),

it is

or

COS)

congressperson; pi. ,

are capitalized

a name.

chiefs of staff

or Com.) committeeman/committeewoman comptroller (Comp.) congressman/congresswoman or

as

proper nouns that serve as formal

governmental

,

CS

commissioner (Comm. or Commr.

ORGANIZATIONAL TITLES Words or phrases used

charges

pi.,

d'affaires

(YMCA)

Young Women's

such a

Gen. or

Att.

AG)

Basketball

When

congresspeople

used as a descriptive

constable (Cons.)

commas

consul (Con.)

after a

consul general (CG)

lowercased.

295

Organizational

Titles

councilman/council woman

secretary of energy

human

secretary of health and

county clerk

or

district attorney, (Dist. Atty.

services secretary of health, education, and

DA)

welfare

emperor

secretary of housing and urban

esquire (Esq.)

development

foreign minister or foreign

secretary of state (SS)

secretary

foreign service officer

secretary of the interior

(FSO)

secretary of the treasury

fuhrer

secretary of transportation

generalissimo

secretary of

governor (Gov.) governor general; general

pi.,

war

secretary-treasurer; pi.

governors

,

secretary-

treasurers or secretaries-

(CG)

treasurers

high commissioner (HC)

senator (Sen.)

inspector (insp. or ins.)

shah

judge (jud.) judge advocate general;

sheriff

judge

pi.,

solicitor general; pi., solicitors

advocate generals (JAG)

judge advocate

general (SG)

(J A)

superintendent (Supt. or Supr.)

justice (just, or jus.)

surgeon general;

justice of the peace (JP)

pi.,

surgeons

general kaiser treasurer (Treas. or Treasr.)

king

under secretary; lieutenant governor (Lt.

pi.,

Gov.) undersecretaries (US)

magistrate

vice-chairman; pi., vice-chairmen

major general

(VC)

mayor

member

(VC) (VC)

vice-chancellor

of Parliament (MP)

vice-consul

postmaster general; pi., postmasters general

vice president (VP)

(PMG)

president (Pres.)

PERSONAL NAMES

prime minister (PM)

queen mother registered nurse

People's names and nicknames,

(RN)

fictitious

names, or epithets for

representative (Rep. or Repr.)

specific people (e.g., William the

secretary (Sec. or Secty.)

Conqueror) are capitalized and

secretary-general;^/., secretaries-

usually not abbreviated.

general (SG)

If the first

secretary of agriculture secretary of

commerce and

labor

and punctuated

secretary of defense

If

secretary of education

Personal Names

and middle names

are abbreviated, they are spaced

between the

296

(e.g., /. F. Stone).

a nickname or epithet first

and

last

is

used

names,

it

is

(e.g., Victorian house,

often enclosed in quotation

marks and/or parentheses

Alexander ["Scotty"] Gordon). Family

titles

If

mother

sweet.").

is

own meaning

or a

usually

it is

not capitalized (e.g., frankfurter,

know Mother

graham cracker). Words or phrases describing

1921," but "His

in

its

specialized meaning,

capitalized unless preceded by a

modifier (e.g., "I

a derivative word or phrase

has taken on

used as names are

was born

Roman

architecture).

(e.g.,

people based on a proper noun

PROPER NOUNS AND

designating a country, race, or

THEIR DERIVATIVES

tribe are capitalized (e.g., Italian,

Cherokee, Caucasian). Proper nouns (that designating by

is,

name

nouns

a specific

RELIGIOUS CONCEPTS,

person or thing) are always capitalized, including

TITLES,

common

AND

ORGANIZATIONS

nouns or adjectives that are Religious concepts and events

essential parts (e.g., Yellow Birch

A common

Farm).

are often capitalized (e.g., the

noun used

Hegird).

alone as a substitute for the proper

Crucifixion, the

noun should not be capitalized

References to the Christian

unless

form

it is

Eucharistic

a very well-known

Washington, DC, or the Channel

The

plural of a

may be

mitzvah, confirmation).

common noun

Proper nouns naming deities,

an essential part of a proper

and prophets are

saints, apostles,

noun

is

also capitalized (e.g., 10th capitalized (e.g.,

and

Lakes Erie and

I Streets,

The

Mohammed).

article the is capitalized if

part of a formal

is

document

title

proper noun.

noun the

is

New

title,

Titles of people serving in

address,

positions of religious organizations

or part, or other

When

and churches are capitalized when

the proper

used as a formal

used as an adjective (e.g.,

York area) or

refer to a proper

New

Buddha, Shakti,

Saint Cecilia, John the Baptist,

Superior).

it

capitalized

Other services are lowercased (bar

for the English Channel).

that is

rite

High Mass, Holy Communion, the Sacrament). (e.g.,

(e.g., the Capitol for

noun

York Times) the

is

preceding a

used to

of address.)

(e.g., the

is

not

archbishop (Arch, or Archbp. or

capitalized.

Abp.)

Words or phrases

that are

archbishop of Canterbury

derived from proper nouns are capitalized

title

name. (See Appendix 6 for forms

when

their

Capitalize Archbishop

meaning

directly refers to the proper

a formal

noun

title

if

part of

designating a

specific person.

297

Religious Titles

archdeacon (Archd.)

Armenian Church of America

bishop (Bp. or Ep.)

Assemblies of

bishopric

Associate Reformed Presbyterian

Church (General Synod)

cardinal (Card.)

Dalai

God

Lama

Association of Free Lutheran

Congregations

deacon

Baha'i Faith

father (Fr.)

Variant for the pope

Holy Father

Baptist

Mohammed

Church

Baptist General Conference

or pontiff.

or

Muhammad

Baptist Missionary Association of

mother or mother superior

America

pope

Beachy Amish Mennonite

rabbi (R.)

Churches

reverend (Rev. or Revd.) right reverend

Bible Church of Christ

(R.R. or Rt. Rev.)

Bible

sister

Way

Church of Our Lord

Jesus Christ

World Wide

Black Muslims

The names of

religious

Brethren Church

organizations, churches, and their

Buddhist Churches of America

members, as well as

Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox

adjective derivatives, are

Church

capitalized. Religious

Catholic Church

denominations, sects, and

Central Conference of American

movements are capitalized. The word church standing alone is capitalized when referring to a specific

Rabbis Christadelphians Christian

body or place.

Church (Disciples of

Christ)

Christian Churches and Churches

Advent Christian Church

of Christ

African Methodist Episcopal Zion

Church

(AME

Christian Congregation

Zion)

Christian Methodist Episcopal

American Baptist Association American Baptist Churches

Church

in

Christian

U.S.A.

Christian

in

Union

Churches of Christ

Church Anglican

Reformed Church

North America

American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic

Churches of Christ

Communion

Churches of God, General

Antiochian Orthodox Christian

Conference

Archdiocese of North America

Church of Christ,

Apostolic Christian Churches of

America

Religious Tijles

in Christian

Union

Anglican Orthodox Church

Scientist or

Christian Science

298

Church

Friends General Conference

Church of England or Anglican

Friends United Meeting

Church Church of God

General Association of Regular Baptist Churches

Church of God of Prophecy Church of Jesus Christ of day Saints or

General Conference of Mennonite

Latter-

Brethren Churches

Mormon Church

General Council, Christian Church

Church of the Lutheran Brethren

of North America

of America

Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of

Church of the Lutheran

North and South America

Confession

Greek Orthodox Church

Church of the Nazarene

Church of the United Brethren

Hinduism

in

Hungarian Reformed Church

Christ

in

America

Congregational Holiness

Independent Fundamental

Conservative Baptist Association

Churches of America

of America

International

Conservative Congregational

Church of the

Foursquare Gospel

Christian Conference

Islam

Conservative Judaism

Members

Moslem

are

(or

Muslim).

Coptic Orthodox Church

Jehovah's Witnesses

Cumberland Presbyterian Church

Latvian Evangelical Lutheran

Diocese of the Armenian Church

Church

of America

in

America

Lutheran Church

Eastern Orthodox Church

in

America

Lutheran Church- Missouri Synod

Eastern Rite Church

Maronite Church

Episcopal Church

Melkite Church

Evangelical Church of North

Mennonite Church

America

Methodist Church

Evangelical Congregational

Moravian Church (Unitas

Church

Fratrum), Northern Province

Evangelical Free Church of

Moravian Church

America

in

America

(Unitas Fratum), Southern

Evangelical Friends Alliance

Province

Evangelical Lutheran Church in

Mormon Church

America

or Church of

Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

Evangelical Lutheran Synod

Moslems

Evangelical Methodist Church

National Association of

Evangelical Presbyterian Church

Adherents of Islam.

Evangelicals

Fellowship of Grace Brethren

National Baptist Convention of

Free Methodist Church of North

America

America

National Baptist Convention

Free Will Baptists

U.S.A. Incorporated

299

Religious Titles

cardinal, archbishop, bishop,

National Conference of Catholic

monsignor,

Bishops

America National Primitive Baptist

Convention Apostolic Church of North

Seventh Day Baptist General

America

Conference

North American Baptist

Southern Baptist Convention

Conference

Roman

North American Old

Southern Methodist Church

Synagogue Council of America

Catholic Church

Syrian Catholic Church

Old Order Amish Church Old Order (Wister) Mennonite

Syrian Orthodox Church of

Antioch (Archdiocese of the

Church

Open

and deacon.

Romanian Orthodox Episcopate of America Russian Orthodox Church Serbian Eastern Orthodox Church Seventh-day Adventist Church

of Christ in the United States of

New

priest,

Romanian Orthodox Church

National Council of the Churches

U.S.A. and Canada)

Bible Standard Churches

Orthodox Church

The

America

in

Orthodox Judaism

Christian and Missionary

Alliance

The Episcopal Church

Orthodox Presbyterian Church Orthodox Church

The Evangelical Covenant Church

U.S.A.

in the

Pentecostal Church of

in the

U.S.A.

Patriarchal Parishes of the Russian

God

of America The General Conference Mennonite Church The Salvation Army The Wesleyan Church Ukrainian Catholic Church Ukrainian Orthodox Church

Pentecostal Free- Will Baptist

Church Pentecostal Holiness Church Polish National Catholic Church

of America Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)

Presbyterian Church in America

in the

U.S.A.

Union of American Hebrew

Primitive Methodist Church

U.S.A.

Congregations

Protestant Episcopal

Church

Union of Orthodox Jewish

Rabbinical Assembly

Congregations of America

Rabbinical Council of America

Unitarian Universalist Association

Reformed Church

United Church of Christ

in

America

Reform Judaism

United Methodist Church

Religious Society of Friends

United Pentecostal Church

Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter

Roman

Day

Catholic Church

in order

of rank,

Religious Titles

are:

International

United Presbyterian Church

Saints

in the

U.S.A.

Clergy,

United Synagogue of America

pope,

500

Mishnah New American Bible (NAB)

Universal Fellowship of

Metropolitan

Community

New

Churches

English Bible

(NEB)

Oxford Annotated Bible (OAB)

Volunteers of America

Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran

Pentateuch

Synod World Council of Churches

Peshitta

Revised Standard Version Septuagint

sacred documents are capitalized,

the Mount Shema Talmud Ten Commandments

including well-known passages

Tripitaka

and prayers from the bible.

Upanishads

Sermon on

RELIGIOUS WRITINGS Titles of religious texts

and

Vedas Apocrypha (Apoc.) Bible,

Vinegar Bible

American Beatitudes

Revised Version

Vulgate

(ARV)

Bible, AmencaiTTransration

(AT)

The books of

Bible, Authorized (King James)

capitalized,

Version (AV)

the Bible are

and may be

abbreviated in references to

Bible, English Revised Version

The following

specific passages.

(ERV)

list is

Bible, Revised Standard Version

based on the Revised

Standard Version:

(RSV) Book of Common Prayer Book of the Dead Codex Sinaiticus

Old Testament Genesis (Gen. /Gen)

Complutensian Polyglot Bible

Exodus (Exod./Ex)

Dead Sea

Leviticus (Lev. /Lev)

Scrolls

Douay Bible or Douay Version

Numbers (Num./Num) Deuteronomy (Deut./Deut)

Decalogue

Epistles

Joshua (Josh. /Josh)

Gloria Patri

Judges (Judg./Judg)

Gospels

Ruth

Haggadah

1

Hagiographa

2 Samuel (2 Sam./2 Sam)

Samuel

(1

Sam./l Sam)

Kings

Jerusalem Bible

1

King James Version

2 Kings

Kaddish

1

Koran

2 Chronicles (2 Chron. /2 Chron)

Litany of the Saints

Ezra

Miserere

Nehemiah (Neh./Neh)

*0I

Chronicles

(1

Chron./l Chron)

Religious Writings

I

st

2

her

(

Tim/2 Tim)

Hebrews (Heb./Heb)

Pro v. /Pro v)

James (James/Jas)

Ecclesiastes (Eccles./Eccles)

Song of Solomon (Song of

Sol./

1

Peter (1 Pet/1 Pet)

2 Peter (2 Pet/2 Pet)

Song)

1

Isiah (Isa./Is)

Jeremiah

(2

Philemon (Philem./Philem)

Psalms (Ps./Ps) Proverbs

Timothy

Titus (Titus/ Tit)

Job

Lamentations

John

2 John

(Jer./Jer)

3 John

(Lam/Lam)

Ezekiel (Ezek./Ezek)

Jude

Daniel (Dan/Dan)

Revelation (Rev. /Rev)

Hosea (Hos./Hos)

ROMAN NUMERALS

Joel

Amos Roman

Obadiah (Obad./Obad)

numerals are written

in

capital letters to designate

Jonah (Jon. /Jon)

succession of wars, monarchs,

Micah (Mic./Mic)

popes, family members, and

Nahum (Nah./Nahum)

musical chords. Lowercase roman

Habakkuk (Hab./Hab)

numerals are used for the page

Zephaniah (Zeph./Zeph)

numbers of prefatory matter

Haggai (Hag./Hag)

book

Zechariah (Zech./Zech)

to distinguish

it

in a

from the

rest

of the book.

Malachi (Mai. /Mai)

Roman numerals may used

New Testament

in

dates on

monuments or

documents, or

Matthew (Matt./Mt) Mark (Mark/Mk) Luke (Luke/Lk)

in

parts of dramatic II,

also be

formal contexts such as

scene

numeration of

works

(e.g.,

Act

Hi).

John (John/Jn) I

14

XIX

2

II

15

Corinthians (1 Cor./l Cor)

3

III

20

XV XX

Acts of the Apostles (Acts)

1

Romans (Rom. /Rom) 1

2 Corinthians (2 Cor./2 Cor)

4

IV

21

XXI

Galatians (Gal./Gal)

5

V

29

XXIX

Ephesians (Eph./Eph)

6

VI

30

XXX

Philippians (Phil. /Phil)

7

VII

Colossians (Col. /Col)

8

VIII

9

IX

10

X

1

Thessalonians

(1

Thess./l

Thess)

2 Thessalonians (2 Thess./2 Thess) 1

Timothy

(1

Roman Numerals

Tim./l Tim)

502

11

XI

12

XII

40 50 60 70 90 99

13

XIII

100

XL L

LX LXX XC IC

C

101 CI

200

400 500

CC CD D

600

DC

italicized

900

CM

or

M MM

use italicization.

1,000

2,000

writings or documents

Some

TITLES OF

vs.

may

not

examples:

WORKS Bill

The

and the abbreviation

used for versus. Legal

v.

titles

of published and

of Rights

Congressional Directory

publicly available books,

Congressional Record

magazines newspapers, poems,

Constitution of the United States

movies, operas, plays, documents,

Declaration of Independence

speeches, musical compositions,

Emancipation Proclamation

and works of

Equal Rights

art are capitalized

(except for articles, conjunctions, prepositions of four letters or

more, and to

in

an

unless they are the

word of

the

title).

Act or

infinitive, first

An

article is capitalized

colon

The

first

or last

G.I. Bill of Rights or the G.I. Bill

initial

"Good Morning, America" Hemingway's "The Killers"

when

Ladies'

word following a

Journal

Monet's Water

WordPerfect 5.1: The Complete

Carta

Lilies

Monroe Doctrine

Reference). titles

Home

Magna Charta or Magna

in a title is capitalized (e.g.,

The

FICA

Federal Register

included (e.g., The Sun Also Rises).

Amendment or ERA

Federal Insurance Contributions

Mozart's The Marriage of Figaro

of works of

art,

Pledge of Allegiance

published books, periodicals,

Roe

movies, plays, and long musical

Singin' in the Rain

compositions

(

-uch as whole

v.

Wade

State of the

Union address

operas or other performances), are

"The Star-Spangled Banner"

italicized or underlined.

Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?

The

titles

of stories, chapters

and sections of books, essays,

TRADEMARKS AND TRADE NAMES

speeches or lectures, articles, dissertations (unpublished), radio

Trade and brand names,

and television shows, and songs

registered trademarks, and service

are enclosed in quotation marks.

The

titles

marks are capitalized.

of legal and

government agreements,

Academy Award Ace bandage

documents, and programs, as well as acts, pacts, plans, policies, or treaties, are capitalized

as proper nouns, but italics

when used

Addressograph

do not take

Adidas

or quotation marks.

The names of

Adrenalin

Ajax

legal cases are

505

Trademarks/Trade Names

Alfa

Romeo

Cyclone fence

Dacron

Alka-Seltzer

Anacin

Datsun

Aqua-Lung Armour meats

Deepfreeze freezer

Aston Martin

Dexedrine

Astroturf

Dictaphone

Aubusson carpet

Disposall garbage disposer

Audi

Doritos chips

Baggies

Beech Nut

Dramamine Drambuie liqueur Drano Dr Pepper

Ben-Gay

Dumpster bins

Demerol

Bakelite

Band-Aid

Benzedrine

Duncan Hines

Betty Crocker

Easy-Off oven cleaner

Birds

Eye foods

Efferdent dental cleanser

BMW (Bayerische Motoren

Ekco

Werke)

Electrolux

Brylcreem

Eveready batteries

Budweiser

Excedrin

Bufferin

Ex-Lax

Cadillac

Fannie

Cap'n Crunch cereal

Fiat

May candy

Caterpillar

Fiberglas (Owens-Corning)

Cessna

Fig Newtons

ChapStick

Folger coffee

Charmin

Formica

toilet tissue

Cheerios cereal

Franco-American foods

Chee-tos

Frigidaire refrigerator

Chef Boy-ar-dee Chemical Mace

Fuller Brush

Chevrolet or Chevy

Gatorade drink

Chock

Gold Medal

Frisbee

Full o'Nuts

Citroen

Gore-Tex

flour

Clairol

Handi Wipes

Clorox

Hawaiian Punch

Coca-Cola or Coke

Head and Shoulders shampoo

Concorde

Heinz 57

Contac

Hi-C drinks

Cracker Jack

Hovercraft

Crisco

Hula-Hoop

Cutex

Hush Puppies shoes

Trademarks/Trade Names

504

Jacuzzi

Mitsubishi

Jaguar

Muzak

Jell-O

Nabisco

Jujyfruits

Naugahyde

Keds shoes

Nescafe

Kellogg cereals

Nikon

Ken-L-Ration pet foods

Novocain

Kleenex

NutraSweet

tissue

Knorr

Oldsmobile

Kodak photographic products

Ore-Ida frozen foods

Kool-Aid

Oreo cookies

Kotex

Orion

9-Lives cat food

Ouija board

Laetrile

Ovaltine

Land-Rover

Oxydol

Laundromat

Pablum

Lay's potato chips

Paper Mate pens

Lego and Duplo blocks Leica camera Lenox china

Pepperidge Farm foods

Lestoil cleaner

Peugeot

Letraset

Photostat

Levi's

Ping-Pong

Life Savers candy

Playskool toys

Lifebuoy

Playtex

Pepsi Cola or Pepsi

Pepto-Bismol medication

Linotype

Plexiglas

Listenne mouthwash

Polaroid

Lucite

Popsicle

Maalox

Porsche

Mace

Post-It stickers

Mailgram

Pyrex dishes

Maserati

Q-Tips

Masonite

Raisinets

Max

Reddi-Wip

Factor

Maxwell House coffee Mazola

Reese's candy

Mercedes-Benz

Right Guard deodorant

Mercurochrome

Rolaids medication

MG (Morris Garages)

Rolex

Revlon

Michelob

Rolls-Royce

Milk of Magnesia

Sanforized

Milton Bradley games

Sanka coffee

Minolta

Saran

505

Wrap

Trademarks/Trade Names

Schweppes

Tinkertoy

Scotch tape

Tipanllo

Scrabble

Tupperware

game

Wax

Seconal

Turtle

Seven-Up or 7Up

Ty-D-bol

Sheetrock

V-8 drink

Valium

Simoniz Smithfield

Vaseline petro.oi

Ham

jelly

Velcro

Spam

Velveeta cheese

Spic and Span

Volvo Styrofoam

Wash

Sugartwin

Suzuki

Sweet

'n Dri

Windbreaker

Xerox 'n

Low

Zipper

Tabasco

VEHICLE NAMES

Tampax Tarmac

The names of

Technicolor Teflon

spacecraft are capitalized and

TelePrompTer

italicized (e.g.,

Teletype

McAn

preceding the names (e.g.,

shoes

or

Timex

Vehicle

Names

Air Force One,

the Titanic). Abbreviations

Thermos Thorn

specific ships,

submarines, airplanes, and

HMS,

italicized.

506

H.M.S

S.S. or SS) are not

5

RULES OF

PUNCTUATION

BRACKET

APOSTROPHE The apostrophe

used when

(') is

Brackets

leaving out a letter or letters in a contraction and

used in forming

is

commentary reasons. Brackets

plurals.

indicate that the insertion takes the

Plurals of letter abbreviations

place of or slightly alters the

with periods and single letters take an

p's

's (e.g.,

and

original text. q's).

Brackets are used as

Other plurals do not take an

parentheses within parentheses.

apostrophe.

Brackets are used in

The possessive of nouns end in

's,

singular

or sh (e.g., fox's).

possessive of a

ch

matter to be treated as a unit),

chemical formulas, and for

y

apostrophe

phonetic symbols.

word with two

COLON

sounds (e.g., Kansas',

Moses'). the s to

An

s, x, z,

used to form the

is

sibilant

mathematical expressions (to show

including nouns

ending in the sibilants

alone

The apostrophe follows

The colon

form the possessive of

(e.g.,

except for plurals that do not end it

in s (e.g., people's).

apostrophe

its,

Dear Ms.

theirs.

volume and

possessive of indefinite pronouns

book

requires an apostrophe (e.g.,

's to

series (e.g., Francis

and

it

distinguishes a

from a book

subtitle

The Art and

A

colon

is

used to introduce

material that explains or amplifies

and Kucera's

the

book).

first

part of a sentence (e.g.,

There are four food groups: meats

and fish,

BRACE

dairy, breads

grains, fruits

A

Braces ({ }) are used to show the relationship of elements in a

group; a brace

may be used

list,

to

and

is

used

in

and

and

vegetables).

colon introduces a series, or summarizing statement

(e.g.,

connect printed lines (as in a table)

it

number

Craft of Lexicography).

shown by word of a

is

the last

title

(e.g., Dictionaries:

one's classmate). Joint possession

issue

in notating a periodical reference

The (e.g., 4:3);

adding

Hollingsworth:);

divides hours and minutes in

divides

possessive of personal pronouns

such as hers,

follows the

notating clock time (e.g., 2:75),

used for the

is

(:)

salutation of a business letter

plural nouns (e.g., neighbors')

No

are used to insert

for explanatory, correctionary, or

most possessives and certain

may

([])

or words in quoted matter,

letters

The following

is

on our

list

of places to go: grocery store,

mathematical

video store, dry cleaners;

equations inside square brackets

one great passion:

A

that are inside parentheses.

J09

colon

is

He had

sailing).

used in proportions

Punctuation

and as a

(e.g., 2.7),

A

colon

may

colon

is

(e.g., Kyle:

introductory phrase (e.g., The taxi

introduce a

used

Do

driver said,

you want

quotation mark (e.g.,

have

to

'The fare

'

is

three

dollars") and inside a closing

dialogue text

in

/

said

"floor," not "drawer").

lunch? Holly: Yes).

A

before a

quotation following an

quotation, especially a long one.

A

comma

Use a

ratio sign

(e.g., 1:2::3:6).

introductory terms (e.g., To:,

A comma replaces the word and between compound qualifiers (e.g., The rabbit had large, floppy

From:, Re:).

ears).

colon

is

used

in

correspondence for headings and

Use a comma between name

COMMA

and

title, title

and organization,

surname and degree, or surname

The comma (,) is most commonly used to separate that

and the words Junior (or Jr.) or items

might otherwise be misread;

Senior (or Sr.). Use a clarify an inverted

it

separates items in a series joined

by and,

or, or

nor

(e.g.,

separates

A comma

and seal lions); it main clauses or provides

compound sentence

separates thousands,

millions, and so

(e.g.,

on

in

a number

of four or more digits (e.g., 2,000,000);

a pause before the conjunction in

a

to

(e.g.,

Kipfer, Barbara Ann).

The dish

called for celery, carrots, potatoes,

comma

name

it

separates the day of

month from the year in dates (e.g., They got together on May

the

They

drove for miles, and then they

30, 1987, for the first time); and

gave up and cheeked into a

sets off

motel).

him at The Language Centre, University of Exeter, Exeter, England EX4 4QH). Use a comma after the

The comma may be used to separate two verb phrases in a sentence; to set off subordinate clauses or phrases within sentence;

or to set off an apposite referring to previous

my

sister,



noun

a

noun

salutation in informal

correspondence (e.g., Dear T.B.,)

(e.g.,

Nancy) or contrasting

words or phrases

and

(e.g., / prefer

The comma

after the

in all

orange juice, not lemonade).

complimentary close

correspondence (e.g.,

Respectfully,).

sets off a direct

address (e.g., "Sir, can you

me

elements of an address

(e.g., Write to

tell

DASH

the correct time?");

The dash

introductory phrases (e.g., In

(



we felt the whole experience was a good one); and

em

interrupting or parenthetic items.

sentence (e.g.,

essence,

Punctuation

dash,

is

),

also called an

used to denote a

sudden change or break

510

He

in a

disappeared



mysteriously—for over an hour).

word so

No

mispronounced or misunderstood.

spaces are used before or after

a dash.

Do

not combine a dash

with a colon,

comma,

commonly

commas

Do

all

brief, clear,

if

there

is

an inflected

bummed).

Do

summary

statement (e.g., The news article

was

not divide a one-syllable

ending such as -ed (e.g., spelled,

used before an

amplification, definition,

explanation, or

the

with the -ing.

word, even

may be

When

second consonant stays

-ing, the

(e.g.,

— red, yellow,

—are used to make

dash

re-com-men-da-tion y

doubled consonant comes before

to clarify

the other colors)

A

(e.g.,

but sell-ing, buzz-er).

meaning or place emphasis

The primary colors

and blue

would divide a simple base

form

used as a substitute for parentheses or

would be

Divide syllables between

that

also

is

it

doubled consonants, except when

or

semicolon.

The dash

that

and precise

one

—just

the

not divide a word

letter

would be

end of one

if

only

left either at

line or the

the essentials to get the point

beginning of another (e.g., a-bate

across).

should not be divided between

Use a dash

show

to

more than one

of a word or sentence (e.g., The story went

on

to say that



the

).

is

Do

is

shorter than the

dash, which

is

represented in

is

the

meaning intended

" through " or "up

it

at

or

less.

at

the hyphen.

Do

not divide before the

following suffixes (they should not

used as a

replacement for a hyphen

putting

permissible

Divided hyphenated words

em

typewritten material by two

hyphens. The en dash

letter,

line, is

not divide words of six

letters

used in typeset

and

material

end of a

(e.g., re-direct).

Precede an author's credit for a quotation with a dash.

The en dash

Division after a prefix of

lines).

interruption

be

when

at the

beginning of a line

alone), nor should they be divided

is

themselves: -able, -ceous, -cial,

to and

-cion, -cious, -geous, -gion,

including" (e.g., 1987-91, or

-gious, -ible, -sial, -sion, -tial,

Monday-Saturday)

-tion, -tious.

DIVISION OF

When

WORDS

a vowel alone forms a

syllable in the middle of a

Guidelines for dividing words at the

end of

lines are:

Pay attention

way

the

word

(syllables)

keep

is

it

(e.g.,

A

to the units in the

pronounced

the

and do not break the

word,

with the previous syllable

physical).

liquid or silent

/

syllable at

end of a word or as

part of an

inflected ending should not be put

Ml

Punctuation

on the next

HYPHEN

alone (e.g., read-

line

able, twin-klin^).

The hyphen

Numerals and abbreviations should not be divided, and avoid

used to

(-) is

connect the elements of some

compound words,

dividing proper nouns whenever

especially ones

of three or more words (e.g., a possible. know-it-all), and to divide a

end of a

at the

ELLIPSIS POINTS

OR

Use

ELLIPSES

a

hyphen

some

in

and compound numbers;

Ellipsis points

(.

.

.),

word

line.

fractions in

measurements with numbers and

also

called suspension points, are used

unit (e.g., 12-inch disk); in ages

when words

with number and unit (e.g.,

are omitted. If the

material omitted

is

the

12,000-year-old fossil).

end of a

A

sentence, the ellipses are followed

sentence

mark



Who

said that

.

.

.

is

used

in prefixed is

doubled

(e.g., anti- inflammatory) or

a period, a question

(e.g.,

hyphen

words when a vowel

by whatever punctuation ended the

consonant

?),

tripled (e.g., bell-

is

or an exclamation point (e.g.,

like); for certain prefixes

They always ...!).

ex-; for certain suffixes

Ellipses

may

trailing off or

also indicate a

-elect;

suspension in

from

speech. Punctuation that normally falls

or to

its

make

homonym

such as

such as

a word clear (e.g.,

recover

and re-cover).

before or after the ellipsis

Use a hyphen between a

prefix

points can be retained for clarity.

and the second word

A

proper noun (e.g., pre-Columbian)

space precedes and follows

ellipses.

EXCLAMATION POINT An

exclamation point

hyphen

used

(!) is

H-bomb).

(e.g.,



Use a hyphen

emphasize a

praise, or to

to

show extreme

tint),

irony or an emphatic tone (e.g.,

How

compound

compound

but not for

modifiers that include an adverb

may mark when

exclamation point

replace a question

for

adjectives (e.g., a bluish- green

force

in statement.

meant

that begin with a

surprise, incredulity, or

command

An

(e.g., Arab-Israeli).

Compounds

single capital letter take a

show

a

and between proper noun

compounds

to

if it is

and an adjective

known

is

(e.g., widely

author).

Hyphens connect

could you!).

directions

(e.g., north-northwest);

show

sentence in a quotation, no

words spelled out

by

comma

(e.g., y-e-s);

If the

"Get

exclamation point ends a

or period

is

used (e.g.,

lost!" she exploded).

Punctuation

letter

and demonstrate

stuttering speech.

512

letter

NUMBERS

At the end of a sentence, the period or other punctuation

Written-out numbers between

complete sentence within

hyphenated

parentheses

(e.g., Fifty-three).

may be

Figures of four digits

written with or without a

comma

end of the sentence should be omitted (retain exclamation points

the thousands place (e.g., 1,521

and question marks). Parentheses

or 1521).

may

indicate important material,

contracts,

but their use

military hours, pages, policies,

rooms

punctuated like

is

regular text, but the period at the

between the hundreds place and

Numbers of checks,

A

follows the closing parenthesis.

twenty-one and ninety-nine are

is

interruptive.

Parenthesis are used to set off

telephone

or suites, streets,

explanation, definitions,

numbers, and years are written translations, or alternatives, to

without commas. Check, telephone, and serial numbers

indicate abbreviation of the

may

spelled-out

contain hyphens.

A

fractional

number

and used as a modifier hyphenated time).

A

Bibliographical data, cross-

figure, (e.g.,

text

written as a

%

A

mile).

a modifier

is

item

(e.g.,

in

an

letters indicating

a series are enclosed in

(a), (b), (c)),

nine-pound boy).

and parentheses may

be used for setting of numeric

Inclusive year and page

data, including Arabic numerals

numbers are joined by a dash and

may omit hundreds

offered in parenthesis.

parentheses (e.g., (1), (2), (3) and

measurement as

hyphenated

may be

Numbers or

53A), as are

measurements that are fractions (e.g.,

comments about a

references, or

fraction used with a is

to provide the

abbreviation.

is

(e.g., three-quarter

whole number

word or

spelled-out form of an

spelled out

confirming a spelled-out number,

(e.g.,

1989-90, pp. 140-50). If an abbreviation or symbol used with a number,

it

and for other mathematical expressions. is

should be

PERIOD

written as a figure (e.g., $1

The period

3 lbs.). number should not be divided

million,

A

at the

end of a

(.) is

used

answer, after a

letter

some

abbreviations, or after a person's

are used to

enclose supplementary matter that is

or number

indicating an item in a series, as part of an ellipsis, in

( () )

end

a question that does not require an

line.

PARENTHESES Parentheses

at the

of a declarative sentence and after

initials.

not essential to the statement.

Periods are also used in

515

Punctuation

numbers with integers and

interrogative

decimals.

they?").

"Where are

is,

Quotation marks

QUESTION MARK

may be

terms or around single

The question mark

used

(?) is

A

used after

It is

when

the series

enumerated or

is

Do

Why

question mark that

falls

a whole.

after a

inside quotation

within

marks

outside

Each

if

they punctuate the

colon or a

For quotations that extend

beyond one paragraph, a quotation

mark begins each paragraph, but a

and ends with quotation marks

closing quotation

convinced," the

defense lawyer told the jury,

mark appears

only at the end of the

"my

last

paragraph.

client is innocent").

Single quotation marks

Quotation marks identify

the word, the

We

a quotation (e.g., 4

term, marked, designated,

named, cited

(Y)

are

used to enclose a quotation within

expressions following introductory

classified,

A

quotation marks.

part of

an interrupted quotation begins

titled,

fall

they

semicolon goes outside the

Quotation marks (*%") are used

terms such as

if

belong with the quoted matter but

QUOTATION MARKS

am

belongs

The dash, question

sentence as a whole.

(e.g., "I

it

mark, and exclamation point

quotation marks.

for direct quotations.

falls

(e.g.,

to the quotation or the sentence as

did they leave?).

comma

always

marks

joked), whether or not

lettered (e.g., I've

not put a

comma

"The buck stops here," he

not

been asking myself, when did they arrive?

period or

inside quotation

each element of an interrogative series

name

begins with a "C").

statement expressing doubt (e.g. ask?).

letters

within a sentence (e.g., His

after a direct interrogative or a

Why do you

set

around translations of foreign

as,

told him,

'Martina said, 'Ask Ivan to do

it.'

").

referred to as, signed, and the like,

SEMICOLON

which indicate a borrowing

or special use.

Quotation marks

The semicolon

may be used

(;) is

sometimes

regarded as a weak period or a

around mottos, slang, misnomers,

comma and

coined words, proverbs and

strong

maxims,

similar to periods and

ironical reference,

is

used

in

ways

commas.

A

unspoken dialogue, around words

semicolon can mark the end of a

words

clause and indicate that a clause

referred to as

(e.g., / said

"tomato," not "potato"), and

following

around sentences referred to as

semicolon can also divide a

sentences (e.g.,

Punctuation

An example of an

is

sentence to

J14

closely related to

make meaning

it;

a

clearer.

A

semicolon

is

or phrases in a series

placed outside

More

specifically, a

semicolon

SLASH

separates independent clauses in

place of a coordinating

The

conjunction such as and, because, for,

and the

when the commas.

phrases themselves have

quotation marks and parentheses.

like. It also separates

(/) is

A

second clause begins with a

slash represents or or and/or

such as yours/ mine.

in alternatives

is, it

also called the

oblique, or slant.

independent clauses when the

conjunctive adverb; that

slash

virgule, diagonal, solidus,

can

A

slash

may

represent and,

precede words such as

(e.g., 1990/91, Minneapolis/St.

accordingly, all the same, also, as

Paul).

a

result, besides,

by the same

A

slash

may

represent

token, consequently, furthermore,

abbreviation of

hence, however, indeed, in that

(e.g., c/o addressee,

case, likewise, moreover,

and

thus.

A

then, therefore,

still,

These usually explain or

clarifies

by providing a long pause

commas.

It

A

meaning

fractions,

may be used

is

used to separate

and sometimes

A

slash used

to divide lines of poetry

when

written as continuous text.

A

clauses such as for example, for

slash

is

used

in representing

pronunciations (phonemic

is.

also separates

to in

2 ft J

in dates (e.g., 2/14/93),

telephone numbers.

before explanatory phrases and

The semicolon

slash

numbers

in long

instance, i.e., namely, that

per or

ratios (e.g.,

min., price/ earnings ratio).

sentences and in sentences with several

slash represents

measures and

summarize preceding matter.

The semicolon

prepositions

wl dressing,

wlo reference).

nevertheless, on the other hand,

otherwise,

some

transcriptions).

lists

515

Punctuation

APPENDICES

Celt

ABBREVIATIONS

1.

Confed Confederate Copt Coptic

ENTYMOLOGIES

Corn

anno Domini

A.D.

Chinese

Columbia, Colossians

Col

ABBREVIATIONS OFTEN IN

Celtic

Chin

Cornish

AF

Anglo-French

Croat

Afr

Afrika

D,

Albanian, Albania

Alb

Danish; Daniel

Denmark derivative

deriv

alteration

alter

Dutch

Dan Den

Afrikaans

Afrik

Croatian

Du

Am, Amer America, American AmerF American French

Dom Rep

Amerind

E EE

AmerSp

AN

Dor

American Indian American Spanish

Anglo-Norman anglicized

angl

Ar Arabic Arab Arabian,

East Germanic

Egyptian

Eng

England, English

Eskimo

Aramaic

Argen

Argentine

F

AS

Armenian

Early English

Egypt

Aram

Arm

east, eastern; English

EGmc

Esk Eth

Arabic

Ethiopic

French; Fahrenheit

Fin

Anglo-Saxon

Finland

Finn

Finnish

Assyr

Assyrian

Flem, Fl

attrib

attributive, attributively

Fr

Austral

AV AV

Australian

from

fr

Fris

Avestan

G

B.C.

Babylonian

Flemish

France, French

Authorized Version

Bab

Dominican Republic

Doric

Frisian

German

Gael

Gaelic

Ger German, Germany Gk, Gr Greek

before Christ; British

Columbia

Gmc

Germanic

Beng

Bengali

Goth

Gothic

Braz

Brazilian

Bret

Breton

Gr Brit Great Heb Hebrew

Brit

Britain, British

Hind

Belg

Bulg c

Belgian, Belgium

Bulgarian, Bulgaria

Hitt

circa

Canad, Can

CanF Cant Catal

Hindustani Hittite

Hon Honduras Hung Hungarian, Hungary

century

ca, c

Britain

Canadian, Canada

I

Canadian French

Indian

Icel

IE

Cantonese

imit

Catalan

519

Icelandic

Indo-European imitative

Abbreviations

Ind

India, Indian

NZ New

Ion

Ionic

OCatal Old Catalan OE Old English OF Old French OFris Old Frisian OGael Old Gaelic OHG Old High German Olr Old Irish Olt Old Italian OL Old Latin ON Old Norse ONF Old North French

Ir

Irish

Ireland

Ire

IrGael

ISV

Irish

Gaelic

International Scientific

Vocabulary Italian, Italy

It, Ital

Jav

Javanese Japanese, Japan

Jp

L

Latin

LaF

Louisiana French

Lat

LG Low LGk

German

LHeb

OPruss orig

Late Latin

MD ME

Old Saxon OSlav Old Slavic

Middle English

OSp Old

Mediterranean

Mex Mexican, Mexico MexSp Mexican Spanish

OW

MF

Pek

Middle Flemish

MIr

Pg

Middle High German Middle

ModE

PR

MPer

MW

Mongolian

Prov Pruss

Rom Rum

England

New England NewZeal New Zealand NGk New Greek

Sc

Scotch, Scots

Scand, Scan

Scandinavian

ScGael Scottish Gaelic Scot, Sc Scotland, Scottish

Norwegian, Norway

Abbreviations

Prussian

Roman; Romanian, Romania Rumanian

American

North Germanic

NHeb New Hebrew NL New Latin Norw

Provencal

Russ Russian S Afr South Africa, South African S Amer South America, South

Netherlands

NewEng

NGmc

Portuguese, Portugal

Puerto Rico

Middle Persian Middle Welsh

Philippine Spanish

Polish, Poland

Port

Modern English

NE New Neth

Philippines

PhilSp Pol

Persian

Portuguese

Phil

Irish

ML Medieval Latin MLG Middle Low German Mongol

Pennsylvania German

Pekingese

Per, Pers

Middle Greek

MHG

Spanish

Old Welsh

PaG

Middle French

MGk

Old Russian

OS

Middle Dutch

MFlem

Old Provencal Old Prussian

original, originally

ORuss

Middle Breton

Medit

Old Persian Old Portuguese

OProv

Late Hebrew Lithuanian, Lithuania

MBret

Ontario

OPg

Late Greek

Lith

LL

Ont OPer

Latin

Zealand

520

anc

ancient

Sem

Seminary; Semitic

ant

antonym

Serb

Serbian

anthropol,

Shak

Shakespeare

Scripture

Scrip

Skt

Sanskrit

Slav

Slavic

anthrop aor

apostrophe

approx

African

Sp, Span

approximate,

approximately

Spanish

Sw, Swed

arch

Swedish

archaic

archaeol

Switzerland

Switz

aorist

apos

South Africa, South

So Afr

anthropologist,

anthropology

Syr

Syriac

archit

Tag

Tagalog

art

archaeologist

architecture

article

Tasm

Tasmania

Assoc

Toch

Tocharian

astron, astr

trans

translation

Turk

United

Ukrain

US

Kingdom

Venezuela

VL

Vulgar Latin

W

average

born

before

bet

between

bib

biblical

biol

about

abbr

brother centigrade; College

cap

abbreviation

abl

botany

bro

C

absolute, absolutely

cent

Acad

Academy

Ch

ace

accusative

chem

act

active

class

adj

adjective

co(s)

adv

adverb

coll

Air Force Base

Agric alt

anat

Agriculture

altitude

A&M

causative

cen

absol

AFB

capital, capitalized

caus

ablative

center, central

century

Church chemistry, chemical classical

county (counties) college

collect

collective, collectively

colloq

colloquial, colloquially

comb

combining, combination

Comm

Agricultural and Mechanical

compar

anatomy

521

biochemist

biologist

bot

COMMON ABBREVIATIONS ab

bibliography

biochem

West Germanic

bacteriologist

bef

bibliog

Welsh; west, western

WGmc

augmentative

bacteriol

Socialist

Republics

Ven

attorney

aug b

United States of America

Union of Soviet

atty

av

Ukrainian

United States

USA USSR

astronomer,

astronomy

Turkish

UK

Association

Community comparative

Abbreviations

conjugation; conjunction

conj

constr

contr

freq

criminologist

fut

daughter

def

geom gov

department

derog

geography geology

geol

definite

dept

general; genitive

geog

dative

dau

future

gen

died

dat

frequentative

feet, foot

ft

cubic

d

former, formerly

from

fr

cookery

criminol

cu

form

contraction

cook

flourished

fl

construction

geometry governor

government

govt

derogatory

dial

dialect

gram

dim

diminutive

her

heraldry

disc

discovered

hist

historian, history

dist

district

hort

div

division

dram dyn

E

I

dramatist

in

incorp

economist

indef

Education

indep

elec

electrical

indie

emp

emperor

infin

equiv esp

equivalent especially

estab

'

et al .

et alii

et cetera

etc

ethnol

exc

'

and others

'

instrumental

intens

intensive

interj

interjection

irreg

ethnologist

ital

lat

exclamation

lit

founded

italic

jocular, jocularly latitude literally; literary

liturg

Fahr Fahrenheit fam family

long

fed

manuf

fern, f ff fig

m

federation

following

max

figurative, figuratively

Abbreviations

J22

liturgical, liturgy

longitude meters; mile; masculine

masc math

feminine

interrogative

irregular

joe

excludes, excluding, exclusive

exclam

infinitive institute, institution

interrog

'

("and so forth")

except

excl

f

(

independent indicative

instr

established

incorporated indefinite

inst

estimated, estimate

est

inchoative included, includes, including

incl

ecclesiastical

Ed

imperative

inch

incho

exempli gratia ("for

example") econ

id est ("that is")

imper

east, eastern

eccl

horticulture

island

i.e.

dynamics

e.g.

grammar

manufacturer

masculine

mathematician

maximum

Mech mech

Med med met

Mechanical

poet

mechanics

polit

Medical

pop

medicine

pp

political, politician

population past participle; pages

prec

metropolitan

meteor

poetical

preceding

predic

meteorology

predictive, predicatively

mfr manufacture mi miles

prep

preposition

pres

present; president

mil

prob pron

military

min

minister

mod

modern

modif

MS

MT

manuscript

pronunc pronunciation propr proprietary prp present participle pseud pseudonym

(s)

Mount, Mountain

munic

municipal

mus music myth mythology n

noun

pi

pronoun; pronunciation,

pronounced

modification

(S)

probably

psychol, psych

pub

qqv, qv

plural

N

north, northern

redupl

n

noun

red

naut

nautical

n

neut,

nom

neuter

nonstand

vide

relig

religion

resp

respectively

revolution

nov novelist nr near

rhet

obs

S south, southern Sen School

off

occasionally, occasional

official

opposite

secy

org

organized

sig

p

ornithology

science secretary

signature

sing

page

singular

sociol

part, partic

pass

river

sci

opp

ornith

rhetoric, rhetorical

riv

obsolete

occas

sociologist

specif, spec

participle

passive

spp

path

pathology

St

perf

perfect

Ste

Saint

Sainte

perhaps

subj

pers

person

substand

philosopher

specifically

species

perh philos

subjunctive

superl

substandard

superlative

photog photography phys physics, physical

syn

physiol

techn

technical

theat

theatre

pi

Tech

physiologist

plural

52J

("which see")

relative

rev

nonstandard

quod

reduplication

reflexive

rel

nominative

psychologist

published

synonym, synonymy Technology

Abbreviations

allopathic).

theological

U

alti-, altoHigh (e.g., altimeter). am-, amb-, ambi-, amphi- Both,

treasury

treas

University

univ

round (e.g., amphitheater); about

usually, usual

vb

v,

both sides (e.g., ambivalence);

university

usu var

(e.g.,

verb

voc

an-

verb transitive

W

west, western

Starch (e.g.,

amylopsin).

vocative

vt

zool

ambience).

amyl-, ainylo-

variant

verb intransitive

vi

Other, different (e.g.,

all-, alio-

theologian, theology,

theol

Not, without, lacking (e.g.,

anaerobe).

ana-

Again; thorough, thoroughly

(e.g., anaphylaxis); up,

zoologist

upward;

back, backward (e.g., anapest).

Man; male

andr-, andro-

AFFIXES

2.

Wind

anem-, anemo-

Before, prior, earlier;

ant-, ante-

From, away from at, in,

on

aboard);

(e.g.,

awake);

(e.g.,

in

in front

such

antigovernment)

From, away from

ap-

(e.g.,

Spiny, thorny

api-

(e.g., acanthoid).

ad-

Hearing

(e.g., acoustics).

aden-, adeno-

Gland

(e.g.,

To, toward, near

Affixes

(e.g.,

arch-, archi-

Chief, principal,

supreme

archenemy).

(e.g.,

Old, ancient (e.g., archaeology). Artery (e.g.,

arteri-, arterio-

(e.g., affix).

arteriosclerosis)

(e.g.,

arthr-, arthro-

aggress).

To, toward, near

Tree

arche-, archeo-, archae-, archaeo-

Air, gas (e.g.,

To, toward, near

(e.g.,

arboreal).

aerodynamic). af-

(e.g., apologue);

Water

arbor-, arbori-

(e.g.,

Adrenal gland.

ag-

Away

aquiculture).

adenoma). adren-, adreno-

(e.g., apiary).

aqui- , aqua-

adsorb, adjacent).

al-

(e.g.,

from; related.

Top; extremity, end

To, toward, near

Bee

apo-, ap-

acromegaly).

aer-, aero-

To, toward, near

appoint).

acanth-, acantho-

(e.g.,

Against,

combating, defending (e.g.,

(e.g.,

abstract).

acr-, aero-

(e.g.,

opposite (e.g., antihero);

From, away from

acous-

anth-

anti-, ant-,

amoral).

abnormal). abs-

Man

anthropomorphize)

(e.g., afoot); not, without, lacking

ab-

of (e.g., anteroom).

anthrop-, anthropo-

a manner, state, or condition

(e.g.,

(e.g.,

anemology).

PREFIXES a-

(e.g.,

androgen).

arthritis).

(e.g., allure).

J 24

Joint (e.g.,

To, toward, near

as-

catastrophe); against;

(e.g.,

completeness, thorough,

assimilate).

thoroughly (e.g., catachresis).

Star (e.g.,

astr-, astro-, aster-

To, toward, near

at-

cerebro-

atmosphere)

(e.g.,

Hearing, sound (e.g.,

chol-, chole-, cholo-

Nitrogenous.

Cartilage.

choreo-

Weight, pressure

Deep,

To make, cause from

chrom-, chromo-, chromato-

(e.g., belittle);

behead); on,

(e.g.,

Color, colored (e.g.,

over; against, across; thoroughly,

chromatic).

chrys-, chryso-

biopsy).

Twice, two, double,

circum-, circu-

Eyelid,

Arm.

cis-

Short.

bronchio-

(e.g.,

cleistogamic).

co-

Together, with (e.g.,

coauthor).

cog-

(e.g., calciferous).

Heart (e.g.,

col-

Fruit (e.g.,

Together, with (e.g.,

collateral).

com-

carpophageous). cat-, cata-, cath-, cato-

downward, under

Together, with (e.g.,

cognate).

cardiovascular).

carpo-

this side (e.g.,

Closed

cleisto-

Throat, lung.

Evil, bad, incorrect (e.g.,

Lime

On

cisatlantic).

cacoethes).

cardio-

Curl (e.g.,

cirrate).

branch-, broncho-, bronchi-,

calci-

Around, about

cirr-, cirri-, cirro-

eyelash.

bracchio-

(e.g.,

(e.g., circumnavigate)

(e.g., bibliography).

blephar-, blepharo-

Gold

chrysolite).

in

(e.g., biannual).

Book

(e.g.,

chronological).

Life, living (e.g.,

bi-, bis-

Time

chron-, chrono-

excessively (e.g., beset). bi-, bio-

caco-

(e.g.,

chorographer).

to take

brachy-

(e.g.,

Country

choro-

depth.

two

Dance

choreography).

bath-, batho-, bathy-

biblio-

Bile (e.g.,

chondr-, chondri-, chondroBacteria.

(e.g., barometer).

be-

(e.g.,

cholera).

Berry.

bacteri-, bacterio-

bar-, baro-

Green

chloroplast).

Bird, flying (e.g., aviary).

bacci-

Neck.

(e.g., chiropractor).

chlor-, chloro-

Self-moving (e.g.,

az-, azo-

Brain.

Hand

chiro-

autodidact). avi-

(e.g.,

cervic-, cervico-, cervici-

audiotape).

auto-

Head

cephalopod).

Vapor

audio-

(e.g., centigrade).

cephal- , cephalo-

(e.g.,

attribute).

atmo-

Hundred

centi-

asteroid).

Down,

Together, with (e.g.,

commingle); thorough, thoroughly

(e.g..

(e.g.,

525

commination).

AfFIXCS

Together, with (e.g.,

con-

concomitant)

dif-

Against, in opposition,

contra-

digiti grade).

contradistinction).

(e.g., diplopia).

correlation); thorough, thoroughly

dis-

(e.g., corroborate).

Universe (e.g.,

dis-

cruci-

Against, in opposition

Skull.

body.

(e.g.,

dyna-, dynamo(e.g.,

evil;

(e.g., cupreous);

Cell

difficult, hard;

(e.g.,

Out, not, absent (e.g.,

e-

cyt-, cyto-

abnormal

dysfunctional).

bronze.

Bladder, sac.

cyst-, cysti-, cysto-

Badly,

dys-, dis-

cryptogram).

Force, power

dynamic).

(e.g.,

Hidden

crypt-, crypto-

Copper

Back of

dors-, dorsi-, dorso-

Cold

(e.g.,

dodecaphonic).

cryoplankton).

cupr-

Twelve

dodeca-, dodec-

Cross (e.g., cruciform).

cry-, cryo-

Not, opposite (e.g.,

disingenuous); apart; two.

(e.g., countersink); substitute.

cranio-

Exclude, remove (e.g.,

disenfranchise); do opposite.

cosmopolitan).

counter-

Double, twofold

dipl-, diplo-

Together, with (e.g.,

cosmo-

difficulty);

Finger or toe (e.g.,

digit-, digiti-

contrasting, contrary (e.g.,

cor-

Not, opposite (e.g.,

two, apart (e.g., diffuse).

.

ebracteate).

(e.g.',

ec-

Out, not, absent (e.g.,

cytogenetics). ectopic).

dactyl-, dactylo-

Finger, toe (e.g., echin-, echino-

Spine (e.g.,

dactylology).

de-

Down, from,

echinate).

separation (e.g.,

Outside, external (e.g.,

ect-, ecto-

decease); not; reverse (e.g.,

remove

debrief);

ectoparasite). (e.g., debar); get ef-

Out, not, absent (e.g.,

el-

In, into, on, within.

off (e.g., debark); derived.

deca-, deci-, dec-, deka-, dek-

Ten demi-

en-,

(e.g., decathalon).

Half, part of (e.g.,

(e.g.,

demimonde). dent-, denti-, dento-

Tooth

deut-, deuto-, deutero-

ennea-

Second

on, within.

Brain (e.g.,

enter-, entero-

ennead).

Intestine (e.g.,

enterotoxemia)

(e.g., diclinous).

Through, across

(e.g.,

Inside, within (e.g.,

entozoa).

Right side (e.g.,

entomo-

(e.g.,

diachronic); not, opposite; apart.

Affixes

,

in, into,

Inside, within (e.g.,

Nine

ent-, ento-

dextrorotary)

dia-, di-

make

surround cover

endometrium).

deuterogamy).

Two

enmesh);

end-, endo-

Skin

(e.g., dermatitis).

di-

to be, to

encephaloma)

derm-, derma-, dermo-

dextr-, dextro-

Cause

encephal-, encephalo-

(e.g.,

denture).

(e.g.,

em-

(e.g., envision); to

effluent).

eo-

526

Insect (e.g., entomology).

Early, old (e.g., eolith).

on, upon, beside, above

epi-, ep-

(e.g., epigraph); out,

(e.g., glossary).

gon-, gono-

Red

grapho-

Good, well

Woman From; out, out

hapl-, haplo-

on the outside,

for-

helic-, helico-

Iron.

Threadlike, fibrous

.

. ,

haemato-, hema-

hemi-

Not; against, forth; away;

before early (e.g., foretell ,

of (e.g.,

Milk

hetero-, heter-

(e.g.,

Together, copulation

gamete).

hexa-, hex-

Six (e.g., hexagon).

hist-, histo-

Tissue (e.g.,

histolysis).

gastr-, gastro-, gastri-

Stomach,

hoi-, nolo-

eating (e.g., gastronome).

Whole, complete,

Earth, land (e.g.,

horn-,

homo-, homeo-

same, alike

Bud

Similar,

(e.g., homoerotic).

hydr-, hydro-

(e.g.,

gemmulation). geront-, geronto-

total

(e.g., holohedral).

geography).

gem mi-

Different, opposite,

another (e.g., heterosexual).

(e.g.,

galactose).

gam-, gamo-

gem-,

Seven

hepta-, hept-

Against (e.g., gainsay).

ge-, geo-

Liver (e.g.,

hepatitis).

;

heptarchy).

galact-, galacto-

(e.g.,

(e.g.,

Half (e.g., hemisphere)

hepat-, hepato-

foreskin).

gain-

Blood

hematoma).

fluviomarine)

in front of, front part

Spiral (e.g.,

hem-, nemo-, haem-, haemo-,

prohibitive (e.g., forbidden).

fore-

(e.g.,

helicopter).

fibrovascular).

Ri ver (e g

(e.g.,

heliotherapy).

Split (e.g., fissipalmate)

flu vio-

Sun

heli-, helio-

Fever (e.g., febricity)

,

Hundred

hectare).

exceptionally (e.g., extrasensory).

(e.g.

Simple, single (e.g.,

hect-, hecto-

external;

in excess, additional,

fibr-, fibro-

(e.g.,

haplosis).

(e.g., ex- lover).

ferri-, ferro-

Holy

hagiography).

exoskeleton); without; former

febri-

(e.g., gynarchy).

hagi-, hagio-

of,

outside, external (e.g.,

beyond,

(e.g.,

gynec-, gyneco-, gynaec-, gynaeco-

(e.g., eulogize);

true.

extra-

Naked

gymnasium).

ethnocentric).

fissi-

Writing (e.g., grapheme).

gymn-, gymno-

Race, nation (e.g.,

ex-, exo-

Reproduction (e.g.,

gonads).

(e.g.,

erythrema).

eu-

(e.g.,

glyptographic).

(e.g.,

ergonomics). erythr-, erythro-

ethno-

Carving

glypto-, glyph-

equidistant).

Work

(e.g.,

glucose).

Equal, alike (e.g.,

erg- , ergo-

Sweet

glue-, gluco-, glyc-

outside (e.g., epicardium); during,

equi-

Tongue; language

gloss-, glosso-

on the

Water, liquid (e.g.,

hydroelectric).

Old age

hygr-, hygro-

(e.g.,

gerontologist).

Wet

(e.g.,

hygroscopic).

J27

Affixes

Under, beneath;

hyp-, hypo-

la bio-

(e.g.,

Sleep (e.g.,

box

Medicine

hysteria.

(e.g., leukemia).

(e.g., iatrogenic).

lign-, ligni-, ligno-

Fish (e.g.,

ichthyology).

luni-

form adjectives

on

(e.g., lyophilic).

End of small

Large

(e.g.,

macrocosm); long.

(e.g.,

magni-

illuminate). ile-, ileo-

(e.g., lunitidal).

Dissolving, dispersed

macr-, macro-

used to form nouns or in, into,

Moon

lyo-, lysi-

not, opposite (e.g.,

verbs indicating

oral (e.g.,

logotype).

Fire (e.g., ignition).

illogical);

Word,

log-, logo-

ignoble).

to

(e.g.,

Stone (e.g., lithophyte).

litho-

Used to form adjectives meaning not, opposite (e.g.,

Used

Wood

lignocellulose)

ig-

meaning

White

leuk-, leuko-, leuc-, leuco-

Womb;

ichthy-, ichthyo-

0-

Slender (e.g.,

leptocephalus).

hypsometry). hyster-, hystero-

igni-

Larynx, voice

(e.g., laryngectomy).

lepto-

High, height (e.g.,

iatro-

Milk.

laryng-, laryngo-

hypnotic).

hypso-

(e.g.,

Lip.

lact-, lacti-, lacto-

hyperspace).

hypn-, hypno-

beside

kinematics).

(e.g., hyperactive);

beyond three dimensions

to,

Movement

kine-, kineto-

Above, over, beyond,

extreme

near

to,

(e.g., juxtaposition )

hypoglycemia).

hyper-

Close

juxta-

deficient, less than (e.g.,

Great (e.g., magnify).

mal-, male-

Bad, badly;

ill;

evil

intestine (e.g., malevolent);

abnormal,

(e.g., ileostomy). ilio-

Upper hip bone,

inadequate (e.g., malformed). flank (e.g.,

mega-, megalo-, meg-

great, large

iliolumbar). in-, im-, ir-

adjectives

(e.g.,

Used to form meaning not, opposite

melan-, melano-

mero-

used to form nouns or verbs

(e.g.,

under, beneath (e.g.,

among, intra-

metanovel);

(e.g., interstate);

in the midst.

changed,

(e.g., metrication)

Uterus (e.g.,

metrorrhagia).

Within (e.g., introspective);

micr-, micro-

Equal, uniform, (e.g.,

Very small

(e.g.,

microfilm).

mid-

isometrics).

Affixes

Measure

metr-, metro-

into, in. is-, iso-

(e.g.,

after; over;

metamorphosis)

metr-

on the outside;

during. intro-

Beyond

transferred, substituted (e.g.,

Within, interior, between

(e.g., intramural);

Middle, intermediate

meso- America)

meta-, met-

infrastructure); within

Between

Part (e.g., meropia).

mes-, meso-

indicating in, into, on.

inter-

Black, dark

(e.g., melanotic).

(e.g., inapt, impotent, irregular);

infra-

megalomaniac); million.

528

Middle, mean (e.g., midline).

Very small, short

mini-

mis-

octagenarian)

Degrading,

wrong, badly

omni-

Shape, form

ont-, onto-

Many, much

op-

oppose); out, inverse.

(e.g.,

Fungus

ornith-, ornitho-

Spinal cord,

marrow (e.g., myelencephalon) Nose (e.g., nasopharynx).

orth- , ortho-

New,

recent; revived

oto-

Ear

Dead body

(e.g.,

out-

Beyond, exceeding,

Kidney

(e.g.,

ov-, ovi-, ovo-

nephrotomy).

over-

Nerve

neur-, neuro-

(e.g., otolith)

Sharp; oxygen.

oxy-

pachy-

Night (e.g.,

noct-, nocti-

Egg.

above, beyond, too much,

excessive (e.g., overpriced).

(e.g.,

neuralgia).

nocturnal).

Thick

(e

.

g

.

,

pachyderm)

pale-, paleo-, palae-, palaeo-

Ancient, old (e.g.,

(e.g., nonissue); reverse;

unimportant, lacking (e.g.,

paleobotany).

nonage).

pan-, panto-

Back of body

American); worldwide.

(e.g.,

notochord).

way

All, everything,

group, whole (e.g., pan-

Sickness (e.g., nosology).

In the

(e.g.,

surpassing (e.g., outrun).

necrotic).

nephr-, nephro-

ob-

Bone

ossify).

(e.g., neoclassical).

not-, noto-

(e.g., orthography).

Straight (e.g.,

oste- , osteo- , ossi-

necr-, necro-

noso-

Bird (e.g.,

orthopedic).

(e.g., nether,

neuter).

Not

Mountain

oro-

Birth (e.g., nativity).

ne-, neo-

(e.g.,

ornithology).

naso-

No, not

Eye

ophthalmologist).

(e.g.,

mycelium). myel-, myelo-

non-

In the

ophthalm- , ophthalmo-

myc-, myco-

ne-, n-

Being, organism (e.g.,

Egg (e.g., oogenesis). way of; against (e.g.,

oo-, o-

(e.g.,

myotonia).

nati-

(e.g.,

ontological).

multiply).

Muscle

Dream

oneiromancy)

(e.g., morphosis).

my-, myo-

(e.g., oligarchy).

All (e.g., omnipotent).

oneiro-

solitary,

single (e.g., monotone).

morph-, morpho-

Few

olig-, oligo-

misanthropic).

multi-, mult-

Oil (e.g., oleomargarine).

oleo-

One, alone,

(e.g.,

odontophore).

(e.g.,

Hatred, aversion (e.g.,

mon-, mono-

(e.g., oculist).

Tooth

odont-, odonto-

misdirection).

mis-, miso-

Eye

ocul-, oculo-

of (e.g.,

less, lack

mistrust)', defect (e.g., misprint);

in error,

Eight (e.g.,

octa-, octo-, oct-

(e.g.,

miniskirt).

para-, par-

Close, beside; like,

alike (e.g., paralegal).

of, against (e.g.,

para-, par-

obstacle); out (e.g., obliterate);

inverse (e.g., obovate).

Unlike, contrary (e.g.,

paranormal); abnormal, faulty.

529

Affixes

pari-

post-

Equal (e.g., parity)

path-, patho-

(e.g., postorbital).

(e.g., pathogen).

ped-, pedo-

pre-, prae-

Child (e.g.,

predawn);

Five (e.g.,

penta-, pente-, pent-

Through

(e.g.,

preternatural).

(e.g.,

primi-, prim-

pellucid); thoroughly; by; for

First (e.g.,

primogeniture).

(e.g., percent).

Taking the place

pro-

round; about, enclosing

on the

(e.g., perimeter).

petr-, petri-, petro-

of, favoring,

side of (e.g., prorebel);

front, forward, forth (e.g.,

stone (e.g.,

proactive); before, earlier.

petroglyph); petroleum.

phago-

priority.

Beyond, more than

preter-

pentagon).

peri-

Before, earlier, in

advance, preparatory (e.g.,

pediatrics).

per-, pel-

afterward (e.g.,

later,

postprandial); behind, following

Suffering, disease

to , towards , near (e.g.,

pros-

Eating (e.g.,

prospect); in front of.

phagocytosis).

Vein

phleb-, phlebo-

prot-, proto-

(e.g.,

First, original (e.g.,

protozoa); lowest.

phlebotomy).

phon-, phono-

pseud-, pseudo-

Sound, speech

psycho-, psycho-

Light; photograph

phot-, photo-

spirit,

(e.g., photorealism).

Brain (e.g.,

pur-

Leaf

(e

.

g

.

,

pterosaur)

.

Lung (e.g., pulmonic) For, on the side of; front,

pulmo-

phrenology); diaphragm. phyll-, phyllo-

Mental; mind,

soul (e.g., psychotherapy).

Wing

ptero-

phren-, phreno-

False, spurious

pseudonym).

(e.g.,

(e.g., phonetics).

.

(e.g.,

forward, forth (e.g., pursue); phylloclade). before, earlier (e.g., purvey). pier-, picro-

Bitter (e.g.,

pyr-, pyro-

picrotoxin).

Pressure (e.g.,

piezo-

quadri-, quadr-, quadra-

piezoelectrical).

(e.g.,

Fish (e.g., piscivorous).

pisci-

plan-, piano-

Rain

pluvio-

time (e.g., rebirth).

(e.g., plutocracy)

recti.

retro-

(e.g., pluviose).

pneumonia);

air,

Many

rheo-

gas,

Flow

(e.g.,

(e.g., rheotaxis).

rhiz-, rhizo-

Nose (e.g., Root (e.g.,

rhinitis).

rhizomorph). sacchar-, sacchari-, sacchro-

(e.g., polysyllabic);

Sugar.

excessive.

Affixes

Backward, back

rhin-, rhino-

breath, vapor.

poly-

Straight (e.g., rectilinear).

retrofit).

pneum-, pneumo-, pneumat-, pneumato- Respiration, lungs (e.g.,

Again, back; anew, a second

re-

Side of body,

pleurodont).

Wealth

Five (e.g.,

quinquennium).

planoconvex); moving.

lateral (e.g.,

Four

quadruped).

quinque-

Flat (e.g.,

pleur-, pleuro-

pluto-

Fire, heat (e.g.,

pyrotechnics).

5

50

above

Pelvic;

sacr-, sacro-

styl-, stylo-

Blood

sangui-

(e.g.,

rotten;

subterfuge).

schisto-, shiz-, schizo-

less, nearly, almost;

suf-

(e.g., scleroderma).

seba-, sebo-

sug-

Fatty (e.g.,

Moon

selen-, seleno-

sup-

Below, beneath

(e.g.,

Above, over,

super-, supra-, sur-

(e.g., septilateral).

higher, in excess (e.g., (e.g.,

surcharge); very special, superior.

serotonin).

sus-

Six (e.g., sextan).

sex-, sexi-

(e.g.,

secondary.

semicooked).

Seven

Below, beneath

supplant); less, nearly, almost;

Half; in part, incomplete

Serum, blood

sero-

secondary

secondary.

(e.g.,

selenography).

(e.g.,

secondary. (e.g., suffix);

suggest); less, nearly, almost;

sebaceous).

septi-

(e.g., succor);

(e.g., suffice).

sedition).

semi-

Below, beneath

less, nearly, almost;

Aside, apart; separating (e.g.,

se-

Below, beneath

sue-

Split (e.g.,

schizophrenic).

Hard

Beneath, under (e.g.,

subter-

Flesh, muscle (e.g.,

sarcophagus).

sclero-

substandard); secondary

(e.g., subplot).

decaying (e.g., saprozoic). sarc-, sarco-

(e.g.,

subterranean); less, nearly, almost

(e.g., sanguineous).

Dead,

sapr-, sapro-

Pillar.

Below, beneath

sub-

tailbone (e.g., sacroiliac).

Below, beneath,

less, nearly,

almost secondary (e.g., suspire). sider- , sidero-

Star (e g .

.

sym-, syn-

sy-, syl-,

With,

sidereal)\ iron. together, at the

Without

sine-

somato

(e.g.,

(e.g., sinecure).

Body

somat-, somato-

somn-

same time

synchronized). (e.g.,

Rapid

tachy-

type).

(e.g., tachycardia).

Same

taut-, tauto-

(e.g.,

Sleep (e.g., somnolence). tautology).

sperm-, spermo-, sperma-, tele-, tel-, telo-

spermi-, spermat-, spermato-

Seed

communication

(e.g., spermicide).

spiro-

Breath (e.g., spirograph)

stato-

Resting position, equilibrium

teleo-

the-, theo-

Short, narrow, close

therm-,

(e.g., stenothermal).

stere-, stereo-

Solid;

God

her mo-

(e.g., theologian).

Heat

(e.g.,

(e.g.,

Blood

clot

thromboembolism).

(e.g.,

topo-

Mouth

t

thromb-, thrombo-

stereophonic).

Place, point (e.g.,

topography).

stomodeum). styl-, styli-, stylo-

(e.g.,

thermostat).

multidimensional (e.g.,

stom-, stomo-

Land, earth

terrarium).

Star (e.g., stellar)

sten-, steno-

(e.g., teletype).

Final, purpose (e.g.,

teleology).

terra-

(e.g., statoblast). stell-

Distant; electronic

tox-, toxi-, toxo-

Poison (e.g.,

toxin).

Style.

J51

Affixes

Windpipe

trache-, tracheo-

SUFFIXES

(e.g.,

tracheotomy).

Used

-able

Through; across, over,

trans-, tra-

beyond, on the

to,

fit

to,

worthy, or

far side (e.g.,

transcontinental).,

capable; apt to (e.g., reasonable).

from one place

-ac to another;

form adjectives

to

meaning able

change

One

affected with (e.g.,

(e.g.,

insomniac). transform).

-aceae

Three

tri-, tris-

Beyond; on the other

ultra-

Families of plants (e.g.,

(e.g., trio).

Rosaceae). side;

Having resemblance

-aceous, -ous

extreme

(e.g., ultraconservative).

to a substance; full of (e.g.,

Used to form verbs indicating

tin-

sebaceous). to

do

the opposite or reverse; to

unthe

Used

-acy

remove (e.g., unfasten). Used to form adjectives with meaning of not; the opposite

release,

meaning

form nouns

to

state, condition,

or

quality of being (e.g., literacy), result.

of (e.g., unavailable,

-ade

Product; action (e.g.,

unelectable).

blockade).

undec-

Eleven.

under-

Lower, beneath

Place of; house (e.g.,

-age (e.g.,

parsonage). underline)',

toa

little

(e.g.,

Used

-age

form nouns meaning

to

undercooked).

state, condition,

uni-

up-

One, single Aloft,

or quality of

(e.g., unilateral).

on high, upward

being (e.g., dotage); nouns (e.g.,

meaning an

act of (e.g.,

upstairs).

uter-, utero-

womb

Uterus,

brokerage)', nouns indicating (e.g.,

persons or things collectively; uterine).

measure of vari-, vario-

(e.g., poundage)',

Different, diverse collection of, rate of, charge

(e.g., variegated).

Blood vessel

vas-, vaso-

(e.g., postage).

(e.g., -al

vasodilation).

ventr-, ventro-

-al

(e.g., ventriculus).

vice-

From, opposing

-algia

of;

one

Double,

pair,

who

acts;

A collection. A state or quality

of

being; action, process; degree.

union

-androus

egg yolk.

Enzyme,

-ant, -ent

Man. Used

to

form adjectives

meaning being, belonging

fermentation (e.g., zymurgy).

Affixes

one

to; citizen

to,

is.

•ance, -ancy

(e.g., zygodactyly,

zym-, zymo-

who

-ana, -iana

Living, animal (e.g.,

zoophile).

zyg-, zygo-

Adherent

language of; relating

characteristic of;

Foreign, strange (e.g.,

xenophobic). zo-, zoo-

Pain.

-an, -ean, -ian

(e.g.,

withhold).

xen-, xeno-

(e.g., denial).

Like, of, or pertaining to (e.g.,

chromosomal); characterized by.

Assisting, substituting,

deputy (e.g., vice-president). with-

Action or result of the verb

stem

Abdominal, belly

552

to;

-cephalic, -cephalous

performing. Used to form nouns

one who

indicating

acts;

one who

is.

Like, of, or pertaining

-ar

-tide, -cidal

to;

characterized by (e.g., titular,

to

one who

indicating is

form nouns

acts,

Government

-cracy or -ocracy; -crat or

(e.g.,

(e.g., parliamentary); also

indicating

one who

is

-dom

Used

Used

to

form nouns meaning

acts;

or quality of

being (e.g., freedom);

form nouns

to

Skin,

office, jurisdiction,

state, condition,

one who

indicating

Domain,

-dom

or quality of

being; result. -aster

diminutive.

or rank (e.g., dukedom).

form nouns meaning

state, condition,

ruler.

covering.

(e.g.,

functionary), a thing which. to

little,

-dendron Tree. -derm, -derma, -dermo

used to

form nouns indicating one who

Used

Government, rule; Used to form nouns

-ocrat -cule

pertaining to; characterized by

-asm

Cavity.

-coele, -coel

Related, connected, or

acts,

form nouns indicating

to

Berry-shaped,

-coccus

one who

monarchy). -ary

Kill, killing (e.g.,

diminutive (e.g., particle).

little,

(e.g., liar, braggart).

-archy

Used

-cle

Used

(e.g.,

fratricide).

molecular). -ar, -ard, -art

Head.

-chrome Color, colored monochrome).

-drome

one who

result.

Large place (e.g.,

airdrome); racing place. is.

-dromous

Used to form adjectives meaning full of, abundant; having

-ate

-eae

Running.

Names

of suborders

in

botany. (e.g., sensate).

-ed

Used

-ate

to

form nouns indicating

dominion

(e.g., doctorate)

indicating

one who

acts,

one who

to

make

to

form verbs meaning

(e.g., salivate); to put; to

-ee

Process, action (e.g.,

Related

to,

connected

-blast

Bud, germ,

-cele

to,

or

is

(e.g.,

small version of the stem (e.g., bootee);

something

word

(e.g.,

goatee).

-eer

One

skilled,

engaged

in (e.g.,

auctioneer).

cell.

-el

Fruit.

Used little,

Hollow, tumor.

-celli, -cello

object of the verb

one who

suggestive of the stem

Life (e.g., symbiosis).

-carpous

A

word

tending to (e.g., demonstrative). -biosis

is

trainee).

liberation); state of.

-ative

One who

(e.g., payee);

take; to cause.

-ation

Past, past participle of regular

verbs -ee

Used

form adjectives from

to

to indicate having (e.g.,

antennaed). -ed

is.

-ate

Used

nouns

rank, office, jurisdiction, or

to

form nouns indicating

diminutive.

-emia, -aemia, -hernia,

-haemia

Little.

55*

Blood.

Affixes

-en

Used

to

form verbs meaning

become,

cause

to, to

(e.g.,

Waken).

-en

Used

to

to

having the properties, manner of

to

make

(e.g., Daliesque).

meaning made of or belonging

(e.g., highest);

Used

to

form nouns

-et

despondence);

Belonging

to; carbon-related.

New

Split.

making

-fuge, -fugal

flee,

run

away from.

Producer, agent; one that

-erel

Little (e.g., cockerel).

-erly

Used

Holding

-ful

amount

that

all fill

it

can,

full of;

(e.g., spoonful).

Providing (e.g., healthful );

-ful

form adverbs

characterized by; tending to (e.g.,

indicating direction (e.g.,

spiteful).

-gamy

easterly).

to

(e.g., Kitchenette);

imitation; feminine; diminutive.

acts or is (e.g., teacher).

Use

Compact

-ette

Yorker, easterner).

-era

form nouns indicating

Third person singular of some

-lid

Inhabitant of, native (e.g.,

to

to

irregular verbs.

Comparative form of adjective

-er, -or

Used

-eth

result.

(e.g., higher).

-er

irregular

diminution (e.g., spinneret).

quality of being (e.g.,

-er

some

verbs.

indicating state, condition, or

-ene

(e.g.,

second-person

singular present of

(e.g., oxen).

-ence, -ency

noun

Superlative form of adjective

-est

to

form of some nouns

Plural

to feminize a

lioness).

(e.g., earthen).

-en

Used

-ess

form adjectives

form adjectives

Marriage; possession.

-gen, -genous, -geny, -gony

indicating direction (e.g.,

Bearing, producing, giving birth;

Western).

producer

-ery

-gnomy, -gnosis

Condition or behavior of

(e.g., bribery); location

-gon

of (e.g.,

eatery); aggregate.

-escence

Used

to

-fy

form nouns

•gonium to

form adjectives

-grade

form verbs indicating a into (e.g.,

Seed. Indicates progression or

movement

indicating growing, becoming;

(e.g., retrograde).

-gram, -graph, -graphy

reflecting light.

Forms noun indicating member, native, style, language

-ese

(e.g.,

(e.g.,

-hood

adjectives indicating origin in the

place designated by the stem

(e.g.,

Period of a condition, state

babyhood); membership.

Things belonging

-ia

Used to form adjectives meaning belonging to; like,

•ia, -iasis

54

to; territory.

Disease (e.g., neuralgia,

psoriasis).

5

Side, many-sided

polyhedron).

(e.g., Japanese).

-esque

Writing

monograph); record.

-hedral, -hedron

of (e.g., computerese); forms

Affixes

to

fancify).

beginning.

Used

Used

making or forming

indicating incipient state,

-escent

Knowledge.

angled (e.g., tetragon).

Class, order, or genus of

-ia, -ious

material (e.g., blanketing); activity or process;

and animals.

plants

Used

to

meaning able

fit

-ish

worthy, or

to,

One having Used

manner of

-isk

of,

process (e.g., heroism); state,

analgesic); affected with (e.g.,

condition, quality of being. -ist

Like, of, pertaining to;

characterized by (e.g.,

-idae, -adae, -ides -ides

one

who

acts;

one who

is.

-ite

practice, art, science (e.g.,

,

skilled in, a specialist;

believer;

thing relating to a system,

One who

member,

athletics, poetics).

-ide; pi.

One

practicing (e.g., communist),

paradoxical).

A

Practice of; doctrine of,

theory (e.g., feminism); act,

arthritic).

Acs

becoming

Little.

-ism

(e.g.,

Hellenic, organic); using (e.g.,

-ical

like,

(e.g., Spanish).

meaning having the properties related, in the

form adjectives

relating to, person of, language of

form adjectives

to

to

(e.g., childish, countryish);

the nature of (e.g.,

psychic); producer. -ic

Used

meaning somewhat

capable; apt to (e.g., sensible). -ic

of; full

of (e.g., furious).

form adjectives to,

referring

Having the properties

-ious

(e.g., pediatrics). -ible,

noun

to verb (e.g., feeding).

Medical treatment

-iatrics, -iatry

acts or

is;

adherent,

inhabitant (e.g.,

Manhattanite); that which.

Descendent.

-ite

Chemical

Stone, mineral.

Having the

-itious

characteristic of

combination.

Used

-ie

(e.g., superstitious)

form nouns

to

in the -itis

Inflammation of an organ,

diminutive. disease (e.g., phlebitis); excessive -iff

Used

one

to

who

form nouns meaning

acts,

one who

is

enthusiasm (e.g.,

(e.g., -ity

bailiff).

being (e.g., anxiety, captivity);

Used to form verbs meaning to make or make similar

-ify, -fy

degree. -ive

to (e.g., falsify, liquify). -ile

Used

meaning to,

fit

to,

to

form adjectives

who (e.g.

by

feminization).

meaning

Chemical compound.

-ine

Like,

Used to

to

make

form verbs (e.g., sanitize),

to subject to (e.g., brutalize);

of, pertaining to;

cause to be, be

characterized by (e.g., saturnine).

like;

become,

adopt manner (e.g., Europeanize).

Present participle ending of

-kin

regular verbs.

-ing

,

is.

Action, result of making

-ize, -ise

(e.g., infantile

-ine

to do, capable; doing,

acts or

•ization

worthy, or capable; apt

made

Able

tending (e.g., disruptive); one

like, pertaining to, able

to (e.g., servile); characterized

-ing

travel-itis).

State, condition, quality of

-kind

Something made of such

Littleness (e.g., catkin).

Of one

type or race (e.g.,

humankind).

555

Affixes

movement

Division;

-kinesis

-morphic, -morphous

(e.g.,

Seizure,

-lepsy

-most

(e.g., epilepsy).

fit

Without, deprived (e.g.,

-less

as described by the stem

word

quality of being (e.g.,

stubbornness).

-nomy

catlike).

Minor, smaller, offspring,

one having quality of

In a

-odynia

stamens and

humanoid).

-on

-mancy, -mantic

Craving

to

form nouns

an act of

form

to

form nouns

one

acts;

who

is (e.g.,

communicator, operator).

Part (e.g.,

-ory

Measuring instrument

Like, of, or pertaining

to;

characterized by (e.g., sensory); a

place where; a thing which.

(e.g., odometer).

Measuring

Used

meaning producer, agent; one who

blastomere).

-ose

(e.g.,

Used

to

form adjectives

indicating full of, abundant;

geometry).

Used

Sight.

Appearance; thing

resembling.

appeasement).

•mere, -merous

-opsia -opsis

-or, -er

(e.g., statement);

a thing done, a process (e.g.,

to

form nouns

having.

indicating state, condition, or

-ot

quality of being (e.g.,

Used

little,

matrimony).

Affixes

to

myopia).

of being (e.g., confinement); a

-mony

Used

Eye, sight condition (e.g.,

-opia

(e.g.,

indicating state, condition, quality

-metry

lymphoma).

nouns, indicating largeness.

pyromania).

Used

(e.g.,

Unit, particle (e.g., micron).

-on, -one, -oon

Foretelling,

divination (e.g., necromancy).

-mania, -maniac

Tumor

-oma

Dissolving;

disintegration.

-meter

pistils.

Like, resembling (e.g.,

-oid

weekly).

result;

Botanical

suffixes relating to flowers'

Recurring regularly (e.g.,

-ment

Pain.

-oecium, -oecious

having the

to a degree (e.g., overly).

-lysis, -lyte

tooth of certain nature

acrodont).

(e.g.,

qualities of, like (e.g., lovingly);

-ly

A

-odont

list.

of,

form nouns indicating

to

smallness (e.g., hillock).

Stone, mineral.

manner

Used

-ock

(e.g.,

Science of, study of, theory

(e.g., zoology); -ly

Science of, law of (e.g.,

taxonomy).

duckling, yearling).

-logy

form nouns

to

indicating state, condition, or

Like, resembling (e.g.,

-lite, -lith

Fungus.

Used

-ness

(e.g., anklet).

-ling

Superlative form of adjective

-mycete

Small, unimportant; thing worn

-like

(e.g.,

(e.g., topmost).

odorless); unable. -let

Shape

geomorphic, amorphous).

telekinesis).

-ous

JJ6

to

form nouns indicating

diminutive,

An

acid

compound with

less.

oxygen than an acid compound

observing instrument (e.g.,

ending

periscope).

-ic.

Having the properties

-ous

-pathy

Cut, divide (e.g.,

-sect, -section

of; full

bisect); divided.

of (e.g., odorous).

State or condition of; rank,

-ship

Suffering, disease; type of

medical treatment (e.g.,

position; skill (e.g.,

homeopathy).

group participating citizenship).

-phage, -phagous, -phagia,

-phagy

,

One

done, a process.

fearing (e.g.,

-soma, -some

homophobia).

or tending to be (e.g.,

Fearing; lacking affinity

troublesmone).

for (e.g., xenophobic).

-phone, -phony

Sound,

-phyte

-sperm, -spermous

One who

-ster

Leafed, leaflike,

Plant; diseased

(e.g.,

philosophy).

Speech disorder.

-phonia

Wisdom, knowledge

-sophy

transmitting sound.

-phyllous

Body.

Used to form adjectives meaning full of, abundant; being

-some

fear of (e.g.,

-phobic

form nouns meaning

to

an act of (e.g., cohesion); a thing

agoraphobe).

-phobia

Used

•sion

Eating eater (e.g.,

dysphagia).

•phobe

penmanship);

in (e.g.,

Seed.

involved

is

in;

one

that is (e.g., trickster).

growth

-stichous

In a row.

(e.g., thallophyte).

-plasia, -plasy, -plasis

Mouth.

-stome, -stomous

Growth,

Order

•taxis, -taxy

(e.g.,

formation (e.g., dysplasia). phyllotaxy).

-plasm

Formed matter

(e.g.,

Ten, to be added to (e.g.,

-teen

ectoplasm). nineteen). -plast

Cell.

-th -plegia

Paralysis (e.g.,

paraplegia).

Used

-ric

to

form nouns indicating

to

Flow

to

form nouns

ectotrophy); growth.

or quality of

(e.g.,

psychotropic); attracted to.

indicating persons or things

of; collection

Changing

-tropic

-tropous

collectively (e.g., citizenry);

Turned, curving (e.g.,

amphitropous).

of (e.g.,

-tropy

jewelry).

-tude

Lizard (e.g., brontosaur).

-scope, -scopy

Used

relating to type of nutrition (e.g.,

being (e.g., savagery); nouns

-saur

Cutting; section (e.g.,

-trophy

form nouns meaning

state, condition,

measure

form nouns meaning

lumpectomy).

(e.g., diarrhea).

Used

to

thing done, a process.

-tomy

(e.g., bishopric).

-rrhagia, -rrhagic, -rrhea

-ry

Used

an act of (e.g., absolution); a

rank, office, jurisdicition, or

dominion

State, condition (e.g., heighth).

-tion

Turning

Used

to

(e.g., allotropy).

form nouns

indicating state, condition, or quality of being (e.g., servitude).

Observation;

557

Affixes

bovine

quality, degree; condition (e.g.,

-ty

cat

certainty).

Ten, to be multiplied by

-ty

form nouns indicating

to

Used

to

chicken

form nouns indicating

clam

being (e.g., failure); an act of

-ways, -wise

In the direction of

In the

manner

or

paddling, team; duckling

eagle

somewhat

Full of,

like,

elk

(e.g., snarly).

Used

make

to

a noun diminutive

Used

one

who

to

passager; cast

fish

school, shoal; fingerling, fry

fox

leash, skulk; cub, kit, pup,

whelp

(e.g., horsey).

-yte

frog

knot; polliwog, tadpole

form nouns indicating

acts,

herd; cub, whelp

giraffe

one who

is

herd, host; calf

herd, gang; calf

falcon

State, condition (e.g., sleepy); activity; group.

-y

eaglet, fledgling

elephant

characterized by, tending toward

-y

fawn

herd;

dog kennel, pack; pup, whelp duck brace, flock, gaggle,

acting. -y, -ey

murder

deer

of, in

way of being

the direction of;

sedge, siege

crow

skyward)

(e.g.,

herd; calf, heifer

crane

Eating (e.g., omnivorous).

-ward, -wards

bed

cow

(e.g., erasure); or

-vorous

brood, clutch, flock, peep;

chick, pullet, cockerel

or quality of

state, condition,

herd, drove; calf, yearling

cattle

smallness (e.g., pustule). -lire

army

caterpillar

Used

clutter; kit, kitten,

pussy

kitty, puss,

(e.g.,

ninety).

-ule

herd; calf

clowder,

(e.g.,

gnat

cloud, horde

goat

tribe, trip;

neophyte).

goldfinch

5.

goose

ANIMALS

ant

ape ass

cete

bird

colony;

colony,

horse

whelp

kit, kitten,

grist,

hound

herd, troop; calf singular, sounder

Animals

troop; joey

ascension, exaltation

leopard

J58

mob,

pack

kindle, kendle, litter

kitten

lark

filly, filt, foal,

cry, mute,

kangaroo

dissimulation, flight, volery;

fledgling, nestling

boar

leveret

eyas

harras, herd, pair, stable,

team; colt,

pup

swarm

bison

cast;

hen brood; chick, pullet heron siege hippopotamus calf hog drift

herd; calf

sleuth, sloth; cub,

beaver

covey; cheeper, poult

down, husk;

hawk

pace

bear bee

hare

shrewdness

badger

band

grouse

colony

antelope

flock, gaggle, skein; gosling

gorilla

GROUP AND YOUNG NAMES

kid

charm

leap

yearling

whelp

pride; cub,

lion

mallard

whale wolf

sort

descent

pack; cub, whelp

zebra

herd; colt, foal

cub, calf barren, pack, span

MONTHS AND DAYS

4.

watch

nightingale

parliament; owlet

owl

oxen

yoke

oyster

April

bed; spat

peacock

litter;

Friday

piglet, shoat,

plover

pony

July

June

congregation, wing

March

porpoise

colony, nest; bunny,

rabbit

herd;

rhinoceros rooster seal

fawn

Mr

My

Mon. or

M

Nov. or

N

Sunday Sun. or Su Thursday Thurs. or Th or R Tuesday Tues. or Tu Wednesday Wed. or

crash; calf

cockerel

pod, herd, school, trip harem,

W

pup

sea lion

shark

cub

sheep

drove, flock, herd; lamb,

5.

sparrow

host

squirrel

dray

starling

murmuration

stork

mustering

swan

bevy; cygnet drift,

WITH CAPITAL, RESIDENT NAME Afghanistan

sounder; piglet, shoat,

farrow tiger

cub, whelp

toad

knot rafter; poult,

NATIONS OF THE

WORLD

lambkin, cosset, hog, yearling

turkey

or

October Oct. or O Saturday Sat. or Sa September Sept. or S

kit,

rookery; calf, pup

swine

Jl

Mar. or

November

leveret

reindeer

F

June or Je

Monday

school

F

Jan. or Ja

May May

bevy, covey; cheeper

or

Fri.

July or

flock; squab, squeaker

string

quail

Feb. or

January

farrow, suckling

pigeon

D

Dec. or

February

bouquet, nest, nide, nye

drove,

Ap Ag

Aug. or

December

muster

pheasant

Apr. or

August

covey; cheeper

partridge

pig

wolf

shoal; calf

pack, rout; cub, whelp

woodpecker

marten richness mole labor monkey troop; baby

moose mule

bevy gam, herd, pod,

bale,

turtle

host, plague

locust

Kabul, Afghan

Albania

Tirana, Albanian

Algeria

Algiers/El Djazair,

Algerian

Andorra

Andorra

la Vella,

Andorran

chick

559

Months and Days

Comoros Moroni, Comoran Congo Brazzaville, Congolese

Angola Luanda, Angolan Antigua and Barbuda St. John's,

Costa Rica

Antiguan

Yerevan, Armenian

Ivorian

Croatia

Canberra, Australian

Australia

Austria

Cuba

Vienna, Austrian

Azerbaijan

Nassau, Bahamian

Manama,

Bahrain

Belmopan, Belizean

Benin

Porto-Novo, Beninese

Denmark Djibouti

Thimphu/Paro Dzong, Sucre/La Paz, Bolivian

Bosnia and

Salvadoran

Herzegovina

Equatorial Guinea

Sarajevo, Bosnian

Gaborone, Motswana

Estonia

Assembly

President, National

Ethiopia

Brasilia, Brazilian

Brunei Darussalam

Fiji

Bandar Sen

France

Sofia, Bulgarian

Byelorussia

Minsk, Byelorussian

Phnom

Cambodian/Khmer

Praia,

Libreville,

Banjul,

Gambian

Georgia

Tbilisi,

Georgian

Gabonese

Athens, Greek

Grenada St. George's, Grenadian Guatemala Guatemala City,

Cape Verdean

Guatemalan

Guinea

Bangui,

Conakry, Guinean

Guinea-Bissau

Central African

Chad

N'Djamena, Chadian

Guyana

Chile

Santiago, Chilean

Haiti

Bissau, Guinean

Georgetown, Guyanese

Port-au-Prince, Haitian

Honduras Tegucigalpa, Honduran Hungary Budapest, Hungarian

China Beijing, Chinese Colombia Bogota, Colombian

Nations of the World

Frenchman,

Gabon Gambia

Greece

Canadien Central African Republic

Helsinki, Finn Paris,

Germany Bonn, German Ghana Accra, Ghanaian

Penh,

Cameroon Yaounde, Cameroonian Canada Ottawa, Canadian/ Cape Verde

Addis Ababa, Ethiopian

President

Burkina Faso Ouagadougou Burundi Bujumbura, Burundian

Cambodia

Tallinn, Estonian

Suva, Fijian

Finland

Begawan, Bruneian Bulgaria

Malabo,

Equatorial Guinean

(singular)/Botswana (plural),

Brazil

Copenhagen, Dane Djibouti, Afar/Issa

Dominica Roseau, Dominican Dominican Republic Santo Domingo, Dominican Ecuador Quito, Ecuadorean Egypt Cairo, Egyptian El Salvador San Salvador,

Bhutanese

Botswana

Prague,

Czechoslovak/Czech

Bahraini

Belize

Bolivia

Nicosia, Cypriot

Czechoslovakia

Bangladesh Dhaka, Bangladeshi Barbados Bridgetown, Barbadian Belgium Brussels, Belgian

Bhutan

Zagreb, Croatian

Havana, Cuban

Cyprus

Baku, Azerbaijani

Bahamas

Abidjan/ Yamoussoukro,

Coast)

Argentine

Armenia

San Jose, Costa Rican

Cdte d'lvoire (Ivory

Buenos Aires,

Argentina

J40

Micronesia

Reykjavik, Icelander

Iceland

New

India

Iran

Teheran, Iranian

Iraq

Baghdad,

Mongolia Ulaanbaatar, Mongolian Montenegro Titograd,

Iraqi

Montenegran

Jerusalem, Israeli

Israel

Monaco- Ville, Monacan/

Monegasque

Dublin, Irishman

Ireland

Kishinyov, Moldavian

Monaco

Jakarta, Indonesian

Indonesia

Kolonia, Micronesian

Moldavia

Delhi, Indian

Morocco Rabat, Moroccan Mozambique Maputo, Mozambican

Rome, Italian Jamaica Kingston, Jamaican Japan Toyko, Japanese Jordan Amman, Jordanian Kazakhstan Alma-Ata, Kazakh Kenya Nairobi, Kenyan Italy

Myanmar

Yangon, Burmese

Namibia

Windhoek, Namibian

Nauru

Yaren, Nauruan

Kirgizia

Pishpek, Kirgizian

Nepal

Kiribati

Tarawa, Kiribatian

Netherlands

Kuwait Kuwait, Kuwaiti Laos Vientiane, Laotian Latvia

New Zealand

Beirut,

Libya

Niger

Liechtenstein

Norway

Vaduz,

Panama City, Panamanian Papua New Guinea Port Moresby, Papua New Guinean Paraguay Asuncion, Paraguayan Peru Lima, Peruvian Philippines

Kuala Lumpur,

Portugal

Qatar

Majuro,

Marshall Islander

Mauritania

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Nouakchott,

Mauri tanian

Mexico

Basseterre,

Kittsian/Nevisian

Saint Lucia

Port Louis, Mauritian

Mexico

Lisbon, Portuguese

Doha, Qatari

Romania Bucharest, Romanian Russia Moscow, Russian Rwanda Kigali, Rwandan

Valetta, Maltese

Marshall Islands

Mauritius

Warsaw, Pole

Poland

Male, Maldivian

Bamako, Malian

Malta

Quezon City/Manila,

Filipino

Malaysian

Mali

Islamabad, Pakistani

Panama

Lilongwe, Malawian

Maldives

Muscat, Omani

Pakistan

Luxembourg,

Malagasy

Malaysia

Oslo, Norwegian

Oman

Luxembourger Macedonia Skopje, Macedonian Madagascar Antananarivo,

Malawi

Pyongyang, North

Korean

Libyan

Vilnius, Lithuanian

Luxembourg

Lagos, Nigeria

North Korea

Liechtensteiner

Lithuania

Niamey, Nigerois

Nigeria

Monrovia, Liberian Tripoli,

New

Managua, Nicaraguan

Nicaragua

Lebanese

(singular)/Basotho (plural)

Liberia

Wellington,

Zealander

Maseru, Masotho

Lesotho

Amsterdam,

Netherlander

Riga, Latvian

Lebanon

Kathmandu, Nepalese

City,

Castries, Saint Lucian

Saint Vincent and the

Mexican

541

Nations of the World.

Grenadines

Tuvalu

Kingstown, Saint

San Marino

San Marino,

Dhabi, Emirian

Sanmarinese

United Kingdom of Great Britain

Sao Toml and Principe Sao Tome, Sao Tomean Saudi Arabia Riyadh, Saudi

and Northern Ireland

Serbia

United States of

America

Belgrade, Serbian

Seychelles

Uruguay Vanuatu

Freetown, Sierra

Leonean Singapore

Venezuela

Mogadishu, Somali

South Africa

Pretoria/Cape

Town/

Yugoslavia

Bloemfontein, South African

South Korea Spain

Zaire

Lanka Colombo, Sri Lankan Sudan Khartoum, Sudanese Suriname Paramaribo, Surinamer Mbabane, Swazi

Swaziland

6.

Stockholm, Swede

Switzerland

OFFICIAL

FORMS

OF ADDRESS

Bern, Swiss

Damascus, Syrian

Tadzhikistan

Taiwan

Dushanbe, Tadzhik

LETTER ADDRESS, LETTER GREETING, FORMAL INTRODUCTION

Taipei, Chinese

Dar es Salaam,

Tanzania

Tanzanian

Thailand

Bangkok, Thai

Ambassador

Togo Lome, Togolese Tonga Nuku'alofa, Tongan Trinidad and Tobago Port-of-

Dear

Tunisia

Justice



— M— ;

M— .

.;

Justice



The Right

— —

Honorable Lord/Lady

My

Lord/Madam or Dear Lord/ Lord/Lady Lady

Tashkent, Uzbekis



baronet

Dear

Kiev, Ukrainian

Forms of Address

The Honorable

Ambassador; The

baron/baroness

Turkey Ankara, Turk Turkmenistan Ashkhabad, Turkman Ukraine

.

American Ambassador

Tunis, Tunisian

Uzbekistan

M—

Associate Justice

Spain, Trinidadian/Tobagan

Official

Kinshasa, Zairian

Zambia Lusaka, Zambian Zimbabwe Harare, Zimbabwean

Sri

Syria

See entries for former

republics.

Seoul, South Korean

Madrid, Spaniard

Sweden

Vatican City

Caracas, Venezuelan

Vietnam Hanoi, Vietnamese Western Samoa Apia, Western Samoan Yemen SanV, Yemeni

Solomon Islands Honiara, Solomon Islander Somalia

Montevideo, Uruguayan Port Vila, Vanuatuan

Vatican City

Singapore, Singaporean Ljubljana, Slovenian

Slovenia

Washington, D.C.,

American

Victoria, Setchellois

Sierra Leone

London,

Briton (singular)/British (plural)

Dakar, Senegalese

Senegal

Funafuti, Tuvaluan

Uganda Kampala, Ugandan United Arab Emirates Abu

Vincentian/Vincentian

542

;

— Dear — —

Sir

Sir

,

;

Bt.;

Sir

Sir or

Reverend of





M— — M— —

Bishop/ Archbishop

,





Archbishop

— Dear — or Dear Brother — cabinet members The Honorable — or The Secretary The of — Dear M — of — cardinal His Eminence, — Archbishop of — Your Eminence or Dear Cardinal — His Eminence, Cardinal — Brother

;

Brother;

Brother

;

Justice

;

.

;

Sir

;

Sir

;

;

The Most

marquess/marchioness

M— of —

Honorable the

;

My

Lord/Madam or Dear Lord/ Lady Lord/Lady Dear mayor The Honorable Mayor Mayor or The Mayor

— —

— — —

;

;

;

The Chief

M—



Sir

Secretary

Chief Justice



The Honorable Dear or The Honorable

Sir

Secretary;

.

Dear

;

— — or Judge — king or queen His/Her Majesty King/Queen — — Dear or Dear knight — — Lady Dear Madam or Dear Lady — Lady —

Excellency or Bishop/

Brother



.

Judge

judge

His

;

;

.

Your Excellency or Dear

;

Bishop/ Archbishop

The Honorable

governor

The Most

bishop/archbishop

Justice;

Dear Mr. /Madam Justice or Dear

;

military personnel

;

"full title";

Mr. Chief Justice; The Chief

Dear Admiral/Chief/Colonel/

Justice

Commander/General/Lieutenant/

The Honor-

Consul-General



able

;

countess

M—

Dear

.

Private/Sail or/Sergeant/

— M— — ;

Soldier—; "full title" monsignor The Right Reverend Monsignor Right Reverend Monsignor or Dear Monsignor Monsignor Pope His Holiness, the Pope or His Holiness, Pope Your Holiness or Most Holy Father; His Holiness or the Holy Father or the Pope or the Pontiff

.

The Right Honorable

the

— —

— Madam or Dear — Lady — Her Grace, duke/duchess D— of — My Lord Duke/Madam or Dear D— His/Her Grace, D— of — Countess of

Lady

;

;

the

His/

;

of

The Right Honorable the Earl My Lord or Dear Lord



Lord



;





The Right

Dear Bishop

;

The Right Reverend of



foreign



,

ambassador

President;

Bishop

President of the United States



;

Honorable

Honorable

Excellency or Dear

Father

;

Dear Mr.



protestant minister



— —

The Reverend

;

;

The

— Dear Dr./M— — The Reverend/Dr. — rabbi Rabbi — Dear Rabbi/ Dr. — Rabbi/Dr. — Reverend



— Reverend —

Father or Dear Father

His/Her

Ambassador; The Ambassador of former President The .

The President; Dear Mr. The President or The

States



priest

Excellency

M—

;

President of the United

Episcopal bishop

Reverend





of;

the

earl

;

The

;

.

;

;

J45

Official

Forms of Address

His/Her Royal Highness,

royalty

7. STATES AND TERRITORIES

— — of — Your Royal Highness; His/Her Royal — — of — Highness, /

the

;

the

INFORMATION

I

Secretary-General of the United

Nations

His/Her Excellency

M—

Dear



STANDARD AND TWO-LETTER POSTAL ABBREVIATIONS,

The

Secretary -General;

.

Secretary-General of the United

Nations Sister

Sister

Dear



Dear

;

Sister; Sister



Sister

CAPITAL, RESIDENT

— or

Alabama Alaska

M—

;

Dear

;

Arkansas

M—

California

United States Representative ;

Representative

Dear

M—

— of —

.



Senator



;

Vice President

Connecticut

Delaware





President;

Dear Mr. Vice

The Vice

Conn., CT, Hartford,

Del.,

DE, Dover,

Delawarean District of

The Vice

President;

CA,

Connecticuter

The Dear Senator from



Calif., or Cal.,

Coloradan

The

United States Senator Honorable

Rock,

Canal Zone CZ Colorado Colo., C9, Denver,

Nations



Little

Sacramento, Californian

States

Representative to the United

Honorable

Ark, AR,

Arkansan

The Honorable Dear Ambassador; The United representative ;

Juneau,

Arizonan

.

United Nations



AK,

American Samoa Amer. Samoa, AS, Pago Pago, Samoan Arizona Ariz., AZ, Phoenix,



M— — M— — .

Alaska,

Alaskan

The Honorable

state legislator

AL, Montgomery,

Alabamian

Speaker of the House The Honorable Dear Speaker; The Speaker of the House of Representatives



Ala.,

NAME

Columbia

D.C.

,

DC,

Washington Florida

Fla.,

FL, Tallahassee,

Floridian

President or

Georgia

the Vice President of the United

Ga.,

GA,

Atlanta,

Georgian

States

viscount/viscountess

Honorable the

V

;

My

Lady or Dear Lord/Lady Lord/Lady



Guam GU

The Right



Hawaii Idaho

Lord/

IUinois

HI, Honolulu, Hawaiian Id.,

ID, Boise, Idahoan

111.,

IL, Springfield,

Illinoisan

Indiana

Ind., IN, Indianapolis,

Indianian

Iowa la., IA, Des Moines, Iowan Kansas Kans., KS, Topeka, Kansan

States

and

Territories

544

Kentucky

Ky.,

KY,

Northern Mariana Is CM OH, Columbus, Ohioan

Frankfort,

Ohio

Kentuckian

Louisiana

La.,

Oklahoma

LA, Baton Rouge,

Maine Me., ME, Augusta, Mainer Maryland Md., MD, Annapolis,

Oregon

Pennsylvania Mass.,

MA,

Rican

Rhode

Michiganite

Minn.,

MN, MS,

South Dakota

MO,

Mo.,

Tennessee

Texas

TN,

Nashville,

TX,

Austin, Texan

TT

Utah

UT, Salt Lake City, Utahan Vermont Vt., VT, Montpelier,

Nevada Nev., NV, Carson City, Nevadan New Hampshire N.H. NH,

Vermonter Virginia

,

New

Hampshirite

.

.

,

Va.,

VA, Richmond,

Virginian

New Jersey N J NJ Trenton New Jerseyite New Mexico N. Mex., NM, Santa Fe, New Mexican New York N.Y., NY, Albany, New Yorker

Virgin Islands

,

VI, Charlotte

Amalie, Virgin Islander

Wash,

Washington

W A,

Olympia, Washingtonian

W.Va., WV, West Virginian Wis., WI, Madison,

West Virginia Charleston,

N.C., NC,

Wisconsin

Raleigh, North Carolinian

North Dakota

Tex.,

Trust Territories

Nebraskan

North Carolina

Tenn.,

Tennessean

Helena,

Montanan Nebraska Nebr., NE, Lincoln,

Concord,

S.Dak., SD, Pierre,

South Dakotan

Jefferson

MT,

Mont.,

S.C., SC,

Columbia, South Carolinian

Jackson,

City, Missourian

Montana

R.I., RI,

South Carolina Miss.,

Mississippian

Missouri

Island

Providence, Rhode Islander

St. Paul,

Minnesotan Mississippi

PA, Harrisburg,

PR, San Juan, Puerto

Puerto Rico

Mich., MI, Lansing,

Minnesota

Pa.,

Pennsylvanian

Boston, Massachusettsan

Michigan

OR, Salem,

Oreg.,

Oregonian

Marylander

Massachusetts

OK, Oklahoma

Okla.,

Oklahoman

City,

Louisianian

Wisconsinite

N.Dak. ND,

Wyoming

Wyo., Wyomingite

,

Bismarck, North Dakotan

J45

WY,

States

Cheyenne,

and

Territories

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

8.

METRIC WEIGHT/ UNIT

U.S.

WEIGHT/MEASURE

MEASURE

ton short ton

20 short hundredweight or 2000 pounds

0.907 metric ton

long ton

20 long hundredweight or 2240 pounds

1.016 metric ton

short hundredweight

100 pounds or 0.05 short ton

45.359 kilograms

long hundredweight

1

hundredweight (cwt.)

pound

(lb.)

ounce

(oz.)

12 pounds or 0.05 long ton

50.802 kilograms

16 ounces or 7000 grains

0.453 kilograms

16 drams or 437.5 grains

28.349 grams

(dr.)

27.343 grains or 0.0625 ounce

1.771 grams

grain (gr.)

0.036 dram or 0.002285 ounce

0.0648 gram

dram

CAPACITY (U.S. Liquid Measure)

gallon (gal.)

4 quarts

3.785

liters

quart (qt.)

2 pints

0.946

liter

pint (pt.)

4

0.473

liter

gill

(gi)

fluidounce

fluidram

(fl.

(fl.

oz.)

dr.)

minim (min.)

gills

4 fluidounces

118.291 milliliters

8 fluidrams

29.573

60 minims

3.696

1/60 fluidram

0.061610

(U.S.

milliliters

milliliters milliliter

Dry Measure)

bushel (bu.)

4 pecks

35.238

peck (pk.)

8 quarts

8.809

liters

quart (qt.)

2 pints

1.101

liters

pint (pt.)

1/2 quart

0.550

liters

liters

LENGTH or 320 rods or 1760 yards

mile (mi.)

5280

rod(rd.)

5.50 yards or 16.5 feet

5.029 meters

yard (yd.)

3 feet or 36 inches

0.9144 meter

foot

12 inches or 0.333 yard

30.480 centimeters

0.083 foot or 0.027 yard

2.540 centimeters

(ft.)

inch (in.)

Weights and Measures

feet

H6

1

.609 kilometers

METRIC WEIGHT/ UNIT

U.S.

MEASURE

WEIGHT/MEASURE

AREA square mile (sq. mi.)

640 acres or 102,400 square rods

2.590 square kilometers

4840 square yards or 43,560 square

feet

0.405 hectare or

4047 square meters square rod (sq. rd.)

30.25 square yards or 0.006 acre

25.293 square

square yard (sq. yd.)

1296 square inches or 9 square

feet

0.836 square meter

square yard

0.093 square meter

meters

square foot (sq.

ft.)

square inch (sq. in.)

144 square inches or

0.

1 1 1

0.007 square foot or 0.00077 square yard

16.387 square centimeters

VOLUME cubic yard (cu. yd.)

27 cubic

cubic foot (cu.

1728 cubic inches or 0.0370 cubic yard

0.028 cubic meter

0.00058 cubic foot or 0.000021 cubic

16.387 cubic

ft.)

cubic inch (cu. in.)

feet

or 46,656 cubic inches

yard

0.765 cubic meter

centimeters

547

Weights and Measures

PROOFREADER'S SIGNS AND SYMBOLS

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roman

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